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Sample records for alternative mutagenic treatment

  1. Counteracting quasispecies adaptability: extinction of a ribavirin-resistant virus mutant by an alternative mutagenic treatment.

    PubMed

    Perales, Celia; Agudo, Rubén; Domingo, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction promoted by mutagen-induced elevation of mutation rates of viruses, may meet with the problem of selection of mutagen-resistant variants, as extensively documented for standard, non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors. Previously, we characterized a mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus that included in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase replacement M296I that decreased the sensitivity of the virus to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin. Replacement M296I in the viral polymerase impedes the extinction of the mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus by elevated concentrations of ribavirin. In contrast, wild type virus was extinguished by the same ribavirin treatment and, interestingly, no mutants resistant to ribavirin were selected from the wild type populations. Decreases of infectivity and viral load of the ribavirin-resistant M296I mutant were attained with a combination of the mutagen 5-fluorouracil and the non-mutagenic inhibitor guanidine hydrocloride. However, extinction was achieved with a sequential treatment, first with ribavirin, and then with a minimal dose of 5-fluorouracil in combination with guanidine hydrochloride. Both, wild type and ribavirin-resistant mutant M296I exhibited equal sensitivity to this combination, indicating that replacement M296I in the polymerase did not confer a significant cross-resistance to 5-fluorouracil. We discuss these results in relation to antiviral designs based on lethal mutagenesis. (i) When dominant in the population, a mutation that confers partial resistance to a mutagenic agent can jeopardize virus extinction by elevated doses of the same mutagen. (ii) A wild type virus, subjected to identical high mutagenic treatment, need not select a mutagen-resistant variant, and the population can be extinguished. (iii) Extinction of the mutagen-resistant variant can be achieved by a sequential treatment of a high dose of the same mutagen, followed by a combination of another mutagen with

  2. Mutagenic activity in humic water and alum flocculated humic water treated with alternative disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Backlund, P; Kronberg, L; Pensar, G; Tikkanen, L

    1985-12-01

    Mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 100, TA 98 and TA 97 has been determined for humic water and alum flocculated humic water, treated with the alternative disinfectants chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, ozone/chlorine and chlorine/chlorine dioxide. The most pronounced activity was found for chlorine treated water tested on strain TA 100 without metabolic activation (S9 mix). Ozone treatment prior to chlorination did not alter the activity, while treatment with chlorine in combination with chlorine dioxide reduced the activity to a level somewhat over the background. No mutagenic response was detected in waters treated with ozone or chlorine dioxide alone. In presence of S9 mix all water extracts studied were non-mutagenic.

  3. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATION (TRE) AT A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT USING MUTAGENICITY AS AN END- POINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work revealed substantial levels of mutagenicity in effluents from certain municipal wastewater treatment plants. One of these treatment plants was selected for further study to track the effluent mutagenicity to its sources, to chemically characterize the mutagenicity, ...

  4. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATION (TRE) AT A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT USING MUTAGENICITY AS AN END- POINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work revealed substantial levels of mutagenicity in effluents from certain municipal wastewater treatment plants. One of these treatment plants was selected for further study to track the effluent mutagenicity to its sources, to chemically characterize the mutagenicity, ...

  5. Mutagenicity of an aged gasworks soil during bioslurry treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Christine L; Lynes, Krista D; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Öberg, Lars; Lambert, Iain B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the mutagenic activity of organic fractions from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pilot-scale bioslurry remediation. Slurry samples were previously analyzed for changes in PAH and polycyclic aromatic compound content, and this study examined the correspondence between the chemical and toxicological metrics. Nonpolar neutral and semipolar aromatic fractions of samples obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 24, and 29 of treatment were assayed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutation assay. Most samples elicited a significant positive response on Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without S9 metabolic activation; however, TA100 failed to detect mutagenicity in any sample. Changes in the mutagenic activity of the fractions across treatment time and metabolic activation conditions suggests a pattern of formation and transformation of mutagenic compounds that may include a wide range of PAH derivatives such as aromatic amines, oxygenated PAHs, and S-heterocyclic compounds. The prior chemical analyses documented the formation of oxygenated PAHs during the treatment (e.g., 4-oxapyrene-5-one), and the mutagenicity analyses showed high corresponding activity in the semipolar fraction with and without metabolic activation. However, it could not be verified that these specific compounds were the underlying cause of the observed changes in mutagenic activity. The results highlight the need for concurrent chemical and toxicological profiling of contaminated sites undergoing remediation to ensure elimination of priority contaminants as well as a reduction in toxicological hazard. Moreover, the results imply that remediation efficacy and utility be evaluated using both chemical and toxicological metrics. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19274766

  6. Mutagens in urine sampled repetitively from municipal refuse incinerator workers and water treatment workers.

    PubMed

    Ma, X F; Babish, J G; Scarlett, J M; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

    1992-12-01

    Municipal refuse incinerator workers may be exposed to mutagenic compounds from combustion gases and particulates during plant operation, maintenance, and ash removal procedures. The frequency of mutagens was measured by the Ames assay in 3 urine samples collected from each of 37 workers in 4 refuse incinerators and 35 (control) workers from 8 water treatment plants during June-August 1990. When comparing the first urine samples contributed by workers in each cohort, incinerator workers had a significantly (p < .05) increased risk of both direct-acting mutagens and promutagens (8/37 or 22% for each mutagen type) compared with water treatment workers (2/35 or 6% for each mutagen type). Smoking within 24 h before urine sampling was not a confounder of these results. Interestingly, there was no significant (p > .05) difference for risk of urinary mutagens or promutagens between the two cohorts when comparing, respectively, the second and third urine samples from each cohort. The repeatability of demonstrating urinary mutagens in individual incinerator workers was poor, suggesting that their exposure was highly variable and/or that these workers modified their exposure (e.g., wore masks) as a consequence of being studied. Factors that influence production of mutagenic compounds during refuse incineration and subsequent worker exposure are discussed.

  7. [Production of mutagenic compounds during the water purification treatment of surface water].

    PubMed

    Gilli, G; Carraro, E; Ferrara, A

    1991-01-01

    In the last years many studies have reported the presence of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in treated waters. These substances can be present in raw water, but are also produced during drinking water purification. Mutagens are formed as by-products of chemical reactions between oxidants/disinfectants used in treatments and organic load of the raw water (humic and fulvic acids). The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of mutagenic substances during the main phases of the Po river water treatment ("PO3" plant) in Turin. Water samples (50 litres), collected from February 1989 to August 1990, were concentrated with XAD-2/XAD-8 resins mixture. Extracts were tested for mutagenicity at different doses (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 litres) by Ames Salmonella assay, using TA 100 and TA 98 strains, without microsome fraction (S9). Raw water was rarely mutagenic while, in particular at the highest doses (5 and 10 litres), sometimes showed toxic effect. After ozonation treatment only few samples were mutagenic with TA 100 strain, while 43% of the samples were mutagenic with TA 98. The following treatment of clariflocculation and chlorination with NaClO produced mutagens in 95% of the samples assayed with TA 100 and in 85% of the samples assayed with TA 98. The next GAC/sand filtration step seems to reduce the mutagenic load produced in the previous phases. Finally, drinking water after chlorination with ClO2 showed weak mutagenicity at 1 litre dose (26% and 21% of positive samples with TA 100 and TA 98 respectively) and this effect increased at the higher dosages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  9. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles from an engine with differing exhaust after treatments.

    PubMed

    Shi, X-C; Keane, M J; Ong, T; Li, S-Q; Bugarski, A B

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatments on the mutagenicity of diesel particulate matter (DPM) collected directly in an underground mine environment. A number of after-treatment devices are currently used on diesel engines in mines, but it is critical to determine whether reductions in DPM concentrations result in a corresponding decrease in adverse health effects. An eddy-current dynamometer was used to operate naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine at several steady-state conditions. The samples were collected when the engine was equipped with a standard muffler, a diesel oxidation catalytic converter, two types of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter systems, and three types of disposable diesel particulate filter elements. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on acetone extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. The results indicated strong correlation between engine operating conditions and mutagenic activity of DPM. When the engine was fitted with muffler, the mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected from light-load, but not heavy-load operating conditions. When the engine was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst, the samples did not exhibit mutagenic activity for any of four engine operating conditions. Mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected when the engine was retrofitted with three types of disposable filters and sintered metal diesel particulate filter and operated at light load conditions. However, those filtration systems substantially reduced the concentration-normalized mutagenic activity from the levels observed for the muffler.

  10. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  11. Formation of mutagens following chlorination of humic acid. A model for mutagen formation during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Meier, J R; Lingg, R D; Bull, R J

    1983-07-01

    Aqueous chlorination of humic acids results in the formation of compounds with direct-acting mutagenic activity in the Ames/Salmonella plate assay for tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538. The addition of a rat-liver microsomal fraction (S9) plus cofactors causes a substantial decrease of activity, the extent of which is tester strain dependent. The non-chlorinated humic acids are not mutagenic either in the presence or absence of S9. Formation of mutagenic activity and of total organic halogen (TOX) is linearly related to humic concentration in the range of 0.2-1.6 mg/ml total organic carbon (TOC), and to chlorine concentration in the range of 0.1-1.0 chlorine equivalents per mole of carbon. The mutagenic activity is due predominantly to non-volatile compounds. Mutagenic activity is also detectable, after sample concentration by lyophilization, upon chlorination at a humic acid level of 0.02 mg/ml TOC. The specific mutagenic activities (per mg TOX), and also the degree of chlorine incorporation into humic acid, at 0.02 mg/ml TOC are similar to those present after chlorination at 1 mg/ml TOC. Production of mutagens is greatly dependent on the chlorination pH, with a pattern of decreasing mutagenic activity with increasing pH. This order of activity can be at least partially explained by the alkali liability of the compounds. Chlorination of commercial humic acids is proposed as a model for examination of mutagen formation during water chlorination.

  12. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical and mutagenic evaluation of sludge from a large wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ottaviani, M.; Crebelli, R.; Fuselli, S.; La Rocca, C.; Baldassarri, L.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Digested sludges from a wastewater treatment plant were analyzed to assess their level of contamination by some organic (polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides) and inorganic (heavy metals) micropollutants and their mutagenicity features. The heavy metal content in none of the samples exceeded the limits set out in EEC Directive 276/86; as far as PCBs are concerned, the sludges analyzed indicated a level of contamination up to two orders of magnitude higher than some Italian agricultural soils. Mutagenicity assays on either crude or fractionated sludge extracts using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 gave negative results, thus suggesting the absence of genotoxic contaminants in the samples investigated.

  14. EFFECT OF LAND TREATMENT ON THE MUTAGENICITY OF MILWAUKEE HARBOR SEDIMENT [POSTER PRESENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment from the Milwaukee harbor is known to be contaminated with PAHs and PCBs. A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the potential of land treatment to detoxify these contaminants, as determined by several chemical and biological endpoints, including mutagenicity. T...

  15. EFFECT OF LAND TREATMENT ON THE MUTAGENICITY OF MILWAUKEE HARBOR SEDIMENT [POSTER PRESENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment from the Milwaukee harbor is known to be contaminated with PAHs and PCBs. A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the potential of land treatment to detoxify these contaminants, as determined by several chemical and biological endpoints, including mutagenicity. T...

  16. Comet-FISH for the evaluation of plant DNA damage after mutagenic treatments.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative investigation of the actions of three mutagens that are widely used in plant mutagenesis using the comet-FISH technique. The comet-FISH technique was used for the analysis of DNA damage and the kinetics of repair within specific DNA sequences. FISH with rDNA and telomeric/centromeric DNA probes was applied to comets that were obtained from an alkaline/neutral comet assay. Migration within specific DNA sequences was analysed after treatment with two chemical mutagens-maleic hydrazide (MH) and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU), and γ-rays. Barley was used as a model plant in this study. The possible utility of specific DNA sequences in a comparative assessment of the distribution of DNA damage within a plant genome was evaluated. This study proved that the comet-FISH technique is suitable for a detailed quantification of DNA damage and repair within specific DNA sequences in plant mutagenesis. The analysis of FISH signals demonstrated that the involvement of specific DNA sequences in DNA damage was different and was dependent on the mutagen used. We showed that 5S rDNA and telomeric DNA sequences are more sensitive to mutagenic treatment, which was expressed by a stronger fragmentation and migration in comparison to the other probes used in the study. We found that 5S rDNA and telomeric DNA probes are more suitable for testing the genotoxicity of environmental factors. A comparison of the involvement of specific chromosome domains in direct DNA breakage/repair and in chromosome aberration formation after mutagen treatment indicates the compatibility of the results.

  17. Generation of bactericidal and mutagenic components by pulsed electric field treatment.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Kristien M F A; Diels, Ann M J; Michiels, Chris W

    2004-06-01

    Inactivation of stationary phase Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria innocua (10(8) CFU/ml) by high intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) was studied in water and different buffers at pH 7.0. The fraction of survivors after PEF treatment with 300 pulses (5 Hz) of 26.7 kV/cm and a pulse width of 2 micros varied between 0.050% and 55%, but was always lower in Tris-HCl buffer than in HEPES-KOH buffer and water. When cell suspensions were stored for 24 h at 25 degrees C after PEF treatment, the survivor fraction further decreased, except for E. coli in water and HEPES-KOH. By following the survival of untreated cells added to water or buffers that were previously PEF treated, this secondary inactivation could be ascribed to the formation of bactericidal components as a result of PEF treatment. Buffers and water containing 10 mM NaCl became bactericidal against all three bacteria upon PEF treatment, and the bactericidal effect could be neutralized by thiosulfate, suggesting that chlorine and/or hypochlorite had been formed. Also in the absence of Cl- ions, PEF treated water and buffers had bactericidal properties, but the specificity of the bactericidal effects against different bacteria differed depending on the buffer used. In the Ames mutagenicity test using His- S. Typhimurium mutant strains, PEF treated Tris buffers containing 10 mM Cl- ions, as well as PEF treated grape juice showed a mutagenic effect. The implications of these findings for the safety of PEF treated foods are discussed.

  18. Formation of mutagenic activity during surface water preozonization and its removal in drinking water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoof, F.; Janssens, J.G.; Van Dijck, H.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of preozonization, coagulation and double layer filtration on formation and removal of mutagenic activity was studied using XAD-8 extracts collected from neutral and acidic solutions and assaying them in the Salmonella typhimurium microsomal assay. Preozonization of surface water produced direct acting frame shift mutagens which were adsorbed on XAD-8 from neutral solutions. This phenomenon was shown to be dependent on the ozone dose applied. Coagulation with different chemicals and subsequent direct filtration partially reduced the mutagenic activity.

  19. Mutagenicity of fly ash particles in Paramecium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Palizzi, R.A.; Herr, C.; Fisher, G.L.

    1981-01-09

    Paramecium, a protozoan that ingests nonnutritive particulate matter, was used to determine the mutagenicity of fly ash. Heat treatment inactivated mutagens that require metabolic conversion to their active form but did not destroy all mutagenicity. Extraction of particles with hydrochloric acid, but not dimethyl sulfoxide, removed detectable mutagenic activity.

  20. Alternative DNA structure formation in the mutagenic human c-MYC promoter.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo, Imee Marie A; Zewail-Foote, Maha; Kerwin, Sean M; Vasquez, Karen M

    2017-05-05

    Mutation 'hotspot' regions in the genome are susceptible to genetic instability, implicating them in diseases. These hotspots are not random and often co-localize with DNA sequences potentially capable of adopting alternative DNA structures (non-B DNA, e.g. H-DNA and G4-DNA), which have been identified as endogenous sources of genomic instability. There are regions that contain overlapping sequences that may form more than one non-B DNA structure. The extent to which one structure impacts the formation/stability of another, within the sequence, is not fully understood. To address this issue, we investigated the folding preferences of oligonucleotides from a chromosomal breakpoint hotspot in the human c-MYC oncogene containing both potential G4-forming and H-DNA-forming elements. We characterized the structures formed in the presence of G4-DNA-stabilizing K+ ions or H-DNA-stabilizing Mg2+ ions using multiple techniques. We found that under conditions favorable for H-DNA formation, a stable intramolecular triplex DNA structure predominated; whereas, under K+-rich, G4-DNA-forming conditions, a plurality of unfolded and folded species were present. Thus, within a limited region containing sequences with the potential to adopt multiple structures, only one structure predominates under a given condition. The predominance of H-DNA implicates this structure in the instability associated with the human c-MYC oncogene. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Alternative DNA structure formation in the mutagenic human c-MYC promoter

    PubMed Central

    del Mundo, Imee Marie A.; Zewail-Foote, Maha; Kerwin, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mutation ‘hotspot’ regions in the genome are susceptible to genetic instability, implicating them in diseases. These hotspots are not random and often co-localize with DNA sequences potentially capable of adopting alternative DNA structures (non-B DNA, e.g. H-DNA and G4-DNA), which have been identified as endogenous sources of genomic instability. There are regions that contain overlapping sequences that may form more than one non-B DNA structure. The extent to which one structure impacts the formation/stability of another, within the sequence, is not fully understood. To address this issue, we investigated the folding preferences of oligonucleotides from a chromosomal breakpoint hotspot in the human c-MYC oncogene containing both potential G4-forming and H-DNA-forming elements. We characterized the structures formed in the presence of G4-DNA-stabilizing K+ ions or H-DNA-stabilizing Mg2+ ions using multiple techniques. We found that under conditions favorable for H-DNA formation, a stable intramolecular triplex DNA structure predominated; whereas, under K+-rich, G4-DNA-forming conditions, a plurality of unfolded and folded species were present. Thus, within a limited region containing sequences with the potential to adopt multiple structures, only one structure predominates under a given condition. The predominance of H-DNA implicates this structure in the instability associated with the human c-MYC oncogene. PMID:28334873

  2. Alternative approaches to epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    McElroy-Cox, Caitlin

    2009-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse group of health care practices and products that fall outside the realm of traditional Western medical theory and practice and that are used to complement or replace conventional medical therapies. The use of CAM has increased over the past two decades, and surveys have shown that up to 44% of patients with epilepsy are using some form of CAM treatment. This article reviews the CAM modalities of meditation, yoga, relaxation techniques, biofeedback, nutritional and herbal supplements, dietary measures, chiropractic care, acupuncture, Reiki, and homeopathy and what is known about their potential efficacy in patients with epilepsy.

  3. Molecular dissection of a viral quasispecies under mutagenic treatment: positive correlation between fitness loss and mutational load.

    PubMed

    Arias, Armando; Isabel de Ávila, Ana; Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Agudo, Rubén; Escarmís, Cristina; Domingo, Esteban

    2013-04-01

    Low fidelity replication and the absence of error-repair activities in RNA viruses result in complex and adaptable ensembles of related genomes in the viral population, termed quasispecies, with important implications for natural infections. Theoretical predictions suggested that elevated replication error rates in RNA viruses might be near to a maximum compatible with viral viability. This fact encouraged the use of mutagenic nucleosides as a new antiviral strategy to induce viral extinction through increased replication error rates. Despite extensive evidence of lethal mutagenesis of RNA viruses by different mutagenic compounds, a detailed picture of the infectivity of individual genomes and its relationship with the mutations accumulated is lacking. Here, we report a molecular analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease virus population previously subjected to heavy mutagenesis to determine whether a correlation between increased mutagenesis and decreased fitness existed. Plaque-purified viruses isolated from a ribavirin-treated quasispecies presented decreases of up to 200-fold in infectivity relative to clones in the reference population, associated with an overall eightfold increase in the mutation frequency. This observation suggests that individual infectious genomes of a quasispecies subjected to increased mutagenesis lose infectivity by their continuous mutagenic 'poisoning'. These results support the lethal defection model of virus extinction and the practical use of chemical mutagens as antiviral treatment. Even when extinction is not achieved, mutagenesis can decrease the infectivity of surviving virus, and facilitate their clearance by host immune responses or complementing antiviral approaches.

  4. Application of effect-directed analysis to identify mutagenic nitrogenous disinfection by-products of advanced oxidation drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Vughs, D; Baken, K A; Kolkman, A; Martijn, A J; de Voogt, P

    2016-07-22

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants in (drinking) water treatment. It is however known that medium pressure UV/H2O2 treatment may lead to mutagenicity in the Ames test, which is no longer present after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Many nitrogen-containing disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) result from the reaction of photolysis products of nitrate with (photolysis products of) natural organic material (NOM) during medium pressure UV treatment of water. Identification of the N-DBPs and the application of effect-directed analysis to combine chemical screening results with biological activity would provide more insight into the relation of specific N-DBPs with the observed mutagenicity and was the subject of this study. To this end, fractions of medium pressure UV-treated and untreated water extracts were prepared using preparative HPLC and tested using the Ames fluctuation test. In addition, high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on all fractions to assess the presence of N-DBPs. Based on toxicity data and read across analysis, we could identify five N-DBPs that are potentially genotoxic and were present in relatively high concentrations in the fractions in which mutagenicity was observed. The results of this study offer opportunities to further evaluate the identity and potential health concern of N-DBPs formed during advanced oxidation UV drinking water treatment.

  5. Alternative splicing regulates activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID): implications for suppression of AID mutagenic activity in normal and malignant B cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaosheng; Darce, Jaime R.; Chang, Sook Kyung; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.

    2008-01-01

    The mutagenic enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in germinal center (GC) B cells. Deregulated expression of AID is associated with various B-cell malignancies and, currently, it remains unclear how AID activity is extinguished to avoid illegitimate mutations. AID has also been shown to be alternatively spliced in malignant B cells, and there is limited evidence that this also occurs in normal blood B cells. The functional significance of these splice variants remains unknown. Here we show that normal GC human B cells and blood memory B cells similarly express AID splice variants and show for the first time that AID splicing variants are singly expressed in individual normal B cells as well as malignant B cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We further demonstrate that the alternative AID splice variants display different activities ranging from inactivation of CSR to inactivation or heightened SHM activity. Our data therefore suggest that CSR and SHM are differentially switched off by varying the expression of splicing products of AID at the individual cell level. Most importantly, our findings suggest a novel tumor suppression mechanism by which unnecessary AID mutagenic activities are promptly contained for GC B cells. PMID:18684869

  6. Alternative strategies for carcinogenicity assessment: an efficient and simplified approach based on in vitro mutagenicity and cell transformation assays.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia

    2011-05-01

    The need for tools able to predict chemical carcinogens in less time and at a lower cost in terms of animal lives and money is still a research priority, even after several decades of effort in that direction. Now, new regulatory requirements (e.g. the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances recently implemented in Europe) have even increased the pressure to develop new tools in this field. Drawbacks of the present testing strategies have come to light again recently especially in view of new requirements in worldwide regulations. Among these are (i) the lack of assays able to identify non-genotoxic carcinogens, (ii) the exaggerated rate of misleading (false) positive results of the in vitro mammalian cell-based short-term mutagenicity tests and (iii) the extremely low sensitivity of in vivo short-term mutagenicity tests. Within this perspective, we analyse the contribution of cell transformation assays (CTAs), and we show that they are a valid complement to tools able to detect DNA-reactive carcinogens. We also show that a tiered strategy, with inexpensive and fast tests in Tier 1 (e.g. the Ames test or structural alerts) and the Syrian hamster embryo CTA in Tier 2, is able to identify up to 90% of carcinogens.

  7. Alternative Treatments for Ankylosing Spondylitis

    MedlinePlus

    Login/Register Site Feedback About Spondylitis Overview Types of Spondylitis For The Newly Diagnosed Could I Have Spondylitis? Treatment ... Vehicle Purchase from our Store Shop Cart Login Register About Spondylitis Overview Types of Spondylitis Ankylosing Spondylitis ...

  8. Alternative treatment of heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, G; Ross, J N

    1992-06-01

    Conventional adulticidal therapy may cause acute death due to embolism in major pulmonary arteries resulting in severe infarction of the lung. To avoid this problem removing a significant number of worms with flexible alligator forceps prior to adulticidal therapy is recommended. Before surgery, an accurate diagnosis and critical evaluation of the patient is mandated for proper choice and sequence of treatment.

  9. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  10. Alternatives to Drug Treatment for Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Den Houtter, Kathryn

    1980-01-01

    Results from recent studies on the effectiveness of Ritalin for "hyperactivity" show that this treatment is dubious at best. This article presents an alternative treatment approach, placing emphasis on devising an appropriate learning situation that meets the needs of the so-called hyperactive child. (Author)

  11. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  12. Alternatives to Drug Treatment for Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Den Houtter, Kathryn

    1980-01-01

    Results from recent studies on the effectiveness of Ritalin for "hyperactivity" show that this treatment is dubious at best. This article presents an alternative treatment approach, placing emphasis on devising an appropriate learning situation that meets the needs of the so-called hyperactive child. (Author)

  13. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    PubMed

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  14. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  15. Mutagenicities of nitrosated carboline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lin, J K; Wu, S S; Chen, J T

    1986-10-01

    Food-borne amines have been considered as the potential precursors of endogenous carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in humans. A compound which yields a direct mutagen after nitrite treatment was isolated from soy sauce and was identified as 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) (Wakabayashi, et al., 1983). The mutagenicities of other carboline derivatives such as harman, norharman, harmaline, harmalol, harmine, and harmol were studied. Like MTCA, the nitrosated carboline derivatives showed higher mutagenic activity as compared to their corresponding parent compounds. The demethylated analogue of MTCA, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-carboline-3-carboxylic acid was synthesized and its nitrosated products were shown to be mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98. The potent mutagen Trp-P-2 is a typical 3-carboline derivative. The mutagenicity of Trp-P-2 was suppressed remarkably after nitrosation. Several 3-carboline derivatives also showed the similar property. Nitrosation of MTCA gave several derivatives which were isolated and showed direct mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. Further characterization of these new carboline derivatives is in progress.

  16. Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

    1993-04-08

    Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

  17. Mutagenic activity of disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cognet, L.; Courtois, Y.; Mallevialle, J.

    1986-11-01

    Data on raw water quality, disinfection treatment practices, and the resulting mutagenic properties of the treated water were compiled from pilot- and full-scale treatment experiments to evaluate that parameter which might produce variability in the results of a mutagenic study. Analysis of the data and comparison of treatment practices indicated that the measured mutagenic activity is strongly related to the characteristics of the organic matter in the raw water, the methodology used to sample and detect mutagens, the scale of the study both in terms of treatment flow and period of study, and the point at which and the conditions under which oxidants are added during treatment. Conclusions regarding disinfection systems in full-scale water treatment plants include the following: When raw water is pretreated and high concentrations of organics are present in the raw water, both ozonation and chlorination increased mutagenic activity. However, no significant difference in mutagenicity was found between the two oxidants. Both in the case of a nitrified groundwater and a clarified surface water, the mutagenic activity of the water after ozonation was related to its mutagenic activity before ozonation. With ozonation, mutagenic activity decreased after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Thus, when GAC filtration follows ozone disinfection, early addition of oxidants may not be deleterious to the finished water quality. When chlorine or chlorine dioxide is added after GAC filtration, chlorine dioxide was found to produce a less mutagenic water than chlorine. Although these conclusions suggest means of controlling mutagenic activity during treatment, it must be stressed that the measurement of mutagenicity is a presumptive index of contamination level.

  18. Mutagenic activity of disinfection by-products.

    PubMed Central

    Cognet, L; Courtois, Y; Mallevialle, J

    1986-01-01

    Data on raw water quality, disinfection treatment practices, and the resulting mutagenic properties of the treated water were compiled from pilot- and full-scale treatment experiments to evaluate that parameter which might produce variability in the results of a mutagenic study. Analysis of the data and comparison of treatment practices indicated that the measured mutagenic activity is strongly related to the characteristics of the organic matter in the raw water, the methodology used to sample and detect mutagens, the scale of the study both in terms of treatment flow and period of study, and the point at which and the conditions under which oxidants are added during treatment. Conclusions regarding disinfection systems in full-scale water treatment plants include the following: When raw water is pretreated and high concentrations of organics are present in the raw water, both ozonation and chlorination increased mutagenic activity. However, no significant difference in mutagenicity was found between the two oxidants. Both in the case of a nitrified groundwater and a clarified surface water, the mutagenic activity of the water after ozonation was related to its mutagenic activity before ozonation. With ozonation, mutagenic activity decreased after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Thus, when GAC filtration follows ozone disinfection, early addition of oxidants may not be deleterious to the finished water quality. When chlorine or chlorine dioxide is added after GAC filtration, chlorine dioxide was found to produce a less mutagenic water than chlorine. Although these conclusions suggest means of controlling mutagenic activity during treatment, it must be stressed that the measurement of mutagenicity is a presumptive index of contamination level. PMID:3816721

  19. [Skew deviation. Strabismological diagnosis and treatment alternatives].

    PubMed

    Moguel-Ancheita, Silvia; Castellanos-Pérez Bolde, Carmen Guadalupe; Orozco-Gómez, Luis Porfirio

    2009-01-01

    We undertook this study to analyze diagnostic and treatment alternatives in patients with skew deviation (SD). This is a prospective, observational and longitudinal study of patients with SD. The study took place in a third-level medical center during the period from September 2007 to May 2008. Strabismological exploration, multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment alternatives were analyzed. Ten patients presenting SD were studied. Diagnoses were multiple sclerosis, arteriovenous malformation, epilepsy, hydrocephalus, ischemic encephalopathy, cortical atrophy, hypoplasia of corpus callosum and thalamic hemorrhage. Psychomotor retardation was present in 80%. Other diagnoses were Cogan apraxia, Parinaud syndrome, see-saw nystagmus, Foville syndrome, and hemiplegic alterations. Related strabismuses were exotropia (5), esotropia (3), hypertropia (2), and dissociated vertical deviation (1). Lesions of II, III and VII cranial nerves were found. Complete strabological study allows a better diagnosis of the lesion and consequently relapsing disease in order to achieve a better treatment according to each patient. Optical rehabilitation and botulinum applications are especially indicated.

  20. Complementary and alternative treatments in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Malone, Michael A; Gloyer, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Many patients suffering from pain and dysfunction attributable to musculoskeletal conditions will use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of both the quantity and quality of CAM treatments for specific musculoskeletal conditions. Many CAM treatments are used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, but may be more commonly used for specific conditions. This article addresses the use of CAM for specific musculoskeletal conditions, followed by a review of other CAM treatments and their potential indications for a multitude of conditions, based on the current medical literature and traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectivity of advanced wastewater treatment: reduction of in vitro endocrine activity and mutagenicity but not of in vivo reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Giebner, Sabrina; Ostermann, Sina; Straskraba, Susanne; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2016-09-06

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have a limited capacity to eliminate micropollutants. One option to improve this is tertiary treatment. Accordingly, the WWTP Eriskirch at the German river Schussen has been upgraded with different combinations of ozonation, sand, and granulated activated carbon filtration. In this study, the removal of endocrine and genotoxic effects in vitro and reproductive toxicity in vivo was assessed in a 2-year long-term monitoring. All experiments were performed with aqueous and solid-phase extracted water samples. Untreated wastewater affected several endocrine endpoints in reporter gene assays. The conventional treatment removed the estrogenic and androgenic activity by 77 and 95 %, respectively. Nevertheless, high anti-estrogenic activities and reproductive toxicity persisted. All advanced treatment technologies further reduced the estrogenic activities by additional 69-86 % compared to conventional treatment, resulting in a complete removal of up to 97 %. In the Ames assay, we detected an ozone-induced mutagenicity, which was removed by subsequent filtration. This demonstrates that a post treatment to ozonation is needed to minimize toxic oxidative transformation products. In the reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a decreased number of embryos was observed for all wastewater samples. This indicates that reproductive toxicants were eliminated by neither the conventional nor the advanced treatment. Furthermore, aqueous samples showed higher anti-estrogenic and reproductive toxicity than extracted samples, indicating that the causative compounds are not extractable or were lost during extraction. This underlines the importance of the adequate handling of wastewater samples. Taken together, this study demonstrates that combinations of multiple advanced technologies reduce endocrine effects in vitro. However, they did not remove in vitro anti-estrogenicity and in vivo reproductive toxicity. This

  2. Treatment Technology and Alternative Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    At this point in our settlement of the planet Earth, with over seven billion human inhabitants, there are very few unallocated sources of fresh water. We are turning slowly toward "alternatives" such as municipal and industrial wastewater, saline groundwater, the sea, irrigation return flow, and produced water that comes up with oil and gas deposits from deep beneath the surface of the earth. Slowly turning, not because of a lack in technological ability, but because it takes a large capital investment to acquire and treat these sources to a level at which they can be used. The regulatory system is not geared up for alternative sources and treatment processes. Permitting can be circular, contradictory, time consuming, and very expensive. The purpose for the water, or the value of the product obtained using the water, must be such that the capital and ongoing expense seem reasonable. There are so many technological solutions for recovering water quality that choosing the most reliable, economical, and environmentally sound technology involves unraveling the "best" weave of treatment processes from a tangled knot of alternatives. Aside from permitting issues, which are beyond the topic for this presentation, the "best" weave of processes will be composed of four strands specifically fitted to the local situation: energy, pretreatment, driving force for separation processes, and waste management. A range of treatment technologies will be examined in this presentation with a focus on how the quality of the feed water, available power sources, materials, and waste management opportunities aid in choosing the best weave of treatment technologies, and how innovative use of a wide variety of driving forces are increasing the efficiency of treatment processes.

  3. [Alternative methods of nicotine dependence treatment].

    PubMed

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Goniewicz, Maciej; Czogała, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The methods of tobacco dependency treatment, which are alternative to pharmacological ones, have in recent years increasingly gained popularity. The most popular include: acupuncture, laser therapy, electrostimulation, hypnosis and autohypnosis, bioresonance, as well as herbalism, aromatherapy and homeopathic methods. The above mentioned methods have been shortly characterized in this paper. Their effectiveness and usefulness of application have as well been brought up for discussion on the basis of available specialist literature. The aspects related to safety of particular methods of therapy for the patient have also been presented. The analysis showed that effectiveness of the methods is often disputable and the main advantage of those methods is a support effect to patient who wants to give up smoking. Thus, it seems that alternative methods may be applied in combination with pharmacological ones because they increase the smoker's motivation to stop smoking and at the same time increase the chance to overcome the addiction in general.

  4. Mutagen formation during commercial processing of foods.

    PubMed Central

    Krone, C A; Yeh, S M; Iwaoka, W T

    1986-01-01

    Levels of bacterial mutagenicity 3-17 times above spontaneous are generated during commercial thermal processing (canning) of foods, particularly foods high in protein. The potential for other processing operations, including pasteurization, dehydration, and concentration, to produce substances active in the Ames Salmonella assay was also examined. Two heated fish model systems, canned salmon and fried sole, were established by extracting mutagen precursors from fish tissues with water. The model system studies suggest that the limiting reactants for mutagen formation differ from one food product to another, and that Maillard type browning reactions are involved in mutagen production. Bisulfite treatment was found to inhibit mutagen formation in modal systems and whole food products. Isolation and partial characterization of the mutagens in both fried and canned pink salmon showed that at least three distinct mutagens were present. These mutagens exhibited HPLC retention time patterns on C18, cyano, and amino columns different than the major mutagens present in other cooked and grilled meats and fish. PMID:3530739

  5. Treatment Alternatives to Negotiate Peri-Implantitis

    PubMed Central

    Machtei, Eli E.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-implant diseases are becoming a major health issue in dentistry. Despite the magnitude of this problem and the potential grave consequences, commonly acceptable treatment protocols are missing. Hence, the present paper reviews the literature treatment of peri-implantitis in order to explore their benefits and limitations. Treatment of peri-implantitis may include surgical and nonsurgical approaches, either individually or combined. Nonsurgical therapy is aimed at removing local irritants from the implants' surface with or without surface decontamination and possibly some additional adjunctive therapies agents or devices. Systemic antibiotics may also be incorporated. Surgical therapy is aimed at removing any residual subgingival deposits and additionally reducing the peri-implant pockets depth. This can be done alone or in conjunction with either osseous respective approach or regenerative approach. Finally, if all fails, explantation might be the best alternative in order to arrest the destruction of the osseous structure around the implant, thus preserving whatever is left in this site for future reconstruction. The available literature is still lacking with large heterogeneity in the clinical response thus suggesting possible underlying predisposing conditions that are not all clear to us. Therefore, at present time treatment of peri-implantitis should be considered possible but not necessarily predictable. PMID:26556414

  6. Ozone is mutagenic in Salmonella

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, D.; Combes, R.; McConville, M.; Zeiger, E. )

    1992-01-01

    Ozone is a highly reactive gas that has been tested for genotoxicity in a number of systems. Induced genetic damage resulting from ozone treatment may not be readily observed because of the high toxicity of the chemical and difficulties in generating and administering controlled concentrations. The mutagenicity of ozone was investigated in Salmonella typhimurium using a plate test protocol designed for reactive vapours and gases. Ozone, at two to three consecutive doses, induced weak, albeit statistically significant, mutagenic responses in tester strain TA102 with and without Aroclor-induced rat liver S9 (lowest effective mean concentration of 0.019 ppm; 35 min total exposure). However, dose-related responses were not always obtained. No mutagenicity was detected in strains TA98, TA100, or TA1535, with or without S9. In strain TA104, ozone induced a weak response only at a single dose with S9; this response was not reproducible. Mutagenicity was dependent on the ozone flow rate and total exposure time, with variations in the optimum dose-time regimen leading to toxicity or complete inactivity. The data show that ozone is a very weak bacterial mutagen and only when tested under narrowly prescribed, subtoxic dosing conditions.

  7. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy.

  8. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:24587621

  9. Alternative headache treatments: nutraceuticals, behavioral and physical treatments.

    PubMed

    Sun-Edelstein, Christina; Mauskop, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the efficacy of various complementary and alternative medicine approaches in the management of headache disorders. These treatment modalities include nutraceutical, physical and behavioral therapies. Nutraceutical options comprise vitamins and supplements (magnesium, riboflavin, coenzyme Q(10), and alpha lipoic acid) and herbal preparations (feverfew, and butterbur). Although controversial, there are some reports demonstrating the benefit of recreational drugs such as marijuana, lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin in headache treatment. Behavioral treatments generally refer to cognitive behavioral therapy and biobehavioral training (biofeedback, relaxation training). Physical treatments in headache management are not as well defined but usually include acupuncture, oxygen therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, occlusal adjustment, cervical manipulation, physical therapy, massage, chiropractic therapy, and osteopathic manipulation. In this review, the available evidence for all these treatments will be discussed.

  10. Complementary and alternative treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Grazio, Simeon; Balen, Diana

    2011-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high and increasing worldwide. Patients usually use CAM in addition to conventional medicine, mainly to treat pain. In a large number of cases, people use CAM for chronic musculoskeletal pain as in osteoarthritis, back pain, neck pain, or fibromyalgia. Herewith, a review is presented of CAM efficacy in treating musculoskeletal pain for which, however, no scientific research has so far provided evidence solid enough. In some rare cases where adequate pain control cannot be achieved, CAM might be considered in rational and individual approach based on the first general rule in medicine "not to harm" and on the utility theory of each intervention, i.e. according to the presumed mechanism of painful stimulus and with close monitoring of the patient's response. Further high quality studies are warranted to elucidate the efficacy and side effects of CAM methods. Therefore, conventional medicine remains the main mode of treatment for patients with musculoskeletal painful conditions.

  11. Necessary alternatives: patients’ views of asthma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kopnina, Helen; Haafkens, Joke

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on semistructured interviews and focus groups conducted with 27 asthma patients in The Netherlands who chose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of their condition. All subjects were contacted through an online forum for asthma patients hosted by the Dutch Asthma Foundation. Nineteen subjects (12 women and seven men) between the ages of 29 and 65 years participated in the interviews, held between June 2009 and January 2010. All of the participating subjects had experience with conventional medications, including anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and bronchodilators. For the focus group meeting, held in February 2010, the sample included seven subjects (four women and three men) between the ages of 31 and 46 years, none of whom had ever used conventional medication and all of whom were using CAM. All subjects in the sample had been diagnosed with asthma by their physician or lung specialist. The study examined the causes of patient noncompliance with the prescribed medical regime. It is argued that evidence-based rationality on the part of subjects is an overlooked dimension of their experience of asthma. This study demonstrates the role that the patients’ social network, including medical practitioners, friends, and family, and other asthmatics, plays in the process of decision-making and choices about treating asthma. It also demonstrates the role of patients’ information-searching strategies. The author concludes that patient noncompliance with commonly prescribed medication and selection of alternative medical treatment is less a matter of denial of their diagnosis or the severity of their illness, but more a matter of choice informed by evidence-based rationality. PMID:20622919

  12. Potential treatment alternative for laboratory effluents.

    PubMed

    Alves, Larissa C; Henrique, Humberto M; Xavier, Alcina M F; Cammarota, Magali C

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Analysis Laboratory under study weekly generates 46.5 L effluent with low pH (0.7), high COD concentration (6535 mg O2/L), sulphate (10390 mg/L) and heavy metals (213 mg Hg/L, 55 mg Cr/L, 28 mg Al/L, 22 mg Fe/L, 10mg Cu/L, 4 mg Ag/L). A treatment sequence has been proposed using a physical chemical step (coagulation/flocculation or chemical precipitation) followed by a biological step (anaerobic treatment). Removals of COD (18%), turbidity (76%) and heavy metals (64-99%) were attained only after adjusting pH to 6.5, without requiring the addition of Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3. Due to the low COD:sulphate ratio (0.9-1.3), it was possible to efficiently operate the UASB reactor (at the biological step) only upon mixing the effluent with household wastewater. COD, sulphate and heavy metals removals of 60%, 23% and 78% to 100%, respectively, were attained for 30% effluent in the reactor feed. The results pointed to the need of a pretreatment step and mixing the effluent in household wastewater prior to the biological step. This alternative is feasible as this can be achieved using sanitary wastewater generated in the university campus.

  13. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene and 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one, two alternative metabolites of 1,3-butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Fang-Mao; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2013-08-15

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), a known in vitro metabolite of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene, have not previously been investigated. Because CHB can be bioactivated by alcohol dehydrogenases to yield 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a bifunctional alkylating agent that caused globin-chain cross-links in erythrocytes, in the present study we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CHB and CBO in human normal hepatocyte L02 cells using the MTT assay, the relative cloning efficiency assay and the comet assay. We also investigated the mutagenic potential of these compounds with the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA1535 and TA1537. The results provide clear evidence for CHB and CBO being both cytotoxic and genotoxic with CBO being approximately 100-fold more potent than CHB. Interestingly, CHB generated both single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites on DNA, whereas CBO produced only alkali-labile sites. CHB did not directly result in DNA breaks, whereas CBO was capable of directly generating breaks on DNA. Interestingly, both compounds did not induce DNA cross-links as examined by the comet assay. The Ames test results showed that CHB induced point mutation but not frameshift mutation, whereas the toxic effects of CBO made it difficult to reliably assess the mutagenic potential of CBO in the two strains. Collectively, the results suggest that CHB and CBO may play a role in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene. - Highlights: • 1-Chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) is cytotoxic and genotoxic in human liver cells. • The CHB metabolite, 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) is ∼ 100-fold more toxic than CHB. • CHB and CBO cause DNA alkali-labile sites, but only CBO directly causes DNA breaks. • CHB is mutagenic in the Ames test, but CBO is too toxic in the assay. • The results suggest a role for CHB in 1,3-butadiene genotoxicity and mutagenicity.

  14. Another Alternative: A Ninety-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In May, 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a twenty-one-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The results of the evaluation suggested an alternative treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the…

  15. Another Alternative: A Ninety-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In May, 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a twenty-one-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The results of the evaluation suggested an alternative treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the…

  16. Comparative mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particles and aerosols emitted by the combustion of standard vs. rapeseed methyl ester supplemented bio-diesel fuels: impact of after treatment devices: oxidation catalyst and particulate filter.

    PubMed

    André, V; Barraud, C; Capron, D; Preterre, D; Keravec, V; Vendeville, C; Cazier, F; Pottier, D; Morin, J P; Sichel, F

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhausts are partly responsible for the deleterious effects on human health associated with urban pollution, including cardiovascular diseases, asthma, COPD, and possibly lung cancer. Particulate fraction has been incriminated and thus largely investigated for its genotoxic properties, based on exposure conditions that are, however, not relevant for human risk assessment. In this paper, original and more realistic protocols were used to investigate the hazards induced by exhausts emitted by the combustion of standard (DF0) vs. bio-diesel fuels (DF7 and DF30) and to assess the impact of exhaust treatment devices (DOC and DPF). Mutagenicity and genotoxicity were evaluated for (1) resuspended particles ("off line" exposure that takes into account the bioavailability of adsorbed chemicals) and for (2) the whole aerosols (particles+gas phase components) under continuous flow exposure ("on line" exposure). Native particles displayed mutagenic properties associated with nitroaromatic profiles (YG1041), whereas PAHs did not seem to be involved. After DOC treatment, the mutagenicity of particles was fully abolished. In contrast, the level of particle deposition was low under continuous flow exposure, and the observed mutagenicity in TA98 and TA102 was thus attributable to the gas phase. A bactericidal effect was also observed in TA102 after DOC treatment, and a weak but significant mutagenicity persisted after DPF treatment for bio-diesel fuels. No formation of bulky DNA-adducts was observed on A549 cells exposed to diesel exhaust, even in very drastic conditions (organic extracts corresponding to 500 μg equivalent particule/mL, 48 h exposure). Taken together, these data indicate that the exhausts issued from the bio-diesel fuels supplemented with rapseed methyl ester (RME), and generated by current diesel engines equipped with after treatment devices are less mutagenic than older ones. The residual mutagenicity is linked to the gas phase and could be due to pro

  17. Lawsonia inermis - an alternative treatment for hyperthyroidism?

    PubMed

    Zumrutdal, E; Karateke, F; Daglioglu, K; Gulkaya, M; Colak, O; Koksal, F

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to determine the effects of Lawsonia inermis (L. inermis) in mice, in which hyperthyroidism had been caused by thyroid stimulant hormone (TSH). The first phase of the study aimed to detect the effects of L. inermis on the amount of ionized hydrogen (pH) in cells. For this aim, the effect of L. inermis on pH levels in the liver tissues of mice, in whom Escherichia coli (E. coli) had caused peritonitis, was examined. In the second phase of the study, the effect of L. inermis on the serum T4 levels in the 24th and 48th hour in mice, whose thyroid cells showed an increased activity by TSH was measured. In the first phase, in mice, in whom E.coli had caused peritonitis, the pH in the liver tissue of the group that had been given L. inermis was found to be significantly alkaline (p<0.05). In the second phase, in mice, in whom TSH had caused hyperthyroidism, it was noted that serum total T4 levels were significantly lower than in the group that had been given L. inermis in the 48th hour (p<0.05). In our study, we detected that L. inermis significantly decreased serum total T4 levels in the 48th hour in mice in whom TSH had caused hyperthyroidism. These results suggest that L. inermis can be used as an alternative treatment for the Graves' disease (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 34).

  18. 40 CFR 142.46 - Alternative treatment techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative treatment techniques. 142... Administrator Under Section 1415(a) of the Act § 142.46 Alternative treatment techniques. The Administrator may grant a variance from any treatment technique requirement of a national primary drinking water...

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  1. Alternative Treatment Technologies – Working With the Pathogen Equivalency Committee

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under current Federal regulations (40 CFR 503), municipal sludge must be treated prior to land application. The regulations identify two classes of treatment with respect to pathogen reduction: Class B (three alternatives) which provides a minimum acceptable level of treatment;...

  2. Endometriosis: alternative methods of medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Hernando, Leticia; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Jose L; Marqueta-Marques, Laura; Alvarez-Conejo, Carmen; Tejerizo-García, Álvaro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Villegas-Muñoz, Emilia; Martin-Jimenez, Angel; Jiménez-López, Jesús S

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory estrogen-dependent disease defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine sites. The main purpose of endometriosis management is alleviating pain associated to the disease. This can be achieved surgically or medically, although in most women a combination of both treatments is required. Long-term medical treatment is usually needed in most women. Unfortunately, in most cases, pain symptoms recur between 6 months and 12 months once treatment is stopped. The authors conducted a literature search for English original articles, related to new medical treatments of endometriosis in humans, including articles published in PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords included “endometriosis” matched with “medical treatment”, “new treatment”, “GnRH antagonists”, “Aromatase inhibitors”, “selective progesterone receptor modulators”, “anti-TNF α”, and “anti-angiogenic factors”. Hormonal treatments currently available are effective in the relief of pain associated to endometriosis. Among new hormonal drugs, association to aromatase inhibitors could be effective in the treatment of women who do not respond to conventional therapies. GnRH antagonists are expected to be as effective as GnRH agonists, but with easier administration (oral). There is a need to find effective treatments that do not block the ovarian function. For this purpose, antiangiogenic factors could be important components of endometriosis therapy in the future. Upcoming researches and controlled clinical trials should focus on these drugs. PMID:26089705

  3. Mutagenic activity associated with by-products of drinking water disinfection by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone and UV-irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Zoeteman, B C; Hrubec, J; de Greef, E; Kool, H J

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study in The Netherlands showed a statistical association between chlorination by-products in drinking water and cancer of the esophagus and stomach for males. A pilot-plant study with alternative disinfectants was carried out with stored water of the Rivers Rhine and Meuse. It was demonstrated that the increase of direct acting mutagens after treatment with chlorine dioxide is similar to the effect of chlorination. Ozonation of Rhine water reduced the mutagenic activity for Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 both with and without metabolic activation. UV alone hardly affects the mutagenicity of the stored river water for S. typh. TA 98. In all studies, practically no mutagenic activity for S. typh. TA 100 was found. Although remarkable changes in the concentration of individual organic compounds are reported, the identity of the mutagens detected is yet unclear. Compounds of possible interest due to their removal by ozonation are 1,3,3-trimethyloxindole, dicyclopentadiene and several alkylquinolines. Compounds which might be responsible for the increased mutagenicity after chlorination are two brominated acetonitriles and tri(2-chlorethyl) phosphate. Furthermore, the concentration procedure with adsorption on XAD resin and the subsequent elution step may have affected the results. It is proposed to focus further research more on the less volatile by-products of disinfection than on the trihalomethanes. PMID:7151762

  4. Alternating antibiotic treatments constrain evolutionary paths to multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungsoo; Lieberman, Tami D; Kishony, Roy

    2014-10-07

    Alternating antibiotic therapy, in which pairs of drugs are cycled during treatment, has been suggested as a means to inhibit the evolution of de novo resistance while avoiding the toxicity associated with more traditional combination therapy. However, it remains unclear under which conditions and by what means such alternating treatments impede the evolution of resistance. Here, we tracked multistep evolution of resistance in replicate populations of Staphylococcus aureus during 22 d of continuously increasing single-, mixed-, and alternating-drug treatment. In all three tested drug pairs, the alternating treatment reduced the overall rate of resistance by slowing the acquisition of resistance to one of the two component drugs, sometimes as effectively as mixed treatment. This slower rate of evolution is reflected in the genome-wide mutational profiles; under alternating treatments, bacteria acquire mutations in different genes than under corresponding single-drug treatments. To test whether this observed constraint on adaptive paths reflects trade-offs in which resistance to one drug is accompanied by sensitivity to a second drug, we profiled many single-step mutants for cross-resistance. Indeed, the average cross-resistance of single-step mutants can help predict whether or not evolution was slower in alternating drugs. Together, these results show that despite the complex evolutionary landscape of multidrug resistance, alternating-drug therapy can slow evolution by constraining the mutational paths toward resistance.

  5. Ear Infection Treatment: Do Alternative Therapies Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... internet and in books and magazines. They include chiropractic adjustments, homeopathy, herbal eardrops and others. Perhaps you' ... regulatory oversight by the Food and Drug Administration. Chiropractic treatment. This involves manipulating the body so that ...

  6. Nonvolatile mutagens in drinking water: production by chlorination and destruction by sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Cheh, A.M.; Skochdopole, J.; Koski, P.; Cole, L.

