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Sample records for alternative low-cost precursors

  1. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous

  2. A low cost alternative to high performance PCM bit synchronizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshong, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The Code Converter/Clock Regenerator (CCCR) provides a low-cost alternative to high-performance Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) bit synchronizers in environments with a large Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). In many applications, the CCCR can be used in place of PCM bit synchronizers at about one fifth the cost. The CCCR operates at rates from 10 bps to 2.5 Mbps and performs PCM code conversion and clock regeneration. The CCCR has been integrated into a stand-alone system configurable from one to six channels and has also been designed for use in VMEbus compatible systems.

  3. Low cost alternatives to commercial lab kits for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodejška, Č.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubínek, R.; Říha, J.

    2015-08-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace in the case of professional kits such as Vernier, Pasco or Coach costs around 800 euros. In this paper some physics experiments in which a computer, or a tablet with Microsoft Windows, is used as the measuring device, along with available physical devices such as a laser pointer, a solar cell or an electret microphone, are presented as suitable and alternative ways to carry out lab work. We show that it is possible to perform very simple school experiments (both as a central demonstration and as individual experimentation), in which high accuracy and clear final conclusions can be achieved at a very low cost. Further information is published on the specialized webpage www.sclpx.eu/index.php?lang=en. The worksheets are in Czech, but the English version is in preparation.

  4. Low-Cost Alternatives in Hybrid Microcircuit Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, S. V.; Champion, V. L.; Bassett, R. N.; Gayer, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesive sealing, nickel plating, and multiwire boards evaluated. Based on study involving fully developed hardware, report considers adhesive packaging instead of seam welding, nickel-plated Kovar (commercial Fe/NI/Co alloy) packages instead of gold plates ones, and multiwire circuit boards instead of multilayer boards as alternatives for reducing cost of hardware without reducing reliability.

  5. Low-Cost Alternatives in Hybrid Microcircuit Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, S. V.; Champion, V. L.; Bassett, R. N.; Gayer, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesive sealing, nickel plating, and multiwire boards evaluated. Based on study involving fully developed hardware, report considers adhesive packaging instead of seam welding, nickel-plated Kovar (commercial Fe/NI/Co alloy) packages instead of gold plates ones, and multiwire circuit boards instead of multilayer boards as alternatives for reducing cost of hardware without reducing reliability.

  6. Low-cost stator material for M734 alternators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, J. E.

    1983-03-01

    Silicon steels costing only $0.50 per pound were studied as substitutes for Permalloy used to fabricate two-piece stators for air driven alternators used to power the fuze electronics and to furnish a mechanical arming signature. Nickel-coated M-36 silicon electrical steel is a suitable substitute for the Permalloy which costs $6.00 per pound. However, differences in stamping and drawing properties from those of Permalloy affect the end-plate and housing contact surface and the ability to draw the cup that contains the bearing. Production dies must be developed that allow for the stamping and drawing properties of the electrical steel.

  7. Uniform nanoparticles by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) of low cost precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Thomas; Wegner, Karsten; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2011-07-01

    A new flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) reactor design is presented, which allows the use of inexpensive precursors and solvents (e.g., ethanol) for synthesis of nanoparticles (10-20 nm) with uniform characteristics. In this reactor design, a gas-assisted atomizer generates the precursor solution spray that is mixed and combusted with externally fed inexpensive fuel gases (acetylene or methane) at a defined height above the atomizing nozzle. The gaseous fuel feed can be varied to control the combustion enthalpy content of the flame and onset of particle formation. This way, the enthalpy density of the flame is decoupled from the precursor solution composition. Low enthalpy content precursor solutions are prone to synthesis of non-uniform particles (e.g., bimodal particle size distribution) by standard flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) processes. For example, metal nitrates in ethanol typically produce nanosized particles by gas-to-particle conversion along with larger particles by droplet-to-particle conversion. The present FASP design facilitates the use of such low enthalpy precursor solutions for synthesis of homogeneous nanopowders by increasing the combustion enthalpy density of the flame with low-cost, gaseous fuels. The effect of flame enthalpy density on product properties in the FASP configuration is explored by the example of Bi2O3 nanoparticles produced from bismuth nitrate in ethanol. Product powders were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray disk centrifuge, and transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous Bi2O3 nanopowders were produced both by increasing the gaseous fuel content and, most notably, by cutting the air entrainment prior to ignition of the spray.

  8. Uniform nanoparticles by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) of low cost precursors.

    PubMed

    Rudin, Thomas; Wegner, Karsten; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2011-07-01

    A new flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) reactor design is presented, which allows the use of inexpensive precursors and solvents (e.g., ethanol) for synthesis of nanoparticles (10-20 nm) with uniform characteristics. In this reactor design, a gas-assisted atomizer generates the precursor solution spray that is mixed and combusted with externally fed inexpensive fuel gases (acetylene or methane) at a defined height above the atomizing nozzle. The gaseous fuel feed can be varied to control the combustion enthalpy content of the flame and onset of particle formation. This way, the enthalpy density of the flame is decoupled from the precursor solution composition. Low enthalpy content precursor solutions are prone to synthesis of non-uniform particles (e.g., bimodal particle size distribution) by standard flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) processes. For example, metal nitrates in ethanol typically produce nanosized particles by gas-to-particle conversion along with larger particles by droplet-to-particle conversion. The present FASP design facilitates the use of such low enthalpy precursor solutions for synthesis of homogeneous nanopowders by increasing the combustion enthalpy density of the flame with low-cost, gaseous fuels. The effect of flame enthalpy density on product properties in the FASP configuration is explored by the example of Bi(2)O(3) nanoparticles produced from bismuth nitrate in ethanol. Product powders were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray disk centrifuge, and transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous Bi(2)O(3) nanopowders were produced both by increasing the gaseous fuel content and, most notably, by cutting the air entrainment prior to ignition of the spray.

  9. Uniform nanoparticles by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) of low cost precursors

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Thomas; Wegner, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    A new flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) reactor design is presented, which allows the use of inexpensive precursors and solvents (e.g., ethanol) for synthesis of nanoparticles (10–20 nm) with uniform characteristics. In this reactor design, a gas-assisted atomizer generates the precursor solution spray that is mixed and combusted with externally fed inexpensive fuel gases (acetylene or methane) at a defined height above the atomizing nozzle. The gaseous fuel feed can be varied to control the combustion enthalpy content of the flame and onset of particle formation. This way, the enthalpy density of the flame is decoupled from the precursor solution composition. Low enthalpy content precursor solutions are prone to synthesis of non-uniform particles (e.g., bimodal particle size distribution) by standard flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) processes. For example, metal nitrates in ethanol typically produce nanosized particles by gas-to-particle conversion along with larger particles by droplet-to-particle conversion. The present FASP design facilitates the use of such low enthalpy precursor solutions for synthesis of homogeneous nanopowders by increasing the combustion enthalpy density of the flame with low-cost, gaseous fuels. The effect of flame enthalpy density on product properties in the FASP configuration is explored by the example of Bi2O3 nanoparticles produced from bismuth nitrate in ethanol. Product powders were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray disk centrifuge, and transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous Bi2O3 nanopowders were produced both by increasing the gaseous fuel content and, most notably, by cutting the air entrainment prior to ignition of the spray. PMID:23408113

  10. A randomised experiment comparing low-cost ultrasound gel alternative with commercial gel.

    PubMed

    Riguzzi, Christine; Binkowski, Allison; Butterfield, Mike; Sani, Farhad; Teismann, Nathan; Fahimi, Jahan

    2017-04-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound is a portable, relatively low-cost imaging modality with great potential utility in low-resource settings. However, commercially produced ultrasound gel is often cost-prohibitive and unavailable. We investigated whether images obtained using an alternative cornstarch-based gel would be of comparable quality with those using commercial gel. This was a blinded, randomised, cross-over study comparing commercially produced ultrasound gel with home-made cornstarch-based gel. Ultrasound-trained faculty obtained three video clips with each gel type from patients at one urban ED. The clips were evaluated by a radiologist and an ultrasound-trained emergency physician. Images were assessed in terms of overall adequacy (dichotomous) and quality, resolution and detail using a rating scale (0-10). All sonographers and physicians reviewing the images were blinded to the type of gel used. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in the study, producing 204 separate images (102 with each gel). The cornstarch gel clips were deemed accurate in 70.6% (95% CI 63.9% to 76.5%) of the scans, as compared with 65.2% (95% CI 58.4% to 71.4%) of those using commercial gel. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to image detail, resolution or quality. Images produced using the cornstarch-based alternative ultrasound gel were of similar quality to those using commercial gel. The low cost and easy preparation of the cornstarch-based gel make it an attractive coupling medium for use in low-resource settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Development of Low Cost Gas Atomization of Precursor Powders for Simplified ODS Alloy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2014-08-05

    A novel gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) method was developed in this project to enable production (at our partner’s facility) a precursor Ni-Cr-Y-Ti powder with a surface oxide and an internal rare earth (RE) containing intermetallic compound (IMC) phase. Consolidation and heat-treatment experiments were performed at Ames Lab to promote the exchange of oxygen from the surface oxide to the RE intermetallic to form nano-metric oxide dispersoids. Alloy selection was aided by an internal oxidation and serial grinding experiments at Ames Lab and found that Hf-containing alloys may form more stable dispersoids than Ti-containing alloy, i.e., the Hf-containing system exhibited five different oxide phases and two different intermetallics compared to the two oxide phases and one intermetallic in the Ti-containing alloys. Since the simpler Ti-containing system was less complex to characterize, and make observations on the effects of processing parameters, the Ti-containing system was selected by Ames Lab for experimental atomization trials at our partner. An internal oxidation model was developed at Ames Lab and used to predict the heat treatment times necessary for dispersoid formation as a function of powder size and temperature. A new high-pressure gas atomization (HPGA) nozzle was developed at Ames Lab with the aim of promoting fine powder production at scales similar to that of the high gas-flow and melt-flow of industrial atomizers. The atomization nozzle was characterized using schlieren imaging and aspiration pressure testing at Ames Lab to determine the optimum melt delivery tip geometry and atomization pressure to promote enhanced secondary atomization mechanisms. Six atomization trials were performed at our partner to investigate the effects of: gas atomization pressure and reactive gas concentration on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the oxygen content of the resulting powder. Also, the effect on the rapidly solidified microstructure (as a

  12. An alternative sensor fusion method for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Joshua L.

    This thesis develops an alternative sensor fusion approach for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. The alternative approach focuses on the unique challenges of small UAVs. Such challenges include the vibrational induced noise onto the accelerometer and bias offset errors of the rate gyroscope. To overcome these challenges, a sensor fusion algorithm combines the measured data from the accelerometer and rate gyroscope to achieve a single output free from vibrational noise and bias offset errors. One of the most prevalent sensor fusion algorithms used for orientation estimation is the Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF filter performs the fusion process by first creating the process model using the nonlinear equations of motion and then establishing a measurement model. With the process and measurement models established, the filter operates by propagating the mean and covariance of the states through time. The success of EKF relies on the ability to establish a representative process and measurement model of the system. In most applications, the EKF measurement model utilizes the accelerometer and GPS-derived accelerations to determine an estimate of the orientation. However, if the GPS-derived accelerations are not available then the measurement model becomes less reliable when subjected to harsh vibrational environments. This situation led to the alternative approach, which focuses on the correlation between the rate gyroscope and accelerometer-derived angle. The correlation between the two sensors then determines how much the algorithm will use one sensor over the other. The result is a measurement that does not suffer from the vibrational noise or from bias offset errors.

  13. Scilab software as an alternative low-cost computing in solving the linear equations problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Fahrul; Haviluddin

    2017-02-01

    Numerical computation packages are widely used both in teaching and research. These packages consist of license (proprietary) and open source software (non-proprietary). One of the reasons to use the package is a complexity of mathematics function (i.e., linear problems). Also, number of variables in a linear or non-linear function has been increased. The aim of this paper was to reflect on key aspects related to the method, didactics and creative praxis in the teaching of linear equations in higher education. If implemented, it could be contribute to a better learning in mathematics area (i.e., solving simultaneous linear equations) that essential for future engineers. The focus of this study was to introduce an additional numerical computation package of Scilab as an alternative low-cost computing programming. In this paper, Scilab software was proposed some activities that related to the mathematical models. In this experiment, four numerical methods such as Gaussian Elimination, Gauss-Jordan, Inverse Matrix, and Lower-Upper Decomposition (LU) have been implemented. The results of this study showed that a routine or procedure in numerical methods have been created and explored by using Scilab procedures. Then, the routine of numerical method that could be as a teaching material course has exploited.

  14. Low-Cost Alternative for Signal Generators in the Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, Shirish Rajan; Raghavendra, M. K.; Huli, Saurabhee

    2017-05-01

    Recently devices such as the optical mouse of a computer, webcams, Wii remote, and digital cameras have been used to record and analyze different physical phenomena quantitatively. Devices like tablets and smartphones are also becoming popular. Different scientific applications available at Google Play (Android devices) or the App Store (iOS devices) make them versatile. One can find many websites that provide information regarding various scientific applications compatible with these systems. A variety of smartphones/tablets are available with different types of sensors embedded. Some of them have sensors that are capable of measuring intensity of light, sound, and magnetic field. The camera of these devices has been used to study projectile motion, and the same device, along with a sensor, has been used to study the physical pendulum. Accelerometers have been used to study free and damped harmonic oscillations and to measure acceleration due to gravity. Using accelerometers and gyroscopes, angular velocity and centripetal acceleration have been measured. The coefficient of restitution for a ball bouncing on the floor has been measured using the application Oscilloscope on the iPhone. In this article, we present the use of an Android device as a low-cost alternative for a signal generator. We use the Signal Generator application installed on the Android device along with an amplifier circuit.

  15. Low-cost Alternative Orbits In The Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    The moon has been the target of innumerous space missions throughout the last decades, and everything indicates that many others will occur. This is especially true due to the fact that lunar bases play a fundamental role in supporting future manned interplanetary missions. Thus, knowledge about low-cost alternative orbits in the Earth-Moon system can be extremely advantageous. In this paper, we presented two regions of alternative orbits in the Earth-Moon system. They are stable orbits around the Moon, whose distance from the lunar surface varies between 400 and 20,000 kilometers. In our studies, we determined the location and size of these regions based on the restricted circular planar problem of 3-body, Earth-Moon-spacecraft. In this system, the regions of stability correspond to quasi-periodic orbits around known periodic orbits (Broucke, 1968). Then, we considered a more realistic model. We adopted the restricted problem of 4-body Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft, taking into account the Earth's oblateness, the eccentricities of the Earth and the Moon, the inclination of the Moon, the obliquity of the Earth and the solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft. The results show that even so, a significant portion of the regions of stability remains. These orbits are stable in the practical sense that the energy of the problem of 2-body Moon-spacecraft remains negative for a period greater than 1000 days. The maintenance cost of orbits in these regions is low, keeping in mind that they are stable regions.

  16. Evaluation of TagSeq, a reliable low-cost alternative for RNAseq.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brian K; Weber, Jesse N; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2016-11-01

    RNAseq is a relatively new tool for ecological genetics that offers researchers insight into changes in gene expression in response to a myriad of natural or experimental conditions. However, standard RNAseq methods (e.g., Illumina TruSeq(®) or NEBNext(®) ) can be cost prohibitive, especially when study designs require large sample sizes. Consequently, RNAseq is often underused as a method, or is applied to small sample sizes that confer poor statistical power. Low cost RNAseq methods could therefore enable far greater and more powerful applications of transcriptomics in ecological genetics and beyond. Standard mRNAseq is costly partly because one sequences portions of the full length of all transcripts. Such whole-mRNA data are redundant for estimates of relative gene expression. TagSeq is an alternative method that focuses sequencing effort on mRNAs' 3' end, reducing the necessary sequencing depth per sample, and thus cost. We present a revised TagSeq library construction procedure, and compare its performance against NEBNext(®) , the 'gold-standard' whole mRNAseq method. We built both TagSeq and NEBNext(®) libraries from the same biological samples, each spiked with control RNAs. We found that TagSeq measured the control RNA distribution more accurately than NEBNext(®) , for a fraction of the cost per sample (~10%). The higher accuracy of TagSeq was particularly apparent for transcripts of moderate to low abundance. Technical replicates of TagSeq libraries are highly correlated, and were correlated with NEBNext(®) results. Overall, we show that our modified TagSeq protocol is an efficient alternative to traditional whole mRNAseq, offering researchers comparable data at greatly reduced cost. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. TEAM: A Low-Cost Alternative to ATLS for Providing Trauma Care Teaching in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kurdin, Anton; Caines, Andrew; Boone, Darrell; Furey, Andrew

    2017-08-23

    Trauma resuscitation protocols have unified the care of trauma patients and significantly improved outcomes. However, the success of the Advanced Trauma Life Support course is difficult to reproduce in developing countries due to set-up costs, limitations of resources, and variations of practice. The objective of this study is to assess the Trauma Evaluation and Management (TEAM) course as a low-cost alternative for trauma resuscitation teaching in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). As part of the Team Broken Earth initiative, TEAM course was provided to the health care professionals in Haiti. At its conclusion, participants were asked to complete a survey evaluating the course. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed to evaluate the perception of the course. The course was provided in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A total of 80 health care professionals participated in the course. Response was obtained from 69 participants, which comprised of 32 physicians, 10 Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), 22 nurses, and 5 medical trainees. The course was well received by physicians, nurses, and EMT with an average score of 90.6%. Question analysis revealed a lower satisfaction of physicians for the course manual and teaching materials, and information related to decisions for transfer of patients. EMT consistently felt that the course was not tailored to their learning and practice needs. Written feedback demonstrated several areas of weaknesses including need for improvements in translations, hands-on practice, and educational materials. Overall, the TEAM course was well received. Analysis demonstrated a need for adjustments specific to LMIC including a focus on prehospital assessment, increased nursing responsibilities, and unavailability of specialist's referrals. Team Broken Earth intends to take these findings into consideration and continue to provide the TEAM course to other LMIC. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by

  18. A low-cost alternative for nasolaryngoscopy simulation training equipment: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D I; Selimi, V; Chang, A; Smith, M

    2015-11-01

    Flexible nasolaryngoscopy is a key diagnostic procedure used in many specialities. Simulation-based teaching is beneficial for endoscopy training, but it is expensive. This study assessed whether an inexpensive simulation model is an effective training method for flexible nasolaryngoscopy. A three-armed, randomised, controlled trial was performed. One group received no simulation training, while two others were trained with either a high-cost or a low-cost model. All candidates then performed flexible nasolaryngoscopy on a volunteer. Their ability to perform this task was assessed by the patient discomfort score and time taken by a blinded expert. Simulation-based teaching reduced patient discomfort and improved candidate skill level. Low-cost model training did not have a negative effect when compared with high-cost model training. Simulated flexible nasolaryngoscopy training may be more accessible with the use of an effective low-cost model.

  19. Low-cost alternative external rotation shoulder brace and review of treatment in acute shoulder dislocations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation.

  20. Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications

    SciTech Connect

    Greenholt, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Smokes are frequently used as visual obscurants in access delay applications. A new generation of low temperature pyrotechnic smokes is being developed. Terephthalic Acid (TPA) smoke was developed by the U.S. Army and Sebacic Acid (SA) smoke is being developed by Thiokol Corp. The advantages these smokes offer over traditional pyrotechnic smokes include; low generation temperature (approximately 450{degree}C), lower toxicity, and lower corrosivity. The low generation temperature reduces smoke layering effects and allows the addition of sensory irritants, such as o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS), to the formulation. Some advantages low temperature pyrotechnic smokes offer over nonpyrotechnic smokes include; low cost, simplicity, compactness, light weight, long storage life, and orientation insensitive operation. Low cost permits distribution of multiple units for reduced vulnerability and refill flexibility. Some disadvantages may include the combustibility of the smoke particulate; however, the published lower explosive limit of the mentioned materials is approximately ten times greater than the concentration required for effective obscuration. The TPA smoke cloud contains small quantities of benzene, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide; no benzene or formaldehyde was identified during preliminary SA smoke analyses performed by Thiokol Corp. Sandia performed tests and analyses on TPA smoke to determine the smoke cloud composition, the quantity of particulate produced per canister, and the relationship between airborne particulate concentration and measured optical density values. Current activities include characterization of SA smoke.

  1. Al13Fe4 as a low-cost alternative for palladium in heterogeneous hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbrüster, M.; Kovnir, K.; Friedrich, M.; Teschner, D.; Wowsnick, G.; Hahne, M.; Gille, P.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Feuerbacher, M.; Heggen, M.; Girgsdies, F.; Rosenthal, D.; Schlögl, R.; Grin, Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Replacing noble metals in heterogeneous catalysts by low-cost substitutes has driven scientific and industrial research for more than 100 years. Cheap and ubiquitous iron is especially desirable, because it does not bear potential health risks like, for example, nickel. To purify the ethylene feed for the production of polyethylene, the semi-hydrogenation of acetylene is applied (80 × 106 tons per annum refs , , ). The presence of small and separated transition-metal atom ensembles (so-called site-isolation), and the suppression of hydride formation are beneficial for the catalytic performance. Iron catalysts necessitate at least 50 bar and 100 °C for the hydrogenation of unsaturated C-C bonds, showing only limited selectivity towards semi-hydrogenation. Recent innovation in catalytic semi-hydrogenation is based on computational screening of substitutional alloys to identify promising metal combinations using scaling functions and the experimental realization of the site-isolation concept employing structurally well-ordered and in situ stable intermetallic compounds of Ga with Pd (refs , , , , ). The stability enables a knowledge-based development by assigning the observed catalytic properties to the crystal and electronic structures of the intermetallic compounds. Following this approach, we identified the low-cost and environmentally benign intermetallic compound Al13Fe4 as an active and selective semi-hydrogenation catalyst. This knowledge-based development might prove applicable to a wide range of heterogeneously catalysed reactions.

  2. Development of an alternative low-cost solar collector working at medium temperature (150 - 250°C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Frédéric; Chandez, Bertrand; Albert, Raphael

    2017-06-01

    Within the subtask 11.1.1 of the European project STAGE-STE, the CEA is in charge of the development of an alternative low-cost collector working at medium temperature (150-250 °C). PTC are installed in a small glasshouse in order to decrease the steel mass of the solar field. After a brief background of alternative PTC construction, characteristics and advantages of such a collector are presented and PTC arrangement performance (axis orientation, tilt angle) are discussed. Then, some mechanical studies are detailed and three prototypes module design are presented as well as their optical qualification.

  3. Low cost alternative of high speed visible light camera for tokamak experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Odstrcil, T.; Grover, O.; Svoboda, V.; Odstrcil, M.; Duran, I.; Mlynar, J.

    2012-10-15

    We present design, analysis, and performance evaluation of a new, low cost and high speed visible-light camera diagnostic system for tokamak experiments. The system is based on the camera Casio EX-F1, with the overall price of approximately a thousand USD. The achieved temporal resolution is up to 40 kHz. This new diagnostic was successfully implemented and tested at the university tokamak GOLEM (R = 0.4 m, a = 0.085 m, B{sub T} < 0.5 T, I{sub p} < 4 kA). One possible application of this new diagnostic at GOLEM is discussed in detail. This application is tomographic reconstruction for estimation of plasma position and emissivity.

  4. Low cost alternative of high speed visible light camera for tokamak experiments.

    PubMed

    Odstrcil, T; Odstrcil, M; Grover, O; Svoboda, V; Duran, I; Mlynár, J

    2012-10-01

    We present design, analysis, and performance evaluation of a new, low cost and high speed visible-light camera diagnostic system for tokamak experiments. The system is based on the camera Casio EX-F1, with the overall price of approximately a thousand USD. The achieved temporal resolution is up to 40 kHz. This new diagnostic was successfully implemented and tested at the university tokamak GOLEM (R = 0.4 m, a = 0.085 m, B(T) < 0.5 T, I(p) < 4 kA). One possible application of this new diagnostic at GOLEM is discussed in detail. This application is tomographic reconstruction for estimation of plasma position and emissivity.

  5. Electric arc furnace dust as an alternative low-cost oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Lin; Huang, Wei-Chen; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Chang, Shu-Huai; Ku, Young; Lee, Hao-Yeh

    2017-08-12

    The relative abundance and low cost of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) make it a viable oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion (CLC) system. Under a reducing agent, zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) phase in EAFD releases zinc vapor in a complex gas-solid reaction. In an effort to suppress the emission of zinc vapor, the reaction mechanism of ZnFe2O4 prepared as an oxygen carrier in a redox cycling test is primarily discussed, as well as the issue of coupling with an inert Al2O3 support. The study focused the investigation on redox cycling behavior and CO2 conversion in ZnFe2O4/Al2O3 and EAFD/Al2O3 systems using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed reactor (FxBR). In a lab-scaled semi-fluidized bed reactor (semi-FzBR) of EAFD/Al2O3 as an oxygen carrier system, a high CO gas yield approximately 0.98 after fifty redox cycles is also experimentally obtained. It can be anticipated that the use of EAFD/Al2O3 system as an oxygen carrier in a reversible CLC process could be economical and environmentally beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Image-based detection of oligonucleotides--a low cost alternative to spectrophotometric or fluorometric methods.

    PubMed

    Ahirwar, Rajesh; Tanwar, Swati; Parween, Shahila; Kumar, Ashok; Nahar, Pradip

    2014-05-07

    Herein, we report a sensitive and low cost image-based (photocolorimetric) method for the detection of oligonucleotides on an activated polypropylene microtest plate (APPμTP). The assay was developed on the APPμTP by covalently immobilising 20-mer amino-modified oligonucleotides. Biotin-tagged complementary target sequences were then hybridised with the immobilised oligonucleotides. Colour was developed by streptavidin-HRP conjugate and the image of the coloured assay solution was taken by a desktop scanner and analysed using colour saturation. The developed method was analysed for its detection limit, accuracy, sensitivity and interference. The linearity range was found to be 1.7-170 ng mL(-1) while the lower limit of detection and limit of quantification were 1.7 and 5.6 ng mL(-1) respectively. The method showed comparable sensitivity to fluorometric methods, and was found to be correlated to fluorescence (R(2) = 0.8081, p-value < 0.0001) and absorbance (R(2) = 0.9394, p-value < 0.0001)-based quantification. It discriminates mismatched base sequences from perfectly matched sequences efficiently. Validation of the method was carried out by detecting por A DNA of Neisseria meningitidis in bacterial meningitis samples. The por A-specific probe having a 6-carbon spacer at its 5'-NH2 terminus was immobilised covalently to the APPμTP and hybridised with different samples of biotinylated single-stranded por A DNA.

  7. Monitoring of Landslides with Mass Market Gps: AN Alternative Low Cost Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cina, A.; Piras, M.; Bendea, H. I.

    2013-01-01

    The territory of Italy is seriously afflicted by hydrological risk, with 82% of its area affected by this phenomenon. In recent years, technologies and advanced research have played an important role in realizing complex automatic systems devoted to landslide monitoring and to alerting the population. Sometimes, the cost of these systems (communications network, sensors, software, technologies) prevents their use, and in particular the cost of sensors has a large impact on the final investment. For example, geodetic GNSS receivers are usually employed to conduct landslide monitoring, but they are costly. Nowadays, new technologies make it possible to use small and efficient low cost single frequency GPS receivers, which are able to achieve a centimetric or better level of accuracy, in static positioning. The rapid development and diffusion of the GNSS network to provide a positioning service has made it possible to use single frequency receivers, thanks to the use of virtual RINEX. This product is generated by a network of permanent stations. In this research, the actual performance of a mass market GPS receiver was tested, with the purpose of verifying if these sensors can be used for landslide monitoring. A special slide was realized, in order to conduct a dedicated test of the detection of displacements. Tests were carried out considering two factors: acquisition time and distance from the Virtual Station. The accuracy and precision of movement determination were evaluated and compared, for each test, considering the different factors. The tests and results are described in this contribution.

  8. Student peer teaching in paediatric simulation training is a feasible low-cost alternative for education.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael; Mileder, Lukas P; Goeral, Katharina; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Cardona, Francesco S; Berger, Angelika; Schmölzer, Georg M; Olischar, Monika

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends regular simulation training to prevent adverse healthcare events. We used specially trained medical students to provide paediatric simulation training to their peers and assessed feasibility, cost and confidence of students who attended the courses. Students at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria were eligible to participate. Students attended two high-fidelity simulation training sessions, delivered by peers, which were videorecorded for evaluation. The attendees then completed questionnaires before and after the training. Associated costs and potential benefits were analysed. From May 2013 to June 2015, 152 students attended the sessions and 57 (37.5%) completed both questionnaires. Satisfaction was high, with 95% stating their peer tutor was competent and 90% saying that peer tutors were well prepared. The attendees' confidence in treating critically ill children significantly improved after training (p < 0.001). The average costs for a peer tutor were six Euros per working hour, compared to 35 Euros for a physician. Using peer tutors for paediatric simulation training was a feasible and low-cost option that increased the number of medical students who could be trained and increased the self-confidence of the attendees. Satisfaction with the peer tutors was high. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Alternate Waveforms for a Low-Cost Civil Global Positioning System Receiver.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    ephemerides of all the satellites, clock anomalies, ionospheric propagation models , and so on. Besides these alternatives for the signals from...requirement for ranging accuracy is the most demanding. Ranging is a function performed by radars . All waveforms of interest have been analyzed and synthesized...in connection with radar applications. Waveforms are classified according to the nature of their ambiguity function (Ref. 4,5). The ambiguity

  10. Low-cost, disposable microfluidics device for blood plasma extraction using continuously alternating paramagnetic and diamagnetic capture modes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilkee; Ong, Eng Hui; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ng, Sum Huan Gary; Puttachat, Khuntontong

    2016-01-01

    Blood plasma contains biomarkers and substances that indicate the physiological state of an organism, and it can be used to diagnose various diseases or body condition. To improve the accuracy of diagnostic test, it is required to obtain the high purity of blood plasma. This paper presents a low-cost, disposable microfluidics device for blood plasma extraction using magnetophoretic behaviors of blood cells. This device uses alternating magnetophoretic capture modes to trap and separate paramagnetic and diamagnetic cells away from blood plasma. The device system is composed of two parts, a disposable microfluidics chip and a non-disposable (reusable) magnetic field source. Such modularized device helps the structure of the disposable part dramatically simplified, which is beneficial for low-cost mass production. A series of numerical simulation and parametric study have been performed to describe the mechanism of blood cell separation in the microchannel, and the results are discussed. Furthermore, experimental feasibility test has been carried out in order to demonstrate the blood plasma extraction process of the proposed device. In this experiment, pure blood plasma has been successfully extracted with yield of 21.933% from 75 μl 1:10 dilution of deoxygenated blood. PMID:27042252

  11. Low-cost, disposable microfluidics device for blood plasma extraction using continuously alternating paramagnetic and diamagnetic capture modes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilkee; Ong, Eng Hui; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ng, Sum Huan Gary; Puttachat, Khuntontong

    2016-03-01

    Blood plasma contains biomarkers and substances that indicate the physiological state of an organism, and it can be used to diagnose various diseases or body condition. To improve the accuracy of diagnostic test, it is required to obtain the high purity of blood plasma. This paper presents a low-cost, disposable microfluidics device for blood plasma extraction using magnetophoretic behaviors of blood cells. This device uses alternating magnetophoretic capture modes to trap and separate paramagnetic and diamagnetic cells away from blood plasma. The device system is composed of two parts, a disposable microfluidics chip and a non-disposable (reusable) magnetic field source. Such modularized device helps the structure of the disposable part dramatically simplified, which is beneficial for low-cost mass production. A series of numerical simulation and parametric study have been performed to describe the mechanism of blood cell separation in the microchannel, and the results are discussed. Furthermore, experimental feasibility test has been carried out in order to demonstrate the blood plasma extraction process of the proposed device. In this experiment, pure blood plasma has been successfully extracted with yield of 21.933% from 75 μl 1:10 dilution of deoxygenated blood.

  12. Polyimide aerogels with amide cross-links: a low cost alternative for mechanically strong polymer aerogels.

    PubMed

    Meador, Mary Ann B; Alemán, Christian R; Hanson, Katrina; Ramirez, Nakaira; Vivod, Stephanie L; Wilmoth, Nathan; McCorkle, Linda

    2015-01-21

    Polyimide aerogels combine high porosity, low thermal conductivity, flexibility, and low density with excellent mechanical properties. However, previously used cross-linkers, such as 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene (TAB), 2,4,6-tris(4-aminophenyl)pyridine (TAPP), or octa(aminophenoxy)silsesquioxane (OAPS), either are not commercially available or are prohibitively expensive. Finding more cost efficient cross-linkers that are commercially available to synthesize these aerogels is crucial for making large scale manufacturing attractive. Herein, we describe an approach to making polyimide aerogels starting with amine capped oligomers that are cross-linked with 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl trichloride (BTC). BTC is a lower cost, commercially available alternative to TAB, TAPP, or OAPS. Aerogels made in this way have the same or higher modulus and higher surface area compared to those previously reported with either TAB or OAPS cross-links at the same density. While the cross-link structure is an amide, the thermal stability is not compromised most likely because the cross-link is only a small part of the composition of the aerogel. Onset of decomposition depends primarily on the backbone chemistry with 4,4'-oxidianiline (ODA) being more thermally stable than 2,2'-dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ), similar to those previously reported with other cross-links.

  13. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  14. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources.

  15. Multi-batch catfish production and economic analysis using alternative low-cost diets with corn gluten feed and traditional diets with meat-and-bone meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted concurrent feeding trials for one growing season with channel catfish in ponds in Mississippi and Arkansas to evaluate the production and economic effects of alternative (low-cost) feeds containing 28 or 32% protein and alternative (corn gluten feed) or traditional (porcine meat, bone a...

  16. The unitized well cluster: A low-cost alternative to large multi-well templates and clustered satellite wells

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, W.C.; Going, W.S.; Beebe, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Traditional subsea production systems have been based upon large template systems with integral manifolds, or more recently individual satellite wells clustered around a central manifold. This paper describes the Unitized Well Cluster (UWC), a low-cost alternative to large multi-well templates and clustered satellite wells. The UWC utilizes existing technology to combine the benefits of individual wells with those of a unitized structure into a fully integrated subsea drilling and production system. It is comprised of two main components, a drilling template and a production template, which are installed in a stacked (piggyback) fashion. The UWC provides the capability to drill and produce several wells from a common structure that can be installed by a semisubmersible drilling vessel using standard equipment and procedures. Three 3-well UWCs have been successfully installed in the Gulf of Mexico in water depths ranging from 860 ft. to 1,520 ft. Other available configurations and options make the UWC readily adaptable to a wide range of development scenarios. The primary benefits of the Unitized Well Cluster are (1) reduced operator risk, (2) reduced lead time, (3) lower capital and installation costs, and (4) improved cash flow.

