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Sample records for alternative mutagenic treatment

  1. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATION (TRE) AT A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT USING MUTAGENICITY AS AN END- POINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work revealed substantial levels of mutagenicity in effluents from certain municipal wastewater treatment plants. One of these treatment plants was selected for further study to track the effluent mutagenicity to its sources, to chemically characterize the mutagenicity, ...

  2. Mutagenicity of an aged gasworks soil during bioslurry treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Christine L; Lynes, Krista D; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Öberg, Lars; Lambert, Iain B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the mutagenic activity of organic fractions from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pilot-scale bioslurry remediation. Slurry samples were previously analyzed for changes in PAH and polycyclic aromatic compound content, and this study examined the correspondence between the chemical and toxicological metrics. Nonpolar neutral and semipolar aromatic fractions of samples obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 24, and 29 of treatment were assayed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutation assay. Most samples elicited a significant positive response on Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without S9 metabolic activation; however, TA100 failed to detect mutagenicity in any sample. Changes in the mutagenic activity of the fractions across treatment time and metabolic activation conditions suggests a pattern of formation and transformation of mutagenic compounds that may include a wide range of PAH derivatives such as aromatic amines, oxygenated PAHs, and S-heterocyclic compounds. The prior chemical analyses documented the formation of oxygenated PAHs during the treatment (e.g., 4-oxapyrene-5-one), and the mutagenicity analyses showed high corresponding activity in the semipolar fraction with and without metabolic activation. However, it could not be verified that these specific compounds were the underlying cause of the observed changes in mutagenic activity. The results highlight the need for concurrent chemical and toxicological profiling of contaminated sites undergoing remediation to ensure elimination of priority contaminants as well as a reduction in toxicological hazard. Moreover, the results imply that remediation efficacy and utility be evaluated using both chemical and toxicological metrics. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19274766

  3. Mutagenicity of an aged gasworks soil during bioslurry treatment.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Christine L; Lynes, Krista D; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Oberg, Lars; Lambert, Iain B

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated changes in the mutagenic activity of organic fractions from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pilot-scale bioslurry remediation. Slurry samples were previously analyzed for changes in PAH and polycyclic aromatic compound content, and this study examined the correspondence between the chemical and toxicological metrics. Nonpolar neutral and semipolar aromatic fractions of samples obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 24, and 29 of treatment were assayed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutation assay. Most samples elicited a significant positive response on Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without S9 metabolic activation; however, TA100 failed to detect mutagenicity in any sample. Changes in the mutagenic activity of the fractions across treatment time and metabolic activation conditions suggests a pattern of formation and transformation of mutagenic compounds that may include a wide range of PAH derivatives such as aromatic amines, oxygenated PAHs, and S-heterocyclic compounds. The prior chemical analyses documented the formation of oxygenated PAHs during the treatment (e.g., 4-oxapyrene-5-one), and the mutagenicity analyses showed high corresponding activity in the semipolar fraction with and without metabolic activation. However, it could not be verified that these specific compounds were the underlying cause of the observed changes in mutagenic activity. The results highlight the need for concurrent chemical and toxicological profiling of contaminated sites undergoing remediation to ensure elimination of priority contaminants as well as a reduction in toxicological hazard. Moreover, the results imply that remediation efficacy and utility be evaluated using both chemical and toxicological metrics. PMID:19274766

  4. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  5. Inhibitory effect of cheese and some food constituents on mutagenicity generated in Vicia faba after treatment with nitrite.

    PubMed

    Jongen, W M; van Boekel, M A; van Broekhoven, L W

    1987-02-01

    The inhibitory potential of various food constituents on the mutagenicity generated in fava beans after treatment with nitrite has been investigated. Cheese was able to inhibit this direct-acting mutagenicity. The antimutagenic factor was not extractable from cheese; solvents of different polarity were used for the extraction. Casein, pectin, gelatin, Vicia faba protein and, to a lesser extent, whey protein and starch could also inhibit mutagenicity. A decrease in mutagenicity was always accompanied by a decrease in total N-nitroso content, as measured analytically. The mutagenic principles appeared to bind more strongly onto cheese than onto V. faba. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:3557236

  6. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles from an engine with differing exhaust after treatments.

    PubMed

    Shi, X-C; Keane, M J; Ong, T; Li, S-Q; Bugarski, A B

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatments on the mutagenicity of diesel particulate matter (DPM) collected directly in an underground mine environment. A number of after-treatment devices are currently used on diesel engines in mines, but it is critical to determine whether reductions in DPM concentrations result in a corresponding decrease in adverse health effects. An eddy-current dynamometer was used to operate naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine at several steady-state conditions. The samples were collected when the engine was equipped with a standard muffler, a diesel oxidation catalytic converter, two types of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter systems, and three types of disposable diesel particulate filter elements. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on acetone extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. The results indicated strong correlation between engine operating conditions and mutagenic activity of DPM. When the engine was fitted with muffler, the mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected from light-load, but not heavy-load operating conditions. When the engine was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst, the samples did not exhibit mutagenic activity for any of four engine operating conditions. Mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected when the engine was retrofitted with three types of disposable filters and sintered metal diesel particulate filter and operated at light load conditions. However, those filtration systems substantially reduced the concentration-normalized mutagenic activity from the levels observed for the muffler.

  7. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  8. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  9. Chemical and mutagenic evaluation of sludge from a large wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ottaviani, M.; Crebelli, R.; Fuselli, S.; La Rocca, C.; Baldassarri, L.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Digested sludges from a wastewater treatment plant were analyzed to assess their level of contamination by some organic (polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides) and inorganic (heavy metals) micropollutants and their mutagenicity features. The heavy metal content in none of the samples exceeded the limits set out in EEC Directive 276/86; as far as PCBs are concerned, the sludges analyzed indicated a level of contamination up to two orders of magnitude higher than some Italian agricultural soils. Mutagenicity assays on either crude or fractionated sludge extracts using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 gave negative results, thus suggesting the absence of genotoxic contaminants in the samples investigated.

  10. EFFECT OF LAND TREATMENT ON THE MUTAGENICITY OF MILWAUKEE HARBOR SEDIMENT [POSTER PRESENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment from the Milwaukee harbor is known to be contaminated with PAHs and PCBs. A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the potential of land treatment to detoxify these contaminants, as determined by several chemical and biological endpoints, including mutagenicity. T...

  11. Comet-FISH for the evaluation of plant DNA damage after mutagenic treatments.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative investigation of the actions of three mutagens that are widely used in plant mutagenesis using the comet-FISH technique. The comet-FISH technique was used for the analysis of DNA damage and the kinetics of repair within specific DNA sequences. FISH with rDNA and telomeric/centromeric DNA probes was applied to comets that were obtained from an alkaline/neutral comet assay. Migration within specific DNA sequences was analysed after treatment with two chemical mutagens-maleic hydrazide (MH) and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU), and γ-rays. Barley was used as a model plant in this study. The possible utility of specific DNA sequences in a comparative assessment of the distribution of DNA damage within a plant genome was evaluated. This study proved that the comet-FISH technique is suitable for a detailed quantification of DNA damage and repair within specific DNA sequences in plant mutagenesis. The analysis of FISH signals demonstrated that the involvement of specific DNA sequences in DNA damage was different and was dependent on the mutagen used. We showed that 5S rDNA and telomeric DNA sequences are more sensitive to mutagenic treatment, which was expressed by a stronger fragmentation and migration in comparison to the other probes used in the study. We found that 5S rDNA and telomeric DNA probes are more suitable for testing the genotoxicity of environmental factors. A comparison of the involvement of specific chromosome domains in direct DNA breakage/repair and in chromosome aberration formation after mutagen treatment indicates the compatibility of the results. PMID:24081821

  12. Alternative treatments for the menopause.

    PubMed

    Rees, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    Concerns about the safety of oestrogen-based hormone replacement therapy after publication of the Women's Health Initiative study and Million Women Study has led to women turning to alternative therapies, erroneously believing that they are safer and 'more natural'. Evidence from randomized trials that alternative and complementary therapies improve menopausal symptoms or have the same benefits as conventional pharmacopoeia is poor. There are no recognized international criteria for the design of clinical trials of alternative therapies as there are for standard medicines and medical devices for endpoints of treatment and safety evaluations. Studies may have limitations such as design, sample size and duration. There is a wide range of different preparations, making comparison difficult. The evidence regarding botanicals, homeopathy, steroids, vitamin supplements, dietary changes and functional foods, and physical interventions are discussed in this chapter. Standard pharmacopoeia such as clonidine, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and progestogens are also examined.

  13. Generation of bactericidal and mutagenic components by pulsed electric field treatment.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Kristien M F A; Diels, Ann M J; Michiels, Chris W

    2004-06-01

    Inactivation of stationary phase Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria innocua (10(8) CFU/ml) by high intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) was studied in water and different buffers at pH 7.0. The fraction of survivors after PEF treatment with 300 pulses (5 Hz) of 26.7 kV/cm and a pulse width of 2 micros varied between 0.050% and 55%, but was always lower in Tris-HCl buffer than in HEPES-KOH buffer and water. When cell suspensions were stored for 24 h at 25 degrees C after PEF treatment, the survivor fraction further decreased, except for E. coli in water and HEPES-KOH. By following the survival of untreated cells added to water or buffers that were previously PEF treated, this secondary inactivation could be ascribed to the formation of bactericidal components as a result of PEF treatment. Buffers and water containing 10 mM NaCl became bactericidal against all three bacteria upon PEF treatment, and the bactericidal effect could be neutralized by thiosulfate, suggesting that chlorine and/or hypochlorite had been formed. Also in the absence of Cl- ions, PEF treated water and buffers had bactericidal properties, but the specificity of the bactericidal effects against different bacteria differed depending on the buffer used. In the Ames mutagenicity test using His- S. Typhimurium mutant strains, PEF treated Tris buffers containing 10 mM Cl- ions, as well as PEF treated grape juice showed a mutagenic effect. The implications of these findings for the safety of PEF treated foods are discussed. PMID:15135955

  14. Increase in clonal variation in Chinese hamster ovary cells after treatment with mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Zdzienicka, M.; Cupido, M.; Simons, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    Clonal variation has been studied in CHO cells. The variant phenotype was an altered morphology of clones in agar: the parental CHO cells give rise to solid clumps of cells (wild-type colonies); occasionally, dispersed colonies arise, and the cells display an invasive growth in agar (INGA-type colonies). The frequency of this altered phenotype can be enhanced by treatment with a variety of mutagens (EMS, ENU, 4NQO, N-Ac-AAF, ultraviolet light, and X-irradiation). Enhancement was not due to a selective killing of wild-type cells or to a side-effect of cytotoxicity, which suggests that DNA damage is the cause of the altered phenotype. The INGA-trait breeds true, but most of the isolated clones have an inherent instability.

  15. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment. PMID:27257817

  16. Alternative approaches to epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    McElroy-Cox, Caitlin

    2009-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse group of health care practices and products that fall outside the realm of traditional Western medical theory and practice and that are used to complement or replace conventional medical therapies. The use of CAM has increased over the past two decades, and surveys have shown that up to 44% of patients with epilepsy are using some form of CAM treatment. This article reviews the CAM modalities of meditation, yoga, relaxation techniques, biofeedback, nutritional and herbal supplements, dietary measures, chiropractic care, acupuncture, Reiki, and homeopathy and what is known about their potential efficacy in patients with epilepsy.

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is ... based on scientific evidence from research studies. Complementary medicine refers to treatments that are used with standard ...

  18. Alternative treatment of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Moga, M M

    2003-01-01

    Major risk factors for gallbladder disease include a sedentary lifestyle and a diet rich in refined sugars. In genetically prone individuals, these two factors lead to an abnormal bile composition, altered gut microflora, and hyperinsulinemia, with resulting gallstone formation. As a large percentage of gallbladder patients have continued digestive complaints following cholecystectomy, the author examines complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to counteract gallstone formation. Herbal medicine such as turmeric, oregon grape, bupleurum, and coin grass may reduce gallbladder inflammation and relieve liver congestion. Elimination of offending foods, not necessarily 'fatty' foods, is often successful and recommended by many holistic physicians. Regular aerobic exercise has a beneficial effect on hyperinsulinemia, which is often associated with gallbladder disease. Dietary changes that lower plasma insulin levels, such as a change in dietary fats and substitution of unrefined carbohydrates for refined carbohydrates, may also be helpful.

  19. Mutagenicity of fly ash particles in Paramecium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Palizzi, R.A.; Herr, C.; Fisher, G.L.

    1981-01-09

    Paramecium, a protozoan that ingests nonnutritive particulate matter, was used to determine the mutagenicity of fly ash. Heat treatment inactivated mutagens that require metabolic conversion to their active form but did not destroy all mutagenicity. Extraction of particles with hydrochloric acid, but not dimethyl sulfoxide, removed detectable mutagenic activity.

  20. Molecular dissection of a viral quasispecies under mutagenic treatment: positive correlation between fitness loss and mutational load.

    PubMed

    Arias, Armando; Isabel de Ávila, Ana; Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Agudo, Rubén; Escarmís, Cristina; Domingo, Esteban

    2013-04-01

    Low fidelity replication and the absence of error-repair activities in RNA viruses result in complex and adaptable ensembles of related genomes in the viral population, termed quasispecies, with important implications for natural infections. Theoretical predictions suggested that elevated replication error rates in RNA viruses might be near to a maximum compatible with viral viability. This fact encouraged the use of mutagenic nucleosides as a new antiviral strategy to induce viral extinction through increased replication error rates. Despite extensive evidence of lethal mutagenesis of RNA viruses by different mutagenic compounds, a detailed picture of the infectivity of individual genomes and its relationship with the mutations accumulated is lacking. Here, we report a molecular analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease virus population previously subjected to heavy mutagenesis to determine whether a correlation between increased mutagenesis and decreased fitness existed. Plaque-purified viruses isolated from a ribavirin-treated quasispecies presented decreases of up to 200-fold in infectivity relative to clones in the reference population, associated with an overall eightfold increase in the mutation frequency. This observation suggests that individual infectious genomes of a quasispecies subjected to increased mutagenesis lose infectivity by their continuous mutagenic 'poisoning'. These results support the lethal defection model of virus extinction and the practical use of chemical mutagens as antiviral treatment. Even when extinction is not achieved, mutagenesis can decrease the infectivity of surviving virus, and facilitate their clearance by host immune responses or complementing antiviral approaches.

  1. Mutagenicity of urine from psoriatic patients undergoing treatment with coal tar and ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, L A; Saperstein, M D; Lowe, N J

    1981-08-01

    The possible percutaneous absorption of the mutagens from patients receiving crude coal tar (CCT) and ultraviolet light was investigated. Urine samples were collected from nonsmoking volunteers, smoking, and nonsmoking psoriatic patients. Patients were treated with 1% CCT U.S.P. or 1 to 10% CCT in petrolatum in the evening. The following morning, patients received coal tar baths and then ultraviolet light (mainly 290-320 nm, UVB). Nonpolar organics in urine samples were extracted by adsorption onto XAD-2 resin and the extracted organics assayed in the Ames Salmonella/Microsome test. TA98 was the most sensitive bacterial strain to detect mutagenicity. Except for smoking psoriatic patients, the addition of liver homogenate was necessary to see mutagenicity. No increase in the number of revertants was observed when B-glucuronidase was added to the assay. Of 14 patients studied 12 had at least one mutagenic urine sample. Typical values for nonsmoking psoriatics treated with CCT ranged from 42 to 496 his +/20 ml of urine after the subtraction of spontaneous his + counts (26 +/- 6). Two nonsmoking normal volunteers were found to excrete mutagenic urines. Smoking psoriatic patients ranged from 213 to 1,100 his +/20 ml urine. This study demonstrates the percutaneous absorption of mutagens from CCT and indicates that its effects may not be limited to the skin. PMID:7276613

  2. Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Allergic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Juan; Grine, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    This article explains the proposed pathophysiology, evidence of efficacy, and adverse effects of several complementary and alternative medicine modalities, for the treatment of allergic conditions, such as traditional Chinese medicine formula, herbal treatments, acupuncture, and homeopathy. PMID:27545740

  3. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  4. [Alternative treatment possibilities of atopic diseases].