    1980-01-04

    In a laboratory simulation of a drinking water treatment process, the levels of nonvolatile mutagens in drinking water were quantified. By means of the Ames Salmonella test, unchlorinated water was found to be devoid of mutagens. Chloramine-treated water however, contained mutagenic activity; water chlorinated with free chlorine showed even greater mutagenic activity. Dechlorination of drinking water with sulfite sharply reduced the mutagenic activity. Treatment with sulfur dioxide is proposed as an effective, inexpensive method of reducing the direct-acting mutagenic activity of drinking water and of aqueous industrial effluents. (1 graph, 20 references, 1 table)

  7. Alternative water treatment for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    Problems commonly found in cooling towers include: calcium scale formation, corrosion, algae and bacterial growth. These problems can inhibit a cooling tower from operating at its most efficient capacity. An energy-saving, cost-efficient method to control each of these problems in tower water will ultimately benefit the owner as well as the environment. Supplemental ionic water purification was developed to overcome the disadvantages associates with a total chemical disinfection system. The concept of supplemental ionic water purification was developed in the early 1900s and later reviewed by NASA in the mid-1960`s. Only in the past seven years have biologists combined copper ions with chlorine to act as a bactericide. The findings have shown that metal compound ions (copper), when absorbed by bacteria, affect the organisms enzyme balance. This combination inhibits the organism`s reproduction and respiration capabilities. This technology has been applied to cooling tower operations as an alternative to a chemical-only regimen.

  8. New alternative in treatment of callus.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Ovunc; Bilkay, Ufuk; Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Ozek, Cüneyt; Yan, Hede; Zhang, Feng; Akin, Yalcin

    2011-02-01

    The pathological transformation of the skin into a thick and hard callus due to repetitive trauma or friction is commonly known as corn. Although a variety of medical and operative treatment choices have been proposed, an ideal treatment method is yet to be defined. Effectiveness of tangential excision together with topical cantharidin has been evaluated. We used Canthacur-PS as an adjunct to excision in an outpatient setting. Canthacur-PS is a commercially available topical solution that includes 1% cantharidin, 30% salicylic acid and 5% podophyllin. The treatment has been applied to 72 patients. We found that 65 patients (90.3%) had corn on their feet and seven patients (9.7%) on their hands. Thick, hard and hyperkeratotic skin area was scraped with the help of a no. 15 blade. The solution was applied on and around the periphery (up to 1–2 mm) of the lesion with a cotton swab, and kept closed for 5 days with an antibiotic dressing. All the patients had been followed up for at least 1 year and evaluated by clinical examination and patient satisfaction query. One session of treatment succeeded in 57 (79.2%) corn patients. Two sessions in nine corn patients (12.5%), three sessions in five corn patients (6.9%) and four sessions in one patient (1.4%) were needed. Only one recurrence (1.4%) was seen. No scar formation or other side-effects were seen. Our findings show that this treatment method is a simple, minimally invasive and reliable treatment for calluses. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. [Alternative of laser treatment optimization in retinoschisis].

    PubMed

    Bagdasarova, T A; Il'ina, T S

    2010-01-01

    In this study a new original technique is proposed for treatment of II-III retinoschisis using diode laser Milon Lachta (Saint-Petersburg). Laser radiation parameters were wave length 0,83 microm, energy 350-850 m W, time 0,2-0,3 s, spot diameter 150-200 microm. Original technique of gradual progressive laser coagulation was performed in 72 patients with II-I1 retinoschisis using diode laser. This treatment allowed to preserve macular function to the maximum.

  10. Environmental Mutagenic Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes screening systems for environmental mutagens, characteristics of the ideal screening system, characteristics of currently employed screening systems, correlative information required for decision making, and application of data to human populations. (GS)

  11. Treatment, promotion, commotion: Antibiotic alternatives in food-producing animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternatives to antibiotics in animal agriculture are urgently needed but present a complex problem because of their various uses: disease treatment, disease prevention, and feed efficiency improvement. Numerous antibiotic alternatives, such as feed amended with pre- and probiotics, have been propos...

  12. Mutagenicity of coal fly ash: a new bioassay for mutagenic potential in a particle feeding ciliate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Fisher, G.L.; Palizzi, R.A.; Herr, C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the established mutagenesis assay in Paramecium as a prescreen for hazardous environmental particles is described. Since these protozoans ingest particles of the size respired by animals and man, the biological effects of the respirable fraction of fly ash particles were monitored in particle-feeding eukaryotic cells. Fly ash from coal combustion was utilized for these studies and was found to be mutagenic. The effects of physical and chemical treatment of the particle mutagenicity provided evidence for both heat-stable, heat-labile and acid extractable mutagenic agents.

  13. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  14. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  15. Selecting forest residue treatment alternatives using goal programming.

    Treesearch

    Bruce B. Bare; Brian F. Anholt

    1976-01-01

    The use of goal programing for selecting forest residue treatment alternatives within a multiple goal framework is described. The basic features of goal programing are reviewed and illustrated with a hypothetical problem involving the selection of residue treatments for 10 cutting units. Twelve residue-regeneration treatment combinations are evaluated by using physical...

  16. Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper, developed for EPA's Engineering Forum, identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost.

  17. Alternatives for the treatment of salivary duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Mark; Brown, Jackie

    2009-12-01

    Minimally invasive alternatives for treatment of salivary duct obstruction are discussed. Radiologically- and endoscopically-guided interventions using wire baskets and dilating balloons, including cutting balloons, are covered as are combined endoscopic and open approaches.

  18. Multi-fragment site-directed mutagenic overlap extension polymerase chain reaction as a competitive alternative to the enzymatic assembly method.

    PubMed

    Wäneskog, Marcus; Bjerling, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    Methods for introducing multiple site-directed mutations are important experimental tools in molecular biology. Research areas that use these methods include the investigation of various protein modifications in cellular processes, modifying proteins for efficient recombinant expression, and the stabilization of mRNAs to allow for increased protein expression. Introducing multiple site-directed mutations is also an important tool in the field of synthetic biology. There are two main methods used in the assembling of fragments generated by mutagenic primers: enzymatic assembly and overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (OE-PCR). In this article, we present an improved OE-PCR method that can be used for the generation of large DNA fragments (up to 7.4 kb) where at least 13 changes can be introduced using a genomic template. The improved method is faster (due to fewer reaction steps) and more accurate (due to fewer PCR cycles), meaning that it can effectively compete with the enzymatic assembly method. Data presented here show that the site-directed mutations can be introduced anywhere between 50 and 1800 bp from each other. The method is highly reliable and predicted to be applicable to most DNA engineering when the introduction of multiple changes in a DNA sequence is required.

  19. Exposure to mutagenic aromatic hydrocarbons of workers creosoting wood.

    PubMed

    Bos, R P; Jongeneelen, F J; Theuws, J L; Henderson, P T

    1984-01-01

    Creosote P1 is mutagenic in the Salmonella microsome assay towards strains TA1537, TA1538, TA98 and TA100 in the presence of S9 mix. The mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in this mixture are detected in concentrations of 0.18 and 1.1%, respectively. Spot samples taken from contaminated surfaces in several areas of a wood-preserving industry were tested for mutagenicity. The positive results suggest that a wipe test can give a first indication of occupational exposure to mutagenic substances, particularly when greater exposure occurs via skin contact than via inhalation. In urine of rats, mutagens appeared after treatment with creosote. However, no increase in mutagenicity could be detected in urine of creosote workers in relation to their work.

  20. Developments in alternative treatments for organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Iken, Brian; Leon, Alex

    2015-03-04

    Organophosphosphates (OPs) are highly effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are used worldwide as cheap, multi-purpose insecticides. OPs are also used as chemical weapons forming the active core of G-series and V-series chemical agents including tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VX, and their chemical analogs. Human exposure to any of these compounds leads to neurotoxic accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, resulting in abnormal nerve function and multiple secondary health complications. Suicide from deliberate exposure to OPs is particularly prevalent in developing countries across the world and constitutes a major global health crisis. The prevalence and accessible nature of OP compounds within modern agricultural spheres and concern over their potential use in biochemical weapon attacks have incentivized both government agencies and medical researchers to enact stricter regulatory policies over their usage and to begin developing more proactive medical treatments in cases of OP poisoning. This review will discuss the research undertaken in recent years that has investigated new supplementary drug options for OP treatment and support therapy, including progress in the development of enzymatic prophylaxis.

  1. Alternative Technical Summary Report: Electrometallurgical Treatment Variant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1995-11-30

    Immobilization is the fixation of the surplus fissile materials in an acceptable matrix such as glass or ceramics to create an environmentally benign form for disposal in a repository. In addition to the traditional characteristics required of an immobilization form to achieve isolation of the fissile material from the biosphere over geologic times, the immobilization form for the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) must also possess the property that it is inherently as unattractive and inaccessible as the fissile material from commercial spent fuel. This latter requirement is similar to the wording of the ''spent fuel standard'' invoked in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study on plutonium disposition. High-level wastes (HLW) or separated cesium ({sup 137}Cs), can be added with the fissile material into the waste form to create a radiation field that increases the proliferation resistance and decreases reuse by the host nation in the following ways: (1) Plutonium will be diluted with elements that must be removed by extensive chemical processing to return it to weapons-usable purity; (2) The immobilized plutonium canisters will contain approximately 2 tonnes (2000 kg; 2.2 tons) of mass, thereby forcing the use of heavy equipment to move the canisters; (3) A gamma radiation barrier will be added to the immobilized plutonium canisters; the present concept is to add a radiation barrier that is greater than 1 Gy (100 rad) per hour at 1 m (3 ft) 30 years after fabrication; (4) These canisters will then be sealed in casks and emplaced into drifts in a federal repository where they will be monitored for 100 years before the repository is sealed. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1. In the electrometallurgical treatment (ET) variant, plutonium-rich residues are shipped to existing Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) facilities where the plutonium is converted to plutonium chloride, dissolved in a molten salt solution, sorbed

  2. Erosion resistance comparison of alternative surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Česánek, Z.; Schubert, J.; Houdková, Š.

    2017-05-01

    Erosion is a process characterized by the particle separation and the damage of component functional surfaces. Thermal spraying technology HP/HVOF (High Pressure / High Velocity Oxygen Fuel) is commonly used for protection of component surfaces against erosive wear. Alloy as well as cermet based coatings meet the requirements for high erosion resistance. Wear resistance is in many cases the determining property of required component functioning. The application suitability of coating materials is particularly influenced by different hardness. This paper therefore presents an erosion resistance comparison of alloy and cermet based coatings. The coatings were applied on steel substrates and were subjected to the erosive test using the device for evaluation of material erosion resistance working on the principle of centrifugal erodent flow. Abrasive sand Al2O3 with grain size 212-250 μm was selected as an erosive material. For this purpose, the specimens were prepared by thermal spraying technology HP/HVOF using commercially available powders Stellite 6, NiCrBSi, Cr3C2-25%NiCr, Cr3C2-25%CoNiCrAlY, Hastelloy C-276 and experimental coating TiMoCN-29% Ni. Erosion resistance of evaluated coatings was compared with erosive resistance of 1.4923 high alloyed steel without nitridation and in nitrided state and further with surface treatment using technology PVD. According to the evaluation, the resulting erosive resistance depends not only on the selected erodent and surface protection, but also on the erodent impact angle.

  3. 40 CFR 142.46 - Alternative treatment techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grant a variance from any treatment technique requirement of a national primary drinking water... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative treatment techniques. 142... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances Issued by the...

  4. Past, present, and future of mutagens in cooked foods.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, T

    1986-01-01

    Mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium enabled us to detect various types of mutagens in cooked foods. A series of mutagenic heterocyclic amines has been isolated and identified in broiled fish and meat and in pyrolyzates of amino acids and proteins. Feeding experiments showed these mutagens to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. The mechanism of formation and pathway of metabolic activation of these heterocyclic amines have been elucidated. Their contents in various cooked foods have been determined. The presence of mutagenic nitropyrenes (some of which were confirmed as carcinogens) in grilled chicken was also established. Roasted coffee beans also yield mutagens such as methylglyoxal. The formation of mutagen precursors, including beta-carboline derivatives and tyramine which become mutagens with nitrite treatment, was found during food processing. Oncogene activation in animal tumors induced by some of these food mutagens/carcinogens has been confirmed. The role of mutagens/carcinogens in cooked foods in human cancer development has not yet been exactly evaluated. In order to do this, more information on their carcinogenic potency, human intake, metabolism in the human body, and the effects of combined administration with other initiators, promoters and other modifying factors in food is required. PMID:3530738

  5. Treatment of alternating hemiplegia of childhood with aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Haffejee, Shereen; Santosh, Paramala J

    2009-01-01

    We report the pharmacological treatment of a case of alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) in a 14-year-old female with an established diagnosis. Although the patient's symptoms are consistent with those of the condition, she did not respond to treatment with haloperidol, flunarizine, or propranolol. Treatment with aripiprazole resulted in a reduction in the frequency, duration, and severity of episodes of alternating hemiplegia, along with other therapeutic benefits. After treatment with aripiprazole was started, the patient was inadvertently given an inactive drug, resulting in a worsening of her hemiplegic episodes, which improved again on rechallenge. A comparison of the pharmacological actions of successful and unsuccessful treatments for AHC is made. Modulation of both dopamine and histamine systems together appears to be important in the treatment of AHC and further investigation of such pharmacotherapies is suggested.

  6. Living proof and the pseudoscience of alternative cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J; Cassileth, Barrie R

    2008-01-01

    Michael Gearin-Tosh was an English professor at Oxford University who was diagnosed with multiple myeloma in 1994. He rejected conventional chemotherapeutic approaches and turned to a variety of alternative cancer treatments, particularly those involving nutritional supplements and dietary change. In 2002, Dr. Gearin-Tosh published a book, Living Proof: A Medical Mutiny, recounting his experiences. The book gained significant public and media attention. One chapter was written by Carmen Wheatley, an advocate of alternative cancer treatments. In distinction to Dr. Gearin-Tosh's personal story, Dr. Wheatley makes general claims about cancer treatment that are supposedly based on the research literature. This appears to provide scientific validation for a highly unconventional program of cancer care. However, the scientific case made for alternative cancer treatments in Living Proof does not bear serious examination. There are numerous inaccuracies, omissions, and misrepresentations. Many important claims are either entirely unsubstantiated or not supported by the literature cited. In conclusion, a highly publicized book gives the impression that alternative cancer treatments are supported by scientific research. It also suggests that little progress has been made in the conventional treatment of myeloma. This is highly misleading and may lead to cancer patients rejecting effective treatments.

  7. Arabidopsis assay for mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Gichner, T; Badayev, S A; Demchenko, S I; Relichová, J; Sandhu, S S; Usmanov, P D; Usmanova, O; Velemínský, J

    1994-10-16

    Four laboratories, two in the Czech Republic (Brno and Prague) and two in the CIS (Moscow and Duschanbe), participated in the International Programme on Chemical Safety's (IPCS) collaborative study to evaluate the utility of the most commonly used plant test systems, including the Arabidopsis thaliana assay, for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents. Out of the five compounds evaluated in the Arabidopsis assay, three compounds, i.e., ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and azidoglycerol, were reported to be mutagenic by all four participating laboratories. Sodium azide (NaN3) demonstrated a negative response in all four laboratories, whereas maleic hydrazide was reported to be weakly mutagenic by one laboratory and nonmutagenic by the other three laboratories.

  8. Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the commercial black dye in Allium cepa cells before and after bacterial biodegradation treatment.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Camargo, Bruna de Campos; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic actions of different concentrations (50 and 200 μg/L) of BDCP (Black Dye Commercial Product) used by textile industries, before and after bacterial biodegradation, by the conventional staining cytogenetic technique and NOR-banding in Allium cepa cells. Differences in the chromosomal and nuclear aberrations and alterations in the number of nucleoli were observed in cells exposed to BDCP with and without the microbial treatment. The significant frequencies of chromosome and nuclear aberrations noted in the tests with bacterially biodegraded BDCP indicate that the metabolites generated by degradation are more genotoxic than the chemical itself. Losses of genetic material characterize a type of alteration that was mainly associated with the action of the original BDCP, whereas chromosome stickiness, nuclear buds and binucleated cells were the aberrations that were preferentially induced by BDCP metabolites after biodegradation. The significant frequencies of cell death observed in the tests with biodegraded BDCP also show the cytotoxic effects of the BDCP metabolites. The reduction in the total frequency of altered cells after the recovery treatments showed that the test organism A. cepa has the ability to recover from damage induced by BDCP and its metabolites after the exposure conditions are normalized.

  9. Nanofibers Offer Alternative Ways to the Treatment of Skin Infections

    PubMed Central

    Heunis, T. D. J.; Dicks, L. M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Injury to the skin causes a breach in the protective layer surrounding the body. Many pathogens are resistant to antibiotics, rendering conventional treatment less effective. This led to the use of alternative antimicrobial compounds, such as silver ions, in skin treatment. In this review nanofibers, and the incorporation of natural antimicrobial compounds in these scaffolds, are discussed as an alternative way to control skin infections. Electrospinning as a technique to prepare nanofibers is discussed. The possibility of using these structures as drug delivery systems is investigated. PMID:20798871

  10. Bacteriocins – Exploring Alternatives to Antibiotics in Mastitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:24031528

  11. Mutagenicity studies of vinyl chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Fabricant, J D; Legator, M S

    1981-01-01

    Mutagenicity studies in both man and in test organisms clearly demonstrate positive mutagenic activity of vinyl chloride. In terms of the mutagenicity studies using a variety of in vitro procedures covering both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, positive effects were found. Cytogenetic in vivo studies in animals and in humans indicate not only somatic mutations, but also germinal effects with this chemical. PMID:7333237

  12. [Use of alternative medicine in the treatment of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Félix Berumen, José Alfredo; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Canseco González, Carlos; Arias Cruz, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    The alternative medicine and the complementary medicine are forms of treatment very spread and frequently demanded by patients with allergic diseases. According to recent studies, homeopathy, acupuncture and herbal medicine are the most commonly used types of alternative medicine. To know the frequency in the use of different types of alternative medicine for the treatment of allergic diseases in patients attended at the Centro Regional de Alergia e Immunologia Clínica of the Hospital Universitario de Monterrey, Nuevo León. A transversal, descriptive and observational study was done by the use of questionnaires applied to patients and/or patients' relatives attended in this Center. This survey included questions to focus the investigation in the use of a Iternative medicine for the treatment of any allergic disease. The data analysis was done by descriptive statistics. Four hundred one questionnaires were applied. The average age of the patients was of 14 years (range from 1 to 73 years). Fourty-seven percent (189 patients) were female and 58.2% (212 patients) were male. The diagnoses included: allergic rhinitis in 215 patients (53.6), asthma in 97 (24.2%), rhinitis and asthma in 73 (18.2) and atopic dermatitis in 16 (4%). Out of the patients 34.4% (138) had used at least one type of alternative medicine for the treatment of their allergic disease. Homeopathy was the most commonly used type of alternative medicine (78.2%), followed by the natural medicine (31.5%). Alternative medicine for the treatment of allergic diseases is frequent in patients who attend to this center. Homeopathy and the natural medicine are the most used.

  13. Patients' self-treatment with alternative treatment before presenting to the ED.

    PubMed

    Zun, Leslie S; Gossman, William; Lilienstein, David; Downey, LaVonne

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the frequency of patients using alternative medicine to treat their condition before presenting to an emergency department (ED). This was a prospective randomized, consecutive survey conducted at a level I 24-bed inner-city trauma center. Patients were eligible for enrollment if they were at least 18 years old and able to consent. Exclusion criteria included patients delivered by an ambulance and patients unable or unwilling to consent. The questionnaire collected information about sociodemographic variables, alternative treatment used, why was it used, who prescribed the treatment, route, treatment satisfaction, and past history of alternative treatment and medication use. A total of 189 patients were surveyed. Of these, 10.6% of the surveyed patients used alternative treatment. The most common reason for using alternative medicine was "I wanted to try the simplest treatment first" (55%). These treatment options were self-prescribed by 55%, advice from a friend or family member by 40% and other health professional in 5%. The alternative medicines included massage (35%), home remedies (20%), prayer (20%), chiropractor (15%), herbal medicines (5%) and other methods (5%). The treatment was administered orally (20%) or topically (80%). Most said that the alternative therapy was helpful (60%). The use of alternative therapy versus no use of alternative therapy was correlated with gender (P =.05), treatment (P =.025) and how it was administered (P =.021). A small but significant number of inner-city patients use alternative treatments before presenting to an ED. Emergency physicians need to consider the use of alternative treatment and medicine by patients presenting to the ED for treatment.

  14. Statutory requirements for disclosure of breast cancer treatment alternatives.

    PubMed

    Nayfield, S G; Bongiovanni, G C; Alciati, M H; Fischer, R A; Bergner, L

    1994-08-17

    Therapeutic options for breast cancer, particularly for early-stage disease, and increased patient participation in medical decision-making have oriented state legislatures toward ensuring that women with breast cancer have adequate information about treatment alternatives. Currently, 18 states have enacted statutes regarding physician disclosure of treatment alternatives to breast cancer patients. This paper reviews these statutes in the context of the requirements imposed on the physician as health care provider and the content of medical information presented to the patient as a consequence of the laws. State statutes were identified through the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database, and the statutory requirements were analyzed. For statutes requiring development of a written summary of treatment alternatives, the most recent summary was obtained through the responsible state agency, and informational content was analyzed for relevance to treatment decisions in early-stage disease. As a group, these laws address informed consent for treatment, physician behavior within the patient-physician relationship, and the medical information upon which treatment decisions are based. Individual statutes vary in the scope of the issues addressed, particularly in the responsibility placed on physicians, and treatment option summaries developed in response to this legislation vary widely in content and scope. Despite broad implications of these statutes in oncology practice, little is known about their effects on breast cancer care. Additional research is needed to define the impact of these statutes on breast cancer care, as such legislation is considered by other states for this and other diseases.

  15. Potentially mutagenic impurities: analysis of structural classes and carcinogenic potencies of chemical intermediates in pharmaceutical syntheses supports alternative methods to the default TTC for calculating safe levels of impurities.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Sheila M; Vijayaraj Reddy, M; McGettigan, Katherine; Gealy, Robert; Bercu, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Potentially mutagenic impurities in new pharmaceuticals are controlled to levels with negligible risk, the TTC (threshold of toxicological concern, 1.5 μg/day for a lifetime). The TTC was based on the more potent rodent carcinogens, excluding the highly potent "cohort of concern" (COC; for mutagenic carcinogens these are N-nitroso, Aflatoxin-like, and azoxy structures). We compared molecules with DEREK "structural alerts" for mutagenicity used in drug syntheses with the mutagenic carcinogens in the Gold Carcinogenicity Potency Database. Data from 108 diverse synthetic routes from 13 companies confirm that many "alerting" or mutagenic chemicals are in structural classes with lower carcinogenic potency than those used to derive the TTC. Acceptable daily intakes can be established that are higher than the default TTC for many structural classes (e.g., mono-functional alkyl halides and certain aromatic amines). Examples of ADIs for lifetime and shorter-term exposure are given for chemicals of various potencies. The percentage of chemicals with DEREK alerts that proved mutagenic in the Ames test ranged from 36% to 83%, depending on structural class, demonstrating that such SAR analysis to "flag" potential mutagens is conservative. We also note that aromatic azoxy compounds need not be classed as COC, which was based on alkyl azoxy chemicals.

  16. Mutagenicity of oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Blitek, D; Pieńkowska, K; Gajcy, H; Koziorowska, J

    1983-04-01

    Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, potassium nitrite and a combination of this antibiotic with the nitrite were tested for their mutagenicity in the host-mediated assay with mice as the host animals. The Salmonella typhimurium strain used was his G46. The bacteria were injected intraperitoneally, and the test compounds were administered by a stomach tube. Neither oxytetracycline nor potassium nitrite were mutagenic for strain G46, but the combination of the compounds administered in the highest tolerated doses proved to be mutagenic for this Salmonella strain. The mutagenicity of the compounds was further evaluated by the micronucleus test in the bone marrow of Swiss mice. The test compounds were administered p.o., half the dose 30 h and the rest 6 h before the animals were killed. Oxytetracycline and the combination of oxytetracycline with potassium nitrite induced a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Dose-response experiments with oxytetracycline and with the combination of the antibiotic with nitrite revealed an apparent no-effect level at 2 X 50 to 2 X 500 mg/kg. At higher doses both oxytetracycline and oxytetracycline with nitrite significantly influenced the ratio of erythrocytes to nucleated cells. The findings were compared with data obtained with dimethylnitrosamine included in both kinds of experiment.

  17. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  18. Palliative treatment alternatives and euthanasia consultations: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Buiting, Hilde M; Willems, Dick L; Pasman, H Roeline W; Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2011-07-01

    There is much debate about euthanasia within the context of palliative care. The six criteria of careful practice for lawful euthanasia in The Netherlands aim to safeguard the euthanasia practice against abuse and a disregard of palliative treatment alternatives. Those criteria need to be evaluated by the treating physician as well as an independent euthanasia consultant. To investigate 1) whether and how palliative treatment alternatives come up during or preceding euthanasia consultations and 2) how the availability of possible palliative treatment alternatives are assessed by the independent consultant. We interviewed 14 euthanasia consultants and 12 physicians who had requested a euthanasia consultation. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews and held consensus meetings about the interpretation. Treating physicians generally discuss the whole range of treatment options with the patient before the euthanasia consultation. Consultants actively start thinking about and proposing palliative treatment alternatives after consultations, when they have concluded that the criteria for careful practice have not been met. During the consultation, they take into account various aspects while assessing the criterion concerning the availability of reasonable alternatives, and they clearly distinguish between euthanasia and continuous deep sedation. Most consultants said that it was necessary to verify which forms of palliative care had previously been discussed. Advice concerning palliative care seemed to be related to the timing of the consultation ("early" or "late"). Euthanasia consultants were sometimes unsure whether or not to advise about palliative care, considering it not their task or inappropriate in view of the previous discussions. Two different roles of a euthanasia consultant were identified: a limited one, restricted to the evaluation of the criteria for careful practice, and a broad one, extended to actively providing advice about palliative care. Further

  19. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  20. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  1. Porcelain veneers as an alternative for esthetic treatment: clinical report.

    PubMed

    Rotoli, B T; Lima, D A N L; Pini, N P; Aguiar, F H B; Pereira, G D S; Paulillo, L A M S

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the restoration of the anterior dentition with porcelain laminate veneers. The advances in bonding of porcelain to tooth structure make this treatment a feasible alternative to restore teeth with alteration in shape and position in cases in which the esthetic demand is high. The rationale for various choices in this treatment protocol is detailed with reference to the pertinent literature. Thus, the clinical success of the technique depends on the correct identification of a case for which this treatment is appropriate and the successful execution of the clinical steps involved.

  2. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  3. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma.

    PubMed

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-02-22

    BACKGROUND An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. RESULTS Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. CONCLUSIONS The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment.

  4. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi-Hao A.; Nahas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. MAIN MESSAGE Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. CONCLUSION Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance. PMID:19221071

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Hao A; Nahas, Richard

    2009-02-01

    To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance.

  7. An alternative approach for the treatment of vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, L; Ottolina, J; Parma, M; Chionna, R; Sileo, F; Dindelli, M; Origoni, M; Candiani, M; Salvatore, S

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a new topic non-hormonal treatment for postmenopausal women complaining of symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Patients included in the study were prescribed Sinecol gel (AM PHARMA Srl, Vimercate, Monza and Brianza, Italy) application once a day for 20 consecutive days. Sinecol gel is a topic compound for vaginal atrophy containing hyaluronic acid, that is known to improve vaginal elasticity, lactoperoxidase, Xantham gum and glucose oxidase, which have protective and antibacterial action. We evaluated each patient before and after treatment, both subjectively with the "Visual Analogical Scale" (VAS) and objectively with the "Vaginal Health Index" (VHI). We observed a significant clinical improvement of the subjective and objective assessment of symptoms severity with a p value <0.001 at the end of the treatment compared to baseline. Sinecol gel appears to be an effective and valid non-hormonal alternative to the estrogen therapy for vaginal atrophy.

  8. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile

    PubMed Central

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as ‘gummy smile’ is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat ‘gummy smile’. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles thereby reducing the gingival display while smiling. This procedure is safe and predictable with minimal risk or side effects. This case report describes the successful treatment of excessive gingival display using surgical lip repositioning procedure which can be used as an alternative treatment modality for treatment of excessive gingival display. PMID:25210272

  9. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-07-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as 'gummy smile' is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat 'gummy smile'. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles thereby reducing the gingival display while smiling. This procedure is safe and predictable with minimal risk or side effects. This case report describes the successful treatment of excessive gingival display using surgical lip repositioning procedure which can be used as an alternative treatment modality for treatment of excessive gingival display.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  11. Browning reaction systems as sources of mutagens and antimutagens.

    PubMed Central

    Powrie, W D; Wu, C H; Molund, V P

    1986-01-01

    Heated food systems contain hundreds of chemical compounds, some being mutagenic and others being antimutagenic. Studies have indicated that foods exposed to drying, frying, roasting, baking, and broiling conditions possess net mutagenic activity as assessed by the Ames/Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. With the above-mentioned heat treatment of food, nonenzymic browning reactions are generally proceeding at rapid rates and are involved in the development of mutagens. Caramelization and Maillard reactions are two important pathways in the nonenzymic browning of food and are responsible for the formation of volatile aromatic compounds, intermediate nonvolatile compounds, and brown pigments called melanoidins. Heated sugar-amino acid mixtures possessed mutagenic activities which have been assessed by short-term bioassays. Purified Maillard and caramelization reaction products such as reductones, dicarbonyls, pyrazines, and furan derivatives have exhibited mutagenicity and clastogenicity. The water-insoluble fraction (WIF) of instant coffee and a model-system melanoidin (MSM) have been shown to inhibit the mutagenicity of known carcinogens--aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and benzo(a)pyrene (BP)--in aqueous dispersion. WIF and MSM were found to be effective binding agents for the carcinogens. PMID:3757959

  12. Characterization of mutagenic activity in instant hot beverage powders.

    PubMed

    Johansson, M A; Knize, M G; Jägerstad, M; Felton, J S

    1995-01-01

    Extracts of several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees were mutagenic in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024, and YG1029 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders induced 150 to 500 TA98 and 1,150 to 4,050 YG1024 revertant colonies/g, respectively. Increased sensitivity was achieved using strain YG1024. No mutagenic activity was found in instant hot cocoa products. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Differential bacterial strain specificity, and a requirement for metabolic activation suggest that aromatic amines are present. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds. Known heterocyclic amines are not responsible for the major part of the mutagenic activity. The main mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees is due to several unidentified compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  13. Browning reaction systems as sources of mutagens and antimutagens.

    PubMed

    Powrie, W D; Wu, C H; Molund, V P

    1986-08-01

    Heated food systems contain hundreds of chemical compounds, some being mutagenic and others being antimutagenic. Studies have indicated that foods exposed to drying, frying, roasting, baking, and broiling conditions possess net mutagenic activity as assessed by the Ames/Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. With the above-mentioned heat treatment of food, nonenzymic browning reactions are generally proceeding at rapid rates and are involved in the development of mutagens. Caramelization and Maillard reactions are two important pathways in the nonenzymic browning of food and are responsible for the formation of volatile aromatic compounds, intermediate nonvolatile compounds, and brown pigments called melanoidins. Heated sugar-amino acid mixtures possessed mutagenic activities which have been assessed by short-term bioassays. Purified Maillard and caramelization reaction products such as reductones, dicarbonyls, pyrazines, and furan derivatives have exhibited mutagenicity and clastogenicity. The water-insoluble fraction (WIF) of instant coffee and a model-system melanoidin (MSM) have been shown to inhibit the mutagenicity of known carcinogens--aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and benzo(a)pyrene (BP)--in aqueous dispersion. WIF and MSM were found to be effective binding agents for the carcinogens.

  14. Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example of a multifactorial syndrome. Due to rapid increase in the incidence in these infections, this is the subject of numerous studies. Recently, the focus of attention is the treatment and, above all, the prevention of those complications. The diagnosis of candidiasis could become quite complicated. Prevention is the most effective "treatment," much more than eradication of the yeast with antifungal agents. There are several aspects to consider in the daily routine that can provide a strength protection. However, a therapeutic approach is necessary when the infection is established, and therefore, other alternatives should be explored. This review provides an overview on predisposition factors, prevention and diagnosis of candidiasis, highlighting alternative approaches for candidiasis treatment.

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  16. Mutagenic Potential of Alternating Current Electric Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    did a study in Drosophila melanogaster where they found a significant increase in the rate of transcription and translation in 17 chromosomal regions ...Interestingly, the same 17 regions were also the same chromosomal regions that control and regulate cell growth and development (Wiesbrot and Uluc...Continuous Electromagnetic Fields on the Stage, Weight and Stature of Chick Embryo. Acta Anatomica 145:302-306. Prata, S. (1993) EMF Handbook., The Waite

  17. Mutagenic Effect on Alternating Current Magnetic Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    translation in 17 chromosomal regions . Interestingly, the same 17 regions were also the same chromosomal regions that control and regulate cell growth and...Cobos. (1992) Influence of Continuous Electromagnetic Fields on the Stage, Weight and Stature of Chick Embryo. Acta Anatomica 145:302-306. Prata, S

  18. Mutagenic Effect on Alternating Current Magnetic Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    translation in 17 chromosomal regions . Interestingly, the same 17 regions were also the same chromosomal regions that control and regulate cell growth...Cobos. (1992) Influence of Continuous Electromagnetic Fields on the Stage, Weight and Stature of Chick Embryo. Acta Anatomica 145:302-306. Prata, S

  19. Mutagenic screening of diamine monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, W. D.; Noble, J. E.; Gridley, J. A.; Fullenkamp, J. M.; Wininger, M. T.; Graham, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of phenyl ring coupling moieties, of isomeric amine positions relative to the coupling groups, and of insertion of other coupling groups on the mutagenic response of a series of dianilines were investigated using the Ames Salmonella assay. Generally, S-9 metabolic activation from Aroclor-induced rat liver was required for mutagenic expression. The range of mutagenicity of steric isomers of several dianiline series was also investigated. No mutagenicity was found for purified samples of o,o' and m,p' isomers of methylene dianiline (MDA) and diaminobenzophenone, while varying degrees of mutagenicity were found for other isomers. The mutagenicity of "benzylogs" of MDA decreased as the degree of linear separation of the m,m' anilino groups by aromatic rings increased. Methylation and two-year storage increased mutagenic response in certain isomers of MDA. However, high performance liquid chromatography indicated there was no discernible change in m,p'-MDA samples aged under varied conditions over four months. Likewise, no change in mutagenicity was found.

  20. Mutagenicity of Oxygen Free Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Carmella S.; Hassan, Hosni M.

    1982-05-01

    Paraquat 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was used as an intracellular generator of oxygen free radicals and was found to be highly mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium. It caused both base-pair substitution and frameshift mutations. Paraquat was much more toxic and mutagenic in a simple nutritionally restricted medium than in a rich complex medium. The mutagenicity of paraquat was dependent upon the presence of a supply of both electrons and oxygen. Cells containing high levels of superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) were more resistant to the toxicity and the mutagenicity of paraquat than were cells containing normal levels of this enzyme. The mutagenicity of paraquat thus appears to be due to its ability to exacerbate the intracellular production of superoxide radicals.

  1. Effect of ozonation and chlorination on the mutagenic potential of drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Dolara, P.; Ricci, V.; Burrini, D.; Griffini, O.

    1981-07-01

    The mutagenic potential of water taken at various stages in a water treatment plant which used both chlorination and ozonation as methods for disinfection was investigated. Presented in this paper are some of the results obtained using the Salmonella/microsome test. The results of this investigation indicate that while mutagenic chemicals were produced by chlorination, ozonation of the chemicals in controlled laboratory experiments resulted in a decrease in the mutagenic activity. In observations at the treatment plant, mutagenic chemicals were produced to a lesser extent by ozone treatment than by chlorination. (RJC)

  2. Conventional and alternative treatment approaches for Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Aljarallah, Khalid M.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated disease continues to be one of the leading health concerns worldwide. C. difficile is considered as a causative agent of nosocomial diarrhea that causes serious infection, which may result in death. The incidences of C. difficile infection (CDI) in developed countries have become increasingly high which may be attributed to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, extensive use of antibiotics, and limited alternative therapies. The available treatment options against CDI are expensive and promote resistance. Therefore, there is urgent need for new approaches to meet these challenges. This review discusses the current understanding of CDI, the existing clinical treatment strategies and future potential options as antidifficile agents based on the available published works. PMID:28293151

  3. The treatment and management of alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Neville, B G R; Ninan, M

    2007-10-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood has many factors that make it difficult to manage. These include its rarity of about one case per million, the variability of the manifestations, with seven characteristic features, and the potential for disabilities and acute, often severe, episodes in a disease that is of uncertain cause and for which treatment evidence is sparse. An integrated multidisciplinary team and emergency availability are key medical requirements, as well as an educational setting that understands the variations in performance that occur. The mainstays of treatment have been flunarizine, antiepilepsy drugs for the 50% of patients with epilepsy, attempts to avoid trigger situations, and the rapid encouragement of sleep when attacks begin. The diagnostic and management predicament of child, parent, and paediatrician in complex rare disorders are well illustrated by this condition.

  4. The status of alternative treatment in cancer patients in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Isikhan, Vedat; Komurcu, Seref; Ozet, Ahmet; Arpaci, Fikret; Ozturk, Bekir; Balbay, Oner; Guner, Perihan

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the frequency at which Turkish patients with cancer resort to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). A total of 704 patients referred to the Gülhane Military Medical Academy and Ankara Numune Training Hospital between September 2002 and January 2003 were asked about the CAM therapies they used. Of these, 276 patients (39.2%) had used CAM. Gender, marital status, educational status, age, financial status, severity of pain, history of cancer in the family, and their own ideas concerning CAM therapies were found to be correlated with the frequency of resorting to CAM. Resorting to CAM may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment, adverse drug interactions, treatment withdrawal, and disease progression. Therefore, it is very important to inform patients about these potential dangers. Further studies are needed to clarify the reasons that lead patients to resort to CAM.

  5. Alternative Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Oral Pyogenic Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Bugshan, Amr; Patel, Harsh; Garber, Karen; Meiller, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic granulomas (PGs) in the oral cavity present as an inflammatory hyperplasia usually caused by trauma, hormonal imbalance, chronic irritation, or as the response to a wide variety of drugs. PGs with atypical presentation and behavior may clinically mimic malignant tumors. Thus, histological examination is required to rule out cancer development. Lesions in the oral cavity have been described to be either an isolated entity or present in multiple forms and with multiple recurrences. Conservative surgical excision is the standard choice of treatment in almost every scenario. However, the severity of the lesions and the affected sites often challenge surgical treatment. In this report, we describe the clinical scenario of a recurrent PG, where surgical excision of the lesion was questioned. As an alternative, we describe a noninvasive approach with lesional steroid injections. PMID:26668570

  6. Review of complementary and alternative medical treatment of arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Brenyo, Andrew; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2014-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies are commonly used by patients for the treatment of medical conditions spanning the full spectrum of severity and chronicity. The use of alternative remedies, both herbal and others, for conditions lacking effective medical treatment, is on the increase. Included within this categorization, arrhythmic disease-absent effective catheter-based therapy or with medical therapy limited by the toxicities of contemporary antiarrhythmic agents is frequently managed by patients with CAM therapies without their practitioner's knowledge and in the face of potential herb-drug toxicities. This study reviews 9 CAM therapies: 7 individual herbal therapies along with acupuncture and yoga that have been studied and reported as having an antiarrhythmic effect. The primary focuses are the proposed antiarrhythmic mechanism of each CAM agent along with interactions between the CAM therapies and commonly prescribed medical therapy for arrhythmia patients. We stress persistent vigilance on the part of the provider in discussing the use of herbal or other CAM agents within the arrhythmia population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [New alternatives in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Luis Arredondo, J; Higuera, F; Narcio, M L; Casanova, G; Beltrán, M

    1994-08-01

    Efficiency and security clindamycin vaginal cream (2%) were compared to oral metronidazole's for the treatment of 184 women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis in a multicentric, randomized, double-blind, controlled study. The treatment was of 7 days duration, using placebo capsules for the clindamycin group and placebo cream for the metronidazole group. Patients were observed during a follow up (4-13 and 20-43 days after completion of therapy). Global results of this treatment indicated that clindamycin vaginal cream offers a similar efficiency than oral metronidazole. Improvement or total healing was 87% for clindamycin and 79% for metronidazole, with no significant differences (p > 0.22). No relapses were observed in the clindamycin group, and 7% in the metronidazole group. The clindamycin group had a failure rate of 3% compared to 15% in the oral metronidazole group. Both drugs were well tolerated. Side effects more frequently reported were vulvovaginal irritation and cervicitis/vaginitis. The only side effect that could have been classified as serious was a generalized rash in a patient receiving metronidazole. It was concluded that clindamycin vaginal cream (2%) is an efficient and secure alternative to oral metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis being the elective therapy for pregnant women in their first gestational trimester.

  8. Investigation of toxicity and mutagenicity of cold atmospheric argon plasma.

    PubMed

    Maisch, T; Bosserhoff, A K; Unger, P; Heider, J; Shimizu, T; Zimmermann, J L; Morfill, G E; Landthaler, M; Karrer, S

    2017-04-01

    Cold atmospheric argon plasma is recognized as a new contact free approach for the decrease of bacterial load on chronic wounds in patients. So far very limited data are available on its toxicity and mutagenicity on eukaryotic cells. Thus, the toxic/mutagenic potential of cold atmospheric argon plasma using the MicroPlaSter β(®) , which has been used efficiently in humans treating chronic and acute wounds, was investigated using the XTT assay in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and the HGPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) assay with V79 Chinese hamster cells. The tested clinical parameter of a 2 min cold atmospheric argon plasma treatment revealed no relevant toxicity on keratinocytes (viability: 76% ± 0.17%) and on fibroblasts (viability: 81.8 ± 0.10) after 72 hr as compared to the untreated controls. No mutagenicity was detected in the HGPRT assay with V79 cells even after repetitive CAP treatments of 2-10 min every 24 hr for up to 5 days. In contrast, UV-C irradiation of V79 cells, used as a positive control in the HGPRT test, led to DNA damage and mutagenic effects. Our findings indicate that cold atmospheric plasma using the MicroPlaSter β(®) shows negligible effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts but no mutagenic potential in the HGPRT assay, indicating a new contact free safe technology. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:172-177, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anti-mutagenic activity of Salvia merjamie extract against gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Khalid Mashay

    2015-01-01

    Gemcitabine is an anti-cancer drug with clinically uses in the treatment of various neoplasms, including breast, ovarian, non-small cell lung, pancreaticand cervical cancers, T-cell malignancies, germ cell tumours, and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, it has also been reported to have many adverse effects. Naturally occurring anti-mutagenic effects, especially those of plant origin, have recently become a subject of intensive research. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the anti-mutagenic effects of Salvia merjamie (Family: Lamiaceae) plant extracts against the mutagenic effects of gemcitabine. The anti-mutagenic properties of Salvia merjamie were tested in Inbred SWR/J male and female mice bone marrow cells. The mice were treated in four groups; a control group treated with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine and three treatment groups, each with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine together with, respectively, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight Salvia merjamie extract. Chromosomal aberration and mitotic index assays were performed with the results demonstrating that Salvia merjamie extract protects bone marrow cells in mice against gemcitabine induced mutagenicity. This information can be used for the development of a potential therapeutic anti-mutagenic agents.

  10. Synthesis of mutagenic compounds in crankcase oils

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelnasser, M.; Hyland, M.; Jespersen, N.D.

    1986-02-01

    Motor oils become mutagenic after use in internal combustion engines. This work has shown that the major factor involved in the production of these mutagens is nitrogen dioxide. Sulfur dioxide and other gases do not seem to cause the production of mutagens. These results may be related to the mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particulates and some synthetic fuels. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Cryptococcosis: epidemiology, fungal resistance, and new alternatives for treatment.

    PubMed

    Gullo, F P; Rossi, S A; Sardi, J de C O; Teodoro, V L I; Mendes-Giannini, M J S; Fusco-Almeida, A M

    2013-11-01

    Cryptococcosis is an important systemic mycosis and the third most prevalent disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. The incidence of cryptococcosis is high among the 25 million people with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with recent estimates indicating that there are one million cases of cryptococcal meningitis globally per year in AIDS patients. In Cryptococcus neoformans, resistance to azoles may be associated with alterations in the target enzyme encoded by the gene ERG11, lanosterol 14α-demethylase. These alterations are obtained through mutations, or by overexpressing the gene encoding. In addition, C. gattii and C. neoformans present a heteroresistance phenotype, which may be related to increased virulence. Other species beyond C. neoformans and C. gattii, such as C. laurentii, have been diagnosed mainly in patients with immunosuppression. Infections of C. albidus have been isolated in cats and marine mammals. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of infections produced by this pathogen are associated with biofilm growth, which is also related with increased resistance to antifungal agents. Therefore, there is a great need to search for alternative antifungal agents for these fungi. The search for new molecules is currently occurring from nanoparticle drugs of plant peptide origin. This article presents a brief review of the literature regarding the epidemiology of cryptococcosis, as well as fungal resistance and new alternatives for treatment.

  12. Multiple-objective evaluation of wastewater treatment plant control alternatives.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gallego, Alejandro; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2010-05-01

    Besides the evaluation of the environmental issues, the correct assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) should take into account several objectives such as: economic e.g. operation costs; technical e.g. risk of suffering microbiology-related TSS separation problems; or legal e.g. accomplishment with the effluent standards in terms of the different pollution loads. For this reason, the main objective of this paper is to show the benefits of complementing the environmental assessment carried out by life cycle assessment with economical, technical and legal criteria. Using a preliminary version of the BSM2 as a case study, different combinations of controllers are implemented, simulated and evaluated. In the following step, the resulting multi-criteria matrix is mined using multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the presence of an external carbon source addition, the type of aeration system and the TSS controller are the key elements creating the differences amongst the alternatives. Also, it was possible to characterize the different control strategies according to a set of aggregated criteria. Additionally, the existing synergies amongst different objectives and their consequent trade-offs were identified. Finally, it was discovered that from the initial extensive list of evaluation criteria, only a small set of five are really discriminant, being useful to differentiate within the generated alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ribavirin can be mutagenic for arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Héctor; Gallego, Isabel; Sevilla, Noemí; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Esteban; Martín, Verónica

    2011-07-01

    Arenaviruses include several important human pathogens, and there are very limited options of preventive or therapeutic interventions to combat these viruses. An off-label use of the purine nucleoside analogue ribavirin (1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-1-H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) is the only antiviral treatment currently available for arenavirus infections. However, the ribavirin antiviral mechanism action against arenaviruses remains unknown. Here we document that ribavirin is mutagenic for the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in cell culture. The mutagenic activity of ribavirin on LCMV was observed under single- and multiple-passage regimes and could not be accounted for by a decrease of the intracellular GTP pool promoted by ribavirin-mediated inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Our findings suggest that the antiviral activity of ribavirin on arenaviruses might be exerted, at least partially, by lethal mutagenesis. Implications for antiarenavirus therapy are discussed.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vijayshree; Shinto, Lynne; Bourdette, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disabling disease of the CNS that affects people during early adulthood. Despite several US FDA-approved medications, the treatment options in MS are limited. Many people with MS explore complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to help control their MS and treat their symptoms. Surveys suggest that up to 70% of people with MS have tried one or more CAM treatment for their MS. People with MS using CAM generally report deriving some benefit from the therapies. The CAM therapies most frequently used include diet, omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. There is very limited research evaluating the safety and effectiveness of CAM in MS. The most promising among CAM therapies that warrant further investigation are a low-fat diet, omega-3 fatty acids, lipoic acid and vitamin D supplementation as potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agents in both relapsing and progressive forms of MS. There is very limited research evaluating the safety and effectiveness of CAM in MS. However, in recent years, the NIH and the National MS Society have been actively supporting the research in this very important area. PMID:20441425

  15. An alternative treatment modality for cellulite: LPG endermologie.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Songur, Abdullah; Engіn, Burhan; Khatіb, Rashid; Calay, Özden; Serdaroğlu, Server

    2013-10-01

    LPG endermologie is a worldwide FDA-approved massage system used in the treatment of cellulite. The aim of this study is to evaluate safety, efficacy, and the slimming potential of LPG endermologie. A total of 118 women (mean age, 34.59 ± 8.02 years) were enrolled in this study. The LPG treatment sessions were performed twice weekly and continued for at least 15 sessions. The outcome was clinically evaluated using digital photography for cellulite grade assessment while perimetric measurements for eight body sites were performed. The evaluation also included measurements of body weight and body fat percentage (BFP). One hundred and seventeen patients (99%) showed loss in body circumference measurements. A mean body circumference reduction of 2.9 ± 1.6 cm was obtained per site for all patients. There was a mean body circumference loss which was statically significant with p < 0.001. Weight loss was detected in one hundred and three patients (87%). The mean body weight loss was 2.717 ± 1.938 kg for all patients. One hundred and ten subjects (93%) also showed decreases in BFP. The questionnaire indicated high satisfaction in 81 (69%) patients. LPG endermologie is a well-tolerated and effective alternative treatment modality for slimming and body contouring.

  16. Standard and alternative adjunctive treatments in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J K

    1993-01-01

    Cardiovascular rehabilitation is the process of restoring functional abilities degraded by a serious cardiovascular event or by a surgical procedure to preempt such an event. Cardiovascular rehabilitation also includes attempts to reverse risk factors that have contributed initially to the disease process. Rehabilitation programs generally comprise disease-related educational components, supervised prescriptive physical exercise, diet counseling and modification, cessation of tobacco use, psychoeducational interventions aimed at adjustment and coping, and relaxation and stress management to lower nonexertion-related sympathetic drive. The presence of so-called coronary-prone behavior patterns can be detected, and special behavioral modifications may be indicated to mitigate these putative risk factors. This paper reviews the roles of these behavioral adjuncts in treating cardiovascular disease and its aftermath, and notes new and unusual approaches to these components of treatment, such as alternative exercises, biofeedback, yoga, and other relaxation methods. Barriers to compliance are acknowledged, and enhancement of compliance is discussed briefly. PMID:8219823

  17. Standard and alternative adjunctive treatments in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Levy, J K

    1993-01-01

    Cardiovascular rehabilitation is the process of restoring functional abilities degraded by a serious cardiovascular event or by a surgical procedure to preempt such an event. Cardiovascular rehabilitation also includes attempts to reverse risk factors that have contributed initially to the disease process. Rehabilitation programs generally comprise disease-related educational components, supervised prescriptive physical exercise, diet counseling and modification, cessation of tobacco use, psychoeducational interventions aimed at adjustment and coping, and relaxation and stress management to lower nonexertion-related sympathetic drive. The presence of so-called coronary-prone behavior patterns can be detected, and special behavioral modifications may be indicated to mitigate these putative risk factors. This paper reviews the roles of these behavioral adjuncts in treating cardiovascular disease and its aftermath, and notes new and unusual approaches to these components of treatment, such as alternative exercises, biofeedback, yoga, and other relaxation methods. Barriers to compliance are acknowledged, and enhancement of compliance is discussed briefly.