  17. Analysis of the First Year of Operation of the Federal Alternative Financing Program for Individuals with Disabilities: Providing Low Cost Loans for the Purchase of Assistive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This report analyzes the first year of the Federal Alternative Financing Program (AFP), a program designed to help individuals with disabilities who need to purchase assistive technology (AT) find a way to pay for the equipment. The program receives funding under Title III of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 and provides low-cost financing for…

  18. Emulation-Based Virtual Laboratories: A Low-Cost Alternative to Physical Experiments in Control Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, G. C.; Medioli, A. M.; Sher, W.; Vlacic, L. B.; Welsh, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the case for emulation-based virtual laboratories in control engineering education. It demonstrates that such emulation experiments can give students an industrially relevant educational experience at relatively low cost. The paper also describes a particular emulation-based system that has been developed with the aim of giving…

  19. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detec...

  20. Emulation-Based Virtual Laboratories: A Low-Cost Alternative to Physical Experiments in Control Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, G. C.; Medioli, A. M.; Sher, W.; Vlacic, L. B.; Welsh, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the case for emulation-based virtual laboratories in control engineering education. It demonstrates that such emulation experiments can give students an industrially relevant educational experience at relatively low cost. The paper also describes a particular emulation-based system that has been developed with the aim of giving…

  1. Solid waste treatment as a high-priority and low-cost alternative for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, O; Avnimelech, Y; Shechter, M

    2001-05-01

    The increased concern about environmental problems caused by inadequate waste management, as well as the concern about global warming, promotes actions toward a sustainable management of the organic fraction of the waste. Landfills, the most common means to dispose of municipal solid waste (MSW), lead to the conversion of the organic waste to biogas, containing about 50% methane, a very active greenhouse gas (GHG). One unit of methane has a global warming potential of 21 computed for a 100-year horizon or 56 computed for 20 years. The waste sector in Israel contributes 13% of total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions for a time horizon of 100 years (for a time horizon of 20 years, the waste sector contribution equals to more than 25% of total GHG emissions). The ultimate goal is to minimize the amount of methane (CH4) by converting it to CO2. This can be achieved by physicochemical means (e.g., landfill gas flare, incineration) or by biological processes (e.g., composting, anaerobic digestion). Since the waste in Israel has a high organic material content, it was found that the most cost-effective means to treat the degradable organic components is by aerobic composting (investment of less than US$ 10 to reduce emission of one ton CO2 equivalent per year). Another benefit of this technology is the ability to implement it within a short period. The suggested approach, which should be implemented especially in developing countries, could reduce a significant amount of GHG at relatively low cost and short time. The development of a national policy for proper waste treatment can be a significant means to abate GHG emissions in the short term, enabling a gain in time to develop other means for the long run. In addition, the use of CO2 quotas will credit the waste sector and will promote profitable proper waste management.

  2. Alternative polyadenylation of mRNA precursors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Manley, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is an RNA-processing mechanism that generates distinct 3′ termini on mRNAs and other RNA polymerase II transcripts. It is widespread across all eukaryotic species and is recognized as a major mechanism of gene regulation. APA exhibits tissue specificity and is important for cell proliferation and differentiation. In this Review, we discuss the roles of APA in diverse cellular processes, including mRNA metabolism, protein diversification and protein localization, and more generally in gene regulation. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying APA, such as variation in the concentration of core processing factors and RNA-binding proteins, as well as transcription-based regulation. PMID:27677860

  3. Low cost concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedard, R. J., Jr.; Overly, P.

    1981-01-01

    The key to concentrator cost effectiveness is the proper design of the reflector surface panels. The low cost concentrator reflective surface design is based on use of a thin, backsilvered mirror glass reflector bonded to a molded structural plastic substrate. This combination of reflective panel material offers excellent optical performance at low cost. The design approach, rationale for the selected configuration, and the development status are described. Reflective panel development and demonstration results are also presented.

  4. Low cost, YAG and mullite fibers by continuous extrusion and pyrolysis of metal carboxylate precursors. Final report, 1 March 1997--31 August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Svedberg, R.; Vitale, M.; Laine, R.M.; Chew, K.W.; Weinmann, M.

    1998-08-31

    Optimal ceramic reinforced CMS`s and MMC`s are the key to the success of many Air Force programs because of the significant promise these lightweight, high strength materials offer for meeting projected performance and protection requirements for a wide variety of aerospace applications. This Phase 1 program has explored methods of producing continuous yttrium aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sup 5}O{sub 12}) and mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2}) fibers. In Task 1, synthesis reactors have been constructed with 12:1 and 50:1 capacities that will enable the authors to produce up to 2 kg of precursor compounds in a single reactor directly from Al(OH){sub 3} and/or SiO{sub 2}. In Task 2, fiber processing properties were optimized. They can produce 3 m/min of 30 micrometer ave. dia. Fiber and spool it. This translates to 180 m/h. They have initiated efforts to optimize the spinning process to meet the expectations of Phase 2 work to produce 10s m/h of multi-fiber tows suitable for manufacture of ceramic/ceramic composites. In Task 3, Fiber properties for hand drawn fibers produced in earlier studies showed bend strengths as 1.9 Gpa (assuming e = 280 Gpa), but tensile tests on continuously processed fibers have yet to be done. Phase 1 goals will be to refine the processing steps necessary to produce larger quantities of fibers, with better control of fiber diameters, pyrolysis treatments and finally mechanical properties. The authors also expect to extend their efforts to improve the mullite fiber system. They must learn to cure these fibers as they are being spun and then conduct pyrolysis studies.

  5. A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Don

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.

  6. Validating the BTrackS Balance Plate as a low cost alternative for the measurement of sway-induced center of pressure.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Shawn M; Baweja, Harsimran S; Goble, Daniel J

    2016-12-08

    The BTrackS Balance Plate (BBP) is a low-cost force plate that provides objective balance assessment and true portability for the user. Given that this technology is relatively new, the purpose of the present study was to provide the first center of pressure (COP) validation of the BBP. Two BBP devices (one new and one used) were compared with a laboratory-grade force plate (LFP) during simultaneous collection of COP that was induced by an inverted pendulum device with human-like sway characteristics. The results of this study showed almost perfect agreement between the BBP devices and the LFP (ICC>0.999), as well as a high degree of BBP accuracy (<1% error magnitude) and precision (<0.2mm regression residuals). These results suggest the BBP can serve as an effective, low-cost solution for objective balance testing in the laboratory or clinic.

  7. An alternative to the balance error scoring system: using a low-cost balance board to improve the validity/reliability of sports-related concussion balance testing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.

  8. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  9. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Rober; Paulauskas, Felix; Naskar, Amit; Kaufman, Michael; Yarborough, Ken; Derstine, Chris

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  10. An Alternative Low-Cost Process for Deposition of MCrAlY Bond Coats for Advanced Syngas/Hydrogen Turbine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-11

    The objective of this project was to develop and optimize MCrAlY bond coats for syngas/hydrogen turbine applications using a low-cost electrolytic codeposition process. Prealloyed CrAlY-based powders were codeposited into a metal matrix of Ni, Co or Ni-Co during the electroplating process, and a subsequent post-deposition heat treatment converted it to the MCrAlY coating. Our research efforts focused on: (1) investigation of the effects of electro-codeposition configuration and parameters on the CrAlY particle incorporation in the NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings; (2) development of the post-deposition heat treating procedure; (3) characterization of coating properties and evaluation of coating oxidation performance; (4) exploration of a sulfurfree electroplating solution; (5) cost analysis of the present electrolytic codeposition process. Different electro-codeposition configurations were investigated, and the rotating barrel system demonstrated the capability of depositing NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings uniformly on the entire specimen surface, with the CrAlY particle incorporation in the range 37-42 vol.%. Post-deposition heat treatment at 1000-1200 °C promoted interdiffusion between the CrAlY particles and the Ni-Co metal matrix, resulting in β/γ’/γ or β/γ’ phases in the heat-treated coatings. The results also indicate that the post-deposition heat treatment should be conducted at temperatures ≤1100 °C to minimize Cr evaporation and outward diffusion of Ti. The electro-codeposited NiCrAlY coatings in general showed lower hardness and surface roughness than thermal spray MCrAlY coatings. Coating oxidation performance was evaluated at 1000-1100 °C in dry and wet air environments. The initial electro-codeposited NiCoCrAlY coatings containing relatively high sulfur did not show good oxidation resistance. After modifications of the coating process, the cleaner NiCoCrAlY coating exhibited good oxidation performance at 1000 °C during the 2,000 1-h cyclic

  11. Low-cost solid FeS lubricant as a possible alternative to MoS2 for producing Fe-based friction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tao; Yan, Qing-zhi; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Xiao-jiao; Ba, Ming-yang

    2017-01-01

    Three reaction systems of MoS2-Fe, FeS-Fe, and FeS-Fe-Mo were designed to investigate the use of FeS as an alternative to MoS2 for producing Fe-based friction materials. Samples were prepared by powder metallurgy, and their phase compositions, microstructures, mechanical properties, and friction performance were characterized. The results showed that MoS2 reacts with the matrix to produce iron-sulfides and Mo when sintered at 1050°C. Iron-sulfides produced in the MoS2-Fe system were distributed uniformly and continuously in the matrix, leading to optimal mechanical properties and the lowest coefficient of friction among the systems studied. The lubricity observed was hypothesized to originate from the iron-sulfides produced. The FeS-Fe-Mo system showed a phase composition, porosity, and density similar to those of the MoS2-Fe system, but an uneven distribution of iron-sulfides and Mo in this system resulted in less-optimal mechanical properties. Finally, the FeS-Fe system showed the poorest mechanical properties among the systems studied because of the lack of Mo reinforcement. In friction tests, the formation of a sulfide layer contributed to a decrease in coefficient of friction (COF) in all of the samples.

  12. Pyrolysis pathways of sulfonated polyethylene, an alternative carbon fiber precursor.

    PubMed

    Younker, Jarod M; Saito, Tomonori; Hunt, Marcus A; Naskar, Amit K; Beste, Ariana

    2013-04-24

    Polyethylene is an emerging precursor material for the production of carbon fibers. Its sulfonated derivative yields ordered carbon when pyrolyzed under inert atmosphere. Here, we investigate its pyrolysis pathways by selecting n-heptane-4-sulfonic acid (H4S) as a model compound. Density functional theory and transition state theory were used to determine the rate constants of pyrolysis for H4S from 300 to 1000 K. Multiple reaction channels from two different mechanisms were explored: (1) internal five-centered elimination (Ei5) and (2) radical chain reaction. The pyrolysis of H4S was simulated with kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to obtain thermogravimetric (TGA) plots that compared favorably to experiment. We observed that at temperatures <550 K, the radical mechanism was dominant and yielded the trans-alkene, whereas cis-alkene was formed at higher temperatures from the internal elimination. The maximum rates of % mass loss became independent of initial ȮH radical concentration at 440-480 K. Experimentally, the maximum % mass loss occurred from 440 to 460 K (heating rate dependent). Activation energies derived from the kMC-simulated TGAs of H4S (26-29 kcal/mol) agreed with experiment for sulfonated polyethylene (~31 kcal/mol). The simulations revealed that in this region, decomposition of radical HOSȮ2 became competitive to α-H abstraction by HOSȮ2, making ȮH the carrying radical for the reaction chain. The maximum rate of % mass loss for internal elimination was observed at temperatures >600 K. Low-scale carbonization utilizes temperatures <620 K; thus, internal elimination will not be competitive. E(i)5 elimination has been studied for sulfoxides and sulfones, but this represents the first study of internal elimination in sulfonic acids.

  13. Pyrolysis Pathways of Sulfonated Polyethylene, an Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, Jarod M; Saito, Tomonori; Hunt, Marcus A; Beste, Ariana; Naskar, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    Sulfonated polyethylene is an emerging precursor for the production of carbon fibers. Pyrolysis of sulfonated polyethylene was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). n-heptane-4-sulfonic acid (H4S) was selected as a model compound for the study of sulfonated polyethylene. Density functional theory and conventional transition state theory were used to determine the rate constants of pyrolysis for H4S from 300-1000 K. Multiple reaction channels from two different mechanisms were explored: 1) internal five-centered elimination (Ei 5) and 2) radical chain reaction. The pyrolysis of H4S was simulated with kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to obtain TGA plots that compared favorably to experiment. We observed that at tem- peratures < 550 K, the radical mechanism was dominant and yielded the trans-alkene, whereas cis-alkene was formed at higher temperatures from the internal elimination. The maximum rates of % mass loss became independent of initial OH radical concentration at 440-480 K. Experimentally, the maximum % mass loss occurred from 440-460 K (heating rate dependent). Activation energies derived from the kMC-simulated TGAs of H4S (26-29 kcal/mol) agreed with experiment for sulfonated polyethylene ( 31 kcal/mol). The simulations revealed that in this region, decomposition of radical HOSO2 became competitive to H abstraction by HOSO2, making OH the carrying radical for the reaction chain. The maximum rate of % mass loss for internal elimination was observed at temperatures > 600 K. Low-scale carbonization utilizes temperatures < 620 K; thus, internal elimination will not be competitive. Ei5 elimination has been studied for sulfoxides and sulfones, but this represents the first study of internal elimination in sulfonic acids. Nonlinear Arrhenius plots were found for all bimolecular reactions. The most significant nonlinear behavior was observed for reactions where the barrier was small. For reactions with low activation barriers, nonlinearity was traced to

  14. New Low Cost Resin Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    difference between resins 1 and 2 was the type of phosphorous containing compound, where resin 3 was the same as resin 1 with the addition of melamine ...SBIR N03-120 New Low Cost Resin Systems Applied Poleramic, Inc. Final Report Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...Feb 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Low Cost Resin Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-03-M-0304 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  15. Low cost paths to binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Arthur; Domash, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    Application of binary optics has been limited to a few major laboratories because of the limited availability of fabrication facilities such as e-beam machines and the lack of standardized design software. Foster-Miller has attempted to identify low cost approaches to medium-resolution binary optics using readily available computer and fabrication tools, primarily for the use of students and experimenters in optical computing. An early version of our system, MacBEEP, made use of an optimized laser film recorder from the commercial typesetting industry with 10 micron resolution. This report is an update on our current efforts to design and build a second generation MacBEEP, which aims at 1 micron resolution and multiple phase levels. Trails included a low cost scanning electron microscope in microlithography mode, and alternative laser inscribers or photomask generators. Our current software approach is based on Mathematica and PostScript compatibility.

  16. Low Cost Graphics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    This manual describes the CALM TV graphics interface, a low-cost means of producing quality graphics on an ordinary TV. The system permits the output of data in graphic as well as alphanumeric form and the input of data from the face of the TV using a light pen. The integrated circuits required in the interface can be obtained from standard…

  17. Low Cost Sensor Calibration Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-cost sensors ($1 D0-500) represent a unique class of air monitoring devices that may provide for more ubiquitous pollutant monitoring. They vary widely in design and measure pollutants, ranging from ozone, particulate matter, to volatile organic compounds. Many of these senso...

  18. Low Cost Sensor Calibration Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-cost sensors ($1 D0-500) represent a unique class of air monitoring devices that may provide for more ubiquitous pollutant monitoring. They vary widely in design and measure pollutants, ranging from ozone, particulate matter, to volatile organic compounds. Many of these senso...

  19. Small, Low Cost, Launch Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed.

  20. Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.

  1. A novel passivation process of silicon nanowires by a low-cost PECVD technique for deposition of hydrogenated silicon nitride using SiH4 and N2 as precursor gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Lamia; Dridi, Donia; Karyaoui, Mokhtar; Angelova, Todora; Sanchez Plaza, Guillermo; Chtourou, Radhouane

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a different SiNx passivation process of silicon nanowires has been opted for the deposition of a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiNx:H) by a low-cost plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane ( SiH4 and nitrogen ( N2 as reactive gases. This study is focused on the effect of the gas flow ratio on chemical composition, morphological, optical and optoelectronic properties of silicon nanowires. The existence of Si-N and Si-H bonds was proven by the Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) spectrum. Morphological structures were shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A low reflectivity less than 6% in the wavelength range 250-1200nm has been shown by UV-visible spectroscopy. Furthermore, the thickness and the refractive index of the passivation layer is determined by ellipsometry measurements. As a result, an improvement in minority carrier lifetime has been obtained by reducing surface recombination of silicon nanowires.

  2. Low Cost Expendable TWT Amplifier for ECM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    Figure Tit le Page 4 1 43 Proposed Low Cost TWT 90 44 “T” Shaped Tapered Helix 91 45 Coupled Helix Input 92 46 SImulated Helix by L—C Circuit 94 47...asylTuietric mode even if the helices are syninetrical in phase and amplitude at the input. In a broadband TWT , this l eads to power holes in the f...The 1-Shaped helix was fi rst descri bed by L. Winslow , as an alternative to notching support rods in high power TWT ’ s to Increase interactive

  3. A low cost route to hexagonal mesostructured carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Pinnavaia, T J

    2001-12-07

    A mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with a hexagonal framework structure (denoted C-MSU-H) has been prepared using a MSU-H silica template that can be assembled from a low cost soluble silicate precursor at near-neutral pH conditions.

  4. Low cost CIS device processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başol, B. M.; Kapur, V. K.; Leidholm, C. R.; Roe, R.; Halani, A.; Norsworthy, G.

    1997-02-01

    CIS films were grown on soda-lime glass/Mo substrates using a low cost, non-vacuum technique. Morphology of the resulting layers was improved and solar cells with 12.4% total area efficiency were demonstrated on these films. A submodule of about 25 cm2 area was also fabricated with a conversion efficiency of 8.17%. Work is now in progress to grow films containing Ga and/or S and to take this technology to larger scale production.

  5. Low cost omega navigation receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a low cost Omega navigation receiver is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the completion and testing of a modular, multipurpose Omega receiver which utilizes a digital memory-aided, phase-locked loop to provide phase measurement data to a variety of applications interfaces. The functional units contained in the prototype device are described. The receiver is capable of receiving and storing phase measurements for up to eight Omega signals and computes two switch-selectable lines of position, displaying this navigation data in chart-recorded form.

  6. Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftçi, T.; Karaosmanoğlu, B.; Ergül, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    We present paper-based inkjet antennas that are fabricated by using silver-based cartridges in standard printers. In addition to their low costs, the produced antennas are flexible, environmentally friendly, and suitable for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. Among alternative choices, hybrid structures involving loop and parasitic meander parts are preferred and successfully combined with passive RFID chips. We also discuss main challenges in the design and fabrication of low-cost inkjet antennas and the related RFID tags.

  7. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    PubMed

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  8. Development of low-cost rotational rheometer.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lasse; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Skov, Kristian Thaarup

    2015-01-01

    Liquids with non-Newtonian properties are presented in many engineering areas, as for example in membrane bioreactors where active sludge exhibits shear thinning properties. Therefore, the ability to determine the rheology's dependence on shear is important when optimising systems with such liquids. However, rheometers capable of determining the viscosity are often expensive and so a cheaper alternative is constructed with this exact capability. Using the principle of rotating rheometers, a low-cost rheometer was built to determine the rheology of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The general principles and background assumptions and the physics are described. The rheometer was calibrated by comparison with measurements conducted on a Brookfield viscometer for Newtonian liquids. For validation measurements on non-Newtonian liquids, xanthan gum solutions were made and compared with measurements on the Brookfield viscometer and with values from other sources. Furthermore, the effect of excluding the different shear rates in the system is discussed and good practice hereto is given.

  9. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  10. Low cost balancing unit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  11. Low Cost Large Space Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.; Freeland, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The mobile communication community could significantly benefit from the availability of low-cost, large space-deployable antennas. A new class of space structures, called inflatable deployable structures, will become an option for this industry in the near future. This new technology recently made significant progress with respect to reducing the risk of flying large inflatable structures in space. This progress can be attributed to the successful space flight of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment in May of 1996, which prompted the initiation of the NASA portion of the joint NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program, which will develop the technology to be used in future mobile communications antennas along with other users. The NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program was initiated in 1997 as a direct result of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment. The program adds a new NASA initiative to a substantial DOD program that involves developing a series of ground test hardware, starting with 3 meter diameter units and advancing the manufacturing techniques to fabricate a 25 meter ground demonstrator unit with surface accuracy exceeding the requirements for mobile communication applications. Simultaneously, the program will be advancing the state of the art in several important inflatable technology areas, such as developing rigidizable materials for struts and tori and investigating thin film technology issues, such as application of coatings, property measurement and materials processing and assembly techniques. A very important technology area being addressed by the program is deployment control techniques. The program will sponsor activities that will lead to understanding the effects of material strain energy release, residual air in the stowed structure, and the design of the launch restraint and release system needed to control deployment dynamics. Other technology areas directly applicable to developing inflatable mobile communication antennas in the near

  12. Low-cost periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Slots, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8 days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500 mg of each, twice daily for 8 days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent

  13. Low Cost Mission to Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik; Püsler, H.; Braukhane, A.; Gülzow, P.; Bauer, W.; Vollhardt, A.; Romberg, O.; Scheibe, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Bürner, A.

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Mars. The developed Mars orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • multispectral line scanner for Martian cloud investigations and Deimos (and Phobos) stereo pictures during close flybys • Deimos framing camera for high resolution pictures of Deimos (and Phobos) including video mode • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of Martian (also Deimos and Phobos) silicates and surface temperature measurements • radio science for research of Deimos ( Phobos) gravity, profiling of Mars ionosphere, occurrence of third meteoritic ionosphere layer; sounding of neutral atmosphere; solar corona activity This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. It promises a low cost mission into a Mars orbit that allows close approaches to Deimos and Phobos.

  14. Low-cost aquatic lab animal holding system.

    PubMed

    Hohn, Claudia; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed a low-cost aquatic animal holding system that provides an alternative to expensive, commercially available systems. Our flow-through system is especially useful for programs that are limited in space and funding. The easy assembly and maintenance of the system are advantages for the researchers who may be unfamiliar with aquatic animals.

  15. Special human vulnerability to low-cost collective punishment.

    PubMed

    Ross, Don

    2012-02-01

    Guala notes that low-cost punishment is the main mechanism that deters free-riding in small human communities. This mechanism is complemented by unusual human vulnerability to gossip. Defenders of an evolutionary discontinuity supporting human sociality might seize on this as an alternative to enjoyment of moralistic aggression as a special adaptation. However, the more basic adaptation of language likely suffices.

  16. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  17. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  18. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Nichiolas William; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Keffer, David

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing anodes in Li-ion batteries. Industrially scalable melt-spinning and melt-blowing synthesis methods were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are compatible with industrially viable production. Engineering studies predict that LCFs can be manufactured at $3/lb using these technologies, which compares favorably to $12/lb for battery grade graphite. The physical properties of lignin carbon fibers, specifically the tunable electrochemical and thermal transport, are suitable for energy storage applications as both an active material and current collector. The elimination of inactive components in the slurry-coated electrodes was enabled by LCF processing parameters modifications to produce monolithic mats in which the fibers are electrically interconnected. These mats were several hundreds of micrometers thick, and the fibers functioned as both current collector and active material by virtue of their mixed ionic/electronic conductivities. The LCFs were coated onto copper current collectors with PVDF binder and conductive carbon additive through conventional slurry processing. Galvanostatic cycling of the LCFs against Li revealed reversible capacities greater than 300 mAh/g. The coulombic efficiencies were over 99.8%. The mats were galvanostatically cycled in half cells against Li. Specific capacities as high as 250 mAh/g were achieved approximately 17% lower than the capacities of the same fibers in slurries. However, there were no inactive materials reducing the practical specific capacity of the entire electrode construction. Lithiation and delithiation of the LCFs proceeded with coulombic efficiencies greater than 99.9%, and the capacity retention was greater than 99% over 100 cycles at a rate of 15 mA/g. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for

  19. LOW COST PRODUCTION OF CARBON FIBERS FROM LIGNIN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Darren A; Baker, Frederick S

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Vehicle Technologies-funded work at ORNL is directed to the development of processes for the low cost production of carbon fibers. The objective of the project is to develop more energy-efficient, cost-effective processes for production of carbon fibers for use in composite materials for vehicles, which would substantially reduce vehicle weight, increase vehicle fuel economy, and result in lower CO2 emissions. Carbon fibers have the potential for substantial weight saving in vehicles because of their remarkable high strength, high modulus, and low density. However, carbon fibers are currently too expensive for large scale automotive use, which necessitates a large reduction in the cost of commercial grade fiber from about $20/lb to $5-7/lb. Lignin, a renewable resource material, has significant potential as a precursor material for low cost carbon fiber production. In this paper we report on progress to demonstrate the melt-spinning of precursor fibers from various lignin sources, the subsequent processing of the lignin precursor fibers into carbon fibers, and carbon fiber properties.

  20. Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers.

  1. Change Detection Experiments Using Low Cost UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in the development of a low-cost change-detection system. This system is being developed to provide users with the ability to use a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing system that can detect changes in specific fixed ground locations using video provided by an autonomous UAV. The results of field experiments conducted with the US Army at Ft. A.P.Hill are presented.

  2. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  3. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Low-Cost Composites in Automotive and Heavy Vehicle Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Glenn J.

    2006-11-01

    The automotive and heavy vehicle manufacturing markets are extremely sensitive to costs. Margins are not high in these markets and differences in fixed costs and national infrastructure between different companies and countries creates a highly competitive environment. Composites can offer tremendous competitive advantages in this industry to help differentiate between products by offering increased safety, strength, fuel efficiency, and recyclability. However, composites are by definition more complex than the largely monolithic materials they replace. This leads to a situation where the composite solution to a structural problem is often a higher-cost solution. To successfully implement a composite material into an engineering system there is a need to drive down the costs of the composite materials. This can be done through the use of low-cost raw material precursors, low-cost manufacturing methods, or by using composites of high specific stiffness so that less material is needed in the structure. In this issue we have gathered five papers describing some of the recent advances in the application of low-cost composites to automotive and heavy vehicle manufacturing. These papers cover metal-matrix composites (MMCs), carbon fiber and natural fiber polymer-based composites, and a unique reaction-processed cermet. The papers included here are by no means exhaustive of the increasing new composite applications in transportation manufacturing, but give a flavor of some of the current research directions.

  4. Low-cost robotic arm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.

  5. Low Cost, Advanced, Integrated Microcontroller Training Kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somantri, Y.; Fushshilat, I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the design of an AVR microcontroller training kit with a low cost and the additional feature of an integrated downloader. The main components of this device include: Microcontroller, terminal, I/O keypad, push button, LED, seven segment display, LCD, motor stepper, and sensors. The device configuration results in low cost and ease of use; this device is suitable for laboratories with limited funding. The device can also be used as a training kit for the teaching and learning of microcontrollers.

  6. Use of talc as low-cost clarifier for wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grafia, Ana L; Castillo, Luciana A; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2014-01-01

    Talc is proposed as a low-cost mineral for wastewater clarification. In this sense, adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions was studied comparatively by using sepiolite (qualified as very good adsorbent) and two talc samples with different particle size and purity degree. The MB adsorption was assessed by determining remnant dye in the supernatant using UV-vis spectroscopy and by detecting dye adsorbed on mineral samples through thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Both isothermal curves and kinetic studies demonstrate that talc is a good dye adsorbent. Particularly, with dye concentrations similar to those of textile wastewater, talc was demonstrated to adsorb the same dye content of sepiolite at similar times. Natural talc could be employed as a low-cost alternative in wastewater treatment for the removal of cationic dyes.

  7. A LOW-COST THREE-DIMENSIONAL SAMPLE COLLECTION ARRAY TO EVALUATE AND MONITOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artificially constructed wetlands are gaining acceptance as a low cost treatment alternative to remove a number of undesirable constituents from water. Wetlands can be used to physically remove compounds such as suspended solids through sedimentation. Dissolved nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, ...

  8. A low-cost acoustic permeameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Selker, John S.; Higgins, Chad W.

    2017-04-01

    Intrinsic permeability is an important parameter that regulates air exchange through porous media such as snow. Standard methods of measuring snow permeability are inconvenient to perform outdoors, are fraught with sampling errors, and require specialized equipment, while bringing intact samples back to the laboratory is also challenging. To address these issues, we designed, built, and tested a low-cost acoustic permeameter that allows computation of volume-averaged intrinsic permeability for a homogenous medium. In this paper, we validate acoustically derived permeability of homogenous, reticulated foam samples by comparison with results derived using a standard flow-through permeameter. Acoustic permeameter elements were designed for use in snow, but the measurement methods are not snow-specific. The electronic components - consisting of a signal generator, amplifier, speaker, microphone, and oscilloscope - are inexpensive and easily obtainable. The system is suitable for outdoor use when it is not precipitating, but the electrical components require protection from the elements in inclement weather. The permeameter can be operated with a microphone either internally mounted or buried a known depth in the medium. The calibration method depends on choice of microphone positioning. For an externally located microphone, calibration was based on a low-frequency approximation applied at 500 Hz that provided an estimate of both intrinsic permeability and tortuosity. The low-frequency approximation that we used is valid up to 2 kHz, but we chose 500 Hz because data reproducibility was maximized at this frequency. For an internally mounted microphone, calibration was based on attenuation at 50 Hz and returned only intrinsic permeability. We found that 50 Hz corresponded to a wavelength that minimized resonance frequencies in the acoustic tube and was also within the response limitations of the microphone. We used reticulated foam of known permeability (ranging from 2

  9. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period January through March 1978 is reported. It includes task reports on silicon material processing, large-area silicon sheet development, encapsulation materials testing and development, project engineering and operations, and manufacturing techniques, plus the steps taken to integrate these efforts.

  10. Low-cost image analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The author has developed an Automatic Target Recognition system based on parallel processing using transputers. This approach gives a powerful, fast image processing system at relatively low cost. This system scans multi-sensor (e.g., several infrared bands) image data to find any identifiable target, such as physical object or a type of vegetation.

  11. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  12. Simplified, low cost below-knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kijkusol, D

    1986-08-01

    Problems are encountered in using standard prostheses in developing countries, especially when the prostheses need repair and the amputees cannot come back to the workshop. Very simple, low cost and durable prostheses can solve this problem. The solution described has worked well with villagers in some rural areas of Thailand, where the inexpensive prosthesis permits walking bare-foot and through water and mud.

  13. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  14. Low-cost LANDSAT processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    LANDSAT analysis system is assembled from commercially available components at relatively low cost. Small-scale system is put together for price affordable for state agencies and universities. It processes LANDSAT data for subscene areas on repetitive basis. Amount of time required for processing decreases linearly with number of classifications desired. Computer programs written in FORTRAN IV are available for analyzing data.

  15. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  16. Low Cost Constellations to Assist the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Low Cost Constellations to Assist the Warfighter Stuart Eves (SSTL), David Carter (EADS- Astrium ), David Beard (Dstl) Email: s.eves@sstl.co.uk Tel... Astrium Ltd Earth Observation & Science Anchorage Road Portsmouth, Hampshire PO3 5PU UK davidj.carter@astrium.eads.net David Beard DSTL

  17. Sport for All. Low Cost Sports Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report of the conference on low-cost sports halls, sponsored by the Council of Europe, is divided into two sections: technical studies and conclusions. The introduction to the report provides an overview of the long-term program of the Council of Europe with regard to sport for all and a discussion of multipurpose sports halls. Sociocultural,…

  18. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  19. Low cost silicon solar cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, F. T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

  20. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.

  1. Low Cost Carbon Fiber From Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.

    2001-08-10

    The Department of Energy Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles has shown that, by lowering overall weight, the use of carbon fiber composites could dramatically decrease domestic vehicle fuel consumption. For the automotive industry to benefit from carbon fiber technology, fiber production will need to be substantially increased and fiber price decreased to $7/kg. To achieve this cost objective, alternate precursors to pitch and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are being investigated as possible carbon fiber feedstocks. Additionally, sufficient fiber to provide 10 to 100 kg for each of the 13 million cars and light trucks produced annually in the U.S. will require an increase of 5 to 50-fold in worldwide carbon fiber production. High-volume, renewable or recycled materials, including lignin, cellulosic fibers, routinely recycled petrochemical fibers, and blends of these components, appear attractive because the cost of these materials is inherently both low and insensitive to changes in petroleum price. Current studies have shown that a number of recycled and renewable polymers can be incorporated into melt-spun fibers attractive as carbon fiber feedstocks. Highly extrudable lignin blends have attractive yields and can be readily carbonized and graphitized. Examination of the physical structure and properties of carbonized and graphitized fibers indicates the feasibility of use in transportation composite applications.

  2. Low Cost, High Accuracy Positioning In Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hide, Chris; Moore, Terry; Hill, Chris; Park, David

    It is well known that GPS measurements are regularly obstructed in urban environments. Positioning accuracy in such environments is significantly degraded and in many areas, it is not possible to obtain a GPS position fix at all. There are currently two methods that can be used to improve availability in the urban environment. Firstly, GPS receivers can be augmented with dead reckoning sensors such as an INS. Alternatively, High Sensitivity GPS (HSGPS) receivers can be used which are able to acquire and track very weak signals. This paper assesses the performance obtained from a GPS and low cost INS integrated system and a HSGPS receiver in an urban environment in Nottingham, UK. The navigation systems are compared to a high accuracy integrated GPS/INS system which is used to provide a reference trajectory. It is demonstrated that the differential GPS and low cost INS system can provide horizontal positioning accuracy of better than 2·5 m RMS in real-time, and better than 1 m RMS in post-processing, whereas the non-differential HSGPS receiver provides a real-time performance of 5 m RMS. These results were obtained in an environment where, with conventional GPS receivers, a position solution is only available 48·4% of the time. Operational considerations such as initial alignment of the GPS and low cost INS are also discussed when comparing the two systems for urban positioning applications.

  3. Low-Cost Instant Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1983-06-01

    A low-cost, battery-operated surveillance system was developed for use in international nuclear safeguards. The resulting system utilizes components of the commercial Polavision instant movie system to provide single-frame color or black/white images which are automatically developed and displayed by a portable Polavision Player whenever it is desired to stop and view the film. The system is designed for long-term unattended use, triggered by a timer or other input signal. To provide positive assurance of continuing operation, a self-diagnostic module was designed to detect the most common failure modes and transmit real-time status data to a remote location. The resulting system provides a low-cost surveillance capability which may be useful in various law enforcement applications.

  4. Low-Cost Optical Character Recognition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Charles C. K.

    1980-02-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) equipment previously has been complex, massive, and very expensive, hence really practical only for large credit-card operations, insurance companies, and postal applications. However, because of the rapid advance in large scale integrated (LSI) circuit technology and the need for a low cost OCR device to improve business data entry operations, designing and engineering such a low cost OCR system is feasible. The described system is capable of reading directly from a human readable information source, thus eliminating manual keying of data for conversion to a computer processable form. The optical front-end for data acquisition, image conversion and correlation, and recognition processing subsystems using LSI circuits and high speed microprocessors, the algorithms of feature analysis and contextual editing, as well as output and control operational considerations are all essential segments of the described system.

  5. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  6. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  7. Low cost design of microprocessor EDAC circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Lixin, Yu; Heping, Peng; Wei, Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    An optimization method of error detection and correction (EDAC) circuit design is proposed. The method involves selecting or constructing EDAC codes of low cost hardware, associated with operation scheduling implementation based on 2-input XOR gates structure, and two actions for reducing hardware cells, which can reduce the delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit effectively. The 32-bit EDAC circuit hardware implementation is selected to make a prototype, based on the 180 nm process. The delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit are evaluated. Results show that the time penalty and area cost of the EDAC circuitries are affected with different parity-check matrices and different hardware implementation for the EDAC codes with the same capability of correction and detection code. This method can be used as a guide for low-cost radiation-hardened microprocessor EDAC circuit design and for more advanced technologies.