    PubMed

    Haidvogl, M

    1990-01-01

    Families of children with atopic diseases often seek so-called alternative treatment as supplementation, not as real alternative to clinical medicine (complementary instead of alternative treatment). Clinical studies on the efficiency of acupuncture in the treatment of bronchial asthma gave contradictory results. The author's own uncontrolled experience in asthmatic children using a simple acupuncture scheme is rather good and a controlled clinical trial seems justified. In atopic dermatitis treatment comprises a mixture of acupuncture, homeopathy and dietary regimes and the therapeutic results have to be viewed against the possibility of spontaneous remissions. A controlled clinical trial seems impossible.

  5. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of a nonylphenol ethoxylates: Degradation, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad

    2015-12-15

    Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO) was performed and treatment effect was evaluated on the basis of degradation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), and toxicity reduction efficiencies. The radiolytic by-products were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Low mass carboxylic acids, aldehyde, ketone, and acetic acid were identified as the by-products of the NPEO degradation. NPEO sample irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2 showed more than 90% degradation. Allium cepa (A. cepa), brine shrimp, heamolytic tests were used for cytotoxicity study, while mutagenicity was evaluated through Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) of treated and un-treated NPEO. The reductions in COD and TOC were greater than 70% and 50%, respectively. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment revealed a considerable reduction in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. A. cepa, heamolytic and shrimp assays showed cytotoxicity reduction up to 68.65%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. The mutagenicity reduced up to 62%, 74%, and 79% (TA98) and 68%, 78%, and 82% (TA100), respectively of NPEO-6, NPEO-9, and NPEO-30 irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2. NPEO-6 detoxified more efficiently versus NPEO-9 and NPEO-30 and results showed that Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment has the potential to mineralize and detoxify NPEO. PMID:26143198

  6. Alternative treatments for neck sprain.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Kerstin; Morton, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether osteopathy or chiropractic treatments improve outcome in patients with neck sprain. Altogether 206 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. A clinical bottom line is stated

  7. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  8. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  9. Alternatives to Drug Treatment for Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Den Houtter, Kathryn

    1980-01-01

    Results from recent studies on the effectiveness of Ritalin for "hyperactivity" show that this treatment is dubious at best. This article presents an alternative treatment approach, placing emphasis on devising an appropriate learning situation that meets the needs of the so-called hyperactive child. (Author)

  10. Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

    1993-04-08

    Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

  11. Reduction in the mutagenicity of synthetic dyes by successive treatment with activated sludge and the ligninolytic fungus, Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Malachová, Katerina; Pavlícková, Zuzana; Novotný, Cenek; Svobodová, Katerina; Lednická, Denisa; Musílková, Eva

    2006-08-01

    Synthetic dyes are released in wastewater from textile manufacturing plants, and many of these dyes are genotoxic. In the present study, the mutagenicity of azo, anthraquinone, and triphenyl methane dyes was investigated before and after successive biodegradation with activated sludge and the ligninolytic fungus, Irpex lacteus. Two biodegradation systems were used to reduce the genotoxicity of dyes that were not efficiently inactivated by activated sludge alone. Mutagenicity was monitored with the Salmonella reversion assay conducted with the base-pair substitution detector strains, TA100 and YG1042, and the frame-shift detector strains, TA98 and YG1041, with and without rat liver S9. All dyes except for Congo Red (CR) were mutagenic with S9 activation. Assays conducted with the dyes indicated that only the azo dye Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was mutagenic in both TA98 and TA100. Methyl Red and Disperse Blue 3 (DB3) were mutagenic in TA98, YG1041 and YG1042, while Reactive Black 5 was mutagenic in YG1041 and YG1042. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Crystal violet (CV) and Bromophenol Blue (BPB) were mutagenic only in TA98, but the toxicity of the latter two dyes complicated the evaluation of their mutagenicity. CR was not mutagenic in any of the tester strains. Biodegradation studies conducted with RO16 and DB3 indicated that the two-step biodegradation process reduced the mutagenic potential of RO16 and DB3 to a greater extent than activated sludge alone; the mutagenicity of the two dyes was reduced by 95.2% and 77.8%, respectively, by the two-step process. These data indicate that the combined biodegradation process may be useful for reducing the mutagenicity associated with wastewater from textile factories that contain recalcitrant dyes.

  12. Complementary and alternative treatments in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Malone, Michael A; Gloyer, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Many patients suffering from pain and dysfunction attributable to musculoskeletal conditions will use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of both the quantity and quality of CAM treatments for specific musculoskeletal conditions. Many CAM treatments are used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, but may be more commonly used for specific conditions. This article addresses the use of CAM for specific musculoskeletal conditions, followed by a review of other CAM treatments and their potential indications for a multitude of conditions, based on the current medical literature and traditional use.

  13. Onsite alternatives for treatment and disposal. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, W.; Otis, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    A review of onsite technologies for treatment and disposal of wastewater is presented with emphasis on the manipulation of wastewater generation events in the home as a means to enhance onsite treatment and disposal, the design and performance of subsurface disposal systems, alternative systems to solve wastewater management problems in small communities, and sanitation in developing countries. (KRM)

  14. Alternative Systemic Treatments for Vitiligo: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Elbuluk, Nada; Mu, Euphemia W; Orlow, Seth J

    2015-12-01

    Vitiligo is a common, acquired disorder of skin pigmentation that can significantly impact quality of life. It often represents a therapeutic challenge, which has resulted in interest in alternative treatments such as herbal and vitamin supplements. In this review, we provide an overview of the most commonly studied complementary agents, describe proposed mechanisms of action, identify potential adverse effects, and discuss the primary evidence supporting their use. Our discussion focuses on L-phenylalanine, Polypodium leucotomos, khellin, Ginkgo biloba, and vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B12, C, and E, folic acid, and zinc used as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments for the management of vitiligo. PMID:26329814

  15. Treatment Technology and Alternative Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    At this point in our settlement of the planet Earth, with over seven billion human inhabitants, there are very few unallocated sources of fresh water. We are turning slowly toward "alternatives" such as municipal and industrial wastewater, saline groundwater, the sea, irrigation return flow, and produced water that comes up with oil and gas deposits from deep beneath the surface of the earth. Slowly turning, not because of a lack in technological ability, but because it takes a large capital investment to acquire and treat these sources to a level at which they can be used. The regulatory system is not geared up for alternative sources and treatment processes. Permitting can be circular, contradictory, time consuming, and very expensive. The purpose for the water, or the value of the product obtained using the water, must be such that the capital and ongoing expense seem reasonable. There are so many technological solutions for recovering water quality that choosing the most reliable, economical, and environmentally sound technology involves unraveling the "best" weave of treatment processes from a tangled knot of alternatives. Aside from permitting issues, which are beyond the topic for this presentation, the "best" weave of processes will be composed of four strands specifically fitted to the local situation: energy, pretreatment, driving force for separation processes, and waste management. A range of treatment technologies will be examined in this presentation with a focus on how the quality of the feed water, available power sources, materials, and waste management opportunities aid in choosing the best weave of treatment technologies, and how innovative use of a wide variety of driving forces are increasing the efficiency of treatment processes.

  16. Mutagenic activity of disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Cognet, L; Courtois, Y; Mallevialle, J

    1986-11-01

    Data on raw water quality, disinfection treatment practices, and the resulting mutagenic properties of the treated water were compiled from pilot- and full-scale treatment experiments to evaluate that parameter which might produce variability in the results of a mutagenic study. Analysis of the data and comparison of treatment practices indicated that the measured mutagenic activity is strongly related to the characteristics of the organic matter in the raw water, the methodology used to sample and detect mutagens, the scale of the study both in terms of treatment flow and period of study, and the point at which and the conditions under which oxidants are added during treatment. Conclusions regarding disinfection systems in full-scale water treatment plants include the following: When raw water is pretreated and high concentrations of organics are present in the raw water, both ozonation and chlorination increased mutagenic activity. However, no significant difference in mutagenicity was found between the two oxidants. Both in the case of a nitrified groundwater and a clarified surface water, the mutagenic activity of the water after ozonation was related to its mutagenic activity before ozonation. With ozonation, mutagenic activity decreased after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Thus, when GAC filtration follows ozone disinfection, early addition of oxidants may not be deleterious to the finished water quality. When chlorine or chlorine dioxide is added after GAC filtration, chlorine dioxide was found to produce a less mutagenic water than chlorine. Although these conclusions suggest means of controlling mutagenic activity during treatment, it must be stressed that the measurement of mutagenicity is a presumptive index of contamination level.

  17. Changes in the mutagenicity of petroleum products undergoing bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; Claxton, L.D.

    1995-11-01

    As EPA, industry, and others promote the use of bioremediation as a treatment alternative for environmental contamination, the health risks of such cleanup efforts must be assessed. Conversions of toxic constituents to metabolic intermediates and byproducts can result in fluctuations in toxicity over time. We have examined this process by studying the microbial degradation of petroleum products in the field and in the laboratory. For the field study, we evaluated 2 accidental releases (a coastal oil spill and a refinery leak) in which biodegradation was achieved by accelerating the proliferation of indigenous soil microbes through application of nutrient formulations. Soil samples were collected before, during, and after in situ treatment, and organics were extracted from the soils by sonication with dichloromethane (DCM). The extracts were tested for mutagenicity using the spiral Salmonella assay. Results indicated that the mutagenicity of the oil-impacted beaches depended on soil composition, nutrient formulation, and natural removal processes such as wave action. The mutagenicity of the refinery fuel-impacted soils was related to depth of collection, water table location, and levels of BTEX contamination. For the laboratory study, we evaluated the bio-degradation of 3 crude oils by 2 species of fungi combined in flasks of mineral salts. Flasks were incubated at 30{degrees}C for up to one month, and contents were extracted with DCM at 2-day intervals and tested for mutagenic activity. An oil that was highly mutagenic became nonmutagenid in as few as 5-6 days of treatment, while a nonmutagenic oil became mutagenic over time.

  18. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:24587621

  19. Necessary alternatives: patients’ views of asthma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kopnina, Helen; Haafkens, Joke

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on semistructured interviews and focus groups conducted with 27 asthma patients in The Netherlands who chose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of their condition. All subjects were contacted through an online forum for asthma patients hosted by the Dutch Asthma Foundation. Nineteen subjects (12 women and seven men) between the ages of 29 and 65 years participated in the interviews, held between June 2009 and January 2010. All of the participating subjects had experience with conventional medications, including anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and bronchodilators. For the focus group meeting, held in February 2010, the sample included seven subjects (four women and three men) between the ages of 31 and 46 years, none of whom had ever used conventional medication and all of whom were using CAM. All subjects in the sample had been diagnosed with asthma by their physician or lung specialist. The study examined the causes of patient noncompliance with the prescribed medical regime. It is argued that evidence-based rationality on the part of subjects is an overlooked dimension of their experience of asthma. This study demonstrates the role that the patients’ social network, including medical practitioners, friends, and family, and other asthmatics, plays in the process of decision-making and choices about treating asthma. It also demonstrates the role of patients’ information-searching strategies. The author concludes that patient noncompliance with commonly prescribed medication and selection of alternative medical treatment is less a matter of denial of their diagnosis or the severity of their illness, but more a matter of choice informed by evidence-based rationality. PMID:20622919

  20. Treatment alternatives for non-fuel-bearing hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Clark, L.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    This evaluation compared four alternatives for the treatment or processing of non-fuel bearing hardware (NFBH) to reduce its volume and prepare it for disposal. These treatment alternatives are: shredding; shredding and low pressure compaction; shredding and supercompaction; and melting. These alternatives are compared on the basis of system costs, waste form characteristics, and process considerations. The study recommends that melting and supercompaction alternatives be further considered and that additional testing be conducted for these two alternatives.

  1. Mutagen formation during commercial processing of foods.

    PubMed Central

    Krone, C A; Yeh, S M; Iwaoka, W T

    1986-01-01

    Levels of bacterial mutagenicity 3-17 times above spontaneous are generated during commercial thermal processing (canning) of foods, particularly foods high in protein. The potential for other processing operations, including pasteurization, dehydration, and concentration, to produce substances active in the Ames Salmonella assay was also examined. Two heated fish model systems, canned salmon and fried sole, were established by extracting mutagen precursors from fish tissues with water. The model system studies suggest that the limiting reactants for mutagen formation differ from one food product to another, and that Maillard type browning reactions are involved in mutagen production. Bisulfite treatment was found to inhibit mutagen formation in modal systems and whole food products. Isolation and partial characterization of the mutagens in both fried and canned pink salmon showed that at least three distinct mutagens were present. These mutagens exhibited HPLC retention time patterns on C18, cyano, and amino columns different than the major mutagens present in other cooked and grilled meats and fish. PMID:3530739

  2. Another Alternative: A Ninety-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In May, 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a twenty-one-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The results of the evaluation suggested an alternative treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the…

  3. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene and 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one, two alternative metabolites of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Fang-Mao; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2013-08-15

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), a known in vitro metabolite of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene, have not previously been investigated. Because CHB can be bioactivated by alcohol dehydrogenases to yield 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a bifunctional alkylating agent that caused globin-chain cross-links in erythrocytes, in the present study we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CHB and CBO in human normal hepatocyte L02 cells using the MTT assay, the relative cloning efficiency assay and the comet assay. We also investigated the mutagenic potential of these compounds with the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA1535 and TA1537. The results provide clear evidence for CHB and CBO being both cytotoxic and genotoxic with CBO being approximately 100-fold more potent than CHB. Interestingly, CHB generated both single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites on DNA, whereas CBO produced only alkali-labile sites. CHB did not directly result in DNA breaks, whereas CBO was capable of directly generating breaks on DNA. Interestingly, both compounds did not induce DNA cross-links as examined by the comet assay. The Ames test results showed that CHB induced point mutation but not frameshift mutation, whereas the toxic effects of CBO made it difficult to reliably assess the mutagenic potential of CBO in the two strains. Collectively, the results suggest that CHB and CBO may play a role in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.

  4. 40 CFR 142.46 - Alternative treatment techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative treatment techniques. 142... Administrator Under Section 1415(a) of the Act § 142.46 Alternative treatment techniques. The Administrator may grant a variance from any treatment technique requirement of a national primary drinking...

  5. Comparative mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particles and aerosols emitted by the combustion of standard vs. rapeseed methyl ester supplemented bio-diesel fuels: impact of after treatment devices: oxidation catalyst and particulate filter.