  18. A level change in mutagenicity of Japanese tap water over the past 12 yr.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Hirokazu; Kishida, Misako; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Ohki, Akira; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-05-01

    A relative comparison study of mutagenicity in Japanese tap water was conducted for 1993 and 2005 surveys. It intended to assess the effects of advanced water treatment installations to water works, improvement of raw water quality and improvement of residual HOCl concentration controlling. Sampling points (taps) were the same in both surveys. The results of 245 samples obtained by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test (Ames test) were analyzed. The Ames tests were conducted by using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with and without exogenous activation (S9). With the exception of TA100-S9, the other conditions needed no discussion as a factor in the mutagenicity level change. The average mutagenicity in 1993 and 2005 under the conditions of TA100-S9 were 2600 and 1100 net revertantL(-1), respectively. This indicated that the mutagenicity level of Japanese tap water decreased during the 12-yr period. Particularly a remarkable decrease in mutagenicity was observed in the water works where the advanced water treatments were installed during the 12-yr period. The advanced water treatments were effective in decreasing the mutagenicity of tap water. Mutagenicity also decreased in the water works with conventional water treatments; the improvement of residual HOCl concentration controlling was also considered to be effective in decreasing the mutagenicity of tap water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: Pharmacological treatment of 30 Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, Livia; Gherzi, Marcella; Stagnaro, Michela; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Giannotta, Melania; Vavassori, Maria Rosaria; Veneselli, Edvige; De Grandis, Elisa

    2017-06-01

    Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) is a severe disorder. Several drugs have been administered as prophylaxis for paroxysmal attacks, however, no therapy is completely effective. Our aim is to review the pharmacological data related to the prophylactic and acute treatment of a cohort of 30 patients (16M, 14F, age range 5-42years) and to correlate them with the clinical and genetic data collected through the Italian Biobank and Clinical Registry for AHC. Flunarizine was the most commonly used long-term treatment in the cohort; it reduced duration and frequency of attacks in 50% of patients and decreased intensity in 32.1%. In younger patients, flunarizine seemed significantly more effective in reducing intensity. We found no correlation between the effectiveness of flunarizine and genotype, or between developmental outcome and duration of treatment. In particular, 3 of our patients affected by E815K mutation presented rapid neurological deterioration despite ongoing treatment. Among the other administered prophylactic therapies, few proved to be effective (benzodiazepines, niaprazine, acetazolamide, melatonin, olanzapine, ketogenic diet). No clear rationale exists regarding their use, but these therapies may work by reducing the triggering factors. The presented data are retrospective, but they are aimed at filling a gap given the rarity of the disease and the lack of randomized and controlled studies. Besides their usefulness in clarifying the pathophysiology of the disease, prospective studies involving larger cohorts of ATP1A3 mutated AHC patients are needed to provide a rationale for testing other molecules. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Mutagenic effect of the rocket fuel component asymmetric dimethylhydrazine on rats of various ages].

    PubMed

    Kolumbaeva, S Zh; Shalakhmetova, T M; Begimbetova, D A; Bersimbaev, R I; Kalimagambetov, A M

    2007-06-01

    Mutagenic effect of asymmetric dimethylhydrazine (ADMH) on rats of different age groups upon acute and subacute treatment and protective effect of a Limonium gmelinii preparation. Genotoxic effect of ADMH depending on the dose and duration of treatment was established. The phytopreparation lacked mutagenicity and toxicity and had a protective effect in combination with the xenobiotic.

  1. Alternative approach to endoluminal treatment of an anastomotic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Komori, K; Furuyama, T; Shoji, T; Kume, M; Yamaoka, T; Mori, E; Sugimachi, K

    2002-06-01

    Conventional surgical treatment of patients with an anastomotic aneurysm can be a surgical challenge if severe adhesions are present. We report here effective treatment of an anastomotic aneurysm using an endoluminal stent graft. A 71-year-old man had undergone an aorto-bifemoral bypass for Leriche's syndrome in 1989 and partial gastrectomy for cancer in 1996. He was admitted to our department with a pseudoaneurysm of a proximal anastomosis located at the aorta below both renal arteries. Based on his medico-surgical history, we considered that an endovascular stent should be placed. This graft composed of an UBE(UBE-WOVEN GRAFT) graft and self-expandable Z stents were introduced through the right limb of the bifurcated graft previously implanted, then were placed using the delivery system while advancing under fluoroscopic control, using a pusher rod. Endoleakage was not evident and the postoperative course was uneventful. An endovascular graft is one alternative approach for treating patients with an anastomotic aneurysm as it is less invasive. This procedure proved satisfactory for this patient.

  2. Current Pharmaceutical Treatments and Alternative Therapies of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Cui, Yanhua; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, pharmaceutical treatments, particularly dopaminergic (DAergic) drugs have been considered as the main therapy against motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is proposed that DAergic drugs in combination with other medications, such as monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, anticholinergics and other newly developed non-DAergic drugs can make a better control of motor symptoms or alleviate levodopa-induced motor complications. Moreover, non-motor symptoms of PD, such as cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic and sensory disturbances caused by intrinsic PD pathology or drug-induced side effects, are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be taken care of due to their impact on quality of life. Currently, neuroprotective therapies have been investigated extensively in pre-clinical studies, and some of them have been subjected to clinical trials. Furthermore, non-pharmaceutical treatments, including deep brain stimulation (DBS), gene therapy, cell replacement therapy and some complementary managements, such as Tai chi, Yoga, traditional herbs and molecular targeted therapies have also been considered as effective alternative therapies to classical pharmaceutics. This review will provide us updated information regarding the current drugs and non-drugs therapies for PD.

  3. Current Pharmaceutical Treatments and Alternative Therapies of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Cui, Yanhua; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, pharmaceutical treatments, particularly dopaminergic (DAergic) drugs have been considered as the main therapy against motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is proposed that DAergic drugs in combination with other medications, such as monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, anticholinergics and other newly developed non-DAergic drugs can make a better control of motor symptoms or alleviate levodopa-induced motor complications. Moreover, non-motor symptoms of PD, such as cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic and sensory disturbances caused by intrinsic PD pathology or drug-induced side effects, are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be taken care of due to their impact on quality of life. Currently, neuroprotective therapies have been investigated extensively in pre-clinical studies, and some of them have been subjected to clinical trials. Furthermore, non-pharmaceutical treatments, including deep brain stimulation (DBS), gene therapy, cell replacement therapy and some complementary managements, such as Tai chi, Yoga, traditional herbs and molecular targeted therapies have also been considered as effective alternative therapies to classical pharmaceutics. This review will provide us updated information regarding the current drugs and non-drugs therapies for PD. PMID:26585523

  4. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks, State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  5. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks,State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  6. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks, State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  7. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks,State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  8. Mutagenic activity in disinfected waters and recovery of the potent bacterial mutagen "MX" from water by XAD resin adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, Peter; Wondergem, Erik; Kronberg, Leif

    Chlorination of humic water generated mutagenic activity in the Ames test. The formation of the potent bacterial mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity were favoured by acidic chlorination conditions and high chlorine doses. Chlorinated humic waters from different locations differed slightly in the level of mutagenicity as well as in the proportion of activity derived from MX. Chlorination of an industrially polluted surface water with a low content of humic material generated an approximately equal level of mutagenicity (per mg of DOC) as that of chlorinated humic water, but only a minor part (26%) of the activity could be explained by the presence of MX. The mutagenicity and the amount of MX generated were substantially lower when using combined treatment methods (ClO2+Cl2, O3+Cl2) or when substituting chlorine by monochloramine or chlorine dioxide. The recovery of MX by XAD adsorption from water acidified to pH 2 was found to be quantitative.

  9. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  10. Effect of petrochemical sludge concentrations of changes in mutagenic activity during soil bioremediation process.

    PubMed

    Morelli, I S; Vecchioli, G I; Del Panno, M T; Painceira, M T

    2001-10-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effect of the petrochemical sludge application rate on the mutagenic activity (Ames test) of soil and the persistence of mutagenic activity during laboratory soil bioremediation process. Sludge-soil systems were prepared at four different sludge application rates (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10% w/w). Unamended soil was used as a control. Immediately following sludge application, in the absence or presence of S9, a linear correlation between sludge application rates and mutagenicity was found but differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the control system only at higher application rates (5 and 10% w/w). The direct mutagenicity of all systems decreases during the bioremediation process, and after a year of treatment only the 10% system induced a mutagenic response that was significantly different from the control system. On the other hand, an initial increase of the indirect mutagenicity was observed at all application rates. The time required for observing this increase was inversely proportional to the initial sludge concentration. After a year of treatment, the indirect mutagenicity of all sludge-amended soils was not significantly different but was significantly different from the unamended soils. The persistence of the direct mutagenic activity of the sludge-amended soils was related to the sludge concentration, whereas the indirect mutagenic persistence was related to the relationship between easily degradable hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentration and independent from the initial application rate.

  11. Cracked tooth diagnosis and treatment: An alternative paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Mamoun, John S.; Napoletano, Donato

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of cracked teeth, and explores common clinical examples of cracked teeth, such as cusp fractures, fractures into tooth furcations, and root fractures. This article provides alternative definitions of terms such as cracked teeth, complete and incomplete fractures and crack lines, and explores the scientific rationale for dental terminology commonly used to describe cracked teeth, such as cracked tooth syndrome, structural versus nonstructural cracks, and vertical, horizontal, and oblique fractures. The article explains the advantages of high magnification loupes (×6–8 or greater), or the surgical operating microscope, combined with co-axial or head-mounted illumination, when observing teeth for microscopic crack lines or enamel craze lines. The article explores what biomechanical factors help to facilitate the development of cracks in teeth, and under what circumstances a full coverage crown may be indicated for preventing further propagation of a fracture plane. Articles on cracked tooth phenomena were located via a PubMed search using a variety of keywords, and via selective hand-searching of citations contained within located articles. PMID:26038667

  12. Pollutant removal efficiency of alternative filtration media in stormwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Seelsaen, N; McLaughlan, R; Moore, S; Ball, J E; Stuetz, R M

    2006-01-01

    Sorption experiments were used to assess the ability of various materials (sand, compost, packing wood, ash, zeolite, recycled glass and Enviro-media) to remove heavy metal contaminants typically found in stormwater. Compost was found to have the best physicochemical properties for sorption of metal ions (Cu, Zn and Pb) compared with sand, packing wood, ash, zeolite and Enviro-media. The compost sorption of these metal ions conformed to the linear form of the Langmuir adsorption equation with the Langmuir constants (q,) for Zn(ll) being 11.2 mg/g at pH 5. However, compost was also found to leach a high concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 4.31 mg/g), compared with the other tested materials. Various combinations of sand, compost and other materials were observed to have excellent heavy metal removal (75-96% of Zn and 90-93% of Cu), with minimal DOC leaching (0.0013-2.43 mg/g). The sorption efficiency of the different Enviro-media mixes showed that a combination of traditional (sand) and alternative materials can be used as an effective medium for the treatment of dissolved metal contaminants commonly found in stormwater. The application of using recycled organic materials and other waste materials (such as recycled glass) also provides added value to the products life cycle.

  13. Alternating magnetic field optimization for IONP hyperthermia cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Elliot J.; Reeves, Russell; Bennett, William; Misra, Aditi; Petryk, Jim D.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) have therapeutic potential to deliver a thermal dose to tumors when activated in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Through various targeting methods such as antibody labeling or injection site choice, delivery of IONPs to tumors yields enhanced treatment accuracy and efficacy. Despite this advantage, delivery an AMF, which is sufficient to result in clinically relevant IONP heating, can result in nonspecific tissue heating via the generation of eddy currents and tissue permeated by local electric fields (joule heating). The production of eddy current heating is a function of tissue size, geometry and composition as well as coil design and operation. The purpose of this research is to increase the level of energy deposited into the IONPs versus the non-target tissue (power ratio/PR)1 in order to improve target heating and reduce nonspecific tissue damage. We propose to improve the PR using two primary concepts: (1) reduce power deposition into non-target tissue by manipulating the fields and eddy current flow and (2) enhance heat removal from non-target tissue. We have shown that controlling tissue placement within the AMF field, accounting for tissue geometry, utilizing external cooling devices, and modifying the field properties can decrease non-target heating by more than 50%, at clinically relevant AMF levels, thereby allowing for an increase in thermal dose to the tumor and increasing the therapeutic ratio.

  14. Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8GHz radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761).

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Aytekin, Ebru; Ozgur, Elcin; Güler, Göknur; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Omeroğlu, Suna; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2011-12-01

    The mutagenic and morphologic effects of 1.8GHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated RF (radiofrequency) radiation alone and in combination with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) pre-treatment in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) were investigated in this study using Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and electron microscopy. Cell viability was assessed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. The lymphocyte cultures were exposed to GSM modulated RF radiation at 1.8GHz for 6, 8, 24 and 48h with and without EGb 761. We observed morphological changes in pulse-modulated RF radiated lymphocytes. Longer exposure periods led to destruction of organelle and nucleus structures. Chromatin change and the loss of mitochondrial crista occurred in cells exposed to RF for 8h and 24h and were more pronounced in cells exposed for 48h. Cytoplasmic lysis and destruction of membrane integrity of cells and nuclei were also seen in 48h RF exposed cells. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in SCE frequency in RF exposed lymphocytes compared to sham controls. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly decreased SCE from RF radiation. RF radiation also inhibited cell viability in a time dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the growth of lymphoctes were marked in longer exposure periods. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly increased cell viability in RF+EGb 761 treated groups at 8 and 24h when compared to RF exposed groups alone. The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutagenicity of water samples from five cities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, K S; Lee, Y S

    2001-07-01

    Four doses (equivalent to 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 liter water) of organic extracts from raw, treated and drinking waters sampled from seven different treatment plants in five cities in Korea were challenged to the Ames test using S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence/absence of S9 mix. The mutagenicity was usually observed from chlorine-treated (28.6%) and drinking (42.9%) waters rather than raw (3.4%) waters. The strain TA98 (33.3%) was more sensitive to detect the mutagenicity of water samples than the strain TA100 (16.7%). However, the absence of S9 mix showed higher mutagenic activity of waters compared to the presence of S9 mix, corresponding to the detection of 42.9% and 7.1%, respectively. These results indicate that the bacterial mutagenicity of treated and drinking waters may be derived from chlorination in water treatment plants but that the mutagenicity in humans may be limited due to enzymatic metabolism.

  16. Comparison of Explicit Forgiveness Interventions with an Alternative Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nathaniel G.; Worthington, Everett L.; Haake, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Forgiveness interventions can help people forgive past offenses. However, few studies have compared forgiveness interventions with genuine alternative treatments. The authors compared forgiveness interventions with a therapeutic alternative treatment. Participants reduced unforgiveness and increased forgiveness regardless of treatment condition.…

  17. [Alternative treatment forms used by patients with muscular atrophy. A questionnaire study of the use of alternative treatment by 345 patients with muscular atrophy].

    PubMed

    Hunsballe, J M; Mortensen, F V

    1990-04-30

    An investigation about the use of alternative treatment by a group of persons with muscular atrophy revealed that 24% had employed alternative treatment during the period 1.1.1983-1.4.1986. This is probably a greater proportion than in the Danish population as a whole. Patients with muscular atrophy were subdivided into three groups on the basis of their ability to function in daily life. No significant connection was found between the degree of loss of function and alternative treatment as regards the frequencies of alternative treatment and the numbers of treatments employed. A given form form of treatment was most frequently recommended by an unaffected acquaintance. Physical forms of treatment such as zone therapy and chiropractics were employed more frequently than chemical forms of therapy. Less than half of the patients were satisfied with the results of treatment. Treatment was often concluded in a negative manner. Patients considered that, in contrast to the alternative therapist, the doctor performs the best and most thorough examination and provides them with the best information about their condition.

  18. Endodontic treatment options after unsuccessful initial root canal treatment: Alternatives to single-tooth implants.

    PubMed

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; White, Shane N

    2016-03-01

    Initial root canal treatment is highly successful, appreciated by patients, and cost-effective, but failures occur. Should a tooth with unsuccessful initial root canal treatment be treated by means of other endodontic procedures or be replaced by a single-tooth implant? Results from systematic reviews of the outcomes of nonsurgical retreatment, apical surgery, replantation, and autotransplantation show high tooth survival rates. Nonsurgical retreatment generally is prioritized before surgical endodontic treatment. Microsurgical endodontic treatment is superior to traditional surgical endodontic treatment and has high survival rates. Intentional replantation remains a viable alternative to extraction. Autotransplantation has a place, particularly in growing patients with an appropriate donor tooth. Single-tooth implants have higher survival rates, but the natural state has intrinsic value. The first-line treatment option after failure of initial root canal treatment is nonsurgical retreatment. Endodontic surgery, intentional replantation, and autotransplantation should be considered before extraction and replacement by a single-tooth implant. Comprehensive case assessment, evaluation of all endodontic options, and risk assessment for caries and periodontal disease are always necessary when choosing the optimal treatment for a patient when initial root canal treatment has failed to heal. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutagenic azide metabolite is azidoalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Owais, W.M.; Rosichan, J.L.; Ronald, R.C.; Kleinhofs, A.; Nilan, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium axide produces high mutation rates in a number of species. Azide mutagenicity is mediated through a metabolite in barley and bacteria. Many studies showed that azide affects the L-cysteine biosynthesis pathway. Cell-free extracts of Salmonella typhimurium convert azide and O-acetylserine to the mutagenic metabolite. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the metabolite biosynthesis. To confirm the conclusion that the azide metabolite is formed through the ..beta..-substitution pathway of L-cysteine, we radioactively labeled the azide metabolite using /sup 14/C-labeled precursors. Moreover, the mutagenic azide metabolite was purified and identified as azidoalanine based on mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  1. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  2. Integration of alternative feedstreams for biomass treatment and utilization

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA; Friend, Julie [Claymont, DE; Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Hames, Bonnie [Westminster, CO

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides a method for treating biomass composed of integrated feedstocks to produce fermentable sugars. One aspect of the methods described herein includes a pretreatment step wherein biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream and the resulting integrated feedstock, at relatively high concentrations, is treated with a low concentration of ammonia relative to the dry weight of biomass. In another aspect, a high solids concentration of pretreated biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream for saccharifiaction.

  3. Technical Training: Development of Instructional Treatment Alternatives. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Philip H.; Pennell, Roger

    This report was written to provide guidance in the development and evaluation of alternative instructional approaches that hold promise of improving instructional effectiveness. The main focus of the report is on how to identify and test interactive relationships between individual differences among learners and instructional conditions or…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...

  5. An evaluation of drinking water samples treated with alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.S.; Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Garner, L.M.

    1995-10-01

    Due to concern over potential human health risks associated with the use of chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) for disinfection of drinking water, many utilities are considering alternative disinfectants. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfectants relative to those posed by Cl{sub 2}. At a pilot-scale drinking water plant in Jefferson Parish, LA., two studies were conducted in which clarified and sand filtered Mississippi River water was treated with either ozone (O{sub 3}), monochloramine (NH{sub 2}Cl), Cl{sub 2} or was not disinfected. Ozonated water was also post-disinfected with either NH{sub 2}Cl or Cl{sub 2}, to provide a disinfectant residual. For each treatment stream total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halide (TOX) and microbiological contaminants were determined. XAD resin concentrates were also prepared for mutagenicity testing in the Ames Salmonella assay. Water samples disinfected with O{sub 3} alone had low levels of mutagenic activity, the same as the non-disinfected water. The level of mutagenicity observed following chlorination was approximately twice that observed following treatment with NH{sub 2}Cl. Disinfection with O{sub 3} prior to treatment with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl resulted in a significantly lower level of mutagenicity than when either disinfectant was used alone. The concentrations of TOX present in the water samples showed a pattern similar to that of the mutagenicity data. The levels of TOC, by contrast, were similar for all the treatment streams. No significant baterial contamination was observed in water samples treated with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl alone or in combination with O{sub 3}, as determined by heterotrophic plate counts. However, O{sub 3} alone did not insure an acceptable level of disinfection at the end of the treatment stream.

  6. Simulations of alternative mechanical thinning treatment programs on western timberland

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Kenneth E. Skog; R. James Barbour; Miles A, Hemstrom; Robert J. Huggett

    2011-01-01

    We used the Economics of Biomass Removals model to evaluate the required treatment acreages, volumes removed, treatment costs and product revenues from national forest and other ownerships. We used three distinct treatment prescriptions to achieve two hazard reduction goals for treatable timberlands in the Western United States. The two hazard reduction goals were to...

  7. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: An Alternative to Residential Treatment for High Risk Children and Adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC), an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960’s and 70’s. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC. PMID:28250708

  8. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  9. Brief Report: Alternative Approaches to the Development of Effective Treatments for Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Bernard; Baker, Sidney M.

    1996-01-01

    The most widely used "alternative" biomedical treatments for autism are reviewed, including: nutritional supplements, especially megadose vitamin B6 and magnesium; treatment of food allergies and intolerances; treatment of microbial infections; and treatment of immune system dysfunction. The Defeat Autism Now! project is briefly…

  10. Brief Report: Alternative Approaches to the Development of Effective Treatments for Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Bernard; Baker, Sidney M.

    1996-01-01

    The most widely used "alternative" biomedical treatments for autism are reviewed, including: nutritional supplements, especially megadose vitamin B6 and magnesium; treatment of food allergies and intolerances; treatment of microbial infections; and treatment of immune system dysfunction. The Defeat Autism Now! project is briefly…

  11. The effect of fuel composition on the mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Conti, L; Crochi, B; Carere, A; Bertoli, C; Del Giacomo, N

    1995-03-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the mutagenicity of diesel engine emission was investigated. To this end, a fuel matrix comprising fuels with different contents of aromatic and naphthenic compounds was used. Extracts of the organic phase of raw exhausts obtained with different fuels were tested for mutagenicity in bacterial reversion assays. The results obtained demonstrate that the mutagenicity of diesel exhaust is largely dependent on the aromatic content of the fuel. In fact, mutagenicity was greatly reduced when the aromatic content of the fuel was lowered by hydrogen treatment. Conversely, mutagenicity was enhanced when the fuel was enriched with fractions of di- or triaromatic compounds. The addition of di- and trinaphthenic compounds only produced borderline mutagenicity. No clear relationship was observed between sulfur content of the fuel and mutagenicity of the exhaust. Assays in bacterial strains with different sensitivity to nitroaromatic compounds suggest a low contribution of the highly mutagenic dinitropyrenes to the responses observed, and a relatively greater contribution of 1-nitropyrene or other nitroaromatics processed by the same bacterial nitroreductase.

  12. The mutagenicity of food mutagenes in the intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.B.; Heddle, J.A.; Felton, J.

    1995-11-01

    PhIP and amino ({alpha})carboline (AAC) have been identified as mutagens in cooked food by means of the Ames test. In this study they were incorporated in the diet (400 and 800 ppm respectively) of groups of 3 {male} {male} and 3 {female} {female} mice F{sub 1} (C57B1/6 X SWR) mice heterozygous for a lac1 transgene (the Big Blue {trademark} Mouse) and at Dlb-1. The Dlb-1 locus controls the presence (+) or absence of a lectin-binding site in the small intestine so mutational loss of the dominant + allele can be seen as ribbons of non-staining cells on the villi. PhIP has been shown to be mutagenic in the small intestine by Brooks et al., with this assay. Its activity in the colon, where human cancers arise, has not been reported. lac1 mutations were assayed in the epithelial cells of both the colon and small intestine. PhIP was mutagenic in the Dlb-1 assay (thereby confirming Brooks et al.) and induced lac1 mutations in both colon and small intestine about equally. AAC was not mutagenic in the small intestine at Dlb-1 or lac1, but induced lac1 mutations at a rate (mutations/ppm*days) in the colon similar to PhIP. The concentrations of PhIP and AAC were about 10,000 times that found in the human diet, but the maximum exposures were much shorter: 90 and 45 days respectively.

  13. Acceptability of Alternative Treatments for Deviant Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    1980-01-01

    Cases of deviant child behavior were described to 88 undergraduate students along with four different treatments (reinforcement of incompatible behavior, time out from reinforcement, drug therapy, and electric shock). Reinforcement of incompatible behavior was more acceptable than other treatments which followed, in order, time out from…

  14. Alternative ponderosa pine restoration treatments in the western United States

    Treesearch

    James McIver; Phillip Weatherspoon; Carl Edminster

    2001-01-01

    Compared to presettlement times, many ponderosa pine forests of the United States are now more dense and have greater quantities of fuels. Widespread treatments are needed in these forests to restore ecological integrity and to reduce the risk of uncharacteristically severe fires. Among possible restorative treatments, however, the appropriate balance among cuttings,...

  15. Initial response of understory vegetation to three alternative thinning treatments

    Treesearch

    Liane R. Davis; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2009-01-01

    This study compares initial understory vegetation response among three thinning treatments and a control in 30 - to 50-year-old even-aged Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco (Douglas-fir) stands. It was conducted on four sites on the western slope of the central Oregon Cascades. Treatments included a control (no thinning), a light thinning, and...

  16. Thermotherapy. An alternative for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials (Sb5) and miltefosine are the first-line drugs for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia; however, toxicity and treatment duration negatively impact compliance and cost, justifying an active search for better therapeutic options. We compared the efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Method An open randomized Phase III clinical trial was performed in five military health centres. located in northwestern, central and southern Colombia. Volunteers with parasitological positive diagnosis (Giemsa-stained smears) of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included. A single thermotherapy session involving the application of 50°C at the center and active edge of each lesion. Meglumine antimoniate was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 20 mg Sb5/kg weight/day for 20 days. Results Both groups were comparable. The efficacy of thermotherapy was 64% (86/134 patients) by protocol and 58% (86/149) by intention-to-treat. For the meglumine antimoniate group, efficacy by protocol was 85% (103/121 patients) and 72% (103/143) by intention-to-treat, The efficacy between the treatments was statistically significant (p 0.01 and <0.001) for analysis by intention to treat and by protocol, respectively. There was no difference between the therapeutic response with either treatment regardless of the Leishmania species responsible for infection. The side effects of meglumine antimoniate included myalgia, arthralgia, headache and fever. Regarding thermotherapy, the only side effect was pain at the lesion area four days after the initiation of treatment. Conclusion Although the efficacy rate of meglumine antimoniate was greater than that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the side effects were also greater. Those factors, added to the increased costs, the treatment adherence problems and the progressive lack of therapeutic response, make us

  17. ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ALTERNATIVE TO A CLASS III SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Guilherme; de Souza, José Eduardo Prado; Barros, Sérgio Estelita Cavalcante; Andrade, Pedro; Nakamura, Alexandre Yudi

    2009-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies. PMID:19668997

  18. Treatment of Mycobacterium marinum with lymecycline: new therapeutic alternative?

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Maria Gertrudes Fernandes Pereira; Neugebauer, Samuel Antônio; Almeida Junior, Hiram Larangeira; Mota, Laís Marques

    2015-01-01

    Skin infections by Mycobacterium marinum are quite rare in our environment and, therefore, little studied. The majority of the lesions appear three weeks after traumas in aquariums, beaches and fish tanks. Lymph node drainage and systematization of the disease are rare and most lesions disappear in about three years. This case aims to show the effectiveness of the treatment used (lymecycline 150 mg/orally/day). This medication may be a new therapeutic option for the treatment of Mycobacterium marinum.

  19. Treatment of Mycobacterium marinum with lymecycline: new therapeutic alternative?*

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Maria Gertrudes Fernandes Pereira; Neugebauer, Samuel Antônio; Almeida Junior, Hiram Larangeira; Mota, Laís Marques

    2015-01-01

    Skin infections by Mycobacterium marinum are quite rare in our environment and, therefore, little studied. The majority of the lesions appear three weeks after traumas in aquariums, beaches and fish tanks. Lymph node drainage and systematization of the disease are rare and most lesions disappear in about three years. This case aims to show the effectiveness of the treatment used (lymecycline 150 mg/orally/day). This medication may be a new therapeutic option for the treatment of Mycobacterium marinum. PMID:25672310

  20. Antimutagenic and mutagenic potentials of Chinese radish.

    PubMed Central

    Rojanapo, W; Tepsuwan, A

    1993-01-01

    The edible part of fresh Chinese radish was chopped into small pieces, lyophilized, and then extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. The solvent in each fraction was removed by evaporation under reduced pressure at 50-55 degrees C, and the residue was dissolved in dimethylsufoxide just before being tested for antimutagenicity as well as mutagenicity using the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. We found that none of the three fractions exhibited any mutagenicity toward S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 when tested either in the presence or absence of S-9 mix. Interestingly, however, hexane and chloroform extracts could strongly inhibit the mutagenicities of both direct mutagens (e.g., 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide and sodium azide) and indirect mutagens (e.g., aflatoxin B1). In contrast, however, these two fractions did not inhibit the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, which is also an indirect mutagen. Both hexane and chloroform extracts could also markedly inhibit the activities of rat liver aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase. The methanol fraction could inhibit neither the mutagenicities of direct or indirect mutagens tested nor the activities of those two rat liver enzymes. Results of the present study demonstrate that Chinese radish may not contain any mutagenic compound but does contain some nonpolar compounds with antimutagenic activity toward both direct and indirect mutagens. In addition, the antimutagenic activity toward aflatoxin B1 may be partly due to the inhibition of enzymes necessary for activation of this mutagen. PMID:8143625

  1. Environmental assessment of urban wastewater reuse: treatment alternatives and applications.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina C; Castells, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    The main function of a Wastewater Treatment Plant is to minimize the environmental impact of discharging untreated water into natural water systems. Also a Wastewater Treatment Plant may get a resource from wastewater carrying out a tertiary treatment on the treated wastewater which can be reused in non-potable applications. Water reuse strategies are intended to address the problem of water scarcity without aggravating other environmental problems, thus reflecting the need of their environmental assessment. In this paper we used Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate different disinfection treatments (chlorination plus ultraviolet treatment, ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide) and to assess the environmental advantages and drawbacks of urban wastewater reuse in non-potable applications. To do so, we compared the environmental impacts of producing 1m(3) of water for non-potable uses from reclaimed water, potable water and desalinated water sources. The calculation has used current operating data from a Wastewater Treatment Plant located in the Mediterranean area, although the results can be applied to any other plant with similar technology. The ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide disinfection treatment technologies have similar environmental profiles. However most of the indicators are about 50% higher than the ultraviolet disinfection except for the acidification (100% higher) and photochemical oxidation (less than 5%). Non-potable uses (both agricultural and urban uses) of reclaimed water have environmental and economical advantages. Reuse of treated wastewater is particularly beneficial when it can replace desalinated water. Consequently, reclaimed water should be promoted for non-potable uses, when there is scarcity of freshwater. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Alternative splicing regulation: implications in cancer diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca

    2015-04-08

    The accurate expression of the genetic information is regulated by processes like mRNA splicing, proposed after the discoveries of Phil Sharp and Richard Roberts, who demonstrated the existence of intronic sequences, present in almost every structural eukaryotic gene, which should be precisely removed. This intron removal is called "splicing", which generates different proteins from a single mRNA, with different or even antagonistic functions. We currently know that alternative splicing is the most important source of protein diversity, given that 70% of the human genes undergo splicing and that mutations causing defects in this process could originate up to 50% of genetic diseases, including cancer. When these defects occur in genes involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and cell cycle regulation, there is an impact on cancer progression, rising the opportunity to diagnose and treat some types of cancer according to a particular splicing profile.

  3. Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?

    PubMed

    Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

    2013-10-15

    In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to μg/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants.

  4. Matlab Tools: An Alternative to Planning Systems in Brachytherapy Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Higmar

    2006-09-08

    This work proposes the use of the Matlab environment to obtain the treatment dose based on the reported data by Krishnaswamy and Liu et al. The comparison with reported measurements is showed for the Amersham source model. For the 3M source model, measurements with TLDs and a Monte Carlo simulation are compared to the data obtained by Matlab. The difference for the Amersham model is well under the 15% recommended by the IAEA and for the 3M model, although the difference is greater, the results are consistent. The good agreement to the reported data allows the Matlab calculations to be used in daily brachytherapy treatments.

  5. Complementary and alternative treatment for neck pain: chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais.

    PubMed

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Sorosky, Susan; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan; Lansky, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Of the multitude of treatment options for the management of neck pain, no obvious single treatment modality has been shown to be most efficacious. As such, the clinician should consider alternative treatment modalities if a modality is engaging, available, financially feasible, potentially efficacious, and is low risk for the patient. As evidence-based medicine for neck pain develops, the clinician is faced with the challenge of which treatments to encourage patients to pursue. Treatment modalities explored in this article, including chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais, represent reasonable complementary and alternative medicine methods for patients with neck pain.

  6. Infrared beak treatment: an alternative to conventional beak trimming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared lasers have been widely used in human medicine and its results are reliable, predictable and reproducible. Infrared lasers have recently been designed with the expressed purpose of providing a less painful, more precise beak treatment compared with conventional beak trimming. This study was...

  7. [Alternative treatment methods in rheumatic diseases; a literature review].

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J W; Rasker, J J; Van Riel, P L; Gribnau, F W; van de Putte, L B

    1991-02-23

    To evaluate the effectiveness of several types of complementary medicine in patients with rheumatic diseases, a literature search was performed. Clinical trials, blind or open, comparing the effectiveness of forms of complementary medicine with that of placebo or another control therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, soft tissue rheumatism and the fibromyalgia syndrome were selected until half of 1989, using electronic databases. Abstracts and summaries were excluded. The investigation was performed at the department of rheumatology of the Medisch Spectrum Twente hospital at Enschede in cooperation with the department of internal diseases of the Sint Radboud hospital at Nijmegen. For each type of complementary treatment, the results of all the clinical trials were summarized. Furthermore, the placebo-controlled trials were graded according to convincing trials or trials that seemed to be less valid and/or difficult to interpret. Data concerning acupuncture, balneotherapy, dietary measures, enzymic therapy, Seatone, homeopathy, manual therapy and fever few were found. Of these types of complementary medicine in rheumatic diseases, we found no convincing prove that they are more effective than the control or placebo treatment. A considerable number of the studies however can be criticized. It is necessary to perform further studies on the effect of frequently used types of complementary medicine in patients with rheumatic diseases, by or in cooperation with the physicians or paramedics who prescribe or perform these kinds of treatment. This is nearly always possible; directives are given to realize further studies of this kind. If a particular treatment proves to be no more effective than placebo treatment, its use should be discouraged.

  8. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  9. An Alternating Treatment Comparison of Minimal and Maximal Opposition Sound Selection in Turkish Phonological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun; Unal, Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    A single-subject alternating treatment design in combination with a staggered multiple baseline model across subjects was implemented with two 6:0 year-old girls, monozygotic twins, who were referred to a university clinic for evaluation and treatment. The treatment programme was structured according to variants of "minimal pair contrast…

  10. Miami Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime Project: A Review and Analysis of Performance, Accomplishment and Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Dept. of Drug Programs, Miami, FL.

    This report, submitted as an appeal for continuation of funds, summarizes the achievements of the Miami Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC) project. The project is designed to identify drug-abusing arrestees and divert them to either jail treatment or one of the Miami community's drug treatment programs. Included in this report are cost…

  11. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  12. Mutagenicity of new analogs of 5-nitrofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, J.F.; Ichikawa, M.; Bryan, G.T.; Swaminathan, S.

    1986-05-01

    The authors reported earlier the synthesis of methyl 3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-furoate (I) and a number of its reduction products. They extended this synthesis to obtain 3,4-diphenyl substituted analogs of established carcinogenic 5-nitrofuryl thiazoles. They report the mutagenic activities of this new series of furan analogs: methyl 3,4-diphenyl-2-furoate (II), 3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-acetylfuran (III), 3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-bromoacetylfuran (IV), 2-amino-4-(3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole (V) and 2-acetylamino-4-(3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole (VI) using nitroreductase-proficient (TA100 and TA98) and deficient (TA100NR and TA98NR) strains. All the nitro analogs (I, III, IV, V, and VI) were active (114, 31, 70, 3 and 9 rev/nmole) in TA100 while the non-nitro analog (II) was inactive. In TA98, I and III had 15-fold less activity relative to TA100. V and VI were inactive in TA98. Furthermore, I and III were less active in TA100NR and TA98NR compared to the response in the parent strains. In contrast, the bromo analog IV was equally active in TA100, TA98, TA100NR and TA98NR, suggesting alternate pathways of activation of this chemical. V and VI were about 4000-fold less active in TA100 than the carcinogenic analogs lacking the phenyl substituents. These results demonstrate that for mutagenic activity the nitro group is essential and the potency of activity is influenced by the substituents at the 2-position of furan.

  13. Passive mine drainage treatment: an effective low-cost alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Two prototype Passive Mine Drainage Treatment Systems have been designed and constructed in Colorado. These projects have addressed acid mine drainage from inactive coal mines. Metal removal for both systems is accomplished using simulated peat bogs composed of sphagnum moss and hypnum moss retained by loose rock check dams. Acid neutralization is accomplished using crushed limestone filled channels. Neutralization and aeration are enhanced with drop structures and waterfalls placed in the drainage channel. Preliminary water quality results show dramatic treatment effects with the PMDT system. This investigation presents cost data for design and construction of the two PMDT systems. Cost projections for periodic maintenance requirements are provided along with a suggested method for financing maintenance costs. Performance data for the first system installed are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  14. Propolis as an alternative treatment for cutaneous warts.

    PubMed

    Zedan, Hatem; Hofny, Eman R M; Ismail, Sahar A

    2009-11-01

    Warts are common problems affecting adults and children. Multiple treatment options are available, but no single therapy stands out as uniformly effective. Propolis and Echinacea are relatively safe immunomodulators with antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of Propolis and Echinacea in treating different types of warts. In a single-blind, randomized, 3-months trial, 135 patients with different types of warts received oral Propolis, Echinacea, or placebo. In patients with plane and common warts treated with Propolis, cure was achieved in 75% and 73% of patients, respectively. These results were significantly better than those associated with Echinacea treatment or placebo. We conclude that Propolis is an effective and safe immunomodulating therapy for plane and common warts.

  15. Odanacatib: an emerging novel treatment alternative for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Thomas C; Valenzano, Jonathan P; Verzella, Jessica L; Umland, Elena M

    2015-11-01

    Odanacatib represents a novel treatment option in the approach of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis experience a disturbance in bone remodeling wherein bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease found primarily in osteoclasts that plays a major role in the breakdown of bone via its collagenase properties. Targeting a new area of pathophysiology, odanacatib inhibits cathepsin K to reduce bone resorption while preserving bone formation. Phase II and III trials have shown efficacy in increasing bone mineral density in the target treatment group. Overall, safety studies have found odanacatib to be well-tolerated and comparable to placebo; however, some imbalances in adverse events have been observed in the Phase III trials. Current and future studies will analyze the long-term ability of odanacatib in preventing bone fracture.

  16. A review on fluoride varnishes: an alternative topical fluoride treatment.

    PubMed

    Clark, D C

    1982-06-01

    The in vitro, in vivo and clinical research on topical fluoride varnishes in surveyed. The probable mechanisms of action for fluoride varnishes is discussed and this effect demonstrated from the results of in vitro and in vivo research. Findings from clinical studies are summarized and selected results are used to estimate expected preventive effects from the treatment. The practical advantages and limitations of fluoride varnishes are also reviewed and indications for the future used of these preventive agents are considered.

  17. What if endoscopic hemostasis fails? Alternative treatment strategies: interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Sujal M

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1960s, interventional radiology has played a role in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. What began primarily as a diagnostic modality has evolved into much more of a therapeutic tool. And although the frequency of gastrointestinal bleeding has diminished thanks to management by pharmacologic and endoscopic methods, the need for additional invasive interventions still exists. Transcatheter angiography and intervention is a fundamental step in the algorithm for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  18. Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    nanofiltration and reverse osmosis treatment systems, both of which have been used to treat arsenic. Although nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are...UF) • Nanofiltration (NF) • Reverse osmosis (RO) Technology Description and Principles Contaminated Water Membranes RejectRecycle Effluent Model of a...Membrane Filtration System 5.0 MEMBRANE FILTRATION FOR ARSENIC There are four types of membrane processes: reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF

  19. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  20. Approval of Alternative Test Method for Puerto Nuevo Wastewater Treatment Plant, San Juan, Puerto Rico Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This December 2008 memorandum is from Conniesue Oldham of the Measurement Technology Group to Marcus E. Kantz in EPA Region 2. This memorandum is regarding a request to use an alternative test method at the Puerto Neuvo wastewater treatment plant

  1. Tomorrow`s energy today for cities and counties -- Alternative wastewater treatment: Advanced Integrated Pond systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a discussion of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Advanced Integrated Pond System as an alternative for other more costly municipal waste water treatment plants.

  2. Guidance: Demonstrating Compliance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Alternative Soil Treatment Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance provides suggestions and perspectives on how members of the regulated community, states, and the public can demonstrate compliance with the alternative treatment standards for certain contaminated soils that will be land disposed.

  3. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-05-01

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

  4. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  5. Comprehensive life cycle inventories of alternative wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jeffrey; de Haas, David; Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Over recent decades, the environmental regulations on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have trended towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements for the protection of local waterways. However, such regulations typically ignore other environmental impacts that might accompany apparent improvements to the WWTP. This paper quantitatively defines the life cycle inventory of resources consumed and emissions produced in ten different wastewater treatment scenarios (covering six process configurations and nine treatment standards). The inventory results indicate that infrastructure resources, operational energy, direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and chemical consumption generally increase with increasing nitrogen removal, especially at discharge standards of total nitrogen <5 mgN L(-1). Similarly, infrastructure resources and chemical consumption increase sharply with increasing phosphorus removal, but operational energy and direct GHG emissions are largely unaffected. These trends represent a trade-off of negative environmental impacts against improved local receiving water quality. However, increased phosphorus removal in WWTPs also represents an opportunity for increased resource recovery and reuse via biosolids applied to agricultural land. This study highlights that where biosolids displace synthetic fertilisers, a negative environmental trade-off may also occur by increasing the heavy metals discharged to soil. Proper analysis of these positive and negative environmental trade-offs requires further life cycle impact assessment and an inherently subjective weighting of competing environmental costs and benefits.

  6. Neoadjuvant endocrine treatment in early breast cancer: An overlooked alternative?

    PubMed

    van Dam, P A; van Dam, V C N; Altintas, S; Papadimitriou, K; Rolfo, C; Trinh, X B

    2016-03-01

    During the last decade neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) has moved from being reserved for elderly and frail non-chemotherapy candidates to a primary systemic modality in selected patients with hormone sensitive breast cancer. Neoadjuvant hormonal treatment in patients with hormone receptor positive, HER-2 negative early breast cancer is proven to be an effective and safe option; it is associated with a higher rate of breast conserving surgery (BCS), may reduce the need for adjuvant chemotherapy and enables a delay of surgery for medical or practical reasons. Clinical responses range from 13% to 100% with at least 3 months of NET. Methods of assessing response should include MRI of the breast, particularly in lobular tumours. In studies comparing tamoxifen with aromatase inhibitors (AI), AI proved to be superior in terms of tumour response and rates of BCS. Change in Ki67 is accepted as a validated endpoint for comparing endocrine neoadjuvant agents. Levels of Ki67 during treatment are more closely related to long-term prognosis than pretreatment Ki67. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy provides a unique opportunity for studies of endocrine responsiveness and the development of new experimental drugs combined with systemic hormonal treatment.

  7. Human somatic, germinal and heritable mutagenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report deals with the general process of variant formation rather than with the consequences of a specific variant being present. It focusses on mutational mechanisms, mutagens, and the method for detecting de novo mutants and estimating mutation rate. It is to human genetics much like disease causation and prevention medicine are to medicine as a whole. The word ''mutagenicity'' is used in the title and throughout the text to connote the causation of all classes of genetic damage. Mutagenicity and the corresponding words mutation, mutagen and mutagenesis can have multiple meaning, sometimes relating to gene mutation, sometimes to heritable mutation, and somtimes to all types of genetic damage. 38 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Mutagenicity of bitumen and asphalt fumes.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, P R; Väänänen, V; Hämeilä, M; Linnainmaa, K

    2003-08-01

    The mutagenicity of asphalt fumes was tested with the Salmonella bioassays. The aim was to investigate if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of emissions. Recycling of old asphalt is increasing, and we studied also the mutagenicity of emissions sampled during the re-use of asphalt. The composition of vapours and fumes were analysed by gas chromatography and by liquid chromatography. Bitumens containing coal fly ash (CFA) or waste plastics were heated to the paving temperatures in the laboratory. In the field, bitumen fumes were collected during paving of stone mastic asphalts (lime or CFA as a filler), remixing of stone mastic asphalt (lime or CFA as a filler), and of asphalt concrete. All the lab-generated vapour fractions were non-mutagenic. The particulate fractions were mutagenic with TA98 in the presence of the S9 activation. In addition, the lab-fumes from bitumen containing waste plastics were positive with both strains without S9. Only particulate fractions sampled in the field were tested. They were mutagenic with and without metabolic activation with both strains. The mutagenic potency of the field samples was higher than that of the lab-generated fumes without S9, and the remixing fumes were more mutagenic than the normal paving and lab-generated fumes with S9. The use of inorganic additive, CFA, did not change the mutagenicity of the fumes, whereas the organic additive, waste plastics, increased the mutagenicity of the laboratory emissions significantly.

  9. Percutaneous collagen induction therapy: an alternative treatment for burn scars.

    PubMed

    Aust, Matthias C; Knobloch, Karsten; Reimers, Kerstin; Redeker, Jörn; Ipaktchi, Ramin; Altintas, Mehmet Ali; Gohritz, Andreas; Schwaiger, Nina; Vogt, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate percutaneous collagen induction (PCI) in post-burn scarring. Patients with scarring after burn frequently request help in improving the aesthetic appearance of their residual cicatricial deformity. Their scars are generally treated by tissue transfer, W- and Z-plasties, flaps, cortisone injections or ablative procedures that injure or destroy the epidermis and its basement membrane and subsequently lead to fibrosis of the papillary dermis. The ideal treatment would be to preserve the epidermis and promote normal collagen and elastin formation in the dermis. A total of 16 consecutive patients (average age: 37+/-15.5 years, average body mass index (BMI): 25.7) in Germany with post-burn scarring. PCI using the Medical Roll-CIT (Vivida, Cape Town, South Africa). This device was designed to multiply-puncture the skin to the level of the dermal scar to institute remodelling. Patients were prepared with topical vitamin A and C cosmetic creams for a minimum of 4 weeks preoperatively to maximise collagen stimulation. The outcome was measured rating (visual analogue scale (VAS) and Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS)), histological specimen 12 months after intervention. On average, patients rated their improvement as a mean of 80% better (+/-15.5) than before treatment. Histologic examination revealed considerable increase in collagen and elastin deposition 12 months postoperatively. The epidermis demonstrated 45% thickening of stratum spinosum and normal rete ridges as well as the normalisation of the collagen/elastin matrix in the reticular dermis at 1 year postoperatively. This pilot study shows that PCI appears to be a safe method for treating post-burn scarring without destroying the epidermis. The procedure can be repeated safely and is also applicable in regions where laser treatments and deep peels are of limited use. However, it is necessary to initiate an efficacy trial to prove the data of this pilot study. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights

  10. Endoscopic mucosectomy: an alternative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lambert, R

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the management of superficial esophageal cancer consist of improved detection, pretherapeutic staging and reliable criteria for curative endoscopic therapy. The endoscopic treatment is legitimate when the cancer is at an early stage, intra-epithelial or microinvasive (m1 or m2) and N0. Submucosal cancer should not be treated with a curative intent by endotherapy. Concerning squamous cell cancer, the oriental and occidental pathologists include high-grade dysplasia in the same group as intramucosal cancer. The distinction is however maintained for adenocarcinoma in the Barrett's esophagus. Indications of endoscopic rather than surgical treatment rely on: (1) the small size of the tumor (not more than 2 cm in diameter); (2) the endoscopic morphology in the type 0 of the Japanese classification with the flat subtypes IIa and IIb rather than type IIc--there is high risk of submucosal invasion for the polypoid (type I) or ulcerated superficial cancer (type III); and (3) the endoscopic ultrasound staging, with confirmed integrity of the hyperechoic submucosal layer. The high-frequency (20 MHz) miniprobe is preferred to the standard (7.5 MHz) instrument. The elective procedure for tumor eradication is endoscopic mucosectomy. The technique is associated with a 6.8% risk of severe complications (hemorrhage or perforation) and a recurrence rate of 3%-7%. The 5-year survival rate is similar to that of surgery (over 80%). In the small group of patients with superficial esophageal cancer (less than 10% of the disease) endoscopic treatment may now be proposed in about 30% of cases, surgery is preferred for submucosal cancer and for neoplasia with a large surface. Areas of high-grade dysplasia in the Barrett's esophagus offer a new and increasing sector of indications. The concurrent endoscopic procedure of destruction--photodynamic therapy--is preferred for the destruction of lesions with poorly delineated limits.

  11. Mechanisms for alternative treatments in Parkinson's disease: acupuncture, tai chi, and other treatments.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Bijan D; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-06-01

    At least 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use one or more forms of alternative therapy (AT) to complement standard treatments. This article reviews the commonest forms of AT for PD, including acupuncture, tai chi, yoga, mindfulness, massage, herbal medicine, and cannabis. We discuss the current evidence for the clinical efficacy of each AT and discuss potential mechanisms, including those suggested by animal and human studies. With a few notable exceptions, none of the treatments examined were investigated rigorously enough to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy or mechanism. Tai chi, acupuncture, Mucuna pruriens, cannabinoids, and music therapy have all been proposed to work through specific mechanisms, although current evidence is insufficient to support or refute these claims, with the possible exception of Mucuna pruriens (which contains levodopa). It is likely that most ATs predominantly treat PD patients through general mechanisms, including placebo effects, stress reduction, and improved mood and sleep, and AT may provide patients with a greater locus of control regarding their illness.

  12. Mutagenicity in a Molecule: Identification of Core Structural Features of Mutagenicity Using a Scaffold Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsiang; Su, Bo-Han; Tu, Yi-Shu; Lin, Olivia A.; Tseng, Yufeng J.

    2016-01-01

    With advances in the development and application of Ames mutagenicity in silico prediction tools, the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) has amended its M7 guideline to reflect the use of such prediction models for the detection of mutagenic activity in early drug safety evaluation processes. Since current Ames mutagenicity prediction tools only focus on functional group alerts or side chain modifications of an analog series, these tools are unable to identify mutagenicity derived from core structures or specific scaffolds of a compound. In this study, a large collection of 6512 compounds are used to perform scaffold tree analysis. By relating different scaffolds on constructed scaffold trees with Ames mutagenicity, four major and one minor novel mutagenic groups of scaffold are identified. The recognized mutagenic groups of scaffold can serve as a guide for medicinal chemists to prevent the development of potentially mutagenic therapeutic agents in early drug design or development phases, by modifying the core structures of mutagenic compounds to form non-mutagenic compounds. In addition, five series of substructures are provided as recommendations, for direct modification of potentially mutagenic scaffolds to decrease associated mutagenic activities. PMID:26863515

  13. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

    PubMed

    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption.

  14. Alternative approaches to treatment of Central Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Robert Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Divergent approaches to treatment of hypocapnic central sleep apnea syndromes reflect the difficulties in taming a hyperactive respiratory chemoreflex. As both sleep fragmentation and a narrow CO2 reserve or increased loop gain drive the disease, sedatives (to induce longer periods of stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and reduce the destabilizing effects of arousals in NREM sleep) and CO2-based stabilization approaches are logical. Adaptive ventilation reduces mean hyperventilation yet can induce ventilator-patient dyssynchrony, while enhanced expiratory rebreathing space (EERS, dead space during positive pressure therapy) and CO2 manipulation directly stabilize respiratory control by moving CO2 above the apnea threshold. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition can provide further adjunctive benefits. Provent and Winx may be less likely to trigger central apneas or periodic breathing in those with a narrow CO2 reserve. An oral appliance can meaningfully reduce positive pressure requirements and thus enable treatment of complex apnea. Novel pharmacological approaches may target mediators of carotid body glomus cell excitation, such as the balance between gas neurotransmitters. In complex apnea patients, single mode therapy is not always successful, and multi-modality therapy might need to be considered. Phenotyping of sleep apnea beyond conventional scoring approaches is the key to optimal management.