  8. Experience with low cost jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is given of the results of a NASA program for reducing the cost of turbojet and turbofan engines. The design, construction, and testing of a simple turbojet, designed for use in missiles, is described. Low cost axial stage fabrication, the design of a fan jet engine suitable for propulsion of light aircraft, and application of such engines to provide higher flight speeds, are discussed.

  9. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, L.; Insabella, M.; Bilbao, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  10. Low Cost Space Experiments. Study Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-06

    Air Force Phillips Laboratory with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory . The goals of ALTAIR...Cs<- &l. LOW COST SPACE EXPERIMENTS STUDY REPORT 6 December 1991 19980302 059 Phillips Laboratory /SXL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-6008 TVPTT" OTT...Report Corporate Author or Publisher: Phillips Laboratory /SXL, Kirtland AFB,NM 87117-6008 Publication Date: Dec 06, 1991 Pages: 176 Comments

  11. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G...Edelstein, 2004; Burnette, 2008), we suggested a method for mitigating the problem of 1/f noise. We and others ( Guedes , 2008) have been utilizing...6. Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - 3magnetoresistive/microelectromechanical devices for static field modulation and sensor 1/f noise

  12. Rugged low-cost display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Roger; Chiang, Anne; Hermanns, Anno; Vicentini, Frederic; Jacobsen, Jeffrey; Atherton, Jim; Boling, Ed; Cuomo, Frank; Drzaic, Paul; Pearson, Sean

    2002-08-01

    Alien technology has developed a family of rugged, plastic displays for portable devices like SmartCards, electronic signs, cellular telephones and military devices. These displays are driven by ultra-miniaturized silicon integrated circuits called NanoBlcok ICs that are put together using a Fluidic Self Assembly (FSA) process. This low-cost, high- volume manufacturing technique makes possible new types of liquid crystal and OLED display products.

  13. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  14. Epitaxial technology for low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kressel, H.; Raccah, P. M.

    1975-01-01

    Epitaxial solar cell structures on low cost silicon substrates are compared to direct diffusion substrates. Dislocation density in the epitaxial layers is found to be significantly lower than that of the substrate material. The saturation current density of diodes epitaxially formed on the substrate is commonly 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than for diodes formed by direct diffusion. Solar cells made epitaxially are substantially better than those made by direct diffusion into similar material.

  15. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  16. Low cost miniature data collection platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the RF elements of a telecommunications package involved detailed study and analysis of concepts and techniques followed by laboratory testing and evaluation of designs. The design goals for a complete telecommunications package excluding antenna were a total weight of 300 grams, in a total volume of 400 cu cm with a capability of unattended operation for a period of six months. Of utmost importance is extremely low cost when produced in lots of 10,000. Early in the program it became apparent that a single Miniature Data Collection Platform would not satisfy all users. A single high efficiency system would not satisfy a user who had available a large battery capacity but required a low cost system. Conversely, the low cost system would not satisfy the end user who had a very limited battery capacity. A system design to satisfy these varied requirements was implemented by designing several versions of the system building blocks and then constructing three systems from these building blocks.

  17. Low cost production of disposable microfluidics by blister packaging technology.

    PubMed

    Disch, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2007-01-01

    Large scale production of disposable microfluidics mostly is accomplished by injection moulding techniques today. A cost effective alternative to injection moulding might be vacuum thermoforming of polymer films. Vacuum thermoforming is the basis for medical and pharmaceutical packaging such as pharmaceutical blister packs. It allows for cheap and reliable forming of polymer films and thus seems suitable for the fabrication of disposables. Our goal is to investigate and demonstrate the potential of vacuum thermoforming for the fabrication of microtechnology components. For this purpose we have developed a simple low cost process allowing for the fabrication of disposable microfluidics by vacuum thermoforming.

  18. Low-cost tubular antenna deployer for WISP-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    A new tubular boom deployment mechanism has been designed, built, and flown as part of the second Waves In Space Program (WISP-2) through Cornell University. For this program, two booms were needed to form a dipole antenna but existing units were found to be too complicated and costly. A low-cost alternative was developed which combined flight-proven tubular boom technology with a new support and deployment mechanism. The simplicity of this new design was a major factor in providing a highly reliable and cost-effective system.

  19. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus; Madden, Thomas; Wood, III, David L; Muth, Thomas R.; Warrington, Curtis; Ozcan, Soydan; Manson, Hunter; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Smith, Mark A.; Lu, Yuan; Loretz, Jeremy

    2015-09-23

    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  20. Fast, Dense Low Cost Scintillator for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, Craig

    2009-07-31

    We have studied the morphology, transparency, and optical properties of SrHfO{sub 3}:Ce ceramics. Ceramics can be made transparent by carefully controlling the stoichiometry of the precursor powders. When fully dense, transparent samples can be obtained. Ceramics with a composition close to stoichiometry (Sr:Hf ~ 1) appear to show good transparency and a reasonable light yield several times that of BGO. The contact and distance transparency of ceramics hot-pressed at about 1450ºC is very good, but deteriorates at increasingly higher hot-press temperatures. If these ceramics can be produced in large quantities and sizes, at low cost, they may be of considerable interest for PET and CT.

  1. Low-cost microprocessor controlled shadowband radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, J. J.; Lebaron, B. A.; Harrison, L. C.

    1985-06-01

    This paper describes the second phase in the development of a low-cost microprocessor-controlled rotating shadowband radiometer at PNL. The initial work, to develop a solar photometer, resulted in a mechanical design that is adopted for the solar radiometer with only minor changes. The goals of this effort are: (1) to improve the data acquisition system; and (2) to derive corrections for the silicon cell-based pyranometer that would allow measurements of total horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct normal solar radiation approaching first-class instrumentation accuracy at a fraction of the cost. Significant progress on temperature, cosine and spectral corrections is achieved.

  2. LSA Low-cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period October through December, 1977 are reported. The LSSA Project is assigned responsibility for advancing silicon solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  3. A low cost LST pointing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.; Nurre, G. S.; Seltzer, S. M.; Shelton, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Vigorous efforts to reduce costs, coupled with changes in LST guidelines, took place in the Fall of 1974. These events made a new design of the LST and its Pointing and Attitude Control System possible. The major design changes are summarized as: an annular Support Systems Module; removal of image motion compensation; reaction wheels instead of CMG's; a magnetic torquer system to also perform the emergency and backup functions, eliminating the previously required mass expulsion system. Preliminary analysis indicates the Low Cost LST concept can meet the newly defined requirements and results in a significantly reduced development cost.

  4. Polymeric MST - high precision at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderstig, Håkan; Larsson, Olle

    1997-09-01

    A low-cost production process for fabrication of polymeric microstructures from micromachined silicon is demonstrated in a splice for the splicing of optical fibers and an optical motherboard. Measurements on splices showed less than 0.5 dB insertion losses. The prototype polymeric motherboard concisted of an optical receiver module. The detector that was mounted on the polymeric optical motherboard detected about 70% of the transferred light. Measurements with modulated light indicates an optical bandwidth of 5 GHz at 2 V reverse current on the pin-diode.

  5. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Belen; Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David; Roig, Ana B.

    2014-05-27

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  6. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  7. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Belen; Espinosa, Julian; Roig, Ana B.; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David

    2014-05-01

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  8. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project are described for the period April through June 1978. The Project is assigned responsibility for advancing solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  9. Company outlines low cost spaceplane option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delong, Dan; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    1987-12-01

    A concept is proposed for an unmanned space launch vehicle that would be air-launched from a modified 747 and fly a lifting trajectory to orbit using cryogenic propellants, and which could be built with existing technology. Complete reusability and engine-out capability would allow a 6300-kg payload to be carried to a space station orbit, or a 4000-kg payload to a low-polar orbit, at low cost. The system configuration and operational characteristics are reviewed. It is noted that the spaceplane is optimized for freight hauling. Modifications to the 747 to achieve the necessary ascent profile are discussed.

  10. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  11. Low cost Michelson-Morley interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, Shirish; Kurmude, Vikrant

    2016-11-01

    The Michelson-Morley interferometer is an important and challenging experiment in many undergraduate as well as post-graduate physics laboratories. The apparatus required for this experiment is costly and delicate to handle. It also requires considerable skill to obtain a set of sharp fringes. This frontline presents a low cost (~US50) design of the experiment, which can be easily fabricated in any undergraduate laboratory. It is easy to handle as well as any part of this set up being easily replaced in case of any damage.

  12. A Low Cost Electrostatically Focused TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ring-loop circuits are well known for their simplicity, low cost, compactness, low mass, high gain and efficiency and absence of backward wave oscillations. Peak powers over 20 kw have been achieved. They also have low harmonic output and excellent phase performance. We have developed a double ring-loop circuit that permits electrostatic focusing of an electron beam to at least 0.4 micro pervs. This eliminates the magnet stack and further lowers cost and weight. It permits glass rod fastening of circuit elements as well as gun and collector assemblies, as is done in cathode ray tubes. Using CRT construction techniques, the TWT can be built on automated equipment.

  13. Passive mine drainage treatment: an effective low-cost alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Two prototype Passive Mine Drainage Treatment Systems have been designed and constructed in Colorado. These projects have addressed acid mine drainage from inactive coal mines. Metal removal for both systems is accomplished using simulated peat bogs composed of sphagnum moss and hypnum moss retained by loose rock check dams. Acid neutralization is accomplished using crushed limestone filled channels. Neutralization and aeration are enhanced with drop structures and waterfalls placed in the drainage channel. Preliminary water quality results show dramatic treatment effects with the PMDT system. This investigation presents cost data for design and construction of the two PMDT systems. Cost projections for periodic maintenance requirements are provided along with a suggested method for financing maintenance costs. Performance data for the first system installed are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  14. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  15. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  16. Low-cost alternative for remedial sand control application

    SciTech Connect

    Peavy, M.A.; Bush, M.E.; Plummer, M.A. Perez, J.I.

    1995-09-01

    During mid-1992, a remedial workover program was implemented offshore within the Gulf of Mexico on low-rate marginal-reserve sand-producing wellbores. A process called through-tubing gravel packing (TTGP) was used on five offshore wells and one US Gulf Coast land well. This technique involved the placement of ceramic beads and prepacked screen within existing completions with coiled tubing (CT) to eliminate sand production. The basic steps of TTGP consist of wellbore cleanup, CT counter correlation, injectivity testing, running a dummy assembly, ceramic bead placement, prepacked screen placement, and installation of an isolation device. The TTGP method demonstrated versatility in adapting to individual well conditions. This remedial sand control technique was successfully applied in highly deviated wellbores, in the upper zones of a dual completion, and within existing gravel packs for screen repair. Throughout the implementation of this program, mechanical problems were addressed that led to improvements in subsequent workover programs. This paper details the TTGP program and recommends mechanical improvements for performing future through-tubing gravel packs.

  17. Interlibrary Loan in Kansas: A Low Cost Alternative to OCLC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanders, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Description of the history of a statewide interlibrary loan and electronic mail telecommunications network highlights difficulties and reinforces the idea that off-the-shelf systems are preferable to in-house system development. Recommendations include: solicit expert technical advice (including review by an independent programmer); choose…

  18. Low Cost Air Combat Training System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Earl

    1987-10-01

    Air combat training has evolved into a highly sophisticated and expensive process. To effectively train fighter pilots in air-to-air combat, interaction between pilots is essential. This interaction can be accomplished using multiple low cost laser image projections of friend and/or foe aircraft controlled by pilots in a multiple dome configuration. A Laser Target Projector (LTP) produces a calligraphically written aircraft model comprised of up to 200 vectors which are updated at a 60 Hz rate. The resulting wire frame image imparts both position, velocity, distance and altitude information to the pilots. Using a laser light source guarantees high luminance levels and provides large depths of field. This large depth of field allows for unique packaging arrangements and cost saving attributes. The LTP has total dome coverage via a computer-controlled, servo-driven, gimb-alled two-axis assembly that projects the wire frame aircraft image onto the dome surface. To unburden the host computer, all dome-to-dome communication, real world-to-dome coordinate transformations and all geometry corrections are done by a special purpose high-speed computer called a Dome Master. Each dome has one Dome Master that can drive up to six LTP's. This paper will deal with the technical aspects of the design and development of the LTP and Dome Master as a low cost air combat training system.

  19. Low-cost airborne synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandless, Samuel W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the rudiments of a design and implementation approach that will produce low-cost and quick turnaround airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems including designs for remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs). The concept is based on strict adherence to a discipline of simplicity in application boundary definition, the corresponding design that follows, extension of this core of simplicity through the build and test cycle and continuation of this theme when system modification and upgrades are considered. As this paper points out, the tenets for low-cost development of SAR systems are not new. Indeed, several such developments validate the guidelines advocated in this paper. The crux of this end-to-end development simplicity is to minimize the functions assigned to the on-board radar systems, transferring them to less expensive ground-based information processing assets that will perform motion compensation, image signal processing and target identification/classification. This cause limitations in the applications sheath of the airborne system, but in many cases this is an acceptable compromise.

  20. Low-cost solar array structure development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  1. Low-cost portable fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard J; Plewes, Katherine; Dimock, Joss; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2011-09-01

    Fundus fluorescein angiography has great potential as a unique non-invasive tool to investigate in vivo the microvascular pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases affecting the central nervous system. However, because it requires a bulky and expensive tabletop retinal camera, it is normally limited to cooperative and alert seated patients in well-resourced settings. Recently completed and ongoing studies of the pathogenesis of severe malaria are using fluorescein angiography to examine in detail the postulated central role of microvascular obstruction. We describe a novel method of fluorescein angiography with a portable retinal camera that can be adapted at very low cost for use in sick patients at the bedside. This method greatly expands the scope of potential studies utilising fluorescein angiography.

  2. Low Cost, Upper Stage-Class Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The low cost, upper stage-class propulsion (LCUSP) element will develop a high strength copper alloy additive manufacturing (AM) process as well as critical components for an upper stage-class propulsion system that will be demonstrated with testing. As manufacturing technologies have matured, it now appears possible to build all the major components and subsystems of an upper stage-class rocket engine for substantially less money and much faster than traditionally done. However, several enabling technologies must be developed before that can happen. This activity will address these technologies and demonstrate the concept by designing, manufacturing, and testing the critical components of a rocket engine. The processes developed and materials' property data will be transitioned to industry upon completion of the activity. Technologies to enable the concept are AM copper alloy process development, AM post-processing finishing to minimize surface roughness, AM material deposition on existing copper alloy substrate, and materials characterization.

  3. Low Cost Methods to Accomplish Aeronomy Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Accomplishment of aeronomy science using low cost methods involves a number of innovative considerations. These methods will be discussed. They include making broad use of internet to control and operate distributed sensors. Sensor controls should be simple and most important reliable. Imagers are a common sensor for optical systems and include common computer interfaces and menu driven operations which often don't require special software or engineering development. Small, inexpensive but reliable satellite systems are evolving in the Cubesat community. Effective use of students is invaluable, giving them responsibility to operate instrumentation and to routinely archive the data. Management of students is especially important in the early phase of their training to insure quality performance. These ideas will be elaborated on, and most importantly, the science motive is the most important driver for what is done.

  4. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center.

  5. Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Boeing Information, Space, and Defense Systems executed a Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment (LCLCVSA) under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) between November 1997 and March 1998. NASA is interested in a low-cost launch vehicle, code named Magnum, to place heavy payloads into low earth orbit for missions such as a manned mission to Mars, a Next Generation Space Telescope, a lunar-based telescope, the Air Force's proposed space based laser, and large commercial satellites. In this study, structural concepts with the potential to reduce fabrication costs were evaluated in application to the Magnum Launch Vehicle (MLV) and the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) shuttle upgrade program. Seventeen concepts were qualitatively evaluated to select four concepts for more in-depth study. The four structural concepts selected were: an aluminum-lithium monocoque structure, an aluminum-lithium machined isogrid structure, a unitized composite sandwich structure, and a unitized composite grid structure. These were compared against a baseline concept based on the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) construction. It was found that unitized composite structures offer significant cost and weight benefits to MLV structures. The limited study of application to LFBB structures indicated lower, but still significant benefits. Technology and facilities development roadmaps to prepare the approaches studied for application to MLV and LFBB were constructed. It was found that the cost and schedule to develop these approaches were in line with both MLV and LFBB development schedules. Current Government and Boeing programs which address elements of the development of the technologies identified are underway. It is recommended that NASA devote resources in a timely fashion to address the specific elements related to MLV and LFBB structures.

  6. Low-cost remote chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen Keith

    The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background

  7. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  8. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  9. Geometry and bond-length alternation in nonlinear optical materials. I. Standard parameters in two precursors.

    PubMed

    Gainsford, Graeme J; Bhuiyan, M Delower H; Kay, Andrew J

    2007-11-01

    2-{3-Cyano-4-[4-(N-formylanilino)-trans-1,3-butadienyl]-5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ylidene}propanedinitrile, C(22)H(18)N(4)O(2), (I), and 2-{3-cyano-4-[6-(N-formylanilino)-trans,trans-1,3,5-hexatrienyl]-5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ylidene}propanedinitrile, C(24)H(20)N(4)O(2), (II), show the alternating single/double-bond behaviour of push-pull chromophores. In the two structures, the planar polyene chains are twisted with respect to the furanylidene ring by 18.2 (2) and 12.4 (2) degrees , respectively. Comparison with structures of related and parent molecules shows subtle but consistent bond-length variations consistent with charge-delocalized structures. Crystal cohesion is provided by various sets of hydrogen bonds, viz. C-H(methyl)...N(cyano) and bifurcated (C=C-H)(2)...O=C in (I), and C-H(methyl/phenyl)...O and C=C-H...N(cyano) in (II).

  10. Design concepts for low-cost composite turbofan engine frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design concepts for low cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of a commercial, high bypass engine. Four alternative composite frame design concepts identified which consisted of generic type components and subcomponents that could be adapted to use in different locations in the engine and the different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were projected with a goal for the lowest number of parts at the lowest possible cost. After a preliminary evaluation of all four frame concepts, two designs were selected for an extended design and evaluation which narrowed the final selection down to one frame that was significantly lower in cost and slighty lighter than the other frame. An implementation plan for this lowest cost frame is projected for future development and includes prospects for reducing its weight with proposed unproven, innovative fabrication techniques.

  11. A Large Lunar Surface Testbed from Low Cost Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    For users needing to simulate the lunar surface, several distinct avenues have been used. Numerous volcanic areas, including Hawaii, have been used. While providing very large areas and scenic interest, field parties to such an area is expensive and limits testing time. An alternative is to build test facilities locally. This has been done many ways, contrast GRC-1, GSC-1, BP-1 and the KSC Morpheus facility [1-4]. GRC-1 is a mixture of sand and clay; GSC-1 and BP-1 are waste materials created in the process of crushing basaltic rock. The Morpheus field used salvaged concrete and crushed quartz rock [5]. Here I report about a 30 m X 30 m test area at MSFC which was both low cost and relatively high fidelity [6].

  12. Low cost flatbed scanner label-free biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygun, Ugur; Avci, Oguzhan; Seymour, Elif; Sevenler, Derin D.; Urey, Hakan; Ünlü, M. Selim; Ozkumur, Ayca Yalcin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate utilization of a commercial flatbed document scanner as a label-free biosensor for highthroughput imaging of DNA and protein microarrays. We implemented an interferometric sensing technique through use of a silicon/oxide layered substrate, and easy to implement hardware modifications such as re-aligning moving parts and inserting a custom made sample plate. With a cost as low as 100USD, powered by a USB cable, and scan speed of 30 seconds for a 4mm x 4 mm area with ~10μm lateral resolution, the presented system offers a super low cost, easy to use alternative to commercially available label-free systems.

  13. A Low-Cost, Portable, Parallel Computing Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Daniel; Poppeliers, Christian; Allen, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Research in modern physical sciences has placed an increasing demand on computers for complex algorithms that push the limits of consumer personal computers. Parallel supercomputers are often required for large-scale algorithms, however the cost of these systems can be prohibitive. The purpose of this project is to construct a low-cost, portable, parallel computer system as an alternative to large-scale supercomputers, using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components. These components can be networked together to allow processors to communicate with one another for faster computations. The overall design of this system is based on the development of ``Little Fe'' at Contra Costa College in San Pablo, California. Revisions to this design include improved design components, smaller physical size, easier transportation, less wiring, and a single AC power supply.

  14. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N; Yu, Z; Jaworski, A J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  15. Fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their potential precursors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyun; Cousins, Ian T; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000 there has been an on-going industrial transition to replace long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids(PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their precursors. To date, information on these replacements including their chemical identities, however, has not been published or made easily accessible to the public, hampering risk assessment and management of these chemicals. Here we review information on fluorinated alternatives in the public domain. We identify over 20 fluorinated substances that are applied in [i] fluoropolymer manufacture, [ii] surface treatment of textile, leather and carpets, [iii] surface treatment of food contact materials,[iv] metal plating, [v] fire-fighting foams, and [vi] other commercial and consumer products.We summarize current knowledge on their environmental releases, persistence, and exposure of biota and humans. Based on the limited information available, it is unclear whether fluorinated alternatives are safe for humans and the environment.We identify three major data gaps that must be filled to perform meaningful risk assessments and recommend generation of the missing data through cooperation among all stakeholders (industry, regulators, academic scientists and the public).

  16. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  17. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-01

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cm×45 cm×30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  18. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-28

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cmx45 cmx30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  19. Miniaturized low-cost digital holographic interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Kujawinska, Małgorzata; Marc, Paweł; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2006-04-01

    Digital holography (DH) and digital holographic interferometry (DHI) are very useful, robust, full-field visualization and measurement techniques applied for small objects, especially in the field of bioengineering and microelements system testing. Nowadays CCD/CMOS detectors and microlasers allow to build miniaturized and compact digital holographic head. Various approaches to develop DH/DHI systems including a variety of optical and mechanical solutions have been made. The main recent requirements for holocamera design include compactness, insensitivity to vibrations environmental changes and with good quality of output data. Other requirement is the ability to build a low-cost and robust system for sensing applications. In our paper, we propose a design of miniaturized holo-camera head with fibre optics light delivery system and remote data read-out. The opto-mechanical architecture allows out-of-plane and shape measurements of diffuse and reflective surfaces. The possible data capture schemes and software for enhanced quality numerical reconstruction of complex objects are discussed and the optimized methodology is determined. Also real-time optoelectronic hologram reconstruction is demonstrated on the base of remote data delivery to liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator. The performance of the system is tested on the resolution amplitude test and master sphere, while engineering objects in the experiments are static and dynamic microelements.

  20. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  1. Circofer -- Low cost approach to DRI production

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.; Bresser, W.; Hirsch, M. )

    1994-09-01

    Lurgi's Circofer Process for reducing fine ores with coal in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) is a direct approach by using a widely applied and proven reactor in commercializing a state of the art technology. The technology is in response to the demand for a direct reduction process of the future by making possible: the use of low cost ore fines and inexpensive primary energy, fine coal; production of a high grade product used as feedstock by mini mills with the additional advantage of dilution of contaminants introduced by scrap; low environmental impact; and low specific investment costs due to the closed energy circuit. With the incorporation of the latest developments in CFB technology, Circofer offers excellent heat and mass transfer conditions and, consequently, improved gas and energy utilization. High gas conversions using recycle gas have a positive influence on the process economics whereby no export gas is produced. Sticking, accretion and reoxidation problems, which have plagued all previous attempts at developing direct reduction processes using fine ore and coal as a reductant, are avoided, essentially by operating with defined amounts of excess carbon and separation of the reduction and gasifying zones.

  2. Low cost laser weld monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K.H.

    1997-04-01

    Laser beam welding is a joining technology that has gained increased acceptance because of its high speed, precision, and low heat effects compared to conventional arc welding methods. Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with the automotive industry has developed a robust on-line weld monitor capable of sensing weld surface changes and penetration. The development of the weld monitor took tin account the constraints and operating environment of the factor floor in addition to monitoring needs for quality assurance. The on-line non-intrusive weld monitor developed is rugged and simple to use, does not require power to operate, is weld spatter protected and low cost; features that are desired for the factor floor. The weld monitoring technology is available for licensing. An exclusive license has been awarded to Spawr Industries for an inline weld monitor for CO{sub 2} laser applications. Licensing of the weld monitor for other implementations in CO{sub 2} and Nd:YAG laser applications are available.

  3. Low Cost Ozone Generation in Corona Streamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, B.; Knijnik, A.; Korobtsev, S.; Medvedev, D.; Shiryaevsky, V.

    1998-10-01

    There is an interesting experimental result (S. Korobtsev, D. Medvedev et al , ISPC 13,1997, vol.2, p. 755. ) for low cost ozone generation (7-8 eV/molec in air) in streamer with dominant energy consumption in streamer channel (where molecular vibrations are excited). For explanation we considered the effect of vibrational pumping saturation, when vibrational energy was increased (due to the super-elastic processes) and the change of electron cross-sections due to vibrational excitation, which could also lead to efficiency growth. Boltzmann equation solution showed that both effects required too large energy consumption in discharge (>0.7 eV/mole). Thus we went to conclusion, that some direct energy transfer from vibrational degrees of freedom to electronic degrees should take place. One of the possible new mechanisms is the reaction: N2 (v)+N2 (v)=N2 (A)+N_2. Our numerical model of vibrational kinetic in air with this reaction showed that dependence of ozone generation cost upon energy consumption in streamer channel had a minimum with the value of the cost about 8-10 eV/molec.

  4. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto, Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami

    2016-01-01

    he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50 ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was 33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5 compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

  5. Performance of several low-cost accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.S.; Guy, R.; Hellweg, M.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Several groups are implementing low‐cost host‐operated systems of strong‐motion accelerographs to support the somewhat divergent needs of seismologists and earthquake engineers. The Advanced National Seismic System Technical Implementation Committee (ANSS TIC, 2002), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with other network operators, is exploring the efficacy of such systems if used in ANSS networks. To this end, ANSS convened a working group to explore available Class C strong‐motion accelerometers (defined later), and to consider operational and quality control issues, and the means of annotating, storing, and using such data in ANSS networks. The working group members are largely coincident with our author list, and this report informs instrument‐performance matters in the working group’s report to ANSS. Present examples of operational networks of such devices are the Community Seismic Network (CSN; csn.caltech.edu), operated by the California Institute of Technology, and Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN; Cochran et al., 2009; qcn.stanford.edu; November 2013), jointly operated by Stanford University and the USGS. Several similar efforts are in development at other institutions. The overarching goals of such efforts are to add spatial density to existing Class‐A and Class‐B (see next paragraph) networks at low cost, and to include many additional people so they become invested in the issues of earthquakes, their measurement, and the damage they cause.

  6. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  7. Low-cost sustainable wall construction system

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

  8. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppa, G. V.; Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision-guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Moon to Mars vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long-term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In our lander design, science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design relies on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs for the lander's flight to the moon. The landing sequence begins with a solid motor burn to reduce the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. At this point the lander is about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability. This allows for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations closely mimics missile operational protocol used for decades: the vehicle remains inert, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design uses a propulsion system derived from heritage MDA programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. This approach leverages the billions of dollars DoD has invested in these technologies, to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  9. Novel approaches to low-cost MRI.

    PubMed

    Macovski, A; Conolly, S

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a combination of speculative approaches, some related to earlier work and some apparently novel, which show great promise in providing a new class of MRI machines that would be considerably less expensive. This class would have advantages and disadvantages as compared to existing MRI, over and above that of low cost. The disadvantages include the apparent inability to perform classic spectroscopy, and limited flexibility in the area of selective excitation. The advantages include a fundamental immunity to inhomogeneity and susceptibility problems, the ability to create a wide class of machines that are designed for specific anatomy-related applications, the ability to design open machines for physician access, and improved capability for high speed imaging. Generic to all of the methods presented are a pulsed polarizing field and an oscillatory read-out bias field. The pulsed field initially polarizes the magnetic moments. Since it is not on during the readout operation it has negligible homogeneity requirements since changes in the field amplitude will merely shade the image intensity. During readout a relatively low bias field is used. To enable the use of a relatively inhomogeneous bias field, an oscillatory field is used that has a zero average value. This prevents any long-term buildup of phase errors due to a frequency error associated with inhomogeneity. Thus the average bias frequency will be determined solely by the frequency rather than the amplitude of the bias field. Three methods are described, all including the above features. The first two involve imaging in the laboratory frame, while the third involves imaging in the rotating frame. The second approach requires no RF excitation and the third approach uses RF bias and gradient signals. Some approaches to slice selection are described.

  10. Manufacturing Large Membrane Mirrors at Low Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive processes have been developed for manufacturing lightweight, wide-aperture mirrors that consist mainly of reflectively coated, edge-supported polyimide membranes. The polyimide and other materials in these mirrors can withstand the environment of outer space, and the mirrors have other characteristics that make them attractive for use on Earth as well as in outer space: With respect to the smoothness of their surfaces and the accuracy with which they retain their shapes, these mirrors approach the optical quality of heavier, more expensive conventional mirrors. Unlike conventional mirrors, these mirrors can be stowed compactly and later deployed to their full sizes. In typical cases, deployment would be effected by inflation. Potential terrestrial and outer-space applications for these mirrors include large astronomical telescopes, solar concentrators for generating electric power and thermal power, and microwave reflectors for communication, radar, and short-distance transmission of electric power. The relatively low cost of manufacturing these mirrors stems, in part, from the use of inexpensive tooling. Unlike in the manufacture of conventional mirrors, there is no need for mandrels or molds that have highly precise surface figures and highly polished surfaces. The surface smoothness is an inherent property of a polyimide film. The shaped area of the film is never placed in contact with a mold or mandrel surface: Instead the shape of a mirror is determined by a combination of (1) the shape of a fixture that holds the film around its edge and (2) control of manufacturing- process parameters. In a demonstration of this manufacturing concept, spherical mirrors having aperture diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 m were fabricated from polyimide films having thicknesses ranging from <20 m to 150 m. These mirrors have been found to maintain their preformed shapes following deployment.

  11. Large area low cost processing for CIS photovoltaics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Basol; G. Norsworthy; C. Leidholm; A. Halani; R. Roe; V. Kapur

    1999-07-22

    An ink coating method was developed for CIS absorber deposition. The technique involves four processing steps: (1) preparation of a Cu-In alloy powder, (2) preparation of an ink using this powder, (3) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a precursor layer, and (4) selenization to convert the Cu-In precursor into a fused CIS film. Absorbers grown by this low-cost, large-area method were used in the fabrication of 10.5% efficient solar cells.

  12. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  13. Low Cost Cryocoolers for High Temperature Superconductor Communication Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Davina

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed by a consortium of Industry and Government to develop low cost cryocoolers. The specific application was for low cost commercial based high temperature superconductor communication filters. This program was initiated in January 1995 and resulted in the successful demonstration of an HTS filter dewar cooled by a low cost pulse tube cryocooler. Further development of this cryocooler technology is proceeding through various contracts underway and proposed at this time.

  14. A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-20

    AFFTC-PA-12423 A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) Pallavi Sandhiya AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER EDWARDS AFB, CA 2/20/13 A F...20-02-2013) 2. REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 3/12 -- 10/12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT...CC: 012100 14. ABSTRACT This paper details design, development and test of the Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) LCT2-040-2200

  15. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  16. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    ) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. DSMAC acquires high-resolution images for real-time correlation with a reference map. This system provides ownship position with a resolution comparable to the map. Since the DSMAC can sample at 1.5 mrad, any imaging acquired below 70 km altitude will surpass the resolution available from previous missions. DSMAC has a mode where image data are compressed and downlinked. This capability could be used to downlink live images during terminal guidance. Approximately 500 kbitps telemetry would be required to provide the first live descent imaging sequence since Ranger. This would provide unique geologic context imaging for the landing site. The development path to produce such a vehicle is that used to develop missiles. First, a pathfinder vehicle is designed and built as a test bed for hardware integration including science instruments. Second, a hover test vehicle would be built. Equipped with mass mockups for the science payload, the vehicle would otherwise be an exact copy of the flight vehicle. The hover vehicle would be flown on earth to demonstrate the proper function and integration of the propulsion system, autopilots, navigation algorithms, and guidance sensors. There is sufficient delta-v in the proposed design to take off from the ground, fly a ballistic arc to over 100 m altitude, then guide to a precision soft landing. Once the vehicle has flown safely on earth, then the validated design would be used to produce the flight vehicle. Since this leverages the billions of dollars DOD has invested in these technologies, it should be possible to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  17. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama

    PubMed Central

    Vilariño, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR) technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools. PMID:27034653

  18. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama.

    PubMed

    Ferhat, Onur; Vilariño, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR) technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools.

  19. Design study of a low cost civil aviation GPS receiver system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R.; Gilbert, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost Navstar receiver system for civil aviation applications was defined. User objectives and constraints were established. Alternative navigation processing design trades were evaluated. Receiver hardware was synthesized by comparing technology projections with various candidate system designs. A control display unit design was recommended as the result of field test experience with Phase I GPS sets and a review of special human factors for general aviation users. Areas requiring technology development to ensure a low cost Navstar Set in the 1985 timeframe were identified.

  20. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Scott; Bhandari, Abhinav

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with

  1. Graphene radio frequency and microwave passive components for low cost wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Hsin Chang, Kuo; Cing Chen, Jia; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Hu, Zhirun

    2016-06-01

    Graphene RF and microwave passive components such as coplanar waveguide transmission lines, open/short-circuited resonators and wideband antenna on paper substrate were designed, screen printed and characterized in this work. The experimental results demonstrate that the screen printed graphene passive components can be used for RF signal transmitting, processing and radiating/receiving; revealing that graphene ink can be a low cost alternative to much more expensive metal nanoparticle inks, such as silver nanoparticle ink. The screen printed graphene is processed at low temperature so that it is compatible with heat-sensitive flexible materials like papers, PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) and textiles. The screen printed graphene passive components reported here are of high conductivity, high flexibility, light weight and low cost, making them ideal candidate for low cost wearable electronics. This work makes it prospective to manufacture RF and microwave passive components in mass production by screen printing in much lower cost to any other known techniques.

  2. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment.

  3. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  4. Low cost attitude control system reaction wheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of a low power and low cost Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. The details of the versatile design resulting from this effort are addressed. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  5. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  6. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  7. Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    Rafatullah, Mohd; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Ahmad, Anees

    2010-05-15

    In this article, the use of low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from solution has been reviewed. Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those which are not easily biodegradable. The removal of MB, as a pollutant, from waste waters of textile, paper, printing and other industries has been addressed by the researchers. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred adsorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to its relatively high cost which led to the researches on alternative non-conventional and low-cost adsorbents. The purpose of this review article is to organize the scattered available information on various aspects on a wide range of potentially low-cost adsorbents for MB removal. These include agricultural wastes, industrial solid wastes, biomass, clays minerals and zeolites. Agricultural waste materials being highly efficient, low cost and renewable source of biomass can be exploited for MB remediation. It is evident from a literature survey of about 185 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for MB.