    PubMed

    André, V; Barraud, C; Capron, D; Preterre, D; Keravec, V; Vendeville, C; Cazier, F; Pottier, D; Morin, J P; Sichel, F

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhausts are partly responsible for the deleterious effects on human health associated with urban pollution, including cardiovascular diseases, asthma, COPD, and possibly lung cancer. Particulate fraction has been incriminated and thus largely investigated for its genotoxic properties, based on exposure conditions that are, however, not relevant for human risk assessment. In this paper, original and more realistic protocols were used to investigate the hazards induced by exhausts emitted by the combustion of standard (DF0) vs. bio-diesel fuels (DF7 and DF30) and to assess the impact of exhaust treatment devices (DOC and DPF). Mutagenicity and genotoxicity were evaluated for (1) resuspended particles ("off line" exposure that takes into account the bioavailability of adsorbed chemicals) and for (2) the whole aerosols (particles+gas phase components) under continuous flow exposure ("on line" exposure). Native particles displayed mutagenic properties associated with nitroaromatic profiles (YG1041), whereas PAHs did not seem to be involved. After DOC treatment, the mutagenicity of particles was fully abolished. In contrast, the level of particle deposition was low under continuous flow exposure, and the observed mutagenicity in TA98 and TA102 was thus attributable to the gas phase. A bactericidal effect was also observed in TA102 after DOC treatment, and a weak but significant mutagenicity persisted after DPF treatment for bio-diesel fuels. No formation of bulky DNA-adducts was observed on A549 cells exposed to diesel exhaust, even in very drastic conditions (organic extracts corresponding to 500 μg equivalent particule/mL, 48 h exposure). Taken together, these data indicate that the exhausts issued from the bio-diesel fuels supplemented with rapseed methyl ester (RME), and generated by current diesel engines equipped with after treatment devices are less mutagenic than older ones. The residual mutagenicity is linked to the gas phase and could be due to pro

  6. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene and 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one, two alternative metabolites of 1,3-butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Fang-Mao; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2013-08-15

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), a known in vitro metabolite of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene, have not previously been investigated. Because CHB can be bioactivated by alcohol dehydrogenases to yield 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a bifunctional alkylating agent that caused globin-chain cross-links in erythrocytes, in the present study we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CHB and CBO in human normal hepatocyte L02 cells using the MTT assay, the relative cloning efficiency assay and the comet assay. We also investigated the mutagenic potential of these compounds with the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA1535 and TA1537. The results provide clear evidence for CHB and CBO being both cytotoxic and genotoxic with CBO being approximately 100-fold more potent than CHB. Interestingly, CHB generated both single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites on DNA, whereas CBO produced only alkali-labile sites. CHB did not directly result in DNA breaks, whereas CBO was capable of directly generating breaks on DNA. Interestingly, both compounds did not induce DNA cross-links as examined by the comet assay. The Ames test results showed that CHB induced point mutation but not frameshift mutation, whereas the toxic effects of CBO made it difficult to reliably assess the mutagenic potential of CBO in the two strains. Collectively, the results suggest that CHB and CBO may play a role in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene. - Highlights: • 1-Chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) is cytotoxic and genotoxic in human liver cells. • The CHB metabolite, 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) is ∼ 100-fold more toxic than CHB. • CHB and CBO cause DNA alkali-labile sites, but only CBO directly causes DNA breaks. • CHB is mutagenic in the Ames test, but CBO is too toxic in the assay. • The results suggest a role for CHB in 1,3-butadiene genotoxicity and mutagenicity.

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  8. Alternative Treatment Technologies – Working With the Pathogen Equivalency Committee

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under current Federal regulations (40 CFR 503), municipal sludge must be treated prior to land application. The regulations identify two classes of treatment with respect to pathogen reduction: Class B (three alternatives) which provides a minimum acceptable level of treatment;...

  9. Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nagao, M; Takahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Sugimura, T

    1981-02-01

    The mutagenicities of evaporated residues of alcoholic beverages were tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98. 12 of 13 brands of whisky were mutagenic to TA100 without S9 mix. Addition of S9 mix decreased or abolished these mutagenicities. 5 brands of brandy and 1 apple brandy were tested, and all showed a similar type of mutagenicity to that of whisky. A fraction of brand-K whisky, containing a major mutagen(s), eluted from XAD-2 column with water, gave 3800 revertants of TA100 per plate at a dose equivalent to 10 ml of whisky. PMID:7012607

  10. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  11. Endometriosis: alternative methods of medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Hernando, Leticia; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Jose L; Marqueta-Marques, Laura; Alvarez-Conejo, Carmen; Tejerizo-García, Álvaro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Villegas-Muñoz, Emilia; Martin-Jimenez, Angel; Jiménez-López, Jesús S

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory estrogen-dependent disease defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine sites. The main purpose of endometriosis management is alleviating pain associated to the disease. This can be achieved surgically or medically, although in most women a combination of both treatments is required. Long-term medical treatment is usually needed in most women. Unfortunately, in most cases, pain symptoms recur between 6 months and 12 months once treatment is stopped. The authors conducted a literature search for English original articles, related to new medical treatments of endometriosis in humans, including articles published in PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords included “endometriosis” matched with “medical treatment”, “new treatment”, “GnRH antagonists”, “Aromatase inhibitors”, “selective progesterone receptor modulators”, “anti-TNF α”, and “anti-angiogenic factors”. Hormonal treatments currently available are effective in the relief of pain associated to endometriosis. Among new hormonal drugs, association to aromatase inhibitors could be effective in the treatment of women who do not respond to conventional therapies. GnRH antagonists are expected to be as effective as GnRH agonists, but with easier administration (oral). There is a need to find effective treatments that do not block the ovarian function. For this purpose, antiangiogenic factors could be important components of endometriosis therapy in the future. Upcoming researches and controlled clinical trials should focus on these drugs. PMID:26089705

  12. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  13. Treatment, promotion, commotion: Antibiotic alternatives in food-producing animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatives to antibiotics in animal agriculture are urgently needed but present a complex problem because of their various uses: disease treatment, disease prevention, and feed efficiency improvement. Numerous antibiotic alternatives, such as feed amended with pre- and probiotics, have been propos...

  14. Developments in alternative treatments for organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Iken, Brian; Leon, Alex

    2015-03-01

    Organophosphosphates (OPs) are highly effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are used worldwide as cheap, multi-purpose insecticides. OPs are also used as chemical weapons forming the active core of G-series and V-series chemical agents including tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VX, and their chemical analogs. Human exposure to any of these compounds leads to neurotoxic accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, resulting in abnormal nerve function and multiple secondary health complications. Suicide from deliberate exposure to OPs is particularly prevalent in developing countries across the world and constitutes a major global health crisis. The prevalence and accessible nature of OP compounds within modern agricultural spheres and concern over their potential use in biochemical weapon attacks have incentivized both government agencies and medical researchers to enact stricter regulatory policies over their usage and to begin developing more proactive medical treatments in cases of OP poisoning. This review will discuss the research undertaken in recent years that has investigated new supplementary drug options for OP treatment and support therapy, including progress in the development of enzymatic prophylaxis.

  15. Mutagenic activity associated with by-products of drinking water disinfection by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone and UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zoeteman, B C; Hrubec, J; de Greef, E; Kool, H J

    1982-12-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study in The Netherlands showed a statistical association between chlorination by-products in drinking water and cancer of the esophagus and stomach for males. A pilot-plant study with alternative disinfectants was carried out with stored water of the Rivers Rhine and Meuse. It was demonstrated that the increase of direct acting mutagens after treatment with chlorine dioxide is similar to the effect of chlorination. Ozonation of Rhine water reduced the mutagenic activity for Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 both with and without metabolic activation. UV alone hardly affects the mutagenicity of the stored river water for S. typh. TA 98. In all studies, practically no mutagenic activity for S. typh. TA 100 was found. Although remarkable changes in the concentration of individual organic compounds are reported, the identity of the mutagens detected is yet unclear. Compounds of possible interest due to their removal by ozonation are 1,3,3-trimethyloxindole, dicyclopentadiene and several alkylquinolines. Compounds which might be responsible for the increased mutagenicity after chlorination are two brominated acetonitriles and tri(2-chlorethyl) phosphate. Furthermore, the concentration procedure with adsorption on XAD resin and the subsequent elution step may have affected the results. It is proposed to focus further research more on the less volatile by-products of disinfection than on the trihalomethanes.

  16. Alternative Technical Summary Report: Electrometallurgical Treatment Variant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1995-11-30

    Immobilization is the fixation of the surplus fissile materials in an acceptable matrix such as glass or ceramics to create an environmentally benign form for disposal in a repository. In addition to the traditional characteristics required of an immobilization form to achieve isolation of the fissile material from the biosphere over geologic times, the immobilization form for the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) must also possess the property that it is inherently as unattractive and inaccessible as the fissile material from commercial spent fuel. This latter requirement is similar to the wording of the ''spent fuel standard'' invoked in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study on plutonium disposition. High-level wastes (HLW) or separated cesium ({sup 137}Cs), can be added with the fissile material into the waste form to create a radiation field that increases the proliferation resistance and decreases reuse by the host nation in the following ways: (1) Plutonium will be diluted with elements that must be removed by extensive chemical processing to return it to weapons-usable purity; (2) The immobilized plutonium canisters will contain approximately 2 tonnes (2000 kg; 2.2 tons) of mass, thereby forcing the use of heavy equipment to move the canisters; (3) A gamma radiation barrier will be added to the immobilized plutonium canisters; the present concept is to add a radiation barrier that is greater than 1 Gy (100 rad) per hour at 1 m (3 ft) 30 years after fabrication; (4) These canisters will then be sealed in casks and emplaced into drifts in a federal repository where they will be monitored for 100 years before the repository is sealed. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1. In the electrometallurgical treatment (ET) variant, plutonium-rich residues are shipped to existing Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) facilities where the plutonium is converted to plutonium chloride, dissolved in a molten salt solution, sorbed

  17. 40 CFR 142.46 - Alternative treatment techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... grant a variance from any treatment technique requirement of a national primary drinking water... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative treatment techniques. 142.46 Section 142.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  18. 40 CFR 142.46 - Alternative treatment techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... grant a variance from any treatment technique requirement of a national primary drinking water... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative treatment techniques. 142.46 Section 142.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  19. 40 CFR 142.46 - Alternative treatment techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grant a variance from any treatment technique requirement of a national primary drinking water... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative treatment techniques. 142.46 Section 142.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 40 CFR 142.46 - Alternative treatment techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grant a variance from any treatment technique requirement of a national primary drinking water... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative treatment techniques. 142.46 Section 142.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  1. Use of alternative treatments by chronic fatigue syndrome discordant twins.

    PubMed

    Afari; Eisenberg; Herrell; Goldberg; Kleyman; Ashton; Buchwald

    2000-03-21

    Background: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been faced with difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments. Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of alternative treatments may be common in these patients. Our primary objective was to compare the prevalence and patterns of alternative medicine use among twins who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) CFS criteria to that of their non-CFS co-twins. Secondary goals were to assess how often alternative medicine use was discussed with physicians and the perceived benefit of these therapies. Methods: Sixty-three twin pairs discordant for CFS completed a survey about their use of 22 alternative therapies. Matched pair odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to examine differences in the use between CFS twins and their non-CFS co-twins. Results: 91% of twins with CFS and 71% of non-CFS twins had used at least 1 alternative treatment in their lifetime. Twins with CFS were more likely to use homeopathy, mega-vitamins, herbal therapies, biofeedback, relaxation/meditation, guided imagery, massage therapy, energy healing, religious healing by others, and self-help groups than their non-CFS counterparts. A large proportion of all twins found alternative therapies helpful; however, only 42% of those with CFS and 23% of those without CFS discussed their use of alternative medicine with a physician. Conclusions: Individuals with CFS frequently used alternative medical treatments yet rarely communicated this use to their medical doctor. Future research should ascertain the usefulness of alternative practices in the management of CFS.

  2. Modulation of mutagenicity of various mutagens by lignin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mikulásová, Mária; Kosíková, Bozena

    2003-03-01

    The effect of lignin on cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and SOS response induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO), 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid (5NFAA), 2-nitrofluorene (2NF) as well as hydrogen peroxide was investigated in bacterial assay systems, i.e. the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102 and the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Lignin preparations obtained from beech wood significantly decreased the mutagenicity induced by 4NQO, 2NF and H(2)O(2). In the case of mutagenicity induced by 5NFAA the effect was lower. Antimutagenic properties of lignin samples tested were shown also by SOS chromotest where lignin inhibited the ability of both 4NQO and H(2)O(2) to induce the SOS response. Derivatives of lignin including those from soft and hard wood, as well as from annual plants differ in their efficiency to inhibit the induction of the SOS response. The modified lignins isolated from beech and spruce wood exhibit a high level of protection. Lignins from annual plants-corn cobs and straw-only marginally evoked an antimutagenic response, but their effect was increased by hydrothermic treatment of both annual plants. The results obtained indicate the prospective utilization of lignin preparations as additive in chemo-prevention. The antimutagenic effect of lignin samples varies with the method of isolation and modification, as well as with the genetic origin of the lignin. PMID:12581535

  3. Reviewing efficacy of alternative water treatment techniques.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, A

    2001-06-01

    synergistic effect in the inactivation of coliphage MS-2 and poliovirus. Other techniques: There are a number of other techniques. We have conducted trials of most of these in the control of Legionella sp., but these fall out of the scope of this article, and as such less emphasis has been placed on them here. Ozonation: Ozone [O3] is an oxidising gas, generated electrically from oxygen [O2]. L. pneumophila can be killed at < 1 mg/L of ozone [Edelstien et al 1982]. Muraca et al [1987] found that 1-2 mg/L of continuous ozone over a six hour contact time, produced a 5 logarithm decrease of L. pneumophila. The effectiveness of ozone treatment against a range of bacteria and coliphages has been studied Botzenhart et al [1993]. E. coli was least resistant to ozone, followed by MS 2-coliphage and PhiX 174-coliphage, with L. pneumophila and Bacillus subtilis spores being the most resistant. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  4. Treatment as an alternative to prosecution: offenders diverted for treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D J

    1991-06-01

    In Scotland, procurators fiscal (state prosecutors) can divert certain offenders from the court process into treatment. This paper describes the first diversion scheme in which offenders who are suspected of having psychological difficulties are referred for psychological and psychiatric treatment before, and generally in lieu of, prosecution. It is argued that the procurator fiscal is successful in selecting suitable cases for treatment: most people referred have significant psychological difficulties but have failed to obtain appropriate assistance through the normal channels of referral.

  5. Mutagenicity of coal fly ash: a new bioassay for mutagenic potential in a particle feeding ciliate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Fisher, G.L.; Palizzi, R.A.; Herr, C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the established mutagenesis assay in Paramecium as a prescreen for hazardous environmental particles is described. Since these protozoans ingest particles of the size respired by animals and man, the biological effects of the respirable fraction of fly ash particles were monitored in particle-feeding eukaryotic cells. Fly ash from coal combustion was utilized for these studies and was found to be mutagenic. The effects of physical and chemical treatment of the particle mutagenicity provided evidence for both heat-stable, heat-labile and acid extractable mutagenic agents.

  6. Environmental Mutagenic Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes screening systems for environmental mutagens, characteristics of the ideal screening system, characteristics of currently employed screening systems, correlative information required for decision making, and application of data to human populations. (GS)

  7. Mutagens in surface waters: a review.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Takeshi; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2004-11-01

    /genotoxicity assays should be included as additional parameters in water quality monitoring programs. This is because according to this review they proved to be sensitive and reliable tools in the detection of mutagenic activity in aquatic environment. Many attempts to identify the chemicals responsible for the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of surface waters have been reported. Among these reports, researchers identified heavy metals, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, pesticides and so on. By combining the blue cotton hanging method as an adsorbent and the O-acetyltransferase-overproducing strain as a sensitive strain for aminoarenes, Japanese researchers identified two new type of potent frameshift-type mutagens, formed unintentionally, in several surface waters. One group has a 2-phenylbenzotriazole (PBTA) structure, and seven analogues, PBTA-type mutagens, were identified in surface waters collected at sites below textile dyeing factories and municipal wastewater treatment plants treating domestic wastes and effluents. The other one has a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) skelton with nitro and amino substitution group and it was revealed to be 4-amino-3,3'-dichloro-5,4'-dinitrobiphenyl derived from chemical plants treating polymers and dye intermediates. However, the identification of major putative mutagenic/genotoxic compounds in most surface waters with high mutagenic/genotoxic activity in the world have not been performed. Further efforts on chemical isolation and identification by bioassay-directed chemical analysis should be performed.