  15. Alternative approaches to treatment of Central Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Divergent approaches to treatment of hypocapnic central sleep apnea syndromes reflect the difficulties in taming a hyperactive respiratory chemoreflex. As both sleep fragmentation and a narrow CO2 reserve or increased loop gain drive the disease, sedatives (to induce longer periods of stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and reduce the destabilizing effects of arousals in NREM sleep) and CO2-based stabilization approaches are logical. Adaptive ventilation reduces mean hyperventilation yet can induce ventilator-patient dyssynchrony, while enhanced expiratory rebreathing space (EERS, dead space during positive pressure therapy) and CO2 manipulation directly stabilize respiratory control by moving CO2 above the apnea threshold. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition can provide further adjunctive benefits. Provent and Winx may be less likely to trigger central apneas or periodic breathing in those with a narrow CO2 reserve. An oral appliance can meaningfully reduce positive pressure requirements and thus enable treatment of complex apnea. Novel pharmacological approaches may target mediators of carotid body glomus cell excitation, such as the balance between gas neurotransmitters. In complex apnea patients, single mode therapy is not always successful, and multi-modality therapy might need to be considered. Phenotyping of sleep apnea beyond conventional scoring approaches is the key to optimal management. PMID:24772053

  16. Alternative for Anti-TNF Antibodies for Arthritis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Joseph; Henrionnet, Christel; Pinzano, Astrid; Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gillet, Pierre; Netter, Patrick; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Pourel, Jacques; Grossin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Neutralization of this cytokine by anti-TNF-α antibodies has shown its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is now widely used. Nevertheless, some patients currently treated with anti-TNF-α remain refractory or become nonresponder to these treatments. In this context, there is a need for new or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potentialities of an anti-TNF-α triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), as judged from effects on two rat arthritis models. The inhibitory activity of this TFO on articular cells (synoviocytes and chondrocytes) was verified and compared to that of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro. The use of the anti-TNF-α TFO as a preventive and local treatment in both acute and chronic arthritis models significantly reduced disease development. Furthermore, the TFO efficiently blocked synovitis and cartilage and bone destruction in the joints. The results presented here provide the first evidence that gene targeting by anti-TNF-α TFO modulates arthritis in vivo, thus providing proof-of-concept that it could be used as therapeutic tool for TNF-α-dependent inflammatory disorders. PMID:21811249

  17. Alternative for anti-TNF antibodies for arthritis treatment.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Joseph; Henrionnet, Christel; Pinzano, Astrid; Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gillet, Pierre; Netter, Patrick; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Pourel, Jacques; Grossin, Laurent

    2011-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Neutralization of this cytokine by anti-TNF-α antibodies has shown its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is now widely used. Nevertheless, some patients currently treated with anti-TNF-α remain refractory or become nonresponder to these treatments. In this context, there is a need for new or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potentialities of an anti-TNF-α triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), as judged from effects on two rat arthritis models. The inhibitory activity of this TFO on articular cells (synoviocytes and chondrocytes) was verified and compared to that of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro. The use of the anti-TNF-α TFO as a preventive and local treatment in both acute and chronic arthritis models significantly reduced disease development. Furthermore, the TFO efficiently blocked synovitis and cartilage and bone destruction in the joints. The results presented here provide the first evidence that gene targeting by anti-TNF-α TFO modulates arthritis in vivo, thus providing proof-of-concept that it could be used as therapeutic tool for TNF-α-dependent inflammatory disorders.

  18. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical identification of mutagens in bioremediated soils.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, L R; Hughes, T J; Claxton, L D; Austern, B; Brenner, R; Kremer, F

    1998-01-01

    Soil from a Superfund site (Reilly Tar Site, St. Louis Park, Minnesota) contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from creosote was treated with several bioremediation technologies including bioslurry (BS), biopile (BP), compost (CMP), and land treatment (LT). These treatment technologies are being evaluated in pilot scale laboratory systems by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio. To evaluate the genotoxicity and identify the mutagens in the soil before and after the various treatments, fractionated extracts of five soils were bioassayed for mutagenic activity with a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella histidine reversion assay. Soils were extracted by sonication using dichloromethane (DCM). The five extracts were fractionated in triplicate (two for bioassay and one for chemical analysis) by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using hexane/DCM/methanol, and the fraction for bioassay were solvent-exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide by nitrogen evaporation. Forty HPLC fractions for each sample were bioassayed in strain YG1041 with and without exogenous liver metabolic activation. As shown in a companion paper, the mutagenicity of two treatments (BS and BP) was significantly greater than the mutagenicity of the untreated soil. Mutagenic fractions (> 500 revertants) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PAH analysis of the soils indicated that all treatments were effective in reducing the total PAH concentration (48-74%). Qualitative GC/MS analysis of the mutagenic fractions from the BS and BP treatments indicated that they contained azaarenes, which are mutagens. The CMP and LT processes were the most effective and least toxic bioremediation procedures based on mutagenic potency and chemical analysis. This research demonstrated that the combination of bioassays and chemical analysis provided a more accurate determination of

  19. Selection for robustness in mutagenized RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Cuevas, José M; Furió, Victoria; Holmes, Edward C; Moya, Andrés

    2007-06-01

    Mutational robustness is defined as the constancy of a phenotype in the face of deleterious mutations. Whether robustness can be directly favored by natural selection remains controversial. Theory and in silico experiments predict that, at high mutation rates, slow-replicating genotypes can potentially outcompete faster counterparts if they benefit from a higher robustness. Here, we experimentally validate this hypothesis, dubbed the "survival of the flattest," using two populations of the vesicular stomatitis RNA virus. Characterization of fitness distributions and genetic variability indicated that one population showed a higher replication rate, whereas the other was more robust to mutation. The faster replicator outgrew its robust counterpart in standard competition assays, but the outcome was reversed in the presence of chemical mutagens. These results show that selection can directly favor mutational robustness and reveal a novel viral resistance mechanism against treatment by lethal mutagenesis.

  20. Evaluation of a fixed alternating treatment in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmann, D L; O'Fallon, J; O'Connell, M J; Bisel, H F; Hahn, R G; Frytak, S; Edmonson, J H; Rubin, J; Ingle, J N; Kvols, L K

    1978-01-01

    A total of 128 patients were randomly assigned to two induction treatment programs: Adriamycin and L-PAM versus Cytoxan, 5-Fluorouracil, and Prednisone in an effort to assess their primary capacity for objective response. The two regimens appeared quite comparable in this respect. The 100 patients who had achieved clinical benefit following initial treatment were subsequently randomly allocated to reveive either a fixed alternate treatment program involving the two drug regimens or were continued on the treatment program responsible for their initial improvement. Although those patients who received the fixed alternate treatment shcedule had a somewhat longer progression-free interval compared to the two single-treatment programs (median duration of 16 months versus 12 months, respectively), the three treatment programs including the fixed alternate treatment schedules had comparable median survivals of 21-24 months with little difference noted in survival curves at any point thus far in the analysis. There were no differences noted in survival for the fixed alternating treatment group of patients, with respect to which induction regimen had been utilized to achieve initial response. The toxicity for these treatment programs was tolerable and compatible with outpatient administration. Myelosuppression occurred in the vast majority of patients on either regimen but in both regimens was relatively platelet sparing.

  1. [The bioindication of mutagens in the soil of rural districts].

    PubMed

    Nechkina, M A; Zhurkov, V S

    1997-01-01

    The cumulative mutagenic activity (CMA) of soil pollution was investigated in rural areas. The use of pesticides in agricultural practice increased soil mutagen levels. There was also higher mutagenic pollution for soil along the road with heavy traffic.

  2. Targeting Gonadotropins: An Alternative Option for Alzheimer Disease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Casadesus, Gemma; Puig, Emma Ramiro; Webber, Kate M.; Atwood, Craig S.; Escuer, Margarida Castell; Bowen, Richard L.; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that, alongside oxidative stress, dysregulation of the cell cycle in neurons susceptible to degeneration in Alzheimer disease may play a crucial role in the initiation of the disease. As such, the role of reproductive hormones, which are closely associated with the cell cycle both during development and after birth, may be of key import. While estrogen has been the primary focus, the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognition and dementia only during a “crucial period” led us to expand the study of hormonal influences to other members of the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Specifically, in this review, we focus on luteinizing hormone, which is not only increased in the sera of patients with Alzheimer disease but, like estrogen, is modulated by hormone replacement therapy and also influences cognitive behavior and pathogenic processing in animal models of the disease. Targeting gonadotropins may be a useful treatment strategy for disease targeting multiple pleiotropic downstream consequences. PMID:17047306

  3. Is exercise an alternative treatment for chronic insomnia?

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva Lucia Rollemberg; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this systematic/critical review are: 1) to identify studies on the effects of exercise on chronic insomnia and sleep complaints in middle-aged and older adults and to compare the results of exercise with those obtained with hypnotic medications and 2) to discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise could promote sleep in insomniac patients. We identified studies from 1983 through 2011 using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Web of Science. For systematic analyses, only studies assessing the chronic effects of exercise on sleep in people with sleep complaints or chronic insomnia were considered. We used the following keywords when searching for articles: insomnia, sleep, sleep complaints, exercise and physical activity. For a critical review, studies were selected on the effects of exercise and possible mechanisms that may explain the effects of exercise on insomnia. We identified five studies that met our inclusion criteria for systematic review. Exercise training is effective at decreasing sleep complaints and insomnia. Aerobic exercise has been more extensively studied, and its effects are similar to those observed after hypnotic medication use. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the effects of exercise on insomnia. There is additional documented evidence on the antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of exercise. Exercise is effective to decrease sleep complaints and to treat chronic insomnia. Exercise presented similar results when compared with hypnotics; however, prospective studies comparing the effects of exercise with medical and non-medical treatments are warranted before including exercise as a first-line treatment for chronic insomnia are necessary. PMID:22760906

  4. Phyllanthus niruri as a promising alternative treatment for nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Boim, Mirian A; Heilberg, Ita P; Schor, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    In spite of considerable efforts to identify effective treatments for urolithiasis, this is a goal yet to be achieved. This review summarizes experimental and clinical data evaluating the effect of the plant Phyllanthus niruri, a plant with worldwide distribution, as a potential agent to prevent and/or to treat urolithiasis The review is based on data from the literature and on the results obtained by our group from either in vivo/in vitro experiments or clinical studies. Phyllanthus niruri has been shown to interfere with many stages of stone formation, reducing crystals aggregation, modifying their structure and composition as well as altering the interaction of the crystals with tubular cells leading to reduced subsequent endocytosis. The clinical beneficial effects of Phyllanthus niruri may be related to ureteral relaxation, helping to eliminate calculi or to clear fragments following lithotripsy, or also to a putative reduction of the excretion of urinary crystallization promoters such as calcium. No adverse renal, cardiovascular, neurological or toxic effects have been detected in either of these studies. Altogether, these studies suggest a preventive effect of Phyllanthus niruri in stone formation or elimination, but still longer-term randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm its therapeutic properties.

  5. The role of exercise and alternative treatments for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Kevin A; Rittenberg, Joshua D

    2010-11-01

    The determination of whether a patient should pursue an active or passive treatment program is often made by medical practitioners. Knowledge about all forms of treatment, including complementary and alternative (CAM) treatments, is essential in the treatment of low back pain. Medical practitioner-directed active treatments that have been shown to be effective for the treatment of low back pain include physical therapy-directed exercise programs such as core stabilization and mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT). Based on the current literature, it appears that yoga is the most effective nonphysician-directed active treatment approach to nonspecific low back pain when comparing other CAM treatments. Acupuncture is a medical practitioner-directed passive treatment that has been shown to be a good adjunct treatment. More randomized controlled studies are needed to support both CAM treatments and exercise in the treatment of low back pain.

  6. The enduring effects of psychodynamic treatments vis-a-vis alternative treatments: A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivlighan, D. Martin, III

    Although evidence suggests that the benefits of psychodynamic treatments are sustained over time, presently it is unclear whether these sustained benefits are superior to non-psychodynamic treatments. Additionally, the extant literature comparing the sustained benefits of psychodynamic treatments compared to alternative treatments is limited with methodological shortcomings. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a rigorous test of the growth of the benefits of psychodynamic treatments relative to alternative treatments across distinct domains of change (i.e., all outcome measures, targeted outcome measures, non-targeted outcome measures, and personality outcome measures). To do so, the study employed strict inclusion criteria to identify randomized clinical trials that directly compared at least one bona fide psychodynamic treatment and one bona fide non-psychodynamic treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling (Raudenbush, Bryk, Cheong & Congdon, du Toit, 2011) was used to longitudinally model the impact of psychodynamic treatments compared to non-psychodynamic treatments at post-treatment and to compare the growth (i.e., slope) of effects beyond treatment completion. Findings from the present meta-analysis indicated that psychodynamic treatments and non-psychodynamic treatments were equally efficacious at post-treatment and at follow-up for combined outcomes ( k = 20), targeted outcomes (k =19), non-targeted outcomes (k =17), and personality outcomes (k =6). Clinical implications, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed.

  7. The etiologies, pathophysiology, and alternative/complementary treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Miller, A L

    2001-02-01

    A chronic inflammatory disorder of the respiratory airways, asthma is characterized by bronchial airway inflammation resulting in increased mucus production and airway hyper-responsiveness. The resultant symptomatology includes episodes of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Asthma is a multifactorial disease process with genetic, allergic, environmental, infectious, emotional, and nutritional components. The underlying pathophysiology of asthma is airway inflammation. The underlying process driving and maintaining the asthmatic inflammatory process appears to be an abnormal or inadequately regulated CD4+ T-cell immune response. The T-helper 2 (Th2) subset produces cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13, which stimulate the growth, differentiation, and recruitment of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and B-cells, all of which are involved in humoral immunity, inflammation, and the allergic response. In asthma, this arm of the immune response is overactive, while Th1 activity, generally corresponding more to cell-mediated immunity, is dampened. It is not yet known why asthmatics have this out-of-balance immune activity, but genetics, viruses, fungi, heavy metals, nutrition, and pollution all can be contributors. A plant lipid preparation containing sterols and sterolins has been shown to dampen Th2 activity. Antioxidant nutrients, especially vitamins C and E, selenium, and zinc appear to be necessary in asthma treatment. Vitamins B6 and B12 also may be helpful. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish, the flavonoid quercetin, and botanicals Tylophora asthmatica, Boswellia serrata and Petasites hybridus address the inflammatory component. Physical modalities, including yoga, massage, biofeedback, acupuncture, and chiropractic can also be of help.

  8. Mutagenicity and toxicity of treated aqueous effluents from coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J. I.; Klein, J. A.; Parkhurst, B. R.; Rao, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Coal gasification and hydrocarbonization wastewaters were treated in a series of bench-scale unit operations representative of a conceptual treatment process. Ammonia stripping, biological oxidation, ozonation and carbon adsorption were performed with sampling before and after each major unit operation. In addition to monitoring more traditional parameters of treatment effectiveness, such as total carbon and phenol removal, acute toxicity and mutagenicity studies were done on these samples, both before and after fractionation. The major mutagenic activity of these wastes was in the basic and neutral fractions. Toxicity of untreated wastes was primarily due to organics, but toxicity after removal of the organics was also significant. Significant reduction in mutagenicity during primary processing steps was accompanied by high concentrations of known mutagens in the sludges produced during these steps, thus indicating that future research focusing on these sludges is desirable.

  9. The role of control groups in mutagenicity studies: matching biological and statistical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hauschke, Dieter; Hothorn, Torsten; Schäfer, Juliane

    2003-06-01

    The statistical test of the conventional hypothesis of "no treatment effect" is commonly used in the evaluation of mutagenicity experiments. Failing to reject the hypothesis often leads to the conclusion in favour of safety. The major drawback of this indirect approach is that what is controlled by a prespecified level alpha is the probability of erroneously concluding hazard (producer risk). However, the primary concern of safety assessment is the control of the consumer risk, i.e. limiting the probability of erroneously concluding that a product is safe. In order to restrict this risk, safety has to be formulated as the alternative, and hazard, i.e. the opposite, has to be formulated as the hypothesis. The direct safety approach is examined for the case when the corresponding threshold value is expressed either as a fraction of the population mean for the negative control, or as a fraction of the difference between the positive and negative controls.

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  12. Effects of ecological restoration alternative treatments on nonnative plant species establishment

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Stoddard; Christopher M. McGlone; Peter Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances generated by forest restoration treatments have the potential for enhancing the establishment of nonnative species thereby impeding long-term native plant recovery. In a ponderosa pine forest next to the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, Arizona, we examined the establishment of nonnative species after three alternative treatments with different intensities...

  13. Effects of ecological restoration alternative treatments on nonnative plant species establishment (P-53)

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Stoddard; Christopher M. McGlone; Peter Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances generated by forest restoration treatments have the potential for enhancing the establishment of nonnative species thereby impeding long-term native plant recovery. In a ponderosa pine forest next to the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, Arizona, we examined the establishment of nonnative species after three alternative treatments with different intensities...

  14. Simultaneous Synthesis of Treatment Effects and Mapping to a Common Scale: An Alternative to Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ades, A. E.; Lu, Guobing; Dias, Sofia; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Kounali, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Trials often may report several similar outcomes measured on different test instruments. We explored a method for synthesising treatment effect information both within and between trials and for reporting treatment effects on a common scale as an alternative to standardisation Study design: We applied a procedure that simultaneously…

  15. Simultaneous Synthesis of Treatment Effects and Mapping to a Common Scale: An Alternative to Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ades, A. E.; Lu, Guobing; Dias, Sofia; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Kounali, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Trials often may report several similar outcomes measured on different test instruments. We explored a method for synthesising treatment effect information both within and between trials and for reporting treatment effects on a common scale as an alternative to standardisation Study design: We applied a procedure that simultaneously…

  16. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  17. Silk bonded replacements with porcelain veneers: a cosmetic alternative in dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Walinchus, R E

    1990-01-01

    A case in which the use of a silk bonded splint bridge was incorporated as a basis for porcelain veneer fabrication is discussed. The results of the treatment indicate that silk bonding may represent an acceptable conservative treatment alternative for patient care.

  18. Screening and evaluating alternative and innovative psychiatric treatments: a contextual framework.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E

    1994-01-01

    Alternative treatments are unconventional, unestablished, nontraditional, and often innovative. Innovative treatments may be mainstream or alternative. All psychiatric treatments, whether mainstream or alternative, whether psychosocial or "biological," can be classified in a framework based on the means used to beneficially impact the patient's brain. An imaginative and comprehensive perspective on therapeutic possibilities might derive from considering the broad array of sensory/perceptual transducer channels as well as media. Most treatments utilize a medium (energy, substance, person, or machine). A full classification should therefore include the general category or means, any media involved, any sensory transducers used, and any special techniques. A positive approach to nurturing innovation, especially in psychosocial treatments, might consider: (1) the study of neglected transducer channels, (2) mechanization/computerization of transducer input and other innovations of media, (3) a comparison of packaging options for information/feedback, and (4) a comparison of the effect of inputing a single sensory channel to the effect of inputting simultaneous multiple channels. Screens for promising new psychiatric treatments are proposed in response to one of the recommendations at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Workshop on Unconventional Medical Treatments held in September 1992. Two unscientific pitfalls must be skirted: embracing new or alternative treatments uncritically and rejecting them without fair examination; and they must be skirted without dissipating scarce research resources.

  19. Effects of Treatment Integrity Failures during Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior: A Translational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.

    2010-01-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is used frequently as a treatment for problem behavior. Previous studies on treatment integrity failures during DRA suggest that the intervention is robust, but research has not yet investigated the effects of different types of integrity failures. We examined the effects of two types of…

  20. Evaluating alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce wildfire losses in a Mediterranean area

    Treesearch

    Michele Salis; Maurizio Laconi; Alan A. Ager; Fermin J. Alcasena; Bachisio Arca; Olga Lozano; Ana Fernandes de Oliveira; Donatella Spano

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate by a modeling approach the effectiveness of alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce potential losses from wildfires in Mediterranean areas. We compared strategic fuel treatments located near specific human values vs random locations, and treated 3, 9 and 15% of a 68,000 ha study area located in Sardinia, Italy. The...

  1. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  2. Quantifying the contribution of dyes to the mutagenicity of waters under the influence of textile activities.

    PubMed

    Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida de Souza; da Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão

    2017-12-01

    The combination of chemical analyses and bioassays allows the identification of potentially mutagenic compounds in different types of samples. Dyes can be considered as emergent contaminants and were detected in waters, under the influence of textile activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of 9 azo dyes to the mutagenicity of representative environmental samples. Samples were collected along one year in the largest conglomerate of textile industries of Brazil. We analyzed water samples from an important water body, Piracicaba River, upstream and downstream two main discharges, the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the tributary Quilombo River, which receives untreated effluent from local industries. Samples were analyzed using a LC-MS/MS and tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay with TA98 and YG1041. Six dyes were detected in the collected samples, Disperse Blue 291, Disperse Blue 373, Disperse Orange 30, Disperse Red 1, Disperse Violet 93, and Disperse Yellow 3. The most sensitive condition for the detection of the mutagenicity was the strain YG1041 with S9. The concentration of dyes and mutagenicity levels varied along time and the dry season represented the worst condition. Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 were the major contributors to the mutagenicity. We conclude that dyes are contributing for the mutagenicity of Piracicaba River water; and both discharges, WWTP effluent and Quilombo River, increase the mutagenicity of Piracicaba River waters in about 10-fold. The combination of chemical analysis and bioassays were key in the identification the main drivers of the water mutagenicity and allows the selection of priority compounds to be included in monitoring programs as well for the enforcing actions required to protect the water quality for multiple uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Modalities for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Facts or Myths?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to unsatisfactory results from conventional treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities are increasingly popular treatment alternatives. Unfortunately, most CAM clinical trials have been of poor quality, and the efficacies of these therapies have not been adequately elucidated, even through systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is also a general lack of understanding of their mechanisms of action. Currently, insufficient evidence exists to support the use of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, meditation, and reflexology for treatment of IBS. However, there is some evidence supporting the use of peppermint oil and gut-directed hypnotherapy for IBS treatment. Due to mounting evidence of the microbiologic and immunologic basis of IBS, probiotics and exclusion diets are also becoming promising treatment modalities. This paper will review the current literature on various CAM practices for IBS treatment and appraise their advantages and disadvantages in clinical practice. PMID:21437019

  4. Alternative Approaches to Conventional Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Foxman, Betsy; Buxton, Miatta

    2013-01-01

    The increasing resistance of uropathogens to antibiotics, and recognition of generally self-limiting nature of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) suggests that it is time to reconsider empirical treatment of UTI using antibiotics. Identifying new and effective strategies to prevent recurrences and alterative treatment strategies are a high priority. We review the recent literature regarding the effects of functional food products, probiotics, vaccines, and alternative treatments on treating and preventing UTI. PMID:23378124

  5. Acceptability of alternative treatments for school refusal: evaluations by students, caregivers, and professionals.

    PubMed

    Gullone, E; King, N J

    1991-11-01

    School refusal is a debilitating condition that may be treated in various ways. This study examined the acceptability and perceived effectiveness of alternative treatments for school refusal. A total of 376 people comprising students, parents, and professionals, were required to evaluate several treatment options in relation to a vignette. Despite its potential aversiveness, behavioural management was the most acceptable treatment approach followed, in order, by home tuition with psychotherapy, hospitalisation, and medication. A strong positive relationship was found between acceptability and perceived effectiveness.

  6. Integrated strategy for mutagenicity prediction applied to food contact chemicals.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Serena; Schilter, Benoît; Benfenati, Emilio; Manganaro, Alberto; Lo Piparo, Elena

    2017-09-18

    Food contamination due to unintentional leakage of chemicals from food contact materials (FCM) is a source of increasing concern. Since for many of these substances, only limited or no toxicological data are available, the development of alternative methodologies to establish rapidly and cost-efficiently level of safety concern is critical to ensure adequate consumer protection. Computational toxicology methods are considered the most promising solutions to cope with this data gap. In particular, mutagenicity assessment has a particular relevance and is a mandatory requirement for all substances released from plastic FCM, regardless how low migration and exposure are. In the present work, a strategy integrating a number of (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) models for Ames mutagenicity predictions is proposed. A list of chemicals representing likely migrating moieties from FCM was selected to test the value of the newly defined strategy and the possibility to combine predictions given by the different algorithms was evaluated. In particular, a scheme to integrate mutagenicity estimations into a single final assessment was developed resulting in an increased domain of applicability. In most cases, a deeper analysis of experimental data, where available, allowed fixing misclassification errors, highlighting the importance of data curation in the development, validation and application of in silico methods. The high accuracy of the strategy provided the rationales for its application for toxicologically uncharacterized chemicals. Finally, the overall strategy of integration will be automated through its implementation into a freely available software application.

  7. Mutagenicity of emissions from a natural gas fueled truck.

    PubMed

    Lapin, Charles A; Gautam, Mridul; Zielinska, Barbara; Wagner, Valentine O; McClellan, Roger O

    2002-08-26

    Concern about the potential health risks of particulate exhaust emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles has led regulatory agencies to foster the use of natural gas fueled heavy duty vehicles. However, the potential health risks of particulate exhaust emissions from natural gas fueled vehicles have not been well-studied. The present study investigated the mutagenicity of particulate exhaust emissions from a natural gas fueled refuse truck currently in-service. Organic solvent extracts of exhaust particulate emissions from the natural gas fueled truck were positive in both Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of S-9. The maximum mutagenic responses ranged from 7-fold in the TA100 strain to 87-fold in the TA98 strain when compared to negative controls. Our results show that current in-service natural gas fueled heavy duty trucks have particulate exhaust emissions that possess mutagenic activity. This finding requires follow-up studies to develop a database on natural gas fueled vehicles for comparison with data on diesel-fueled vehicles to aid in making decisions on use of alternative fuels to reduce air pollution health risks.

  8. Alternative Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... no more than a combined total of 3 grams of DHA or EPA a day, with no more than 2 grams from supplements. Research has also linked high intake ... with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease taking 2 grams of DHA daily fared no better overall than ...

  9. New Metrics for Economic Evaluation in the Presence of Heterogeneity: Focusing on Evaluating Policy Alternatives Rather than Treatment Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, David D; Basu, Anirban

    2017-11-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) methods fail to acknowledge that where cost-effectiveness differs across subgroups, there may be differential adoption of technology. Also, current CEA methods are not amenable to incorporating the impact of policy alternatives that potentially influence the adoption behavior. Unless CEA methods are extended to allow for a comparison of policies rather than simply treatments, their usefulness to decision makers may be limited. We conceptualize new metrics, which estimate the realized value of technology from policy alternatives, through introducing subgroup-specific adoption parameters into existing metrics, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and Incremental Net Monetary Benefits (NMBs). We also provide the Loss with respect to Efficient Diffusion (LED) metrics, which link with existing value of information metrics but take a policy evaluation perspective. We illustrate these metrics using policies on treatment with combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate v. statin monotherapy for patients with diabetes and mixed dyslipidemia. Under the traditional approach, the population-level ICER of combination v. monotherapy was $46,000/QALY. However, after accounting for differential rates of adoption of the combination therapy (7.2% among males and 4.3% among females), the modified ICER was $41,733/QALY, due to the higher rate of adoption in the more cost-effective subgroup (male). The LED metrics showed that an education program to increase the uptake of combination therapy among males would provide the largest economic returns due to the significant underutilization of the combination therapy among males under the current policy. This framework may have the potential to improve the decision-making process by producing metrics that are better aligned with the specific policy decisions under consideration for a specific technology.

  10. Crisis intervention program: an alternative to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Samuel H

    2002-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a Crisis Intervention program as an alternative to use of psychiatric treatment beds for young children. A multidisciplinary community-based intervention was utilized, including family therapy, psychiatric intervention, and school consultations. The impact of the service was evaluated in relation to the use of psychiatric treatment beds by the population of children eligible for Medicaid or uninsured. In comparison to an historical control group, the program resulted in a 23% reduction in the use of psychiatric treatment beds. A cost-minimization analysis indicated that in addition to the program reducing the use of psychiatric treatment beds, the cost of treatment was also slightly reduced.

  11. PTSD and comorbid AUD: a review of pharmacological and alternative treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Ralevski, Elizabeth; Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A; Petrakis, Ismene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) frequently co-occur there are no specific treatments for individuals diagnosed with these comorbid conditions. The main objectives of this paper are to review the literature on pharmacological options for PTSD and comorbid AUD, and to summarize promising behavioral and alternative interventions for those with these dual diagnoses. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search on PsycINFO and MEDLINE/PubMed databases using Medical Subject Headings terms in various combinations to identify articles that used pharmacotherapy for individuals with dual diagnoses of PTSD and AUD. Similar strategies were used to identify articles on behavioral and alternative treatments for AUD and PTSD. We identified and reviewed six studies that tested pharmacological treatments for patients with PTSD and comorbid AUD. Results The literature on treatment with US Food and Drug Administration approved medications for patients with dual diagnosis of PTSD and AUD is very limited and inconclusive. Promising evidence indicates that topiramate and prazosin may be effective in reducing PTSD and AUD symptoms in individuals with comorbidity. Seeking safety has had mixed efficacy in clinical trials. The efficacy of other behavioral and alternative treatments (mindfulness-based, yoga, and acupuncture) is more difficult to evaluate since the evidence comes from small, single studies without comparison groups. Conclusion There is a clear need for more systematic and rigorous study of pharmacological, behavioral, and alternative treatments for patients with dual diagnoses of PTSD and AUD. PMID:24648794

  12. Selection of a suitable extraction method for mutagenic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Pasley, T.; Warren, S.; Zweidinger, R.; Watts, R.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction methods were evaluated for recovery of mutagneic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles. Soxhlet and sonication techniques were utilized with a variety of solvents to ascertain the effect of solvent choice, extraction methods, or dissolved gases in extraction solvents on the recovery of mutagenicity. Sonication extraction gave slightly less mass recovery than the Soxhlet method. Methanol extracted more mass than the other solvents with dichloromethane recovering the least. Dissolved gases were not found to have any effect, while mutagenicity was shown to be dependent upon solvent and extraction method. Soxhlet extraction with acetone and toluene/ethanol yielded the highest recovery of mutagenic activity; however, results indicated a solvent/solute interaction which chemically altered one or more extract components. Extraction employing dichloromethane and sonication was selected as a suitable method since this treatment appeared not to alter extracted compounds, and good recovery of mutagenicity was obtained. (Copyright (c) 1988 Gordon and Breach Science Publishers Inc.)

  13. Presence of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, a precursor of a mutagenic nitroso compound, in soy sauce.

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, K; Ochiai, M; Saitô, H; Tsuda, M; Suwa, Y; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1983-01-01

    After treatment with nitrite, Japanese soy sauce was strongly mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA100 without S9 mixture. Two precursors of the mutagen were isolated from Japanese soy sauce, and these were identified as (-)-(1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid [(-)-(1S,3S)-MTCA] and its stereoisomer (-)-(1R,3S)-MTCA. After treatment with nitrite, 1-mg samples of these compounds induced 17,400 and 13,000 revertants of TA100, respectively, without S9 mixture. Quantitative analysis of various kinds of soy sauces produced in Japan showed the presence of 82-678 micrograms of MTCA per ml. The mutagenicities of these compounds with nitrite accounted for 16-61% of the total mutagenicity of soy sauce with nitrite. Most soy sauces produced in the United States were less mutagenic than those produced in Japan and little, if any, of these two precursors of the mutagen was found in them. A major reaction product of (-)-(1S,3S)-MTCA and nitrite was a compound having a nitroso substitution at position N-2, but this compound was not mutagenic. Thus, the mutagen(s) formed from (-)-(1S,3S)-MTCA and nitrite was a minor product(s), and its specific mutagenic activity must be very high. Images PMID:6574460

  14. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: successful treatment with topiramate and flunarizine, a case report.

    PubMed

    Aishworiya, R; Low, P S; Tay, S K H

    2011-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disorder which usually presents before 18 months of age and is characterised by recurrent alternating episodes of hemiparesis. A single effective treatment for this condition is yet to be established; flunarizine is currently the most widely used but with varying degrees of success. An 18-month-old child presented with AHC and treatment with a combination of topiramate and flunarizine made a significant difference in controlling the frequency and severity of the attacks. This possibly allowed a better developmental outcome than in most children with this condition. Topiramate combined with flunarizine for treating AHC has much potential for further research.

  15. Mutagenic effects of sodium azide in rice

    SciTech Connect

    Awan, M.A.; Konzak, C.F.; Rutger, J.N.; Nilan, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Seeds of rice cultivar M5 were presoaked in distilled water and treated for 2 or 3 hours with 0, 0.12, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75 mM sodium azide solutions prepared in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 3). Criteria used to assess the biological effects of azide on rice were germination, seedling height, and seed sterility in the M/sub 1/ generation, and chlorophyll-deficient seedlings and viable mutations in the M/sub 2/ generation. In general, an increase in azide concentration, along with an increase in the post-treatment redrying period, resulted in a decrease in M/sub 1/ germination and seedling height. Azide treatment also induced sterility. The same treatment induced chlorophyll mutations in 98.5% of the M/sub 1/ panicle progenies and in 14% of the M/sub 2/ seedlings. The highest frequency of viable mutations scored in the adult plant stage was 4.64% on an M/sub 2/ plant basis. All azide concentrations were mutagenic.

  16. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  17. Hot flushes, hormone therapy and alternative treatments: 30 years of experience from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindh-Åstrand, L; Hoffmann, M; Hammar, M; Spetz Holm, A-C

    2015-02-01

    The use of hormone therapy (HT) for hot flushes has changed dramatically over the past five decades. In this cross-sectional questionnaire study, the aim was to describe the use of HT and alternative treatments and to study the frequency of hot flushes. A further aim was to compare data from the present questionnaire with data from previous studies made in the same geographic area. A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 2000 women aged 47-56 years living in Östergötland County, Sweden. The results were compared with findings from previous studies regarding use of HT, alternative treatment and hot flushes, and the number of HT prescriptions dispensed during the corresponding time using data derived from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry. The response rate was 66%. Six percent used HT, in line with prevalence data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry. Alternative treatments were used by 10%. About 70% of postmenopausal women reported flushes and almost one-third of those with flushes stated that they would be positive to HT if therapy could be shown to be harmless, a view more often stated by women with severe complaints of hot flushes (67%). The use of HT and alternative treatments is low and many women suffer from flushes that could be treated. Women considered their knowledge of the climacteric period and treatment options as insufficient. Individualized information should be given and women with significant climacteric complaints, without contraindications, should be given the opportunity to try HT.

  18. What do we do after an implant fails? A review of treatment alternatives for failed implants.

    PubMed

    Machtei, Eli E

    2013-01-01

    The problem of failed implants cannot be overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to explore treatment alternatives for failed implants and their strengths and shortcomings. A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed and a manual search. Only five studies were identified that explored treatment in sites where implants had failed. In all five studies, the treatment alternative tested was the placement of a new implant in the failed site. The overall survival rate for such implants ranged from 71% to 92.3%. Four other alternatives are also discussed in light of data derived from other studies on the survival of various treatment strategies. These include: a continuation of the original plan using the remaining implants, modification of treatment to a tooth-supported fixed partial denture (FPD) or to a hybrid tooth-implant? supported FPD, or modification to a removable prosthesis. The selection of an appropriate alternative for failed implants is complex and involves biologic, mechanical, and psychologic considerations along with financial aspects. This should be a team decision with the patient's opinion included.

  19. Germ cell mutagenicity of phthalic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Jha, A M; Singh, A C; Bharti, M

    1998-12-03

    Mutagenicity of phthalic acid was evaluated by employing dominant lethal mutation and sperm head abnormality assays in male Swiss albino mice. For the dominant lethal mutation assay, adult male mice received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either 40 mg or 80 mg/kg b.w. of phthalic acid for 5 consecutive days. For the sperm head abnormality assay, the mice were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w. as a single i.p. injection. Treatment of adult male mice with phthalic acid resulted in induction of dominant lethal mutations and abnormal sperm heads. The results obtained indicate that phthalic acid is a germ cell mutagen.

  20. Fractionation of mutagens from municipal sludge and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Stewart, D.L.; Weimer, W.C.

    1989-02-01

    There are potential environmental concerns from the disposal of municipal waste-water effluents and sewage-treatment-plant sludges. The report summarizes the microbial mutagenic evaluation of 13 sewage-sludge samples from various locations in Texas and Washington state. The sewage sludge samples were air-dried followed by sequential Soxhlet extraction with pentane, methylene chloride, and methanol. The organic extracts from three of the samples were further fractionated by normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The obtained extracts and fractions were bioassayed for microbial mutagenic response using the standard histidine reversion assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, both with and without S9 metabolic activation. Extracts and fractions were chemically analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) using a variety of element-specific detectors, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS).

  1. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils.

  2. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-06-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies.

  3. Alternatives to potentially inappropriate medications for use in e-prescribing software: triggers and treatment algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Anne L; Quilliam, Brian J; Goldman, Roberta; Eaton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of evidence-based electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) triggers and treatment algorithms for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for older adults. Design Literature review, expert panel and focus group. Setting Primary care with access to e-prescribing systems. Participants Primary care physicians using e-prescribing systems receiving medication history. Interventions Standardised treatment algorithms for clinicians attempting to prescribe PIMs for older patients. Main outcome measure Development of 15 treatment algorithms suggesting alternative therapies. Results Evidence-based treatment algorithms were well received by primary care physicians. Providing alternatives to PIMs would make it easier for physicians to change decisions at the point of prescribing. Conclusion Prospectively identifying older persons receiving PIMs or with adherence issues and providing feasible interventions may prevent adverse drug events. PMID:21719560

  4. An alternative treatment approach to gingival recession: gingiva-colored partial porcelain veneers: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Capa, Nuray

    2007-08-01

    This clinical report describes the treatment of excessive gingival recession involving maxillary right and left central incisors in a 30-year-old woman. The loss of the gingival soft tissue caused an increase in crown length. Gingiva-colored partial porcelain laminate veneers were applied to imitate the lost gingiva and to provide a natural anatomical tooth length. This method may be a minimally invasive alternative treatment method for gingival soft tissue loss, providing esthetic results and patient satisfaction.

  5. Old and New Controversies in the Alternative Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial…

  6. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.49 Alternative LDR... soil that exhibits a characteristic of hazardous waste, or exhibited a characteristic of hazardous waste at the time it was generated, into a land disposal unit. The following chart describes whether...

  7. Imagining the Alternatives to Life Prolonging Treatments: Elders' Beliefs about the Dying Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Parker, Barbara; Schneider, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Deciding for or against a life-prolonging treatment represents a choice between prolonged life and death. When the death alternative is not described, individuals must supply their own assumptions. How do people imagine the experience of dying? The authors asked 40 elderly people open-ended questions about dying without 4 common life-prolonging…

  8. Imagining the Alternatives to Life Prolonging Treatments: Elders' Beliefs about the Dying Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Parker, Barbara; Schneider, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Deciding for or against a life-prolonging treatment represents a choice between prolonged life and death. When the death alternative is not described, individuals must supply their own assumptions. How do people imagine the experience of dying? The authors asked 40 elderly people open-ended questions about dying without 4 common life-prolonging…

  9. Growth of asthmatic children during treatment with alternate-day steriods.

    PubMed

    Reimer, L G; Morris, H G; Ellis, E F

    1975-04-01

    The effects of specific doses of alternate-day treatment with prednisone on linear growth were evaluated in children with severe asthma. It was found that even the control patients who did not receive steroid therapy had heights that were significantly lower than those of normal children of the same age and sex. The average severity of growth suppression in children who received alternate-day or intermittent treatment with steriods did not differ from that of asthmatic control patients. However, evaluation of individual patterns of growth during the follow-up period revealed that children who received small doses of alternate-day treatment (mean dose of prednisone, 9 mg. q.o.d.; range, 2.5 to 14 mg.) had acceleration of growth, whereas children who received larger treatment doses (mean dose of prednisone, 30 mg. q.o.d.; range, 18 to 58 mg.) had further suppression of growth during the period of study. Additionally, patients who had previously been treated with daily corticosteroids failed to demonstrate "catch-up" growth after introduction of an alternate-day program (mean dose of prednisone, 17 mg. q.o.d.).

  10. Alternatives to Incarceration: Prevention or Treatment. Monograph on Youth in the 1990s. Issue #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Anthony, Ed.; Bocarro, Jason, Ed.

    The articles in this collection address various definitions, viewpoints, and treatments for youth at risk and youth offenders. Articles not only examine alternatives to incarceration, but also provide examples of value-forming experiences beneficial to all young people. The articles and authors are: (1) "Introduction" (Anthony Richards); (2) "The…

  11. Old and New Controversies in the Alternative Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial…

  12. Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone as Treatment Alternatives to Penicillin for Maternal Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Katanami, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Takaya, Saho; Yamamoto, Kei; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-05-01

    There is no proven alternative to penicillin for treatment of maternal syphilis. We report 2 case-patients with maternal syphilis who were successfully treated without penicillin. We used amoxicillin and probenecid for the first case-patient and amoxicillin, probenecid, and ceftriaxone for the second case-patient.

  13. Treatment of acquired periodic alternating nystagmus with memantine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Thomas, Shery; McLean, Rebecca; Proudlock, Frank A; Roberts, Eryl; Boggild, Mike; Gottlob, Irene

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of acquired periodic alternating nystagmus associated with common variable immunodeficiency and cutaneous sarcoid. The patient was initially treated with baclofen with minimal subjective improvement. We found a significant improvement in the patient's symptoms and nystagmus intensity after treatment with memantine.

  14. Evaluation of Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime; National Evaluation Program, Phase 2 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Sciences, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    The National Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC) Program is assessed in terms of process effectiveness and cost benefits of the program. Major conclusions are: (1) the TASC processes of identification and screening, diagnosis and referral and client monitoring are being effectively performed; (2) TASC is a very positive factor in the…

  15. The Blackfeet Indian culture camp: Auditioning an alternative indigenous treatment for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P; Calf Looking, Patrick E

    2015-05-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities experience alarming health disparities, including high rates of substance use disorders (SUDs). Psychological services for AIANs, including SUDs treatment, are primarily funded by the federal Indian Health Service and typically administered by tribal governments. Tribal administration of SUDs treatment programs has routinely involved either inclusion of traditional cultural practices into program activities or adaptation of conventional treatment approaches to distinctive community sensibilities. In this article, we investigate a third possibility: the collaborative, community-based development of an alternative indigenous intervention that was implemented as a form of SUDs treatment in its own right and on its own terms. Specifically, in July of 2012, we undertook a trial implementation of a seasonal cultural immersion camp based on traditional Pikuni Blackfeet Indian cultural practices for 4 male clients from the reservation's federally funded SUDs treatment program. Given a variety of logistical and methodological constraints, the pilot offering of the culture camp primarily served as a demonstration of "proof of concept" for this alternative indigenous intervention. In presenting and reflecting on this effort, we consider many challenges associated with alternative indigenous treatment models, especially those associated with formal outcome evaluation. Indeed, we suggest that the motivation for developing local indigenous alternatives for AIAN SUDs treatment may work at cross-purposes to the rigorous assessment of therapeutic efficacy for such interventions. Nevertheless, we conclude that these efforts afford ample opportunities for expanding the existing knowledge base concerning the delivery of community-based psychological services for AIANs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  17. Mutagenic activity of various dentine bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Schweikl, H; Schmalz, G; Göttke, C

    1996-07-01

    The potential mutagenicity of bonding agents of the new generation was characterised by employing an in vitro gene mutation assay. Eight different components of three dentine bonding systems (Scotchbond Multi Purpose, Prisma Universal Bond 3 and C&B Metabond) were tested in the Ames test using four different Salmonella strains (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102). The materials were eluted in dimethyl sulphoxide and physiological saline; aliquots of the serially diluted eluates were then used in the standard plate incorporation assay. No mutagenic effects were found with Scotchbond Multi Purpose primer and adhesive, Prisma Universal Bond 3 primer, and C&B Metabond base, powder and activator. However, the glutaraldehyde-containing Prisma Universal Bond 3 adhesive elicited a strong mutagenic effect in S. typhimurium strain TA102. Mutation rates caused by dimethyl sulphoxide eluates as well as physiological saline eluates were about five times higher than solvent control values. A mutagenic effect was also observed with C&B Metabond catalyst, especially in strain TA97a when the material was eluted in physiological saline. Both mutagenic responses were not influenced by a metabolically active microsomal fraction from rat liver. We consider the results observed in the Ames test as a first indication of possible mutagenic activity in higher organisms. Therefore, the materials are currently under further investigation using a quantitative in vitro mammalian cell mutation assay.

  18. Mutagens in coffee and other beverages.

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, M; Fujita, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Nukaya, H; Kosuge, T; Sugimura, T

    1986-01-01

    A cup of coffee contains mutagens which produce about 5 X 10(4)-10(5) revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 without S9 mix. One of the mutagens was identified to be methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal was present in various beverages such as black tea, whisky, and brandy. Methylglyoxal itself induced tumors in rats when administered by subcutaneous injection. However, the mutagenic properties of coffee were different from those of methylglyoxal. The mutagenicity of coffee was suppressed by catalase, and coffee was found to contain hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, coffee solution was found to have a hydrogen peroxide-generating system. Instant coffee (15 mg/mL) contains 130 microM hydrogen peroxide immediately after the dissolution of coffee powder in water at room temperature. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with time. The mutagenicity of methylglyoxal was increased by the copresence of hydrogen peroxide. A maximum of 30-fold enhancement was observed. The mutagenicity of black tea but not that of whisky was suppressed by catalase. PMID:3757962

  19. Mutagens in coffee and other beverages.

    PubMed

    Nagao, M; Fujita, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Nukaya, H; Kosuge, T; Sugimura, T

    1986-08-01

    A cup of coffee contains mutagens which produce about 5 X 10(4)-10(5) revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 without S9 mix. One of the mutagens was identified to be methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal was present in various beverages such as black tea, whisky, and brandy. Methylglyoxal itself induced tumors in rats when administered by subcutaneous injection. However, the mutagenic properties of coffee were different from those of methylglyoxal. The mutagenicity of coffee was suppressed by catalase, and coffee was found to contain hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, coffee solution was found to have a hydrogen peroxide-generating system. Instant coffee (15 mg/mL) contains 130 microM hydrogen peroxide immediately after the dissolution of coffee powder in water at room temperature. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with time. The mutagenicity of methylglyoxal was increased by the copresence of hydrogen peroxide. A maximum of 30-fold enhancement was observed. The mutagenicity of black tea but not that of whisky was suppressed by catalase.

  20. Mutagenicities of Bangkok and Tokyo river waters.

    PubMed

    Kusamran, W R; Wakabayashi, K; Oguri, A; Tepsuwan, A; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1994-11-01

    Samples of water from the Chao Phraya river and some connected canals in Bangkok, Thailand, and from the Sumida and Ara rivers in Tokyo, Japan, were tested for mutagenicity using blue rayon to adsorb the mutagens. The samples from the Chao Phraya river and connected canals at sites located 50-150 km from the river mouth taken in May 1993 showed a mutagenicity of 87-1213 revertants per 0.05 g blue rayon extract towards S. typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of S9 mix. Samples from most sites taken in December 1993, which follows the rainy season, showed a lower mutagenicity than those taken in May, possibly due to dilution by the larger volume of water in the river and canals in December. Water samples from the Sumida river were collected in July 1993 and February 1994, and those from the Ara river in January 1994. Mutagenicity of samples from all sites of the Sumida and Ara rivers, which were located 2-30 and 2-20 km, respectively, from the river mouth was also clearly detected in the presence of S9 mix and did not differ much, being 155-748 revertants of YG1024 per 0.05 g blue rayon extract. These results demonstrated that the water in all three rivers contained some frameshift mutagens.

  1. Mutagenicity and cytoxicity of irradiated foods and food components*

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Jack

    1969-01-01

    The preservation of foods by treatment with ionizing radiation can significantly increase the world's food resources by reducing spoilage and waste. However, irradiation can bring about chemical transformations in food and food components resulting in the formation of potential mutagens, particularly hydrogen peroxide and various organic peroxides. In order to evaluate the safety of irradiated foods for general consumption by the public, and, indeed, the safety of all foods subjected to environmental factors such as food additives, pesticides, drugs, air and water pollutants, etc., it is necessary to supplement the usual feeding tests with procedures designed to detect all classes of genetic damage. This article includes a comprehensive critical review of (1) the experimental evidence relating to the presence of mutagenic and cytotoxic agents in irradiated media, as detected by their effects on mammalian and non-mammalian cells; (2) the chemical changes produced in irradiated media, especially those which produce known mutagenic substances; and (3) new and convenient in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of genetic damage in mammals. PMID:4908553

  2. Size matters: sequential mutations in tumorigenesis may reflect the stochastic effect of mutagen target sizes.

    PubMed

    Long, Kimberly; Abuelenen, Toaa; Pava, Libia; Bastille, Maya; Blanck, George

    2011-10-01

    We tallied the number of possible mutant amino acids in proteins thought to be inactivated early in tumorigenesis and in proteins thought to be inactivated late in tumorigenesis, respectively. Proteins thought to be inactivated early in tumorigenesis, on average, have a greater number of alternative, mutant possibilities, which raises the possibility that the sequential order of mutations associated with cancer development reflects the random chance, throughout life, of a mutagen inactivating a larger versus a smaller target. The hypothesis that the temporal order of genetic changes in cancer reflects mutagen target sizes leads to novel considerations of 1) the mechanisms of the acquisition of cancer hallmarks and 2) cancer screening strategies.

  3. Evaluation of Mutagenicity of Mebudipine, a New Calcium Channel Blocker

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Saeid; Soleimani, Fatemeh; Hoseini Shirazi, Farshad; Touhidpour, Maryam; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2010-01-01

    Mebudipine is a new dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, synthesized in our laboratory, for treatment of hypertension. It has shown a better efficacy than other drugs in this group. For assessing the risks of this drug, certain safety tests in the preclinical stage have been performed. In this study mutagenic effect of mebudipine was evaluated using Ames assay that could assess the mutagenicity of drugs and their metabolites using liver enzymes (S-9 mix). This procedure is approved as a predictive test, with a high predictive value. Salmonella TA102 (Ames assay) was used with and without S-9 in this study. For preparing S-9 mix, rat liver enzymes induced by phenobarbital were separated in KCl 0.154 M (0.154 M), as the solvent. Mebudipine was dissolved in polyethylenglycol 400. Mutagenicity test was performed in 6 doses from 39 μg to 1250 μg per every plate, in the presence and absence of the S-9 mix. The positive control sodium azide was dissolved in a dose of 5 μg/plate dissolved in polyethylenglycol 400 and negative control was polyethylenglycol 400 with no added agent. The colony counts of all doses in plates with S-9 were between 200-400 and in plates without S9 was between100-300. The colony counts in both states (with and without S-9) of all doses were in the range suggested by Ames assay for the safe drugs and were different from the positive control groups and equal to the negative controls. Mebudipine and its metabolites were not found to be mutagen on Salmonella TA102, based on Ames assay. PMID:24363706

  4. Evaluation of mutagenicity of mebudipine, a new calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Saeid; Soleimani, Fatemeh; Hoseini Shirazi, Farshad; Touhidpour, Maryam; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2010-01-01

    Mebudipine is a new dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, synthesized in our laboratory, for treatment of hypertension. It has shown a better efficacy than other drugs in this group. For assessing the risks of this drug, certain safety tests in the preclinical stage have been performed. In this study mutagenic effect of mebudipine was evaluated using Ames assay that could assess the mutagenicity of drugs and their metabolites using liver enzymes (S-9 mix). This procedure is approved as a predictive test, with a high predictive value. Salmonella TA102 (Ames assay) was used with and without S-9 in this study. For preparing S-9 mix, rat liver enzymes induced by phenobarbital were separated in KCl 0.154 M (0.154 M), as the solvent. Mebudipine was dissolved in polyethylenglycol 400. Mutagenicity test was performed in 6 doses from 39 μg to 1250 μg per every plate, in the presence and absence of the S-9 mix. The positive control sodium azide was dissolved in a dose of 5 μg/plate dissolved in polyethylenglycol 400 and negative control was polyethylenglycol 400 with no added agent. The colony counts of all doses in plates with S-9 were between 200-400 and in plates without S9 was between100-300. The colony counts in both states (with and without S-9) of all doses were in the range suggested by Ames assay for the safe drugs and were different from the positive control groups and equal to the negative controls. Mebudipine and its metabolites were not found to be mutagen on Salmonella TA102, based on Ames assay.

  5. Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Systematic review of scientific and lay literature.