  8. Design of a Low Cost Avionics System for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kevin; Wallace, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has long been one of the leaders in development of propulsion systems. Due to current launch vehicle costs, Marshall Space Flight Centers (MSFC) Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) office has emphasized the development of low cost launch vehicles. The Bantam launch vehicle is one of the primary programs that has low cost as a requirement. One of the driving factors for a low cost launch vehicle is a low cost avionics system. This paper will summarize MSFC's Astrionics Laboratories efforts in designing a low cost avionics system. MSFC has done Phase A avionics system design and has been working with various contractors on a Phase B preliminary avionics design. Deriving the major requirements, trade studies and cost drivers are some of the topics to be discussed.

  9. Design of a Low Cost Avionics System for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kevin; Wallace, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has long been one of the leaders in development of propulsion systems. Due to current launch vehicle costs, Marshall Space Flight Centers (MSFC) Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) office has emphasized the development of low cost launch vehicles. The Bantam launch vehicle is one of the primary programs that has low cost as a requirement. One of the driving factors for a low cost launch vehicle is a low cost avionics system. This paper will summarize MSFC's Astrionics Laboratories efforts in designing a low cost avionics system. MSFC has done Phase A avionics system design and has been working with various contractors on a Phase B preliminary avionics design. Deriving the major requirements, trade studies and cost drivers are some of the topics to be discussed.

  10. Next generation low cost wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Bresowar, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been the dominating control technology since the introduction of the clean air act and is projected to be the preferred FGD technology for the foreseeable future. Following the introduction of wet FGD systems in the late `60s, the technology quickly reached maturity with only incremental improvements during recent years. However, deregulation, emission trading, and market forces have demanded significant improvements in capital and operating costs, performance, environmental impact, ease of retrofit and cycle time. In response to market demands, ABB has developed a new generation wet FGD system, named LS-2, based on the traditional open spray tower technology. The development of the LS-2 system has progressed methodically within the ABB R and D community within the last three years and is currently being demonstrated at Ohio Edison`s Niles station. The LS-2 system features cost savings and performance improvements never before demonstrated in wet FGD systems. The cost level of the LS-2 system will make it a clear alternative to fuel switching when applied in a manner similar to the installation at Niles. The economics of the LS-2 system is discussed in some detail.

  11. Novel Low-Cost Thermotherapy for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Witzig, Richard S.; Boggild, Andrea K.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Thermotherapy is an accepted alternative therapy for new-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, but current heat-delivery modalities are too costly to be made widely available to endemic populations. We adapted a low-cost heat pack named the HECT-CL device that delivers safe, reliable, and renewable conduction heat. 25 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis completed treatment with the device at an initial temperature of 52°C±2°C for 3 minutes to each lesion, repeated daily for 7 days, and were followed up for 6 months by direct observation. The overall definitive clinical cure rate was 60%. Concurrently, 13 patients meeting minimally significant exclusion criteria received identical compassionate use treatment with a cumulative definitive cure rate of 68.4%, 75% for those who had experienced CL relapse after prior antimonial treatment. Therapy was well tolerated. Reversible second-degree burns occurred in two patients and no bacterial super-infections were observed. HECT-CL is a promising treatment and deserves further study to verify its safety and efficacy as adjuvant and mono- therapy. PMID:23658851

  12. Low-Cost energy contraption design using playground seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banlawe, I. A. P.; Acosta, N. J. E. L.

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted at Western Philippines University, San Juan, Aborlan, Palawan. The study used the mechanical motion of playground seesaw as a means to produce electrical energy. The study aimed to design a low-cost prototype energy contraption using playground seesaw using locally available and recycled materials, to measure the voltage, current and power outputs produced at different situations and estimate the cost of the prototype. Using principle of pneumatics, two hand air pumps were employed on the two end sides of the playground seesaw and the mechanical motion of the seesaw up and down produces air that is used to rotate a DC motor to produce electrical energy. This electricity can be utilized for powering basic or low-power appliances. There were two trials of testing, each trial tests the different pressure level of the air tank and tests the opening of on-off valve (Full open and half open) when the compressed air was released. Results showed that all pressure level at full open produced significantly higher voltage, than the half open. However, the mean values of the current and power produced in all pressure level at full and half open have negligible variation. These results signify that the energy contraption using playground seesaw is an alternative viable source of electrical energy in the playgrounds, parks and other places and can be used as an auxiliary or back-up source for electricity.

  13. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  14. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  15. Mars Relay Spacecraft: A Low-Cost Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SvitekT, .; King, J.; Fulton, R.; McOmber, R.; Hastrup, R.; Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The next phase of Mars exploration will utilize numerous globally distributed small low-cost devices including landers penetrators microrovers and balloons. Direct-to-Earth communications links if required for these landers will drive the lander design for two reasons: a) mass and complexity needed for a steerable high-gain antenna and b) power requirements for a high-power amplifier (i.e. solar panel and battery mass). Total mass of the direct link hardware for several recent small-lander designs exceeded the mass of the scientific payload. Alternatively if communications are via a Mars-orbiting relay spacecraft resource requirements for the local UHF communication link are comparatively trivial: a simple whip antenna and less than 1 watt power. Clearly using a Mars relay spacecraft (MRS) is the preferred option if the MRS mission can be accomplished in an affordable and robust way. Our paper describes a point design for such a mission launched in the s001 or 2003 opportunity.

  16. Biomedical microfluidic devices by using low-cost fabrication techniques: A review.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Vera; Catarino, Susana O; Lima, Rui; Minas, Graça

    2016-07-26

    One of the most popular methods to fabricate biomedical microfluidic devices is by using a soft-lithography technique. However, the fabrication of the moulds to produce microfluidic devices, such as SU-8 moulds, usually requires a cleanroom environment that can be quite costly. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop low-cost alternatives for the fabrication of microstructures, avoiding the use of cleanroom facilities. Recently, low-cost techniques without cleanroom facilities that feature aspect ratios more than 20, for fabricating those SU-8 moulds have been gaining popularity among biomedical research community. In those techniques, Ultraviolet (UV) exposure equipment, commonly used in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry, replaces the more expensive and less available Mask Aligner that has been used in the last 15 years for SU-8 patterning. Alternatively, non-lithographic low-cost techniques, due to their ability for large-scale production, have increased the interest of the industrial and research community to develop simple, rapid and low-cost microfluidic structures. These alternative techniques include Print and Peel methods (PAP), laserjet, solid ink, cutting plotters or micromilling, that use equipment available in almost all laboratories and offices. An example is the xurography technique that uses a cutting plotter machine and adhesive vinyl films to generate the master moulds to fabricate microfluidic channels. In this review, we present a selection of the most recent lithographic and non-lithographic low-cost techniques to fabricate microfluidic structures, focused on the features and limitations of each technique. Only microfabrication methods that do not require the use of cleanrooms are considered. Additionally, potential applications of these microfluidic devices in biomedical engineering are presented with some illustrative examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Facile and low cost oxidative conversion of MoS2 in α-MoO3: Synthesis, characterization and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoti, Andressa Antunes; Gavanski, Amanda de Freitas; Velazquez, Yegraf Reyna; Galli, Andressa; de Castro, Eryza Guimarães

    2017-08-01

    This study describes a facile low cost route to synthesize the α-MoO3 through a conversion of the precursor MoS2 in oxidant media. The structure and morphology of the α-MoO3 were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that α-MoO3 was obtained with reduced size, high purity, strongly-preferred orientation and structural defects, which ensures versatility and multifunctionality to this sample. For the purpose of applications, α-MoO3 was successfully employed in inverted organic solar cells devices as a possible alternative to the PEDOT:PSS in the hole transportation layer.

  18. Proceedings of the Low-Cost Solar Array Wafering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of silicon ingot wafering for low cost solar arrays were discussed. Fixed and free abrasive sawing wire, ID, and multiblade sawing, materials, mechanisms, characterization, and innovative concepts were considered.

  19. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  20. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOEpatents

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  1. A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

  2. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  3. A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

  4. Design guide for low cost standardized payloads, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Sixteen engineering approaches to low cost standardized payloads in spacecraft are presented. Standard earth observatory satellite, standard U.S. domestic communication satellite, planetary spacecraft subsystems, standard spacecraft, and cluster spacecraft are reviewed.

  5. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  6. Low cost voice compression for mobile digital radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique for low cost rubust voice compression at 4800 bits per second was studied. The approach was based on using a cascade of digital biquad adaptive filters with simplified multipulse excitation followed by simple bit sequence compression.

  7. Design guide for low cost standardized payloads, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Concept point designs of low cost and refurbishable spacecraft, subsystems, and modules revealed payload program savings up to 50 percent. The general relationship of payload approaches to program costs; cost reductions from low cost standardized payloads; cost effective application of payload reliability, MMD, repair, and refurbishment; and implementation of standardization for future spacecraft are discussed. Shuttle interfaces and support equipment for future payloads are also considered

  8. A microcomputer-based low-cost Omega navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.; Salter, R. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The application of a low cost, commercially available microcomputer as the navigation processor for a simplified OMEGA navigation system is an area of current research. The interface of a low cost front end OMEGA sensor is described and an example of the phase processing software and navigation routines is given. Emphasis is placed on the description of results obtained with the software version of the OMEGA burst filter known as the memory aided phase locked loop.

  9. A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-19

    AFFTC-PA-12422 A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) Pallavi Sandhiya AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER EDWARDS AFB, CA 2/19/13 A F...19-02-2013) 2. REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 3/12 -- 10/12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT... OFDM waveform uses space, frequency and time diversity, as well as innovative signal processing techniques to achieve five times the spectral

  10. Cost Modeling for low-cost planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Eric; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Rosenberg, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the JPL parametric cost models used to estimate flight science spacecrafts and instruments. This material will emphasize the cost model approaches to estimate low-cost flight hardware, sensors, and instrumentation, and to perform cost-risk assessments. This presentation will also discuss JPL approaches to perform cost modeling and the methodologies and analyses used to capture low-cost vs. key cost drivers.

  11. The REFSAT approach to low-cost GPS terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sennott, J. W.; Choudhury, A. K.; Taylor, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A concept utilizing a geostationary reference satellite (REFSAT) that broadcasts navigation aiding signals to low cost civil user terminals which employ the constellation of 24 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites for position determination is described. The signal acquisition, tracking and position fixing properties of such low cost, dual channel, L-band, civil user receiver designed to receive both GPS navigation and REFSAT navigation aiding signals is presented. REFSAT reduces the cost of user equipment.

  12. Low-cost Landsat digital processing system for state and local information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1979-01-01

    The paper details a minicomputer-based system which is well within the budget of many state, regional, and local agencies that previously could not afford digital processing capability. In order to achieve this goal a workable small-scale Landsat system is examined to provide low-cost automated processing. It is anticipated that the alternative systems will be based on a single minicomputer, but that the peripherals will vary depending on the capability emphasized in a particular system.

  13. Structural characterization of the human platelet-derived growth factor A-chain cDNA and gene: Alternative exon usage predicts two different precursor proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Rorsman, F.; Bywater, M.; Knott, T.J.; Scott, J.; Betsholtz, C.

    1988-02-01

    The human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A-chain locus was characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis, and the nucleotide sequence of its exons was determined. Seven exons were identified, spanning approximately 22 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. Alternative exon usage, identified by cDNA cloning, occurs in a human glioblastoma cell line and may give rise to two types of A-chain precursors with different C termini. The exon-intron arrangement was similar to that of the PDGF B-chain/sis locus and seemed to divide the precursor proteins into functional domains. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA showed that a single PDGF A-chain gene was present in the human genome.

  14. Solution-deposited CIGS thin films for ultra-low-cost photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Hersh, Peter; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2010-09-01

    We describe the production of photovoltaic modules with high-quality large-grain copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films obtained with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based precursors and a reactive transfer printing method. The proprietary metal-organic inks contain a variety of soluble Cu-, In- and Ga- multinary selenide materials; they are called metal-organic decomposition (MOD) precursors, as they are designed to decompose into the desired precursors. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process that produces CIGS through the chemical reaction between two separate precursor films, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are rapidly reacted together under pressure in the presence of heat. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. In a few minutes, the process produces high quality CIGS films, with large grains on the order of several microns, and preferred crystallographic orientation, as confirmed by compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% were achieved using this method. The atmospheric deposition processes include slot die extrusion coating, ultrasonic atomization spraying, pneumatic atomization spraying, inkjet printing, direct writing, and screen printing, and provide low capital equipment cost, low thermal budget, and high throughput.

  15. Conceptual Study of a Low Cost Turbojet Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    problem at the moment is the lack of long-mission reliability of small piston engines , originally designed for low-cost civil applications such as "Go...U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natio5nal Technical Information Service AD-A025 652 CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF A LOW COST TURBOJET ENGINE AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF...Turbojet 6. Thesis Engine s. ,.I. G ORG. REPORT NUMER AUTHOR(..) ’ I.’-NTKACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) Tommy J. Kent Captain, USAF I. PERPIORMING ORGANIZATION

  16. Geowall: Investigations into low-cost stereo display technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Davis, Brian; Weeks, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the combination of new projection technology, fast, low-cost graphics cards, and Linux-powered personal computers has made it possible to provide a stereoprojection and stereoviewing system that is much more affordable than previous commercial solutions. These Geowall systems are low-cost visualization systems built with commodity off-the-shelf components, run on open-source (and other) operating systems, and using open-source applications software. In short, they are ?Beowulf-class? visualization systems that provide a cost-effective way for the U. S. Geological Survey to broaden participation in the visualization community and view stereoimagery and three-dimensional models2.

  17. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  18. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  19. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, Giovanni; Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore; Neitzert, Heinz C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  20. Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

  1. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  2. Low-cost satellite mechanical design and construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisjolie-Gair, Nathaniel; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a discussion of techniques for low-cost design and construction of a CubeSat mechanical structure that can serve as a basis for academic programs and a starting point for government, military and commercial large-scale sensing networks, where the cost of each node must be minimized to facilitate system affordability and lower the cost and associated risk of losing any node. Spacecraft Design plays a large role in manufacturability. An intentionally simplified mechanical design is presented which reduces machining costs, as compared to more intricate designs that were considered. Several fabrication approaches are evaluated relative to the low-cost goal.

  3. Low cost turbomachinery for the advanced launch systems

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Achieving a low cost, reliable means of placing large payloads into low earth orbit is critical to the future of the United States space program. A significant contribution can be made with proposed liquid propellant rocket engine design concepts for the Advanced Launch System. The potential for reducing the current engine turbomachinery costs can be realized with design simplicity, use of current state of the art materials, and producibility features without compromising the system reliability. The significant technological developments and configuration concepts being considered for incorporation into low cost turbopumps are discussed.

  4. Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

  5. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-06-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  6. Low-cost mirror concentrator based on inflated, double-walled, metallized, tubular films

    SciTech Connect

    Schwendeman, J.L.; Ball, G.L. III.; Leffingwell, J.W.; McClung, C.E.

    1981-07-01

    A potentially low-cost, inflatable plastic solar mirror concentrator based on segments of a cylinder joined along the length of the collector on a plane passing through the axis of the absorber tube was designed and built. This design results in a savings of approximately 40% in the amount of window and mirror material and in a savings of about 20% of the land area occupied by a single collector when compared to a fully cylindrical one. The type of construction permits the assemblying of the mirror/window envelope to the collector without disturbing the collector frame, absorber tube, or the associated plumbing. Aluminum foil-plastic laminates were used as an alternative to aluminized polyester films, because of their potential low-cost and durability. Specially uv stabilized and polyester scrim reinforced flexible PVC film was developed for use as the outer cover material.

  7. J3Gen: A PRNG for Low-Cost Passive RFID

    PubMed Central

    Melià-Seguí, Joan; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Pseudorandom number generation (PRNG) is the main security tool in low-cost passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, such as EPC Gen2. We present a lightweight PRNG design for low-cost passive RFID tags, named J3Gen. J3Gen is based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) configured with multiple feedback polynomials. The polynomials are alternated during the generation of sequences via a physical source of randomness. J3Gen successfully handles the inherent linearity of LFSR based PRNGs and satisfies the statistical requirements imposed by the EPC Gen2 standard. A hardware implementation of J3Gen is presented and evaluated with regard to different design parameters, defining the key-equivalence security and nonlinearity of the design. The results of a SPICE simulation confirm the power-consumption suitability of the proposal. PMID:23519344

  8. J3Gen: a PRNG for low-cost passive RFID.

    PubMed

    Melià-Seguí, Joan; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi

    2013-03-19

    Pseudorandom number generation (PRNG) is the main security tool in low-cost passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, such as EPC Gen2. We present a lightweight PRNG design for low-cost passive RFID tags, named J3Gen. J3Gen is based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) configured with multiple feedback polynomials. The polynomials are alternated during the generation of sequences via a physical source of randomness. J3Gen successfully handles the inherent linearity of LFSR based PRNGs and satisfies the statistical requirements imposed by the EPC Gen2 standard. A hardware implementation of J3Gen is presented and evaluated with regard to different design parameters, defining the key-equivalence security and nonlinearity of the design. The results of a SPICE simulation confirm the power-consumption suitability of the proposal.

  9. A Primer for Telemetry Interfacing in Accordance with NASA Standards Using Low Cost FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jake; Schultz, Ted; Tutt, James; Rogers, Thomas; Miles, Drew; McEntaffer, Randall

    2016-03-01

    Photon counting detector systems on sounding rocket payloads often require interfacing asynchronous outputs with a synchronously clocked telemetry (TM) stream. Though this can be handled with an on-board computer, there are several low cost alternatives including custom hardware, microcontrollers and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This paper outlines how a TM interface (TMIF) for detectors on a sounding rocket with asynchronous parallel digital output can be implemented using low cost FPGAs and minimal custom hardware. Low power consumption and high speed FPGAs are available as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products and can be used to develop the main component of the TMIF. Then, only a small amount of additional hardware is required for signal buffering and level translating. This paper also discusses how this system can be tested with a simulated TM chain in the small laboratory setting using FPGAs and COTS specialized data acquisition products.

  10. Low-cost bump bonding activities at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vähänen, S.; Tick, T.; Campbell, M.

    2010-11-01

    Conventional bumping processes used in the fabrication of hybrid pixel detectors for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments use electroplating for Under Bump Metallization (UBM) and solder bump deposition. This process is laborious, involves time consuming photolithography and can only be performed using whole wafers. Electroplating has been found to be expensive when used for the low volumes which are typical of HEP experiments. In the low-cost bump bonding development work, electroless deposition technology of UBM is studied as an alternative to the electroplating process in the bump size / pitch window beginning from 20 μm / 50 μm. Electroless UBM deposition used in combination with solder transfer techniques has the potential to significantly lower the cost of wafer bumping without requiring increased wafer volumes. A test vehicle design of sensor and readout chip, having daisy chains and Kelvin bump structures, was created to characterize the flip chip process with electroless UBM. Two batches of test vehicle wafers were manufactured with different bump pad metallization. Batch #1 had AlSi(1%) metallization, which is similar to the one used on sensor wafers, and Batch #2 had AlSi(2%)Cu(1%) metallization, which is very similar to the one used on readout wafers. Electroless UBMs were deposited on both wafer batches. In addition, electroplated Ni UBM and SnPb solder bumps were grown on the test sensor wafers. Test assemblies were made by flip chip bonding the solder-bumped test sensors against the test readout chips with electroless UBMs. Electrical yields and individual joint resistances were measured from assemblies, and the results were compared to a well known reference technique based on electroplated solder bumps structures on both chips. The electroless UBMs deposited on AlSi(2%)Cu(1%) metallization showed excellent electrical yields and small tolerances in individual joint resistance. The results from the UBMs deposited on AlSi(1%) metallization were non

  11. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms. PMID:24855446

  12. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms.

  13. Low Cost Coherent Doppler Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Koch, Grady J.

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this paper details the development of a low-cost, short-development time data acquisition and processing system for a coherent Doppler lidar. This was done using common laboratory equipment and a small software investment. This system provides near real-time wind profile measurements. Coding flexibility created a very useful test bed for new techniques.

  14. Leveraging Knowledge: Impact on Low Cost Planetary Mission Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momjian, Jennifer

    This paper discusses innovations developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) librarians to reduce the information query cycle time for teams planning low-cost, planetary missions. The first section provides background on JPL and its library. The second section addresses the virtual information environment, including issues of access, content,…

  15. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Treesearch

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  16. Advanced Technology-Based Low Cost Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Gamber, R. T.; Clark, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) has for many years been considered one of the most ambitious as well as most scientifically interesting of the suite of desired future planetary missions. This paper defines low- cost MSR mission concepts based on several exciting new technologies planned for space missions launching over the next 10 years. Key to reducing cost is use of advanced spacecraft & electronics technology.

  17. High-Efficiency Solar Cells on Low-Cost Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency solar cells made in thin epitaxial films grown on low-cost commercial silicon substrates. Cost of cells is much less than if high-quality single-crystal silicon were used for substrates and performance of cells is almost as good.

  18. Novel approaches for low-cost photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, T.; Maraschin, R.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of producing a low cost photovoltaic concentrator that uses sealed beam headlight technology was investigated. The photovoltaic cell is placed at the focus of the headlamp reflector. A prototype 60 W array was built. The array efficiency was approximately 6%.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  20. Low-cost coding techniques for digital fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avizienis, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Published report discusses fault location properties of arithmetic codes. Criterion for effectiveness of given code is detection probability of local fault by application of checking algorithm to results of entire set of algorithms of processor. Report also presents analysis of arithmetic codes with low-cost check algorithm which possesses partial fault-location properties.

  1. A low-cost propulsion option for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Jerry Jon; Meerman, Maarten; Paul, Malcolm; Sweeting, Martin

    1995-03-01

    Low-cost satellites require low-cost propulsion systems. This paper starts with a brief history of the University of Surrey Satellite (UoSAT) missions and the on-going efforts to provide affordable access to space. Future mission options are discussed along with the need for low-cost propulsion to make them possible. Following this introduction, a review of the potential propulsion system options available to the satellite designer is presented along with a discussion of the choices that are currently available off-the-shelf and their potentially high cost. Research into low-cost propulsion options at the University of Surrey are then discussed. The ultimate objective of this research is to develop and operate a small satellite propulsion system for a fraction of the cost of traditional systems. Emphasis is given to a hydrogen peroxide/polyethylene hybrit rocket motor option. This system is currently being tested to characterize combustion parameters and assess its long-term potential as a satellite upper-stage. The current status of this research program is discussed fully including a description of the hardware, preliminary test results and future plans.

  2. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  4. Wind turbine generator rotor blade concepts with low cost potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Cahill, T. P.; Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gewehr, H. W.

    1977-01-01

    Four processed for producing blades are examined. Two use filament winding techniques and two involve filling a mold or form to produce all or part of a blade. The processes are described and a comparison is made of cost, material properties, design and free vibration characteristics. Conclusions are made regarding the feasibility of each process to produce low cost, structurally adequate blades.

  5. Advanced Technology-Based Low Cost Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Gamber, R. T.; Clark, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) has for many years been considered one of the most ambitious as well as most scientifically interesting of the suite of desired future planetary missions. This paper defines low- cost MSR mission concepts based on several exciting new technologies planned for space missions launching over the next 10 years. Key to reducing cost is use of advanced spacecraft & electronics technology.

  6. Low cost instrumentation: Parallel port analog to digital converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierking, Matthew P.

    1993-02-01

    The personal computer (PC) has become a powerful and cost effective computing platform for use in the laboratory and industry. This Technical Memorandum presents the use of the PC parallel port adapter to implement a low cost analog to digital converter for general purpose instrumentation and automated data acquisition.

  7. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  8. Compact low-cost detection electronics for optical coherence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akcay, A. C.; Lee, K. S.; Furenlid, L. R.; Costa, M. A.; Rolland, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    A compact and low-cost detection electronics scheme for optical coherence imaging is demonstrated. The performance of the designed electronics is analyzed in comparison to a commercial lock-in amplifier of equal bandwidth. Images of a fresh-onion sample are presented for each detection configuration. PMID:26617422

  9. Low-Cost Elimination of Plasma Lines in Raman Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlow, Herbert W., Jr.; Petersen, John D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a low-cost ($120) device which eliminates plasma lines in Raman spectra. The device consists of two prisms and two mirrors which are held in a symmetrical relationship to one another so that a particular position will allow only one wavelength to pass through on a given axis. (JN)

  10. Low-cost walking robot for nuclear environments

    SciTech Connect

    Burhanpurkar, V.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a low-cost industrial walking-robot architecture ideally suited to locomotion in cluttered nuclear waste storage facilities for waste retrieval and to locomotion over extremely rough terrain for waste burial mapping. Key features of the architecture are a seven-leg configuration for stability in extreme terrain and an autonomous control architecture for ease of control and programming.

  11. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  12. Low-Cost Elimination of Plasma Lines in Raman Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlow, Herbert W., Jr.; Petersen, John D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a low-cost ($120) device which eliminates plasma lines in Raman spectra. The device consists of two prisms and two mirrors which are held in a symmetrical relationship to one another so that a particular position will allow only one wavelength to pass through on a given axis. (JN)

  13. Sport for All: Low-Cost Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This report is an outgrowth of discussions held by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) in Cologne, Germany from September 26-30, 1967 aimed at organizing a systematic exchange of information among European countries for the purpose of providing low-cost sport facilities. Part I deals with fundamental priorities, type, size, and site. The…

  14. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  15. Low-Cost Computers for Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the distribution of computer use in a comparison between two of the most dominant suppliers of low-cost computers for education in developing countries (partly because they involve diametrically opposite ways of tackling the problem). The comparison is made in the context of an analytical framework which traces the changing…

  16. Low-cost point-focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. V.; Derbidge, T. C.; Erskine, D.; Maraschin, R. A.; Niemeyer, W. A.; Matsushita, M. J.; Overly, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the preliminary design study for the low cost point focus solar concentrator (LCPFSC) development program are presented. A summary description of the preliminary design is given. The design philosophy used to achieve a cost effective design for mass production is described. The concentrator meets all design requirements specified and is based on practical design solutions in every possible way.

  17. Flexible low-cost packaging for lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Chaiko, D. J.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    ), in collaboration with several industrial partners, is working on low-cost flexible packaging as an alternative to the packaging currently being used for lithium-ion batteries. This program is funded by the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. (It was originally funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, or PNGV, Program, which had as one of its mandates to develop a power-assist hybrid electric vehicle with triple the fuel economy of a typical sedan.) The goal in this packaging effort is to reduce the cost associated with the packaging of each cell several-fold to less than $1 per cell ({approx}50 cells are required per battery, 1 battery per vehicle), while maintaining the integrity of the cell contents for a 15-year lifetime. Even though the battery chemistry of main interest is the lithium-ion system, the methodology used to develop the most appropriate laminate structure will be very similar for other battery chemistries.

  18. VCSEL-based swept source for low-cost optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sucbei; Choi, Eun Seo

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel wavelength-swept laser source for optical coherence tomography (OCT) which is based on the conventional laser diode technology of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). In our self-heating sweep VCSEL (SS-VCSEL), a VCSEL device is simply driven by ramped pulses of currents in direct intensity modulation. The intrinsic property of VCSEL produces a frequency-swept output through the self-heating effect. By the injected current, the temperature of the active region is gradually increased in this effect. Consequently, it changes the wavelength of the laser output by itself. In this study, various characteristics of our SS-VCSEL were experimentally investigated for low-cost instrumentation of a swept source OCT system. A low-cost SS-VCSEL-based OCT system was demonstrated in this research that provided an axial resolution of 135 μm in air, sensitivity of −91 dB and a maximum imaging range longer than 10 cm when our source was operated at a sweep repetition rate of 5 kHz with an output power of 0.41 mW. Based on the experimental observations, we believe that our SS-VCSEL swept source can be an economic alternative in some of low-cost or long-range applications of OCT. PMID:28271006

  19. Method: low-cost delivery of the cotton leaf crumple virus-induced gene silencing system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously developed a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector for cotton from the bipartite geminivirusCotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV). The original CLCrV VIGS vector was designed for biolistic delivery by a gene gun. This prerequisite limited the use of the system to labs with access to biolistic equipment. Here we describe the adaptation of this system for delivery by Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). We also describe the construction of two low-cost particle inflow guns. Results The biolistic CLCrV vector was transferred into two Agrobacterium binary plasmids. Agroinoculation of the binary plasmids into cotton resulted in silencing and GFP expression comparable to the biolistic vector. Two homemade low-cost gene guns were used to successfully inoculate cotton (G. hirsutum) and N. benthamiana with either the CLCrV VIGS vector or the Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) VIGS vector respectively. Conclusions These innovations extend the versatility of CLCrV-based VIGS for analyzing gene function in cotton. The two low-cost gene guns make VIGS experiments affordable for both research and teaching labs by providing a working alternative to expensive commercial gene guns. PMID:22853641

  20. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, Jacqueline

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  1. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. H.

    1988-08-01

    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  2. Low-cost hydrogen sensors: Technology maturation progress

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Rogers, J.E.; Lauf, R.J.; Egert, C.M.; Haberman, D.P.

    1998-04-01

    The authors are developing a low-cost, solid-state hydrogen sensor to support the long-term goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program to encourage acceptance and commercialization of renewable energy-based technologies. Development of efficient production, storage, and utilization technologies brings with it the need to detect and pinpoint hydrogen leaks to protect people and equipment. The solid-state hydrogen sensor, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is potentially well-suited to meet cost and performance objectives for many of these applications. Under a cooperative research and development Agreement and license agreement, they are teaming with a private company, DCH Technology, Inc., to develop the sensor for specific market applications related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. This report describes the current efforts to optimize materials and sensor performance to reach the goals of low-cost fabrication and suitability for relevant application areas.

  3. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  4. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental work demonstrating the feasibility of the MIDFILM process as a low cost means of applying solar cell collector metallization as reported. Cell efficiencies of above 14% (AMl, 28 C) were achieved with fritted silver metallization. Environmental tests suggest that the metallization is slightly humidity sensitive and degradation is observed on cells with high series resistance. The major yield loss in the fabrication of cells was due to discontinuous grid lines, resulting in high series resitance. Standard lead-tin solder plated interconnections do not appear compatible with the MIDFILM contact. Copper, nickel and molybdemun base powder were investigated as low cost metallization systems. The copper based powder degraded the cell response. The nickel and molybdenum base powders oxidized when sintered in the oxidizing atmosphere necessary to ash the photoresin.

  5. Glass as encapsulation for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this paper, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The desired characteristics of glass encapsulation are (1) low degradation rates, (2) high transmittance, (3) high reliability, (4) low-cost, and (5) high annual production capacity. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources, prices, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  6. Development of a low cost, portable solar hydrogen generation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Kyle; Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, Ashok; Wingo, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen is a clean energy source that is environmentally friendly and safe. It is well known that electrolysis is a common method used to produce hydrogen. Other high cost methods for hydrogen production can be countered by the development of this low cost pulse width modulated circuit, using direct current provided by naturally existing solar energy as a power source. Efforts are being made in the scientific community to produce a low cost, portable, solar hydrogen generating device for a number of clean energy applications such as fuel cells and energy storage. Proof of concept has already been tested in the laboratory and a small prototype system is being designed and fabricated in the workshop at Alabama A&M University. Our results of this study and details of the electronic circuit and the prototype are presented.

  7. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  8. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  9. Process and assembly plans for low cost commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, Stephen; Starkey, Val

    1991-01-01

    Cost and weight reduction for a composite structure is a result of selecting design concepts that can be built using efficient low cost manufacturing and assembly processes. Since design and manufacturing are inherently cost dependent, concurrent engineering in the form of a Design-Build Team (DBT) is essential for low cost designs. Detailed cost analysis from DBT designs and hardware verification must be performed to identify the cost drivers and relationships between design and manufacturing processes. Results from the global evaluation are used to quantitatively rank design, identify cost centers for higher ranking design concepts, define and prioritize a list of technical/economic issues and barriers, and identify parameters that control concept response. These results are then used for final design optimization.

  10. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  11. A low cost human computer interface based on eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Jonathan B; Redekopp, Andrew H; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a human computer interface based on eye tracking. Current commercially available systems exist, but have limited use due mainly to their large cost. The system described in this paper was designed to be a low cost and unobtrusive. The technique was video-oculography assisted by corneal reflections. An off-the shelf CCD webcam was used to capture images. The images were analyzed in software to extract key features of the eye. The users gaze point was then calculated based on the relative position of these features. The system is capable of calculating eye-gaze in real-time to provide a responsive interaction. A throughput of eight gaze points per second was achieved. The accuracy of the fixations based on the calculated eye-gazes were within 1 cm of the on-screen gaze location. By developing a low-cost system, this technology is made accessible to a wider range of applications.

  12. A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two-axis, sun tracking solar energy collector is described. The collector design was specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion was used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, was the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allowed the control system to counter wide tolerances specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and to perform within a small tracking error.

  13. A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two axis sun tracking solar energy collector are described. The collector design is specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes being limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion is used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, is the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allows the control system to counter wide tolerances that will be specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and perform within a small tracking error.

  14. Printed organic transistors for low-cost RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, V.; Frechet, J. M. J.; Chang, P. C.; de la Fuente Vornbrock, A.; Huang, D. C.; Lee, J. B.; Mattis, B. A.; Molesa, S.; Murphy, A. R.; Redinger, D. R.; Volkman, S. K.

    2005-08-01

    Printed electronics is attractive as a pathway towards the realization of ultra-low-cost RFID tags for replacement of conventional optical barcodes. While this application has received tremendous attention in recent years, it also represents one of the most challenging applications for organic transistors, based on both the performance requirements and the process complexity and cost implications. Here, we report on our progress in developing materials and processes for the realization of printed transistors for low-cost RFID applications. Using inkjet printing of novel conductors, dielectrics, and organic semiconductors, we have realized printed transistors with mobilities >0.1cm2/V-s, which is approaching the requirements of certain RFID applications. We review the performance of these devices, and discuss optimization strategies for achieving the ultimate performance goals requisite for realizing printed RFID.

  15. Low-cost, focused-science Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Water Mission (MOWM) is discussed as an example of a low-cost, low-risk focused-science Mars mission which might be implemented in the near term within recently imposed fiscal constraints. MOWM is designed to act as a follow-on to the Viking results in the areas of comparative climatology and water, carbon dioxide and dust inventories. The STS-compatible space vehicle would be based on proven earth-orbiting satellite hardware, fulfilling requirements for both spinning and despun components, operation with nonoptimum solar cell orientation, PAM-A upper stage compatibility, and data storage for delayed transmission. Study results have shown the technical and economic feasibility of missions based on any of four submitted designs which meet these requirements, and of low-cost, well-focused science objective Mars missions in general.

  16. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera G.; Grant, Georgene E.; Patil, Prafulla D.; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  17. Low cost integrating cavity for monitoring of environmental toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Winkler, Chase A.; Mason, John D.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-03-01

    Contamination of the water source and air pollution are two major problems that must be faced in the coming years. The increasing worldwide contamination of freshwater systems with thousands of industrial and natural chemical compounds is one of the key environmental problems facing humanity today. It is estimated that pathogens in water cause more than 2 million deaths annually. Additionally, traditional water quality assessment methods, such as liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy, are expensive and time consuming from sample collection to analysis. Low cost tools are needed which can provide high sensitivity in sensing, while remaining portable and providing near real time analysis. Here, we present a low cost integrating cavity that can be used for highly sensitive environmental sensing.