  8. Bacteriocins - exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D

    2010-07-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  9. Nanofibers Offer Alternative Ways to the Treatment of Skin Infections

    PubMed Central

    Heunis, T. D. J.; Dicks, L. M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Injury to the skin causes a breach in the protective layer surrounding the body. Many pathogens are resistant to antibiotics, rendering conventional treatment less effective. This led to the use of alternative antimicrobial compounds, such as silver ions, in skin treatment. In this review nanofibers, and the incorporation of natural antimicrobial compounds in these scaffolds, are discussed as an alternative way to control skin infections. Electrospinning as a technique to prepare nanofibers is discussed. The possibility of using these structures as drug delivery systems is investigated. PMID:20798871

  10. Bacteriocins – Exploring Alternatives to Antibiotics in Mastitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:24031528

  11. Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the commercial black dye in Allium cepa cells before and after bacterial biodegradation treatment.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Camargo, Bruna de Campos; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic actions of different concentrations (50 and 200 μg/L) of BDCP (Black Dye Commercial Product) used by textile industries, before and after bacterial biodegradation, by the conventional staining cytogenetic technique and NOR-banding in Allium cepa cells. Differences in the chromosomal and nuclear aberrations and alterations in the number of nucleoli were observed in cells exposed to BDCP with and without the microbial treatment. The significant frequencies of chromosome and nuclear aberrations noted in the tests with bacterially biodegraded BDCP indicate that the metabolites generated by degradation are more genotoxic than the chemical itself. Losses of genetic material characterize a type of alteration that was mainly associated with the action of the original BDCP, whereas chromosome stickiness, nuclear buds and binucleated cells were the aberrations that were preferentially induced by BDCP metabolites after biodegradation. The significant frequencies of cell death observed in the tests with biodegraded BDCP also show the cytotoxic effects of the BDCP metabolites. The reduction in the total frequency of altered cells after the recovery treatments showed that the test organism A. cepa has the ability to recover from damage induced by BDCP and its metabolites after the exposure conditions are normalized. PMID:27441992

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches in the treatment of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Gary H

    2015-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is a diverse set of practices and treatments that has seen a significant increase among Americans over the past decade. These approaches have been applied to a myriad of medical and mental health disorders with varying levels of efficacy. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine to address the growing numbers of individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders. These approaches include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities. This article will review some of the most widely used non-pharmacologic complementary and alternative medicine practices used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder such as recreational therapy, animal-assisted therapy, yoga, and acupuncture as well as alternative delivery methods for psychotherapy.

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches in the treatment of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Gary H

    2015-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is a diverse set of practices and treatments that has seen a significant increase among Americans over the past decade. These approaches have been applied to a myriad of medical and mental health disorders with varying levels of efficacy. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine to address the growing numbers of individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders. These approaches include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities. This article will review some of the most widely used non-pharmacologic complementary and alternative medicine practices used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder such as recreational therapy, animal-assisted therapy, yoga, and acupuncture as well as alternative delivery methods for psychotherapy. PMID:26073362

  14. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  15. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  16. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K. )

    1988-05-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, on plants and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). Though the rec assay with Bacillus subtilis and the reversion assay with Escherichia coli were used to assess the mutagenicity of some heavy metals, the present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  17. Assessment of alternatives to correct inventory difference statistical treatment deficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, K.R.; Johnston, J.W.; Bennett, C.A.; Brouns, R.J.; Mullen, M.F.; Roberts, F.P.

    1983-11-01

    This document presents an analysis of alternatives to correct deficiencies in the statistical treatment of inventory differences in the NRC guidance documents and licensee practice. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's objective for this study was to assess alternatives developed by the NRC and a panel of safeguards statistical experts. Criteria were developed for the evaluation and the assessment was made considering the criteria. The results of this assessment are PNL recommendations, which are intended to provide NRC decision makers with a logical and statistically sound basis for correcting the deficiencies.

  18. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K.

    1988-04-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). The present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  19. Formation of linear aldehydes during surface water preozonization and their removal in water treatment in relation to mutagenic activity and sum parameters.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, F; Janssens, J; Van Dijck, H

    1985-12-01

    Low molecular weight aldehydes were formed during surface water preozonization, their levels showing a positive correlation with increasing ozone dose applied and with increasing water temperature. A strong negative correlation was observed between aldehyde levels and U.V. absorbance at 254 nm. Coagulation had no influence on the aldehydes present and the influence of rapid double layer filtration varied strongly with temperature: significant removals were only observed above 10 degrees C. Mutagenic activity generated by preozonization in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 shows an ozone dose depending relationship different from the formation of linear aldehydes. Its removal by coagulation is not effective but rapid double layer filtration reduces mutagenic activity to marginal levels. In this respect too no clear parallel can be drawn between the presence of low molecular weight aldehydes and mutagenic activity.

  20. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients. PMID:26782493

  1. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  2. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  3. Janus carcinogens and mutagens.

    PubMed

    von Borstel, R C; Higgins, J A

    1998-06-18

    Janus carcinogens are carcinogenic agents that, under differing conditions of cell type or dose, can instead act as anticarcinogens. Studies by Haseman and Johnson [J.K. Haseman, F.M. Johnson, Analysis of rodent NTP bioassay data for anticarcinogenic effects, Mutat. Res. , 350 (1996) 131-142], have demonstrated that many chemicals that are carcinogenic for one tissue type can have anticarcinogenic action on another tissue type. As Magni et al. [G.E. Magni, R.C. von Borstel, S. Sora, Mutagenic action during meiosis and antimutagenic action during mitosis by 5-aminoacridine in yeast, Mutat. Res., 1 (1964) 227-230] have shown in 1964, this principle holds true for chemical mutagens as well, that is 9-aminoacridine is an antimutagen in the vegetative cell and a mutagen in the sporulating cell. The conclusion can be drawn that two established carcinogens, tobacco and ionizing radiation, are indeed Janus carcinogens. In their review of 'ambiguous carcinogens' (their name), Weinberg and Storer [A.M. Weinberg, J.B. Storer, Ambiguous carcinogens and their regulation, Risk Anal., 5 (1985) 151-156], pointed out that tobacco can be classified as an ambiguous carcinogen. The strong carcinogenicity and anticarcinogenicity of tobacco smoke and/or tobacco itself (i.e., chewing tobacco) may be due to components in the mixture, not that of a single carcinogenic chemical that also may be anticarcinogenic. Kondo [S. Kondo, Health Effects of Low-Level Radiation, Kinki Univ. Press, Osaka, Japan and Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, WI, 1995, 213 pp.] has compiled data that demonstrate that human populations who survive exposures to ionizing radiation generally live longer and have less cancer than unirradiated human populations, and this Janus phenomenon goes beyond the more trivial concept of increased sensitivity to radiation of rapidly dividing tumor cells. Thiabendazole is an interesting compound in that it is both aneugenic and antimutagenic, and yet it does not appear to be a

  4. Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke

    2016-01-01

    Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) improves ADHD symptoms in the short-term, but poor data were published about long-term treatment. In addition a number of patients present partial or no response to methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Research into the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of alternative pharmacological approaches in adult ADHD patients. Among alternative compounds, amphetamines (mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetamine) have the most robust evidence of efficacy, but they may be associated with serious side effects (e.g. psychotic symptoms or hypertension). Antidepressants, particularly those acting as noradrenaline or dopamine enhancers, have evidence of efficacy, but they should be avoided in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. Finally metadoxine and lithium may be particularly suitable in case of comorbid alcohol misuse or bipolar disorder. PMID:26693882

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  6. Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example of a multifactorial syndrome. Due to rapid increase in the incidence in these infections, this is the subject of numerous studies. Recently, the focus of attention is the treatment and, above all, the prevention of those complications. The diagnosis of candidiasis could become quite complicated. Prevention is the most effective "treatment," much more than eradication of the yeast with antifungal agents. There are several aspects to consider in the daily routine that can provide a strength protection. However, a therapeutic approach is necessary when the infection is established, and therefore, other alternatives should be explored. This review provides an overview on predisposition factors, prevention and diagnosis of candidiasis, highlighting alternative approaches for candidiasis treatment.

  7. Modulatory role of alizarin from Rubia cordifolia L. against genotoxicity of mutagens.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Prabhjit; Chandel, Madhu; Kumar, Subodh; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Kaur, Satwinderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Rubia cordifolia L. (Rubiaceae) is an important medicinal plant used in the Ayurvedic medicinal system. Its use as a traditional therapeutic has been related to the treatment of skin disorders and cancer. Besides its medicinal value, anthraquinones from this plant are used as natural food colourants and as natural hair dyes. Dyes derived from natural sources have emerged as important alternatives to synthetic dyes. Alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone) was isolated and characterized from R. cordifolia L. and evaluated for its antigenotoxic potential against a battery of mutagens viz. 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) in Ames assay using TA98 tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium; hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) in SOS chromotest using PQ37 strain of Escherichia coli and in Comet assay using human blood lymphocytes. Our results showed that alizarin possessed significant modulatory role against the genotoxicity of mutagens. PMID:19852997

  8. Hemodialysis as an alternative treatment of mexiletine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Akıncı, Emine; Yüzbaşıoglu, Yücel; Coşkun, Figen

    2011-11-01

    Mexiletine is a class IB antiarrhythmic agent. Although it is primarily used in treating ventricular arrhythmias, recent indications for use of mexiletine include chronic and neuropathic pains. At high doses, mexiletine causes drowsiness, confusion, nausea, hypotension, sinus bradycardia, paresthesia, seizures, bundle branch block, atrioventricular heart block, ventricular arrhythmias, asystole, cardiovascular collapse, and coma. A 23-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with intentional ingestion of high-dose mexiletine. Despite decontamination and supportive treatment, his vitals deteriorated during the observation period; and he developed stupor and dysarthria. Patient then underwent hemodialysis. His vital signs and overall condition improved rapidly following hemodialysis treatment. In this case report, we aimed to emphasize hemodialysis as a useful alternative therapy for severe mexiletine intoxications. PMID:20971596

  9. Gamma knife: an alternative treatment for acoustic neurinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerer, D.B.; Lunsford, L.D.; Moller, M.

    1988-11-01

    Despite surgical advances and technologic means of better monitoring seventh and eighth nerve function intraoperatively, there remains a group of patients for whom alternative methods of treatment are desirable. These include the elderly, those with bilateral tumors or tumors in only hearing ears, individuals with medical contraindications to major surgery, and those who refuse surgical resection. The University of Pittsburgh became the fifth world center and the first in the United States to install the gamma knife for stereotactic radiosurgery. On the basis of the pioneering work done at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, acoustic tumor patients who fulfill the above criteria are being treated. A tumoricidal single treatment closed-skull radiation dose is given through 201 sharply focused cobalt 60 sources, minimizing the effects on surrounding brain or other tissues. Our early results are discussed and compared to those from more than 200 cases in Stockholm. Complications and expected long-term results are presented.

  10. Review of complementary and alternative medical treatment of arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Brenyo, Andrew; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2014-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies are commonly used by patients for the treatment of medical conditions spanning the full spectrum of severity and chronicity. The use of alternative remedies, both herbal and others, for conditions lacking effective medical treatment, is on the increase. Included within this categorization, arrhythmic disease-absent effective catheter-based therapy or with medical therapy limited by the toxicities of contemporary antiarrhythmic agents is frequently managed by patients with CAM therapies without their practitioner's knowledge and in the face of potential herb-drug toxicities. This study reviews 9 CAM therapies: 7 individual herbal therapies along with acupuncture and yoga that have been studied and reported as having an antiarrhythmic effect. The primary focuses are the proposed antiarrhythmic mechanism of each CAM agent along with interactions between the CAM therapies and commonly prescribed medical therapy for arrhythmia patients. We stress persistent vigilance on the part of the provider in discussing the use of herbal or other CAM agents within the arrhythmia population.

  11. [New alternatives in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Luis Arredondo, J; Higuera, F; Narcio, M L; Casanova, G; Beltrán, M

    1994-08-01

    Efficiency and security clindamycin vaginal cream (2%) were compared to oral metronidazole's for the treatment of 184 women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis in a multicentric, randomized, double-blind, controlled study. The treatment was of 7 days duration, using placebo capsules for the clindamycin group and placebo cream for the metronidazole group. Patients were observed during a follow up (4-13 and 20-43 days after completion of therapy). Global results of this treatment indicated that clindamycin vaginal cream offers a similar efficiency than oral metronidazole. Improvement or total healing was 87% for clindamycin and 79% for metronidazole, with no significant differences (p > 0.22). No relapses were observed in the clindamycin group, and 7% in the metronidazole group. The clindamycin group had a failure rate of 3% compared to 15% in the oral metronidazole group. Both drugs were well tolerated. Side effects more frequently reported were vulvovaginal irritation and cervicitis/vaginitis. The only side effect that could have been classified as serious was a generalized rash in a patient receiving metronidazole. It was concluded that clindamycin vaginal cream (2%) is an efficient and secure alternative to oral metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis being the elective therapy for pregnant women in their first gestational trimester. PMID:7959144

  12. Browning reaction systems as sources of mutagens and antimutagens.

    PubMed Central

    Powrie, W D; Wu, C H; Molund, V P

    1986-01-01

    Heated food systems contain hundreds of chemical compounds, some being mutagenic and others being antimutagenic. Studies have indicated that foods exposed to drying, frying, roasting, baking, and broiling conditions possess net mutagenic activity as assessed by the Ames/Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. With the above-mentioned heat treatment of food, nonenzymic browning reactions are generally proceeding at rapid rates and are involved in the development of mutagens. Caramelization and Maillard reactions are two important pathways in the nonenzymic browning of food and are responsible for the formation of volatile aromatic compounds, intermediate nonvolatile compounds, and brown pigments called melanoidins. Heated sugar-amino acid mixtures possessed mutagenic activities which have been assessed by short-term bioassays. Purified Maillard and caramelization reaction products such as reductones, dicarbonyls, pyrazines, and furan derivatives have exhibited mutagenicity and clastogenicity. The water-insoluble fraction (WIF) of instant coffee and a model-system melanoidin (MSM) have been shown to inhibit the mutagenicity of known carcinogens--aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and benzo(a)pyrene (BP)--in aqueous dispersion. WIF and MSM were found to be effective binding agents for the carcinogens. PMID:3757959

  13. Mutagenic studies with acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Milvy, P; Wolff, M

    1977-07-01

    The mutagenicity of acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide, propenenitrile) has been demonstrated in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium/liver microsome assay system. Acrylonitrile, in the presence of a mouse liver homogenate produced mutations in the TA 1535, TA 1538 and TA 1978 strains. Exposure of the bacteria was achieved by spotting the acrylonitrile on a "lawn" of salmonella, by shaking a reaction mixture consisting of bacteria, liver homogenate and acrylonitrile, and by exposing the homogenate and bacteria to an atmosphere containing the acrylonitrile. Mutagenesis by this latter method was observed at exposures as low as 57 ppm, less than three times the TLV of 20 ppm that is designated in the United States.