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on common alternative remedies for treatment of symptoms attributed to menopause and to contrast this with available lay literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Scientific articles were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, and HEALTH databases from 1966 to mid-1997 for English-language articles. More than 200 references were reviewed; 85 were selected for citation based on specific reference to alternative medicine for symptoms commonly attributed to menopause (e.g., hot flashes), to the effects of changing estrogen levels (e.g., irregular menses, vaginal dryness), and to reported side effects of the treatments. MAIN FINDINGS: The scientific literature was categorized under the headings nutritional supplements, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, and physical approaches. Some scientific evidence of the safety and efficacy of alternative treatments during menopause was uncovered, with the strongest evidence emerging in favour of phytoestrogens, which occur in high concentrations as isoflavones in soy products. CONCLUSIONS: In available controlled studies, the strongest data support phytoestrogens for their role in diminishing menopausal symptoms related to estrogen deficiency and for possible protective effects on bones and the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials, standardization of dosage, and accurate safety and efficacy labeling are required to ensure proper use of alternative remedies. PMID:9640524

  6. An exploratory study of alternative configurations of governing boards of substance abuse treatment centers

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Boards of directors are the ultimate governing authorities for most organizations providing substance abuse treatment. A governing board may establish policies, monitor and improve operations, and represent a treatment organization to the public. This paper explores alternative configurations of governing boards in a national sample of 500 substance abuse treatment centers. The study proceeds from the premise that boards may be configured with varying levels of engagement in five aspects of internal management and external connections in treatment center operating environments. Based on interviews with treatment center administrative directors, four clusters emerge, describing boards that are: (1) active and balanced across internal and external domains; (2) active boundary spanners concentrating primarily on external relationships; (3) focused primarily on internal organizational management; and (4) relatively inactive. In post hoc analysis, we found that placement in these clusters is associated with treatment center attributes such as rate of growth and financial results, use of evidence based practices and provision of integrated care. PMID:21489737

  7. An open source multistep model to predict mutagenicity from statistical analysis and relevant structural alerts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutagenicity is the capability of a substance to cause genetic mutations. This property is of high public concern because it has a close relationship with carcinogenicity and potentially with reproductive toxicity. Experimentally, mutagenicity can be assessed by the Ames test on Salmonella with an estimated experimental reproducibility of 85%; this intrinsic limitation of the in vitro test, along with the need for faster and cheaper alternatives, opens the road to other types of assessment methods, such as in silico structure-activity prediction models. A widely used method checks for the presence of known structural alerts for mutagenicity. However the presence of such alerts alone is not a definitive method to prove the mutagenicity of a compound towards Salmonella, since other parts of the molecule can influence and potentially change the classification. Hence statistically based methods will be proposed, with the final objective to obtain a cascade of modeling steps with custom-made properties, such as the reduction of false negatives. Results A cascade model has been developed and validated on a large public set of molecular structures and their associated Salmonella mutagenicity outcome. The first step consists in the derivation of a statistical model and mutagenicity prediction, followed by further checks for specific structural alerts in the "safe" subset of the prediction outcome space. In terms of accuracy (i.e., overall correct predictions of both negative and positives), the obtained model approached the 85% reproducibility of the experimental mutagenicity Ames test. Conclusions The model and the documentation for regulatory purposes are freely available on the CAESAR website. The input is simply a file of molecular structures and the output is the classification result. PMID:20678181

  8. Legal, workplace, and treatment drug testing with alternate biological matrices on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Cone, E J

    2001-09-15

    Global trends in drug trafficking and drug usage patterns indicate a continuing pattern of escalation throughout the world. Over the last two decades, urinalysis has evolved into a highly accurate means for determining whether individuals have been exposed to illicit drugs of abuse. Advances have also been made in the use of alternate biological matrices such as hair, oral fluids and sweat for drug testing. Often, these new matrices demonstrate some distinct advantages over urinalysis, e.g. less invasive procedures, different time course of drug detection. They may even indicate impairment. National and local laws of each country provide the underpinnings of drug-testing programs, but most countries have not addressed use of these alternate matrices. Currently, only a few countries have statutes that specifically mention use of alternate biological matrices, e.g. United States (Florida state law), Germany, Ireland, Poland and the Czech Republic. Conversely, few countries have prohibited collection of alternate biological specimens or drug test devices that utilize such specimens. In addition, guidelines for implementing drug testing programs have been slow to emerge and most deal primarily with workplace drug testing programs, e.g. United States. Currently, scientific technology utilized in drug testing is advancing rapidly, but there is a clear need for parallel development of guidelines governing the use of alternate matrices for drug testing. This article provides an overview of global drug trafficking patterns and drug use, and results from a survey of legal statutes in 20 countries covering use of alternate matrices for drug testing. In addition, elements needed for the development of guidelines for alternate matrices testing for drugs of abuse are discussed, and specific examples of use of alternate matrices in treatment monitoring are provided.

  9. Acupuncture treatment for women with concurrent substance use and anxiety/depression: an effective alternative therapy?

    PubMed

    Courbasson, Christine M A; de Sorkin, Alicia Araujo; Dullerud, Berit; Van Wyk, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated the benefits of adding auricular acupuncture to a 21-day outpatient structured psychoeducational treatment program for women with concurrent substance use problems, anxiety, and depression. Women receiving acupuncture (n = 185) reported having reduced physiological cravings for substances, felt significantly less depressed, less anxious, and were better able to reflect on and resolve difficulties than women in the control group (n = 101). It was found that auricular acupuncture, as an adjunct therapy to a comprehensive psychoeducational treatment program for women with addictions, shows promise in being an effective, more viable treatment alternative to anxiolytics.

  10. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders”

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Complementary and alternative medical treatments are commonly used for children with autism spectrum disorders. This review discusses the evidence supporting the most frequently used treatments, including categories of mind-body medicine, energy medicine, biologically based, manipulative and body-based practices, with the latter two the most commonly selected by families. It is important for clinical providers to understand the evidence for efficacy (or lack thereof) and potential side effects. Some CAM practices have evidence to reject their use, such as secretin, others have emerging evidence to support their use, like melatonin. Most treatments, however, have not been adequately studied and do not have evidence to support their use. PMID:18775371

  11. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  12. Alternative vs. conventional treatment given on-demand for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Per G; Heibert, Mathis; Høeg, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Background Alternative treatments are commonly used for various disorders and often taken on-demand. On-demand treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with pharmaceutical products is an established, cost-effective strategy. Comparisons between alternative medicine and pharmaceutical products are rare. The aim of this trial was to compare on-demand treatment with a pectin-based, raft-forming, natural, anti-reflux agent (PRA) with that of esomeprazole 20 mg (Eso20) in patients with mild/moderate GERD. Methods Patients with mild/moderate GERD were randomised to a six weeks' on-demand treatment with PRA or Eso20 in a pragmatic, open, multicentre trial. Overall satisfaction with treatment, satisfactory relief on a weekly basis, reflux symptoms, and treatment preferences were noted. Results Seventy-seven patients were included in the analyses. Eso20 was significantly superior to PRA for proportion of overall satisfied patients (92% and 58% respectively; p = 0.001), reduction of symptoms (mean symptom scores at the end 5.9 and 8.0 respectively; p = 0.019), proportion of weeks of satisfactory relief (89% and 62% respectively; p = 0.008) and proportion preferring continuation with the same treatment (85% and 42% respectively; p < 0.001). Older patients were more satisfied than younger, and patients preferring on-demand treatment had lower symptom scores at inclusion than those preferring regular treatment. Conclusion On-demand treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg was clearly superior to the pectin-based raft-forming agent. Most patients preferred on-demand treatment to regular treatment. Those preferring regular therapy had significantly more symptoms at inclusion. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00184522. PMID:19236727

  13. Alternative vs. conventional treatment given on-demand for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Farup, Per G; Heibert, Mathis; Høeg, Victor

    2009-02-24

    Alternative treatments are commonly used for various disorders and often taken on-demand. On-demand treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with pharmaceutical products is an established, cost-effective strategy. Comparisons between alternative medicine and pharmaceutical products are rare. The aim of this trial was to compare on-demand treatment with a pectin-based, raft-forming, natural, anti-reflux agent (PRA) with that of esomeprazole 20 mg (Eso20) in patients with mild/moderate GERD. Patients with mild/moderate GERD were randomised to a six weeks' on-demand treatment with PRA or Eso20 in a pragmatic, open, multicentre trial. Overall satisfaction with treatment, satisfactory relief on a weekly basis, reflux symptoms, and treatment preferences were noted. Seventy-seven patients were included in the analyses. Eso20 was significantly superior to PRA for proportion of overall satisfied patients (92% and 58% respectively; p = 0.001), reduction of symptoms (mean symptom scores at the end 5.9 and 8.0 respectively; p = 0.019), proportion of weeks of satisfactory relief (89% and 62% respectively; p = 0.008) and proportion preferring continuation with the same treatment (85% and 42% respectively; p < 0.001). Older patients were more satisfied than younger, and patients preferring on-demand treatment had lower symptom scores at inclusion than those preferring regular treatment. On-demand treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg was clearly superior to the pectin-based raft-forming agent. Most patients preferred on-demand treatment to regular treatment. Those preferring regular therapy had significantly more symptoms at inclusion.

  14. [Hormonal treatments for hemorrhaging secondary to fibroids. An alternative or complement to surgery?].

    PubMed

    Cancelo Hidalgo, María Jesús

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of treatment in women with uterine fibroids is the control of associated symptoms such as abnormal uterine bleeding, pain and pressure. Although the cost and potential adverse effects of the long-term use of medical treatment may limit its use for a long time, this alternative should be considered before indicating surgical treatment. At present, we have a considerable variety of drugs that, although not specific treatments for fibroids, may be used for the short to medium-term management of bleeding; however, we have still not found an alternative that eliminates the need for invasive treatments. Further research in this field is therefore warranted. Given the heterogeneity of fibroids and the lack of effective treatments in controlling their growth, the identification of signals that stimulate the onset and growth of these fibroids opens doors to the development of new therapies. In the future we may be able to differentiate classes of fibroids by molecular techniques and thereby implement specific treatments that control their development and their associated symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative treatments in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients with progressive disease after sorafenib treatment: a prospective multicenter cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Masahito; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Kuromatsu, Ryoko; Nagamatsu, Hiroaki; Satani, Manabu; Niizeki, Takashi; Okamura, Shusuke; Iwamoto, Hideki; Shimose, Shigeo; Shirono, Tomotake; Noda, Yu; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has been approved to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), though it is unclear how much benefit advanced HCC patients with progressive disease (PD) derive from sorafenib treatment. This study aimed to assess survival risk factors and evaluate therapeutic strategies for advanced HCC patients with PD after sorafenib treatment. We analyzed the clinical data and treatment outcomes for 315 consecutive advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Univariate analyses of overall survival identified therapeutic effect as an independent risk factor in all patients. Among all patients, 141 developed PD. Of those, 58 (41%) were treated with sorafenib monotherapy, 70 (50%) with agents other than sorafenib, and 13 (9%) were not treated at all. The median survival time was 6.1 months for PD patients with sorafenib monotherapy and 12.2 months for those administered alternative treatments (p < 0.0001). Our results indicated that sorafenib treatment may have negative long-term therapeutic effects in advanced HCC patients with PD, and that alternative treatments should be considered for these patients after sorafenib administration. PMID:27462865

  16. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, L F; Savage, G M; Eggerth, L L

    2005-01-01

    Waste production in healthcare facilities in developing countries has brought about a variety of concerns due to the use of inappropriate methods of managing the wastes. Inappropriate treatment and final disposal of the wastes can lead to adverse impacts to public health, to occupational health and safety, and to the environment. Unfortunately, most economically developing countries suffer a variety of constraints to adequately managing these wastes. Generally in developing countries, few individuals in the staff of the healthcare facility are familiar with the procedures required for a proper waste management program. Furthermore, the management of wastes usually is delegated to poorly educated laborers who perform most activities without proper guidance and insufficient protection. This paper presents some of the most common treatment and disposal methods utilized in the management of infectious healthcare wastes in developing countries. The methods discussed include: autoclave; microwave; chemical disinfection; combustion (low-, medium-, and high-technology); and disposal on the ground (dump site, controlled landfill, pits, and sanitary landfill). Each alternative for treatment and disposal is explained, including a description of the types of wastes that can and cannot be treated. Background information on the technologies also is included in order to provide information to those who may not be familiar with the details of each alternative. In addition, a brief presentation of some of the emissions from each of the treatment and disposal alternatives is presented.

  17. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F. . E-mail: ludiaz@calrecovery.com; Savage, G.M.; Eggerth, L.L.

    2005-07-01

    Waste production in healthcare facilities in developing countries has brought about a variety of concerns due to the use of inappropriate methods of managing the wastes. Inappropriate treatment and final disposal of the wastes can lead to adverse impacts to public health, to occupational health and safety, and to the environment. Unfortunately, most economically developing countries suffer a variety of constraints to adequately managing these wastes. Generally in developing countries, few individuals in the staff of the healthcare facility are familiar with the procedures required for a proper waste management program. Furthermore, the management of wastes usually is delegated to poorly educated laborers who perform most activities without proper guidance and insufficient protection. This paper presents some of the most common treatment and disposal methods utilized in the management of infectious healthcare wastes in developing countries. The methods discussed include: autoclave; microwave; chemical disinfection; combustion (low-, medium-, and high-technology); and disposal on the ground (dump site, controlled landfill, pits, and sanitary landfill). Each alternative for treatment and disposal is explained, including a description of the types of wastes that can and cannot be treated. Background information on the technologies also is included in order to provide information to those who may not be familiar with the details of each alternative. In addition, a brief presentation of some of the emissions from each of the treatment and disposal alternatives is presented.

  18. THE MUTAGENICITY OF METALLIZED AND UNMETALLIZED AZO AND FORMAZAN DYES IN THE SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mutagenicity of metallized and unmetallized azo and formazan dyes in the Salmonella mutagenicity
    Laura. C. Edwards', Harold S. Freeman'*, and Larry D. Claxton2

    Abstract
    In previous papers, the synthesis and chemical properties of iron complexed azo and formazan d...

  19. Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.

    PubMed Central

    Ames, B N; Kammen, H O; Yamasaki, E

    1975-01-01

    We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for dectecting carcinogens as mutagens. We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity:2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components (p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminotuluene, and 2,5-diaminoanisole) become strongly mutagenic after oxidation by H2O2: the mutagenic product of p-phenylenediamine is identified as the known trimer, Bandrowski's base. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, a hair dye component until recently, is also shown to be mutagenic: this compound has been shown to be a carcinogen in rats and is used in large amounts in the polyurethane foam industry. About 20,000,000 people (mostly women) dye their hair in the U.S. and the hazard could be considerable if these chemicals are actually mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. Images PMID:1094469

  20. THE MUTAGENICITY OF METALLIZED AND UNMETALLIZED AZO AND FORMAZAN DYES IN THE SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mutagenicity of metallized and unmetallized azo and formazan dyes in the Salmonella mutagenicity
    Laura. C. Edwards', Harold S. Freeman'*, and Larry D. Claxton2

    Abstract
    In previous papers, the synthesis and chemical properties of iron complexed azo and formazan d...

  1. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gwangpyo; Simmons, Otto D; Likirdopulos, Christina A; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, Mike; Sobsey, Mark D

    2008-12-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatmenttechnology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies.

  2. A mutagenicity and cytotoxicity study of limonium effusum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames and MTT tests.

    PubMed

    Eren, Y; Ozata, A; Konuk, M; Akyil, D; Liman, R

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays plants or plant extracts have become very important for alternative medicine. Plants and their extracts have many therapeutical advantages but some of them are potentially toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Root, stem and leafparts of Limonium effusum were used in this study and this species is an endemic species for Turkey. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of root, stem and leaf aqueous extracts were observed with Allium, Ames and MTT tests. Allium root growth inhibition test and mitotic index studies showed that aqueous extracts have dose-dependent toxic effects. Chromosome aberration studies indicated that especially sticky chromosome, anaphase-telophase disorder and laggard chromosome anomalies were highly observed. Ames test performed with Limonium effusum root aqueous extracts, showed weak mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain with S9. MTT test based on mitochondrial activity indicated that most of the aqueous extracts have cytotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of L. effusum aqueous extracts by using bacterial, plant and mammalian cells. This research showed that some low concentrations of the L. effusum extracts have inhibited cytotoxic effects but high concentrations have induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand only a weak mutagenic activity was identified by Ames test with TA98 S9(+).

  3. 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Vartiainen, Terttu; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Altshul, Larisa; Harrington, Joseph J; Dockery, Douglas W

    2002-01-01

    There is limited information on the prevalence of the potent mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in U.S. water supplies. We measured MX concentrations and mutagenic activity in tap water samples from 36 surface water systems throughout Massachusetts. We found MX levels much higher (up to 80 ng/L) than previously reported in the United States. We also evaluated the role of water treatment on mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. After adjusting for other covariates, chloramination and filtration were the most important treatment options for reducing mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. Multiple chlorine application (before and after filtration) was associated with increased mutagenicity. Chlorine dose, pH, and total organic carbon were also associated with mutagenicity, MX, and total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentration. Seasonal variation was evident for MX and mutagenic activity, with higher levels occurring in the spring compared to the fall. In contrast, TTHM concentrations were greater in the fall. PMID:11836144

  4. 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wright, J Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Vartiainen, Terttu; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Altshul, Larisa; Harrington, Joseph J; Dockery, Douglas W

    2002-02-01

    There is limited information on the prevalence of the potent mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in U.S. water supplies. We measured MX concentrations and mutagenic activity in tap water samples from 36 surface water systems throughout Massachusetts. We found MX levels much higher (up to 80 ng/L) than previously reported in the United States. We also evaluated the role of water treatment on mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. After adjusting for other covariates, chloramination and filtration were the most important treatment options for reducing mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. Multiple chlorine application (before and after filtration) was associated with increased mutagenicity. Chlorine dose, pH, and total organic carbon were also associated with mutagenicity, MX, and total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentration. Seasonal variation was evident for MX and mutagenic activity, with higher levels occurring in the spring compared to the fall. In contrast, TTHM concentrations were greater in the fall.

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease Part 1: ulcerative colitis--pathophysiology and conventional and alternative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Head, Kathleen A; Jurenka, Julie S

    2003-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), a subcategory of inflammatory bowel disease, afflicts 1-2 million people in the United States, and many more worldwide. Although the exact cause of ulcerative colitis remains undetermined, the condition appears to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. While conventional treatments can be effective in maintaining remission and decreasing the length of active disease periods, the treatments are not without side effects, and a significant number of people suffering from UC fail to respond to even the strongest drugs. This article reviews potential unconventional treatments - transdermal nicotine, heparin, melatonin, DHEA, probiotics, fiber, dietary changes, botanicals, essential fatty acids, and other nutrients - that may be considered in conjunction with conventional approaches or as part of a comprehensive alternative treatment protocol. In addition this review addresses risk factors, pathogenesis, nutrient deficiencies, conventional treatment approaches, and extra-intestinal manifestations of the disease.

  6. Potential of goat probiotic to bind mutagens.

    PubMed

    Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[α]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[α]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[α]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[α]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers.

  7. Detection of mutagenic activity in automobile exhaust.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Y; Kachi, K; Sato, K; Tahara, I; Takeyoshi, H; Tokiwa, H

    1980-03-01

    Using the Ames Salmonella-microsome system, we detected mutagenic activity in the exhaust from two kinds of 4-cycle gasoline engines of unregulated and regulated cars, and from diesel engines, as well as in the particulates from air collected in tunnels. The mutagenicity of particulates from a car equipped with a catalyst (regulated car), as compared with that from an unregulated car, was reduced very much (down to 500 from 4500 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA98). However, the mutagenicity of the ether-soluble acid and neutral fractions from the condensed water of emissions from a regulated car was still high (down to 2880 from 10 900 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA100). The mutagenic activity of emission exhaust from old diesel car engines was very high; the particulates showed 9140 and 19 600 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 incubated with an activating rat-liver S9 fraction. A small diesel engine of the type used for the generation of electric power or in farm machinery also produced exhaust with highly mutagenic particulates. The mutagenic activity of a methanol extract of particulate air pollutants collected in a highway tunnel showed 39 revertants/plate/m3 toward strain TA98 and 87 toward strain TA100. The ether-soluble neutral fraction yielded 86 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 and 100 from strain TA100. This fraction also contained carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and chrysene. Very high mutagenic activity was detected, especially in the particulate air pollutants collected at night, in another tunnel on a superhighway: 60-88 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA100 for the sample collected by day, but 121-238, by night. Night traffic includes many more diesel-powered vehicles compared with gasoline-powered automobiles.

  8. Mutagenicity of coolwhite fluorescent light for Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Z; Hartman, P E; McDermott, W L

    1991-05-01

    The most common fluorescent lamps in use today in homes and businesses in the United States, 'coolwhite' fluorescent lamps, emit light that is mutagenic for Salmonella. Strains that carry both a uvrB mutation and plasmid pKM101 are extremely susceptible to this light-induced mutation. Both base substitution and frameshift mutations can be induced without substantial lethal effects on the bacteria. Induced mutations accumulate essentially as a linear function of the time bacteria are exposed to illumination. Of Salmonella histidine-requiring strains with known nucleotide target sequences (Hartman et al., 1986; Cebula and Koch, 1989, 1990), strains either carrying one of the base substitution mutations, hisG428 and hisG46, or one of the frameshifts, hisC3076 and hisD6610, are most highly mutagenized whereas frameshift strains with hisD6580 and hisD3052 exhibit lower rates of mutagenesis. Mutagenicity does not appear to require the presence of oxygen. A filter blocking wavelengths below 370 nm eliminates mutagenesis. Polystyrene, cellulose acetate and, especially, mylar and glass filters reduce mutagenesis, indicating that at least some of the mutagenic effects can be attributed to leakage of radiations below 290 nm (far-ultraviolet light) from 'coolwhite' lamps. The more recently introduced fluorescent 'softwhite' lamps are roughly 10-fold less mutagenic at approximately equal light intensity. Incandescent light bulbs are much less mutagenic than are these fluorescent lamps. Our mutational data correlate closely with previous results in eukaryotic cells (Jacobson and Krell, 1982). A uvrB recA Salmonella double mutant is hypersensitive to the lethal effects of coolwhite fluorescent light, even when illuminated through the lids of glass Petri dishes. Thus, appropriate Salmonella strains would appear to be simple and useful screens for both the mutagenic and the lethal activities of fluorescent lamps. These systems are amenable to classroom laboratory use as relatively

  9. Decision making software for effective selection of treatment train alternative for wastewater using analytical hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A D; Tembhurkar, A R

    2013-10-01

    Proper selection of treatment process and synthesis of treatment train is complex engineering activity requires crucial decision making during planning and designing of any Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Earlier studies on process selection mainly considered cost as the most important selection criteria and number of studies focused on cost optimization models using dynamic programming, geometric programming and nonlinear programming. However, it has been noticed that traditional cost analysis alone cannot be applied to evaluate Treatment Train (TT) alternatives, as number of important non-tangible factors cannot be easily expressed in monetary units. Recently researches focus on use of multi-criteria technique for selection of treatment process. AHP provides a powerful tool for multi-hierarchy and multi-variable system overcoming limitation of traditional techniques. The AHP model designed to facilitate proper decision making and reduce the margin of errors during optimization due to number of parameters in the hierarchy levels has been used in this study. About 14 important factors and 13 sub factors were identified for the selection of treatment alternatives for wastewater and sludge stream although cost is one of the most important selection criteria. The present paper provides details of developing a soft-tool called "ProSelArt" using an AHP model aiding for proper decision making.

  10. Mutagenicity tobacco snuff: possible health implications for coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Whong, W.Z.; Ames, R.G.; Ong, T.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenicity of tobacco snuff extracts was studied using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay system. No mutagenic activity was found for tobacco snuff extracts without S9 activation. However, mutagenic substances were formed from tobacco snuff extracts in an acidic environment. The mutagenic substances induced predominantly frameshift mutations and were direct-acting mutagens. Mutagenic activity of tobacco snuff extracts was enhanced in the presence of coal-dust extracts at low pH. Since tobacco snuff has been used by some coal miners to substitute for cigarettes, a possible risk for gastric cancer induction among coal miners is proposed.

  11. Formation of mutagens in cooked foods. I. Beef.

    PubMed

    Spingarn, N E; Weisburger, J H

    1979-09-01

    Mutagens detectable by Salmonella typhimurium TA98, after activation by liver S-9 fraction, are formed when meat is cooked by frying, broiling and boiling. High levels of mutagenic activity are formed rapidly when frying, or more slowly during broiling. Formation of mutagens in boiled beef stock requires several days under reflux, but shows a strong concentration dependence. Time curves suggest that a period exists during which mutagens are not readily formed; however, after this period mutagen production is rapid. Hamburgers from commercial franchises were frequently mutagenically active.

  12. Applying the least restrictive alternative principle to treatment decisions: A legal and behavioral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. M.; Sherman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The least restrictive alternative concept is widely used in mental health law. This paper addresses how the concept has been applied to treatment decisions. The paper offers both a legal and a behavioral analysis to some problems that have emerged in recent years concerning the selection of behavioral procedures used to change client behavior. The paper also offers ways of improving the application of the concept, which involve developing a more behaviorally functional perspective toward restrictiveness. PMID:22478138

  13. What is the role of alternative treatments in late-life depression?

    PubMed

    Nyer, Maren; Doorley, James; Durham, Kelley; Yeung, Albert S; Freeman, Marlene P; Mischoulon, David

    2013-12-01

    Late-life depression remains challenging to treat. One major limitation to treatment is the concern over medication-related side effects to which the elderly are especially vulnerable. Also, because many elderly people are already taking multiple medications for medical conditions, there is the concern over drug-drug interactions. This article reviews various complementary and alternative medicine interventions for late-life depression, including natural remedies, exercise, yoga, tai chi, massage therapy, music therapy, and religion and spirituality.

  14. HIV/AIDS: vaccines and alternate strategies for treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Voronin, Yegor; Phogat, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    The symposium "HIV/AIDS: Vaccines and Alternate Strategies for Treatment and Prevention" brought together HIV vaccine researchers to discuss the latest developments in the field. From basic discoveries in virus diversity and mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies to nonhuman primate research and clinical trials of vaccine candidates in volunteers, scientists are making great strides in understanding the mechanisms that may protect against HIV and pathways to achieve this protection through vaccination.

  15. An evaluation of alternative household solid waste treatment practices using life cycle inventory assessment mode.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Waste disposal is an important part of the life cycle of a product and is associated with environmental burdens like any other life-cycle stages. In this study, an integrated assessment for solid waste treatment practices, especially household solid waste, was undertaken to evaluate the impact contribution of household solid waste treatment alternatives towards the sustainable development by using Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method. A case study has been investigated under various possible scenarios, such as (1) landfill without landfill gas recovery, (2) landfill with landfill gas recovery and flaring, (3) landfill with landfill gas recovery and electric generation, (4) composting, and (5) incineration. The evaluation utilized the Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method for multiple assessments based on various aspects, such as greenhouse gas emission/reduction, energy generation/consumption, economic benefit, investment and operating cost, and land use burden. The results showed that incineration was the most efficient alternative for greenhouse gas emission reduction, economic benefit, energy recovery, and land use reduction, although it was identified as the most expensive for investment and operating cost, while composting scenario was also an efficient alternative with quite economic benefit, low investment and operating cost, and high reduction of land use, although it was identified as existing greenhouse gas emission and no energy generation. Furthermore, the aim of this study was also to establish localized assessment methods that waste management agencies, environmental engineers, and environmental policy decision makers can use to quantify and compare the contribution to the impacts from different waste treatment options.

  16. Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a minimally invasive treatment alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez, Robert F.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.; Aronoff, David R.; de Riese, Werner T. W.

    2003-06-01

    The use of minimally invasive treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been introduced into the medical community. Over the last decade several minimally invasive treatment techniques have been approved for use. In particular, interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) has shown pomise as an alternative to the current gold standard, transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). Studies show ILC to have equal efficacy as TURP while causing less side effects. Future technical advances as well as increased physician experience with ILC could lead to the replacement of TURP as the gold standard in trestment of BPH.

  17. Use of complementary and alternative treatments by individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbour, C

    2000-08-01

    Although muscle pain is the primary complaint of patients with fibromyalgia, there are myriad associated symptoms that cause them to seek healthcare. Some individuals try alternative treatments when conventional medicine does not provide symptom relief. A questionnaire was developed to collect information regarding complementary treatments and their effectiveness. Sixty individuals visited the researcher's web page and completed and submitted an online questionnaire on fibromyalgia. Literature, heat, walking, vitamins, and massage were the interventions tried most frequently. Literature, aromatherapy, support groups, heat, and massage were rated the most effective.

  18. Mutagenic heterocyclic imidazoamines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Shen, N.H.; Wu, Rebekah; Becher, G.

    1987-06-01

    Cooking ground beef at 300/sup 0/C produces at least 8 distinct mutagens. All of these compounds fit into a general chemical class called aminoimidazoazaarenes (AIAs). Our studies suggest that most of this set of AIAs are present in cooked beef, pork, and chicken. Described in this manuscript are two new mutagens that appear to have oxygen atoms in the ring system. The amounts of these very potent bacterial mutagens vary from 20 ppB to <0.1 ppB depending on the mutagen, cooking conditions, and food tested. The production of these mutagens in food depends on the presence of creatine or creatinine and specific amino acids and cooking temperatures between 150 to 300/sup 0/C for an appropriate period of time. In CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells, the relative potency of the compounds differed significantly from the bacterial responses. The risk from consuming these compounds is still very unclear because of their relatively low levels in our diet and the lack of consistency in the biological response data. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Mutagenicity of chloroalkene epoxides in bacterial systems.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; McCoy, E C; Rosenkranz, H S; Van Duuren, B L

    1982-04-01

    6 alpha-chloroepoxides have been tested for in vitro activity in a variety of systems. The epoxides were cis- and trans-1-chloropropene oxide, cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene oxide, trichloroethylene oxide and tetrachloroethylene oxide. The epoxides were assayed for mutagenicity in the absence of metabolic activation in S. typhimurium TA1535 and E. coli WP2 uvrA and for preferential inhibition of growth of DNA-repair-deficient E. coli. All 6 epoxides possessed DNA-modifying activity as evidenced by their ability to preferentially inhibit DNA polymerase-deficient E. coli. All of the test chemicals except trichloroethylene oxide were mutagenic for S. typhimurium and all except trichloroethylene oxide and tetrachloroethylene oxide were mutagenic for E. coli Wp2 uvrA. Cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene oxide were the most potent mutagens and DNA modifiers. For all cases, the cis isomers were more active than the corresponding trans isomers. alpha-Chloroepoxides are considered likely to be the active intermediates of the carcinogenic parent halo-olefins. These mutagenicity studies are considered relevant in assessing the carcinogenicity of the parent hydrocarbons.

  20. Two implant overdenture–the first alternative treatment for patients with complete edentulous mandible

    PubMed Central

    Marin, M; Preoteasa, E; Tancu, AM; Preoteasa, CT

    2011-01-01

    Given the increasing life expectancy in the coming years, dental practitioners, as other specialists from different medical fields, will encounter an increasing number of complete edentulous patients. These patients, with a longer active life and higher standards of life quality, will have different expectations for their complete dentures, higher than the standard treatment that uses conventional complete dentures. Two–implant overdenture is considered the first alternative treatment in complete edentulous mandible, according to current medical standards established by a team of specialists in prosthodontics and implantology, and globally known as the McGill Consensus from McGill University, Montreal, Canada. The Consensus was established during a–dayߝand–a–half session of presentations done by experts who presented data, scientific information on the subject, and, not less significant, personal experiences of participants and patients. Overdenture on implants, as an alternative treatment for complete edentulous mandible, has multiple benefits in achieving better conditions of prosthesis: balance and effectiveness, with positive effects on oral structures, aesthetics, and quality of life. Mandibular two–implant overdenture, established as a standard treatment by the highest international forum, should gradually become the first choice of treatment in complete edentulous mandible. PMID:21776308

  1. Assessment of multiple sustainability demands for wastewater treatment alternatives: a refined evaluation scheme and case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Yu, Han-Qing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Guo, Xuesong

    2012-05-15

    Current estimation schemes as decision support tools for the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives focus primarily on the treatment efficiency, effluent quality, and environmental consequences for receiving water bodies. However, these schemes generally do not quantify the potential to convert pollutants in wastewater to recoverable resources. This study proposes a refined evaluation scheme for choices of wastewater treatment processes that quantifies not only adverse environmental effects but also bioenergy and nutrient recovery indices. An original means of data processing was established and clear estimate indicators were consequently obtained to allow a smooth overall estimation. An array of wastewater treatment alternatives that meet three effluent limits were used as case studies to demonstrate how the present scheme works, simultaneously, to identify optimum choices. It is concluded in the overall estimation that the lower sustainability of wastewater treatment contributed by increasingly stringent discharge demands was offset and mitigated by the resource-recovery scenarios involved, and the scenario of recovering nutrients via excess-sludge composting was of more benefit. Thus, before tightening wastewater discharge requirements, one should bear in mind the situation of multiple sustainability by setting a goal to achieve not only the greatest reduction in environmental burden but also the maximum resource-recovery benefits.

  2. Effectiveness of coerced addiction treatment (alternative consequences): a review of the clinical research.

    PubMed

    Miller, N S; Flaherty, J A

    2000-01-01

    Of central importance is that our clinical experience and treatment outcome studies to date strongly suggest that coercion is fundamental to addiction treatment and favorable outcomes from therapeutic interventions. Often the alcoholic/drug abuser must be given an opportunity to feel, face, or experience the "consequences" of their alcohol and drug addiction before the denial of their illness can be penetrated and motivation for treatment to recover from addictive illness can be developed. Continued use of alcohol and drugs is an unhealthy and dangerous state for those who are addicted and for others who are affected by their addictive illnesses. Effective therapeutic interventions and long-term recovery are more likely to succeed if avoiding "alternative consequences" are contingent on continued compliance with addiction treatment by those who suffer from addictive illnesses.

  3. A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

  4. A Review of Complementary and Alternative Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hendren, Robert; Hurt, Elizabeth; Arnold, L. Eugene; Butter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Given the severe and chronic problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and the limitations of available treatments, there exists a large public health need for additional interventions. As more parents are inquiring about complementary and alternative treatments (CATs), both parents and practitioners require up-to-date information about them and whether and how to integrate them into treatment. After presenting data on CAT usage patterns for ASD, we review 13 ingestible (i.e., orally administered) and 6 noningestible (i.e., externally administered) CATs for ASD. For each CAT we briefly describe its definition; rationale for use; current research support, limitations, and future directions; safety issues; and whether we currently recommend, not recommend, or find it acceptable for the treatment of ASD. We conclude this paper with recommendations for future research and ten clinical recommendations for practitioners. PMID:23243505

  5. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils.

  6. Mutagenic potential of fine wastes from dimension stone industry.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Tonon, Camila Bruschi; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Cristina Araújo; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-03-01

    The industrial treatment of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, includes a stage of plate polishing, in which resins and abrasives are used, producing a fine grained waste with high moisture content. These wastes pass through decantation tanks in order to separate the solid and liquid phases. Until now, there is no knowledge about the mutagenic effects that this effluent can cause to organisms exposed to it. Thus, this study evaluated the mutagenic potential of dimension stone polishing wastes in onion root cells and fish erythrocytes. The onion seeds were germinated in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened in the liquid phase of the effluent. After germination, the onion roots were prepared for analysis of chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells. The fishes were exposed during 72h to the solid phase of the effluent diluted in pure groundwater. Blood samples were used for counting of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities. The onion seeds had similar germination and mitotic index in all treatments. However, it was observed in the seeds exposed to the polishing waste, numbers significantly higher of micronucleus, nuclear buds and other chromosomal aberrations when compared with the negative control. The fishes exposed to the waste showed numbers significantly higher of micronucleus when compared with the negative control. The fishes from all treatments showed significant increase in nuclear abnormalities when compared to the negative control. We concluded that the analysed wastes have mutagenic potential at the studied conditions; this effect can be related to the high content of phenolic compounds identified in the samples.

  7. A comparative analysis of standard and alternative antidepressants in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus patients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G J; Rabkin, J G; Rabkin, R

    1996-01-01

    Our research group has conducted clinical trials of standard (imipramine, fluoxetine, and sertraline) and alternative antidepressants (dextroamphetamine and testosterone replacement therapy) in the treatment of clinical depression among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) illness. This report presents secondary analyses of data pooled from these trials with the purpose of comparing the antidepressant efficacy of these various agents. In all trials, a DSM-III-R depressive disorder was the primary criterion for study entry, and each treatment resulted in significant improvement after both 2 and 6 weeks of treatment according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Response rates for standard antidepressants ranged from 70% to 74%, with similar, high response rates found in trials of dextroamphetamine (93%) and testosterone (81%). The response rate of each active drug treatment was superior to that of placebo (33%). Each treatment was well-tolerated in terms of side effects, and there was essentially no effect of any treatment on CD4 cell count. Differences in trial design, entrance criteria, and measurements require that caution be used in interpreting these results; nonetheless, each of the five treatments studied demonstrated strong efficacy and possessed relatively unique benefits, providing health care providers with valuable treatment options in addressing individual needs of patients.

  8. Use of conventional, complementary, and alternative treatments for pain among individuals seeking primary care treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Savant, Jonathan D.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Moore, Brent A.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Fiellin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have not examined patterns of pain treatment use among patients seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT) for opioid dependence. Objectives To examine, among individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence, the use of pain treatment modalities, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment while in BNT. Methods 244 patients seeking office-based BNT for opioid dependence completed measures of demographics, pain status (i.e. “chronic pain (CP)” [pain lasting at least 3 months] vs. “some pain (SP)” [pain in the past week not meeting the duration criteria for chronic pain]), pain treatment use, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in receiving pain treatment while in BNT. Results In comparison to the SP group (N = 87), the CP group (N = 88) was more likely to report past-week medical use of opioid medication (AOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.4), lifetime medical use of non-opioid prescribed medication (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.7), and lifetime use of prayer (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6.5), and was less likely to report lifetime use of yoga (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) to treat pain. While the two pain groups did not differ on levels of perceived efficacy of prior lifetime pain treatments, in comparison to the SP group, the CP group was more likely to report interest in receiving pain treatment while in BNT (P < 0.001). Conclusions Individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence report a wide range of conventional, complementary, and alternative pain-related treatments and are interested (especially those with CP) in receiving pain management services along with BNT. PMID:23041680

  9. Use of conventional, complementary, and alternative treatments for pain among individuals seeking primary care treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone.

    PubMed

    Barry, Declan T; Savant, Jonathan D; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J; Moore, Brent A; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Fiellin, David A

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have not examined patterns of pain treatment use among patients seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT) for opioid dependence. To examine, among individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence, the use of pain treatment modalities, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment while in BNT. A total of 244 patients seeking office-based BNT for opioid dependence completed measures of demographics, pain status (ie, "chronic pain (CP)" [pain lasting at least 3 months] vs "some pain (SP)" [pain in the past week not meeting the duration criteria for chronic pain]), pain treatment use, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in receiving pain treatment while in BNT. In comparison with the SP group (N = 87), the CP group (N = 88) was more likely to report past-week medical use of opioid medication (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.4), lifetime medical use of nonopioid prescribed medication (AOR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and lifetime use of prayer (AOR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2-6.5) and was less likely to report lifetime use of yoga (AOR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7) to treat pain. Although the 2 pain groups did not differ on levels of perceived efficacy of prior lifetime pain treatments, in comparison with the SP group, the CP group was more likely to report interest in receiving pain treatment while in BNT (P < 0.001). Individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence report a wide range of conventional, complementary, and alternative pain-related treatments and are interested (especially those with CP) in receiving pain management services along with BNT.

  10. Detection of mutagenic activity in the urine of rodents treated with p-rosaniline.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, T E; Haworth, S R; Lilja, H S; Cameron, T P; Dunkel, V C

    1987-01-01

    p-Rosaniline was fed to male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 ppm for male rats and 500 and 1,000 ppm for female rats and mice of both sexes. Urine was collected overnight at 1-wk intervals over a 4-wk treatment period and frozen until its use in the mutagenicity assay. The neat urine was tested in triplicate without S-9 on Salmonella tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 at 0.75, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.05 ml per plate. When sufficient urine was available, samples were tested on TA100 in the presence of S-9. Either urine samples were pretreated for 18 hr at 37 degrees C with beta-glucuronidase, or the deconjugating enzyme was added to the top agar at the time of plating in the mutagenicity assay (non-pretreatment). Direct-acting mutagenic activity was detected on TA98 in the urine from male mice, but only when using the non-pretreatment deconjugation method. No direct-acting mutagenic activity was detected in the urine of male and female rats and female mice; however, in the presence of S-9, mutagenic activity was observed in the urine of male rats and in the urine of male and female mice regardless of the deconjugation method used. The non-pretreatment method was superior for detecting direct acting mutagenic activity, and the pretreatment method was superior for detecting mutagenic activity requiring metabolic activation by S-9.

  11. Detection of mutagenic activity in the urine of rodents treated with p-Rosaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Lawlor, T.E.; Haworth, S.R.; Lilja, H.S.; Cameron, T.P.; Dunkel, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    p-Rosaniline was fed to male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice at doses of 1000 and 2000 ppm for male rats and 500 and 1000 ppm for female rats and mice of both sexes. Urine was collected overnight at 1-wk intervals over a 4-wk treatment period and frozen until its use in the mutagenicity assay. The neat urine was tested in triplicate without S-9 on Salmonella tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 at 0.75, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.05 ml per plate. When sufficient urine was available, samples were tested at TA100 in the presence of S-9. Either urine samples were pretreated for 18 hr at 37/sup 0/C with ..beta..-glucuronidase, or the deconjugating enzyme was added to the top agar at the time of plating in the mutagenicity assay (non-pretreatment). Direct-acting mutagenic activity was detected on TA98 in the urine from male mice, but only when using the non-pretreatment deconjugation method. No direct-acting mutagenic activity was detected in the urine of male and female rats and female mice; however, in the presence of S-9, mutagenic activity was observed in the urine of male rats and in the urine of male and female mice regardless of the deconjugation method used. The non-pretreatment method was superior for detecting direct acting mutagenic activity, and the pretreatment method was superior for detecting mutagenic activity requiring metabolic activation by S-9.

  12. Mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat extracts: Mutagenicity assay, analysis and mechanism of mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-11-01

    Cooking of meat usually aims in producing microbiologically safe food suitable for human consumption. However, doing so at such high temperatures may produce some cooking toxicants or mutagens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat after different cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying and charcoal grilling) using Ames Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay. In addition, the content of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the meat extracts prepared under different cooking methods were measured using HPLC. In a trial to investigate the causes behind the mutagenicity of different meat extracts, HepG2 cell line was exposed to different modelled-heat-treated meat extracts. mRNA expression levels of various phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) were examined using real time PCR. The results obtained declared that pan-fried and charcoal grilled-meat extracts significantly induced production of histidine+ revertants in the Ames mutagenicity assay. Grilled-meat extracts had the highest residual concentrations of B[a]P followed by pan-fried-meat, boiled meat and raw meat extracts, respectively. Induction of XMEs especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and NQO1 may contribute to the mutagenic ability of these extracts. It is highly advisable to control cooking temperature, time and method in order to reduce cooked-meat mutagens.

  13. Testing the environment for dispersed mutagens: use of plant bioconcentrators coupled with microbial mutagen assays.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, W S; Klekowski, E J

    1978-01-01

    Mutagens dispersed in ecosystems are usually in low concentration and episodic in occurrence. The possibility of detecting such dispersed mutagens by utilizing indigenous bioconcentrator organisms coupled with a microbial mutagen assay offer a useful screening protocol. There are numerous examples of plant and animal species which concentrate toxic substances from the environment. Body extracts of these bioconcentrators can be suitably fractioned and tested for mutagens with various microbial mutagen assays. The fractions may be tested with a broad range of microbial assays covering numerous genetic end points as well as both with and without mammalian microsomal activation. This kind of environmental screening has an advantage over physicochemical techniques, in that sampling techniques are simpler and a wider chemical spectrum can be screened. There are problems inherent with testing a complex biological extract, however. If a reversion assay is used, the metabolite necessary for growth may be present. Toxins may be introduced, either concentrated from the environment in the same way as the mutagen, or produced by the concentrator itself. Finally, the concentrator may also produce an endogenous mutagen which will give spuriously active extracts. Methods for minimizing some of these difficulties are discussed. PMID:367775

  14. [Factors determining the selection of treatment options of complementary and alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Zörgő, Szilvia; Purebl, György; Zana, Ágnes

    2016-04-10

    Complementary and alternative medicine have undoubtedly been gaining ground on the healthcare market, thus the vital question arises why patients choose these treatments, oftentimes at the cost of discontinuing the Western medical therapy. The aim of the authors was to investigate and scrutinize factors leading to the utilization of various alternative medical services. The basis of this qualitative research was medical anthropological fieldwork conducted at a clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine including participant observation (355 hours), unstructured interviews with patients (n = 93) and in-depth interviews (n = 14). Patients of alternative medical systems often do not receive a diagnosis, explanation or cure for their illness from Western medicine, or they do not agree with what they are offered. In other instances, patients choose alternative medicine because it exhibits a philosophical congruence with their already existing explanatory model, that is, previous concepts of world, man or illness. A particular therapy is always part of a cultural system and it is embedded in a specific psycho-social context, hence choice of therapy must be interpreted in accordance with this perspective.

  15. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicity

    Abstract
    Mutagens
    in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  16. Alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 1: Techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2017-02-11

    This paper provides an overview of alternatives to conventional thermal treatments and a review of the literature on fruit-juice processing for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice yield enhancement, these being radiation treatments (UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation), electrical treatments (pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, ohmic heating), microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, inert gas treatments (supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation), and flash-vacuum expansion. The nonthermal technologies discussed in this review have the potential to meet industry and consumer expectations. However, the lack of standardization in operating conditions hampers comparisons among different studies, and consequently ambiguity arises within the literature. For the juice industry to advance, more detailed studies are needed on the scaling-up, process design, and optimization, as well as on the effect of such technologies on juice quality of juices in order to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing.

  17. Use of traditional herbal medicine as an alternative in dental treatment in Mexican dentistry: a review.

    PubMed

    Cruz Martínez, Cindy; Diaz Gómez, Martha; Oh, Myung Sook

    2017-12-01

    Herbal therapies are used worldwide to treat health conditions. In Mexico, generations have used them to treat gingivitis, periodontitis, mouth infections, and discoloured teeth. However, few studies have collected scientific evidence on their effects. This study aimed at searching and compiling scientific evidence of alternative oral and dental treatments using medicinal herbs from Mexico. We collected various Mexican medicinal plants used in the dental treatment from the database of the Institute of Biology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. To correlate with existing scientific evidence, we used the PubMed database with the key term '(scientific name) and (oral or dental)'. Mexico has various medical herbs with antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, according to ancestral medicinal books and healers. Despite a paucity of experimental research demonstrating the antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antiplaque effects of these Mexican plants, they could still be useful as an alternative treatment of several periodontal diseases or as anticariogenic agents. However, the number of studies supporting their uses and effects remains insufficient. It is important for the health of consumers to scientifically demonstrate the real effects of natural medicine, as well as clarify and establish their possible therapeutic applications. Through this bibliographical revision, we found papers that testify or refute their ancestral uses, and conclude that the use of plants to treat oral conditions or to add to the dental pharmacological arsenal should be based on experimental studies verifying their suitability for dental treatments.

  18. [Dual therapy as an alternative treatment in HIV pretreated patients: experience in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Yunquera-Romero, Lucia; Asensi-Díez, Rocío; Gajardo-Álvarez, Macarena; Muñoz-Castillo, Isabel

    2016-02-01

    Dual therapy regimen might be an effective alternative to prevent the occurrence of side effects and comorbidities associated with prolonged treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) and a way of simplification of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to improve adherence in certain patients. It also represents a potential treatment option for patients who have failed previous TAR. The aim of the study is to describe the effectiveness, adherence and costs of dual therapy regimen used in pretreated HIV patients in tertiary hospital. Thirty-eight patients were studied (eight were excluded). Reasons for simplification to dual therapy were previous treatment toxicity (40%), simplification (36.67%) and virological rescue (20%). The dual therapy regimens most used were: IP/r + INSTIs (26.67%), IP/r + NRTIs (23.33%), IP/r + NNR-TIs (23.33%), IP/r+ CCR5 (16.66%) e INSTIs + NNRTIs (10%). ARV more used were darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) + raltegravir (23.33 %); DRV/r + lamivudine (20%) y DRV/r + etravirine (16.67 %). Adherence was 86.79% before switching to dual therapy and 96.27% after switching. The cost savings of switching to dual therapy of these patients was € 3,635.16. Dual therapy with IP/r might be an effective alternative to selected treatment experienced patients compared with conventional therapy.

  19. Atomized sludges via spray-drying at low temperatures: an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Cusidó, Joan A; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2012-08-30

    Removal of sludges from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) represents a serious worldwide environmental problem for which alternatives other than their simple incineration are investigated. In this work the treatment of raw sludge from urban WWTP by means of a minimization process through spray-drying is analyzed as well as some proposals for revaluating the resulting dry product. Analysis is supported by some experimental results obtained with a laboratory spray dryer. The experimental procedure at laboratory scale is extrapolated to an industrial plant scale. An economic analysis of the proposal in relation to other possible sludge treatments is presented, taking into account in this case the comparison between the costs of the processes of sludge thickening, stabilization and dehydratation and the costs of spray-drying (especially power consumption), minimization of the final waste and reuse options. Finally, an environmental balance of the process is presented. In contrast with the classical treatment line, this alternative allows transforming sludges, i.e., a waste, into a valuable product with several applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternating electric tumor treating fields for treatment of glioblastoma: rationale, preclinical, and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sandeep; Klinger, Neil V; Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Barger, Geoffrey R; Pannullo, Susan C; Juhász, Csaba

    2017-02-24

    OBJECTIVE Treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) remains largely unsuccessful, even with aggressive combined treatment via surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Tumor treating fields (TTFs) are low-intensity, intermediate-frequency, alternating electric fields that have antiproliferative properties in vitro and in vivo. The authors provide an up-to-date review of the mechanism of action as well as preclinical and clinical data on TTFs. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed using the terms "tumor treating fields," "alternating electric fields," "glioblastoma," "Optune," "NovoTTF-100A," and "Novocure." RESULTS Preclinical and clinical data have demonstrated the potential efficacy of TTFs for treatment of GBM, leading to several pilot studies, clinical trials, and, in 2011, FDA approval for its use as salvage therapy for recurrent GBM and, in 2015, approval for newly diagnosed GBM. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the use of TTFs as an efficacious, antimitotic treatment with minimal toxicity in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent GBM. Additional studies are needed to further optimize patient selection, determine cost-effectiveness, and assess the full impact on quality of life.

  1. From the conventional to the alternative: exploring patients' pathways of cancer treatment and care.

    PubMed

    Mulkins, Andrea L; McKenzie, Emily; Balneaves, Lynda G; Salamonsen, Anita; Verhoef, Marja J

    2016-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is widespread and on the increase among cancer patients. Most research to date has involved a cross-sectional snapshot of CAM use rather than an exploration into the longitudinal, nonlinear treatment trajectories that cancer patients develop. Our aim is to explore and describe different treatment and decision-making pathways that individuals develop after receipt of a diagnosis of either breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer. The study was part of a larger mixed-methods pilot project to explore the feasibility of conducting a five-year international study to assess cancer patients' treatment pathways, including health care use and the perceived impact of different patterns of use on health outcomes over the course of one year. The results presented in this paper are based on the analysis of personal interviews that were conducted over the course of 12 months with 30 participants. Five pathways emerged from the data: passive conventional, self-directed conventional, cautious integrative, aggressive integrative, and aggressive alternative. Factors that shaped each pathway included health beliefs, decision-making role, illness characteristics, and the patient-practitioner relationship. The results of this examination of the longitudinal treatment and decision-making trajectory provide important information to support health care professionals in their quest for individualized, targeted support at each stage of the patient pathway.