  18. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Abhari, Ramin

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  19. Zero-Net Power, Low-Cost Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-04-15

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified very low-power, low-cost sensors as a critical technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. This research addressed that need by developing an ultra low-power, low-cost sensor platform based on microsensor (MS) arrays that includes MS sensors, very low-power electronics, signal processing, and two-way data communications, all integrated into a single package. MSs were developed to measure carbon dioxide and room occupancy. Advances were made in developing a coating for detecting carbon dioxide and sensing thermal energy with MSs with a low power electrical readout. In addition, robust algorithms were developed for communications within buildings over power lines and an integrated platform was realized that included gas sensing, temperature, humidity, and room occupancy with on-board communications.

  20. Tandem Microwire Solar Cells for Flexible High Efficiency Low Cost Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-03-10

    This project has developed components of a waferless, flexible, low-cost tandem multijunction III-V/Si microwire array solar cell technology which combines the efficiency of wafered III-V photovoltaic technologies with the process designed to meet the Sunshot object. The project focused on design of lattice-matched GaAsP/SiGe two junction cell design and lattice-mismatched GaInP/Si tandem cell design. Combined electromagnetic simulation/device physics models using realistic microwire tandem structures were developed that predict >22% conversion efficiency for known material parameters, such as tunnel junction structure, window layer structure, absorber lifetimes and optical absorption and these model indicate a clear path to 30% efficiency for high quality III-V heterostructures. SiGe microwire arrays were synthesized via Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with inexpensive chlorosilane and chlorogermance precursors in an atmospheric pressure reactor. SiGe alloy composition in microwires was found to be limited to a maximum of 12% Ge incorporation during chlorogermane growth, due to the melting of the alloy near the solidus composition. Lattice mismatched InGaP double heterostructures were grown by selective epitaxy with a thermal oxide mask on Si microwire substrates using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the growth of individual step graded layers and a high density of defects near the wire/III-V interface. Selective epitaxy was initiated with a low temperature nucleation scheme under “atomic layer epitaxy” or “flow mediated epitaxy” conditions whereby the Ga and P containing precursors are alternately introduced into the reactor to promote layer-bylayer growth. In parallel to our efforts on conformal GaInP heteroepitaxy on selectively masked Si microwires, we explored direct, axial growth of GaAs on Si wire arrays as another route to a tandem junction architecture. We proposed axial

  1. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  2. LSSA (Low-cost Silicon Solar Array) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Methods are explored for economically generating electrical power to meet future requirements. The Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LSSA) was established to reduce the price of solar arrays by improving manufacturing technology, adapting mass production techniques, and promoting user acceptance. The new manufacturing technology includes the consideration of new silicon refinement processes, silicon sheet growth techniques, encapsulants, and automated assembly production being developed under contract by industries and universities.

  3. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  4. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  5. a Low-Cost Markerless Tracking System for Trajectory Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laggis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Protopapadakis, E.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2017-02-01

    The tracking abilities of 1st generation Kinect sensors have been tested over common trajectories of folk dances. Trajectories related errors, including offset, curve shape, noisy points are investigated and mitigated using well-known signal processing filters. Low cost depth trackers can contribute towards the remote tutoring of folk dances, by providing adequate data to instructors and explicit details to the trainees which segments of their dance trajectories need more work.

  6. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Nath, T. K.

    2011-07-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software.

  7. Design of Low-Cost Impact Reporting System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Human form dummies may be used as targets in some types of training exercises. In order to assess performance on target, it may be necessary to know...the time and location of all impacts upon the targets. A sparring dummy can provide a desirable target as well as house an impact reporting system.A...low-cost, self-contained impact reporting system has been designed within the form factor of a sparring dummy . The design goal of this system was to

  8. Towards a Low-Cost Quadrotor Research Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. Quadrotor schematic showing rotor direction of rotation (From [2])................3 Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from...Some examples are the Walkera UFO #5, Walkera UFO #8, Dragonfly, and Alien Air Jump Jet. Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from Walkera...the X- UFO made by Silverlit Electronics used small mechanical gyros. These were relatively cheap due to low-cost labor, but suffered from mechanical

  9. Some characteristics of low-cost silicon sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Daud, T.; Liu, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses structural defects in low-cost silicon sheets and their effect on the electronic properties related to solar cell performance. Experimental data are presented on the influence of grain boundaries on minority carrier diffusion length, impurity defect interaction, and variable surface recombination velocity. An analytical model of the effect of grain boundaries on solar cell performance is constructed based on these results.

  10. Low-Cost, Net-Shape Ceramic Radial Turbine Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Garrett Turbine Engine Company AE OKUI UBR 111 South 34th Street, P.O. Box 2517 Phoenix, Arizona 85010 %I. CONTROLLING...processing iterations. Program management and materials characterization were conducted at Garrett Turbine Engine Company (GTEC), test bar and rotor...automotive gas turbine engine rotor development efforts at ACC. xvii PREFACE This is the final technical report of the Low-Cost, Net- Shape Ceramic

  11. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  12. Securitizing receivables offers low-cost financing option.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lawler, J P

    1995-05-01

    Securitization began in the 1980s with mortgage payments, auto loans, and credit card debt being pooled and used as collateral for securities offerings. More recently, healthcare providers have securitized accounts receivables to obtain low-cost, off-balance-sheet financing. As the need to both raise capital and contain costs grows in health care, providers likely will make increased use of this financing method.

  13. A Novel Approach for a Low-Cost Deployable Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amend, Chris; Nurnberger, Michael; Oppenheimer, Paul; Koss, Steve; Purdy, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has designed, built, and fully qualified a low cost, low Passive Intermodulation (PIM) 12-foot (3.66-m) diameter deployable ultra high frequency (UHF) antenna for the Tacsat-4 program. The design utilized novel approaches in reflector material and capacitive coupling techniques. This paper discusses major design trades, unique design characteristics, and lessons learned from the development of the Tacsat 4 deployable antenna. This antenna development was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  14. Some characteristics of low-cost silicon sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Daud, T.; Liu, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses structural defects in low-cost silicon sheets and their effect on the electronic properties related to solar cell performance. Experimental data are presented on the influence of grain boundaries on minority carrier diffusion length, impurity defect interaction, and variable surface recombination velocity. An analytical model of the effect of grain boundaries on solar cell performance is constructed based on these results.

  15. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  16. Low cost electrochemical sensor module for measurement of gas concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost electrochemical sensor module for gas concentration measurement. A module is universal and can be used for many types of electrochemical gas sensors. Device is based on AVR ATmega8 microcontroller. As signal processing circuit a specialized integrated circuit LMP91000 is used. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of air contamination.

  17. Conestoga 2: A low cost commercial space transport system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Conestoga 2 is currently under development. It is capable of inserting 500 Kg satellites into 800 Km circular polar orbits. Conestoga 2 makes maximum use of existing (developed) technology and hardware. Its commercial objective is to fill a need for low cost low Earth orbital transport not efficiently served by Shuttle or larger space transport systems. Low Earth orbit markets, foreign participation, and launch site considerations are discussed along with technical and economic trade-offs.

  18. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  19. Simple Low-Cost Time-Interval Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, Wataru; Miyakawa, Kenji

    1985-11-01

    A detailed design of an apparatus for measuring the time intervals of statistical events is described. The apparatus can be constructed at very low cost and with high versatility by utilizing commonly-available integrated circuits. The apparatus was used to measure the beating rhythm of the cardiac cells of chicks in the very early developmental stages in an isolated system. The number of heartbeats per unit time was found to remain almost constant with time.

  20. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, W. G.

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin film technology. A thin film solar absorber suited for high speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polmeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested.

  1. A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System by Everton G. de Paula Captain, Brazilian Air Force B.S., Instituto Tecnologico de...objects as a unit. The AVANCE object management system [Ref. 29] uses the timestamp 156 model (pessimistic approach) for concurrency control. The Vbase...are no longer used). In AVANCE [Ref. 291, garbage collection is performed on user request. In GemStone [Ref. 25], garbage collection is executed in

  2. Development of an innovative, low-cost solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, M. P.

    1987-06-01

    A low cost domestic water heating system, one that could be sold at a retail price of $500, was developed and produced. The primary effort was to reduce solar collector plate costs and, more specifically, the collector absorber plate costs. Plastic adhesive research resulted in the extensive use of silicone adhesives in a high performance solar collector which was also durable, reliable and easy to manufacture at a low cost. High thermal performance resulted from development of a silicone based conductive bond. The new collector has full pressure capability, and can be manufactured in quantity at a materials cost of $55 and a labor cost of $3.35. Detailed design descriptions, drawings, and photographs, of four different low cost solar collectors that were designed and built are included. Also, material listings and a step-by-step procedure for manufacturing the selected collector are included. NMSEI Performance Data for the new collector are compared to the certification data of the model SL-100 collector previously manufactured by American Solar Products.

  3. A low-cost rugged solution for solar lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathwaj, A. N.; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2009-08-01

    We have explored the use of a low-cost, rugged optical system to collect and distribute natural sunlight for daytime lighting purposes. The sunlight collection and delivery is performed using a simple lens system in combination with a plastic optical fiber bundle. Based on such a system, we have demonstrated the ability to provide diffuse lighting over a 100 sq. ft. area. The work included the optimization of the lens and the fiber bundle according to data collected on the spatial distribution of focused sunlight. A key aspect of our work is the use of mirrors which could be easily maneuvered to maintain optimum coupling of light in the fiber throughout the day. An important issue that we addressed in our work is the devising of a low cost tracking mechanism to ensure nearuniform lighting throughout a day. The tracking system is an open loop system that is based on apriori data on the sun's movement and an initial alignment procedure. We have collected such data by tracking a beam of light reflected from a stationary mirror. Our data shows that the mirror needs to be rotated at the rate of 0.25 degrees/minute to maintain a fixed position at the collection plane. We expect to achieve a scalable, modular low cost lighting solution that works in conjunction with a LED array to illuminate common areas of commercial buildings during the daytime.

  4. Low-Cost Optical Camera System for Disaster Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, F.; Meynberg, O.; Rosenbaum, D.; Türmer, S.; Reinartz, P.; Schroeder, M.

    2012-07-01

    Real-time monitoring of natural disasters, mass events, and large accidents with airborne optical sensors is an ongoing topic in research and development. Airborne monitoring is used as a complemental data source with the advantage of flexible data acquisition and higher spatial resolution compared to optical satellite data. In cases of disasters or mass events, optical high resolution image data received directly after acquisition are highly welcomed by security related organizations like police and rescue forces. Low-cost optical camera systems are suitable for real-time applications as the accuracy requirements can be lowered in return for faster processing times. In this paper, the performance of low-cost camera systems for real-time mapping applications is exemplarily evaluated based on already existing sensor systems operated at German Aerospace Center (DLR). Focus lies next to the geometrical and radiometric performance on the real time processing chain which includes image processors, thematic processors for automatic traffic extraction and automatic person tracking, data downlink to the ground station, and further processing and distribution on the ground. Finally, a concept for a national airborne rapid mapping service based on the low-cost hardware is proposed.

  5. [Low cost simulator for acquiring basic laparoscopic skills].

    PubMed

    Morandeira Rivas, Antonio; Cabrera Vilanova, Arancha; Sabench Pereferrer, Fátima; Hernández González, Mercè; del Castillo Déjardin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires a different set of skills than conventional surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a low-cost simulator and camera for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills. This randomised trial involved 48 subjects (32 students and 16 surgeons). Two exercises were used, object transfer and cutting. Students were divided into two groups (n=8). One group performed the exercises in the operating theatre with the conventional laparoscopic camera. The second group performed the exercises in a classroom with a low cost micro-camera. Both groups were evaluated before and after five training sessions. Two groups of students were used as controls (n=8), and were evaluated two times without training. The surgeons were divided in two groups (n=8), one was evaluated in the theatre and the other one in the classroom. The trained groups showed significant improvements in the first exercise (P <0.001) compared with non-trained groups. There were no differences in scores between the groups with different cameras. The surgeons had better scores than students (P <0.001). The improvements in laparoscopic skills on this simulator with a low-cost camera were not significantly different from those gained using the simulator with the conventional laparoscopic camera. This simulator was able to differentiate between experienced and inexperienced subjects. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of permanent magnets in low-cost position tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ryan; Lasso, Andras; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    PURPOSE: Low cost portable ultrasound systems could see improved utility if similarly low cost portable trackers were developed. Permanent magnet based tracking systems potentially offer adequate tracking accuracy in a small workspace suitable for ultrasound image reconstruction. In this study the use of simple permanent magnet tracking techniques is investigated to determine feasibility for use in an ultrasound tracking system. METHODS: Permanent magnet tracking requires finding a position input into a field model which minimizes the error between the measured field, and the field expected from the model. A simulator was developed in MATLAB to determine the effect of sources of error in permanent magnet tracking systems. Insights from the simulations were used to develop a calibration and tracking experiment to determine the accuracy of a simple and low cost permanent magnet tracking system. RESULTS: Simulation and experimental results show permanent magnet based tracking to be highly sensitive to errors in sensor measurements, calibration and experimental setup. The reduction in field strength of permanent magnets lowers with the cube of distance, which leads to very poor signal-to-noise ratios at distances above 20 cm. Small errors in experimental setup also led to high tracking error. CONCLUSION: Permanent magnet tracking was found to be less accurate than is clinically useful, and highly sensitive to errors in sensors and experimental setup. Sensor and calibration limitations make simple permanent magnet tracking systems a poor choice given the present state of sensor technology.

  7. A miniature, low cost CTD system for coastal salinity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Heather A.; Ivanov, Stanislav Z.; Fries, David P.

    2007-11-01

    In this work we describe a small, low cost conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) system for measurements of salinity in coastal waters. The system incorporates three low cost expendable sensors, a novel planar four-electrode conductivity cell, a planar resistive temperature device and a piezoelectric pressure sensor. The conductivity cell and the resistive temperature device were fabricated using novel printed circuit board (PCB) microelectromechanical (MEMS) techniques combined with a new thin-film material, liquid crystal polymer (LCP). Printed circuit board techniques allow for mass production of the sensors, thereby lowering the cost of the system. The three sensors are packaged so that they are independent of one another and can be quickly replaced if bio-fouled or damaged. Deployments in Bayboro Harbor, St Petersburg, FL demonstrate that the novel CTD systems are capable of obtaining highly resolved in situ salinity measurements comparable to measurements obtained using commercially available instruments. The estimated accuracies for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors are ±1.47%, ±0.546 °C and ±0.02 bar, respectively. This work indicates that a small, low cost CTD system with expendable/replaceable sensors can be used to provide accurate, precise and highly resolved conductivity, temperature and pressure measurements in a coastal environment.

  8. Design of low-cost resonant mode sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinczi, Robert; Turmezei, P.; Mollinger, Jeff R.; Bossche, Andre

    2001-11-01

    This study introduces a novel design for low-cost MEMS devices, which exploit the benefits of resonant operation and maintain stable performance. Resonant devices provide high sensitivity and convenient signal processing. The drawback of the method is the sensitivity to undesired environmental effects and aging. The environment induced degradation processes and the long-term stability of thin film resonators were investigated previously. The two major reliability problems were stiffening effect and degrading shock response, both affecting the mechanical resonance frequency. Based on these results, new, low-cost pressure sensors and accelerometers were designed and fabricated. The structures are based on locally reinforced silicon nitride membranes, and double-clamped 3-D silicon nitride bridges as sensing elements. This double mechanical structure allows separate optimization of the membrane and the bridges for the workload and for the most efficient driving and sensing. The 3-D bridges work as mechanical amplifiers, resulting in higher detection efficiency. The reliability tests indicated, that a low-cost atmospheric packaging is efficient, thus the bridges do not require vacuum encapsulation with multiple-wafer process. External mechanical and thermal excitation combined with piezoresistive and optical detection methods are implemented in the different sensors. Differential detection using reference resonators allow compensation for thermal, environment- and aging-induced stresses.

  9. Low-cost printing of computerised tomography (CT) images where there is no dedicated CT camera.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Abdulkadir M

    2007-01-01

    Many developing countries still rely on conventional hard copy images to transfer information among physicians. We have developed a low-cost alternative method of printing computerised tomography (CT) scan images where there is no dedicated camera. A digital camera is used to photograph images from the CT scan screen monitor. The images are then transferred to a PC via a USB port, before being printed on glossy paper using an inkjet printer. The method can be applied to other imaging modalities like ultrasound and MRI and appears worthy of emulation elsewhere in the developing world where resources and technical expertise are scarce.

  10. The Array Automated Assembly Task for the Low Cost Solar Array Project, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B. (Editor); Farukhi, S. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    During the program a process sequence was proposed and tested for the fabrication of dendritic welb silicon into solar modules. This sequence was analyzed as to yield and cost and these data suggest that the price goals of 1986 are attainable. Specifically, it was shown that a low cost POCL3 is a suitable replacement for the semiconductor grade, and that a suitable CVD oxide can be deposited from a silane/air mixture using a Silox reactor. A dip coating method was developed for depositing an antireflection coating from a metalorganic precursor. Application of photoresist to define contact grids was made cost effective through use of a dip coating technique. Electroplating of both Ag and Cu was shown feasible and cost effective for producing the conductive metal grids on the solar cells. Laser scribing was used to separate the cells from the dendrites without degradation. Ultrasonic welding methods were shown to be feasible for interconnecting the cells. A study of suitable low cost materials for encapsulation suggest that soda lime glass and phenolic filled board are preferred.

  11. Synthesis and development of low cost, high temperature N-arylene polybenzimidazole foam material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Polymer (and foam) studies followed two basic routes: (1) formation of high molecular weight uncyclized polyamide followed by subsequent fusion and cyclodehydration to yield NABI (foam) and (2) polymer and foam formation by reaction of diphenyl esters (or anhydrides) with the tetramine. The latter route was found much more attractive since considerable versatility in both basic polymer structure and crosslinkability is achievable. Preliminary studies on BAB, phthalic anhydride (PA), and 3, 3 (prime), 4, 4(prime) benzo pheno netetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) as crosslinked polymer precursors were conducted. Nonmelting rigid char forming foams with densities as low as 2.7 lb/cubic ft. were achieved. The program was successful in the preparation of a potentially low cost, low density, high char yield, high temperature foam material.

  12. Development of processes for the production of low cost silicon dendritic web for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hill, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    High area output rates and continuous, automated growth are two key technical requirements for the growth of low-cost silicon ribbons for solar cells. By means of computer-aided furnace design, silicon dendritic web output rates as high as 27 sq cm/min have been achieved, a value in excess of that projected to meet a $0.50 per peak watt solar array manufacturing cost. The feasibility of simultaneous web growth while the melt is replenished with pelletized silicon has also been demonstrated. This step is an important precursor to the development of an automated growth system. Solar cells made on the replenished material were just as efficient as devices fabricated on typical webs grown without replenishment. Moreover, web cells made on a less-refined, pelletized polycrystalline silicon synthesized by the Battelle process yielded efficiencies up to 13% (AM1).

  13. Effects of age and hindlimb immobilization and remobilization on fast troponin T precursor mRNA alternative splicing in rat gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Suhana; Schilder, Rudolf J; Berg, Arthur S; Kimball, Scot R

    2016-02-01

    Fast skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT3) is an important component of the skeletal muscle contractile machinery. The precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) encoding TNNT3 is alternatively spliced, and changes in the pattern of TNNT3 splice form expression are associated with alterations in thin-filament calcium sensitivity and force production during muscle contraction and thereby regulate muscle function. Interestingly, during aging, the muscle force/cross-sectional area is reduced, suggesting that loss of mass does not completely account for the impaired muscle function that develops during the aging process. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that age and changes in muscle loading are associated with alterations in Tnnt3 alternative splicing in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. We found that the relative abundance of several Tnnt3 splice forms varied significantly with age among 2-, 9-, and 18-month-old rats and that the pattern correlated with changes in body mass rather than muscle mass. Hindlimb immobilization for 7 days resulted in dramatic alterations in splice form relative abundance such that the pattern was similar to that observed in lighter animals. Remobilization for 7 days restored the splicing pattern toward that observed in the nonimmobilized limb, even though muscle mass had not yet begun to recover. In conclusion, the results suggest that Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing is modulated rapidly (i.e., within days) in response to changes in the load placed on the muscle. Moreover, the results show that restoration of Tnnt3 alternative splicing to control patterns is initiated prior to an increase in muscle mass.

  14. Differentiation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders using alternative precursors and acylcarnitine profiling in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Roe, D S; Yang, B Z; Vianey-Saban, C; Struys, E; Sweetman, L; Roe, C R

    2006-01-01

    The differentiation of carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CACT) from carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II deficiency (CPT-II) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency from mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency (MTP) continues to be ambiguous using current acylcarnitine profiling techniques either from plasma or blood spots, or in the intact cell system (fibroblasts/amniocytes). Currently, enzyme assays are required to unequivocally differentiate CACT from CPT-II, and LCHAD from MTP. Over the years we have studied the responses of numerous FOD deficient cell lines to both even and odd numbered fatty acids of various chain lengths as well as branched-chain amino acids. In doing so, we discovered diagnostic elevations of unlabeled butyrylcarnitine detected only in CACT deficient cell lines when incubated with a shorter chain fatty acid, [7-2H3]heptanoate plus l-carnitine compared to the routinely used long-chain fatty acid, [16-2H3]palmitate. In monitoring the unlabeled C4/C5 acylcarnitine ratio, further differentiation from ETF/ETF-DH is also achieved. Similarly, incubating LCHAD and MTP deficient cell lines with the long-chain branched fatty acid, pristanic acid, and monitoring the C11/C9 acylcarnitine ratio has allowed differentiation between these disorders. These methods may be considered useful alternatives to specific enzyme assays for differentiation between these long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders, as well as provide insight into new treatment strategies.

  15. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  16. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  17. Low Cost Space Demonstration for a Single-Person Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Dischinger, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept for a single-person spacecraft and presents plans for flying a low-cost, robotic demonstration mission. Called FlexCraft, the vehicle integrates propulsion and robotics into a small spacecraft that enables rapid, shirt-sleeve access to space. It can be flown by astronauts or tele-operated and is equipped with interchangeable manipulators used for maintaining the International Space Station (ISS), exploring asteroids, and servicing telescopes or satellites. Most FlexCraft systems are verified using ground facilities; however, a test in the weightless environment is needed to assess propulsion and manipulator performance. For this, a simplified, unmanned, version of FlexCraft is flown on a low-cost launch vehicle to a 350 km circular orbit. After separation from the upper stage, the vehicle returns to a target box mounted on the stage testing the propulsion and control capability. The box is equipped with manipulator test items that are representative of tasks performed on ISS, asteroid missions, or for satellites servicing. Nominal and off-nominal operations are conducted over 3 days then the vehicle re-enters the atmosphere without becoming a debris hazard. From concept to management to operations, the FlexCraft demonstration is designed to be low cost project that is launched within three years. This is possible using a simplified test configuration that eliminates nine systems unique to the operational version and by designing-to-availability. For example, the propulsion system is the same as the Manned Maneuvering Unit because it capable, simple, human-rated and all components or equivalent parts are available. A description of the launch vehicle options, mission operations, configuration, and demonstrator subsystems is presented.

  18. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.

    2012-06-01

    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  19. Low cost processes for silicon. [fabricated for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the multiple process development of low cost processes for manufacture of silicon. A support program includes subtasks for the modeling of reactions and reactors, chemical engineering and solid-state physics studies, and development of impurity concentration measurement procedures. The preliminary economic analyses indicate total product costs ranging from $5.00 to $8.73/kg based on 1000 MT/yr plants. In the studies of impurity effects, a model which considers that degradations of solar cell performance by impurities are primarily due to decreases in base diffusion length was constructed from experimental data.

  20. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  1. Low-cost thermoforming of micro fluidic analysis chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truckenmüller, R.; Rummler, Z.; Schaller, Th; Schomburg, W. K.

    2002-07-01

    We present a new method for the low-cost manufacture of micro fluidic devices from polymers for single use. Within a one-step or two-step process inside a hot embossing press, micro channels are thermoformed into a thin plastic film and welded on to a thicker plastic film or sheet. Sterile, hermetically sealed micro fluidic structures were fabricated from polystyrene for easy opening immediately before use. It even appears to be possible to produce micro fluidic analysis chips from polymers on a coil from which single devices are cut off for use.

  2. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  3. A low-cost, MR-compatible olfactometer

    PubMed Central

    LOWEN, STEVEN B.; LUKAS, SCOTT E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a design for an olfactometer, suitable for fMRI experiments, that can be constructed at extremely low cost. The olfactometer presents odors directly to the nose via a nasal cannula at unobtrusively low flow velocities, with no large assemblies required on or near the subject's face. The olfactometer can be controlled manually, or by computer via a serial interface. A validation study verified that the olfactometer reliably presents odors to test subjects. Errors and response latency times decreased with increased flow rate in an orderly manner, as expected. PMID:16956107

  4. FINDR: Low-Cost Indoor Positioning Using FM Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papliatseyeu, Andrei; Kotilainen, Niko; Mayora, Oscar; Osmani, Venet

    This paper presents an indoor positioning system based on FM radio. The system is built upon commercially available, short-range FM transmitters. The features of the FM radio which make it distinct from other localisation technologies are discussed. Despite the low cost and off-the-shelf components, the performance of the FM positioning is comparable to that of other positioning technologies (such as Wi-Fi). From our experiments, the median accuracy of the system is around 1.3 m and in 95% of cases the error is below 4.5 m.

  5. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  6. Low cost processes for fabricating silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1980-01-01

    Solar cell fabrication processes, in particular junction formation and metallization, are evaluated in terms of cell efficiencies, process yields, module packing factors, and energy cost effectiveness. It is shown that for junction formation, the diffusion processes provide a relatively low-cost approach. The costs per unit cell area can be further reduced by increased wafer area and mechanized wafer handling. The costs for a large number of metallization processes, excluding the costs of the metal, are roughly comparable. However, their varying influence on cell performance leads to a significant spread in the allowable process costs.

  7. Low-cost commodity depth sensor comparison and accuracy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Timo; Bodensteiner, Christoph; Arens, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Low cost depth sensors have been a huge success in the field of computer vision and robotics, providing depth images even in untextured environments. The same characteristic applies to the Kinect V2, a time-of-flight camera with high lateral resolution. In order to assess advantages of the new sensor over its predecessor for standard applications, we provide an analysis of measurement noise, accuracy and other error sources with the Kinect V2. We examined the raw sensor data by using an open source driver. Further insights on the sensor design and examples of processing techniques are given to completely exploit the unrestricted access to the device.

  8. The Wacker approach to low-cost silicon material technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirtl, E.

    Proprietary, long-term materials research programs concerned with processes having high cost/energy-saving potential for the production of high-purity solar cell silicon are discussed. Program goals include the development of rugged, high-throughput rate production equipment, and impurity handling, or defect engineering standards, which will yield photovoltaic solar energy conversion efficiencies of a minimum of 10%. Different starting materials for a variety of low-cost crystallization techniques, the machining and slicing of silicon, and such diagnostic techniques as topographic methods, multielement analysis, identification of point defects, and photovoltaic evaluation, are discussed.

  9. High resolution image processing on low-cost microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in microcomputer technology have resulted in systems that rival the speed, storage, and display capabilities of traditionally larger machines. Low-cost microcomputers can provide a powerful environment for image processing. A new software program which offers sophisticated image display and analysis on IBM-based systems is presented. Designed specifically for a microcomputer, this program provides a wide-range of functions normally found only on dedicated graphics systems, and therefore can provide most students, universities and research groups with an affordable computer platform for processing digital images. The processing of AVHRR images within this environment is presented as an example.

  10. High efficiency, low cost thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space-resistant, high efficiency, light-weight, low-cost GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells for space application is demonstrated. This program addressed the optimal preparation of ultrathin GaAs single-crystal layers by AsCl3-GaAs-H2 and OMCVD process. Considerable progress has been made in both areas. Detailed studies on the AsCl3 process showed high-quality GaAs thin layers can be routinely grown. Later overgrowth of GaAs by OMCVD has been also observed and thin FaAs films were obtained from this process.

  11. Designing a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, A.; Zörb, L.; Dudeck, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the design and implementation of a software architecture for a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units. The development is fully integrated into the information infrastructure of the existing hospital information system (HIS) at the University Hospital of Giessen. It provides cost efficient and reliable access for data entry and review from the HIS database from within patient rooms, even in very space limited environments. The architecture further supports automatical data input from medical devices. First results from three different intensive care units are reported. PMID:8947771

  12. Development of Low Cost Sensors for Hydrogen Safety Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Holmes, W., Jr.; Lauf, R.J.; Maxey, L.C.; Salter, C.; Walker, D.

    1999-04-07

    We are developing rugged and reliable hydrogen safety sensors that can be easily manufactured. Potential applications also require an inexpensive sensor that can be easily deployed. Automotive applications demand low cost, while personnel safety applications emphasize light-weight, battery-operated, and wearable sensors. Our current efforts involve developing and optimizing sensor materials for stability and compatibility with typical thick-film manufacturing processes. We are also tailoring the sensor design and size along with various packaging and communication schemes for optimal acceptance by end users.

  13. A low-cost, MR-compatible olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Lowen, Steven B; Lukas, Scott E

    2006-05-01

    We present a design for an olfactometer, suitable for fMRI experiments, that can be constructed at extremely low cost. The olfactometer presents odors directly to the nose via a nasal cannula at unobtrusively low flow velocities, with no large assemblies required on or near the subject's face. The olfactometer can be controlled manually, or by computer via a serial interface. A validation study verified that the olfactometer reliably presents odors to test subjects. Errors and response latency times decreased with increased flow rate in an orderly manner, as expected.

  14. High efficiency low cost monolithic module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Wendell C.; Siu, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    The program objectives were to develop a highly efficient, low cost RF module for SARSAT beacons; achieve significantly lower battery current drain, amount of heat generated, and size of battery required; utilize MMIC technology to improve efficiency, reliability, packaging, and cost; and provide a technology database for GaAs based UHF RF circuit architectures. Presented in viewgraph form are functional block diagrams of the SARSAT distress beacon and beacon RF module as well as performance goals, schematic diagrams, predicted performances, and measured performances for the phase modulator and power amplifier.

  15. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  16. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup.

    PubMed

    Vinding, Mads S; Kessler, Tommy O; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  17. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinding, Mads S.; Kessler, Tommy O.; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  18. Flight System Testbed for Low Cost Spacecraft Interface Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E.; Thomas, N.

    1994-01-01

    A world leader in space technology, JPL has over 30 years experience in developing spacecraft systems and managing deep space missions for NASA. Future scientific missions will require the rapid development of small, lightweight, high-technology, low-cost spacecraft. JPL is developing a method of meeting these requirements: a test facility specifically for supporting a rapid prototyping development environment that creates a virtual (simulated) spacecraft in which system-level evaluations of components can be carried out very early in the development cycle, long before an actual spacecraft is built.

  19. Low cost coherent demodulation for mobile satellite terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Santanu; Henely, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes some low cost approaches to coherent BPSK demodulation for mobile satellite receivers. The specific application is an Inmarsat-C Land Mobile Earth Station (LMES), but the techniques are applicable to any PSK demodulator. The techniques discussed include combined sampling and quadrature downconversion with a single A/D and novel DSP algorithms for carrier acquisition offering both superior performance and economy of DSP resources. The DSP algorithms run at 5.7 MIPS, and the entire DSP subsystem, built with commercially available parts, costs under $60 at quantity-10,000.

  20. Development of low cost contacts to silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the second phase of the program of developing low cost contacts to silicon solar cells using copper are presented. Phase 1 yielded the development of a plated Pd-Cr-Cu contact system. This process produced cells with shunting problems when they were heated to 400 C for 5 minutes. Means of stopping the identified copper diffusion which caused the shunting were investigated. A contact heat treatment study was conducted with Pd-Ag, Ci-Ag, Pd-Cu, Cu-Cr, and Ci-Ni-Cu. Nickel is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier to copper.

  1. A simple and low-cost combustion method to prepare monoclinic VO2 with superior thermochromic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ziyi; Xiao, Xiudi; Lu, Xuanming; Zhan, Yongjun; Cheng, Haoliang; Xu, Gang

    2016-12-01

    In this approach, the VO2 nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated via combusting the low-cost precursor solution consisted of NH4VO3, C2H6O2 and C2H5OH. By the XRD, TEM and XPS analysis, it can be found that the synthetic monoclinic VO2 is single crystal and no impurity is defined. After dispersing the VO2 nanoparticles into the polymer, the solar modulation of VO2-based composite film is up to 12.5% with luminous transmission and haze around 62.2% and 0.5%, respectively. In other words, the composite films show high performance of thermochromic properties. This could open an efficient way to fabricate low-cost and large-scale VO2 (M) nanoparticles and thermochromic films.

  2. A simple and low-cost combustion method to prepare monoclinic VO2 with superior thermochromic properties

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ziyi; Xiao, Xiudi; Lu, Xuanming; Zhan, Yongjun; Cheng, Haoliang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    In this approach, the VO2 nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated via combusting the low-cost precursor solution consisted of NH4VO3, C2H6O2 and C2H5OH. By the XRD, TEM and XPS analysis, it can be found that the synthetic monoclinic VO2 is single crystal and no impurity is defined. After dispersing the VO2 nanoparticles into the polymer, the solar modulation of VO2-based composite film is up to 12.5% with luminous transmission and haze around 62.2% and 0.5%, respectively. In other words, the composite films show high performance of thermochromic properties. This could open an efficient way to fabricate low-cost and large-scale VO2 (M) nanoparticles and thermochromic films. PMID:27976748

  3. A simple and low-cost combustion method to prepare monoclinic VO2 with superior thermochromic properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ziyi; Xiao, Xiudi; Lu, Xuanming; Zhan, Yongjun; Cheng, Haoliang; Xu, Gang

    2016-12-15

    In this approach, the VO2 nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated via combusting the low-cost precursor solution consisted of NH4VO3, C2H6O2 and C2H5OH. By the XRD, TEM and XPS analysis, it can be found that the synthetic monoclinic VO2 is single crystal and no impurity is defined. After dispersing the VO2 nanoparticles into the polymer, the solar modulation of VO2-based composite film is up to 12.5% with luminous transmission and haze around 62.2% and 0.5%, respectively. In other words, the composite films show high performance of thermochromic properties. This could open an efficient way to fabricate low-cost and large-scale VO2 (M) nanoparticles and thermochromic films.