  14. Cryptococcosis: epidemiology, fungal resistance, and new alternatives for treatment.

    PubMed

    Gullo, F P; Rossi, S A; Sardi, J de C O; Teodoro, V L I; Mendes-Giannini, M J S; Fusco-Almeida, A M

    2013-11-01

    Cryptococcosis is an important systemic mycosis and the third most prevalent disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. The incidence of cryptococcosis is high among the 25 million people with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with recent estimates indicating that there are one million cases of cryptococcal meningitis globally per year in AIDS patients. In Cryptococcus neoformans, resistance to azoles may be associated with alterations in the target enzyme encoded by the gene ERG11, lanosterol 14α-demethylase. These alterations are obtained through mutations, or by overexpressing the gene encoding. In addition, C. gattii and C. neoformans present a heteroresistance phenotype, which may be related to increased virulence. Other species beyond C. neoformans and C. gattii, such as C. laurentii, have been diagnosed mainly in patients with immunosuppression. Infections of C. albidus have been isolated in cats and marine mammals. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of infections produced by this pathogen are associated with biofilm growth, which is also related with increased resistance to antifungal agents. Therefore, there is a great need to search for alternative antifungal agents for these fungi. The search for new molecules is currently occurring from nanoparticle drugs of plant peptide origin. This article presents a brief review of the literature regarding the epidemiology of cryptococcosis, as well as fungal resistance and new alternatives for treatment. PMID:24141976

  15. Standard and alternative adjunctive treatments in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J K

    1993-01-01

    Cardiovascular rehabilitation is the process of restoring functional abilities degraded by a serious cardiovascular event or by a surgical procedure to preempt such an event. Cardiovascular rehabilitation also includes attempts to reverse risk factors that have contributed initially to the disease process. Rehabilitation programs generally comprise disease-related educational components, supervised prescriptive physical exercise, diet counseling and modification, cessation of tobacco use, psychoeducational interventions aimed at adjustment and coping, and relaxation and stress management to lower nonexertion-related sympathetic drive. The presence of so-called coronary-prone behavior patterns can be detected, and special behavioral modifications may be indicated to mitigate these putative risk factors. This paper reviews the roles of these behavioral adjuncts in treating cardiovascular disease and its aftermath, and notes new and unusual approaches to these components of treatment, such as alternative exercises, biofeedback, yoga, and other relaxation methods. Barriers to compliance are acknowledged, and enhancement of compliance is discussed briefly. PMID:8219823

  16. Multiple treatment interference in the alternating treatments design as a function of the intercomponent interval length.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, J J; Rojahn, J; Dixon, J; Strain, P S

    1987-01-01

    In experimental designs requiring the administration of more than one treatment to the same subject(s), the effect of one treatment may be influenced by the effect of another treatment (Campbell & Stanley, 1963), a phenomenon known as multiple treatment interference. We conducted two studies in which multiple treatment interference in an alternating treatments design was shown to be a function of the length of the intercomponent interval (ICI) separating treatment conditions. In the first study, we evaluated the effects of four different treatments on the mouthing of a severely retarded boy. Under a 1-min ICI no consistent differential responding to treatment was obtained. Differential responding emerged when the ICI was increased from 1 min to 120 min, thus suggesting multiple treatment interference in the lack of differential responding under a 1-min changeover interval. Functional control of the nondifferential and differential responding as a function of the ICI length was replicated in a reversal phase. In the second study, we compared two treatment procedures for the disruptive noncompliant behavior of a moderately retarded boy. Multiple treatment interference (i.e., the lack of differential responding) occurred with the 1-min intercomponent interval. An increase to a 120-min ICI again resulted in differential responding. A replication of multiple treatment interference by a reversal to a short interval phase was not achieved in the second subject. Results of this study support much of the basic literature on discrimination and multiple treatment interference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Mutagenic screening of diamine monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, W. D.; Noble, J. E.; Gridley, J. A.; Fullenkamp, J. M.; Wininger, M. T.; Graham, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of phenyl ring coupling moieties, of isomeric amine positions relative to the coupling groups, and of insertion of other coupling groups on the mutagenic response of a series of dianilines were investigated using the Ames Salmonella assay. Generally, S-9 metabolic activation from Aroclor-induced rat liver was required for mutagenic expression. The range of mutagenicity of steric isomers of several dianiline series was also investigated. No mutagenicity was found for purified samples of o,o' and m,p' isomers of methylene dianiline (MDA) and diaminobenzophenone, while varying degrees of mutagenicity were found for other isomers. The mutagenicity of "benzylogs" of MDA decreased as the degree of linear separation of the m,m' anilino groups by aromatic rings increased. Methylation and two-year storage increased mutagenic response in certain isomers of MDA. However, high performance liquid chromatography indicated there was no discernible change in m,p'-MDA samples aged under varied conditions over four months. Likewise, no change in mutagenicity was found.

  18. Mutagenicity in drug development: interpretation and significance of test results.

    PubMed

    Clive, D

    1985-03-01

    The use of mutagenicity data has been proposed and widely accepted as a relatively fast and inexpensive means of predicting long-term risk to man (i.e., cancer in somatic cells, heritable mutations in germ cells). This view is based on the universal nature of the genetic material, the somatic mutation model of carcinogenesis, and a number of studies showing correlations between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An uncritical acceptance of this approach by some regulatory and industrial concerns is over-conservative, naive, and scientifically unjustifiable on a number of grounds: Human cancers are largely life-style related (e.g., cigarettes, diet, tanning). Mutagens (both natural and man-made) are far more prevalent in the environment than was originally assumed (e.g., the natural bases and nucleosides, protein pyrolysates, fluorescent lights, typewriter ribbon, red wine, diesel fuel exhausts, viruses, our own leukocytes). "False-positive" (relative to carcinogenicity) and "false-negative" mutagenicity results occur, often with rational explanations (e.g., high threshold, inappropriate metabolism, inadequate genetic endpoint), and thereby confound any straightforward interpretation of mutagenicity test results. Test battery composition affects both the proper identification of mutagens and, in many instances, the ability to make preliminary risk assessments. In vitro mutagenicity assays ignore whole animal protective mechanisms, may provide unphysiological metabolism, and may be either too sensitive (e.g., testing at orders-of-magnitude higher doses than can be ingested) or not sensitive enough (e.g., short-term treatments inadequately model chronic exposure in bioassay). Bacterial systems, particularly the Ames assay, cannot in principle detect chromosomal events which are involved in both carcinogenesis and germ line mutations in man. Some compounds induce only chromosomal events and little or no detectable single-gene events (e.g., acyclovir, caffeine

  19. Mutagenicity of Oxygen Free Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Carmella S.; Hassan, Hosni M.

    1982-05-01

    Paraquat 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was used as an intracellular generator of oxygen free radicals and was found to be highly mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium. It caused both base-pair substitution and frameshift mutations. Paraquat was much more toxic and mutagenic in a simple nutritionally restricted medium than in a rich complex medium. The mutagenicity of paraquat was dependent upon the presence of a supply of both electrons and oxygen. Cells containing high levels of superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) were more resistant to the toxicity and the mutagenicity of paraquat than were cells containing normal levels of this enzyme. The mutagenicity of paraquat thus appears to be due to its ability to exacerbate the intracellular production of superoxide radicals.

  20. Alternative biological systems for the treatment of vinasse from wine.

    PubMed

    Vlyssides, A; Barampouti, E M; Mai, S; Stamatoglou, A; Tsimas, E

    2010-01-01

    This work studied alternative treatment schemes for the vinasse wastewater from wine distilleries aiming at overcoming the problems caused by the high nitrogen and sulfur concentrations. A plexiglas laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor of 20 L volume that was operated at 45°C and hydraulic retention time 1 d, was included in all the examined systems. System 1 was the conventional UASB reactor, system 2 was the UASB reactor supplemented with iron. System 3 consisted of the UASB reactor supplemented with iron and a CSTR reactor that operated under the following conditions: Diluted Oxygen 1.2 mg/L, Hydraulic Retention Time 1 d, pH 6.7 and Temperature 45°C. System 3 aimed at converting ammonium directly to dinitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions but it needed to be preceeded by a first partial nitrification step. All systems had high COD efficiencies over 75%. Ferrous iron addition apart from enhancing the performance of systems 2 and 3, it was able to retain all sulphur content of the wastewater as ferrous sulfide stripping the biogas from hydrogen sulfide. System 3 also managed to meet its goal, since it achieved an 86% nitrogen reduction. Conclusively, system 3 seems to be a very promising environmental technology for the treatment of distillery and winery byproducts, as well as industrial wastewater with high sulfur and nitrogen content. PMID:21123920

  1. Current Pharmaceutical Treatments and Alternative Therapies of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Cui, Yanhua; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, pharmaceutical treatments, particularly dopaminergic (DAergic) drugs have been considered as the main therapy against motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is proposed that DAergic drugs in combination with other medications, such as monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, anticholinergics and other newly developed non-DAergic drugs can make a better control of motor symptoms or alleviate levodopa-induced motor complications. Moreover, non-motor symptoms of PD, such as cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic and sensory disturbances caused by intrinsic PD pathology or drug-induced side effects, are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be taken care of due to their impact on quality of life. Currently, neuroprotective therapies have been investigated extensively in pre-clinical studies, and some of them have been subjected to clinical trials. Furthermore, non-pharmaceutical treatments, including deep brain stimulation (DBS), gene therapy, cell replacement therapy and some complementary managements, such as Tai chi, Yoga, traditional herbs and molecular targeted therapies have also been considered as effective alternative therapies to classical pharmaceutics. This review will provide us updated information regarding the current drugs and non-drugs therapies for PD. PMID:26585523

  2. Radiation Synovectomy: an effective alternative treatment for inflamed small joints

    PubMed Central

    Karavida, N; Notopoulos, A

    2010-01-01

    An inflamed painful joint is one of the most common indications for the patient to be referred to a rheumatologist or an orthopedician. In relation to the aetiology, the therapeutic approach might be systemic, local or a combination of them in some cases, always with the thought of balancing risk with benefit for the patient. In all cases, independently of the cause, the goal of therapy is to improve the quality of life through the reduction of pain, improvement of mobility and preservation of function. Nuclear Medicine has to offer Radiosynoviorthesis, an effective alternative procedure for treating inflamed small joints. Various radionuclides are available for radiosynoviorthesis. Their selection depends on the size of the joint to be treated. Small joints are mainly treated with [169Er] erbium under a fluoroscopic or sonographic guidance, usually with a simultaneous instillation of a corticoid. Candidates for radiosynoviorthesis should have been under a six-month systemic treatment without encouraging results or should have undergone at least one unsuccessful intra-articular injection of a long acting glucocorticoid. Since 1973, when [169Er] erbium was firstly suggested as a therapeutic agent for radiosynoviorthesis of the finger joints, there has been quite enough experience in its' application. It has been found to be cost effective in providing long term relief of pain and deformity of the inflamed joints in comparison to other therapeutic approaches. Additionally, there is no radiation risk and can be performed on an out patient basis. Therefore it can stand as an effective alternative procedure for treating early stages of chronic synovitis in RA (rheumatoid arthritis) patients, with minor damage of the cartilage and the adjacent bones, and for synovitis secondary to inflammatory arthropathies. PMID:20411055

  3. Cracked tooth diagnosis and treatment: An alternative paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Mamoun, John S.; Napoletano, Donato

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of cracked teeth, and explores common clinical examples of cracked teeth, such as cusp fractures, fractures into tooth furcations, and root fractures. This article provides alternative definitions of terms such as cracked teeth, complete and incomplete fractures and crack lines, and explores the scientific rationale for dental terminology commonly used to describe cracked teeth, such as cracked tooth syndrome, structural versus nonstructural cracks, and vertical, horizontal, and oblique fractures. The article explains the advantages of high magnification loupes (×6–8 or greater), or the surgical operating microscope, combined with co-axial or head-mounted illumination, when observing teeth for microscopic crack lines or enamel craze lines. The article explores what biomechanical factors help to facilitate the development of cracks in teeth, and under what circumstances a full coverage crown may be indicated for preventing further propagation of a fracture plane. Articles on cracked tooth phenomena were located via a PubMed search using a variety of keywords, and via selective hand-searching of citations contained within located articles. PMID:26038667

  4. [Bariatric and plastic surgery in obese adolescents: an alternative treatment].

    PubMed

    Dubern, Béatrice; Tounian, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    The increased frequency of extreme forms of obesity in adolescents and the disappointing results of conventional treatments are now leading pediatricians to consider bariatric or cosmetic surgery as the only real long-term effective therapeutic alternative. The two main techniques currently used for bariatric surgery in adolescents are gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding. Whatever the technique, weight loss is significant with improvement of comorbidities and quality of life. In addition, the complications are identical to those in adults and equally frequent. However, because of the particularities of this age, caution is still required. Adolescence is indeed characterized by specific nutritional needs, but also changes in body image in which surgery could have a negative effect. Currently, all obese teenagers making a request for bariatric surgery should have a comprehensive assessment with global care for at least 6 months. The indication is then discussed on a case-by-case basis by multidisciplinary teams and experts. To date, the type of surgery (gastric banding, gastric sleeve, or bypass) is still widely discussed. Based on experience with adults, we believe that gastric sleeve and bypass should be preferred. In addition, obesity in adolescents almost always involves psychosocial consequences, while somatic complications are rare. Thus, the care of adipo- or gynecomastia, abdominal fat excess, and concealed penis is essential and therefore justifies cosmetic surgery.

  5. Alternating magnetic field optimization for IONP hyperthermia cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Elliot J.; Reeves, Russell; Bennett, William; Misra, Aditi; Petryk, Jim D.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) have therapeutic potential to deliver a thermal dose to tumors when activated in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Through various targeting methods such as antibody labeling or injection site choice, delivery of IONPs to tumors yields enhanced treatment accuracy and efficacy. Despite this advantage, delivery an AMF, which is sufficient to result in clinically relevant IONP heating, can result in nonspecific tissue heating via the generation of eddy currents and tissue permeated by local electric fields (joule heating). The production of eddy current heating is a function of tissue size, geometry and composition as well as coil design and operation. The purpose of this research is to increase the level of energy deposited into the IONPs versus the non-target tissue (power ratio/PR)1 in order to improve target heating and reduce nonspecific tissue damage. We propose to improve the PR using two primary concepts: (1) reduce power deposition into non-target tissue by manipulating the fields and eddy current flow and (2) enhance heat removal from non-target tissue. We have shown that controlling tissue placement within the AMF field, accounting for tissue geometry, utilizing external cooling devices, and modifying the field properties can decrease non-target heating by more than 50%, at clinically relevant AMF levels, thereby allowing for an increase in thermal dose to the tumor and increasing the therapeutic ratio.

  6. A level change in mutagenicity of Japanese tap water over the past 12 yr.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Hirokazu; Kishida, Misako; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Ohki, Akira; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-05-01

    A relative comparison study of mutagenicity in Japanese tap water was conducted for 1993 and 2005 surveys. It intended to assess the effects of advanced water treatment installations to water works, improvement of raw water quality and improvement of residual HOCl concentration controlling. Sampling points (taps) were the same in both surveys. The results of 245 samples obtained by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test (Ames test) were analyzed. The Ames tests were conducted by using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with and without exogenous activation (S9). With the exception of TA100-S9, the other conditions needed no discussion as a factor in the mutagenicity level change. The average mutagenicity in 1993 and 2005 under the conditions of TA100-S9 were 2600 and 1100 net revertantL(-1), respectively. This indicated that the mutagenicity level of Japanese tap water decreased during the 12-yr period. Particularly a remarkable decrease in mutagenicity was observed in the water works where the advanced water treatments were installed during the 12-yr period. The advanced water treatments were effective in decreasing the mutagenicity of tap water. Mutagenicity also decreased in the water works with conventional water treatments; the improvement of residual HOCl concentration controlling was also considered to be effective in decreasing the mutagenicity of tap water.