  2. Assessment of wastewater treatment alternatives for small communities: An analytic network process approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Gómez, Trinidad; Caballero, Rafael; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    The selection of the most appropriate wastewater treatment (WWT) technology is a complex problem since many alternatives are available and many criteria are involved in the decision-making process. To deal with this challenge, the analytic network process (ANP) is applied for the first time to rank a set of seven WWT technology set-ups for secondary treatment in small communities. A major advantage of ANP is that it incorporates interdependent relationships between elements. Results illustrated that extensive technologies, constructed wetlands and pond systems are the most preferred alternatives by WWT experts. The sensitivity analysis performed verified that the ranking of WWT alternatives is very stable since constructed wetlands are almost always placed in the first position. This paper showed that ANP analysis is suitable to deal with complex decision-making problems, such as the selection of the most appropriate WWT system contributing to better understand the multiple interdependences among elements involved in the assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    McClymont, Hoda; Gow, Jeff; Perry, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources.

  4. The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300

  5. Mutagens in contaminated soil: a review.

    PubMed

    White, Paul A; Claxton, Larry D

    2004-11-01

    The intentional and accidental discharges of toxic pollutants into the lithosphere results in soil contamination. In some cases (e.g., wood preserving wastes, coal-tar, airborne combustion by-products), the contaminated soil constitutes a genotoxic hazard. This work is a comprehensive review of published information on soil mutagenicity. In total, 1312 assessments of genotoxic activity from 118 works were examined. The majority of the assessments (37.6%) employed the Salmonella mutagenicity test with strains TA98 and/or TA100. An additional 37.6% of the assessments employed a variety of plant species (e.g., Tradescantia clone 4430, Vicia faba, Zea mays, Allium cepa) to assess mutagenic activity. The compiled data on Salmonella mutagenicity indicates significant differences (p<0.0001) in mean potency (revertents per gram dry weight) between industrial, urban, and rural/agricultural sites. Additional analyses showed significant empirical relationships between S9-activated TA98 mutagenicity and soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration (r2=0.19 to 0.25, p<0.0001), and between direct-acting TA98 mutagenicity and soil dinitropyrene (DNP) concentration (r2=0.87, p<0.0001). The plant assay data revealed excellent response ranges and significant differences between heavily contaminated, industrial, rural/agricultural, and reference sites, for the anaphase aberration in Allium cepa (direct soil contact) and the waxy locus mutation assay in Zea mays (direct soil contact). The Tradescantia assays appeared to be less responsive, particularly for exposures to aqueous soil leachates. Additional data analyses showed empirical relationships between anaphase aberrations in Allium, or mutations in Arabidopsis, and the 137Cs contamination of soils. Induction of micronuclei in Tradescantia is significantly related to the soil concentration of several metals (e.g., Sb, Cu, Cr, As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn). Review of published remediation exercises showed effective removal of

  6. Review of the mutagenicity of chloroform

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although chloroform (CHCl/sub 3/) is metabolized in vivo and in vitro to a substance that covalently interacts with protein and lipid, its potential for binding to DNA is low. In addition, most of the assays for genotoxicity are negative. However, many of the genotoxicity results are inconclusive because of inadequacies in the experimental protocols. The types of genotoxicity tests this report is based on include bacterial, yeast, host-mediated, Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal, mammalian cell mutagenicity, sperm head abnormality, cytogenetic, and DNA damage. On the basis of presently available information, no definitive conclusion on the mutagenic potential of CHCl/sub 3/ can be reached.

  7. On-site sanitation: a viable alternative to modern wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, K M

    2007-01-01

    Rapid population growth and urbanization are exerting excessive pressure on soil and water resources. To address these problems this paper proposes a cheap and sustainable alternative sanitation system, which accelerates nutrient recycling ("closing the loop"): ecological sanitation (ecosan) is a potential alternative to conventional sanitation systems that replenishes the organic matter and nutrients of the soil that are taken off as the crop harvest. A comparison is made of the environmental and the operation and maintenance costs between a modern wastewater treatment plant and on-site sanitation. An elevated double box urine diverting toilet ("ecotoilet") is proposed and its advantages and disadvantages over a system with a centrally controlled modern WWTP are discussed. Bagmati Area Sewerage Project in Kathmandu is taken as an example of modern WWTP and ecosan being practiced in a village in Nepal is taken as an example of ecotoilet for the comparison.

  8. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Perfect, Michelle M; Bourne, Nigel; Ebel, Charles; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2005-10-01

    Conventional antiviral drugs have proven effectiveness for genital herpes; however, patients continue to use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. Given that patients may be using these products, it is important that healthcare providers become familiar with the data regarding safety and efficacy. We have reviewed available scientific data on six commonly used treatments (echinacea, eleuthero, L-lysine, zinc, bee products and aloe). In addition, information about a number of other products is presented in tabular form. Currently, there are insufficient clinical data to be confident of the efficacy and safety of any of these products for the treatment of genital herpes. It is hoped that future clinical trials will be conducted with sufficient rigour to provide guidance to the patients using these products.

  9. EFFECTS OF TREATMENT INTEGRITY FAILURES DURING DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOR: A TRANSLATIONAL MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Peter Pipkin, Claire St; Vollmer, Timothy R; Sloman, Kimberly N

    2010-01-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is used frequently as a treatment for problem behavior. Previous studies on treatment integrity failures during DRA suggest that the intervention is robust, but research has not yet investigated the effects of different types of integrity failures. We examined the effects of two types of integrity failures on DRA, starting with a human operant procedure and extending the results to children with disabilities in a school setting. Human operant results (Experiment 1) showed that conditions involving reinforcement for problem behavior were more detrimental than failing to reinforce appropriate behavior alone, and that condition order affected the results. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated the effects of combined errors and sequence effects during actual treatment implementation. PMID:20808495

  10. Perspectives of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Erin; Sevigny, Marika; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Phillips, Karen P

    2014-10-14

    Infertility patients are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement or replace conventional fertility treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of CAM practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ottawa, Canada in 2011 with CAM practitioners who specialized in naturopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, hypnotherapy and integrated medicine. CAM practitioners played an active role in both treatment and support of infertility, using a holistic, interdisciplinary and individualized approach. CAM practitioners recognized biological but also environmental and psychosomatic determinants of infertility. Participants were receptive to working with physicians, however little collaboration was described. Integrated infertility patient care through both collaboration with CAM practitioners and incorporation of CAM's holistic, individualized and interdisciplinary approaches would greatly benefit infertility patients.

  11. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  12. Prediction of PAH mutagenicity in human cells by QSAR classification.

    PubMed

    Papa, E; Pilutti, P; Gramatica, P

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants of high environmental concern. The experimental data of a mutagenicity test on human B-lymphoblastoid cells (alternative to the Ames bacterial test) for a set of 70 oxo-, nitro- and unsubstituted PAHs, detected in particulate matter (PM), were modelled by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) classification methods (k-NN, k-Nearest Neighbour, and CART, Classification and Regression Tree) based on different theoretical molecular descriptors selected by Genetic Algorithms. The best models were validated for predictivity both externally and internally. For external validation, Self Organizing Maps (SOM) were applied to split the original data set. The best models, developed on the training set alone, show good predictive performance also on the prediction set chemicals (sensitivity 69.2-87.1%, specificity 62.5-87.5%). The classification of PAHs according to their mutagenicity, based only on a few theoretical molecular descriptors, allows a preliminary assessment of the human health risk, and the prioritisation of these compounds.

  13. Evolutionary Ensemble for In Silico Prediction of Ames Test Mutagenicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Yao, Xin

    Driven by new regulations and animal welfare, the need to develop in silico models has increased recently as alternative approaches to safety assessment of chemicals without animal testing. This paper describes a novel machine learning ensemble approach to building an in silico model for the prediction of the Ames test mutagenicity, one of a battery of the most commonly used experimental in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests for safety evaluation of chemicals. Evolutionary random neural ensemble with negative correlation learning (ERNE) [1] was developed based on neural networks and evolutionary algorithms. ERNE combines the method of bootstrap sampling on training data with the method of random subspace feature selection to ensure diversity in creating individuals within an initial ensemble. Furthermore, while evolving individuals within the ensemble, it makes use of the negative correlation learning, enabling individual NNs to be trained as accurate as possible while still manage to maintain them as diverse as possible. Therefore, the resulting individuals in the final ensemble are capable of cooperating collectively to achieve better generalization of prediction. The empirical experiment suggest that ERNE is an effective ensemble approach for predicting the Ames test mutagenicity of chemicals.

  14. Mutagenicity study on pyrazole, seven pyrazole derivatives, and two nitroimidazoles with the L-arabinose resistance test of Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandre-Duran, E.; Ruiz-Rubio, M.; Claramunt, R.M.; Lopez, C.; Pueyo, C.

    1986-01-01

    The mutagenicity of pyrazole and seven pyrazole derivatives (4-nitropyrazole, 4-bromopyrazole, 1-methyl-4-nitropyrazole, 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitropyrazole, 1-methyl-4-bromopyrazole, 4,4'-dinitro-1, 1'-methylene-dipyrazole and 4,4'-dibromo-1,1'-methylene-dipyrazole) has been investigated with the L-arabinose forward mutation assay of Salmonella typhimurium. Two nitroimidazoles (1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole and metronidazole) were included as reference drugs. The mutagenicity of each chemical was determined by both preincubation and liquid tests, in the presence or absence of S9 microsomal fraction. The mutagenic responses was expressed as the absolute number of L-arabinose resistant mutants growing in selective plates, supplemented with traces of D-glucose. Strain BA13 with a wild-type lipopolysaccharide barrier was used as a comparison to the deep rough derivative BA9. No mutagenic effect was detected with pyrazole and two of its derivatives, 1-methyl-4-bromopyrazole and 4,4'-dibromo-1,1'-methylene-dipyrazole. The other five pyrazole derivatives were mutagenic to different degrees, although their mutagenic potencies were always considerably lower than those of the two nitroimidazoles. The results suggest that 4-nitropyrazoles, as well as 4,4'-dinitro-1, 1'-methylene-dipyrazoles, should be investigated further as alternatives to, or even substitutes for, the currently used nitroimidazoles.

  15. Assessment of diphenylcyclopropenone for photochemically induced mutagenicity in the Ames assay

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, M.G.; Connor, T.H.; Henkin, J.; Wilkin, J.K.; Matney, T.S.

    1987-10-01

    The photochemical conversion of diphenylcyclopropenone to diphenylacetylene has recently been reported. Diphenylcyclopropenone is used in the treatment of alopecia areata and is nonmutagenic in a limited Ames assay. We examined diphenylcyclopropenone and diphenylacetylene, as well as synthetic precursors of diphenylcyclopropenone--dibenzylketone and alpha,alpha'-dibromodibenzylketone--for mutagenicity against TA100, TA98, TA102, UTH8413, and UTH8414. All compounds were nonmutagenic except alpha,alpha'-dibromodibenzylketone, which was a potent mutagen in TA100 with and without S-9 activation. The effect of photochemical activation of diphenylcyclopropenone in the presence of bacteria demonstrated mutagenicity in UTH8413 (two times background) at 10 micrograms/plate with S-9 microsomal activation. 8-Methoxypsoralen produces a mutagenic response in TA102 at 0.1 microgram/plate with 60 seconds of exposure to 350 nm light. In vitro photochemically activated Ames assay with S-9 microsomal fraction may enhance the trapping of short-lived photochemically produced high-energy mutagenic intermediates. This technique offers exciting opportunities to trap high-energy intermediates that may play an important role in mutagenesis. This method can be applied to a variety of topically applied dermatologic agents, potentially subjected to photochemical changes in normal use.

  16. WSTO9 (TOOKAD) mediated photodynamic therapy as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Huang, Zheng; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2002-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes optical energy to activate a pre-administered photosensitizer drug to achieve a localized tumor control. In the presented study, PDT mediated with a second-generation photosensitizer, WST09 (TOOKAD, Steba Biotech, The Netherlands), is investigated as an alternative therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo canine prostate is used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates both superficially and interstitially with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the intra-operatively i.v. infused photosensitizer. During light irradiation, tissue optical properties, and temperature were monitored. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no complications. The prostates were harvested and subjected to histopathological evaluations. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single treatment, suggesting the therapy is extremely effective in destroying prostatic tissue. Although we found there was loss of epithelial lining in prostatic urethra, there was no evidence it had caused urinary tract side effects as reported in those studies utilizing transurethral irradiation. In conclusion, we found second generation photosensitizer WST09 mediated PDT may provide an excellent alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  17. Alternative pre-approved and novel therapies for the treatment of anthrax.

    PubMed

    Head, Breanne M; Rubinstein, Ethan; Meyers, Adrienne F A

    2016-11-03

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a spore forming and toxin producing rod-shaped bacterium that is classified as a category A bioterror agent. This pathogenic microbe can be transmitted to both animals and humans. Clinical presentation depends on the route of entry (direct contact, ingestion, injection or aerosolization) with symptoms ranging from isolated skin infections to more severe manifestations such as cardiac or pulmonary shock, meningitis, and death. To date, anthrax is treatable if antibiotics are administered promptly and continued for 60 days. However, if treatment is delayed or administered improperly, the patient's chances of survival are decreased drastically. In addition, antibiotics are ineffective against the harmful anthrax toxins and spores. Therefore, alternative therapeutics are essential. In this review article, we explore and discuss advances that have been made in anthrax therapy with a primary focus on alternative pre-approved and novel antibiotics as well as anti-toxin therapies. A literature search was conducted using the University of Manitoba search engine. Using this search engine allowed access to a greater variety of journals/articles that would have otherwise been restricted for general use. In order to be considered for discussion for this review, all articles must have been published later than 2009. The alternative pre-approved antibiotics demonstrated high efficacy against B. anthracis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the safety profile and clinical pharmacology of these drugs were already known. Compounds that targeted underexploited bacterial processes (DNA replication, RNA synthesis, and cell division) were also very effective in combatting B. anthracis. In addition, these novel compounds prevented bacterial resistance. Targeting B. anthracis virulence, more specifically the anthrax toxins, increased the length of which treatment could be administered. Several novel and pre-existing antibiotics

  18. LONG-TERM OUTCOME OF THE DIFFERENT TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR RECURRENT AND PERSISTENT CUSHING DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros, Ana Laura; Sosa-Eroza, Ernesto; Espinosa, Etual; Mendoza, Victoria; Arreola, Rocio; Mercado, Moises

    2017-07-01

    Treatment alternatives for persistent and recurrent Cushing disease (CD) include pituitary surgical re-intervention, radiation therapy (RT), pharmacotherapy, and bilateral adrenalectomy (BA). The decision of which of these alternatives is better suited for the individual patient rests on clinical judgment and the availability of resources. This retrospective cohort study was performed at a referral center to evaluate the long-term efficacy of different secondary interventions for persistent and recurrent CD. We evaluated the hospital charts of 84 patients (77 female, median age 34 years, median follow up 6.3 years) with CD diagnosed, treated, and followed at our multidisciplinary clinic according to a pre-established protocol. Of the 81 patients who were initially treated with transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), 61.7% had a long-lasting remission, 16% had persistent disease, and 22% achieved remission but relapsed during follow-up. The most frequently used secondary treatment was pituitary re-intervention, followed by ketoconazole, RT, and BA. Early remissions were observed in 66.6% of the re-operated and in 58.3% of the radiated patients; long-lasting remission was achieved in 33.3% and 41.6% of these patients, respectively. Nelson syndrome developed in 41.6% of the patients who underwent BA. Upon last follow-up, 88% of all the patients are in remission, and 9.5% are biochemically controlled with ketoconazole. The efficacy of treatment alternatives for recurrent or persistent CD varies considerably among patients and multiple interventions are often required to achieve long-lasting remission. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone; BA = bilateral adrenalectomy; CBG = cabergoline; CD = Cushing disease; CV = coefficient of variation; DXM = dexamethasone; IQR = interquartile range; RT = radiation therapy; SRS = stereotactic radiosurgery; TSS = transsphenoidal surgery; UFC = urinary free cortisol; ULN = upper limit of normal.

  19. Patient satisfaction with conventional, complementary, and alternative treatment for cluster headache in a Norwegian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bekkelund, Svein I.; Ofte, Hilde K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Cluster headache (CH) may cause excruciating pain and not all patients get satisfactory help. Patient dissatisfaction with general practitioners (GPs) and neurologists, and use of complementary and alternative treatment (CAM) may reflect this. The authors studied patient satisfaction with doctors’ treatment and use of CAM in a Norwegian CH cohort. Subjects. A total of 196 subjects with a cluster headache diagnosis were identified in the registers of two neurological departments in North Norway. Design. Of these, 70 with a confirmed diagnosis according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) completed a comprehensive questionnaire with questions concerning satisfaction with doctors’ treatment, use of CAM, and effect of both treatment regimes. Results. Satisfaction with doctors’ treatment was reported in 44/70 (63%) (GPs) and 50/70 (71%) (neurologists) while 39/70 (56%) were satisfied with both. Too long a time to diagnosis, median four years, was the most commonly reported claim regarding doctors’ treatment. Use of CAM was reported in 27/70 (39%), and 14/70 (20%) reported experience with ≥ 2 CAM. Ten patients reported benefit from CAM (37% of “CAM users”). The average cluster period was longer in CAM-users than others (p = 0.02), but CAM use was not associated with age, education, use of medication, effect of conventional treatment, duration of cluster attacks, or time to diagnosis. Conclusion. About two-thirds of CH patients were satisfied with treatment from either GPs or neurologists, and about one-third had used CAM. Despite experiencing diagnostic delay and severe pain, cluster patients seem in general to be satisfied with doctors’ conventional treatment. PMID:25116790

  20. Urine mutagenicity as an indicator of exposure to dietary mutagens formed during cooking of foods.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, R S; Darnton-Hill, I; Bonin, A M; Arlauskas, A; Braithwaite, C; Wootton, M; Truswell, A S

    1986-01-01

    Studies were undertaken with individuals fed fried bacon meals to determine whether fruit or vegetables, ingested along with bacon, modified uptake and subsequent excretion of bacon mutagen(s). Urinary mutagenic activity was significant in those who had consumed bacon or mixed bacon/vegetable or bacon/fruit meals within the previous 2 to 3 hr period. Although urine activity varied by a factor of 4 among 15 subjects who consumed different meals, there was no evidence from this investigation that fruit or vegetables contributed to the inherent variability in total urinary mutagenic activity. However, some differences in excretion kinetics may be attributable to vegetable or fruit supplements in mixed meals. PMID:3757951

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among Persons living with HIV in the Era of Combined Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Sean N; Carruth, Edwin Clayton; Rai, Ramona P; Jennifer Edelman, E; Fiellin, David A; Gibert, Cynthia; Gordon, Kirsha S; Huang, Wei; Justice, Amy; Marconi, Vincent C; Rimland, David; Perkins, Molly M

    2017-07-21

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), often pursued independent of prescribing clinicians, may interact with traditional treatments, yet CAM use has not been well characterized among people living with HIV (PLWH) in the combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (October 2012-April 2015) to characterize CAM use in PLWH on ART. CAM users were more likely to have lived longer with HIV, report more bothersome symptoms, be prescribed more benzodiazepines and opioids, and consume less nicotine and alcohol. Given its high prevalence, clinicians should routinely assess for CAM use and its impact among PLWH.

  2. [The effect of mutagen-depressive substances in vegetables on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism].

    PubMed

    Michioka, O

    1986-05-01

    Dietary mutagenicity which was observed as the regional differences corresponded to those of the stomach cancer mortalities seemed to be epidemiologically determined by the food components of the diet, especially those of fresh vegetables. Experimental studies were made on the mutagen-depressive effects of vegetables based upon the preceding observation. The mutagen-depressive substance suggested to be a kind of unsaturated hydrocarbon by two successive treatments using column chromatographic methods. The metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene on rat liver microsome in vitro and stomach gavage in vivo were detected using high pressure liquid chromatography. Both of experiments showed that the active substance accelerated the formation of phenolic compounds and inhibited the formation of diols, thus decreasing the non-metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene.

  3. Organic emissions from coal pyrolysis: mutagenic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, A G; Wornat, M J; Mitra, A; Sarofim, A F

    1987-01-01

    Four different types of coal have been pyrolyzed in a laminar flow, drop tube furnace in order to establish a relationship between polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) evolution and mutagenicity. Temperatures of 900K to 1700K and particle residence times up to 0.3 sec were chosen to best simulate conditions of rapid rate pyrolysis in pulverized (44-53 microns) coal combustion. The specific mutagenic activity (i.e., the activity per unit sample weight) of extracts from particulates and volatiles captured on XAD-2 resin varied with coal type according to the order: subbituminous greater than high volatile bituminous greater than lignite greater than anthracite. Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous much greater than subbituminous = lignite much greater than anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis. Specific mutagenic activity peaked in a temperature range of 1300K to 1500K and generally appeared at higher temperatures and longer residence times than peak PAC production. PMID:3311724

  4. Eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.E. . Banbury Center); McDonald, J.F. ); Weinstein, I.B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents. Topics covered include: overview of prokaryotic transposable elements, mutational effects of transposable element insertions, inducers/regulators of transposable element expression and transposition, genomic stress and environmental effects, and inducers/regulators of retroviral element expression.

  5. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  6. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  7. OVERVIEW OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF URBAN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past 25 years, there has been great interest in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ambient air and in the sources of those genotoxicants. Prior to the 1980's, the evaluation of airborne toxicants was done on a pollutant-by-pollutant basis. However, the assessment of ...

  8. The mutagenic activity of sodium perborate.

    PubMed

    Seiler, J P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium perborate (CAS No. 1333-73-9, 10486-00-7, or 13517-20-9, depending on the structural formula given) is produced in huge amounts mainly for its use as a bleaching agent in laundry detergents. Its action involves the liberation of active oxygen species at elevated temperatures. In view of the widespread use of this compound it is surprising to note that no mutagenicity test data yet exist. The investigations reported in this paper have shown that sodium perborate is indeed capable of producing mutagenic changes in a number of in vitro test systems. Its potential for inflicting damage to DNA could be demonstrated in an assay which is tailored to probe for oxidative damage induced by a chemical agent. As expected, sodium perborate proved to be able to oxidize thymidine to an appreciable extent at an incubation temperature of 80 degrees C, but even at 40 degrees C thymidine oxidation was measurable. The compound induced point mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA102, while TA98 did not respond. Also, incubation in the presence of a mammalian auxiliary metabolic system (rat liver S9) abolished the mutagenic activity completely. Finally, Chinese hamster ovary cells (strain CHO-K1) were shown to undergo extensive chromosomal damage when treated with sodium perborate. The rather unusual prevalence of chromosome rearrangements was especially noted. Sodium perborate is thus to be regarded as a direct-acting in vitro mutagen.

  9. Fragment Prioritization on a Large Mutagenicity Dataset.

    PubMed

    Floris, Matteo; Raitano, Giuseppa; Medda, Ricardo; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-12-29

    The identification of structural alerts is one of the simplest tools used for the identification of potentially toxic chemical compounds. Structural alerts have served as an aid to quickly identify chemicals that should be either prioritized for testing or for elimination from further consideration and use. In the recent years, the availability of larger datasets, often growing in the context of collaborative efforts and competitions, created the raw material needed to identify new and more accurate structural alerts. This work applied a method to efficiently mine large toxicological dataset for structural alert showing a strong statistical association with mutagenicity. In details, we processed a large Ames mutagenicity dataset comprising 14,015 unique molecules obtained by joining different data sources. After correction for multiple testing, we were able to assign a probability value to each fragment. A total of 51 rules were identified, with p-value < 0.05. Using the same method, we also confirmed the statistical significance of several mutagenicity rules already present and largely recognized in the literature. In addition, we have extended the application of our method by predicting the mutagenicity of an external data set.

  10. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    SciTech Connect

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  11. Screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Ballou, S.W.; Besmer, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    As part of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to investigate potential remedial alternatives for the cleanup of agent-contaminated soils. The chemical agents of concern include levinstein mustard, lewisite, sarin, and VX. This investigation has been initially divided into three phases: (1) a literature search to determine what, if any, previous studies have been conducted; (2) a technologies-screening critique of remedial technologies as alternatives to incineration; and (3) an investigation of promising alternatives on RMA soil at the laboratory and bench-scale levels. This paper summarizes the document produced as a result of the technologies screening. The purpose of the document was to determine the applicability of 25 technologies to remediation of agent-contaminated soil for a general site. Technologies were critiqued on the basis of applicability to soil type, applicability to the agents of concern at RMA, applicability to other types of contaminants, cost of the treatment, current status of the technology, and residuals produced.

  12. Optimal Mutagen Doses for Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P.

    2016-02-01

    Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi) is one of the most prominent coccolithophores. Given favorable conditions, E. huxleyi blooms can reach sizes exceeding 100,000km2, with densities of 107 cells per L (Olson & Strom 2002). With increasing demand and limited supply of fossil fuels, it has become increasingly popular to look toward alternative renewable fuel sources. E. Huxleyi store energy predominately as uniquely structured polyunsaturated long chain (C37-39) alkenes, alkenones and alkenoates (abbreviated as PULCAs) (Eltgroth et al 2005). Unlike the stored energy of macroalgae and higher order plants, triacylglycerols (TAGs), PULCAs provide a similar composition to native petroleum crude oils (Yamane 2013), which offers a more cost effective and higher yielding extraction process (Wu et al 1999). A number of factors have been shown to influence the alkenone content of E. huxleyi, such as nitrogen deficiency, phosphate limitation (Li et al 2014), and temperature (Shiraiwa et al 2005). For these reasons E. huxleyi has the potential to be an attractive system for algal biofuel. The broad and long-term objective of our research is to elucidate the alkenone biosynthesis pathway in E. Huxleyi, using random mutagenesis techniques. We propose to use UV light and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) to create a mutant population, from which clones unable to synthesize alkenones will be selected. Identifying genes whose specific mutations underlie the loss-of-function phenotype will then reveal genes of interest. The aim of this research was to determine the UV and MMS dose response rates for E. huxleyi to ascertain optimal doses defined as a 50% survival rate for each of the two mutagens. Preliminary data indicate that E. huxleyi appear to be highly sensitive to UV mutagenesis, with an LD50 of 0.57mJ/cm2 for the calcifying strain M217 and 0.96mJ/cm2 for the non-calcifying strain CCMP1516. Both calcifying and non-calcifying strains exhibit similar LD50 values for MMS at 1-2% (v/v).

  13. [Mutagenicity, genotoxicity and gene expression of Rad51C, Xiap, P53 and Nrf2 induced by antimalarial extracts of plants collected from the middle Vaupés region, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Claudia Viviana; Muskus, Carlos Enrique; Orozco, Luz Yaneth; Pabón, Adriana

    2017-09-01

    Due to Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs, it is important to find new therapeutic alternatives for malaria treatment and control. Based on the knowledge of Colombian indigenous communities, we collected extracts of plants with potential antimalarial effects from the middle Vaupés region. To evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects, as well as the gene expression of Rad51C, Xiap, P53 and Nrf2 induced by four ethanolic extracts with antimalarial activity (R001, T002, T015 and T028). We evaluated four ethanolic extracts with antimalarial activity using the Ames test to assess mutagenicity, and the comet assay on HepG2 cells to determine the genotoxicicity. We also evaluated the expression of Rad51C, Xiap, P53 and Nrf2 from HepG2 cells stimulated with the four extracts. None of the four extracts was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activity. Extracts R001, T015 and T028 were weakly mutagenic on the TA100 strain in the presence of S9, with mutagenic indexes (MI) of 1.58, 1.53 and 1.61, respectively. The T015 strain showed the same behavior without S9 with an MI of 1.36. The results of the comet assay showed that the four extracts produced category 1 or 2 damage, with comets between 36.7 and 51.48 μm in length. However, the genetic damage index suggested that most of the cells were affected by the treatments. Regarding gene expression, extracts R001 and T028 induced an overexpression of genes Xiap and P53 with an 1.84 to 3.99 fold-change compared with untreated cells. These results revealed that the T002 extract was the safest as it had antimalarial activity and was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells. Moreover, it was not mutagenic and it only produced category 1 damage on the DNA. Also, the extract did not induce a change in the expression of the tested genes.

  14. Inhibitory effects of neem seed oil and its extract on various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens-induced bacterial mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vinod; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Meshram, Ghansham Pundilikji

    2013-12-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), commonly called neem is a plant native to the Indian sub-continent. Neem oil extracted from the seeds of neem tree has shown promising medicinal properties. To investigate the possible anti-mutagenic activity of neem seed oil (NO) and its dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extract (NDE) on the mutagenicity induced by various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens. The possible anti-mutagenic activity of NO (100-10,000 µg/plate) and NDE (0.1-1000 µg/plate) as well as the mechanism of anti-mutagenic activity was studied in an in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. NSO and NDE inhibited the mutagenic activity of methyl glyoxal (MG), in which case the extent of inhibition ranged from 65 to 77% and against 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (NQNO); it showed a 48-87% inhibition in the non-toxic doses. Similar response of NSO and NDE was seen against the activation-dependant mutagens aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 48-88%), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P, 31-85%), cyclophosphamide (CP, 66-71%), 20-methylcholanthrane (20-MC, 37-83%) and acridine orange (AO, 39-72%) in the non-toxic doses. Mechanism-based studies indicated that NDE exhibits better anti-mutagenic activity in the pre- and simultaneous-treatment protocol against MG, suggesting that one or several active phytochemicals present in the extract covalently bind with the mutagen and prevent its interaction with the genome. These findings demonstrate that neem oil is capable of attenuating the mutagenic activity of various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens.

  15. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of drinking water in Guelma region, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Abda, Ahlem; Benouareth, Djamel E; Tabet, Mouna; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Khallef, Messaouda; Taher, Ali

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a battery of genotoxicity assays for monitoring drinking water was performed to assess the quality of the water resulting from the treatment plants. Five different types of samples were collected: raw water (P1), treated after pre-chlorination (P2), treated after decantation (P3), treated post-chlorination (P4), and consumers' taps (P5-P12). This study aims to evaluate the formation/occurrence of mutagenic and/or genotoxic compounds in surface drinking waters treated with chlorine disinfectant, during four seasonal experiments: summer, autumn, winter, and spring between 2012 and 2013 by bacterial reverse mutation assay in both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9 mix) and Allium cepa root meristematic cells, respectively. All of water samples, except at P1, P2, and P5 in summer; P1 in autumn; and P1 and P3-P12 in spring without S9 mix, and at P1 and P2 in summer and P6 and P8-P12 in spring with S9 mix, were found to be mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA98. However, only P11 and P12 in winter were found to be mutagenic for TA100 without S9 mix. The tested preparations in Allium anaphase-telophase test revealed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and a simultaneous increase in chromosome aberrations (CAs) compared to the control. The bridge, stickiness, vagrant chromosomes, and disturbed chromosome aberrations were observed in anaphase-telophase cells. Physicochemical analysis, trihalomethanes (THMs), romoform (CHBr3), chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) levels in water samples were also determined. The results show also that this short-term battery tests are applicable in the routine monitoring of drinking water quality before and after distribution.

  16. Errors of Omission and Commission during Alternative Reinforcement of Compliance: The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Yanerys; Wilder, David A.; Majdalany, Lina; Myers, Kristin; Saini, Valdeep

    2014-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effects of errors of omission and commission during alternative reinforcement of compliance in young children. In Experiment 1, we evaluated errors of omission by examining two levels of integrity during alternative reinforcement (20 and 60%) for child compliance following no treatment (baseline) versus…

  17. Errors of Omission and Commission during Alternative Reinforcement of Compliance: The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Yanerys; Wilder, David A.; Majdalany, Lina; Myers, Kristin; Saini, Valdeep

    2014-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effects of errors of omission and commission during alternative reinforcement of compliance in young children. In Experiment 1, we evaluated errors of omission by examining two levels of integrity during alternative reinforcement (20 and 60%) for child compliance following no treatment (baseline) versus…

  18. Updated Review of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Claire; Manzi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that over 50 % of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have utilized complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to reduce symptoms and manage their health. However, there are relatively few randomized controlled trials of CAM for SLE. This review describes recent studies of vitamins and supplements, acupuncture, and mind-body interventions in SLE patients. The recent trials of CAM treatments for SLE indicate that supplements such as vitamin D, omega 3 fatty acids, N-acetyl cysteine and turmeric show some promise for reducing SLE disease activity. In addition, mind-body methods such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and other counseling interventions may improve mood and quality of life in SLE. PMID:24078104

  19. Updated review of complementary and alternative medicine treatments for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Greco, Carol M; Nakajima, Claire; Manzi, Susan

    2013-11-01

    It is estimated that over 50 % of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have utilized complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to reduce symptoms and manage their health. However, there are relatively few randomized controlled trials of CAM for SLE. This review describes recent studies of vitamins and supplements, acupuncture, and mind-body interventions in SLE patients. The recent trials of CAM treatments for SLE indicate that supplements such as vitamin D, omega 3 fatty acids, N-acetyl cysteine and turmeric show some promise for reducing SLE disease activity. In addition, mind-body methods such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and other counseling interventions may improve mood and quality of life in SLE.

  20. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  1. Evaluation of in vivo mutagenicity of hydroquinone in Muta™ mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Masumori, Shoji; Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Ono, Atsushi; Honma, Masamitsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Hirose, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is used in skin bleaching agents, hair dyes, and finger nail treatments. Many skin-lightening cosmetics that contain HQ are currently marketed in Japan. Concerns have been expressed regarding health risks to the general population because the carcinogenicity of HQ was previously suggested in animal studies. HQ induced hepatocellular adenomas and forestomach hyperplasias in mice and renal tubular cell adenomas in male rats. In the present study, the lacZ transgenic mutation assay was conducted according to OECD test guideline 488 to determine whether mutagenic mechanisms were involved in HQ-induced carcinogenesis. Male Muta™ mice were repeatedly administered HQ orally at dosages of 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200mg/kg bw/day for 28 days. Body weight gain was decreased in all treatment groups. No significant differences were observed in mutant frequencies in the liver, stomach, lung, or kidney between HQ-treated mice and the concurrent negative controls, whereas the significant induction of mutations was noted in the positive control, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. These results suggest that a mutagenic mechanism is not responsible for HQ-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals",…

  3. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals",…

  4. Contribution of chlorination to the mutagenic activity of drinking water extracts in Salmonella and Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Lebel, G.

    1986-11-01

    The production of chlorinated by-products through chlorine disinfection of drinking water has been well documented. Natural organic precursors for these chemicals include fulvic and humic acids, the chlorination of which leads to the production of mutagenic compounds. Comparisons of extracts of raw versus treated waters have confirmed that clorination during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the Salmonella (Ames) test. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw and chlorinated water from six municipalities in the Great Lakes region of Canada has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and the micronucleus (MN) induction in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. All extracts of treated (chlorinated), but none of untreated, water were mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of both treated and untreated water samples showed activity in the SCE and MN assays, but no consistent pattern of response with regard to treatment (chlorination) was evident. These data show that chlorination contributes mutagens to drinking water and suggest that mammalian in vitro assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in water samples than the Salmonella test.

  5. Delamanid is not metabolized by Salmonella or human nitroreductases: A possible mechanism for the lack of mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Erina; Hayashi, Mikayo; Matsumoto, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    Nitro-containing compounds such as nitrofuran and nitroimidazole are drugs used for the treatment of infectious diseases. However, many of these nitro-containing drugs are positive in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). The recently approved anti-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) drug, delamanid (Deltyba™; OPC-67683), a derivative of 4-nitroimidazole, was negative for mutagenicity in the Ames assay. In Salmonella typhimurium, mutagenicity of nitro compounds has been closely associated with the ability of nitroreductase to metabolize (degradation)these compounds. To explore the lack of mutagenicity for delamanid, we examined the initial metabolic rate and mutagenic-specific activity of a series of nitro compounds in S. typhimurium TA100. The order of maximum mutagenic-activity was nitrofuran > 2-nitroimidazole > 5-nitroimidazole ≥ 4-nitroimidazole, which is very similar to the order of initial metabolic rate, i.e., the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.85) showed a correlation between metabolic rate and mutagenic-activity. No metabolism of delamanid was detected even after 60 h of treatment. In addition, delamanid was not reduced by two human nitroreductases. These facts may explain the absence of genotoxicity of delamanid in both in vitro and in vivo tests.

  6. New horizon in the treatment of sepsis: a systematic review of alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Sarah; Ghannadi, Alireza; Meidani, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundDespite great advancement in treatment of sepsis, mortality of sepsis remains unacceptably high, even with the modern antibiotic and intensive care technologies. Considering the key role of immune dysfunction in sepsis pathophysiology, different treatments were evaluated, but failed to improve survival of patients. Natural remedies have been tested in various studies to overcome sepsis. In this study, we aim to review some of the evidence from clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies about the effect of alternative medicine on sepsis management. MethodsThe following databases were searched up to March 2014: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Ovid and Google Scholar using combination of Mesh term. All in vitro and in vivo studies, also clinical trials, published in English, which evaluated alternative medicine in management of sepsis were included. Results Out of 95 relevant studies, the inclusion criteria were met for 79 cases. Among them, 18 studies were performed on humans. The most herbal medicine, including Xubijing (n=10) and then Rhubarb (n=3). Most of the reviewed botanical medicines modulate the immune system. Reduction of mortality was also reported in studies. ConclusionsModulation of immune system, anti-inflammatory activities and improvement of survival were the action of herbal medicine. A monovalent approach is not enough for treatment of sepsis, we recommend further studies to identify active component of herbal and use them in combination. Also an animal model of sepsis does not exactly mimic human sepsis, so more clinical studies should be performed. With no new drug on the horizon, herbal medicine will be promising for treatment of sepsis.

  7. Therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: A Delphi technique-based consensus

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Juan P; Claro, Juan C; Arancibia, Juan P; Contreras, Jorge; Gómez, Fernando; Muñoz, Cristian; Nazal, Leyla; Roessler, Eric; Wolff, Rodrigo; Arrese, Marco; Benítez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    AIM To propose several alternatives treatment of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1) what is the most severe expression of circulatory dysfunction on patients with portal hypertension. METHODS A group of eleven gastroenterologists and nephrologists performed a structured analysis of available literature. Each expert was designated to review and answer a question. They generated draft statements for evaluation by all the experts. Additional input was obtained from medical community. In order to reach consensus, a modified three-round Delphi technique method was used. According to United States Preventive Services Task Force criteria, the quality of the evidence and level of recommendation supporting each statement was graded. RESULTS Nine questions were formulated. The available evidence was evaluated considering its quality, number of patients included in the studies and the consistency of its results. The generated questions were answered by the expert panel with a high level of agreement. Thus, a therapeutic algorithm was generated. The role of terlipressin and norepinephrine was confirmed as the pharmacologic treatment of choice. On the other hand the use of the combination of octreotide, midodrine and albumin without vasoconstrictors was discouraged. The role of several other options was also evaluated and the available evidence was explored and discussed. Liver transplantation is considered the definitive treatment for HRS-1. The present consensus is an important effort that intends to organize the available strategies based on the available evidence in the literature, the quality of the evidence and the benefits, adverse effects and availability of the therapeutic tools described. CONCLUSION Based on the available evidence the expert panel was able to discriminate the most appropriate therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of HRS-1. PMID:27660674

  8. Modulation of alternative oxidase to enhance tolerance against cold stress of chickpea by chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Serkan; Genisel, Mucip; Turk, Hulya; Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Demir, Yavuz

    2015-03-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) is the enzyme responsible for the alternative respiratory pathway. This experiment was conducted to examine the influence on cold tolerance ability of chickpea (Cicer aurentium cv. Müfitbey) seedlings of AOX activator (pyruvate), AOX inhibitor (salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)) and an inhibitor of the cytochrome pathway of respiration (antimycin A) treatments. 5mM pyruvate, 2μM antimycin A and 4mM SHAM solutions were exogenously applied to thirteen-day-old chickpea leaves and then the seedlings were transferred to a different plant growth chamber arranged to 10/5°C (day/night) for 48h. Cold stress markedly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to controls. Pyruvate and antimycin A significantly increased the cold-induced increase in antioxidant activity but SHAM decreased it. Cold-induced increases in superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly reduced by pyruvate and antimycin A, but increased by SHAM treatment. Pyruvate and antimycin A application increased both the activity and protein expression of AOX in comparison to cold stress alone. However, SHAM significantly decreased activity of AOX but did not affect its expression. Total cellular respiration values (TCRV) supported the changes in activity and expression of AOX. While TCRV were increased by cold and pyruvate, they were significantly reduced by SHAM and especially antimycin A. These results indicate that pyruvate and antimycin A applications were effective in reducing oxidative stress by activating the alternative respiratory pathway as well as antioxidant activity. Furthermore, direct activation of AOX, rather than inhibition of the cytochrome pathway, was the most effective way to mitigate cold stress.

  9. Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention-maintained destructive behavior.

    PubMed

    Hanley, G P; Piazza, C C; Fisher, W W

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that destructive behavior may be reduced through noncontingent presentation of attention when attention is identified as the stimulus responsible for behavioral maintenance. Because it may not always be possible to deliver attention in all situations, we examined the extent to which alternative stimuli that have been identified through a choice assessment would substitute for attention (the functional analysis-based reinforcer) in a noncontingent reinforcement procedure. Prior to treatment, functional analyses demonstrated that the destructive behavior of 2 clients with mental retardation was maintained by adult attention. Next, a stimulus choice assessment identified highly preferred tangible items for the 2 clients. Finally, we compared the effectiveness of two noncontingent reinforcement procedures: continuous noncontingent access to attention and continuous noncontingent access to the tangible item identified in the choice assessment. For both clients, these noncontingent reinforcement procedures reduced destructive behavior. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical implications for the treatment of destructive behavior using functional and alternative stimuli.

  10. Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention-maintained destructive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, G P; Piazza, C C; Fisher, W W

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that destructive behavior may be reduced through noncontingent presentation of attention when attention is identified as the stimulus responsible for behavioral maintenance. Because it may not always be possible to deliver attention in all situations, we examined the extent to which alternative stimuli that have been identified through a choice assessment would substitute for attention (the functional analysis-based reinforcer) in a noncontingent reinforcement procedure. Prior to treatment, functional analyses demonstrated that the destructive behavior of 2 clients with mental retardation was maintained by adult attention. Next, a stimulus choice assessment identified highly preferred tangible items for the 2 clients. Finally, we compared the effectiveness of two noncontingent reinforcement procedures: continuous noncontingent access to attention and continuous noncontingent access to the tangible item identified in the choice assessment. For both clients, these noncontingent reinforcement procedures reduced destructive behavior. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical implications for the treatment of destructive behavior using functional and alternative stimuli. PMID:9210303

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment and diagnosis of asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, G; Compalati, E; Schiappoli, M; Senna, G

    2005-03-01

    The use of Complementary/Alternative Medicines (CAM) is largely diffused and constantly increasing, especially in the field of allergic diseases and asthma. Homeopathy, acupuncture and phytotherapy are the most frequently utilised treatments, whereas complementary diagnostic techniques are mainly used in the field of food allergy-intolerance. Looking at the literature, the majority of clinical trials with CAMS are of low methodological quality, thus difficult to interpret. There are very few studies performed in a rigorously controlled fashion, and those studies provided inconclusive results. In asthma, none of the CAM have thus far been proved more effective than placebo or equally effective as standard treatments. Some herbal products, containing active principles, have displayed some clinical effect, but the herbal remedies are usually not standardised and not quantified, thus carry the risk of toxic effects or interactions. None of the alternative diagnostic techniques (electrodermal testing, kinesiology, leukocytotoxic test, iridology, hair analysis) have been proved able to distinguish between healthy and allergic subjects or to diagnose sensitizations. Therefore these tests must not be used, since they can lead to delayed or incorrect diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold.

    PubMed

    Nahas, Richard; Balla, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    To review the evidence supporting complementary and alternative medicine approaches to treatment and prevention of the common cold in adults. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 1966 to September 2009 combining the key words common cold or influenza with echinacea, garlic, ginseng, probiotics, vitamin C, and zinc. Clinical trials and prospective studies were included. For prevention, vitamin C demonstrated benefit in a large meta-analysis, with possibly increased benefit in patients subjected to cold stress. There is inconsistent evidence for Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Allicin was highly effective in 1 small trial. For treatment, Echinacea purpurea is the most consistently useful variety; it was effective in 5 of 6 trials. Zinc lozenges were effective in 5 of 9 trials, likely owing to dose and formulation issues. Overall, the evidence suggests no benefit from probiotics for prevention or treatment of the common cold. Vitamin C can be recommended to Canadian patients for prevention of the common cold. There is moderate evidence supporting the use of Echinacea purpurea and zinc lozenges for treatment. Ginseng and allicin warrant further research.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, Richard; Balla, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the evidence supporting complementary and alternative medicine approaches to treatment and prevention of the common cold in adults. Quality of Evidence MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 1966 to September 2009 combining the key words common cold or influenza with echinacea, garlic, ginseng, probiotics, vitamin C, and zinc. Clinical trials and prospective studies were included. Main Message For prevention, vitamin C demonstrated benefit in a large meta-analysis, with possibly increased benefit in patients subjected to cold stress. There is inconsistent evidence for Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Allicin was highly effective in 1 small trial. For treatment, Echinacea purpurea is the most consistently useful variety; it was effective in 5 of 6 trials. Zinc lozenges were effective in 5 of 9 trials, likely owing to dose and formulation issues. Overall, the evidence suggests no benefit from probiotics for prevention or treatment of the common cold. Conclusion Vitamin C can be recommended to Canadian patients for prevention of the common cold. There is moderate evidence supporting the use of Echinacea purpurea and zinc lozenges for treatment. Ginseng and allicin warrant further research. PMID:21322286

  15. Oxycodone/acetaminophen at low dosage: an alternative pain treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Raffaeli, William; Pari, Claudia; Corvetta, Angelo; Sarti, Donatella; Di Sabatino, Valentina; Biasi, Giovanni; Galeazzi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    To assess efficacy and safety of the association oxycodone/acetaminophen (oxycodone/acetaminophen) for pain treatment and disability improvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with RA (n = 29), suffering from moderate to severe pain for more than 3 months, were included in the study, except those under RA therapy with biological drugs. The treatment started with oxycodone/acetaminophen at the dosage of 5 mg/325 mg, and then the dosage was titrated until the attainment of good pain relief. Antiemetic and laxative therapy was used for the prophylaxis of known opioid-related adverse events. Patients continued their RA therapy without changing the dosages, reported reduced pain intensity and disease activity, and improvement of disability. Forty-two percent of patients had a good clinical response to oxycodone/acetaminophen treatment, according to European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) assessment criteria, and 50 percent of patients reached the American College of Rheumatology 20 percent improvement criteria (ACR20). At the end of the study, the mean (+/- SD) daily effective oxycodone/acetaminophen dose was 13.8 (+/- 6.8) mg/720.4 (+/- 291.0) mg. No serious adverse event was observed. Nausea, vomiting, and stipsis of mild-moderate intensity were the most common adverse events. Oxycodone/acetaminophen at low dosages for the treatment of chronic pain in RA patients can be a good alternative to non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), allowing the reduction of their consumption, while keeping RA therapy stable.

  16. Beliefs and perceptions of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer who refused conventional treatment in favor of alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Citrin, Dennis L; Bloom, Diane L; Grutsch, James F; Mortensen, Sara J; Lis, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    Although breast cancer is a highly treatable disease, some women reject conventional treatment opting for unproven "alternative therapy" that may contribute to poor health outcomes. This study sought to understand why some women make this decision and to identify messages that might lead to greater acceptance of evidence-based treatment. This study explored treatment decision making through in-depth interviews with 60 breast cancer patients identified by their treating oncologists. Thirty refused some or all conventional treatment, opting for alternative therapies, whereas 30 accepted both conventional and alternative treatments. All completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Rotter Locus of Control scale. Negative first experiences with "uncaring, insensitive, and unnecessarily harsh" oncologists, fear of side effects, and belief in the efficacy of alternative therapies were key factors in the decision to reject potentially life-prolonging conventional therapy. Refusers differed from controls in their perceptions of the value of conventional treatment, believing that chemotherapy and radiotherapy were riskier (p < .0073) and less beneficial (p < .0001) than did controls. Controls perceived alternative medicine alone as riskier than did refusers because its value for treating cancer is unproven (p < .0001). Refusers believed they could heal themselves naturally from cancer with simple holistic methods like raw fruits, vegetables, and supplements. According to interviewees, a compassionate approach to cancer care plus physicians who acknowledge their fears, communicate hope, educate them about their options, and allow them time to come to terms with their diagnosis before starting treatment might have led them to better treatment choices.

  17. Environmental comparison of alternative treatments for sewage sludge: An Italian case study.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lidia; Nocita, Cristina; Bettazzi, Elena; Fibbi, Donatella; Carnevale, Ennio

    2017-08-30

    A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to compare different alternatives for sewage sludge treatment: such as land spreading, composting, incineration, landfill and wet oxidation. The LCA system boundaries include mechanical dewatering, the alternative treatment, transport, and final disposal/recovery of residues. Cases of recovered materials produced as outputs from the systems, were resolved by expanding the system boundaries to include avoided primary productions. The impact assessment was calculated using the CML-IA baseline method. Results showed that the incineration of sewage sludge with electricity production and solid residues recovery collects the lowest impact indicator values in the categories human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication, while it has the highest values for the categories global warming and ozone layer depletion. Land spreading has the lowest values for the categories abiotic depletion, fossil fuel depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion and photochemical oxidation, while it collects the highest values for terrestrial ecotoxicity and eutrophication. Wet oxidation has just one of the best indicators (terrestrial ecotoxicity) and three of the worst ones (abiotic depletion, human toxicity and fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity). Composting process shows intermediate results. Landfill has the worst performances in global warming, photochemical oxidation and acidification. Results indicate that if the aim is to reduce the effect of the common practice of sludge land spreading on human and ecosystem toxicity, on acidification and on eutrophication, incineration with energy recovery would clearly improve the environmental performance of those indicators, but an increase in resource depletion and global warming is unavoidable. However, these conclusions are strictly linked to the effective recovery of solid residues from incineration, as the results are shown to be very sensitive with respect to

  18. Medicinal plants as alternative treatments for female sexual dysfunction: utopian vision or possible treatment in climacteric women?

    PubMed

    Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Andersen, Monica L; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a complex and multifactorial condition. An increased incidence of FSD is especially associated with the decline of estrogen. Thus, menopause is a critical phase for FSD complaints. In this context, medicinal plants may be a therapeutic option. To identify and describe the popular and clinical uses of medicinal plants for FSD treatment in climacteric women. We highlighted the majority of the plants commonly involved with the female reproductive system including: Angelica sinensis, Cimicifuga racemosa, Ferula hermonis, Ginkgo biloba, Humulus lupulus, Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus. This study is a narrative review of studies of plants that are possible alternative treatments for FSD. The species described have clinical and popular uses in different cultures as well as medical indications for female reproductive disturbances, mainly in climacteric women. We have also analyzed the evidence level of clinical studies. The main outcome assessed is the efficacy of plants in improving the symptoms of FSD. There is little evidence from the literature to recommend the use of medicinal plants when treating FSD. The majority of studies with a strong level of evidence are associated with the treatment of the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Ferula hermonis, Angelica sinensis, and Gingko biloba may be suggested for arousal disorder studies. Cimicifuga racemosa, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus may be recommended for several FSD. Humulus lupulus and Tribulus terrestris may help with desire disorder studies. Lepidium meyenii should be studied further. Studies of these plants indicate that they may be useful as a possible alternative and/or complementary approach for studies aimed at the treatment of FSD. At this time, however, this review cannot recommend a plant that has a strong enough level of evidence for treatment of FSD. Thus, there is a need for clinical (double-blinded and

  19. Mutagenicity of blue rayon extracts of fish bile as a biomarker in a field study.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Patrícia Estevam; Kummrow, Fábio; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Ana Cecília Rizzatti; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão

    2010-03-01

    Blue rayon (BR) in combination with the Salmonella/microsome assay was used to evaluate the mutagenicity of fish bile samples. Specimens of Mugil curema from two sites were collected over a 1-year period. Piaçaguera channel contains high concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other contaminants, while Bertioga channel was considered the reference sites in this study. Bile was extracted with BR and tested with TA98, TA100, and YG1041 strains with and without S9 in dose response experiments. PAH metabolite equivalents were analyzed using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography /fluorescence. Higher mutagenic responses were observed for the contaminated site; YG1041 with S9 was the most sensitive strain/condition. Mutagenicity ranged from 3,900 to 14,000 rev./mg at the contaminated site and from 1,200 to 2,500 rev./mg of BR at the reference site. The responses of YG1041 were much higher in comparison with the TA98 indicating the presence of polycyclic compounds from the aromatic amine class that cause frameshift mutation. TA100 showed a positive mutagenic response that was enhanced following S9 treatment at both sites suggesting the presence of polycyclic compounds that require metabolic activation. benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene metabolite equivalents were also higher in the bile of fish collected at the contaminated site. It was not possible to correlate the PAH metabolite quantities with the mutagenic potency. Thus, a combination of the Salmonella/microsome assay with YG1041 with S9 from BR bile extract seems to be an acceptable biomarker for monitoring the exposure of fish to mutagenic polycyclic compounds.