  4. A study of power generation from a low-cost hydrokinetic energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Vilchis, Juana Mariel

    The kinetic energy in river streams, tidal currents, or other artificial water channels has been used as a feasible source of renewable power through different conversion systems. Thus, hydrokinetic energy conversion systems are attracting worldwide interest as another form of distributed alternative energy. Because these systems are still in early stages of development, the basic approaches need significant research. The main challenges are not only to have efficient systems, but also to convert energy more economically so that the cost-benefit analysis drives the growth of this alternative energy form. One way to view this analysis is in terms of the energy conversion efficiency per unit cost. This study presents a detailed assessment of a prototype hydrokinetic energy system along with power output costs. This experimental study was performed using commercial low-cost blades of 20 in diameter inside a tank with water flow speed up to 1.3 m/s. The work was divided into two stages: (a) a fixed-pitch blade configuration, using a radial permanent magnet generator (PMG), and (b) the same hydrokinetic turbine, with a variable-pitch blade and an axial-flux PMG. The results indicate that even though the efficiency of a simple blade configuration is not high, the power coefficient is in the range of other, more complicated designs/prototypes. Additionally, the low manufacturing and operation costs of this system offer an option for low-cost distributed power applications.

  5. A study of low-cost, robust assistive listening system (ALS) based on digital wireless technology.

    PubMed

    Israsena, P; Dubsok, P; Pan-Ngum, S

    2008-11-01

    We have developed a simple, low-cost digital wireless broadcasting system prototype, intended for a classroom of hearing impaired students. The system is designed to be a low-cost alternative to an existing FM system. The system implemented is for short-range communication, with a one-transmitter, multiple-receiver configuration, which is typical for these classrooms. The data is source-coded for voice-band quality, FSK modulated, and broadcasted via a 915 MHz radio frequency. A DES encryption can optionally be added for better information security. Test results show that the system operating range is approximately ten metres, and the sound quality is close to telephone quality as intended. We also discuss performance issues such as sound, power and size, as well as transmission protocols. The test results are the proof of concept that the prototype is a viable alternative to an existing FM system. Improvements can be made to the system's sound quality via techniques such as channel coding, which is also discussed.

  6. Motor Logger offers low-cost monitoring of equipment operation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregerson, J.

    1994-12-31

    The Motor Logger is a unique and simple device that can record the run time or time of use of electrical equipment. Such information is essential for determining the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency upgrades for many types of equipment. Two models are available: the run-time motor logger is an easy-to-read, low-cost counter, while the time-of-use model requires software and a computer to download the data, which then can be displayed in graphical form. Utilities and energy users are finding that these devices are cost-effective tools for their monitoring programs because they are inexpensive to install, do not require an electrician, and are small enough to leave in place for long periods of time. The Motor Logger may not be appropriate for harsh, high-temperature, dirty, or chemical-laden environments. It must be securely attached on or very near the electrical device, so accessibility is an issue in some applications. Although its simplicity limits the potential applications of the Motor Logger, its reliability, user-friendliness, and low cost make it an attractive tool for monitoring and evaluation of equipment operation.

  7. Low cost sensing technology for type 2 diabetes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (2-hydroxybutyrate or α-HB) is becoming more widely recognized as an important metabolic biomarker that has been shown to be highly correlated with prediabetes and other metabolic diseases. In 2012 there were 86 million Americans with prediabetes, many of whom are not aware they have prediabetes, but could be diagnosed and treated to prevent type 2 diabetes if a simple, low-cost, convenient test were available. We have developed new, low-cost, accurate α-HB detection methods that can be used for the detection and monitoring of diseases such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, β-cell dysfunction, and early hyperglycemia. The new sensing method utilizes a diol recognition moiety, additives and a photoinitiator to detect α-HB at levels near 1 micro g/l in the presence of serum compounds such as lactic acid, sodium pyruvate, and glucose. The objective of this research is to improve the understanding of the interactions that enhance α-HB detection to enable additional improvements in α-HB detection as well as improvements in other biosensor applications.

  8. A Low-Cost Real Color Picker Based on Arduino

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J.; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option. PMID:25004152

  9. Low-cost experimentation for the study of droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P

    2014-10-21

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care.

  10. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts.

  11. Using a Low Cost Flight Simulation Environment for Interdisciplinary Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; ALi, Syed F.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education is increasingly being emphasized for engineering undergraduates. However, often the focus is on interaction between engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the experience at Tuskegee University in providing interdisciplinary research experiences for undergraduate students in both Aerospace Engineering and Psychology through the utilization of a low cost flight simulation environment. The environment, which is pc-based, runs a low-cost of-the-shelf software and is configured for multiple out-of-the-window views and a synthetic heads down display with joystick, rudder and throttle controls. While the environment is being utilized to investigate and evaluate various strategies for training novice pilots, students were involved to provide them with experience in conducting such interdisciplinary research. On the global inter-disciplinary level these experiences included developing experimental designs and research protocols, consideration of human participant ethical issues, and planning and executing the research studies. During the planning phase students were apprised of the limitations of the software in its basic form and the enhancements desired to investigate human factors issues. A number of enhancements to the flight environment were then undertaken, from creating Excel macros for determining the performance of the 'pilots', to interacting with the software to provide various audio/video cues based on the experimental protocol. These enhancements involved understanding the flight model and performance, stability & control issues. Throughout this process, discussions of data analysis included a focus from a human factors perspective as well as an engineering point of view.

  12. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  13. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  14. A low-cost surgical application of additive fabrication.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This study was used to test the feasibility of using additive fabrication techniques 3-dimensional (3D) printing to create personalized/patient-specific hepatic 3D physical models from clinical radiology studies for surgical resident education. Patient-specific imaging data from either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans, in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format, were rendered and manipulated with computer software, translating the medical imaging data sets into useful 3D geometry files in stereo lithography format for 3D printing. A commercial third party was used to print the 3D models in laser sintered nylon, which provided access to expensive, industrial-grade, high-resolution 3-D printers at a low cost. Multiple patient-specific preoperative 3D physical models were printed of portal and hepatic venous anatomy at a cost of less than $100 per model. Current 3D printing techniques can be used to create low-cost personalized/patient-specific hepatic 3D models from clinical radiology studies for surgical resident education. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.

  15. A Low Cost Single Chip VDL Compatible Transceiver ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Recent trends in commercial communications system components have focussed almost exclusively on cellular telephone technology. As many of the traditional sources of receiver components have discontinued non-cellular telephone products, the designers of avionics and other low volume radio applications find themselves increasingly unable to find highly integrated components. This is particularly true for low power, low cost applications which cannot afford the lavish current consumption of the software defined radio approach increasingly taken by certified device manufacturers. In this paper, we describe a low power transceiver chip targeting applications from low VHF to low UHF frequencies typical of avionics systems. The chip encompasses a selectable single or double conversion design for the receiver and a low power IF upconversion transmitter. All local oscillators are synthesized and integrated into the chip. An on-chip I-Q modulator and demodulator provide baseband modulation and demodulation capability allowing the use of low power, fixed point signal processing components for signal demodulation. The goal of this program is to demonstrate a low cost VDL mode-3 transceiver using this chip to receive text weather information sent using 4-slot TDMA with no support for voice. The data will be sent from an experimental ground station. This work is funded by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  16. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  17. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. COMPASS Final Report: Low Cost Robotic Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    The COllaborative Modeling for the Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team designed a robotic lunar Lander to deliver an unspecified payload (greater than zero) to the lunar surface for the lowest cost in this 2006 design study. The purpose of the low cost lunar lander design was to investigate how much payload can an inexpensive chemical or Electric Propulsion (EP) system deliver to the Moon s surface. The spacecraft designed as the baseline out of this study was a solar powered robotic lander, launched on a Minotaur V launch vehicle on a direct injection trajectory to the lunar surface. A Star 27 solid rocket motor does lunar capture and performs 88 percent of the descent burn. The Robotic Lunar Lander soft-lands using a hydrazine propulsion system to perform the last 10% of the landing maneuver, leaving the descent at a near zero, but not exactly zero, terminal velocity. This low-cost robotic lander delivers 10 kg of science payload instruments to the lunar surface.

  19. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  20. Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Bogena, Heye Reemt; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Schilling, Bernd; Weuthen, Ansgar; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany) as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8). Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process. PMID:28117731

  1. Low-cost and biocompatible long-period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Olmos, Jorge A.; Oropeza-Ramos, Laura; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG) induced by a polymeric microstructure is demonstrated. LPFGs are induced on a tapered optical fiber (TOF) when a periodic micro-grating comes into contact with the thin region of the fiber. The micro-grating device is made using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an inexpensive, nontoxic and optically transparent polymer that is extensively used in microfluidics, organic electronics and biotechnological applications. Soft lithography, along with molds built from thermoplastic polystyrene sheets, makes the fabrication straightforward and extremely low-cost. Additionally, no precision machining is necessary and the resolution of the microstructures is limited only by the resolution of the laser printer used for patterning the polystyrene sheets. The TOF and the micro-grating were dimensionally characterized using optical microscopy and white light interferometry, respectively. Variations on the optical spectrum due to pressure and temperature were observed and their magnitudes were similar to those obtained using metallic microstructures. Thus, LPFGs can be made in an inexpensive and expeditious way using PDMS and TOFs. These polymeric devices can be integrated into microfluidic and other labon- a-chip systems where biocompatibility is a valuable characteristic.

  2. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  3. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  4. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  5. Flight results of a low-cost attitude determination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, John C.; Cutler, James W.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents flight results of the attitude determination system (ADS) flown on the Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellites, RAX-1 and RAX-2, which are CubeSats developed to study space weather. The ADS sensors include commercial-off-the-shelf magnetometers, coarse sun sensors (photodiodes), and a MEMs rate gyroscope. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is used for attitude estimation. On-orbit calibration was developed and applied to compensate for sensor and alignment errors, and attitude determination accuracies of 0.5° 1-σ have been demonstrated on-orbit. The approach of using low-cost sensors in conjunction with on-orbit calibration, which mitigates the need for pre-flight calibration and high-tolerance alignment during spacecraft assembly, reduces the time and cost associated with the subsystem development, and provides a low-cost solution for modest attitude determination requirements. Although the flight results presented in this paper are from a specific mission, the methods used and lessons learned can be used to maximize the performance of the ADS of any vehicle while minimizing the pre-flight calibration and alignment requirements.

  6. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  7. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi

    2017-01-14

    There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (< $1000) drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations. With flying times of less than 30 min for each site, high-resolution (7 cm) georeferenced images were successfully generated for each of the seven sites, covering areas up to 30 ha. Water bodies were readily identifiable in the imagery, as well as ancillary information for planning LSM activities (access routes to water bodies by road and foot) and public health management (e.g. identification of drinking water sources, mapping individual households and the nature of their construction). The drone-based surveys carried out in this study provide a low-cost and flexible solution to mapping water bodies for operational dissemination of LSM initiatives in mosquito vector-borne disease elimination campaigns. Generated orthomosaics can also be used to provide vital information for other public health planning activities.

  8. Low-cost dipole hydrophone for use in towed arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1996-04-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a low-cost acoustic particle velocity sensor are described. The primary design parameters for the dipole hydrophone are low-cost, low-mass, and small size. The sensor uses commercially available geophones to locally measure one or more components of the acoustic particle velocity field. The geophones are encapsulated in a syntactic foam to reduce their average density and hence increase their acoustic sensitivity. This method of fabrication greatly reduces costs compared to conventional methods which use machined cases. The on-axis voltage sensitivity was measured experimentally using two methods. The first used a uniaxial vibration shaker to estimate the intrinsic velocity sensitivity of the encapsulated geophone with the case fixed to the shaker head. The second measured the {ital in} {ital situ} acoustic sensitivity in water. Theoretical models of the voltage sensitivity for these two cases are developed and the results compare very well with the experimental data. Additionally, rotator tests were performed at frequencies of 100, 500, 600, and 1000 Hz to measure the quality of the dipole directivity pattern in water. Near-theoretical dipole patterns, with nulls better than 30 dB, were measured. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Low-cost treatment of landfill leachate using peat.

    PubMed

    Heavey, M

    2003-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive obliges member states to collect and treat leachate from landfill sites. In regions of high population density, this is commonly achieved through discharge of the leachate to the municipal sewerage system. In Ireland, rural landfills can be a long distance from a suitable sewerage system, resulting in high transportation costs. On-site treatment systems, when used elsewhere, are mainly aerobic treatment systems, which are costly to construct and operate. There is a particular need for low-cost, low-maintenance leachate treatment systems for small low-income landfills, and for closed landfills, where long-term running costs of aerobic systems may be unsustainable. In 1989, this research work was initiated to investigate the use of local peat for the treatment of leachate from a small rural landfill site. In 1997, following the award of grant-aid under the EU LIFE Programme, a full-scale leachate treatment plant was constructed, using local un-drained peat as the treatment medium. When the LIFE Project ended in February 2001, leachate treatment research continued at the site using a pre-treated peat as the treatment medium. The treatment levels achieved using both types of peat are discussed in this paper. It is concluded that landfill leachate may be successfully treated using a low-cost peat bed to achieve almost 100% removal of both BOD and ammonia.

  10. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  11. Using a Low Cost Flight Simulation Environment for Interdisciplinary Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; ALi, Syed F.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education is increasingly being emphasized for engineering undergraduates. However, often the focus is on interaction between engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the experience at Tuskegee University in providing interdisciplinary research experiences for undergraduate students in both Aerospace Engineering and Psychology through the utilization of a low cost flight simulation environment. The environment, which is pc-based, runs a low-cost of-the-shelf software and is configured for multiple out-of-the-window views and a synthetic heads down display with joystick, rudder and throttle controls. While the environment is being utilized to investigate and evaluate various strategies for training novice pilots, students were involved to provide them with experience in conducting such interdisciplinary research. On the global inter-disciplinary level these experiences included developing experimental designs and research protocols, consideration of human participant ethical issues, and planning and executing the research studies. During the planning phase students were apprised of the limitations of the software in its basic form and the enhancements desired to investigate human factors issues. A number of enhancements to the flight environment were then undertaken, from creating Excel macros for determining the performance of the 'pilots', to interacting with the software to provide various audio/video cues based on the experimental protocol. These enhancements involved understanding the flight model and performance, stability & control issues. Throughout this process, discussions of data analysis included a focus from a human factors perspective as well as an engineering point of view.

  12. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  13. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  14. Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H.

    1998-08-01

    The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

  15. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  16. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  17. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  18. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  19. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  20. Chromatography paper as a low-cost medium for accurate spectrophotometric assessment of blood hemoglobin concentration.

    PubMed

    Bond, Meaghan; Elguea, Carlos; Yan, Jasper S; Pawlowski, Michal; Williams, Jessica; Wahed, Amer; Oden, Maria; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-06-21

    Anemia affects a quarter of the world's population, and a lack of appropriate diagnostic tools often prevents treatment in low-resource settings. Though the HemoCue 201+ is an appropriate device for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings, the high cost of disposables ($0.99 per test in Malawi) limits its availability. We investigated using spectrophotometric measurement of blood spotted on chromatography paper as a low-cost (<$0.01 per test) alternative to HemoCue cuvettes. For this evaluation, donor blood was diluted with plasma to simulate anemia, a micropipette spotted blood on paper, and a bench-top spectrophotometer validated the approach before the development of a low-cost reader. We optimized impregnating paper with chemicals to lyse red blood cells, paper type, drying time, wavelengths measured, and sensitivity to variations in volume of blood, and we validated our approach using patient samples. Lysing the blood cells with sodium deoxycholate dried in Whatman Chr4 chromatography paper gave repeatable results, and the absorbance difference between 528 nm and 656 nm was stable over time in measurements taken up to 10 min after sample preparation. The method was insensitive to the amount of blood spotted on the paper over the range of 5 μL to 25 μL. We created a low-cost, handheld reader to measure the transmission of paper cuvettes at these optimal wavelengths. Training and validating our method with patient samples on both the spectrometer and the handheld reader showed that both devices are accurate to within 2 g dL(-1) of the HemoCue device for 98% and 95% of samples, respectively.

  1. Performance Assessment of a Custom, Portable, and Low-Cost Brain-Computer Interface Platform.

    PubMed

    McCrimmon, Colin M; Fu, Jonathan Lee; Wang, Ming; Lopes, Lucas Silva; Wang, Po T; Karimi-Bidhendi, Alireza; Liu, Charles Y; Heydari, Payam; Nenadic, Zoran; Do, An Hong

    2017-10-01

    Conventional brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often expensive, complex to operate, and lack portability, which confines their use to laboratory settings. Portable, inexpensive BCIs can mitigate these problems, but it remains unclear whether their low-cost design compromises their performance. Therefore, we developed a portable, low-cost BCI and compared its performance to that of a conventional BCI. The BCI was assembled by integrating a custom electroencephalogram (EEG) amplifier with an open-source microcontroller and a touchscreen. The function of the amplifier was first validated against a commercial bioamplifier, followed by a head-to-head comparison between the custom BCI (using four EEG channels) and a conventional 32-channel BCI. Specifically, five able-bodied subjects were cued to alternate between hand opening/closing and remaining motionless while the BCI decoded their movement state in real time and provided visual feedback through a light emitting diode. Subjects repeated the above task for a total of 10 trials, and were unaware of which system was being used. The performance in each trial was defined as the temporal correlation between the cues and the decoded states. The EEG data simultaneously acquired with the custom and commercial amplifiers were visually similar and highly correlated ( ρ = 0.79). The decoding performances of the custom and conventional BCIs averaged across trials and subjects were 0.70 ± 0.12 and 0.68 ± 0.10, respectively, and were not significantly different. The performance of our portable, low-cost BCI is comparable to that of the conventional BCIs. Platforms, such as the one developed here, are suitable for BCI applications outside of a laboratory.

  2. Racial differences in beliefs of physician prescribing practices for low-cost pharmacy options.

    PubMed

    Dalawari, Preeti; Patel, Niral M; Bzdawka, William; Petrone, Jessica; Liou, Victor; Armbrecht, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have reported that certain populations are sensitive to high out-of-pocket drug costs, and drug noncompliance leads to poorer health outcomes. Our aim was to measure patient awareness of discount pharmacy options, cost barriers to medication access, and beliefs about health care provider's use of low-cost medications. This cross-sectional 17-item survey was administered to patients in the emergency department of an urban trauma center in February 2011. Differences in responses by sex and race groups were assessed. A logistic regression model was created to estimate the association of sociodemographic factors and medication use with awareness of discount pharmacy options. Five hundred and fifty-two surveys were analyzed. Among respondents who were prescribed medications within the past year, three fourths of patients felt comfortable asking physicians for cheaper medicines. Slightly more than half were aware of low-cost pharmacy options, and 78% of these respondents correctly listed at least one of these pharmacies. Caucasian patients were more comfortable than African American patients asking for cheaper medicines (82.5% vs. 72.2%; p < 0.05) and were more aware of low-cost prescription programs (63.9% vs. 43.5%; p < 0.001). When adjusted for insurance status and current medication use, Caucasian patients were 2.7 times more likely to name a valid discount pharmacy option compared to African Americans (95% confidence interval 1.85-4.07). This study suggests populations may be more uncomfortable initiating a discussion about medication costs and selection of lower-cost alternatives. Health care providers may need to develop communication strategies in which medication cost is addressed with sensitivity and consistency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparisons of low-cost adsorbents for treating wastewaters laden with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Tonni Agustiono; Chan, Gilbert Y S; Lo, Wai-hung; Babel, Sandhya

    2006-08-01

    In this article, the removal performance and cost-effectiveness of various low-cost adsorbents derived from agricultural waste, industrial by-product or natural material are evaluated and compared to those of activated carbon for the removal of heavy metals (Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)) from metals-contaminated wastewater. To highlight their technical applicability, selected information on pH, dose required, initial metal concentration, adsorption capacity and the price of the adsorbents is presented. It is evident from the survey of 102 published studies (1984-2005) that low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural waste have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for the removal of heavy metal (Cr(VI): 170 mg/g of hazelnut shell activated carbon, Ni(II): 158 mg/g of orange peel, Cu(II): 154.9 mg/g of soybean hull treated with NaOH and citric acid, Cd(II): 52.08 mg/g of jackfruit), compared to activated carbon (Cd(II): 146 mg/g, Cr(VI): 145 mg/g, Cr(III): 30 mg/g, Zn(II): 20 mg/g). Therefore, low-cost adsorbents can be viable alternatives to activated carbon for the treatment of metals-contaminated wastewater. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of surface modification and the initial concentration of the adsorbate. In general, technical applicability and cost-effectiveness are the key factors that play major roles in the selection of the most suitable adsorbent to treat inorganic effluent.

  4. MESA - A new approach to low cost scientific spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, G. W.; Case, C. M.

    1982-09-01

    Today, the greatest obstacle to science and exploration in space is its cost. The present investigation is concerned with approaches for reducing this cost. Trends in the scientific spacecraft market are examined, and a description is presented for the MESA space platform concept. The cost drivers are considered, taking into account planning, technical aspects, and business factors. It is pointed out that the primary function of the MESA concept is to provide a satellite system at the lowest possible price. In order to reach this goal an attempt is made to benefit from all of the considered cost drivers. It is to be tried to work with the customer early in the mission analysis stage in order to assist in finding the right compromise between mission cost and return. A three phase contractual arrangement is recommended for MESA platforms. The phases are related to mission feasibility, specification definition, and design and development. Modular kit design promotes flexibility at low cost.

  5. Sensor integration in a low cost land mobile mapping system.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved.

  6. Simulating low-cost cameras for augmented reality compositing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Georg; Murray, David W

    2010-01-01

    Video see-through Augmented Reality adds computer graphics to the real world in real time by overlaying graphics onto a live video feed. To achieve a realistic integration of the virtual and real imagery, the rendered images should have a similar appearance and quality to those produced by the video camera. This paper describes a compositing method which models the artifacts produced by a small low-cost camera, and adds these effects to an ideal pinhole image produced by conventional rendering methods. We attempt to model and simulate each step of the imaging process, including distortions, chromatic aberrations, blur, Bayer masking, noise, sharpening, and color-space compression, all while requiring only an RGBA image and an estimate of camera velocity as inputs.

  7. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  8. Low-cost directionally-solidified turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sink, L. W.; Hoppin, G. S., III; Fujii, M.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost process of manufacturing high stress rupture strength directionally-solidified high pressure turbine blades was successfully developed for the TFE731-3 Turbofan Engine. The basic processing parameters were established using MAR-M 247 and employing the exothermic directional-solidification process in trial castings of turbine blades. Nickel-based alloys were evaluated as directionally-solidified cast blades. A new turbine blade, disk, and associated components were then designed using previously determined material properties. Engine tests were run and the results were analyzed and compared to the originally established goals. The results showed that the stress rupture strength of exothermically heated, directionally-solidified MAR-M 247 turbine blades exceeded program objectives and that the performance and cost reduction goals were achieved.

  9. Electricity from sunlight. [low cost silicon for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Miller, J. W.; Lutwack, R.; Hsu, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of new unconventional processes proposed for the low-cost production of silicon for solar cells. Consideration is given to: (1) the Battelle process (Zn/SiCl4), (2) the Battelle process (SiI4), (3) the Silane process, (4) the Motorola process (SiF4/SiF2), (5) the Westinghouse process (Na/SiCl4), (6) the Dow Corning process (C/SiO2), (7) the AeroChem process (SiCl4/H atom), and the Stanford process (Na/SiF4). Preliminary results indicate that the conventional process and the SiI4 processes cannot meet the project goal of $10/kg by 1986. Preliminary cost evaluation results for the Zn/SiCl4 process are favorable.

  10. Design concepts for low-cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  11. Low-cost DH and quantum well laser array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Geoffroy, Leo M.; Pesarcik, Scott F.; Magee, Carl J.

    1989-01-01

    The intial results of a program aimed at developing low-cost diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps are reported. MOCVD is used to demonstrate excellent run-to-run reproducibility in emission wavelength, threshold current density, and quantum efficiency. For this first experimental series, J(th) values of approximately 1310 Amps/sq cm were obtained for broad-area unthinned devices from the growth runs. Differential quantum efficiencies of between 41 percent and 47 percent were measured on the non-facet-coated devices from all four runs. Single quantum well, separate confinement heterostructure lasers fabricated from wafers grown in the same MOCVD reactor exhibited near single-mode emission, with J(th) values of approximately 300 Amps/sq cm. Photoluminescence data confirm quantum well widths of 80 A and 150 A for two different MOCVD growth runs.

  12. Low cost cylindrical converter for measuring lead efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatch, G. L.; Nakata, L.; Britt, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost cylindrical thermionic converter has been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in a NASA-JPL program to directly measure converter lead efficiencies using various electrode materials and surfaces. Efficiency measurements are made using input emitter heater power, output power at the leads, and calculated values of the parasitic losses that would not be present in the application configuration. This information can be used to predict the performance characteristics of the advanced converters currently under development. A series of five converters has been tested. Both structured and smooth molybdenum collectors have been used. Emitters included smooth molybdenum, smooth rhenium, and microstructured rhenium. Cesium pressure families of current-voltage curves are presented for emitter temperatures of 1600, 1700, and 1800 K, along with measured efficiencies as a function of converter current densities for each temperature.

  13. Low cost point focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design concepts and plans for mass-production facilities and equipment, field installation, and maintenance were developed and used for cost analysis of a pneumatically stabilized plastic film point focus solar concentrator which has potential application in conjunction with Brayton cycle engines or supply of thermal energy. A sub-scale reflector was fabricated and optically tested by laser ray tracing to determine focal deviations of the surface slope and best focal plane. These test data were then used for comparisons with theoretical concentrator performance modeling and predictions of full-scale design performance. Results of the economic study indicate the concentrator design will have low cost when mass-produced and has cost/performance parameters that fall within current Jet Propulsion Laboratory goals.

  14. UV-LED exposure system for low-cost photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapici, Murat Kaya; Farhat, Ilyas

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a low-cost, portable, light-emitting diode (LED)-based UV exposure system for photolithography. The major system components include UV-LEDs, microcontroller, digital-to-analog (D/A) converter and LED control circuitry. The UV-LED lithography system is also equipped with a digital user interface (LCD and keypad) and permits accurate electronic control on the exposure time and power. Hence the exposure dose can be varied depending on process requirements. Compared to traditional contact lithography, the UV-LED lithography system is significantly cheaper, simple to construct using off-the shelf components and does not require complex infrastructure to operate. Such reduction in system cost and complexity renders UV-LED lithography as a perfect candidate for micro lithography with large process windows typically suitable for MEMS, microfluidics applications.

  15. Low-cost packaging of high-performance optoelectronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Pocha, M.; Strand, O.T.

    1994-08-01

    Optoelectronic component costs are often dominated by the costs of attaching fiber optic pigtails--especially for the case of single transverse mode devices. We present early results of our program in low-cost packaging. We are employing machine-vision controlled automated positioning and silicon microbench technology to reduce the costs of optoelectronic components. Our machine vision approach to automated positioning has already attained a positional accuracy of less than 5 microns in less than 5 minutes; accuracies and times are expected to improve significantly as the development progresses. Complementing the machine vision assembly is our manufacturable approach to silicon microbench technology. We will describe our silicon microbench optoelectronic device packages that incorporate built-in heaters for solder bonding reflow.

  16. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source , is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of exploration and data-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility of the system is illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperature in a lake. PMID:28098819

  17. Synthesis of CZTS Nanoparticles for Low-Cost Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donguk; Kim, Minha; Shim, Joongpyo; Kim, Doyoung; Choi, Wonseok; Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Youngkwan; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, uniformly sized Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles with easy control of chemical composition were synthesized and printable ink containing CZTS nanoparticles was prepared for low-cost-solar cell applications. In addition, we studied the effects of synthesis conditions, such as reaction temperature and time, on properties of the CZTS nanoparticles. For CZTS nanoparticles synthesis process, the reactants were mixed as the 2:1:1:4 molar ratios. The reaction temperature and time was varied from 220 degrees C to 320 degrees C and from 3 hours to 5 hours, respectively. The crystal structure and morphology of CZTS nanoparticles prepared under the various conditions were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used for compositional analysis of the CZTS nanoparticles.

  18. Low-cost, lightweight rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, G. M.; Marsh, C.

    The performance of a low cost, prismatic Li-ion rechargeable battery technology based on the LiMn 2O 4/C cell chemistry is described and compared to a cylindrical LiCoO 2/C cell. The LiMn 2O 4/C cell has demonstrated constant current charge, discharge and pulse discharge rate capability comparable to the more expensive LiCoO 2/C technology. For simulated high power radio operation, the high power LiMn 2O 4/C cell offers performance comparable to the commercial LiCoO 2/C cell. The cycle life demonstrated to date of the LiMn 2O 4/C cell, while adequate for military application, is shorter than the LiCoO 2/C cell.

  19. 4273π: bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware.

    PubMed

    Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David Ek; Holland, Peter Wh; Mitchell, John Bo; Plaisier, Heleen; Ritchie, Michael G; Smart, Steven D

    2013-08-12

    Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012-2013. 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost.

  20. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Agudo, J. Enrique; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%. PMID:23698265

  1. Combining advanced imaging processing and low cost remote imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew J.; McQuiddy, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Target images are very important for evaluating the situation when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are deployed. These images add a significant amount of information to determine the difference between hostile and non-hostile activities, the number of targets in an area, the difference between animals and people, the movement dynamics of targets, and when specific activities of interest are taking place. The imaging capabilities of UGS systems need to provide only target activity and not images without targets in the field of view. The current UGS remote imaging systems are not optimized for target processing and are not low cost. McQ describes in this paper an architectural and technologic approach for significantly improving the processing of images to provide target information while reducing the cost of the intelligent remote imaging capability.

  2. Novel Low-Cost Sensor for Human Bite Force Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Fastier-Wooller, Jarred; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Nguyen, Tuan-Khoa; Cameron, Andrew; Öchsner, Andreas; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a low cost and reliable maximal voluntary bite force sensor which can be manufactured in-house by using an acrylic laser cutting machine. The sensor has been designed for ease of fabrication, assembly, calibration, and safe use. The sensor is capable of use within an hour of commencing production, allowing for rapid prototyping/modifications and practical implementation. The measured data shows a good linear relationship between the applied force and the electrical resistance of the sensor. The output signal has low drift, excellent repeatability, and a large measurable range of 0 to 700 N. A high signal-to-noise response to human bite forces was observed, indicating the high potential of the proposed sensor for human bite force measurement. PMID:27509496

  3. Low-Cost Graphite-Based Free Chlorine Sensor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si; Deen, M Jamal; Ghosh, Raja

    2015-11-03

    Pencil lead was used to fabricate a graphite-based electrode for sensing applications. Its surface was electrochemically modified using ammonium carbamate to make it suitable for sensing free chlorine in water samples. Chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant in the water industry, and the residual free chlorine concentration in water distributed to the consumers must be lower than that stipulated by regulatory bodies. The graphite-based amperometric sensor gave a selective and linear response to free chlorine in the relevant concentration range and no response to commonly interfering ions. It was evaluated further for storage stability, response time, and hysteresis. This sensor is being proposed as a low-cost device for determining free chlorine in water samples. Its ease-of-use, limitations, and feasibility for mass-production and application is discussed.

  4. Low-Cost, Large C-SiC Blisk Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowbel, W.; Effinger, M.

    2008-01-01

    C-SiC composites offer unique properties for propulsion applications. However, fabrication of low-cost, thick, large scale C-SiC disk for integrally bladed disk (blisk) applications has not been established yet. MER has demonstrated a new process to address this issue. Polymer-based processing was employed for interfacial coatings, consolidation and densification. Up to 40" O.C., 2" thick C-SiC composite processing was established, yielding in excess of 1.8 g/cu cm density. Computer tomography (CT) scans on the 40" O.D., 2" thick C-SiC disk showed no visible delamination, and good density uniformity. Stress-rupture testing in air was conducted at 2200 F, 2400 F and 2550 F.

  5. Electricity from sunlight. [low cost silicon for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Miller, J. W.; Lutwack, R.; Hsu, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of new unconventional processes proposed for the low-cost production of silicon for solar cells. Consideration is given to: (1) the Battelle process (Zn/SiCl4), (2) the Battelle process (SiI4), (3) the Silane process, (4) the Motorola process (SiF4/SiF2), (5) the Westinghouse process (Na/SiCl4), (6) the Dow Corning process (C/SiO2), (7) the AeroChem process (SiCl4/H atom), and the Stanford process (Na/SiF4). Preliminary results indicate that the conventional process and the SiI4 processes cannot meet the project goal of $10/kg by 1986. Preliminary cost evaluation results for the Zn/SiCl4 process are favorable.

  6. Low cost cylindrical converter for measuring lead efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatch, G. L.; Nakata, L.; Britt, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost cylindrical thermionic converter has been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in a NASA-JPL program to directly measure converter lead efficiencies using various electrode materials and surfaces. Efficiency measurements are made using input emitter heater power, output power at the leads, and calculated values of the parasitic losses that would not be present in the application configuration. This information can be used to predict the performance characteristics of the advanced converters currently under development. A series of five converters has been tested. Both structured and smooth molybdenum collectors have been used. Emitters included smooth molybdenum, smooth rhenium, and microstructured rhenium. Cesium pressure families of current-voltage curves are presented for emitter temperatures of 1600, 1700, and 1800 K, along with measured efficiencies as a function of converter current densities for each temperature.

  7. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  8. Developing a Low-Cost Force Treadmill via Dynamic Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chih-Yuan; Sung, Jia-Li

    2017-01-01

    By incorporating force transducers into treadmills, force platform-instrumented treadmills (commonly called force treadmills) can collect large amounts of gait data and enable the ground reaction force (GRF) to be calculated. However, the high cost of force treadmills has limited their adoption. This paper proposes a low-cost force treadmill system with force sensors installed underneath a standard exercise treadmill. It identifies and compensates for the force transmission dynamics from the actual GRF applied on the treadmill track surface to the force transmitted to the force sensors underneath the treadmill body. This study also proposes a testing procedure to assess the GRF measurement accuracy of force treadmills. Using this procedure in estimating the GRF of “walk-on-the-spot motion,” it was found that the total harmonic distortion of the tested force treadmill system was about 1.69%, demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. Low cost wafer metrology using a NIR low coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Gwang; Seo, Yong Bum; Joo, Ki-Nam

    2013-06-03

    In this investigation, a low cost Si wafer metrology system based on low coherence interferometry using NIR light is proposed and verified. The whole system consists of two low coherence interferometric principles: low coherence scanning interferometry (LCSI) for measuring surface profiles and spectrally-resolved interferometry (SRI) to obtain the nominal optical thickness of the double-sided polished Si wafer. The combination of two techniques can reduce the measurement time and give adequate dimensional information of the Si wafer. The wavelength of the optical source is around 1 μm, for which transmission is non-zero for undoped silicon and can be also detected by a typical CCD camera. Because of the typical CCD camera, the whole system can be constructed inexpensively.

  10. Sensor Integration in a Low Cost Land Mobile Mapping System

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A.; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved. PMID:22736985

  11. A Low Cost Grism Spectrometer for Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    We have designed and built a low cost (appx. $500) low resolution (R ~ 300) grating-prism (grism) spectrometer for the University of Iowa's robotic observatory. Grism spectrometers differ from simple transmission grating systems by partially compensating for the curved focal plane using a wedge prism. The spectrometer has five optical elements, and was designed using a ray tracing program. The collimating and focusing optics are easily modified for other telescope optics. The optics are mounted in an enclosure made with a 3-d printer. The spectrometer was installed in a modified (extended) filter wheel and has been in routine operation since January 2016. I will show sample spectra using this system and discuss spectral calibration, and optical design considerations for other telescopes. I will also discuss how low-resolution spectrometers can be used in undergraduate teaching laboratories.