  7. Ames' mutagenic activity in recycled water from an Israeli water reclamation project

    SciTech Connect

    Neeman, I.; Kroll, R.; Mahler, A.; Rubin, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Effluent samples taken from a water reclamation project in Israel were analyzed for mutagenicity and toxicity using the Ames assay test. Test results indicate the presence of low levels of mutagens in recycled water taken from the reclamation plant; samples taken from different sites in the plant yielded different levels of mutagenicity. Improved wastewater treatment technology is needed to make water reuse safe. (2 graphs, 15 references, 1 table)

  8. Food mutagens: Mutagenic activity, DNA mechanisms, and cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Heterocyclic amines are potent mutagens, and they are carcinogenic in laboratory animals. We have shown that typical Western diets rich in well-done meta cooked at high temperatures have significant levels of at least five different heterocyclic amines. We are beginning to understand the process by which food mutagens become adducted to DNA. This molecular binding to DNA is an important step that can lead to cancer. The binding of mutagens depends on the formation of intermediate, biologically reactive molecules. The intermediates appear to link preferentially to the DNA base guanine. The extent of DNA adduction and the subsequent occurrence of tumors vary considerably in different types of tissues, such as the liver and pancreas, and in different animal species. A comparison of fried meats shows that beef and chicken are the most mutagenic types of food in a typical Western diet. When account is taken of the relative amounts of different meats consumed by Americans and of the potency of mutagens in them, ground beef may be the most important source of food mutagens in the U.S. diet. The overall, average, upper-bound estimate of cancer risk in the U.S. from eating heterocyclic amines in cooked foods is about one in ten thousand. The consumption of meat and chicken contributes most to the total risk. Some individuals eating large amounts of well-done muscle foods may be at much greater risk.

  9. Comparison of Explicit Forgiveness Interventions with an Alternative Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nathaniel G.; Worthington, Everett L.; Haake, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Forgiveness interventions can help people forgive past offenses. However, few studies have compared forgiveness interventions with genuine alternative treatments. The authors compared forgiveness interventions with a therapeutic alternative treatment. Participants reduced unforgiveness and increased forgiveness regardless of treatment condition.…

  10. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section 268.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  11. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks,State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  12. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks, State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  13. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  14. Identification with mainstream culture and preference for alternative alcohol treatment approaches in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Dillworth, Tiara M; Kaysen, Debra; Montoya, Heidi D; Larimer, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    Although various treatment approaches are available for alcohol problems, less than 25% of individuals with alcohol use disorders obtain treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate interest in attending alternative alcohol treatments, such as meditation and acupuncture, compared to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). A community sample of 156 adult participants concerned about their drinking were recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements to complete a Web-based survey assessing identification with mainstream culture, sexual identity, and likelihood to attend alternative alcohol treatments. Participants reported higher likelihood of attending alternative treatments as compared to AA, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants (28.2% of the sample) were more likely to attend alternative treatments than heterosexual participants. A series of regression analyses were conducted to test whether the relationship between sexual identity and likelihood to attend alternative treatments was mediated by identification with mainstream culture. Participants who were less strongly identified with mainstream culture, regardless of sexual identity, reported higher likelihood of attending alternative treatments. These findings highlight that, for certain subgroups of the population, alternative treatments for alcohol misuse are appealing and suggest the need for future research testing the efficacy of alternative treatments for alcohol problems.

  15. Effect of petrochemical sludge concentrations of changes in mutagenic activity during soil bioremediation process.

    PubMed

    Morelli, I S; Vecchioli, G I; Del Panno, M T; Painceira, M T

    2001-10-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effect of the petrochemical sludge application rate on the mutagenic activity (Ames test) of soil and the persistence of mutagenic activity during laboratory soil bioremediation process. Sludge-soil systems were prepared at four different sludge application rates (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10% w/w). Unamended soil was used as a control. Immediately following sludge application, in the absence or presence of S9, a linear correlation between sludge application rates and mutagenicity was found but differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the control system only at higher application rates (5 and 10% w/w). The direct mutagenicity of all systems decreases during the bioremediation process, and after a year of treatment only the 10% system induced a mutagenic response that was significantly different from the control system. On the other hand, an initial increase of the indirect mutagenicity was observed at all application rates. The time required for observing this increase was inversely proportional to the initial sludge concentration. After a year of treatment, the indirect mutagenicity of all sludge-amended soils was not significantly different but was significantly different from the unamended soils. The persistence of the direct mutagenic activity of the sludge-amended soils was related to the sludge concentration, whereas the indirect mutagenic persistence was related to the relationship between easily degradable hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentration and independent from the initial application rate. PMID:11596747

  16. Effect of petrochemical sludge concentrations of changes in mutagenic activity during soil bioremediation process.

    PubMed

    Morelli, I S; Vecchioli, G I; Del Panno, M T; Painceira, M T

    2001-10-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effect of the petrochemical sludge application rate on the mutagenic activity (Ames test) of soil and the persistence of mutagenic activity during laboratory soil bioremediation process. Sludge-soil systems were prepared at four different sludge application rates (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10% w/w). Unamended soil was used as a control. Immediately following sludge application, in the absence or presence of S9, a linear correlation between sludge application rates and mutagenicity was found but differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the control system only at higher application rates (5 and 10% w/w). The direct mutagenicity of all systems decreases during the bioremediation process, and after a year of treatment only the 10% system induced a mutagenic response that was significantly different from the control system. On the other hand, an initial increase of the indirect mutagenicity was observed at all application rates. The time required for observing this increase was inversely proportional to the initial sludge concentration. After a year of treatment, the indirect mutagenicity of all sludge-amended soils was not significantly different but was significantly different from the unamended soils. The persistence of the direct mutagenic activity of the sludge-amended soils was related to the sludge concentration, whereas the indirect mutagenic persistence was related to the relationship between easily degradable hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentration and independent from the initial application rate.

  17. Integration of alternative feedstreams for biomass treatment and utilization

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T.; Hames, Bonnie

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides a method for treating biomass composed of integrated feedstocks to produce fermentable sugars. One aspect of the methods described herein includes a pretreatment step wherein biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream and the resulting integrated feedstock, at relatively high concentrations, is treated with a low concentration of ammonia relative to the dry weight of biomass. In another aspect, a high solids concentration of pretreated biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream for saccharifiaction.

  18. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.

    PubMed

    Sivaswamy, S N; Balachandran, B; Balanehru, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

    1991-08-01

    Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains.

  19. Effect of cooking methods on the mutagenicity of food and on urinary mutagenicity of human consumers.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, D J; Rahn, C A; Burger, G T; Lee, C K; Reed, B; Riccio, E; Howard, G; Passananti, G T; Vesell, E S; Hayes, A W

    1989-10-01

    The effects of cooking methods on the in vitro mutagenicity of individual foods, the in vitro mutagenicity of meals containing those foods, and the mutagenic exposure of human volunteers following consumption of the meals were examined using Ames bacterial strain TA98 with S-9 metabolic activation. Three methods of food preparation--boiling, baking and frying/flame-broiling--were compared. With meats, frying or broiling resulted in higher in vitro mutagenicity (10- to 50-fold) than did baking or boiling, whereas for carbohydrates, eggs or vegetables mutagenicity did not vary markedly with cooking method. The observed (experimental) mutagenic activity of the meals was quite similar to their calculated (predicted) mutagenicity, obtained by summing the mutagenicity of the individual foods in the meal. The close agreement between experimental and predicted mutagenicity indicated that components of the meal did not interact in either a synergistic or inhibitory manner. The mutagenicity of fried flame-broiled meals was approximately 10-fold greater than the mutagenicity of baked or broiled meals, which were similar in mutagenicity. The mutagenicity of human urine following consumption of the meals was related to the in vitro mutagenicity of the meals themselves. The in vitro mutagenicity of meals is markedly affected by the cooking method used to prepare them and the mutagenicity of the diet may be reflected in the mutagenicity of body fluids.

  20. Treatment Acceptability of Alternative Marital Therapies: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Philip H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the acceptability of four therapeutic models (i.e., behavioral, psychoanalytic, systems, and eclectic) used in treatment of marital discord. Subjects (N=88) evaluated four treatment sequences as they applied to a marital case history. Results showed that, among varying treatments, behavioral and systems approaches were rated more…

  1. Mutagenicity of the cysteine S-conjugate sulfoxides of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Irving, Roy M; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2013-04-01

    The nephrotoxicity and nephrocarcinogenicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are believed to be mediated primarily through the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase-dependent bioactivation of the corresponding cysteine S-conjugate metabolites S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (DCVC) and S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (TCVC), respectively. DCVC and TCVC have previously been demonstrated to be mutagenic by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, and reduction in mutagenicity was observed upon treatment with the β-lyase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). Because DCVC and TCVC can also be bioactivated through sulfoxidation to yield the potent nephrotoxicants S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS) and S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxide (TCVCS), respectively, the mutagenic potential of these two sulfoxides was investigated using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium TA100 mutagenicity assay. The results show both DCVCS and TCVCS were mutagenic, and TCVCS exhibited 3-fold higher mutagenicity than DCVCS. However, DCVCS and TCVCS mutagenic activity was approximately 700-fold and 30-fold lower than DCVC and TCVC, respectively. DCVC and DCVCS appeared to induce toxicity in TA100, as evidenced by increased microcolony formation and decreased mutant frequency above threshold concentrations. TCVC and TCVCS were not toxic in TA100. The toxic effects of DCVC limited the sensitivity of TA100 to DCVC mutagenic effects and rendered it difficult to investigate the effects of AOAA on DCVC mutagenic activity. Collectively, these results suggest that DCVCS and TCVCS exerted a definite but weak mutagenicity in the TA100 strain. Therefore, despite their potent nephrotoxicity, DCVCS and TCVCS are not likely to play a major role in DCVC or TCVC mutagenicity in this strain.

  2. Brief Report: Alternative Approaches to the Development of Effective Treatments for Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Bernard; Baker, Sidney M.

    1996-01-01

    The most widely used "alternative" biomedical treatments for autism are reviewed, including: nutritional supplements, especially megadose vitamin B6 and magnesium; treatment of food allergies and intolerances; treatment of microbial infections; and treatment of immune system dysfunction. The Defeat Autism Now! project is briefly described. (DB)

  3. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  4. Fumaric acid esters: an alternative systemic treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ameen, M; Russell-Jones, R

    1999-09-01

    We report the successful clearance of severe chronic plaque psoriasis following treatment with fumaric acid esters (FAE) in two patients who had failed previous systemic therapy. FAE is gaining increasing acceptance for the treatment of psoriasis in countries such as Germany and the Netherlands, but at present remains unlicensed in Britain.

  5. Acceptability of Alternative Treatments for Deviant Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    1980-01-01

    Cases of deviant child behavior were described to 88 undergraduate students along with four different treatments (reinforcement of incompatible behavior, time out from reinforcement, drug therapy, and electric shock). Reinforcement of incompatible behavior was more acceptable than other treatments which followed, in order, time out from…

  6. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Probiotics: An Alternative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  7. [Assessment of mutagenic danger of food products].

    PubMed

    Maganova, N B

    2004-01-01

    Mutagenic effect of different food additions, hormonal stimulators of growth of agricultural animals, new foodstuffs and fodder, obtained in special conditions was studies in the experiments on mice. Mutagenic effect of plant-transformed lead also was studied. The results obtained showed the mutagenic effect of hormonal substance--metandrostenolone and nutritive stain on the basis of asostain red chlortriasin. The majority of studied food additions, new foodstuffs and fodder did not induce mutagenic effect in the used experimental conditions. PMID:15049156

  8. Law enforcement preferences for PTSD treatment and crisis management alternatives.

    PubMed

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Meyer, Glenn; Price, John S; Graham, Melissa M; Arsena, Ashley; Armstrong, David A; Ramon, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based treatments (EBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain underutilized. Analog research, however, indicates that patients may be more amenable to receiving EBT for PTSD than utilization rates suggest. This study sought to extend previous studies by investigating PTSD treatment preferences among law enforcement individuals (i.e., active duty officers, cadets, criminal justice students). We asked 379 participants, with varying trauma histories, to read a police traumatic event and imagine they had developed PTSD. Participants rated the credibility of six treatment options which they might encounter in a treatment setting, and chose their most and least preferred treatments. Next, they evaluated a widely used debriefing intervention aimed at preventing PTSD. Almost 90% of participants chose exposure or Cognitive Processing Therapy as their first or second most preferred treatment, and they rated these interventions as significantly more credible than the other four treatment options. The sample showed ambivalence regarding the perceived efficacy of debriefing but found the rationale credible. This study supports previous analog research indicating that patients may be more interested in EBT than indicated by utilization rates, and suggests that law enforcement departments should consider offering EBT to officers who develop PTSD.

  9. [Hypnosis as an alternative treatment for pain in palliative medicine].

    PubMed

    Peintinger, Christa; Hartmann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Pain--which can have a variety of causes--constitutes a severe problem for patients in need of palliative care, because this pain usually dramatically impairs their quality of life. Thus, the more advanced a terminal illness has become, the more hospital staff should focus on holistic treatment, encompassing body, mind and soul of the patient. Apart from conventional medication-based pain therapy, there is also a variety of non-medicinal treatments for pain. One of these methods is hypnosis, an imaginative treatment that activates available resources; it is not only an effective way of alleviating pain, but it also can ease psychological problems at the same time. PMID:19165446

  10. A medical alternative to the treatment of compensatory sweating.

    PubMed

    Cladellas, Esther; Callejas, Marco A; Grimalt, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Compensatory sweating after sympathectomy does not have a satisfactory, free-of-secondary-effects treatment. Glycopyrrolate has been successfully used to treat other types of hyperhidrosis. Compensatory sweating after sympathectomy could respond to the topical application of glycopyrrolate. Ten patients were selected with compensatory sweating after sympathectomy. One milliliter of a 2% water solution of topical glycopyrrolate was applied once a day over the affected area and massaged for 30 seconds. Treatment was maintained for 6 weeks. The results were rated using a scale from 1 to 10 of satisfaction at the end of the study. Eight of the 10 treated patients dramatically improved with the topical application of glycopyrrolate. Two patients quit the treatment due to secondary effects (accommodative failure and dry mouth). The results of the study demonstrated that local application of glycopyrrolate might be the treatment of choice for compensatory hyperhidrosis. PMID:18844718

  11. [Extracorporeal shockwave therapy of radiohumeral epicondylopathy-- an alternative treatment concept].

    PubMed

    Rompe, J D; Hopf, C; Küllmer, K; witzsch, U; Nafe, B

    1996-01-01

    During the last 2 years 75 patients referred to our hospital for operation of a persistent tennis elbow were followed prospectively after receiving low-energetic extracorporal shock wave therapy. 3 times in weekly intervals all patients received 1000 impulses of the energy density 0.06 mJ/mm2. Follow-ups were performed at 3, 6, 12, 24 weeks. Statistical analysis showed significant improvement both of subjective and objective criteria. 41 patients became painfree. Only 7 patients decided to have an operation after the 24-weeks-follow-up. Ambulatory shock wave therapy is a considerable alternative before surgical intervention in chronic tennis elbow.

  12. Treatment of Mycobacterium marinum with lymecycline: new therapeutic alternative?

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Maria Gertrudes Fernandes Pereira; Neugebauer, Samuel Antônio; Almeida Junior, Hiram Larangeira; Mota, Laís Marques

    2015-01-01

    Skin infections by Mycobacterium marinum are quite rare in our environment and, therefore, little studied. The majority of the lesions appear three weeks after traumas in aquariums, beaches and fish tanks. Lymph node drainage and systematization of the disease are rare and most lesions disappear in about three years. This case aims to show the effectiveness of the treatment used (lymecycline 150 mg/orally/day). This medication may be a new therapeutic option for the treatment of Mycobacterium marinum. PMID:25672310

  13. Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?

    PubMed

    Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

    2013-10-15

    In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to μg/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants.