  20. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Guelma's urban wastewater, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tabet, Mouna; Abda, Ahlem; Benouareth, Djamel E; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Khallef, Messaouda; Taher, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Assessment of water pollution and its effect upon river biotic communities and human health is indispensable to develop control and management strategies. In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of urban wastewater of the city of Guelma in Algeria were examined between April 2012 and April 2013. For this, two biological tests, namely Amesand chromosomal aberrations (CA) test in Allium cepa root tips were employed on the samples collected from five different sampling stages (S1-S5). In Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation (S9-mix) were used. All water samples were found to be mutagenic to S. typhimurium TA98 with or without S9-mix. A significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) was observed with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the prophase and an increase in the telophase. Main aberrations observed were anaphase bridges, disturbed anaphase-telophase cells, vagrants and stickiness in anaphase-telophase cells. All treatments of wastewater in April 2012, at S5 in July 2012, at S1 and S5 in November 2012, at S5 in February 2013, and at S1 in April 2013 induced CA when compared to the negative control. Some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Cu) were also recorded in the samples examined.

  1. Mutagenic compounds generated from the chlorination of disperse azo-dyes and their presence in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Danielle P; Carneiro, Patrícia A; Rech, Célia M; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; Claxton, Larry D; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2006-11-01

    The water produced by the Cristais River Drinking Water Treatment Plant (CR-DWTP) repeatedly produced mutagenic responses that could not be explained by the presence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) generated by the reaction of humic acids and chlorine. In order to determine the possible role of chlorinated dye products in this mutagenic activity, solutions of a black dye commercial product (BDCP) composed of C.I. Disperse Blue 373, C.I. Disperse Orange 37, C.I. Disperse Violet 93, and chemically reduced BDCP (R-BDCP) were chlorinated in a manner similar to that used by the CR-DWTP. The resulting solutions were extracted with XAD-4 along with one drinking water sample collected from the CR-DWTP. All extracts showed mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Dye components of the BDCP as well as its reduced chlorinated (CI-R-BDCP) derivative were detected in the drinking water sample by analysis with a high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD). The mutagenicity results of these products suggest that they are, at least in part, accounting for the mutagenic activity detected in the drinking water samples from the Cristais River. The data obtained in this study have environmental and health implications because the chlorination of the BDCP and the R-BDCP leads to the formation of mutagenic compounds (CI-BDCP and CI-R-BDCP), which are potentially important disinfection byproducts that can contaminate the drinking water as well as the environment.

  2. Treatment of sewage sludge in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR) with alternate aeration cycles.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Sordi, Marco; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    The management of sewage sludge is becoming a more and more important issue, both at national and international level, in particular due to the uncertain recovery/disposal future options. Therefore, it is clear that the development of new technologies that can mitigate the problem at the source by reducing sludge production is necessary, such as the European Directive 2008/98/EC prescribes. This work shows the results obtained with a thermophilic membrane reactor, for processing a biological sludge derived from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that treats urban and industrial wastewater. Sewage sludge was treated in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR), at pilot-scale (1 m(3) volume), with alternate aeration cycles. The experimentation was divided into two phases: a "startup phase" during which, starting with a psychrophilic/mesophilic biomass, thermophilic conditions were progressively reached, while feeding a highly biodegradable substrate; the obtained thermophilic biomass was then used, in the "regime phase", to digest biological sludge which was fed to the plant. Good removal yields were observed: 64% and 57% for volatile solids (VS) and total COD (CODtot), respectively, with an average hydraulic retention time (HRT) equal to 20 d, an organic loading rate (OLR) of about 1.4-1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and aeration/non aeration cycles alternated every 4 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gallium maltolate as an alternative to macrolides for treatment of presumed Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noah D; Slovis, Nathan M; Giguère, Steeve; Baker, Samantha; Chaffin, M Keith; Bernstein, Lawrence R

    2015-01-01

    Macrolide-resistant isolates of Rhodococcus equi are emerging, prompting the search for clinically effective alternative antimicrobials. The proportion of foals with ultrasonographic evidence of pneumonia presumed to be caused by R. equi that had a successful outcome when administered gallium maltolate (GaM) PO would not be more than 10% inferior (ie, lower) than that of foals receiving standard treatment. Fifty-four foals with subclinical pulmonary abscesses among 509 foals at 6 breeding farms in Kentucky. Controlled, randomized, prospective noninferiority study. Foals with ultrasonographic lesions >1 cm in diameter (n = 54) were randomly allocated to receive per os either clarithromycin combined with rifampin (CLR+R) or GaM, and followed up for 28 days by daily physical inspections and weekly (n = 1 farm) or biweekly (n = 4 farms) thoracic ultrasound examinations by individuals unaware of treatment-group assignments. Treatment success was defined as resolution of ultrasonographically identified pulmonary abscesses within 28 days of initiating treatment. Noninferiority was defined as a 90% confidence interval for the observed difference in CLR+R minus GaM that was ≤10%. The proportion of GaM-treated foals that resolved (70%; 14/20) was similar to that of foals treated with CLR+R (74%; 25/34), but we failed to demonstrate noninferiority for GaM relative to CLR+R; however, GaM was noninferior to CLR+R treatment when results from a noncompliant farm were excluded. Gallium maltolate is not inferior to macrolides for treating foals with subclinical pneumonia. Use of GaM might reduce pressure for macrolide-resistance in R. equi. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the Treatment of Obesity: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Mazaheri, Tina; Vahidi Rad, Mona; Noshad, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Context: Obesity and its associated morbidities pose a major health hazard to the public. Despite a multiplex of available diet and exercise programs for losing and maintaining weight, over the past years, interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for obesity treatment has greatly increased. Evidence Acquisition: We searched PubMed, Google scholar and the Cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to December 2013. Results: In this review, the efficacy and safety of the more commonly used CAM methods for the treatment of obesity, namely herbal supplements, acupuncture, and non-invasive body-contouring, are briefly discussed. The evidence supporting the effectiveness and safety of these methods is either lacking or point to a negligible clinical benefit, barely surpassing that of the placebo. Furthermore, several limitations are observed in the available scientific literature. These shortcomings include, without being limited to, uncontrolled trial designs, non-random allocation of subjects to treatment arms, small number of patients enrolled, short durations of follow-up, and ambiguous clinical and laboratory endpoints. Conclusions: Further investigations are necessary to accurately determine the efficacy, safety, standard dosage/procedure, and potential side effects of the various CAM methods currently in use. PMID:25892995

  5. Novel Virtual Environment for Alternative Treatment of Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Juliana M; Fernandes, Rafael Carneiro G; Pinto, Cristtiano S; Pinheiro, Plácido R; Ribeiro, Sidarta; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a severe condition usually caused by decreased brain oxygenation during pregnancy, at birth or soon after birth. Conventional treatments for cerebral palsy are often tiresome and expensive, leading patients to quit treatment. In this paper, we describe a virtual environment for patients to engage in a playful therapeutic game for neuropsychomotor rehabilitation, based on the experience of the occupational therapy program of the Nucleus for Integrated Medical Assistance (NAMI) at the University of Fortaleza, Brazil. Integration between patient and virtual environment occurs through the hand motion sensor "Leap Motion," plus the electroencephalographic sensor "MindWave," responsible for measuring attention levels during task execution. To evaluate the virtual environment, eight clinical experts on cerebral palsy were subjected to a questionnaire regarding the potential of the experimental virtual environment to promote cognitive and motor rehabilitation, as well as the potential of the treatment to enhance risks and/or negatively influence the patient's development. Based on the very positive appraisal of the experts, we propose that the experimental virtual environment is a promising alternative tool for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy.

  6. Supplements, nutrition, and alternative therapies for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Logsdon, Aric F; Nguyen, Linda; Eltanahay, Ahmed; Turner, Ryan C; Bonasso, Patrick; Knotts, Chelsea; Moeck, Adam; Maroon, Joseph C; Bailes, Julian E; Rosen, Charles L

    2016-10-05

    Studies using traditional treatment strategies for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have produced limited clinical success. Interest in treatment for mild TBI is at an all time high due to its association with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases, yet therapeutic options remain limited. Traditional pharmaceutical interventions have failed to transition to the clinic for the treatment of mild TBI. As such, many pre-clinical studies are now implementing non-pharmaceutical therapies for TBI. These studies have demonstrated promise, particularly those that modulate secondary injury cascades activated after injury. Because no TBI therapy has been discovered for mild injury, researchers now look to pharmaceutical supplementation in an attempt to foster success in human clinical trials. Non-traditional therapies, such as acupuncture and even music therapy are being considered to combat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of TBI. In this review, we highlight alternative approaches that have been studied in clinical and pre-clinical studies of TBI, and other related forms of neural injury. The purpose of this review is to stimulate further investigation into novel and innovative approaches that can be used to treat the mechanisms and symptoms of mild TBI.

  7. Australian adults use complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of chronic illness: a national study.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Andrew R; Thiébaut, Sophie P; Brown, Laurie J; Nepal, Binod

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of the use of vitamin/mineral supplements or natural/herbal remedies, concurrent use of pharmaceutical medication, and to profile those most likely to use these complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) in the treatment of five chronic conditions identified as national health priorities (asthma, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, heart or circulatory condition) within the Australian adult population. Analysis of the Australian National Health Survey database, 2004-05. Approximately 24% (1.3 million) of Australian adults with a chronic condition regularly applied CAM to treatment. CAM was most often used exclusively or in combination with pharmaceutical medicine in the treatment of arthritis and osteoporosis. Fewer than 10% of adults with asthma, diabetes or a heart or circulatory condition used CAM, most preferring pharmaceutical medicine. Regular CAM users were more likely to be aged ≥60, female, have a secondary school education and live in households with lower incomes than non-users. Non-users were more likely to be 30-59 years old and tertiary educated. Arthritis, osteoporosis and, to a lesser extent, heart or circulatory conditions are illnesses for which doctors should advise, and patients need to be most aware about the full effects of CAM and possible interactive effects with prescribed medicine. They are also conditions for which research into the interactive effects of CAM and pharmaceutical medication would seem of most immediate benefit. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Demagnetization treatment of remanent composite microspheres studied by alternating current susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    van Berkum, Susanne; Erné, Ben H

    2013-09-04

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample.

  9. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATE STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE TREATMENTS FOR MASS SPECTROSCOPY AND OTHER TRITIUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Mauldin, C.; Neikirk, K.

    2012-02-29

    There are specific components in the SRS Tritium Facilities that are required to introduce as few chemical impurities (such as protium and methane) as possible into the process gas. Two such components are the inlet systems for the mass spectroscopy facilities and hydrogen isotope mix standard containers. Two vendors now passivate stainless steel components for these systems, and both are relatively small businesses whose future viability can be questioned, which creates the need for new sources. Stainless steel containers were designed to evaluate alternate surface treatment vendors for tritium storage and handling for these high purity tritium systems. Five vendors applied their own 'best' surface treatments to two containers each - one was a current vendor, another was a chemical vapor deposited silicon coating, and the other three were electropolishing and chemical cleaning vendors. Pure tritium gas was introduced into all ten containers and the composition was monitored over time. The only observed impurities in the gas were some HT, less CT{sub 4}, and very small amounts of T{sub 2}O in all cases. The currently used vendor treated containers contained the least impurities. The chemical vapor deposited silicon treatment resulted in the highest impurity levels. Sampling one set of containers after about one month of tritium exposure revealed the impurity level to be nearly the same as that after more than a year of exposure - this result suggests that cleaning new stainless steel components by tritium gas contact for about a month may be a worthy operation.

  10. Patients' preferences towards minimally invasive treatment alternatives for implant rehabilitation of edentulous jaws.

    PubMed

    Pommer, Bernhard; Mailath-Pokorny, Georg; Haas, Robert; Busenlechner, Dieter; Fürhauser, Rudolf; Watzek, Georg

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate patient satisfaction, oral health-related quality of life, and patients' preferences towards minimally invasive treatment options for graftless rehabilitation of complete edentulism by means of dental implants. A MEDLINE search of literature in the English language up to the year 2013 was performed to summarise current evidence from the patient's perspective. The final selection included 37 studies reporting on minimally invasive implant treatment of 648 edentulous maxillae and 791 edentulous mandibles in 1328 patients, via a total of 5766 implants. Patient satisfaction averaged 91% with flapless implant placement (range: 77 to 100%), 89% with short implants, 87% with narrow-diameter implants (range: 80 to 93%), 90% with a reduced number of implants (range: 77 to 100%), 94% with tilted implant placement (range: 58 to 100%), and 83% with zygomatic fixtures (range: 50 to 97%). Indirect comparison yielded patient preference towards tilted implant placement compared to a reduced number of implants (P = 0.036), as well as to zygomatic implants (P = 0.001). While little evidence on patients' preferences towards minimally invasive treatment alternatives vs. bone augmentation surgery could be identified from within-study comparison, it may be concluded that patient satisfaction with graftless solutions for implant rehabilitation of completely edentulous jaws is generally high. Comparative effectiveness research is needed to substantiate their positive appeal to potential implant patients and possible reduction of the indication span for invasive bone graft surgery.

  11. Clinical Impact of Discordant Prescribing of Fluoroquinolones and Alternative Treatments in Escherichia coli Pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Minh T; Seifert, Charles F

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of resistant Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones (FQs) is of growing concern, yet the latest guidelines for the treatment of pyelonephritis still recommend FQs as first-line treatment. Our primary objective was to determine the impact of discordant prescribing of FQs in E coli pyelonephritis on hospital length of stay (LOS) and early clinical response (ECR). We retrospectively compared discordant and concordant prescribing of FQs for LOS and ECR. We also compared FQs, ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, and carbapenems for these clinical outcomes. Forty-nine patients included in the comparison between discordant (n = 9) and concordant (n = 40) prescribing of FQs. There was significantly lower ECR in patients with discordant prescribing of FQs (38 of 40, 95% vs 5 of 9, 55.6%, P = .0074) and a trend toward longer LOS (4 [2.3] days vs 3 [2.0] days, P = .0571). Illness severity, estimated using Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) score, was similar between groups (P = .717). There was a significantly decreased ECR and a trend toward increased LOS when FQs were used in FQ-resistant E coli. Regarding alternative treatment for E coli pyelonephritis, ceftriaxone was as effective as concordant FQs and significantly better than discordant FQs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Novel Virtual Environment for Alternative Treatment of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Juliana M.; Fernandes, Rafael Carneiro G.; Pinto, Cristtiano S.; Pinheiro, Plácido R.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a severe condition usually caused by decreased brain oxygenation during pregnancy, at birth or soon after birth. Conventional treatments for cerebral palsy are often tiresome and expensive, leading patients to quit treatment. In this paper, we describe a virtual environment for patients to engage in a playful therapeutic game for neuropsychomotor rehabilitation, based on the experience of the occupational therapy program of the Nucleus for Integrated Medical Assistance (NAMI) at the University of Fortaleza, Brazil. Integration between patient and virtual environment occurs through the hand motion sensor “Leap Motion,” plus the electroencephalographic sensor “MindWave,” responsible for measuring attention levels during task execution. To evaluate the virtual environment, eight clinical experts on cerebral palsy were subjected to a questionnaire regarding the potential of the experimental virtual environment to promote cognitive and motor rehabilitation, as well as the potential of the treatment to enhance risks and/or negatively influence the patient's development. Based on the very positive appraisal of the experts, we propose that the experimental virtual environment is a promising alternative tool for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27403154

  13. Could cryosurgery be an alternative treatment for basal cell carcinoma of the vulva?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Verónica Garza; De la Fuente García, Alberto; Torres, Myrna Alejandra Cardoza; Flores, Minerva Gómez; Moreno, Gildardo Jaramillo; Candiani, Jorge Ocampo

    2014-04-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) on the genital area account for less than 1% of all BCCs. Surgical management is indicated. Recurrence rate of vulvar BCC has been reported to be 10-20%. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is a superior surgical option. Other treatments include radiation and topical immuntherapy. Cryosurgery for vulvar BCC has not been reported. We present the case of a 88-year-old Hispanic woman with a vulvar ulcer that was confirmed as BCC by histopathology and treated with liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. Control biopsy was performed on day 90 was negative for BCC. No clinical evidence of recurrence was detected after one year. Although, the vulva is considered to be a high-risk site with respect to BCC and MMS is the gold standard for treatment, the delicate nature of the area may preclude complete removal by a surgical technique without compromising vital anatomical function. Liquid nitrogen cryosurgery uses the effects of extreme cold to effect deep destruction of the tumor and surrounding tissues. This is the first report of a vulvar BCC successfully treated with liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. We suggest this technique could be of benefit as an alternative treatment in cases where excisional procedures cannot be performed.

  14. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE PRODUCTS AS A NOVEL TREATMENT STRATEGY FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Lindsey N.; Zhou, Yuning; Qiu, Suimin; Wang, Qingding; Evers, B. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract; the etiology is unknown and treatment is directed at systemic immunosuppression. Natural products, including medicinal herbs, have provided approximately half of the drugs developed for clinical use over the past 20 years. The purpose of our current study was to determine the effects of a novel combination of herbal extracts on intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD. Female Swiss-Webster mice were randomized to receive normal water or 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) drinking water to induce colitis. Mice were treated with either a novel combination of herbal aqueous extracts or vehicle control per os (po) or per rectum (pr) every 24h for 7-8d. Disease activity index score (DAI) was determined daily; mice were sacrificed and colons analyzed by H&E staining, MPO assay, and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6) ELISAs. Mice treated with the combination of herbal extracts, either po or pr, had significantly less rectal bleeding and lower DAI scores when compared to the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, colonic ulceration, leukocytic infiltration, and cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-6) were decreased in the colons of herbal-treated mice, reflected by H&E staining, MPO assay, and cytokine ELISA. Treatment with the combination of medicinal herbs decreases leukocyte infiltration and mucosal ulceration, ameliorating the course of acute colonic inflammation. This herbal remedy may prove to be a novel and safe therapeutic alternative in the treatment of IBD. PMID:19051360

  15. Demagnetization Treatment of Remanent Composite Microspheres Studied by Alternating Current Susceptibility Measurements

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, Susanne; Erné, Ben H.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample. PMID:24009021

  16. [Insomnia and increased use of sleep medication among seniors: problems and alternative treatment].

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Lynda; Vallières, Annie; Morin, Charles M

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the problem of insomnia and increased used of sleep medication among seniors and to look at an alternative form of treatment (cognitive-behavioural therapy [CBT]) that has been adapted specifically for this population. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched from 1990 to 2005 using the key words insomnia, elderly (older adults), hypnotics (sleep medication), and cognitive behavior therapy. When discussing the efficacy of treatment, sources quoted offer level I evidence. Studies on the deleterious effects of hypnotics primarily offer level II evidence, so their findings must be interpreted with caution (some studies present conflicting results). Insomnia in elderly people is associated with marked distress or deterioration in social or physical functioning. Hypnotics can be dangerous for elderly people because they raise the risk of adverse effects on cognitive function and the risk of drug-drug interactions. Treatment should be based on CBT alone or on a combination of CBT and appropriate pharmaceutical therapy. Cognitive-behavioural therapy adapted specifically to the problem of insomnia in seniors is one of the recommended options. The gains often include a notable decrease in use of sleep medication and in the emotional distress associated with insomnia.

  17. Oncologists' experiences of discussing complementary and alternative treatment options with their cancer patients. A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Corina, Güthlin; Christine, Holmberg; Klein, Gudrun

    2016-09-01

    The rising use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) means oncologists are increasingly asked by patients to discuss CAM treatment options. However, no formal training or established standards are available on the subject. The aim of this paper was to investigate real-world discussions of CAM treatments. In particular, we wanted to learn about the values, norms and defining features that characterise oncologist-patient discussions on CAM. Semi-standardised interviews with 17 oncologists were analysed using interpretation pattern analysis combined with thematic analysis. Advice on CAM is seen by oncologists as an important service they provide to their patients, even though their knowledge of the subject is often limited. Many interviewees mentioned an apparent lack of scientific proof, especially when their aim was to warn patients against the use of CAM. Discussions on CAM tend to reflect the idea that CAM belongs 'to another world', and judging by the interviews with oncologists, this notion appears to be shared by patients and oncologists alike. Oncologists require reliable information on CAM and would profit from training in the communication of CAM treatment options to patients. Knowing scientific data on CAM would also lower barriers stemming from the view that CAM belongs 'to another world'. Under- and postgraduate education programmes should include training on how to respond to requests addressing possible CAM options.

  18. Anti-mutagenic potential of algal extracts on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hoda Anwer; Mahfouz, Hala; Maher, Nesma

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, sodium azide (SA) toxicity and the anti-mutagenic effects of different algal extracts at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations were studied on the mitotic index (MI), chromosomal and nuclear aberrations using Allium cepa L. root assay. Moreover, phytochemical screening of photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants compounds, total antioxidant, DPPH scavenging activity, polysaccharides, and phenolic contents were done for two red seaweeds (Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux and Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey) and for one brown seaweed (Dictyopteris delicatula Lamouroux). Treatment with 300 μg/ml sodium azide (SA) induced the highest number of aberrations in A. cepa root. A highly significant decrease in the MI appeared after treatment with SA, whereas its value increased following different algal extracts treatments. The highest anti-mutagenic inhibition activity of Dictyopteris delicatula added at 0.2% concentration was 72.96%, 69.84%, 56.89% and 43.59% with the algal polyphenol, polysaccharide, aqueous and methanol extract treatments, respectively. The different algal extracts minimized the genotoxicity and exhibited anti-mutagenic potential against SA in a dose-dependent manner. Phytochemical studies showed that Dictyopteris delicatula contained the highest total phenol, chlorophyll-a and carotenoid quantity. Moreover it exhibited the highest total antioxidant and DPPH scavenging activities. Total polysaccharides and the weight percentage of sulphated polysaccharides were relatively higher in Polysiphonia morrowii followed by Laurencia obtusa. Hydroquinone and bromophenol were detected only in the studied brown and red seaweeds, respectively. Polysiphonia morrowii and Laurencia obtusa contained the highest quantity of galactose, rhmnose and xylose, while Dictyopteris delicatula contained fucose and mannitol as main monosaccharide units. In conclusion, the studied seaweeds may be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidants. Meanwhile the

  19. The proportions of mutagens among chemicals in commerce.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, E; Margolin, B H

    2000-10-01

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce. Thus, it is not possible to test all these substances for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity; it is possible, however, to test or make estimates from selected subsets of these chemicals. For example, in the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), 35% of the chemicals tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella were positive, as were 52% of the chemicals tested for carcinogenicity in rodents. In contrast, in the U.S. EPA Gene-Tox database, the proportions of chemicals that are Salmonella mutagens is 56%. These and other databases may be biased toward positive responses because they generally have been developed to look at specific structural or use classes of chemicals or chemicals suspected of genetic or carcinogenic activity. To address the question of the proportions of mutagens among all chemicals in commerce, a database of 100 chemicals was created from a random selection of chemicals in commerce. These chemicals were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella and 22% were mutagenic. The mutagenicity of the 46 highest U.S. production organic chemicals was also compiled; 20% were mutagenic. These values provide a more accurate estimate of the proportions of mutagens among chemicals in commerce than can be derived from published mutagenicity databases.

  20. Small-scale domestic wastewater treatment using an alternating pumped sequencing batch biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Michael; Zhan, Xinmin; O'Reilly, Edmond

    2006-04-01

    An alternating pumped sequencing batch biofilm reactor (APSBBR) system was developed to treat small-scale domestic wastewater. This laboratory system had two reactor tanks, Reactor 1 and Reactor 2, with two identical plastic biofilm modules in each reactor. Reactor 1 of the APSBBR had five operational phases--fill, anoxic, aerobic, settle and draw. In the aerobic phase, the wastewater was circulated between the two reactor tanks with centrifugal pumps and aeration was mainly achieved through oxygen absorption by microorganisms in the biofilms when they were exposed to the air. This paper details the performance of the APSBBR system in treating synthetic domestic wastewater over 18 months. The effluent from the APSBBR system satisfied the European Wastewater Treatment Directive requirements, with respect to COD, ammonium-nitrogen and suspended solids. The biofilm growth in the two reactor tanks was different due to the difference in substrate loadings and growth conditions.

  1. Alternative targets within the endocannabinoid system for future treatment of gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schicho, Rudolf; Storr, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many beneficial effects of herbal and synthetic cannabinoids on gut motility and inflammation have been demonstrated, suggesting a vast potential for these compounds in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. These effects are based on the so-called ‘endocannabinoid system’ (ECS), a cooperating network of molecules that regulate the metabolism of the body’s own and of exogenously administered cannabinoids. The ECS in the gastrointestinal tract quickly responds to homeostatic disturbances by de novo synthesis of its components to maintain homeostasis, thereby offering many potential targets for pharmacological intervention. Of major therapeutic interest are nonpsychoactive cannabinoids or compounds that do not directly target cannabinoid receptors but still possess cannabinoid-like properties. Drugs that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation and raise the level of endocannabinoids are becoming increasingly promising alternative therapeutic tools to manipulate the ECS. PMID:21876860

  2. INVO Procedure: Minimally Invasive IVF as an Alternative Treatment Option for Infertile Couples

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Elkin; Saa, Angela M.; Navarro, Doris E.; Pulido, Carlos; Lombana, Oscar; Moran, Abby

    2012-01-01

    Intravaginal culture (IVC), also called INVO (intravaginal culture of oocytes), is an assisted reproduction procedure where oocyte fertilization and early embryo development are carried out within a gas permeable air-free plastic device, placed into the maternal vaginal cavity for incubation. In the present study we assessed the outcome of the INVO procedure, using the recently designed INVOcell device, in combination with a mild ovarian stimulation protocol. A total of 125 cycles were performed. On average 6.5 oocytes per cycle were retrieved, and a mean of 4.2 were placed per INVOcell device. The cleavage rate obtained after the INVO culture was 63%. The procedure yielded 40%, 31.2%, and 24% of clinical pregnancy, live birth, and single live birth rates per cycle, respectively. Our results suggest that the INVO procedure is an effective alternative treatment option in assisted reproduction that shows comparable results to those reported for existing IVF techniques. PMID:22645435

  3. INVO procedure: minimally invasive IVF as an alternative treatment option for infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Elkin; Saa, Angela M; Navarro, Doris E; Pulido, Carlos; Lombana, Oscar; Moran, Abby

    2012-01-01

    Intravaginal culture (IVC), also called INVO (intravaginal culture of oocytes), is an assisted reproduction procedure where oocyte fertilization and early embryo development are carried out within a gas permeable air-free plastic device, placed into the maternal vaginal cavity for incubation. In the present study we assessed the outcome of the INVO procedure, using the recently designed INVOcell device, in combination with a mild ovarian stimulation protocol. A total of 125 cycles were performed. On average 6.5 oocytes per cycle were retrieved, and a mean of 4.2 were placed per INVOcell device. The cleavage rate obtained after the INVO culture was 63%. The procedure yielded 40%, 31.2%, and 24% of clinical pregnancy, live birth, and single live birth rates per cycle, respectively. Our results suggest that the INVO procedure is an effective alternative treatment option in assisted reproduction that shows comparable results to those reported for existing IVF techniques.

  4. Noncontingent reinforcement without extinction plus differential reinforcement of alternative behavior during treatment of problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jennifer N; Jackson, Lynsey M; Stiefler, Nicole A; Wimberly, Barbara S; Richardson, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    The effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) without extinction during treatment of problem behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement were evaluated for five individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A continuous NCR schedule was gradually thinned to a fixed-time 5-min schedule. If problem behavior increased during NCR schedule thinning, a continuous NCR schedule was reinstated and NCR schedule thinning was repeated with differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) included. Results showed an immediate decrease in all participants' problem behavior during continuous NCR, and problem behavior maintained at low levels during NCR schedule thinning for three participants. Problem behavior increased and maintained at higher rates during NCR schedule thinning for two other participants; however, the addition of DRA to the intervention resulted in decreased problem behavior and increased mands. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. H2S as a possible therapeutic alternative for the treatment of hypertensive kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Dugbartey, George J

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is the most common cause of cardiovascular morbidities and mortalities, and a major risk factor for renal dysfunction. It is considered one of the causes of chronic kidney disease, which progresses into end-stage renal disease and eventually loss of renal function. Yet, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of hypertension and its associated kidney injury is still poorly understood. Moreover, despite existing antihypertensive therapies, achievement of blood pressure control and preservation of renal function still remain a worldwide public health challenge in a subset of hypertensive patients. Therefore, novel modes of intervention are in demand. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule, has been established to possess antihypertensive and renoprotective properties, which may represent an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of hypertension and kidney injury. This review discusses recent findings about H2S in hypertension and kidney injury from both experimental and clinical studies. It also addresses future direction regarding therapeutic use of H2S.

  6. Mutagenicity of the drinking water supply in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Kusamran, Wannee R; Tanthasri, Nopsarun; Meesiripan, Nuntana; Tepsuwan, Anong

    2003-01-01

    Seventeen samples of tap water in Bangkok and 2 neighboring provinces were collected in winter and summer, concentrated and tested for mutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. Preliminary results demonstrated that concentrated tap water exhibited clear mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA100 and YG1029, but not towards TA98 and YG1024, in the absence of S9 mix, and the addition of S9 mix markedly decreased the mutagenicity to both tester strains. Amberlite( ) XAD-2 resin, but not blue rayon, was able to adsorb mutagens from water at pH 2. Our data clearly demonstrated that all tap water samples prepared by chlorination of Chao Phraya River water were mutagenic to strain TA100 without S9 mix, inducing 3,351 + 741 and 2,216 + 770 revertants/l, in winter and summer, respectively. On the other hand, however, tap water samples prepared from ground water were not mutagenic. Furthermore, it was found that boiling for only 5 min and filtration through home purifying system containing activated charcoal and mixed resin units were very effective to abolish the mutagenicity of water. Storage of water also significantly decreased the mutagenicity, however, it took 2-3 weeks to totally abolish it. Additionally, we also found 1 out of 6 brands of commercially available bottled drinking water to be mutagenic, with about 26 % of the average mutagenicity of tap water. The results in the present study clearly demonstrated that chlorinated tap water in Bangkok and neighboring provinces contain direct-acting mutagens causing capable of causing base-pair substitution. Boiling and filtration of tap water through home purifying systems may be the most effective means to abolish the mutagenicity. Some brands of commercial bottled waters may also contain mutagens which may be derived from tap water.

  7. Addition Polyimides from Non-Mutagenic Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, Peter; Klopotek, David L.; Hardy-Green, DeNise; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to find an acceptable non-mutagenic diamine to replace 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), a suspect carcinogen, which is currently being used in PMR-15 polyimide applications. Several diamines containing fluorine and trifluoromethyl substituent groups were synthesized. The diamines were polymerized with the dimethyl ester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), using the monomethyl ester of nadic acid (NE) as an endcap. The effect of diamine structure on rheological properties, glass transition temperature, and thermo-oxidative stability was investigated. Unidirectional laminates were fabricated from selected resins, using carbon fiber as the reinforcement. The results indicate that some of the diamines containing trifluoromethyl groups are non-mutagenic, and have potential to replace MDA in PMR polyimides for long-term applications at temperatures up to 300 C.

  8. Mutagenic potential of Mancozeb in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj; Arora, Annu; Sinha, Neeraj

    2004-01-01

    Mancozeb, a dithiocarbamate fungicide, was examined for its possible mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. We found that Mancozeb exhibited toxic effects at the dose of 40 microg/plate and higher with all tester strains. Mancozeb showed dose-dependent increases in the number of revertants with and without metabolic activation when it was dissolved in DMSO or acetone with strain TA97a; however, the number of revertants at the highest dose was less than two-fold compared to control values. We postulate that the true mutagenic potential of Mancozeb may be masked by its toxic effect to the tester strain used.

  9. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z <= 4) the cross section decreases with increasing energy. For ions of Z = 10, it is nearly independent of energy. For heavier ions (Z >= 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  10. Mutagenicity and mutagens of the red chili pepper as gallbladder cancer risk factor in Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Terao, Michinori; Okano, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Oyama, Mari; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    High consumption of red chili pepper has been shown to be a risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chilean women with gallstones, and included mutagens may be important in this context. We aimed to investigate the mutagenicity and mutagens in Chilean red chili pepper in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1537, TA100, and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). Pure capsaicin was tested for mutagenicity using strain TA98. The presence of aflatoxins was evaluated by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, and then the concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured by an HPLC system. In strain TA98, the mean numbers of revertant colonies with and without the S9 mix were 2.5- and 2.2-fold higher than those of each negative control, respectively. However, pure capsaicin did not show mutagenic activity in strain TA98. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper was confirmed, and the concentrations of aflatoxins B1 and G1 were 4.4 ng/g and 0.5 ng/g, respectively. Our findings suggest that low-level but protracted exposure to aflatoxins may be associated with the development of GBC in Chilean women who carry gallstones.

  11. Characteristics of venom allergic reactions in Turkish beekeepers and alternative treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Çelıksoy, Mehmet Halil; Sancak, Recep; Söğüt, Ayhan; Güner, Sükrü Nail; Korkmaz, Ali

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the characteristics of allergic reactions that may occur after a bee sting and alternative treatment methods in Turkish beekeepers. A written questionnaire was administered to beekeepers from the Ordu, Samsun, Sinop, Amasya, and Çorum provinces located in the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey. The study included 301 beekeepers, 295 (98%) of whom were male. Their mean age was 48.2 ± 11.5 years. The mean beekeeping duration was 15.3 ± 10.5 years. A total of 270 participants (89.9%) had a history of bee stings in the previous 12 months. Systemic reactions, large local reactions, and local reactions were seen in 21 (6.9%), 193 (64.1%), and 12 (4.0%) beekeepers, respectively. The face was the most frequently stung body site, and swelling generally occurred in the eyelids. The size of the swellings decreased within 12 to 24 hours in 259 (86.1%) beekeepers. The size of the swellings was 1 × 2 cm in diameter in 157 (52.2%) beekeepers. Natural protection against bee stings had developed by 12 months in 140 (46.5%) beekeepers. In total, 61.5% of the beekeepers applied alternative treatments (eg, garlic, onion water, yogurt), whereas 14.0% (3/21) were admitted to a hospital with a systemic reaction. In total, 10.6% and 14.2% of beekeepers were aware of adrenaline auto-injector and venom immunotherapy, respectively. This study indicates insufficient knowledge and attitudes among Turkish beekeepers regarding bee sting reactions. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Will alternative immediate care services reduce demands for non-urgent treatment at accident and emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, P; Irons, R; Nicholl, J

    2001-01-01

    Methods—A questionnaire survey and notes review of 267 adults presenting to the A&E department of a large teaching hospital in Sheffield, England, triaged to the two lowest priority treatment streams, was conducted over seven weeks. Using defined criteria, patients were classified by the suitability of the presenting health problem to be managed by alternative immediate care services or only by A&E, and also by the likelihood, in similar circumstances, of patients presenting to other services given their reasons for seeking A&E care. Results—Full data were obtained for 96% of participants (255 of 267). Using objective criteria, it is estimated that 55% (95% CI 50%, 62%) of the health problems presented by a non-urgent population attending A&E are suitable for treatment in either general practice, or a minor injury unit, or a walk in centre or by self care after advice from NHS Direct. However, in almost one quarter (24%) of low priority patients who self referred, A&E was not the first contact with the health services for the presenting health problem. The reason for attending A&E cited most frequently by the patients was a belief that radiography was necessary. The reason given least often was seeking advice from a nurse practitioner. Taking into account the objective suitability of the health problem to be treated elsewhere, and the reasons for attending A&E given by the patients, it is estimated that, with similar health problems, as few as 7% (95% CI 3%, 10%) of the non-urgent A&E population may be expected to present to providers other than A&E in the future. Conclusions—The increasing availability of alternative services offering first contact care for non-urgent health problems, is likely to have little impact on the demand for A&E services. PMID:11696509

  13. Mutagen and Oncogen Study on JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    carcinogens do not produce detectable responses using the standard Ames overlay method. Some dialkyl nitrosamines and certain substituted hydrazines are...over two or three log concentrations, the highest of these doses being selected to show slight toxicity as determined by subjective criteria. Dose...mutagenicity of the test chemical are semiquantitative, the criteria used to determine positive effects are inherently subjective and are based

  14. Radiation and chemical mutagen induced somaclonal variations through in vitro organogenesis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Annamalai; Jayabalan, Narayanasamy

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to induce somaclonal variations by gamma rays (GR), ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA) during in vitro organogenesis of cotton. The shoot tip explants were irradiated with 5-50 Gray (Gy) GR (Cobalt 60), 0.5-5.0 mM EMS and SA separately, and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with plant growth regulator (PGR) for organogenesis. The plantlets with well-developed root systems were acclimatized and transferred into the experimental field to screen the somaclonal variations during growth and development. The number of somaclonal variations was observed in growth of irradiated/treated shoot tips, multiplication, plantlet regeneration and growth in vitro and ex vitro. The lower doses/concentrations of mutagenic treatments showed significant enhancement in selected agronomical characters and they showed decreased trends with increasing doses/concentrations of mutagenic agents. The results of the present study revealed the influence of lower doses/concentrations of mutagenic treatments on in vitro and ex vitro growth of cotton plantlets and their significant improvement in agronomical characters which needs further imperative stability analysis. The present observations showed the platform to use lower doses/concentrations of mutagenic agents to induce variability for enhanced agronomical characters, resistant and tolerant cotton varieties.

  15. The mutagenicity of chloroethylene oxide, chloroacetaldehyde, 2-chloroethanol and chloroacetic acid, conceivable metabolites of vinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Rannug, U; Göthe, R; Wachtmeister, C A

    1976-03-01

    Previous investigations have shown that the carcinogen vinyl chloride causes base-pair substitution in the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. The ability of four conceivable metabolites-chloroethylene oxide, chloroacetaldehyde, 2-chloroethanol and chloroacetic acid-to cause base-pair substitution directly in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 has been compared. The main comparison was performed at initial concentrations from 0.1 to 1.5 mM. In this region, however, a mutagenic effect was observed only with chloroethylene oxide and chloroacetaldehyde, the former being approximately 20 times more effective than the aldehyde when compared on a molar basis.2-Chloroethanol and chloroacetic acid were studied also at higher concentration (1 mM-1 M), and a weak mutagenic response was found with 1 M 2-chloroethanol solution. With chloroacetic acid no enhancement of the mutation frequency could be detected. Chloroethylene oxide was found to be approximately 450 times more effective as a mutagen than chloroacetaldehyde when the comparison is based on exposure doses, defined as the time-dependent concentrations of the compounds in the treatment solutions, integrated between the times of onset and termination of treatment. Similarly, chloroethylene oxide was 10,000-15,000 times more effective as a mutagen than ethylene oxide, used as a positive control.

  16. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for Treatment among African-Americans: A Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Jamie C.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Brown, Carolyn M.; Richards, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is substantial among African-Americans; however, research on characteristics of African-Americans who use of CAM to treat specific conditions is scarce. Objective To determine what predisposing, enabling, need, and disease state factors are related to CAM use for treatment among a nationally representative sample of African-Americans. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed using the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). A nationwide representative sample of adult (≥ 18 years) African-Americans who used CAM in the past 12 months (n= 16,113,651 weighted; n=2,952 unweighted) were included. The Andersen Healthcare Utilization Model served the framework with CAM use for treatment as the main outcome measure. Independent variables included: predisposing (e.g., age, gender, education), enabling (e.g., income, employment, access to care); need (e.g., health status, physician visits, prescription medication use); and disease state (i.e., most prevalent conditions among African-Americans) factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to address the study objective. Results Approximately one in five (20.2%) CAM past 12 month users used CAM to treat a specific condition. Ten of the 15 CAM modalities were used primarily for treatment by African-Americans. CAM for treatment was significantly (p<0.05) associated with the following factors: graduate education, smaller family size, higher income, region (northeast, midwest, west more likely than south), depression/anxiety, more physician visits, less likely to engage in preventive care, more frequent exercise behavior, more activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and neck pain. Conclusions Twenty percent of African-Americans who used CAM in the past year were treating a specific condition. Alternative medical systems, manipulative and body-based therapies, as well as folk medicine, prayer, biofeedback, and energy/Reiki were used most often

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kua, Kok Pim; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey

    2017-01-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common cause of hospitalization among infants. The limited effectiveness of conventional medication has prompted the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as alternative or adjunctive therapy for the management of bronchiolitis. To determine the effectiveness and safety of CAM for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants aged less than 2 years. A systematic electronic search was performed in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from their respective inception to June 30, 2016 for studies evaluating CAM as an intervention to treat bronchiolitis in infants (1 month to 2 years of age). The CAM could be any form of treatment defined by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) and was utilized either as a single agent or adjunctive therapy. The predefined primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were time to resolution of bronchiolitis symptoms, adverse events, and all other clinical outcomes reported by the included studies. The review identified 11 studies (8 randomized controlled trials and 3 cohort studies) examining four herbal preparations and four supplements used either as adjunctive or alternative therapy for bronchiolitis in 904 infants. Most studies were of moderate quality. Among six studies reporting on length of stay, a significant benefit was found for Chinese herbal medicine compared to ribavirin in one cohort study (n = 66) and vitamin D compared to placebo in one randomized controlled trial (n = 89). Studies of Chinese herbal medicine (4 studies, n = 365), vitamin D (1 study, n = 89), N-acetylcysteine (1 study, n = 100), and magnesium (2 studies, n = 176) showed some benefits with respect to clinical severity scores, oxygen saturation, and other symptoms, although data were sparse for any single intervention and the outcomes assessed and reported varied across studies. Only five studies reported on adverse events

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Bronchiolitis is a common cause of hospitalization among infants. The limited effectiveness of conventional medication has prompted the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as alternative or adjunctive therapy for the management of bronchiolitis. Aims To determine the effectiveness and safety of CAM for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants aged less than 2 years. Methods A systematic electronic search was performed in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from their respective inception to June 30, 2016 for studies evaluating CAM as an intervention to treat bronchiolitis in infants (1 month to 2 years of age). The CAM could be any form of treatment defined by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) and was utilized either as a single agent or adjunctive therapy. The predefined primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were time to resolution of bronchiolitis symptoms, adverse events, and all other clinical outcomes reported by the included studies. Results The review identified 11 studies (8 randomized controlled trials and 3 cohort studies) examining four herbal preparations and four supplements used either as adjunctive or alternative therapy for bronchiolitis in 904 infants. Most studies were of moderate quality. Among six studies reporting on length of stay, a significant benefit was found for Chinese herbal medicine compared to ribavirin in one cohort study (n = 66) and vitamin D compared to placebo in one randomized controlled trial (n = 89). Studies of Chinese herbal medicine (4 studies, n = 365), vitamin D (1 study, n = 89), N-acetylcysteine (1 study, n = 100), and magnesium (2 studies, n = 176) showed some benefits with respect to clinical severity scores, oxygen saturation, and other symptoms, although data were sparse for any single intervention and the outcomes assessed and reported varied across studies. Only five

  19. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of benfuracarb insecticide.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasin; Erdoğmuş, Sevim Feyza; Akyıl, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu

    2016-08-01

    Benfuracarb is a carbamate insecticide used to control insect pests in vegetables and it has anti-acetylcholinesterase activity lower than other carbamates. Cytotoxic effects of benfuracarb were evaluated by using root growth inhibition (EC50), mitotic index (MI), and mitotic phase determinations on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa and mutagenic effects were determined in Salmonella typhymurium Ames test by TA98 and TA100 strains with and without metabolic activation. In Allium test, 1 % DMSO was used as negative control group and 10 ppm MMS was used as positive control group. 75 ppm concentration of benfuracarb was found as EC50. In MI and mitotic phases determination study, 37.5, 75 and 150 ppm doses of benfuracarb were used. Dose-dependent cytotoxic activity was found by root growth inhibition and MI studies. It was identified that mitotic inhibition activity of benfuracarb was higher than 10 ppm MMS. In Ames test, mutagenic activity was not observed and over 200 µg/plate of benfuracarb was determined as cytotoxic to S. typhymurium strains. Benfuracarb can be called as "mitotic inhibitor" but not called as mutagen.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of cadmium induced mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Filipic, M; Fatur, T; Vudrag, M

    2006-02-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen of worldwide concern because it accumulates in the environment due to its extremely long half-life. Its compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities and can cause numerous molecular lesions that would be relevant to carcinogenesis. For a long time cadmium has been considered as a non-genotoxic carcinogen, as it is only weakly mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cell test systems. Recently, we presented evidence that when assayed in a test system, in which both intragenic and multilocus mutations can be detected, cadmium acts as a strong mutagen which induces predominantly multilocus deletions. In this review, we discuss two mechanisms that play an important role in cadmium mutagenicity: (i) induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and (ii) inhibition of DNA repair. Experimental evidence suggests that cadmium at low, for environmental exposure relevant concentrations, induces mutations by inducing oxidative DNA damage and that it decreases genetic stability by inhibiting the repair of endogenous and exogenous DNA lesions, which in turn increase the probability of mutations and consequently cancer initiation by this metal.

  1. Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity Data: New Initiatives to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Currents models for prediction of chemical carcinogenicity and mutagenicity rely upon a relatively small number of publicly available data resources, where the data being modeled are highly summarized and aggregated representations of the actual experimental results. A number of new initiatives are underway to improve access to existing public carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data for use in modeling, as well as to encourage new approaches to the use of data in modeling. Rodent bioassay results from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Berkeley Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) have provided the largest public data resources for building carcinogenicity prediction models to date. However, relatively few and limited representations of these data have actually informed existing models. Initiatives, such as EPA's DSSTox Database Network, offer elaborated and quality reviewed presentations of the CPDB and expanded data linkages and coverage of chemical space for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. In particular the latest published DSSTox CPDBAS structure-data file includes a number of species-specific and summary activity fields, including a species-specific normalized score for carcinogenic potency (TD50) and various weighted summary activities. These data are being incorporated into PubChem to provide broad

  2. Mutagenicity studies on coffee. The influence of different factors on the mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay.

    PubMed

    Friederich, U; Hann, D; Albertini, S; Schlatter, C; Würgler, F E

    1985-01-01

    Recently, mutagenic activity on several strains of Salmonella typhimurium has been found in many heat-processed foodstuffs. The previously reported direct-acting mutagenic activity of coffee in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (Ames assay) was confirmed in our study. In addition to TA100, a mutagenic effect of coffee was also found by using the newly developed strain TA102. The mutagenic activity was abolished by the addition of rat-liver homogenate. 10% S9 mix completely eliminated the mutagenic activity of 30 mg of coffee per plate. The addition of reduced glutathione to active S9 further decreased the mutagenic activity and also reduced the mutagenicity together with inactivated S9. The compound or compounds responsible for this inactivation are heat-labile and seem to be located in the cytosol fraction of the S9. Part of the mutagenicity of coffee was also lost spontaneously upon incubation at temperatures between 0 degrees and 50 degrees C. The loss of activity was dependent on temperature, being more pronounced at 50 degrees C compared to 0 degrees C (at 50 degrees C approximately 50% of the mutagenic activity was lost after 6 h). As anaerobic conditions prevented this loss of mutagenicity almost totally, oxidative processes are probably responsible for the inactivation. The stability of the mutagen was not influenced by incubation at low pH values (pH 1-3), with or without the addition of pepsinogen. The mutagenic properties of methylglyoxal, which to some extent could be responsible for the mutagenic activity of coffee, were compared with those of coffee. Methylglyoxal was strongly mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA102. Its mutagenic activity was partially inactivated by the addition of 10% S9. Glyoxalase I and II together with reduced glutathione abolished the mutagenic activity of methylglyoxal but reduced the mutagenicity of coffee by only 80%. Since these enzymes occur in mammalian cells, the mutagenic compound(s) of coffee could also be

  3. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in Sagebrush-Steppe: The SageSTEP Project

    Treesearch

    James McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Paul Doescher; James Grace; April Hulet; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Benjamin Rau; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; Jason Williams

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation...

  4. A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of children who have been abused. This article examines childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for two alternative treatment models for previously abused children and their…

  5. Ecological effects of alternative fuel-reduction treatments: highlights of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS)

    Treesearch

    James D. McIver; Scott L. Stephens; James K. Agee; Jamie Barbour; Ralph E. J. Boerner; Carl B. Edminster; Karen L. Erickson; Kerry L. Farris; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl E. Fiedler; Sally Haase; Stephen C. Hart; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Jason J. Moghaddas; William Otrosina; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Dylan W. Schwilk; Carl N. Skinner; Thomas A. Waldrop; C. Phillip Weatherspoon; Daniel A. Yaussy; Andrew Youngblood; Steve Zack

    2012-01-01

    The 12-site National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS) was a multivariate experiment that evaluated ecological consequences of alternative fuel-reduction treatments in seasonally dry forests of the US. Each site was a replicated experiment with a common design that compared an un-manipulated control, prescribed fire, mechanical and mechanical + fire treatments....

  6. SYBR Gold and SYBR Green II are not mutagenic in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Kirsanov, Kirill I; Lesovaya, Ekaterina A; Yakubovskaya, Marianna G; Belitsky, Gennady A

    2010-06-17

    Favorable photo-physical properties and high affinity to nucleic acids make new fluorescent cyanine dyes of the SYBR-type particularly useful for DNA and RNA visualization. The growing popularity of SYBR-type dyes is also explained by the fact that removal of the dye from the nucleic acids by ethanol precipitation is more efficient and less time-consuming than the phenol-chloroform extraction applied for the widely used phenanthridine DNA stain, ethidium bromide. To evaluate the safety of nucleic acid staining by SYBR Gold and SYBR Green II we compared the mutagenicity of these compounds, with characteristics corresponding to those of ethidium bromide, by use of the Salmonella/mammalian microsome reverse-mutation assays (Ames test). SYBR Green II and SYBR Gold did not show mutagenicity either in frame-shift or in base-substitution indicator strains, TA98 and TA100, respectively. These results were observed both in the presence and in the absence of supernatant from a rat-liver homogenate S9. Mutagenicity of these stains was not observed although their toxic concentration was reached. Toxic effects of SYBR Green II and SYBR Gold were seen approximately at the same molar concentrations as reported previously for SYBR Green I. As expected, ethidium bromide revealed strong mutagenicity with a maximum increase of 60-fold above the vehicle controls in the frame-shift indicator strain TA98 in the presence of rat-liver S9 extract. Thus, SYBR Gold and SYBR Green II do not show mutagenicity in our tests, even at toxic doses, and these DNA stains represent safer alternatives to ethidium bromide for nucleic acid visualization.