  12. Cryogenic characterization of low-cost Joule-Thomson coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, Jerome; Cottereau, Alain; Chazot, Dominique

    2000-12-01

    This paper highlights two main achievements which were performed by AIR LIQUIDE during the last decade in the field of low cost Joule-Thomson coolers. On one hand, in order to comply with new geometrical requirements, AIR LIQUIDE is able to propose a flat cooler. This compact geometry is enabled by a new, cheap, type of heat exchanger. It offers a better resistance to external vibrations. On the other hand AIR LIQUIDE has developed, in the frame of a commercial program, a complete cryogenic cooling system, composed of a dual flow Joule-Thomson cooler, a pressurized gas capacity equipped with a manifold block and a pyrotechnic actuator, and the requested pipes and connectors. The dual flow is enabled by flexion of a washer made of shape memory alloy.

  13. Low-cost aircraft collision-avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Herbert L.

    1993-10-01

    There exists a need for a low-cost aircraft collision-avoidance system suitable, and affordable, for general aviation use. The fact that most of all of mid-air collisions occur under high visibility conditions, and many in and near terminal airspace, allows the consideration of optical means such as a LIDAR system for ranging and tracking to other aircraft to determine if a collision threat exists. This paper presents a system parametric analysis and discusses the LIDAR design tradeoffs with consideration of atmospheric attention, false target discrimination, threat scenario, scanning dynamics, wide FOV retroreflector array performance, and sizing for airframe ease of mounting and minimal aerodynamic effects. Further, concepts for the optical design and mechanization of the scanner are presented as well as a pilot warning/display means for evasive maneuver consideration.

  14. Automatic Low-Cost Data Acquisition from Old Polarimetric Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Santi; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Micali, Norberto

    2005-03-01

    This article describes the design of an apparatus that allows the digital acquisition of polarimetric data from a Lippich polarimeter. This apparatus consists of a low-cost telecamera applied to the ocular of a double-field polarimeter and connected to a PC. The camera is able to reveal with high sensibility the difference in brightness in the two fields allowing more accurate analytical data to be obtained, without need for the analyser to be rotated. This apparatus allows the execution of either single observations or kinetics, because it is able to save previously obtained analytical data. Experimental tests of the apparatus were performed by measuring the rotation angle of solutions of ( )-adrenaline and by following the kinetics of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose.

  15. A low-cost miniaturised detector for environmental radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Briggs, Aaron; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Baird, Adam

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a low-cost (£ few hundred), low-power (40mA), low-mass (30g) detector for environmental radioactivity measurements, using scintillator and solid state technology. The detector can measure energy and therefore has the capability to distinguish between different types of energetic particle. Results from recent tests, when our detector was integrated with a meteorological radiosonde system, and flew on a balloon up to 25km, identified the transition region between energetic particles near the surface, dominated by terrestrial gamma emissions, and higher-energy particles in the free troposphere from cosmic rays. The detector can be used with Bluetooth technology for remote monitoring, which is particularly useful for hazardous areas. It is also small and cheap enough to be used in sensor networks for a wide range of applications, from atmospheric science to disaster monitoring.

  16. Demonstration of the Low-Cost Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, David; Montes, Leticia; Ramos, Angel; Joyce, Brendan; Lumia, Ron

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a low-cost approach of remotely controlling equipment. Our demonstration system consists of a PC, the PUMA 560 robot with Barrett hand, and commercially available controller and teleconferencing software. The system provides a graphical user interface which allows a user to program equipment tasks and preview motions i.e., simulate the results. Once satisfied that the actions are both safe and accomplish the task, the remote user sends the data over the Internet to the local site for execution on the real equipment. A video link provides visual feedback to the remote sight. This technology lends itself readily to NASA's upcoming Mars expeditions by providing remote simulation and control of equipment.

  17. Mercury content in low cost skin lightening cream products.

    PubMed

    Naser, J; Kirm, I

    2012-04-01

    Skin lightening creams were randomly collected from local markets in Sultanate of Oman for analysis of mercury (II) content. All the products collected were of low cost imported materials from different countries. Cream samples were digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at elevated temperature using a microwave digester. The mercury content was measured using Flow Injection Atomic Spectroscopy (FIAS)-Mercury Hydride System. Out of forty cream samples analyzed, about one fourth of the samples contained higher levels of mercury which is more than the maximum mercury content of 1 microg/g permitted by the Food and Drug Administration regulation. The mercury level in the analyzed samples is found to be in the range from 0.02 to 25.7 microg/g. Among the analyzed skin lightening cream samples half of the materials did not have any detectable mercury content.

  18. Generating clean energy at high efficiency and low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan P.

    1991-06-01

    This paper is related to thermal energy conversion with particular attention to the utilization of thermal energy from environmental fluids according to concepts in equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The first step is to prove that a single fluid heat source can produce useful work, so that thermal energy of environmental fluids is not at 'dead state.' An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system can be easily constructed at higher efficiency and lower cost than existing OTEC systems. An atmosphere thermal energy conversion (ATEC) system of high efficiency and low cost is more sophisticated. It requires open or closed counter-clockwise cycles comprising isothermal compressible flow with or without heat transfer. Combination of one of such ATEC System and a cyclic system, and supplementation of fossil or nuclear fission fuel as an additional heat source are discussed for particular applications.

  19. Low-Cost Manufacturing of High- Temperature Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.

    1998-01-01

    Major goals of NASA and the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative include improvements in the affordability of propulsion systems, significant increases in the thrust/weight ratio, and increases in the temperature capability of components of gas turbine engines. Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's HITEMP project worked cooperatively with Allison Advanced Development Corporation to develop a manufacturing method to produce low-cost components for gas turbine engines. Affordability for these polymer composites is defined by the savings in acquisition and life-cycle costs associated with engine weight reduction. To lower engine component costs, the Lewis/Allison team focused on chopped graphite fiber/polyimide resin composites. The high-temperature polyimide resin chosen, PMR-II-50, was developed at NASA Lewis.

  20. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  1. Low-Cost Computers for Education in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    James, Jeffrey

    2011-09-01

    This paper studies the distribution of computer use in a comparison between two of the most dominant suppliers of low-cost computers for education in developing countries (partly because they involve diametrically opposite ways of tackling the problem). The comparison is made in the context of an analytical framework which traces the changing characteristics of products as income rises over time. The crucial distinction turns out to be the way sharing is handled in the two cases. In the one no sharing is allowed while in the other sharing is the basis of the entire product design. Put somewhat differently, the one computer is intensive in a high-income characteristic whereas the other relies entirely on a low-income characteristic.

  2. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of glass encapsulation that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems are discussed. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the low-cost solar array project goals for arrays: (1) a low degradation rate, (2) high reliability, (3) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (4) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (5) a production capacity of 500,000 kW/yr. The glass design areas discussed include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties, and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  3. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs.

  4. Low-cost, pseudo-Halbach dipole magnets for NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayler, Michael C. D.; Sakellariou, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    We present designs for compact, inexpensive and strong dipole permanent magnets aimed primarily at magnetic resonance applications where prepolarization and detection occur at different locations. Low-homogeneity magnets with a 7.5 mm bore size and field up to nearly 2 T are constructed using low-cost starting materials, standard workshop tools and only few hours of labor - an achievable project for a student or postdoc with spare time. As an application example we show how our magnet was used to polarize the nuclear spins in approximately 1 mL of pure [13C ]-methanol prior to detection of its high-resolution NMR spectrum at zero field (measurement field below 10-10 T), where signals appear at multiples of the carbon-hydrogen spin-spin coupling frequency 1JCH = 140.7 (1) Hz.

  5. Low-cost home experiments and demonstrations in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.; Serna, J.; Piquero, G.

    2005-10-01

    More than 60 demonstrations and basic experiments in Optics have been compiled. They can be carried out by secondary and university students in the classroom or at home, and have been conceived considering low cost and easy-to-get materials. The goal is to offer didactic resources, showing that Optics can be taught in an attractive and amusing way. The experiments try to stimulate scientific curiosity, and generate interest in the observation of our physical world. The work could be collected as a book, where each demonstration would be contained in one or two pages, including a title, a list of the required materials and a concise explanation about what to do and observe. Associated with the experimental content, we propose a web page, namely, http://www.ucm.es/info/expoptic, that accepts experiments sent by anyone interested in Optics, which can be used as a forum to interchange information on this educational topic.

  6. Low-cost optoelectronic devices to measure velocity of detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Edwin M.; Lee, Vivian; Mickan, Samuel P.; Davies, Phil J.

    2005-02-01

    Velocity of Detonation (VoD) is an important measured characteristic parameter of explosive materials. When new explosives are developed, their VoD must be determined. Devices used to measure VoD are always destroyed in the process, however replacing these devices represents a considerable cost in the characterisation of new explosives. This paper reports the design and performance of three low-cost implementations of a point-to-point VoD measurement system, two using optical fibre and a third using piezoelectric polymers (PolyVinyliDine Flouride, PVDF). The devices were designed for short charges used under controlled laboratory conditions and were tested using the common explosive 'Composition B'. These new devices are a fraction of the cost of currently available VoD sensors and show promise in achieving comparable accuracy. Their future development will dramatically reduce the cost of testing and aid the characterisation of new explosives.

  7. Low-cost SI-POF analogue TIA and equaliser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lope, Ignacio; García del Pozo, Jose Maria; Mateo, Javier; Urdangarín, Julen; Celma, Santiago

    2012-11-01

    This article proposes the two first blocks of an analogue front-end suitable for plastic optical fibre systems suitable for the standard IEEE 1394. These blocks consist of a preamplifier followed by an equaliser which employs low-cost commercial components and are designed with two different bipolar technologies. With a supply voltage of 3.3 V, the front-end consumes 396 mW. The total gain is 70 dBΩ and it operates at up to 800 Mb/s. At this bit rate, with fibre lengths of up to 30 m, the circuit has a BER ≤ 10-12 and a maximum jitter of 170 psrms.

  8. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  9. Comprehensive low-cost reliability centered maintenance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rotton, S.J.; Dozier, I.J.; Thow, R.

    1995-09-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance optimization approach that all electric utilities can apply to power plant systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and PECO Energy Company jointly sponsored this Comprehensive Low-Cost Reliability Centered Maintenance project to demonstrate that the standard RCM methodology could be streamlined to reduce the cost of analysis while maintaining a high quality product. EPRI`s previous investigation of streamlined RCM methods being pioneered in the nuclear industry indicated that PECO Energy could expect to optimize its maintenance program at reduced cost by carefully controlling the scope without sacrificing documentation or technical quality. Using the insights obtained from these previous studies, three methods were defined in this project and were demonstrated in a large scale application to 60 systems at both the Limerick Generating Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station.

  10. Low-cost drilling system characterizing marine gas hydrate accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolle, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are encountered in the marine sediments of continental margins worldwide, but the nature and distribution of these accumulation is poorly understood. This project involves the development of a low-cost system designed for drilling and characterizing accumulations of gas hydrates on continental margins. A high-pressure, hydraulically powered drill is deployed with a flexible 25-mm-diameter hose into the seafloor in water depths of up to 1,000 m. A 38-mm-diameter hose will return the drilling fluid, cuttings, and any gas encountered to the surface for continuous analysis. The system will be capable of mapping gas concentrations in the sediment to a total depth of up to 1,500 m. Drilling logs and mud logs will be combined to map the distribution of natural gas hydrates.

  11. Low-cost inertial navigation for moderate-g missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost inertial navigation system (INS) concept is described for flight missions characterized by moderate accelerations and limited attitude variations. These missions involve general aviation aircraft, helicopters, or remotely piloted vehicles. The significance of the moderate acceleration and limited attitude is reviewed with respect to platform mechanization and instrumentation. A hybrid mechanization, partially gimballed and partially strapdown, is presented. The INS is implemented by an unbalanced two axis gimbal system and controlled by a two degree of freedom gyro. The INS provides locally level two axis acceleration information along with pitch and roll measurements. Heading information is provided by a second gyro mounted in the inner gimbal. The system error model is equivalent to that of a conventional platform with a tilt error determined by the integral of the gyro drift rate and an equivalent accelerometer type errors are also cancelled. Rapid gyro-compassing, implemented with opened gimbal control loops, and a strapdown procedure provides calibration of gyro drift rate biases.

  12. 4273π: Bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. Results We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012–2013. Conclusions 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost. PMID:23937194

  13. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin

    2017-01-14

    This paper presents a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source , is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of exploration and data-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility of the system is illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperature in a lake.

  14. Low-cost DH and quantum well laser array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Geoffroy, Leo M.; Pesarcik, Scott F.; Magee, Carl J.

    1989-01-01

    The intial results of a program aimed at developing low-cost diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps are reported. MOCVD is used to demonstrate excellent run-to-run reproducibility in emission wavelength, threshold current density, and quantum efficiency. For this first experimental series, J(th) values of approximately 1310 Amps/sq cm were obtained for broad-area unthinned devices from the growth runs. Differential quantum efficiencies of between 41 percent and 47 percent were measured on the non-facet-coated devices from all four runs. Single quantum well, separate confinement heterostructure lasers fabricated from wafers grown in the same MOCVD reactor exhibited near single-mode emission, with J(th) values of approximately 300 Amps/sq cm. Photoluminescence data confirm quantum well widths of 80 A and 150 A for two different MOCVD growth runs.

  15. Low-cost passive UHF RFID tags on paper substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajal, Sayeed Zebaul Haque

    To reduce the significant cost in the widespread deployment of UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, an UHF RFID tag design is presented on paper substrates. The design is based on meander-line miniaturization techniques and open complementary split ring resonator (OCSRR) elements that reduce required conducting materials by 30%. Another passive UHF RFID tag is designed to sense the moisture based on the antenna's polarization. An inexpensive paper substrate and copper layer are used for flexibility and low-cost. The key characteristic of this design is the sensitivity of the antenna's polarization on the passive RFID tag to the moisture content in the paper substrate. In simulations, the antenna is circularly-polarized when the substrate is dry and is linearly-polarized when the substrate is wet. It was shown that the expected read-ranges and desired performance could be achieved reducing the over-all cost of the both designs.

  16. Low-cost EEG-based sleep detection.

    PubMed

    Van Hal, Bryan; Rhodes, Samhita; Dunne, Bruce; Bossemeyer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A real-time stage 1 sleep detection system using a low-cost single dry-sensor EEG headset is described. This device issues an auditory warning at the onset of stage 1 sleep using the "NeuroSky Mindset," an inexpensive commercial entertainment-based headset. The EEG signal is filtered into low/high alpha and low/high beta frequency bands which are analyzed to indicate the onset of sleep. Preliminary results indicate an 81% effective rate of detecting sleep with all failures being false positives of sleep onset. This device was able to predict and respond to the onset of drowsiness preceding stage 1 sleep allowing for earlier warnings with the result of fewer sleep-related accidents.

  17. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wilding; D. Bramwell

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG&E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California.

  18. Low-cost, pseudo-Halbach dipole magnets for NMR.

    PubMed

    Tayler, Michael C D; Sakellariou, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    We present designs for compact, inexpensive and strong dipole permanent magnets aimed primarily at magnetic resonance applications where prepolarization and detection occur at different locations. Low-homogeneity magnets with a 7.5mm bore size and field up to nearly 2T are constructed using low-cost starting materials, standard workshop tools and only few hours of labor - an achievable project for a student or postdoc with spare time. As an application example we show how our magnet was used to polarize the nuclear spins in approximately 1mL of pure [(13)C]-methanol prior to detection of its high-resolution NMR spectrum at zero field (measurement field below 10(-10)T), where signals appear at multiples of the carbon-hydrogen spin-spin coupling frequency (1)JCH=140.7(1)Hz.

  19. Development of a low cost potentiostat using ATXMEGA32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muid, Abdul; Djamal, Mitra; Wirawan, Rahadi

    2014-03-01

    Potentiostat is principal devices in modern electrochemical research especially in the investigation of mechanism reaction which associated with the redox chemistry reaction and other chemical phenomena. Several applications measurement is developed based on this tool such as measurement of sample concentrations, quality test of food and medicine, environmental monitoring and biosensors or development of a protein sensor. We have developed a low cost, simple and portable potentiostat with a relatively small dimension. TLC2264 op-amp and ATMEGA32 microcontroller is used to build controller circuit system. Range potential measurement of this tool is between -1600mV and +1600mV within frequency range 1Hz - 1 kHz. The developed instrument has been tested for measuring samples using different voltammetry techniques, like cyclic, square wave, and linear sweep with relative error under 2.5%.

  20. Low-Cost Peptide Microarrays for Mapping Continuous Antibody Epitopes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ryan; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Law, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for understanding antibody specificity in antibody and vaccine research, pepscan assays provide a rapid method for mapping and profiling antibody responses to continuous epitopes. We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for studying antibody binding. Using a setup of an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer, a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, and an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner, the method allows the interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping, alanine-scanning, and mutant peptides derived from the target antigens. Each peptide is tagged with a polyethylene glycol aminooxy terminus to improve peptide solubility, orientation, and conjugation efficiency to the slide surface.

  1. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  2. Low Cost Real Time Autonomous Remote Monitoring Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, J. R.; Maldonado, P. M.; Pierson, J. J.; Harris, L.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental scientists have a need for gathering multiple parameters during specific time periods to answer their research questions. Most available monitoring systems are very expensive and closed systems, which limits the potential to scale up research projects. We developed a low cost, autonomous, real-time monitoring platform that is both open hardware/software and easy to build, deploy, manage and maintain. The hardware is built with off-the-shelf components and a credit card sized computer called Raspberry Pi, running an open source operating (Raspbian). The system runs off a set of batteries and a solar panel, which makes it ideal for remote locations. The software is divided into three parts: 1) a framework for abstracting the sensors (initializing, pooling and communications) designed in python and using a fully object-oriented design, making it easy for new sensor to be added with minimal code changes, 2) a web front end for managing the entire system, 3) a data store (database) framework for local and remote data retrieval and reporting services. Connectivity to the system can be accomplished through a Wi-Fi or cellular Internet connection. Scientists are being forced to do more with less, in response our platform will provide them with a flexible system that can improve the process of data gathering with an accessible, modular, low-cost, and efficient monitoring system. Currently, we have the required permits from the Department of Natural Resources in Puerto Rico to deploy the platform at the Laguna Grande Bioluminescence Lagoon in Fajardo, PR. This station will include probes for pH, DO, Conductivity and water temperature.

  3. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  4. Investigation of a low cost method to quantify cosmetic defect.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Thomas; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-01-01

    For many patients, the motivation in seeking treatment is the improvement of their appearance rather than to correct an underlying skeletal deformity, so cosmetic concerns and the psychosocial impacts of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are important factors in the clinical decision-making process. In the current environment of evidence based medicine there is a growing need to quantify back surface shape and general body asymmetry with the objective of producing an agreed scoring to be used in developing treatment plans and assessing outcomes but to date many clinics continue to rely on qualitative or expensive methods to describe cosmetic deformity. In November 2010, Microsoft® Corporation launched the low cost Kinect™ camera with 18 million units sold (as at January 2012) throughout the world. The device incorporates proprietary light coding technology that reconstructs the three dimensional location of an estimated 50,000 projected points illuminating objects within its field of view in approximately 1/30th of a second. The aim of the research was to investigate the capabilities of a low cost, reliable and inherently safe apparatus based on Kinect depth sensing and video technology to simultaneously acquire back surface shape and the locations of bony landmarks with the goal of providing data to describe cosmetic defect. Work has been completed using both the apparatus and a commercially available optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, U.K.) to acquire data from a test object representing an unaffected human torso. Results were obtained to compare tri-dimensional bony landmark reconstruction accuracy and combined with analyses of point cloud data to describe back shape. Early indications are that the proposed apparatus has potential to be a clinically useful tool.

  5. Parametric perfusion imaging based on low-cost ultrasound platform.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaolin; Zhong, Hui; Wan, Mingxi; Hu, Xiaowen; Lv, Dan; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to implement parametric perfusion imaging to quantify blood perfusion based on modified low-cost ultrasound platform. A novel ultrasound contrast-specific imaging method called pulse-inversion harmonic sum-squared-differences (PIHSSD) was proposed for improving the sensitivity for detecting contrast agents and the accuracy of parametric perfusion imaging, which combined pulse-inversion harmonic (PIH) with pulse-inversion sum-squared-differences (PISSD) threshold-based decision. PIHSSD method just involved simple operations including addition and multiplication and was easy to realize. The sequences of contrast images without logarithmic compression were used to acquire time intensity curves (TICs) from numerous equal-sized regions-of-interest (ROI) covering the entire image plane. Parametric perfusion images were obtained based on the parameters extracted from the TICs, including peak value (PV), area under curve (AUC), mean transit time (MTT), peak value time (PVT), peak width (PW) and climbing rate (CR). Flow phantom was used for validation and the results suggested that PIHSSD method provided 9.6 to 20.3 dB higher contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) than PIH method. The results of the experiments of rabbit kidney also showed that the CTR of PIHSSD images was higher than that of PIH images, and the parametric perfusion images based on PIHSSD method provided more accurate quantification of blood perfusion compared with those based on PIH and PISSD methods. It demonstrated that the parametric perfusion imaging achieved good performance though implemented on low-cost ultrasound platform. (E-mail: mxwan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn).

  6. A low cost, high performance remotely controlled backhoe/excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper addresses a state of the art, low cost, remotely controlled backhoe/excavator system for remediation use at hazardous waste sites. The all weather, all terrain, Remote Dig-It is based on a simple, proven construction platform and incorporates state of the art sensors, control, telemetry and other subsystems derived from advanced underwater remotely operated vehicle systems. The system can be towed to a site without the use of a trailer, manually operated by an on board operator or operated via a fiber optic or optional RF communications link by a remotely positioned operator. A proportional control system is piggy backed onto the standard manual control system. The control system improves manual operation, allows rapid manual/remote mode selection and provides fine manual or remote control of all functions. The system incorporates up to 4 separate video links, acoustic obstacle proximity sensors, and stereo audio pickups and an optional differential GPS navigation. Video system options include electronic panning and tilting within a distortion-corrected wide angle field of view. The backhoe/excavator subsystem has a quick disconnect interface feature which allows its use as a manipulator with a wide variety of end effectors and tools. The Remote Dig-It was developed to respond to the need for a low-cost, effective remediation system for use at sites containing hazardous materials. The prototype system was independently evaluated for this purpose by the Army at the Jefferson Proving Ground where it surpassed all performance goals. At the time of this writing, the Remote Dig-It system is currently the only backhoe/excavator which met the Army`s goals for remediation systems for use at hazardous waste sites and it costs a fraction of any known competing offerings.

  7. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  8. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  9. Low-cost uncooled VOx infrared camera development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Cook, Grady; Kubala, Kenny; Bates, Robert; Temple, Dorota; Lannon, John; Hilton, Allan; Glukh, Konstantin; Hardy, Busbee

    2013-06-01

    The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 µm pixel pitch 320×240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 µm pixel pitch 640×480 Tamarisk®640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (<3.5 cm3 in volume and <500 mW in power consumption) that costs less than US $500 based on a 10,000 units per month production rate. To meet this challenge, DRS is developing several innovative technologies including a small pixel pitch 640×512 VOx uncooled detector, an advanced digital ROIC and low power miniature camera electronics. In addition, DRS and its partners are developing innovative manufacturing processes to reduce production cycle time and costs including wafer scale optic and vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program.

  10. Nonsense-Mediated Decay of Alternative Precursor mRNA Splicing Variants Is a Major Determinant of the Arabidopsis Steady State Transcriptome[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Drechsel, Gabriele; Kahles, André; Kesarwani, Anil K.; Stauffer, Eva; Behr, Jonas; Drewe, Philipp; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) surveillance pathway can recognize erroneous transcripts and physiological mRNAs, such as precursor mRNA alternative splicing (AS) variants. Currently, information on the global extent of coupled AS and NMD remains scarce and even absent for any plant species. To address this, we conducted transcriptome-wide splicing studies using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in the NMD factor homologs UP FRAMESHIFT1 (UPF1) and UPF3 as well as wild-type samples treated with the translation inhibitor cycloheximide. Our analyses revealed that at least 17.4% of all multi-exon, protein-coding genes produce splicing variants that are targeted by NMD. Moreover, we provide evidence that UPF1 and UPF3 act in a translation-independent mRNA decay pathway. Importantly, 92.3% of the NMD-responsive mRNAs exhibit classical NMD-eliciting features, supporting their authenticity as direct targets. Genes generating NMD-sensitive AS variants function in diverse biological processes, including signaling and protein modification, for which NaCl stress–modulated AS-NMD was found. Besides mRNAs, numerous noncoding RNAs and transcripts derived from intergenic regions were shown to be NMD responsive. In summary, we provide evidence for a major function of AS-coupled NMD in shaping the Arabidopsis transcriptome, having fundamental implications in gene regulation and quality control of transcript processing. PMID:24163313

  11. A trans-acting factor, isolated by the three-hybrid system, that influences alternative splicing of the amyloid precursor protein minigene.

    PubMed

    Poleev, A; Hartmann, A; Stamm, S

    2000-07-01

    Two clones were isolated in a three-hybrid screen of a rat fetal brain P5 cDNA library with an intronic splicing enhancer of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene as RNA bait. These clones represent the rat homologues of the previously described genes CUG-binding protein (CUG-BP) and Siah-binding protein (Siah-BP). Both interact in a sequence-specific manner with the RNA bait used for library screening as well as with the CUG repeat. In contrast, no interactions were observed in the three-hybrid assay with other baits tested. In two-hybrid assays, Siah-BP interacts with U2AF65 as well as with itself. EWS, an RGG-type RNA-binding protein associated with Ewing sarcoma, was identified as an interacting partner for the CUG-BP homologue in a two-hybrid assay for protein-protein interactions performed with various factors involved in RNA metabolism. Splicing assays performed by RT-PCR from cells cotransfected with certain cDNAs and an APP minigene, used as a reporter, indicate exclusion of exon 8 if the CUG-BP homologue is present. We conclude that clone AF169013 and its counterpart in human CUG-BP could be the trans-acting factors that interact with the splicing enhancer downstream of exon 8, and in this way influence alternative splicing of the APP minigene.

  12. Case studies: low cost, high-strength, large carbon foam tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.; Danford, H.

    2009-01-15

    A new carbon foam tooling system has been developed that results in a low-cost, high-strength material that has been proving attractive for creation of tooling for composite parts. Composites are stronger; lighter and less subject to corrosion and fatigue than materials that are currently used for fabrication of advanced structures. Tools to manufacture these composite parts must be rigid, durable and able to offer a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) closely matching that of the composites. Current technology makes it difficult to match the CTE of a composite part in the curing cycle with anything other than a carbon composite or a nickel iron alloy such as Invar. Fabrication of metallic tooling requires many, expensive stages of long duration with a large infrastructure investment. Card ban fiber reinforced polymer resin composite tooling has a shorter lead-time but limited production use because of durability concerns. Coal-based carbon foam material has a compatible CTE and strong durability, that make it an attractive alternative for use in tooling. The use of coal-based carbon foam in tooling for carbon composites is advantageous because of its low cost, light weight, machinability , vacuum integrity and compatibility with a wide range of curing processes. Large-scale tooling case studies will be presented detailing carbon foam's potential for tooling applications.

  13. A facile and low-cost micro fabrication material: flash foam

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Although many microfabrication methods have been reported, the preliminary replication templates used in most microfabrication still depend on the expensive and long-period photolithography. This paper explores an alternative replication templates based on a daily used material, flash foam (FF), and proposes a facile microfabrication method, flash foam stamp lithography (FFSL). When FF is exposed with a desired pattern mask, the negative of the pattern is transferred to its surface and micro structures are formed due to the shrinkage of the exposed area. As FF is commonly used in personal stamps, FFSL is very simple and cost-effective. In this paper, we demonstrated that FF is a good and low-cost template for many micro fabrication methods, such as micro casting and soft lithography. Thus, designing and fabricating micro structures at personal office immediately become possible with FFSL. Furthermore, we demonstrated that multi-scale micro structures can be easily fabricated by double exposure with FFSL. Skin textures is used as another case to demonstrate that FFSL can fabricate structures with different depth in a single exposure. As a result, FF shows a promising future in biology, and analytical chemistry, such as rapid fabrication of point of care diagnostics and microfluidic analytical devices with low cost. PMID:26314247

  14. Development of low-cost amine-enriched solid sorbent for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Bachelor, Thuy Thi Nguyen; Toochinda, Pisanu

    2012-12-01

    CO2 capture amine-enriched solid sorbent using agricultural wastes, such as bagasse, or industrial wastes, such as mullite, as support materials could provide efficient alternative CO2 reduction due to their low cost and ability to shape into many forms. These amine-enriched solid sorbents were prepared by treatment with monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine, piperazine (PZ), 2-(2-aminoethyl-amino) ethanol (AEEA) and mixtures of these amines. The performance of amine-enriched solid sorbents with various amine compositions was studied in a tubular column at 1 atm and an adsorption temperature of 303 K. The CO2 capture capacities of the amine-enriched solid sorbents were determined by gas chromatography at a desorption temperature of 393 K. Amine-enriched solid sorbents in this study exhibited high performance CO2 capture. The MEA-PZ-enriched solid sorbent does have the highest CO2 capture performance of the amine-enriched bagasse support-based sorbents, and the results indicate that PZ is the most effective promoter in this study. The CO2 capture performances of solid sorbents in this study were compared with commercial solid sorbents. This study could lead to the development of low-cost solid sorbents for CO2 capture that can be used in many industrial applications.

  15. Toward a low-cost gait analysis system for clinical and free-living assessment.

    PubMed

    Ladha, Cassim; Del Din, Silvia; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Hickey, Aodhan; Morris, Rosie; Catt, Michael; Rochester, Lynn; Godfrey, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Gait is an important clinical assessment tool since changes in gait may reflect changes in general health. Measurement of gait is a complex process which has been restricted to bespoke clinical facilities until recently. The use of inexpensive wearable technologies is an attractive alternative and offers the potential to assess gait in any environment. In this paper we present the development of a low cost analysis gait system built using entirely open source components. The system is used to capture spatio-temporal gait characteristics derived from an existing conceptual model, sensitive to ageing and neurodegenerative pathology (e.g. Parkinson's disease). We demonstrate the system is suitable for use in a clinical unit and will lead to pragmatic use in a free-living (home) environment. The system consists of a wearable (tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope) with a Raspberry Pi module for data storage and analysis. This forms ongoing work to develop gait as a low cost diagnostic in modern healthcare.

  16. Low cost microfluidic device based on cotton threads for electroanalytical application.

    PubMed

    Agustini, Deonir; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz Humberto

    2016-01-21

    Microfluidic devices are an interesting alternative for performing analytical assays, due to the speed of analyses, reduced sample, reagent and solvent consumption and less waste generation. However, the high manufacturing costs still prevent the massive use of these devices worldwide. Here, we present the construction of a low cost microfluidic thread-based electroanalytical device (μTED), employing extremely cheap materials and a manufacturing process free of equipment. The microfluidic channels were built with cotton threads and the estimated cost per device was only $0.39. The flow of solutions (1.12 μL s(-1)) is generated spontaneously due to the capillary forces, eliminating the use of any pumping system. To demonstrate the analytical performance of the μTED, a simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACT) and diclofenac (DCF) was performed by multiple pulse amperometry (MPA). A linear dynamic range (LDR) of 10 to 320 μmol L(-1) for both species, a limit of detection (LOD) and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.4 and 4.7 μmol L(-1) and 2.5 and 8.3 μmol L(-1) for ACT and DCF, respectively, as well as an analytical frequency of 45 injections per hour were reached. Thus, the proposed device has shown potential to extend the use of microfluidic analytical devices, due to its simplicity, low cost and good analytical performance.

  17. A strategy for low cost development of incremental oil in legacy reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitous decline in oil prices during 2015 has forced operators to search for ways to develop low-cost and low-risk oil reserves. This study examines strategies to low cost development of legacy reservoirs, particularly those which have already implemented a carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) program. Initially the study examines the occurrence and nature of the distribution of the oil resources that are targets for miscible and near-miscible CO2 EOR programs. The analysis then examines determinants of technical recovery through the analysis of representative clastic and carbonate reservoirs. The economic analysis focusses on delineating the dominant components of investment and operational costs. The concluding sections describe options to maximize the value of assets that the operator of such a legacy reservoir may have that include incremental expansion within the same producing zone and to producing zones that are laterally or stratigraphically near main producing zones. The analysis identified the CO2 recycle plant as the dominant investment cost item and purchased CO2 and liquids management as a dominant operational cost items. Strategies to utilize recycle plants for processing CO2 from multiple producing zones and multiple reservoir units can significantly reduce costs. Industrial sources for CO2 should be investigated as a possibly less costly way of meeting EOR requirements. Implementation of tapered water alternating gas injection schemes can partially mitigate increases in fluid lifting costs.

  18. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  19. Low-cost formation of bulk and localized polymer-derived carbon nanodomains from polydimethylsiloxane

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Juan Carlos Castro; Cerda Zorrilla, Mariana; Cabriales, Lucia; Rossano, Luis Manuel León

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present two simple alternative methods to form polymer-derived carbon nanodomains in a controlled fashion and at low cost, using custom-made chemical vapour deposition and selective laser ablation with a commercial CD-DVD platform. Both processes presented shiny and dark residual materials after the polymer combustion and according to micro-Raman spectroscopy of the domains, graphitic nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes have successfully been produced by the combustion of polydimethylsiloxane layers. The fabrication processes and characterization of the byproduct materials are reported. We demonstrate that CVD led to bulk production of graphitic nanocrystals and single-walled carbon nanotubes while direct laser ablation may be employed for the formation of localized fluorescent nanodots. In the latter case, graphitic nanodomains and multi-wall carbon nanotubes are left inside microchannels and preliminary results seem to indicate that laser ablation could offer a tuning control of the nature and optical properties of the nanodomains that are left inside micropatterns with on-demand geometries. These low-cost methods look particularly promising for the formation of carbon nanoresidues with controlled properties and in applications where high integration is desired. PMID:25977844

  20. Low-cost plastic micro-optics for board level optical interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaes, C.; Vervaeke, M.; Volckaerts, B.; Van Erps, J.; Desmet, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Vynck, P.; Gomez, V.; Hermanne, A.; Thienpont, H.

    2006-02-01

    One of the grand challenges in solving the interconnection bottlenecks at the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Multi-Chip-Module (MCM) level, is to adequately replace the PCB and intra-MCM galvanic interconnects with high-performance, low-cost, compact and reliable micro-photonic alternatives. In our labs at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel we are therefore focusing on the continuous development of a rapid prototyping technology for micro-optical interconnect modules, which we call Deep Proton Writing (DPW).The special feature of this prototyping technology is that it is compatible with commercial low-cost mass replication techniques such as micro injection moulding and hot embossing. We will address more specifically in this paper the following components: 1) out-of-plane couplers for optical wave-guides embedded in PCB, 2) peripheral fiber ribbons and two dimensional single- and multimode fiber connectors for high-speed parallel optical connections, and 3) intra-MCM level optical interconnections via free-space optical modules. We furthermore give special attention to the optical tolerancing and the opto-mechanical integration of the components. We use both a sensitivity analysis to misalignment errors and Monte Carlo simulations. It is our aim to investigate the whole component integration chain from the optoelectronic device to the micro-opto-mechanical components constituting the interconnect module.