  14. Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?

    PubMed

    Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

    2013-10-15

    In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to μg/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants. PMID:24053940

  15. An evaluation of drinking water samples treated with alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.S.; Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Garner, L.M.

    1995-10-01

    Due to concern over potential human health risks associated with the use of chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) for disinfection of drinking water, many utilities are considering alternative disinfectants. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfectants relative to those posed by Cl{sub 2}. At a pilot-scale drinking water plant in Jefferson Parish, LA., two studies were conducted in which clarified and sand filtered Mississippi River water was treated with either ozone (O{sub 3}), monochloramine (NH{sub 2}Cl), Cl{sub 2} or was not disinfected. Ozonated water was also post-disinfected with either NH{sub 2}Cl or Cl{sub 2}, to provide a disinfectant residual. For each treatment stream total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halide (TOX) and microbiological contaminants were determined. XAD resin concentrates were also prepared for mutagenicity testing in the Ames Salmonella assay. Water samples disinfected with O{sub 3} alone had low levels of mutagenic activity, the same as the non-disinfected water. The level of mutagenicity observed following chlorination was approximately twice that observed following treatment with NH{sub 2}Cl. Disinfection with O{sub 3} prior to treatment with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl resulted in a significantly lower level of mutagenicity than when either disinfectant was used alone. The concentrations of TOX present in the water samples showed a pattern similar to that of the mutagenicity data. The levels of TOC, by contrast, were similar for all the treatment streams. No significant baterial contamination was observed in water samples treated with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl alone or in combination with O{sub 3}, as determined by heterotrophic plate counts. However, O{sub 3} alone did not insure an acceptable level of disinfection at the end of the treatment stream.

  16. Environmental assessment of urban wastewater reuse: treatment alternatives and applications.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina C; Castells, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    The main function of a Wastewater Treatment Plant is to minimize the environmental impact of discharging untreated water into natural water systems. Also a Wastewater Treatment Plant may get a resource from wastewater carrying out a tertiary treatment on the treated wastewater which can be reused in non-potable applications. Water reuse strategies are intended to address the problem of water scarcity without aggravating other environmental problems, thus reflecting the need of their environmental assessment. In this paper we used Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate different disinfection treatments (chlorination plus ultraviolet treatment, ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide) and to assess the environmental advantages and drawbacks of urban wastewater reuse in non-potable applications. To do so, we compared the environmental impacts of producing 1m(3) of water for non-potable uses from reclaimed water, potable water and desalinated water sources. The calculation has used current operating data from a Wastewater Treatment Plant located in the Mediterranean area, although the results can be applied to any other plant with similar technology. The ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide disinfection treatment technologies have similar environmental profiles. However most of the indicators are about 50% higher than the ultraviolet disinfection except for the acidification (100% higher) and photochemical oxidation (less than 5%). Non-potable uses (both agricultural and urban uses) of reclaimed water have environmental and economical advantages. Reuse of treated wastewater is particularly beneficial when it can replace desalinated water. Consequently, reclaimed water should be promoted for non-potable uses, when there is scarcity of freshwater.

  17. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  18. [Alternative splicing regulation: implications in cancer diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca

    2015-04-01

    The accurate expression of the genetic information is regulated by processes like mRNA splicing, proposed after the discoveries of Phil Sharp and Richard Roberts, who demonstrated the existence of intronic sequences, present in almost every structural eukaryotic gene, which should be precisely removed. This intron removal is called "splicing", which generates different proteins from a single mRNA, with different or even antagonistic functions. We currently know that alternative splicing is the most important source of protein diversity, given that 70% of the human genes undergo splicing and that mutations causing defects in this process could originate up to 50% of genetic diseases, including cancer. When these defects occur in genes involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and cell cycle regulation, there is an impact on cancer progression, rising the opportunity to diagnose and treat some types of cancer according to a particular splicing profile.

  19. Infrared beak treatment: an alternative to conventional beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared lasers have been widely used in human medicine and its results are reliable, predictable and reproducible. Infrared lasers have recently been designed with the expressed purpose of providing a less painful, more precise beak treatment compared with conventional beak trimming. This study was...

  20. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  1. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-05-01

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

  2. Tomorrow`s energy today for cities and counties -- Alternative wastewater treatment: Advanced Integrated Pond systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a discussion of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Advanced Integrated Pond System as an alternative for other more costly municipal waste water treatment plants.

  3. Mechanisms for alternative treatments in Parkinson's disease: acupuncture, tai chi, and other treatments.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Bijan D; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-06-01

    At least 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use one or more forms of alternative therapy (AT) to complement standard treatments. This article reviews the commonest forms of AT for PD, including acupuncture, tai chi, yoga, mindfulness, massage, herbal medicine, and cannabis. We discuss the current evidence for the clinical efficacy of each AT and discuss potential mechanisms, including those suggested by animal and human studies. With a few notable exceptions, none of the treatments examined were investigated rigorously enough to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy or mechanism. Tai chi, acupuncture, Mucuna pruriens, cannabinoids, and music therapy have all been proposed to work through specific mechanisms, although current evidence is insufficient to support or refute these claims, with the possible exception of Mucuna pruriens (which contains levodopa). It is likely that most ATs predominantly treat PD patients through general mechanisms, including placebo effects, stress reduction, and improved mood and sleep, and AT may provide patients with a greater locus of control regarding their illness. PMID:24760476

  4. Passive mine drainage treatment: an effective low-cost alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Two prototype Passive Mine Drainage Treatment Systems have been designed and constructed in Colorado. These projects have addressed acid mine drainage from inactive coal mines. Metal removal for both systems is accomplished using simulated peat bogs composed of sphagnum moss and hypnum moss retained by loose rock check dams. Acid neutralization is accomplished using crushed limestone filled channels. Neutralization and aeration are enhanced with drop structures and waterfalls placed in the drainage channel. Preliminary water quality results show dramatic treatment effects with the PMDT system. This investigation presents cost data for design and construction of the two PMDT systems. Cost projections for periodic maintenance requirements are provided along with a suggested method for financing maintenance costs. Performance data for the first system installed are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. Odanacatib: an emerging novel treatment alternative for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Thomas C; Valenzano, Jonathan P; Verzella, Jessica L; Umland, Elena M

    2015-11-01

    Odanacatib represents a novel treatment option in the approach of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis experience a disturbance in bone remodeling wherein bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease found primarily in osteoclasts that plays a major role in the breakdown of bone via its collagenase properties. Targeting a new area of pathophysiology, odanacatib inhibits cathepsin K to reduce bone resorption while preserving bone formation. Phase II and III trials have shown efficacy in increasing bone mineral density in the target treatment group. Overall, safety studies have found odanacatib to be well-tolerated and comparable to placebo; however, some imbalances in adverse events have been observed in the Phase III trials. Current and future studies will analyze the long-term ability of odanacatib in preventing bone fracture.

  6. Alternatives to surgery for the treatment of myomas.

    PubMed

    Ciolina, Federica; Manganaro, Lucia; Scipione, Roberto; Napoli, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign neoplasms that can cause distressing symptoms in women during their reproductive age. They are often associated with menorrhagia that can determine anemia or bulk-related symptoms. Different treatment options are available: medical therapy has the goal to treat related symptoms, while semi-invasive or non-invasive uterus-sparing procedures aim to treat symptoms and eventually to determine a reduction in fibroids size. In this review we illustrate the current semi-invasive and totally non-invasive most frequently used uterus sparing procedures available. A review of the literature along with personal experience will offer the readers a panoramic view of these up-to-date treatments to be considered as different possibilities to treat women affected by uterine fibroids looking for uterus conserving non-surgical approach. PMID:26824505

  7. Comprehensive life cycle inventories of alternative wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jeffrey; de Haas, David; Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Over recent decades, the environmental regulations on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have trended towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements for the protection of local waterways. However, such regulations typically ignore other environmental impacts that might accompany apparent improvements to the WWTP. This paper quantitatively defines the life cycle inventory of resources consumed and emissions produced in ten different wastewater treatment scenarios (covering six process configurations and nine treatment standards). The inventory results indicate that infrastructure resources, operational energy, direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and chemical consumption generally increase with increasing nitrogen removal, especially at discharge standards of total nitrogen <5 mgN L(-1). Similarly, infrastructure resources and chemical consumption increase sharply with increasing phosphorus removal, but operational energy and direct GHG emissions are largely unaffected. These trends represent a trade-off of negative environmental impacts against improved local receiving water quality. However, increased phosphorus removal in WWTPs also represents an opportunity for increased resource recovery and reuse via biosolids applied to agricultural land. This study highlights that where biosolids displace synthetic fertilisers, a negative environmental trade-off may also occur by increasing the heavy metals discharged to soil. Proper analysis of these positive and negative environmental trade-offs requires further life cycle impact assessment and an inherently subjective weighting of competing environmental costs and benefits. PMID:20022351

  8. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  9. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

    PubMed

    Czyz, A; Jasiecki, J; Bogdan, A; Szpilewska, H; Wegrzyn, G

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. We found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, we developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. We constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, we consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  10. Mutagenicity of soy sauce treated with nitrite in the presence of ethanol or alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Higashimoto, M; Yamamoto, T; Kinouchi, T; Handa, Y; Matsumoto, H; Ohnishi, Y

    1995-12-01

    The mutagenicity induced by soy sauce after reaction with 50 mM nitrite at pH 3, 37 degrees C, for 60 min in the presence of 1.25-10% ethanol was reduced in proportion to the ethanol concentration. The mutagenicity of soy sauce treated with nitrite was also reduced in the presence of commercial alcoholic beverages, Japanese sake, wine, 'shochu', whiskey and brandy, but not beer, in proportion to the concentration. The mutagenicity of nitrite-treated tyramine, which is a major precursor of a mutagen in soy sauce treated with nitrite, was strongly reduced in the presence of ethanol, n-propanol or isopropanol and more strongly reduced in the presence of methanol, but was increased twofold in the presence of the sugars glucose or sucrose. The reduction of the mutagenicity of nitrite-treated tyramine required simultaneous treatment of tyramine with ethanol and nitrite. The mutagenicity of tyramine treated with nitrite was clearly reduced in the presence of shochu and whiskey, similarly to ethanol. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the reduction of the mutagenicity of nitrite-treated tyramine in the presence of ethanol resulted from the reduced production of mutagenic 3-diazotyramine from tyramine.

  11. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

    PubMed

    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption.

  12. [Expansive laminoplasty: an alternative for the treatment of cervical spondyloarthrosis].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Gustavo Cardoso; da Silveira, Roberto Leal; Arantes, Aluízio Augusto; Pinheiro, Nilson; Rocha, Eckstânio Marcos Melo

    2005-12-01

    We describe the surgical technique of expansive cervical laminoplasty and analyse the results in 28 patients treated by this method for cervical spondylotic myelopathy with a minimum follow-up of six months. Twenty-four patients (86%) had clinical improvement according to the Nurick scale while three (10%) had no improvement and one patient died on the first days post-operatively. The good results achieved demonstrate that this technique is simple, effective and has few complications on the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy.

  13. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

    PubMed

    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption. PMID:2576918

  14. The enduring effects of psychodynamic treatments vis-à-vis alternative treatments: A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kivlighan, D Martin; Goldberg, Simon B; Abbas, Maleeha; Pace, Brian T; Yulish, Noah E; Thomas, Joel G; Cullen, Megan M; Flückiger, Christoph; Wampold, Bruce E

    2015-08-01

    Although evidence suggests that the benefits of psychodynamic treatments are sustained over time, presently it is unclear whether these sustained benefits are superior to non-psychodynamic treatments. Additionally, the extant literature comparing the sustained benefits of psychodynamic treatments compared to alternative treatments is limited with methodological shortcomings. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a rigorous test of the growth of the benefits of psychodynamic treatments relative to alternative treatments across distinct domains of change (i.e., all outcome measures, targeted outcome measures, non-targeted outcome measures, and personality outcome measures). To do so, the study employed strict inclusion criteria to identify randomized clinical trials that directly compared at least one bona fide psychodynamic treatment and one bona fide non-psychodynamic treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling (Raudenbush, Bryk, Cheong, Congdon, & du Toit, 2011) was used to longitudinally model the impact of psychodynamic treatments compared to non-psychodynamic treatments at post-treatment and to compare the growth (i.e., slope) of effects beyond treatment completion. Findings from the present meta-analysis indicated that psychodynamic treatments and non-psychodynamic treatments were equally efficacious at post-treatment and at follow-up for combined outcomes (k=20), targeted outcomes (k=19), non-targeted outcomes (k=17), and personality outcomes (k=6). Clinical implications, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed.

  15. The enduring effects of psychodynamic treatments vis-a-vis alternative treatments: A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivlighan, D. Martin, III

    Although evidence suggests that the benefits of psychodynamic treatments are sustained over time, presently it is unclear whether these sustained benefits are superior to non-psychodynamic treatments. Additionally, the extant literature comparing the sustained benefits of psychodynamic treatments compared to alternative treatments is limited with methodological shortcomings. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a rigorous test of the growth of the benefits of psychodynamic treatments relative to alternative treatments across distinct domains of change (i.e., all outcome measures, targeted outcome measures, non-targeted outcome measures, and personality outcome measures). To do so, the study employed strict inclusion criteria to identify randomized clinical trials that directly compared at least one bona fide psychodynamic treatment and one bona fide non-psychodynamic treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling (Raudenbush, Bryk, Cheong & Congdon, du Toit, 2011) was used to longitudinally model the impact of psychodynamic treatments compared to non-psychodynamic treatments at post-treatment and to compare the growth (i.e., slope) of effects beyond treatment completion. Findings from the present meta-analysis indicated that psychodynamic treatments and non-psychodynamic treatments were equally efficacious at post-treatment and at follow-up for combined outcomes ( k = 20), targeted outcomes (k =19), non-targeted outcomes (k =17), and personality outcomes (k =6). Clinical implications, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed.

  16. The mutagenicity of food mutagenes in the intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.B.; Heddle, J.A.; Felton, J.

    1995-11-01

    PhIP and amino ({alpha})carboline (AAC) have been identified as mutagens in cooked food by means of the Ames test. In this study they were incorporated in the diet (400 and 800 ppm respectively) of groups of 3 {male} {male} and 3 {female} {female} mice F{sub 1} (C57B1/6 X SWR) mice heterozygous for a lac1 transgene (the Big Blue {trademark} Mouse) and at Dlb-1. The Dlb-1 locus controls the presence (+) or absence of a lectin-binding site in the small intestine so mutational loss of the dominant + allele can be seen as ribbons of non-staining cells on the villi. PhIP has been shown to be mutagenic in the small intestine by Brooks et al., with this assay. Its activity in the colon, where human cancers arise, has not been reported. lac1 mutations were assayed in the epithelial cells of both the colon and small intestine. PhIP was mutagenic in the Dlb-1 assay (thereby confirming Brooks et al.) and induced lac1 mutations in both colon and small intestine about equally. AAC was not mutagenic in the small intestine at Dlb-1 or lac1, but induced lac1 mutations at a rate (mutations/ppm*days) in the colon similar to PhIP. The concentrations of PhIP and AAC were about 10,000 times that found in the human diet, but the maximum exposures were much shorter: 90 and 45 days respectively.