  7. Estrogenic and mutagenic activities of Crotalaria pallida measured by recombinant yeast assay and Ames test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crotalaria pallida Ailton is a plant belonging to the Fabaceae family, popularly known as “rattle or rattlesnake” and used in traditional medicine to treat swelling of the joints and as a vermifuge. Previous pharmacological studies have also reported anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding this species is scarce, and there are no reports related to its possible estrogenic and mutagenic effects. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the estrogenic potential of C. pallida leaves by means of the Recombinant Yeast Assay (RYA), seeking an alternative for estrogen replacement therapy during menopause; and to reflect on the safe use of natural products to assess the mutagenic activity of the crude extract from C. pallida leaves, the dichloromethane fraction and stigmasterol by means of the Ames test. Methods The recombinant yeast assay with the strain BY4741 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was performed with the ethanolic extract, dichloromethane fraction and stigmasterol isolated from the leaves of C. pallida. Mutagenic activity was evaluated by the Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test), using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA100, TA98, TA97 and TA102, with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolization, by the preincubation method. Results All samples showed estrogenic activity, mainly stigmasterol. The ethanolic extract from C. pallida leaves showed mutagenic activity in the TA98 strain (-S9), whereas dichloromethane fraction and stigmasterol were found devoid of activity. Conclusion Considering the excellent estrogenic activity performed by stigmasterol in the RYA associated with the absence of mutagenic activity when evaluated by the Ames test, stigmasterol becomes a strong candidate to be used in hormone replacement therapy during menopause. PMID:24134316

  8. Mutagenicity and contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in used and recycled motor oils.

    PubMed

    Clonfero, E; Nardini, B; Marchioro, M; Bordin, A; Gabbani, G

    1996-07-05

    Thirteen samples of used motor oil and 33 recycled fractions, obtained in the laboratory by means of a recovery process similar to that currently used in Italy (vacuum distillation followed by thermal clay treatment) were examined. The Ames test (standard and modified version according to Blackburn) was used to determine the mutagenicity of the extracts and their contents of polyaromatic fraction (PAF) (IP346/80 method) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (Grimmer's method). Used motor oils are mutagenic, both directly and indirectly. The highest values have been found in used oils from motor vehicles using leaded petrol (up to 118.8 revertants/mg). Samples from vehicles using unleaded petrol or diesel fuel are less mutagenic (up to 31.1 and 16.4 rev/mg, respectively). The enrichment in mutagens due to the use of oil in the three types of engine ranges from mean values of 6.2, 1.1 and 0.4 rev/mg per 1000 km, respectively. Recycled oils are almost completely devoid of direct mutagenic activity (33 samples: mean +/- SD = 1.6 +/- 1.5 rev/mg). Most recycled distillates show considerable mutagenic activity in the presence of microsomial enzymes (up to 82.5 rev/mg), although this is reduced with respect to the original oils (recycled, mean +/- SD = 13.8 +/- 15.5 rev/mg; original oils, mean +/- SD = 30.7 +/- 35.2, Mann-Whitney U-test, z = 1.793, p < 0.05). Both PAF and PAH contents are high in used oils from the two types of petrol engine but not in those from diesel engines. Recycling reduces PAF contents only in used oils from petrol engines, from a mean value of 13.91 +/- 7.32 to 4.23 +/- 2.90% (comparison with original used oils, Mann-Whitney U-test, U = 8, p < 0.01). The light distilled fractions have greater concentrations of indirect mutagens, PAF and PAH than the others. The increase in PAH in light recycled products with respect to the original used oils is significant (Wilcoxon's t-test, z = 2.306, p < 0.05). Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is found in appreciable

  9. Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, D.; Schoeny, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The following samples were found to be mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium: ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16, and ETTM-17. ETTM-13 was marginally mutagenic for TA1537. ETTM-14 was slightly mutagenic for TA1537, TA1538, and TA98. Mutagenicity by all samples was demonstrated only in the presence of hepatic enzyme extracts (S9) which provided metabolic activation. ETTM-11 was shown to be the most mutagenic sample assayed thus far; specific activity was 2.79 x 10/sup 4/ TA98 revertants/mg sample. Fractionation by serial extractions with increasingly polar organic solvents was done at least 2 x with ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16 and ETTM-17. For some samples highly mutagenic fractions were observed.

  10. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Laser-mediated Photodynamic Therapy: An Alternative Treatment for Actinic Keratosis?

    PubMed

    Kessels, Janneke P H M; Nelemans, Patty J; Mosterd, Klara; Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W J; Krekels, Gertruud A M; Ostertag, Judith U

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with light emitting diode (LED) illumination is a frequently used treatment modality for actinic keratosis (AK) with excellent cosmetic outcome. A major disadvantage, however, is the high pain score. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) illumination has been suggested, but the long-term efficacy of this treatment is unknown. In this split-face study we prospectively treated 61 patients with AK, with both LED-PDT and PDL-PDT. The mean change in the number of lesions between the end of follow-up and start of therapy was -4.25 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) -5.07; -3.43) for LED-PDT and -3.88 (95% CI -4,76; -2.99) for PDL-PDT, with a non-significant difference (p = 0.258) of -0.46 (95% CI -1.28; 0.35). The percentage decrease from baseline in the total number of AK was 55.8% and 47.8%, respectively, at 12-month follow-up. Visual analogue scale pain score was lower after PDL (mean 2.64) compared with LED illumination (mean 6.47). These findings indicate that PDL-PDT is an effective alternative illumination source fo.

  12. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complementary/alternative medicine in dermatology: evidence-assessed efficacy of two diseases and two treatments.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard; Pittler, Max H; Stevinson, Clare

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a brief, but critical, overview of the evidence related to complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use, and to offer valid and useful information for dermatologists in clinical practice. Systematic literature searches were conducted on these databases: Medline, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CISCOM and AMED (until October 2000). Where appropriate, the evaluation of the published literature was based on systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials. After scanning the literature it was decided to focus on a selection of two conditions (atopic dermatitis and chronic venous insufficiency) and two treatment modalities (aloe vera gel and tea tree oil). Data for the life-time prevalence of CAM use by patients with dermatological disease ranges between 35 to 69%. The most popular modalities include herablism and (other) dietary supplements, while atopic dermatitis is one of the conditions most frequently treated with CAM. For patients with atopic dermatitis the evidence relates to autogenic training, hypnotherapy, diet, herbal medicine, and dietary supplements. Compelling evidence of effectiveness exists for none of these therapies. However, some promising data have been reported for those with a psychological component: autogenic training, biofeedback and hypnotherapy. For chronic venous insufficiency there is relatively convincing evidence for the effectiveness of oral horse chestnut seed extract. The data for aloe vera gel and tea tree oil indicate that for neither is there compelling evidence of effectiveness. The use of CAM treatments is not free of risk; direct and indirect risks associated with CAM must be considered.

  14. A narrative review of medical, chiropractic, and alternative health practices in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Spears, Lolita G

    2005-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea and related issues are discussed as they influence the gynecological and social health of females during adolescence, adulthood, and senior maturity. Health practitioners are exposed to multiple approaches towards the management of menstrual pain. Clinical and social viewpoints target the causation, development, diagnosis, manifestation and management of primary dysmenorrhea. This narrative review includes the topic of the doctor-patient relationship in efforts of cultivating effectively communicative health practitioners. Controversial topics related to primary dysmenorrhea and the quality of life for women are addressed. A search for literature reviews, case studies, laboratory research, and clinical trials from 1985-2004 was performed using the MEDLINE database. Sources of additional information included textbooks, national organizational literature and contemporary articles. Menstrual pain is a prevalent experience yet it is socially taboo for conversation; as such, it poses a hindrance to its management. The communication between the doctor and patient is a critical barrier point between establishing a diagnosis and determining an appropriate treatment plan. A multi-disciple treatment plan varies as much as patients themselves vary in personal experiences, needs, and preferences. Medicinal prophylactics, physical therapeutics, non-acidic diets, herbal supplements, eastern therapies and the chiropractic manual adjustments of the spine are effective methods for the management of primary dysmenorrhea. The non-invasive management of primary dysmenorrhea includes the chiropractic adjustment with complimentary modalities, and other alternative health care practices. Medicinal prophylactics are invasive and pose a higher risk to long-term chemical exposure, side effects or irreversible conditions.

  15. New Alternatives for Autoimmune Disease Treatments: Physicochemical and Clinical Comparability of Biosimilar Etanercept.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Hernández, Mariana P; López-Morales, Carlos A; Perdomo-Abúndez, Francisco C; Salazar-Flores, Rodolfo D; Ramírez-Ibanez, Nancy D; Pérez, Nestor O; Molina-Pérez, Aarón; Revilla-Beltri, Jorge; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a recombinant fusion protein approved for the treatment of TNF-α mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Herein, we present an evaluation of the physicochemical and biological properties of a biosimilar etanercept and its reference product followed by a clinical study in patients diagnosed with RA intended to demonstrate comparability of their immunomodulatory activity. Identity analyses showed a total correspondence of the primary and higher-order structure between the two products. In regard to intrinsic heterogeneity, both products showed to be highly heterogenous; however the biosimilar etanercept exhibited similar charge and glycan heterogeneity intervals compared to the reference product. Apoptosis inhibition assay also showed that, despite the high degree of heterogeneity exhibited by both products, no significant differences exist in their in vitro activity. Finally, the clinical assessment conducted in RA-diagnosed patients did not show significant differences in the evaluated pharmacodynamic markers of both products. Collectively, the results from the comparability exercise provide convincing evidence that the evaluated biosimilar etanercept can be considered an effective alternative for the treatment of RA.

  16. New Alternatives for Autoimmune Disease Treatments: Physicochemical and Clinical Comparability of Biosimilar Etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Hernández, Mariana P.; López-Morales, Carlos A.; Perdomo-Abúndez, Francisco C.; Salazar-Flores, Rodolfo D.; Ramírez-Ibanez, Nancy D.; Pérez, Nestor O.; Molina-Pérez, Aarón; Revilla-Beltri, Jorge; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F.; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a recombinant fusion protein approved for the treatment of TNF-α mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Herein, we present an evaluation of the physicochemical and biological properties of a biosimilar etanercept and its reference product followed by a clinical study in patients diagnosed with RA intended to demonstrate comparability of their immunomodulatory activity. Identity analyses showed a total correspondence of the primary and higher-order structure between the two products. In regard to intrinsic heterogeneity, both products showed to be highly heterogenous; however the biosimilar etanercept exhibited similar charge and glycan heterogeneity intervals compared to the reference product. Apoptosis inhibition assay also showed that, despite the high degree of heterogeneity exhibited by both products, no significant differences exist in their in vitro activity. Finally, the clinical assessment conducted in RA-diagnosed patients did not show significant differences in the evaluated pharmacodynamic markers of both products. Collectively, the results from the comparability exercise provide convincing evidence that the evaluated biosimilar etanercept can be considered an effective alternative for the treatment of RA. PMID:27382576

  17. Surgical alternatives in the treatment of intestinal intussusceptions resulting from polyps in adults.

    PubMed

    Arikanoglu, Zulfu; Onder, Akin; Taskesen, Fatih; Aliosmanoglu, Ibrahim; Gul, Mesut; Gumus, Hatice; Tas, Ilhan; Girgin, Sadullah

    2013-09-01

    Adult intussusception is an uncommon disease requiring surgical intervention. The aim of this study is to discuss the surgical alternatives and share our experience in the treatment of adult patients with intussusceptions formed as a result of polyps. The retrospective study included 16 adult patients who underwent surgery after the diagnosis of intestinal invaginations resulting from polyps between the years 2000 and 2011. Sixteen patients (seven males and nine females; mean age, 48.18 years; range, 18 to 76 years) presented with intestinal intussusceptions. Although a preoperative diagnosis was carried out in 11 (68.75%) patients, the diagnosis was made intraoperatively in five patients (31.25%). Among the patients, seven (43.8%) had undergone emergency surgeries and nine (52.8) had elective surgery. The invagination in 12 patients (75%) was located in the small intestine, in two patients (12.5%) in the colon, and in a further two patients (12.5%), it was ileocecally located. Ten patients (62.5%) had segmental resection + anastomosis; three patients underwent (18.8%) segmental resection + enterostomy, and three (18.8%) received hemicolectomies. In adults, surgical treatment is always the primary option in intussusceptions resulting from polyps. Although the surgical method of choice in colonically located ones is en bloc resection without reduction, because the polyps located in the small intestine are usually of a benign nature, segmental resection with reduction should be performed in elective surgery and segmental resection without reduction should be performed in emergency cases.

  18. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a mouse gene upregulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment reveals alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kejun; Chen, Yaoming; Dai, Zongming; Bi, Yuan; Cai, Tongjian; Hou, Lichao; Chai, Yubo; Song, Qinghe; Chen, Sumin; Luo, Wenjing; Chen, Jingyuan

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of mouse cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently initiates an inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to characterize cDNA sequences of a new mouse LPS-responsive gene, and to evaluate the effects of MLrg. Full-length cDNAs were obtained from LPS-treated NIH3T3 cells. We report that the MLrg gene produces two alternative splice products (GenBank Accession Nos. (DQ316984) and (DQ320011)), respectively, encoding MLrgW and MLrgS polypeptides. Both proteins contain zinc finger and leucine zipper domains and are thus potential regulators of transcription. Expression of MLrgW and MLrgS were robustly upregulated following LPS treatment, and the proteins were localized predominantly in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm. In stable transfectants over-expressing MLrgW the proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly reduced, while in cells over-expressing MLrgS the proportion of cells in G2 was significantly increased; both proteins are thus potential regulators of cell cycle progression. Upregulation of MLrgW and MLrgS may be an important component of the LPS inflammatory pathway and of the host response to infection with GNB.

  19. Usefulness of Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Therapeutic Alternative in the Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paola; Deboli, Tommaso; Previgliano, Alberto; Broganelli, Paolo

    2015-09-28

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in individuals with fair skin type (I-II) and steadily increasing in incidence (70% of skin malignancy). It is locally invasive but metastasis is usually very rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.0028%-0.55%. Conventional therapy is surgery, especially for the H region of the face and infiltrative lesions; in case of inoperable tumors, radiotherapy is a valid option. Recently, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an effective treatment in the management of superficial and small nodular BCC. PDT is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the administration of a photo-sensibilizing agent followed by irradiation at a pre-defined wavelength; this determines the creation of reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. The only major side effect is pain, reported by some patients during the irradiation. The high cure rate and excellent cosmetic outcome requires considering this possibility for the management of patients with both sporadic and hereditary BCC. In this article, an extensive review of the recent literature was made, in order to clarify the role of PDT as a possible alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of BCC.

  20. Usefulness of Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Therapeutic Alternative in the Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Paola; Deboli, Tommaso; Previgliano, Alberto; Broganelli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in individuals with fair skin type (I–II) and steadily increasing in incidence (70% of skin malignancy). It is locally invasive but metastasis is usually very rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.0028%–0.55%. Conventional therapy is surgery, especially for the H region of the face and infiltrative lesions; in case of inoperable tumors, radiotherapy is a valid option. Recently, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an effective treatment in the management of superficial and small nodular BCC. PDT is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the administration of a photo-sensibilizing agent followed by irradiation at a pre-defined wavelength; this determines the creation of reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. The only major side effect is pain, reported by some patients during the irradiation. The high cure rate and excellent cosmetic outcome requires considering this possibility for the management of patients with both sporadic and hereditary BCC. In this article, an extensive review of the recent literature was made, in order to clarify the role of PDT as a possible alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of BCC. PMID:26426005

  1. Distinction of mutagenic carcinogens from a mutagenic noncarcinogen in the big blue transgenic mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, M L; Hayward, J J; Shane, B S; Tindall, K R

    1996-01-01

    The aromatic amines 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT) and 2,6-diaminotoluene (2,6-DAT) are structural isomers that have been extensively studied for their mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Both compounds are rapidly absorbed after oral administration and are equally mutagenic in the Ames test; however, 2,4-DAT is a potent hepatocarcinogen, whereas 2,6-DAT does not produce an increased incidence of tumors in rats or mice at similar doses. The Big Blue transgenic B6C3F1 mouse carries multiple copies of the lacl mutational target gene. Our studies were designed to determine whether the Big Blue system could be used to detect differences in the vivo mutagenic activity between the carcinogen-noncarcinogen pair 2,4-DAT and 2,6-DAT and to determine whether the in vivo mutagenesis assay results correspond to the rodent carcinogen bioassay results. Male B6C3F1 transgenic mice were exposed to 2,4-DAT or 2,6-DAT at 0 or 1,000 ppm in the diet for 30 and 90 days or to dimethylnitrosamine as a positive control. Mutant frequencies were nearly identical for all three groups at 30 days, while at 90 days the mutant frequency for the hepatocarcinogen 2,4-DAT (12.1 +/- 1.4 x 10(-5)) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to both age-matched (spontaneous) controls (5.7 +/- 2.9 x 10(-5)) and the 2,6-DAT-exposed group (5.7 +/- 2.4 x 10(-5)). Results from this study demonstrate that the Big Blue transgenic mutation assay can distinguish differences in vivo between the mutagenic responses of hepatic carcinogens ad a noncarcinogen; is sensitive to mutagens through subchronic dietary exposure; and yields a differential response depending upon the length of time mice are exposed to a mutagen. PMID:8781405

  2. Treatment of PVC using an alternative low energy ion bombardment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, Elidiane C.; dos Santos, Nazir M.; Bortoleto, José Roberto R.; Durrant, Steven F.; Schreiner, Wido H.; Honda, Roberto Y.; Rangel, Rita de Cássia C.; Cruz, Nilson C.

    2011-12-01

    In many applications, polymers have progressively substituted traditional materials such as ceramics, glasses, and metals. Nevertheless, the use of polymeric materials is still limited by their surface properties. Frequently, selective modifications are necessary to suit the surface to a given application. Amongst the most common treatments, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has attracted the attention of many researchers owing to its versatility and practicality. This method, however, requires a power supply to provide high voltage (tens of kV) negative pulses, with a controlled duty cycle, width and frequency. Owing to this, the implementation of PIII on the industrial scale can become economically inviable. In this work, an alternative plasma treatment that enables low energy ion bombardment without the need of a high voltage pulse generator is presented. To evaluate the efficiency of the treatment of polymers, polyvinylchloride, PVC, specimens were exposed to 5 Pa argon plasmas for 3600 s, at excitation powers, P, of between 10 and 125 W. Through contact angle and atomic force microscopy data, the influence of P on the wettability, surface free energy and roughness of the samples was studied. Surface chemical composition was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS. To evaluate the effect of aging under atmospheric conditions, contact angle and XPS measurements were performed one and 1334 days after the treatment. The plasma potential and ion density around the driven electrode were determined from Langmuir probe measurements while the self-bias potential was derived with the aid of an oscilloscope. From these data it was possible to estimate the mean energy of ions bombarding the PVC surface. Chlorine, carbon and oxygen contamination were detected on the surface of the as-received PVC. Upon exposure to the plasma, the proportion of chlorine was observed to decrease while that of oxygen increased. Consequently, the wettability and surface energy

  3. Evaluation of azo food dyes for mutagenicity and inhibition of mutagenicity by methods using Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Prival, M J; Davis, V M; Peiperl, M D; Bell, S J

    1988-10-01

    The mutagenicity of 4 azo dyes (FD&C Yellow No. 5, FD&C Yellow No. 6, FD&C Red No. 40 and amaranth) that are widely used to color food has been evaluated. 4 different methods were used: (1) the standard Ames plate-incorporation assay performed directly on the dyes in the absence of S9 and in the presence of rat- or hamster-liver S9; (2) application of the standard plate assay to ether extracts of aqueous solutions of the dyes; (3) a variant of the standard assay, using hamster liver S9, preincubation, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and other modifications designed to facilitate azo reduction; and (4) reduction of the dyes with sodium dithionite, followed by ether extraction and the standard plate assay. Assays that include chemical reduction (methods 3 and 4) were included because azo compounds ingested orally are reduced in the intestine with the release of free aromatic amines. No mutagenic activity was seen for any of the azo dyes tested by using the standard Ames plate assay (method 1). Ether extracts of some samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6, FD&C Red No. 40 and amaranth were active (method 2), but only at high doses, generally 250 mg-equivalents or more per plate. These results indicate the presence of low levels of ether-extractable mutagenic impurities. The FMN preincubation assay (method 3) gave negative results for all dye samples tested. Most batches of FD&C Red No. 40 tested had mutagenic activity that was detectable when the ether extract of less than 1 mg of dithionite-reduced dye was plated in the presence of S9 (method 4). This finding implies that an impurity in these samples of FD&C Red No. 40 can be reduced to yield an ether-extractable mutagen. Dithionite-reduced samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6 and amaranth showed ether-extractable mutagenic activity only at much higher doses than those at which activity was seen with most dithionite-reduced samples of FD&C Red No. 40 (method 4). FD&C Yellow No. 5 showed no mutagenic activity with this method. Mutagenic

  4. [Treatment adherence and use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Lakatos, László; Czeglédi, Zsófia; Dávid, Gyula; Kispál, Zsófi; Kiss, Lajos S; Palatka, Károly; Kristóf, Tünde; Molnár, Tamás; Salamon, Agnes; Demeter, Pál; Miheller, Pál; Szamosi, Tamás; Banai, János; Papp, Mária; Bene, László; Kovács, Agota; Rácz, István; Lakatos, Péter László

    2010-02-14

    Previous studies have suggested an increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Furthermore, a significant number of IBD patients fail to comply with treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of non-adherence the use of CAM in Hungarian patients with IBD. A total of 655 consecutive IBD patients (Crohn's disease [CD]: 344, age: 38.2 + or - 12.9 years; ulcerative colitis [UC]: 311, age: 44.9 + or - 15.3 years) were interviewed during the visit at specialists by self-administered questionnaire including demographic and disease-related data, as well as items analyzing the extent of non-adherence and CAM use. Patients taking more then 80% of each prescribed medicine were classified as adherent. The overall rate of self reported non-adherence (CD: 20.9%, UC: 20.6%) and CAM (CD: 31.7%, UC: 30.9%) use was not different between CD and UC. The most common causes of non-adherence were: forgetfulness (47.8%), too many/unnecessary pills (39.7%), being afraid of side effects (27.9%) and too frequent dosing. Most common forms of CAM were herbal tee (47.3%), homeopathy (14.6%), special diet (12.2%), and acupuncture (5.8%). In CD, disease duration, date of last follow-up visit, educational level and previous surgeries were predicting factors for non-adherence. Alternative medicine use was associated in both diseases with younger age, higher educational level and immunosuppressant use. In addition, CAM use in UC was more common in females and in patients with supportive psychiatric/psychological therapy. Non-adherence and CAM use is common in patients with IBD. Special attention should be paid to explore the identified predictive factors during follow-up visits to improve adherence to therapy and improving patient-doctor relationship.

  5. Improving adhesion between luting cement and zirconia-based ceramic with an alternative surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Martins, Aurealice Rosa Maria; Gotti, Valéria Bisinoto; Shimano, Marcos Massao; Borges, Gilberto Antônio; Gonçalves, Luciano de Souza

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an alternative surface treatment on the microshear bond strength (μsbs) of zirconia-based ceramic. Thirty-five zirconia disks were assigned to five groups according to the following treatments: Control (CO), glass and silane were not applied to the zirconia surface; G1, air blasted with 100μm glass beads + glaze + silane; G2, a gel containing 15% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; G3, a gel containing 25% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; and G4, a gel containing 50% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane. The specimens were built up using RelyX ARC®, according to the manufacturer's recommendations, and inserted in an elastomeric mold with an inner diameter of 0.8 mm. The μsbs test was performed using a testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05) were applied to the bond strength values (in MPa). CO (15.6 ± 4.1) showed the lowest μsbs value. There were no statistical differences between the G1 (24.9 ± 7.4), G2 (24.9 ± 2.3), G3 (35.0 ± 10.3) and G4 (35.3 ± 6.0) experimental groups. Those groups submitted to surface treatments with higher concentrations of glass showed a lower frequency of adhesive failures. In conclusion, the glass application improved the interaction between the ceramic and the luting cement.

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine provider use and expenditures by cancer treatment phase.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, William E; Tyree, Patrick T; Devlin, Sean M; Andersen, M Robyn; Diehr, Paula K

    2008-05-01

    To assess the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers and the associated expenditures by specific treatment phases among patients with cancer. Cross-sectional analysis of medical services utilization and expenditures during the 3 therapeutic phases of initial, continuing, and end-of-life life treatment. Analysis of an insurance claims database that had been matched to the Washington State Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Of 2900 registry-matched patients, 63.2% were female, the median age was 54 years, and 92.7% were of white race/ethnicity. Breast cancer was the most frequent diagnosis (52.7%), followed by prostate cancer (24.7%), lung cancer (10.1%), colon cancer (7.0%), and hematologic malignancies (5.6%). Patients using CAM providers represented 26.5%. The proportion of patients using CAM was similar during each treatment phase. All patients used some conventional care. Age, female sex, breast cancer diagnosis, and white race/ethnicity were significant predictors of CAM use. Diagnosis of a musculoskeletal problem occurred at some time during the study for 72.1% of patients. CAM provider visits represented 7.2% of total outpatient medical visits, and 85.1% of CAM visits resulted in a musculoskeletal diagnosis. Expenditures for CAM providers were 0.3%, 1.0%, and 0.1% of all expenditures during the initial, continuing, and end-of-life phases, respectively. For patients with cancer, musculoskeletal issues were the most commonly listed diagnosis made by a CAM provider. Although expenditures associated with CAM are a small proportion of the total, additional studies are necessary to determine the importance that patients place on access to these services.

  7. Regenerative medicine provides alternative strategies for the treatment of anal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gräs, Søren; Tolstrup, Cæcilie Krogsgaard; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-03-01

    Anal incontinence is a common disorder but current treatment modalities are not ideal and the development of new treatments is needed. The aim of this review was to identify the existing knowledge of regenerative medicine strategies in the form of cellular therapies or bioengineering as a treatment for anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects. PubMed was searched for preclinical and clinical studies in English published from January 2005 to January 2016. Animal studies have demonstrated that cellular therapy in the form of local injections of culture-expanded skeletal myogenic cells stimulates repair of both acute and 2 - 4-week-old anal sphincter injuries. The results from a small clinical trial with ten patients and a case report support the preclinical findings. Animal studies have also demonstrated that local injections of mesenchymal stem cells stimulate repair of sphincter injuries, and a complex bioengineering strategy for creation and implantation of an intrinsically innervated internal anal sphincter construct has been successfully developed in a series of animal studies. Cellular therapies with myogenic cells and mesenchymal stem cells and the use of bioengineering technology to create an anal sphincter are new potential strategies to treat anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects, but the clinical evidence is extremely limited. The use of culture-expanded autologous skeletal myogenic cells has been most intensively investigated and several clinical trials were ongoing at the time of this report. The cost-effectiveness of such a therapy is an issue and muscle fragmentation is suggested as a simple alternative.

  8. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  9. Mutagenic by-products from chlorination of humic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, J R; Ringhand, H P; Coleman, W E; Schenck, K M; Munch, J W; Streicher, R P; Kaylor, W H; Kopfler, F C

    1986-01-01

    Chlorination of humic and fulvic acid results in the formation of direct-acting mutagenicity, detectable in the Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test). This mutagenicity is being characterized as part of an overall effort aimed at evaluating potential health risks associated with the presence of mutagenic chemicals in drinking water. A number of chlorinated organic compounds, including several known mutagens, have been identified and quantified in diethyl ether extracts of chlorinated humic acid solutions. However, the total mutagenicity of these compounds accounts for only about 7% of the original mutagenicity. Synergistic or antagonistic interactions among the identified components have been ruled out as possible explanations for the failure to account for a higher percentage of the activity. Recent progress has been made to separate the activity into neutral and strong acid fractions. Further isolation of the strong acids by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted in the purification of the mutagenicity into a major peak of activity with a specific mutagenicity of about 20,000 TA100 revertants per milligram. Several trichlorohydroxyfuranone isomers have been tentatively identified in this fraction. The contribution of these types of compounds to the mutagenicity of chlorinated humic acid is under investigation. PMID:2949966

  10. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    PubMed

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  11. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  12. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DePew, R.E.; Rickett, K.; Redus, K.S.; DuMont, S.P.; Lewis, B.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Van Hoesen, S.D. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP.

  13. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies of homemade rust-proof cutting fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Huang, W.Q.; Wang, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A homemade rust-proof cutting fluid (RPCF) used in China was tested for carcinogenicity by an in vivo chronic experiment and for mutagenicity by the Ames Salmonella microsomal assay. Undiluted and threefold water-diluted fluid were given as drinking water to groups of young adult Wistar rats for 2 years. The treatment induced 11/40 malignant tumors with 9/40 acinar adenocarcinomas of the pancreas in the high-dose group. Simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid dissolved in the undiluted fluid at 2 g acid per 1 g sodium nitrite resulted in 1/40 pancreatic carcinoma. The results of the Ames test showed that the technical RPCF was mutagenic to TA100 with or without metabolic activation. It was concluded that the homemade RPCF, which is comprised of sodium nitrite, triethanolamine, and polyethylene glycol, may form direct-acting mutagen(s) upon storage and form, in vivo, e.g., nitrosamines that caused acinar pancreatic carcinoma in Wistar rats. Simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid is suggested for the protection of workers exposed to the rust-proof cutting fluid.

  14. A case-control study of wood dust exposure, mutagen sensitivity, and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Delclos, G L; Annegers, J F; Bondy, M L; Honn, S E; Henry, B; Hsu, T C; Spitz, M R

    1995-09-01

    The associations between lung cancer risk, mutagen sensitivity (a marker of cancer susceptibility), and a putative lung carcinogen, wood dust, were assessed in a hospital-based case-control study. There were 113 African -American and 67 Mexican-American cases with newly diagnosed, previously untreated lung cancer and 270 controls, frequency-matched on age, ethnicity, and sex. Mutagen sensitivity ( 1 chromatid break/cell after short-term bleomycin treatment) was associated with statistically significant elevated risk for lung cancer [odds ration (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 2.3-7.9]. Wood dust exposure was also a significant predictor of risk (overall OR = 3.5; CI = 1.4-8.6) after controlling for smoking and mutagen sensitivity. When stratified by ethnicity, wood dust exposure was s significant risk factor for African-Americans (OR = 5.5; CI = 1.6-18.9) but not for Mexican-Americans (OR = 2.0; CI = 0.5-8.1). The ORs were 3.8 and 4.8 for non-small cell lung cancer in Mexican-Americans (CI = 1.2-18.5). Stratified analysis suggested evidence of strong interactions between wood dust exposure and both mutagen sensitivity and smoking in lung cancer risk.

  15. Modulatory Effect of Betulinic Acid on the Genotoxicity Induced by Different Mutagens in V79 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acésio, Nathália Oliveira; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Mastrocola, Daiane Fernanda Pereira; Lima, Ildercílio Mota de Souza; Munari, Carla Carolina; Sato, Vânia Luiza Ferreira Lucatti; Souza, Andressa Aparecida Silva; Flauzino, Lúzio Gabriel Bocalon; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpene that can be isolated from many medicinal plants around the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of BA and its effect on the genotoxicity induced by different mutagens in V79 cells using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Different BA concentrations were combined with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), doxorubicin (DXR), camptothecin (CPT), and etoposide (VP-16). The frequencies of micronuclei in cultures treated with different BA concentrations did not differ from those of the negative control. Treatment with BA and MMS resulted in lower micronucleus frequencies than those observed for cultures treated with MMS alone. On the other hand, a significant increase in micronucleus frequencies was observed in cultures treated with BA combined with DXR or VP-16 when compared to these mutagens alone. The results showed no effect of BA on CPT-induced genotoxicity. Therefore, BA was not genotoxic under the present experimental conditions and exerted a different influence on the genotoxicity induced by different mutagens. The modulatory effect of BA depends on the type of mutagen and concentrations used. PMID:27195016

  16. Acquired long QT syndrome and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia after alternative treatment with cesium chloride for brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Anuj K; Harding, John D; Verdino, Ralph J

    2004-08-01

    Individuals searching for symptomatic relief or a potential cure are increasingly seeking and using nontraditional therapies for their various diseases. Little is known about the potential adverse effects that patients may encounter while undergoing these alternative treatments. Cesium chloride is an unregulated agent that has been reported to have antineoplastic properties. Cesium chloride is advertised as an alternative agent for many different types of cancers and can be purchased easily on the Internet. Recently, QT prolongation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia were reported in several patients taking cesium chloride as alternative treatment for cancer. We report acquired QT prolongation and sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in a patient who self-initiated and completed a course of cesium chloride as adjunctive treatment for brain cancer.

  17. Docetaxel versus docetaxel alternating with gemcitabine as treatments of advanced breast cancer: final analysis of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Joensuu, H.; Sailas, L.; Alanko, T.; Sunela, K.; Huuhtanen, R.; Utriainen, M.; Kokko, R.; Bono, P.; Wigren, T.; Pyrhönen, S.; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, T.; Asola, R.; Leinonen, M.; Hahka-Kemppinen, M.; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Alternating administration of docetaxel and gemcitabine might result in improved time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and fewer adverse events compared with single-agent docetaxel as treatment of advanced breast cancer. Patients and methods: Women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer were randomly allocated to receive 3-weekly docetaxel (group D) or 3-weekly docetaxel alternating with 3-weekly gemcitabine (group D/G) until treatment failure as first-line chemotherapy. The primary end point was TTF. Results: Two hundred and thirty-seven subjects were assigned to treatment (group D, 115; group D/G, 122). The median TTF was 5.6 and 6.2 months in groups D and D/G, respectively (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.63–1.16; P = 0.31). There was no significant difference in time-to-disease progression, survival, and response rate between the groups. When adverse events were evaluated for the worst toxicity encountered during treatment, there was little difference between the groups, but when they were assessed per cycle, alternating treatment was associated with fewer severe (grade 3 or 4) adverse effects (P = 0.013), and the difference was highly significant for cycles when gemcitabine was administered in group D/G (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The alternating regimen was associated with a similar TTF as single-agent docetaxel but with fewer adverse effects during gemcitabine cycles. PMID:19819914

  18. Risk assessment of a cold argon plasma jet in respect to its mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Wende, K; Bekeschus, S; Schmidt, A; Jatsch, L; Hasse, S; Weltmann, K D; Masur, K; von Woedtke, T

    2016-03-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas represent a favorable option for the treatment of heat sensitive materials and human or animal tissue. Beneficial effects have been documented in a variety of medical conditions, e.g., in the treatment of chronic wounds. It is assumed that the main mechanism of the plasma's efficacy is mediated by a stimulating dissipation of energy via radiation and/or chemical energy. Although no evidence on undesired side effects of a plasma treatment has yet been presented, skepticism toward the safety of the exposure to plasma is present. However, only little data regarding the mutagenic potential of this new treatment option is available. Accordingly, we investigated the mutagenic potential of an argon plasma jet (kinpen) using different testing systems in accordance with ISO norms and multiple cell lines: a HPRT1 mutation assay, a micronucleus formation assay, and a colony formation assay. Moderate plasma treatment up to 180 s did not increase genotoxicity in any assay or cell type investigated. We conclude that treatment with the argon plasma jet kinpen did not display a mutagenic potential under the test conditions applied and may from this perspective be regarded as safe for the use in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Beliefs and Perceptions of Women with Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Who Refused Conventional Treatment in Favor of Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Diane L.; Grutsch, James F.; Mortensen, Sara J.; Lis, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Although breast cancer is a highly treatable disease, some women reject conventional treatment opting for unproven “alternative therapy” that may contribute to poor health outcomes. This study sought to understand why some women make this decision and to identify messages that might lead to greater acceptance of evidence-based treatment. Patients and Methods. This study explored treatment decision making through in-depth interviews with 60 breast cancer patients identified by their treating oncologists. Thirty refused some or all conventional treatment, opting for alternative therapies, whereas 30 accepted both conventional and alternative treatments. All completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Rotter Locus of Control scale. Results. Negative first experiences with “uncaring, insensitive, and unnecessarily harsh” oncologists, fear of side effects, and belief in the efficacy of alternative therapies were key factors in the decision to reject potentially life-prolonging conventional therapy. Refusers differed from controls in their perceptions of the value of conventional treatment, believing that chemotherapy and radiotherapy were riskier (p < .0073) and less beneficial (p < .0001) than did controls. Controls perceived alternative medicine alone as riskier than did refusers because its value for treating cancer is unproven (p < .0001). Refusers believed they could heal themselves naturally from cancer with simple holistic methods like raw fruits, vegetables, and supplements. Conclusion. According to interviewees, a compassionate approach to cancer care plus physicians who acknowledge their fears, communicate hope, educate them about their options, and allow them time to come to terms with their diagnosis before starting treatment might have led them to better treatment choices. PMID:22531358

  20. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  1. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  2. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  3. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  4. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  5. URINARY MUTAGENICITY: A BIOMARKER OF GENOTOXIC EXPOSURES VIA AIR, WATER, AND DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 30 years, ~100 studies have evaluated human urine for mutagenic activity using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay. Urinary mutagenicity has been shown to correlate well with other biomarkers, including DNA and hemoglobin adducts, urinary metabolites, and chr...

  6. URINARY MUTAGENICITY: A BIOMARKER OF GENOTOXIC EXPOSURES VIA AIR, WATER, AND DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 30 years, ~100 studies have evaluated human urine for mutagenic activity using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay. Urinary mutagenicity has been shown to correlate well with other biomarkers, including DNA and hemoglobin adducts, urinary metabolites, and chr...

  7. Antioxidant activity, mutagenicity/anti-mutagenicity, and clastogenicity/anti-clastogenicity of lutein from marigold flowers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingchen; Tsao, Rong; Zhang, Shanfeng; Dong, Ziming; Yang, Raymond; Gong, Jianhua; Pei, Yingxin

    2006-09-01

    High dietary intake of lutein has been associated with risk reduction of many chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Lutein in food is generally regarded as safe. However, information on the toxicological and beneficial effect of lutein at higher doses is limited. In this study, large amount of lutein was extracted and purified from marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L.). The antioxidant activity of lutein was examined by using the photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay and the beta-carotene-linoleic acid model system (beta-CLAMS). Lutein showed a greater antioxidant activity than the other two common carotenoids, beta-carotene and lycopene. The mutagenicity and anti-mutagenicity of lutein at 334, 668 and 1335 microg/plate were examined using the standard Ames test in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Lutein was not only found to be non-mutagenic at all doses, but it showed an anti-mutagenic effect in a dose-dependent manner. Similar results were found in a chromosome aberration test using Chinese hamster ovary cells for the evaluation of clastogenicity and anti-clastogenicity of lutein at 66.8, 133.5 and 267.0 mg/L. Our findings provided scientific evidence for the safe use and health beneficial effects of lutein.

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of alternative primaquine regimens to standard treatment in preventing relapses by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo Perez, María-Eulalia; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens currently used to prevent relapses by P. vivax. Methods: A systematic review was carried out to identify clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety to prevent malaria recurrences by P. vivax of primaquine regimen 0.5 mg/kg/ day for 7 or 14 days compared to standard regimen of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Efficacy of primaquine according to cumulative incidence of recurrences after 28 days was determined. The overall relative risk with fixed-effects meta-analysis was estimated. Results: For the regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/7 days were identified 7 studies, which showed an incidence of recurrence between 0% and 20% with follow-up 60-210 days; only 4 studies comparing with the standard regimen 0.25 mg/kg/day/14 days and no difference in recurrences between both regimens (RR= 0.977, 95% CI= 0.670 to 1.423) were found. 3 clinical trials using regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/14 days with an incidence of recurrences between 1.8% and 18.0% during 330-365 days were identified; only one study comparing with the standard regimen (RR= 0.846, 95% CI= 0.484 to 1.477). High risk of bias and differences in handling of included studies were found. Conclusion: Available evidence is insufficient to determine whether currently PQ regimens used as alternative rather than standard treatment have better efficacy and safety in preventing relapse of P. vivax. Clinical trials are required to guide changes in treatment regimen of malaria vivax. PMID:26848199

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine usage in Scottish children and adolescents during cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Revuelta-Iniesta, R; Wilson, M L; White, K; Stewart, L; McKenzie, J M; Wilson, D C

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of the use of CAM and spiritual practices in the paediatric oncology population of SE Scotland and to establish both the reasons for their use and the perceived benefits. A retrospective survey was performed using previously piloted questionnaires. These were distributed to families whose children were <18 years and diagnosed with cancer. Demographic and clinical data were collected, descriptive statistics were used to establish frequencies and univariate associations were established by χ(2) test. Of 169 families approached, 74 (44%) returned completed questionnaires. 41 (55%) families used CAM and 42 (57%) sought spiritual remedies whilst receiving conventional treatment. Higher socioeconomic status was the only factor associated with CAM usage and the most popular therapies were vitamins and minerals (n = 22; 53%), followed by massage (n = 12; 29%) and fish oils (n = 12; 29%). Most families used CAM to reduce stress and, overall, CAM was perceived to be beneficial. The high prevalence of CAM usage in this population highlights the need for physicians to enquire routinely about CAM use and warrants high-quality interventional studies to assess safety and efficacy. The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among paediatric patients during cancer treatment is popular worldwide, yet data from the UK are scarce. This study showed that more than half of this Scottish cohort used CAM and that there was an overall positive perception of the effect that these therapies had on the patients. Also, socio-economically advantaged families might be more likely to use CAM in Scotland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A narrative review of medical, chiropractic, and alternative health practices in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Lolita G.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective Primary dysmenorrhea and related issues are discussed as they influence the gynecological and social health of females during adolescence, adulthood, and senior maturity. Health practitioners are exposed to multiple approaches towards the management of menstrual pain. Clinical and social viewpoints target the causation, development, diagnosis, manifestation and management of primary dysmenorrhea. This narrative review includes the topic of the doctor-patient relationship in efforts of cultivating effectively communicative health practitioners. Controversial topics related to primary dysmenorrhea and the quality of life for women are addressed. Data Sources A search for literature reviews, case studies, laboratory research, and clinical trials from 1985–2004 was performed using the MEDLINE database. Sources of additional information included textbooks, national organizational literature and contemporary articles. Discussion Menstrual pain is a prevalent experience yet it is socially taboo for conversation; as such, it poses a hindrance to its management. The communication between the doctor and patient is a critical barrier point between establishing a diagnosis and determining an appropriate treatment plan. A multi-disciple treatment plan varies as much as patients themselves vary in personal experiences, needs, and preferences. Conclusions Medicinal prophylactics, physical therapeutics, non-acidic diets, herbal supplements, eastern therapies and the chiropractic manual adjustments of the spine are effective methods for the management of primary dysmenorrhea. The non-invasive management of primary dysmenorrhea includes the chiropractic adjustment with complimentary modalities, and other alternative health care practices. Medicinal prophylactics are invasive and pose a higher risk to long-term chemical exposure, side effects or irreversible conditions. PMID:19674650

  11. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Martínez-Montiel, Mónica; Gaspariano-Cholula, Mayra Patricia; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca D

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics.

  12. Drug repurposing as an alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the options for treating such infections are decreasing, due the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The pharmaceutical industry has produced few new types of antibiotics in more than a decade. Researchers are taking several approaches toward developing new classes of antibiotics, including (1) focusing on new targets and processes, such as bacterial cell-cell communication that upregulates virulence; (2) designing inhibitors of bacterial resistance, such as blockers of multidrug efflux pumps; and (3) using alternative antimicrobials such as bacteriophages. In addition, the strategy of finding new uses for existing drugs is beginning to produce results: antibacterial properties have been discovered for existing anticancer, antifungal, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review, we discuss the antimicrobial properties of gallium compounds, 5-fluorouracil, ciclopirox, diflunisal, and some other FDA-approved drugs and argue that their repurposing for the treatment of bacterial infections, including those that are multidrug resistant, is a feasible strategy.

  13. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf extract: An alternative approach for the treatment of staphylococcal bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mordmuang, Auemphon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic residues in dairy products as well as emergence of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens have been recognized as global public health concerns. The present work was aimed to study a potent antibacterial extract from natural product as an alternative treatment for staphylococcal bovine mastitis. Staphylococcal isolates (n=44) were isolated from milk samples freshly squeezed from individual cows. All staphylococcal isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin, except vancomycin. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf ethanolic extract was accessed for its antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory potential. The extract exhibited profound antibacterial activity against all of staphylococcal isolates with MIC and MBC values ranged from 16-64 μg/ml and 64->128 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extract also exerted anti-protein denaturation and human red blood cell membrane stabilizing activity. The results support the use of R. tomentosa extract that could be applied to cure bovine mastitis and to reduce inflammatory injury caused by the bacterial infections.

  14. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Martínez-Montiel, Mónica; Gaspariano-Cholula, Mayra Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics. PMID:27610372

  15. Native ureteropyelostomy in the treatment of obstructive uropathy in adult renal transplant. Experience and technical alternatives.

    PubMed

    Trilla, E; Lorente, D; Salvador, C; Planas, J; Placer, J; Celma, A; Cantarell, C; Moreso, F; Seron, D; Morote, J

    2014-10-01

    To analyze and evaluate our experience in surgical treatment with the open approach of the complex ureteral stenosis after adult kidney transplantation in a tertiary level hospital in the last seven years. We have reviewed the different surgical options used. A total of 589 consecutive adult renal transplants were performed from January 2005 to December 2012. Of these, 1.1% showed some degree of symptomatic obstructive uropathy which after initial urinary diversion required open surgical approach using the ipsilateral or contralateral native urinary tract. Characteristics of the patient, clinical examinations performed and surgical technique performed as well as their results are presented. During the period under review, in 5 men and 2 women who had ureteral stenoses after renal transplant, 7 reparative surgeries were performed by open ureteropyelostomy, using ipsilateral native ureter in 6 cases and contralateral ureter in the remaining case. In one case, uretero-calicial anastomosis was performed due to severe pyelic shrinkage. There were no significant complications. Native kidney nephrectomy was not required for further complications. All the patients operated on had optimum plasma creatinine levels with resolution of previous dilatation. The initial percutaneous nephrostomy followed by open surgical repair using native ureter represents a definitive, valid and optimal alternative in terms of safety and preservation of renal function. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Grape bagasse as an alternative natural adsorbent of cadmium and lead for effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Farinella, N V; Matos, G D; Lehmann, E L; Arruda, M A Z

    2008-06-15

    This work investigated the utilization of grape bagasse as an alternative natural adsorbent to remove Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from laboratory effluent. X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analyses, surface analysis, porosity and porous size were used for characterization of the material. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the material. Parameters such as adsorption pH and contact time were optimized for the maximum accumulation onto the solid surface. The pH values found were 7 and 3 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, and contact time was 5 min for both metals. Adsorption capacity for metals were calculated from adsorption isotherms by applying the Langmüir model and found to be 0.774 and 0.428 mmol g(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The competition between metals for the same adsorption sites on grape bagasse was also evaluated, showing an increasing affinity for Pb(II) over Cd(II) when only these metals are present. The potential of this material was demonstrated by efficient metal removal from laboratory effluent using a glass column. The results indicate that the referred material could be employed as adsorbent for effluent treatment, especially due to its easy acquisition and low cost as well as the fast adsorption involved.

  17. Inhaled sildenafil as an alternative to oral sildenafil in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

    PubMed

    Rashid, Jahidur; Patel, Brijeshkumar; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; McMurtry, Ivan F; Stenmark, Kurt R; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2017-03-28

    The practice of treating PAH patients with oral or intravenous sildenafil suffers from the limitations of short dosing intervals, peripheral vasodilation, unwanted side effects, and restricted use in pediatric patients. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that inhalable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles of sildenafil prolong the release of the drug, produce pulmonary specific vasodilation, reduce the systemic exposure of the drug, and may be used as an alternative to oral sildenafil in the treatment of PAH. Thus, we prepared porous PLGA particles of sildenafil using a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method with polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a porosigen and characterized the formulations for surface morphology, respirability, in-vitro drug release, and evaluated for in vivo absorption, alveolar macrophage uptake, and safety. PEI increased the particle porosity, drug entrapment, and produced drug release for 36h. Fluorescent particles showed reduced uptake by alveolar macrophages. The polymeric particles were safe to rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell and to the lungs, as evidenced by the cytotoxicity assay and analyses of the injury markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, respectively. Intratracheally administered sildenafil particles elicited more pulmonary specific and sustained vasodilation in SUGEN-5416/hypoxia-induced PAH rats than oral, intravenous, or intratracheal plain sildenafil did, when administered at the same dose. Overall, true to the hypothesis, this study shows that inhaled PLGA particles of sildenafil can be administered, as a substitute for oral form of sildenafil, at a reduced dose and longer dosing interval.

  18. [COCONUT OIL: NON-ALTERNATIVE DRUG TREATMENT AGAINST ALZHEIMER´S DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Hu Yang, Iván; De la Rubia Ortí, Jose Enrique; Selvi Sabater, Pablo; Sancho Castillo, Sandra; Rochina, Mariano Julián; Manresa Ramón, Noemí; Montoya-Castilla, Inmaculada

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's dementia is the most prevalent nowadays. As for treatment, there is no definitive cure drug, thus new therapies are needed. In this regard the medium chain triglycerides are a direct source of cellular energy and can be a nonpharmacological alternative to the neuronal death for lack of it, that occurs in Alzheimer patients. to evaluate the impact of coconut oil in the development of Alzheimer's dementia, in any degree of dementia. Also determine whether this improvement influences within variables such as sex and suffering or not Type II Diabetes Mellitus. a prospective study was conducted in patients with Alzheimer's dementia, with a control and an intervention group which was administered 40 ml/day of extra virgin coconut oil. The parameters evaluated were the mini test scores Lobo cognitive test, pre and post intervention in both groups. it was observed in subjects taking the product, a statistically significant increase in test score MECWOLF and therefore an improvement in cognitive status, improving especially women's, those without diabetes mellitus type II, and severe patients. this study, although preliminary, demonstrated the positive influence of coconut oil at the cognitive level of patients with Alzheimer's, this improvement being dependent on sex, presence or absence of diabetes and degree of dementia. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. From conventional activated sludge to alternate oxic/anoxic process: the optimisation of winery wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, A L; Nardelli, P; Gatti, G; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the results obtained as nitrogen removal and energy savings in a wastewater treatment plant located in the Province of Trento where the vineyards grow on about 1,500 ha (19% of total vineyards of the Province). In the plant the municipal and pre-treated winery wastewater were co-treated. The optimal effluent quality and the reduction of energy consumption were achieved changing the total oxidation process to an alternate cycles (AC) one and applying a remote control system for three months. The characterization of the influent highlighted a remarkable variability of the mass loads mainly determined by the cyclic winemaking periods. The AC application allowed the system to cope with the intense variations of influent nitrogen loadings and to obtain a stable quality of the effluent with an average TN concentration less than 10 mg NL(-1). The nitrogen loading rate (NLR) up to 0.227 Kg TN m(-3) d(-1) was tolerated by the elevated AC control level device to assure successful denitrification performances (from 70% to 90%) also in conditions of COD/TN lower than 7. Comparing the AC with the pre AC conditions, a total energy saving in the range of 13-23% was estimated. Moreover, the specific energy consumptions were reduced to 59% despite the increment of the influent mass loadings.

  20. Extracorporeal staple technique: an alternative approach to the treatment of critical colostomy stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Skokowski, Jarosław; Kalinowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    We describe an extracorporeal staple technique used to treat severe colostomy stenosis under analgo-sedation, thus avoiding relaparotomy. The surgery is performed under short-term sedation. The orifice of the stoma is widened and overgrowing skin is excised. The volume and diameter of the stoma are assessed. The anvil of a circular stapler device is inserted into the lumen of the colostomy. First bowel layers and then skin are closed with purse-string sutures. One firing of the stapler is used to reshape the stoma. The procedure takes around 20–30 min. One circular stapler is used. The patient can be discharged the same day or a day after surgery. No complications were noted in operated patients. At 6- and 12-month follow-ups, a slight narrowing of the colostomy was visible, but no recurrence of the stricture was noted. The described technique is an interesting, easy and safe alternative to previous methods of treatment for stenosed end-colostomy. Importantly, it is an extra-abdominal procedure and may be offered to patients with a history of multiple abdominal operations or with serious coexisting medical conditions in the one-day surgery setting. PMID:26240635