  1. A low-cost, durable, combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic phantom for cervical transforaminal injections.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Imanuel R; Souzdalnitski, Dmitri; Narouze, Samer

    2012-01-01

    This technical report describes a durable, low-cost, anatomically accurate, and easy-to-prepare combined ultrasound (US) and fluoroscopic phantom of the cervical spine. This phantom is meant to augment training in US- and fluoroscopic-guided pain medicine procedures. The combined US and fluoroscopic phantom (CUF-P) is prepared from commercially available liquid plastic that is ordinarily used to prepare synthetic fishing lures. The liquid plastic is heated and then poured into a metal canister that houses an anatomical cervical spine model. Drops of dark purple dye are added to make the phantom opaque. After cooling, tubing is attached to the CUF-P to simulate blood vessels. The CUF-P accurately simulates human tissue by imitating both the tactile texture of skin and the haptic resistance of human tissue as the needle is advanced. This phantom contains simulated fluid-filled vertebral arteries that exhibit pulsed flow under color Doppler US. Under fluoroscopic examination, the CUF-P-simulated vertebral arteries also exhibit uptake of contrast dye if mistakenly injected. The creation of a training phantom allows the pain physician to practice needle positioning technique while simultaneously visualizing both targeted and avoidable vascular structures under US and fluoroscopic guidance. This low-cost CUF-P is easy to prepare and is reusable, making it an attractive alternative to current homemade and commercially available phantom simulators.

  2. A simple and low-cost platform technology for producing pexiganan antimicrobial peptide in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Xia; Dwyer, Mirjana Dimitrijev; Yu, Alice Lei; Wu, Yang; Fang, Sheng; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, as a new class of antibiotics, have generated tremendous interest as potential alternatives to classical antibiotics. However, the large-scale production of antimicrobial peptides remains a significant challenge. This paper reports a simple and low-cost chromatography-free platform technology for producing antimicrobial peptides in Escherichia coli (E. coli). A fusion protein comprising a variant of the helical biosurfactant protein DAMP4 and the known antimicrobial peptide pexiganan is designed by joining the two polypeptides, at the DNA level, via an acid-sensitive cleavage site. The resulting DAMP4(var)-pexiganan fusion protein expresses at high level and solubility in recombinant E. coli, and a simple heat-purification method was applied to disrupt cells and deliver high-purity DAMP4(var)-pexiganan protein. Simple acid cleavage successfully separated the DAMP4 variant protein and the antimicrobial peptide. Antimicrobial activity tests confirmed that the bio-produced antimicrobial peptide has the same antimicrobial activity as the equivalent product made by conventional chemical peptide synthesis. This simple and low-cost platform technology can be easily adapted to produce other valuable peptide products, and opens a new manufacturing approach for producing antimicrobial peptides at large scale using the tools and approaches of biochemical engineering.

  3. Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U

    2006-09-21

    Hexavalent chromium is a well-known highly toxic metal, considered a priority pollutant. Industrial sources of Cr(VI) include leather tanning, cooling tower blowdown, plating, electroplating, anodizing baths, rinse waters, etc. The most common method applied for chromate control is reduction of Cr(VI) to its trivalent form in acid (pH approximately 2.0) and subsequent hydroxide precipitation of Cr(III) by increasing the pH to approximately 9.0-10.0 using lime. Existing overviews of chromium removal only cover selected technologies that have traditionally been used in chromium removal. Far less attention has been paid to adsorption. Herein, we provide the first review article that provides readers an overview of the sorption capacities of commercial developed carbons and other low cost sorbents for chromium remediation. After an overview of chromium contamination is provided, more than 300 papers on chromium remediation using adsorption are discussed to provide recent information about the most widely used adsorbents applied for chromium remediation. Efforts to establish the adsorption mechanisms of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on various adsorbents are reviewed. Chromium's impact environmental quality, sources of chromium pollution and toxicological/health effects is also briefly introduced. Interpretations of the surface interactions are offered. Particular attention is paid to comparing the sorption efficiency and capacities of commercially available activated carbons to other low cost alternatives, including an extensive table.

  4. Metal-free supercapacitor with aqueous electrolyte and low-cost carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, Nicklas; Wells, Thomas; Andres, Britta; Bäckström, Joakim; Forsberg, Sven; Olin, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SCs) are fast energy storage devices with high pulse efficiency and superior cyclability, which makes them useful in various applications including electronics, vehicles and grids. Aqueous SCs are considered to be more environmentally friendly than those based on organic electrolytes. Because of the corrosive nature of the aqueous environment, however, expensive electrochemically stable materials are needed for the current collectors and electrodes in aqueous SCs. This results in high costs for a given energy-storage capacity. To address this, we developed a novel low-cost aqueous SC using graphite foil as the current collector and a mix of graphene, nanographite, simple water-purification carbons and nanocellulose as electrodes. The electrodes were coated directly onto the graphite foil by using casting frames and the SCs were assembled in a pouch cell design. With this approach, we achieved a material cost reduction of greater than 90% while maintaining approximately one-half of the specific capacitance of a commercial unit, thus demonstrating that the proposed SC can be an environmentally friendly, low-cost alternative to conventional SCs.

  5. A facile and low-cost micro fabrication material: flash foam.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2015-08-28

    Although many microfabrication methods have been reported, the preliminary replication templates used in most microfabrication still depend on the expensive and long-period photolithography. This paper explores an alternative replication templates based on a daily used material, flash foam (FF), and proposes a facile microfabrication method, flash foam stamp lithography (FFSL). When FF is exposed with a desired pattern mask, the negative of the pattern is transferred to its surface and micro structures are formed due to the shrinkage of the exposed area. As FF is commonly used in personal stamps, FFSL is very simple and cost-effective. In this paper, we demonstrated that FF is a good and low-cost template for many micro fabrication methods, such as micro casting and soft lithography. Thus, designing and fabricating micro structures at personal office immediately become possible with FFSL. Furthermore, we demonstrated that multi-scale micro structures can be easily fabricated by double exposure with FFSL. Skin textures is used as another case to demonstrate that FFSL can fabricate structures with different depth in a single exposure. As a result, FF shows a promising future in biology, and analytical chemistry, such as rapid fabrication of point of care diagnostics and microfluidic analytical devices with low cost.

  6. A facile and low-cost micro fabrication material: flash foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Fu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Although many microfabrication methods have been reported, the preliminary replication templates used in most microfabrication still depend on the expensive and long-period photolithography. This paper explores an alternative replication templates based on a daily used material, flash foam (FF), and proposes a facile microfabrication method, flash foam stamp lithography (FFSL). When FF is exposed with a desired pattern mask, the negative of the pattern is transferred to its surface and micro structures are formed due to the shrinkage of the exposed area. As FF is commonly used in personal stamps, FFSL is very simple and cost-effective. In this paper, we demonstrated that FF is a good and low-cost template for many micro fabrication methods, such as micro casting and soft lithography. Thus, designing and fabricating micro structures at personal office immediately become possible with FFSL. Furthermore, we demonstrated that multi-scale micro structures can be easily fabricated by double exposure with FFSL. Skin textures is used as another case to demonstrate that FFSL can fabricate structures with different depth in a single exposure. As a result, FF shows a promising future in biology, and analytical chemistry, such as rapid fabrication of point of care diagnostics and microfluidic analytical devices with low cost.

  7. Low-cost EOD robot using off-the-shelf parts: revisions and performance testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt; Murphy, James; Zimmerman, Todd

    2006-05-01

    With the large number of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) being encountered during recent military operations, there exists a need for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) mobile robots. These robots are predominately used for surveillance and neutralization of these explosive threats from a safe distance. The nature of the mission means that these vehicles are prone to being damaged or destroyed. Current commercially available systems, although capable of performing the mission, are costly and in too short of supply to be lost or damaged in large numbers. At last year's SPIE conference the NAVEODTECHDIV proposed an alternative: a low cost, mobile robot which used commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and was tailored to the types of missions that EOD soldiers commonly perform. The prototype of this low-cost robot, the RAMBOT (Readily Available Maintainable Robot), has been continuously improved over the past year. There have been significant improvements to the original design in the areas of communication, manipulation, and electronics. The result of this work is a final prototype design, which is currently undergoing extensive testing to characterize its capabilities. Some of these tests include vehicle characteristics such as vehicle speed and mobility, vehicle weight and size, as well as maximum effective communication range, susceptibility to temperature, manipulator load limitations, and battery longevity. This conference paper will present the design changes to the robot and fully report on the results from the test series conducted thus far.

  8. Development and programming of Geophonino: A low cost Arduino-based seismic recorder for vertical geophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Llorens, J. L.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Giner-Caturla, J.; Jauregui-Eslava, P.; Rosa-Cintas, S.; Rosa-Herranz, J.

    2016-09-01

    The commercial data acquisition systems used for seismic exploration are usually expensive equipment. In this work, a low cost data acquisition system (Geophonino) has been developed for recording seismic signals from a vertical geophone. The signal goes first through an instrumentation amplifier, INA155, which is suitable for low amplitude signals like the seismic noise, and an anti-aliasing filter based on the MAX7404 switched-capacitor filter. After that, the amplified and filtered signal is digitized and processed by Arduino Due and registered in an SD memory card. Geophonino is configured for continuous registering, where the sampling frequency, the amplitude gain and the registering time are user-defined. The complete prototype is an open source and open hardware system. It has been tested by comparing the registered signals with the ones obtained through different commercial data recording systems and different kind of geophones. The obtained results show good correlation between the tested measurements, presenting Geophonino as a low-cost alternative system for seismic data recording.

  9. Metal-free supercapacitor with aqueous electrolyte and low-cost carbon materials

    PubMed Central

    Blomquist, Nicklas; Wells, Thomas; Andres, Britta; Bäckström, Joakim; Forsberg, Sven; Olin, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SCs) are fast energy storage devices with high pulse efficiency and superior cyclability, which makes them useful in various applications including electronics, vehicles and grids. Aqueous SCs are considered to be more environmentally friendly than those based on organic electrolytes. Because of the corrosive nature of the aqueous environment, however, expensive electrochemically stable materials are needed for the current collectors and electrodes in aqueous SCs. This results in high costs for a given energy-storage capacity. To address this, we developed a novel low-cost aqueous SC using graphite foil as the current collector and a mix of graphene, nanographite, simple water-purification carbons and nanocellulose as electrodes. The electrodes were coated directly onto the graphite foil by using casting frames and the SCs were assembled in a pouch cell design. With this approach, we achieved a material cost reduction of greater than 90% while maintaining approximately one-half of the specific capacitance of a commercial unit, thus demonstrating that the proposed SC can be an environmentally friendly, low-cost alternative to conventional SCs. PMID:28054560

  10. Do low-cost ceramic water filters improve water security in rural South Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Jens; Materne, Tineke; Grüner, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the performance of a low-cost ceramic candle filter system (CCFS) for point of use (POU) drinking water treatment in the village of Hobeni, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. CCFSs were distributed in Hobeni and a survey was carried out among their users. The performance of 51 CCFSs was evaluated by dip slides and related to human factors. Already after two-thirds of their specified lifetime, none of the distributed CCFSs produced water without distinct contamination, and more than one-third even deteriorated in hygienic water quality. Besides the water source (springs were preferable compared to river or rain water), a high water throughput was the dominant reason for poor CCFS performance. A stepwise laboratory test documented the negative effects of repeated loading and ambient field temperatures. These findings suggest that not every CCFS type per se guarantees improved drinking water security and that the efficiency of low-cost systems should continuously be monitored. For this purpose, dip slides were found to be a cost-efficient alternative to standard laboratory tests. They consistently underestimated microbial counts but can be used by laypersons and hence by the users themselves to assess critical contamination of their filter systems.

  11. Analysis of the costs of dialysis and the effects of an incentive mechanism for low-cost dialysis modalities.

    PubMed

    Cleemput, Irina; De Laet, Chris

    2013-05-01

    Treatment costs of end-stage renal disease with dialysis are high and vary between dialysis modalities. Public healthcare payers aim at stimulating the use of less expensive dialysis modalities, with maintenance of healthcare quality. This study examines the effects of Belgian financial incentive mechanisms for the use of low-cost dialysis treatments. First, the costs of different dialysis modalities were calculated from the hospital's perspective. Data were obtained through a hospital survey. The balance between costs and revenues was simulated for an average Belgian dialysis programme. Incremental profits were calculated in function of the proportion of patients on alternative dialysis modalities. Hospital haemodialysis is the most expensive modality per patient year, followed by peritoneal dialysis and finally satellite haemodialysis. Under current reimbursement rules mean profits of a dialysis programme are maximal if about 28% of patients are treated with a low-cost dialysis modality. This is only slightly lower than the observed percentage in Belgian dialysis centres in the same period. In Belgium, the financial incentives for the use of low-cost dialysis modalities only had a modest impact due to the continuing profits that could be generated by high-cost dialysis. Profit neutrality is crucial for the success of any financial incentive mechanism for low-cost dialysis modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A portable low-cost long-term live-cell imaging platform for biomedical research and education.

    PubMed

    Walzik, Maria P; Vollmar, Verena; Lachnit, Theresa; Dietz, Helmut; Haug, Susanne; Bachmann, Holger; Fath, Moritz; Aschenbrenner, Daniel; Abolpour Mofrad, Sepideh; Friedrich, Oliver; Gilbert, Daniel F

    2015-02-15

    Time-resolved visualization and analysis of slow dynamic processes in living cells has revolutionized many aspects of in vitro cellular studies. However, existing technology applied to time-resolved live-cell microscopy is often immobile, costly and requires a high level of skill to use and maintain. These factors limit its utility to field research and educational purposes. The recent availability of rapid prototyping technology makes it possible to quickly and easily engineer purpose-built alternatives to conventional research infrastructure which are low-cost and user-friendly. In this paper we describe the prototype of a fully automated low-cost, portable live-cell imaging system for time-resolved label-free visualization of dynamic processes in living cells. The device is light-weight (3.6 kg), small (22 × 22 × 22 cm) and extremely low-cost (<€1250). We demonstrate its potential for biomedical use by long-term imaging of recombinant HEK293 cells at varying culture conditions and validate its ability to generate time-resolved data of high quality allowing for analysis of time-dependent processes in living cells. While this work focuses on long-term imaging of mammalian cells, the presented technology could also be adapted for use with other biological specimen and provides a general example of rapidly prototyped low-cost biosensor technology for application in life sciences and education. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  14. Sorption of mercury onto waste material derived low-cost activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Rana, Sukanta; Lahiri, Susmita; Munekage, Yukihiro

    2017-03-01

    The present study was performed to develop the low-cost activated carbon (AC) from some waste materials as potential mercury (Hg) sorbent to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. The ACs were prepared from banana peel, orange peel, cotton fiber and paper wastes by pyrolysis and characterized by analyzing physico-chemical properties and Hg sorption capacity. The Brunauer Emmett and Teller surface areas (cotton 138 m2/g; paper 119 m2/g), micropore surface areas (cotton 65 m2/g; paper 54 m2/g) and major constituent carbon contents (cotton 95.04 %; paper 94.4 %) were higher in ACs of cotton fiber and paper wastes than the rest two ACs. The Hg sorption capacities and removal percentages were greater in cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs compared to those of the banana and orange peels. The results revealed that elevated Hg removal ability of cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs is largely regulated by their surface area, porosity and carbon content properties. Therefore, ACs of cotton and paper wastes were identified as potential sorbent among four developed ACs to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. Furthermore, easily accessible precursor material, simple preparation process, favorable physico-chemical properties and high Hg sorption capacity indicated that cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs could be used as potential and low-cost sorbents of Hg for applying in practical field to control the severe effect of Hg contamination in the aquatic environment to avoid its human and environmental health risks.

  15. Sorption of mercury onto waste material derived low-cost activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Rana, Sukanta; Lahiri, Susmita; Munekage, Yukihiro

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to develop the low-cost activated carbon (AC) from some waste materials as potential mercury (Hg) sorbent to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. The ACs were prepared from banana peel, orange peel, cotton fiber and paper wastes by pyrolysis and characterized by analyzing physico-chemical properties and Hg sorption capacity. The Brunauer Emmett and Teller surface areas (cotton 138 m2/g; paper 119 m2/g), micropore surface areas (cotton 65 m2/g; paper 54 m2/g) and major constituent carbon contents (cotton 95.04 %; paper 94.4 %) were higher in ACs of cotton fiber and paper wastes than the rest two ACs. The Hg sorption capacities and removal percentages were greater in cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs compared to those of the banana and orange peels. The results revealed that elevated Hg removal ability of cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs is largely regulated by their surface area, porosity and carbon content properties. Therefore, ACs of cotton and paper wastes were identified as potential sorbent among four developed ACs to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. Furthermore, easily accessible precursor material, simple preparation process, favorable physico-chemical properties and high Hg sorption capacity indicated that cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs could be used as potential and low-cost sorbents of Hg for applying in practical field to control the severe effect of Hg contamination in the aquatic environment to avoid its human and environmental health risks.

  16. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Jason; Ritenour, Andrew; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2013-04-29

    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  17. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  18. The Aluminum Falcon: a Low Cost Modern Commercial Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Mark; Hernandez, Estela; King, Gregory; Lor, Alex Choua; Musser, Jana; Trigs, Deanne; Yee, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) released a Request For Proposal (RFP) in the form of an undergraduate design competition for a 153 passenger jet transport with a range of 3,000 nautical miles. The primary requirement for this aircraft was low cost, both in acquisition and operation, with a technology availability date of the year 2000. This report presents the Non-Solo Design Group's response to the RFP, the Aluminum Falcon (AF-1). Non-Solo's approach to development was to take the best elements of seven individual preliminary designs, then combine and refine them. The resulting aircraft meets or exceeds all requirements of both the RFP and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Highlights include a revolutionary wing planform, known as an M-wing, which offers many advantages over a conventional aft swept wing. For example, the M-wing lessens the travel in the aircraft center of gravity caused by fuel being stored in the wing. It also reduces the amount of torque imposed on the center wing box because more of the lifting load acts near the fuselage joint, rather than behind it. In essence, the M-wing offers the best of both worlds: using a forward swept wing root places the aerodynamic center of the wing further forward and allows the landing gear to be placed without the use of a yahudi. At the same time, with the outboard section swept backward the tip retains an amount of aeroelastic dampening that is lost on a completely forward swept wing. The result is a wing which has many advantages of a straight, unswept wings without the severe compressibility effects at high Mach numbers. Other highlights include judicious use of composites, giving recognition to the importance of weight and its effect on aircraft cost and performance, and an advanced passenger entertainment system which can be used as a source of revenue for the airlines. This aircraft meets the low-cost doctrine with an acquisition cost of $29 million and a direct

  19. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2008-04-02

    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic

  20. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  1. Orbital Observatory for Planetary Science on Low Cost Autonomous Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavrov, Alexander; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Vedenkin, Nikolay; Korablev, Oleg; Markov, Alexander; Kiselev, Alexander; Kokorich, Mikhail

    The Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science (IKI RAS) and Dauria Aerospace are currently developing the middle class space telescope project aiming to observe Solar system planets by a long term spectroscopy and polarimetry monitoring, as well aiming to extra solar planets (exoplanets) engineering and scientific goals. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in 2017. It is planned first to be delivered on board of the ISS by the Progress spacecraft, then it will be released to the desired orbit approx. 550 km by the Progress in the way to its final destination. The “Planetary monitoring” telescope has a 0.6 meter primary mirror diameter Telescope currently includes 5 science instruments: NIR: 1000..4000 nm high-resolution spectrometer with the spectral resolution of R>10000; Visible Field camera with filters wheel; UV-VIS field resolved Fourier spectrometer; UV-VIS spectropolarimeter; Stellar coronagraph linked with a low-resolution spectrometer. The scientific goals of the “Planetary monitoring” telescope are devoted to explore not yet well studied questions on Mars (methane, ozone, dust and clouds, isotope ratio of HDO/H2O), on Venus (UV absorber, night glow, atmosphere dynamics), icy and gaseous Solar system planets, Jovian moons, Lunar exosphere, comets, meteorites. This telescope aims also for engineering development of exoplanet study by stellar coronagraphy linked with a low-resolution spectrometry. This Orbital Observatory mission uses the first low cost small satellite platform developed by the Dauria Aerospace® - Russian private company and reuses the Progress to elevate the observatory orbit. The Progress launches four times per year to provide supplies and scientific instruments to the ISS. The Progress is capable of raising the height of the orbit for the piggyback scientific missions; therefore, the implementation of the Orbital Observatory mission is considered not just as a development of a successful science mission so it

  2. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    Existing low-cost unmanned aerospace systems are unreliable, and engineers must blend reliability analysis with fault-tolerant control in novel ways. This dissertation introduces the University of Minnesota unmanned aerial vehicle flight research platform, a comprehensive simulation and flight test facility for reliability and fault-tolerance research. An industry-standard reliability assessment technique, the failure modes and effects analysis, is performed for an unmanned aircraft. Particular attention is afforded to the control surface and servo-actuation subsystem. Maintaining effector health is essential for safe flight; failures may lead to loss of control incidents. Failure likelihood, severity, and risk are qualitatively assessed for several effector failure modes. Design changes are recommended to improve aircraft reliability based on this analysis. Most notably, the control surfaces are split, providing independent actuation and dual-redundancy. The simulation models for control surface aerodynamic effects are updated to reflect the split surfaces using a first-principles geometric analysis. The failure modes and effects analysis is extended by using a high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft simulation. A trim state discovery is performed to identify the achievable steady, wings-level flight envelope of the healthy and damaged vehicle. Tolerance of elevator actuator failures is studied using familiar tools from linear systems analysis. This analysis reveals significant inherent performance limitations for candidate adaptive/reconfigurable control algorithms used for the vehicle. Moreover, it demonstrates how these tools can be applied in a design feedback loop to make safety-critical unmanned systems more reliable. Control surface impairments that do occur must be quickly and accurately detected. This dissertation also considers fault detection and identification for an unmanned aerial vehicle using model-based and model-free approaches and applies those

  3. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully

  4. Low Cost Fabrication of 2G Wires for AC Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kodenkandath, T.; List, F.A., III

    2005-09-15

    Ink-jet printing has been demonstrated as an adaptable technology for printing YBCO filaments using a Metal Organic (MO) YBCO precursor. The technology was demonstrated using AMSC's proprietary metal organic TFA-based YBCO precursor and a commercial piezoelectric print-head on RABiTS templates. Filaments with a width of 100 um and spacing of 200 um were successfully printed, decomposed and processed to YBCO. Critical currents of {approx} 200 A/cm-w were achieved in a series of filaments with a 2 mm width. The single nozzle laboratory printer used in the Phase 1 program is capable of printing {approx} 100 um wide single filaments at a rate of 8-10 cm/sec. The electrical stabilization of filaments with a Ag ink was also evaluated using ink-jet printing. The overall objective of the Phase 1 Project was the evaluation and demonstration of inkjet-printing for depositing YBCO filaments on textured templates (RABiTS, IBAD, ISD, etc. substrates) with properties appropriate for low loss ac conductors. Goals of the Phase 1 program included development of an appropriate precursor ink, demonstration of the printing process, processing and characterization of printed YBCO filaments and evaluation of the process for further development.

  5. Low cost photonic comb for sub-m/s wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betters, Christopher H.; Hermouet, Maxime; Blanc, Thomas; Colless, James I.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Kos, Janez; Leon-Saval, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental limitation of precision radial velocity measurements is the accuracy and stability of the calibration source. Here we present a low-cost alternative to more complex laser metrology based systems that utilises a single-mode fibre Fabry-Perot etalon. There are three key elements on this photonic comb: i) an optical fibre etalon with thermo-electric coolers; ii) a Rubidium Saturation Absorption Spectroscopy (SAS) setup; and iii) an optical fibre switch system for simultaneous laser locking of the etalon. We simultaneously measure the Rubidium D2 transitions around 780.2 nm and the closest etalon line. A PID loop controls the etalon temperate to maintain the position of its peak with an RMS error of <10cm/s for 10 minute integration intervals in continous operation. The optical fibre switch system allows for a time multiplexed coupling of the etalon to a spectrograph and SAS system.

  6. State-of-the-art low-cost solar reflector materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C; Jorgensen, G

    1994-11-01

    Solar thermal technologies generate power by concentrating sunlight with large mirrors. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industrial partners to develop the optical reflector materials needed for the successful deployment of this technology. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes in severe outdoor environments. Currently, the best candidate materials for solar mirrors are silver-coated low-iron glass and silvered polymer films. Polymer reflectors are lighter in weight, offer greater flexibility in system design, and have the potential for lower cost than glass mirrors. In parallel with collaborative activities, several innovative candidate reflector-material constructions were investigated at NREL. The low-cost material requirement necessitates manufacturing compatible with mass-production techniques. Future cooperative efforts with the web-coating industry offers the promise of exciting new alternative materials and the potential for dramatic cost savings in developing advanced solar reflector materials.

  7. Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

  8. Ink jet assisted metallization for low cost flat plate solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, K. F.; Vest, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-controlled ink-jet-assisted metallization of the front surface of solar cells with metalorganic silver inks offers a maskless alternative method to conventional photolithography and screen printing. This method can provide low cost, fine resolution, reduced process complexity, avoidance of degradation of the p-n junction by firing at lower temperature, and uniform line film on rough surface of solar cells. The metallization process involves belt furnace firing and thermal spiking. With multilayer ink jet printing and firing, solar cells of about 5-6 percent efficiency without antireflection (AR) coating can be produced. With a titanium thin-film underlayer as an adhesion promoter, solar cells of average efficiency 8.08 percent without AR coating can be obtained. This efficiency value is approximately equal to that of thin-film solar cells of the same lot. Problems with regard to lower inorganic content of the inks and contact resistance are noted.

  9. Sources and Transportation of Bulk, Low-Cost Lunar Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has built the Lunar Surface Testbed using 200 tons of volcanic cinder and ash from the same source used for the simulant series JSC-1. This Technical Memorandum examines the alternatives examined for transportation and source. The cost of low-cost lunar simulant is driven by the cost of transportation, which is controlled by distance and, to a lesser extent, quantity. Metabasalts in the eastern United States were evaluated due to their proximity to MSFC. Volcanic cinder deposits in New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona were recognized as preferred sources. In addition to having fewer green, secondary minerals, they contain vesicular glass, both of which are desirable. Transportation costs were more than 90% of the total procurement costs for the simulant material.

  10. Multi-100kW: Planar low cost solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Seven low cost multi-100 kW planar solar array modules were fabricated and tested. Two different designs were used, demonstrating advanced solar array construction practices. Both module types utilized second generation gridded back cells featuring high efficiency and IR transparency. A silicon dioxide AR coating optimized for transmission at gamma = 1.7 microns was applied to the back surface. Two interconnect types, a single sheet printed circuit and a roll type, with alternate approaches to increasing transparency and reducing cost were designed and fabricated. Hinge stress and electrical power optimization were also examined. Two point designs were studied. The first design used a coilage longeron mast and is autonomously deployable. The second design used a Stac Beam for high natural frequency response and required astronaut assistance and assembly on orbit. It was conclusively demonstrated that planar arrays are the most cost effective design for use on the space station or other high power applications.

  11. Ink jet assisted metallization for low cost flat plate solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, K. F.; Vest, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-controlled ink-jet-assisted metallization of the front surface of solar cells with metalorganic silver inks offers a maskless alternative method to conventional photolithography and screen printing. This method can provide low cost, fine resolution, reduced process complexity, avoidance of degradation of the p-n junction by firing at lower temperature, and uniform line film on rough surface of solar cells. The metallization process involves belt furnace firing and thermal spiking. With multilayer ink jet printing and firing, solar cells of about 5-6 percent efficiency without antireflection (AR) coating can be produced. With a titanium thin-film underlayer as an adhesion promoter, solar cells of average efficiency 8.08 percent without AR coating can be obtained. This efficiency value is approximately equal to that of thin-film solar cells of the same lot. Problems with regard to lower inorganic content of the inks and contact resistance are noted.

  12. Avionics and Power Management for Low-Cost High-Altitude Balloon Science Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jeffrey; Roberts, Anthony; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude balloons (HABs) have become popular as educational and scientific platforms for planetary research. This document outlines key components for missions where low cost and rapid development are desired. As an alternative to ground-based vacuum and thermal testing, these systems can be flight tested at comparable costs. Communication, solar, space, and atmospheric sensing experiments often require environments where ground level testing can be challenging or impossible in certain cases. When performing HAB research the ability to monitor the status of the platform and gather data is key for both scientific and recoverability aspects of the mission. A few turnkey platform solutions are outlined that leverage rapidly evolving open-source engineering ecosystems. Rather than building custom components from scratch, these recommendations attempt to maximize simplicity and cost of HAB platforms to make launches more accessible to everyone.

  13. Efficiency enhancement in two-cell CIGS photovoltaic system with low-cost optical spectral splitter.

    PubMed

    Maragliano, Carlo; Apostoleris, Harry; Bronzoni, Matteo; Rampino, Stefano; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-01-25

    Spectrum splitting represents a valid alternative to multi-junction solar cells for broadband light-to-electricity conversion. While this concept has existed for decades, its adoption at the industrial scale is still stifled by high manufacturing costs and inability to scale to large areas. Here we report the experimental validation of a novel design that could allow the widespread adoption of spectrum splitting as a low-cost approach to high efficiency photovoltaic conversion. Our system consists of a prismatic lens that can be manufactured using the same methods employed for conventional CPV optic production, and two inexpensive CuInGaSe(2) (CIGS) solar cells having different composition and, thus, band gaps. We demonstrate a large improvement in cell efficiency under the splitter and show how this can lead to substantial increases in system output at competitive cost using existing technologies.

  14. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H. Felix

    2015-01-01

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system’s functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements. PMID:26404270

  15. Development of a Low Cost Assistive Listening System for Hearing-Impaired Student Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Pan-ngum, Setha; Soonrach, Tharapong; Seesutas, Sangvorn; Noymai, Anukool

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and tests of a low cost ALS. It was designed for hearing-impaired student classrooms. It utilised digital wireless technology and was aimed to be an alternative to a popular FM ALS. Key specifications include transmitting in 2.4 GHz ISM band with eight selectable transmission channels, battery operated and chargeable, pocket size, and ranged up to thirty metres. Audio characteristics and user tests show that it is comparable to a commercial system, currently employed in our partner school. The results also show that wearing an ALS clearly improves hearing of hearing-impaired students. Long-term usage by school children will be monitored to evaluate the system robustness and durability. PMID:23766709

  16. Development of a low cost assistive listening system for hearing-impaired student classroom.

    PubMed

    Pan-ngum, Setha; Soonrach, Tharapong; Seesutas, Sangvorn; Noymai, Anukool; Israsena, Pasin

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and tests of a low cost ALS. It was designed for hearing-impaired student classrooms. It utilised digital wireless technology and was aimed to be an alternative to a popular FM ALS. Key specifications include transmitting in 2.4 GHz ISM band with eight selectable transmission channels, battery operated and chargeable, pocket size, and ranged up to thirty metres. Audio characteristics and user tests show that it is comparable to a commercial system, currently employed in our partner school. The results also show that wearing an ALS clearly improves hearing of hearing-impaired students. Long-term usage by school children will be monitored to evaluate the system robustness and durability.

  17. A low-cost efficient and durable low-temperature solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odonnell, T. P.

    The considered collector utilizes a material made of ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM). This material has been used in solar systems to heat domestic water, pools, spas, and homes by radiant energy. EPDM or ethylene propylene rubber compounds are synthetic elastomers. EPDM elastomers combine superior ozone, good heat and oxygen resistance, and very good low temperature properties to produce a compound with excellent overall age resistance. The material is extruded into 4.4 inch wide mats. Each mat has six small tubes alternating with thin webbing. The absorber mat will adhere to any clean building surface with the use of thermosetting construction-grade mastic adhesive. Carbon black contained in the mat material acts to increase the solar absorptivity. Their low cost makes the elastomers commercially very attractive. The efficiency and durability of the material are discussed.

  18. Adsorption of phenolic compounds on low-cost adsorbents: A review.

    PubMed

    Ahmaruzzaman, Md

    2008-11-04

    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from wastewater. Phenolic compounds represent one of the problematic groups. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred adsorbent for phenol removal, its widespread use is restricted due to the high cost. As such, alternative non-conventional adsorbents have been investigated. The natural materials, waste materials from industry and agriculture and bioadsorbents can be employed as inexpensive adsorbents. The review (i) presents a critical analysis of these materials; (ii) describes their characteristics, advantages and limitations; and (iii) discusses the various mechanisms involved. There are several issues and drawbacks concerned on the adsorption of phenolic compounds that have been discussed in this review article. It is evident from the review that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated high removal capabilities for certain phenolic compounds. In particular, industrial waste might be a promising adsorbent for environmental and purification purposes.

  19. Maximizing the Scientific Return of Low Cost Planetary Missions Using Solar Electric Propulsion(abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Metzger, A.; Pieters, C.; Elphic, R. C.; McCord, T.; Head, J.; Abshire, J.; Philips, R.; Sykes, M.; A'Hearn, M.; Hickman, M.; Sercel, J.; Kluever, C.; Rosenthal, R.; Purdy, W.

    1994-01-01

    After many years of development, solar electric propulsion is now a practical low cost alternative for many planetary missions. In response to the recent Discovery AO, we and a number of colleagues have examined the scientific return from a missioon to map the Moon and then rendezvous with a small body. In planning this mission, we found that solar electric propulsion was quite affordable under the Discovery guidelines, that many targets could be reached more rapidly with solar electric propulsion than chemical propulsion, that a large number of planetary bodies were accessible with modest propulsion systems, and that such missions were quite adaptable, with generous launch windows which minimized mission risks. Moreover, solar electric propulsion is ideally suited for large payloads requiring a large amount of power.

  20. Testing the Feasibility of a Low-Cost Network Performance Measurement Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Scott; Schopf, Jennifer M.; Miller, Kenneth; Zurawski, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Todays science collaborations depend on reliable, high performance networks, but monitoring the end-to-end performance of a network can be costly and difficult. The most accurate approaches involve using measurement equipment in many locations, which can be both expensive and difficult to manage due to immobile or complicated assets. The perfSONAR framework facilitates network measurement making management of the tests more reasonable. Traditional deployments have used over-provisioned servers, which can be expensive to deploy and maintain. As scientific network uses proliferate, there is a desire to instrument more facets of a network to better understand trends. This work explores low cost alternatives to assist with network measurement. Benefits include the ability to deploy more resources quickly, and reduced capital and operating expenditures. Finally, we present candidate platforms and a testing scenario that evaluated the relative merits of four types of small form factor equipment to deliver accurate performance measurements.