  17. Alternative for Anti-TNF Antibodies for Arthritis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Joseph; Henrionnet, Christel; Pinzano, Astrid; Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gillet, Pierre; Netter, Patrick; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Pourel, Jacques; Grossin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Neutralization of this cytokine by anti-TNF-α antibodies has shown its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is now widely used. Nevertheless, some patients currently treated with anti-TNF-α remain refractory or become nonresponder to these treatments. In this context, there is a need for new or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potentialities of an anti-TNF-α triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), as judged from effects on two rat arthritis models. The inhibitory activity of this TFO on articular cells (synoviocytes and chondrocytes) was verified and compared to that of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro. The use of the anti-TNF-α TFO as a preventive and local treatment in both acute and chronic arthritis models significantly reduced disease development. Furthermore, the TFO efficiently blocked synovitis and cartilage and bone destruction in the joints. The results presented here provide the first evidence that gene targeting by anti-TNF-α TFO modulates arthritis in vivo, thus providing proof-of-concept that it could be used as therapeutic tool for TNF-α-dependent inflammatory disorders. PMID:21811249

  18. Alternative for anti-TNF antibodies for arthritis treatment.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Joseph; Henrionnet, Christel; Pinzano, Astrid; Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gillet, Pierre; Netter, Patrick; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Pourel, Jacques; Grossin, Laurent

    2011-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Neutralization of this cytokine by anti-TNF-α antibodies has shown its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is now widely used. Nevertheless, some patients currently treated with anti-TNF-α remain refractory or become nonresponder to these treatments. In this context, there is a need for new or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potentialities of an anti-TNF-α triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), as judged from effects on two rat arthritis models. The inhibitory activity of this TFO on articular cells (synoviocytes and chondrocytes) was verified and compared to that of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro. The use of the anti-TNF-α TFO as a preventive and local treatment in both acute and chronic arthritis models significantly reduced disease development. Furthermore, the TFO efficiently blocked synovitis and cartilage and bone destruction in the joints. The results presented here provide the first evidence that gene targeting by anti-TNF-α TFO modulates arthritis in vivo, thus providing proof-of-concept that it could be used as therapeutic tool for TNF-α-dependent inflammatory disorders.

  19. The role of exercise and alternative treatments for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Kevin A; Rittenberg, Joshua D

    2010-11-01

    The determination of whether a patient should pursue an active or passive treatment program is often made by medical practitioners. Knowledge about all forms of treatment, including complementary and alternative (CAM) treatments, is essential in the treatment of low back pain. Medical practitioner-directed active treatments that have been shown to be effective for the treatment of low back pain include physical therapy-directed exercise programs such as core stabilization and mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT). Based on the current literature, it appears that yoga is the most effective nonphysician-directed active treatment approach to nonspecific low back pain when comparing other CAM treatments. Acupuncture is a medical practitioner-directed passive treatment that has been shown to be a good adjunct treatment. More randomized controlled studies are needed to support both CAM treatments and exercise in the treatment of low back pain.

  20. Is exercise an alternative treatment for chronic insomnia?

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva Lucia Rollemberg; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this systematic/critical review are: 1) to identify studies on the effects of exercise on chronic insomnia and sleep complaints in middle-aged and older adults and to compare the results of exercise with those obtained with hypnotic medications and 2) to discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise could promote sleep in insomniac patients. We identified studies from 1983 through 2011 using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Web of Science. For systematic analyses, only studies assessing the chronic effects of exercise on sleep in people with sleep complaints or chronic insomnia were considered. We used the following keywords when searching for articles: insomnia, sleep, sleep complaints, exercise and physical activity. For a critical review, studies were selected on the effects of exercise and possible mechanisms that may explain the effects of exercise on insomnia. We identified five studies that met our inclusion criteria for systematic review. Exercise training is effective at decreasing sleep complaints and insomnia. Aerobic exercise has been more extensively studied, and its effects are similar to those observed after hypnotic medication use. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the effects of exercise on insomnia. There is additional documented evidence on the antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of exercise. Exercise is effective to decrease sleep complaints and to treat chronic insomnia. Exercise presented similar results when compared with hypnotics; however, prospective studies comparing the effects of exercise with medical and non-medical treatments are warranted before including exercise as a first-line treatment for chronic insomnia are necessary. PMID:22760906

  1. Antimutagenic and mutagenic potentials of Chinese radish.

    PubMed Central

    Rojanapo, W; Tepsuwan, A

    1993-01-01

    The edible part of fresh Chinese radish was chopped into small pieces, lyophilized, and then extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. The solvent in each fraction was removed by evaporation under reduced pressure at 50-55 degrees C, and the residue was dissolved in dimethylsufoxide just before being tested for antimutagenicity as well as mutagenicity using the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. We found that none of the three fractions exhibited any mutagenicity toward S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 when tested either in the presence or absence of S-9 mix. Interestingly, however, hexane and chloroform extracts could strongly inhibit the mutagenicities of both direct mutagens (e.g., 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide and sodium azide) and indirect mutagens (e.g., aflatoxin B1). In contrast, however, these two fractions did not inhibit the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, which is also an indirect mutagen. Both hexane and chloroform extracts could also markedly inhibit the activities of rat liver aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase. The methanol fraction could inhibit neither the mutagenicities of direct or indirect mutagens tested nor the activities of those two rat liver enzymes. Results of the present study demonstrate that Chinese radish may not contain any mutagenic compound but does contain some nonpolar compounds with antimutagenic activity toward both direct and indirect mutagens. In addition, the antimutagenic activity toward aflatoxin B1 may be partly due to the inhibition of enzymes necessary for activation of this mutagen. PMID:8143625

  2. Mutagenic DNA repair in enterobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, S G; Ho, C; Woodgate, R

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen species of enterobacteria have been screened for mutagenic DNA repair activity. In Escherichia coli, mutagenic DNA repair is encoded by the umuDC operon. Synthesis of UmuD and UmuC proteins is induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage, and after induction, the UmuD protein undergoes an autocatalytic cleavage to produce the carboxy-terminal UmuD' fragment needed for induced mutagenesis. The presence of a similar system in other species was examined by using a combined approach of inducible-mutagenesis assays, cross-reactivity to E. coli UmuD and UmuD' antibodies to test for induction and cleavage of UmuD-like proteins, and hybridization with E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium umu DNA probes to map umu-like genes. The results indicate a more widespread distribution of mutagenic DNA repair in other species than was previously thought. They also show that umu loci can be more complex in other species than in E. coli. Differences in UV-induced mutability of more than 200-fold were seen between different species of enteric bacteria and even between multiple natural isolates of E. coli, and yet some of the species which display a poorly mutable phenotype still have umu-like genes and proteins. It is suggested that umDC genes can be curtailed in their mutagenic activities but that they may still participate in some other, unknown process which provides the continued stimulus for their retention. Images PMID:1885540

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Levy, Susan E; Hyman, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    There are many treatments in current use for core and associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review discusses the complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments commonly added to conventional interventions for children with ASD, including natural products, mind and body practices, and other biomedical treatments. The article focuses on factors associated with use of CAM, the empirical evidence for the most frequently used treatments, and how clinicians work with families who choose CAM treatments. Some treatments have been ineffective, some have unacceptable potential side effects, and others require more study in depth. PMID:25455579

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Levy, Susan E; Hyman, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    There are many treatments in current use for core and associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review discusses the complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments commonly added to conventional interventions for children with ASD, including natural products, mind and body practices, and other biomedical treatments. The article focuses on factors associated with use of CAM, the empirical evidence for the most frequently used treatments, and how clinicians work with families who choose CAM treatments. Some treatments have been ineffective, some have unacceptable potential side effects, and others require more study in depth.

  5. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  6. Effects of Treatment Integrity Failures during Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior: A Translational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.

    2010-01-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is used frequently as a treatment for problem behavior. Previous studies on treatment integrity failures during DRA suggest that the intervention is robust, but research has not yet investigated the effects of different types of integrity failures. We examined the effects of two types of…

  7. Simultaneous Synthesis of Treatment Effects and Mapping to a Common Scale: An Alternative to Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ades, A. E.; Lu, Guobing; Dias, Sofia; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Kounali, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Trials often may report several similar outcomes measured on different test instruments. We explored a method for synthesising treatment effect information both within and between trials and for reporting treatment effects on a common scale as an alternative to standardisation Study design: We applied a procedure that simultaneously…

  8. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  9. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of industrial pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch-Volders, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines pollutants that present a possible risk to the genetic material of exposed workers. Current data is presented on heavy metals, insecticides, monomers, and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents. An attempt is made to correlate the molecular interaction mechanisms with test results for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. Topics considered include cellular factors which modify the expression of mutagenic action into genetic lesions; the relation between mutation, repair, and chromosome aberration; chromosomal alterations and carcinogenesis; the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of industrially used metals; the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of insecticides; the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of industrially important monomers; and the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of halogenated hydrocarbon solvents. The examined compounds are compared in tables with regard to chemical properties, production, occurrence, accepted standards in the industry, and positive or negative results with different test systems.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine modalities for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: facts or myths?

    PubMed

    Wu, Justin C Y

    2010-11-01

    Due to unsatisfactory results from conventional treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities are increasingly popular treatment alternatives. Unfortunately, most CAM clinical trials have been of poor quality, and the efficacies of these therapies have not been adequately elucidated, even through systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is also a general lack of understanding of their mechanisms of action. Currently, insufficient evidence exists to support the use of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, meditation, and reflexology for treatment of IBS. However, there is some evidence supporting the use of peppermint oil and gut-directed hypnotherapy for IBS treatment. Due to mounting evidence of the microbiologic and immunologic basis of IBS, probiotics and exclusion diets are also becoming promising treatment modalities. This paper will review the current literature on various CAM practices for IBS treatment and appraise their advantages and disadvantages in clinical practice.

  11. The Blackfeet Indian culture camp: Auditioning an alternative indigenous treatment for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P; Calf Looking, Patrick E

    2015-05-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities experience alarming health disparities, including high rates of substance use disorders (SUDs). Psychological services for AIANs, including SUDs treatment, are primarily funded by the federal Indian Health Service and typically administered by tribal governments. Tribal administration of SUDs treatment programs has routinely involved either inclusion of traditional cultural practices into program activities or adaptation of conventional treatment approaches to distinctive community sensibilities. In this article, we investigate a third possibility: the collaborative, community-based development of an alternative indigenous intervention that was implemented as a form of SUDs treatment in its own right and on its own terms. Specifically, in July of 2012, we undertook a trial implementation of a seasonal cultural immersion camp based on traditional Pikuni Blackfeet Indian cultural practices for 4 male clients from the reservation's federally funded SUDs treatment program. Given a variety of logistical and methodological constraints, the pilot offering of the culture camp primarily served as a demonstration of "proof of concept" for this alternative indigenous intervention. In presenting and reflecting on this effort, we consider many challenges associated with alternative indigenous treatment models, especially those associated with formal outcome evaluation. Indeed, we suggest that the motivation for developing local indigenous alternatives for AIAN SUDs treatment may work at cross-purposes to the rigorous assessment of therapeutic efficacy for such interventions. Nevertheless, we conclude that these efforts afford ample opportunities for expanding the existing knowledge base concerning the delivery of community-based psychological services for AIANs. PMID:25961644

  12. “Living proof” and the pseudo-science of alternative cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Cassileth, Barrie R.

    2008-01-01

    Michael Gearin-Tosh was an English Professor at Oxford University who was diagnosed with multiple myeloma in 1994. He rejected conventional chemotherapeutic approaches and turned to a variety of alternative cancer treatments, particularly those involving nutritional supplements and dietary change. In 2002, Dr Gearin-Tosh published a book, “Living Proof”, recounting his experiences. The book gained significant public and media attention. One chapter was written by Carmen Wheatley, an advocate of alternative cancer treatments. In distinction to Dr Gearin-Tosh’s personal story, Dr Wheatley makes general claims about cancer treatment that are supposedly based on the research literature. This appears to provide scientific validation for a highly unconventional program of cancer care. However, the scientific case made for alternative cancer treatments in “Living Proof” does not bear serious examination. There are numerous inaccuracies, omissions and misrepresentations. Many important claims are either entirely unsubstantiated or not supported by the literature cited. In conclusion, a highly publicized book gives the impression that alternative cancer treatments are supported by scientific research. It also suggests that little progress has been made in the conventional treatment of myeloma. This is highly misleading and may lead to cancer patients rejecting effective treatments. PMID:18302909

  13. Alternative Approaches to Conventional Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Foxman, Betsy; Buxton, Miatta

    2013-01-01

    The increasing resistance of uropathogens to antibiotics, and recognition of generally self-limiting nature of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) suggests that it is time to reconsider empirical treatment of UTI using antibiotics. Identifying new and effective strategies to prevent recurrences and alterative treatment strategies are a high priority. We review the recent literature regarding the effects of functional food products, probiotics, vaccines, and alternative treatments on treating and preventing UTI. PMID:23378124

  14. Reaction of chlorine dioxide with amino acids and peptides: kinetics and mutagenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, H K; Wheeler, W B; Wei, C I

    1987-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for water treatment. Many organic compounds present in water and food treated with ClO2 are subject to oxidation. 21 amino acids and 3 peptides (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame), L-glycyl-L-tryptophan and L-tryptophylglycine) were studied for their reactivity with ClO2. Chlorine dioxide reacted only with 6 amino acids in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0. The reaction with cysteine, tryptophan and tyrosine was too rapid to be monitored either iodometrically or spectrophotometrically. The reaction with histidine, hydroxyproline and proline was found to be pseudo-first order. ClO2 readily reacted with L-glycyl-L-tryptophan and L-tryptophylglycine but not with aspartame. Mutagenicity studies with the Salmonella microsome assay of the reaction mixtures of ClO2 with those 6 reactive amino acids and the 3 peptides indicated that the reaction products of the 3 peptides, hydroxyproline, and tyrosine exerted mutagenic activity toward both tester strains of TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of rat-liver S9 mix.

  15. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical identification of mutagens in bioremediated soils.

    PubMed

    Brooks, L R; Hughes, T J; Claxton, L D; Austern, B; Brenner, R; Kremer, F

    1998-12-01

    Soil from a Superfund site (Reilly Tar Site, St. Louis Park, Minnesota) contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from creosote was treated with several bioremediation technologies including bioslurry (BS), biopile (BP), compost (CMP), and land treatment (LT). These treatment technologies are being evaluated in pilot scale laboratory systems by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio. To evaluate the genotoxicity and identify the mutagens in the soil before and after the various treatments, fractionated extracts of five soils were bioassayed for mutagenic activity with a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella histidine reversion assay. Soils were extracted by sonication using dichloromethane (DCM). The five extracts were fractionated in triplicate (two for bioassay and one for chemical analysis) by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using hexane/DCM/methanol, and the fraction for bioassay were solvent-exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide by nitrogen evaporation. Forty HPLC fractions for each sample were bioassayed in strain YG1041 with and without exogenous liver metabolic activation. As shown in a companion paper, the mutagenicity of two treatments (BS and BP) was significantly greater than the mutagenicity of the untreated soil. Mutagenic fractions (> 500 revertants) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PAH analysis of the soils indicated that all treatments were effective in reducing the total PAH concentration (48-74%). Qualitative GC/MS analysis of the mutagenic fractions from the BS and BP treatments indicated that they contained azaarenes, which are mutagens. The CMP and LT processes were the most effective and least toxic bioremediation procedures based on mutagenic potency and chemical analysis. This research demonstrated that the combination of bioassays and chemical analysis provided a more accurate determination of

  16. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical identification of mutagens in bioremediated soils.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, L R; Hughes, T J; Claxton, L D; Austern, B; Brenner, R; Kremer, F

    1998-01-01

    Soil from a Superfund site (Reilly Tar Site, St. Louis Park, Minnesota) contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from creosote was treated with several bioremediation technologies including bioslurry (BS), biopile (BP), compost (CMP), and land treatment (LT). These treatment technologies are being evaluated in pilot scale laboratory systems by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio. To evaluate the genotoxicity and identify the mutagens in the soil before and after the various treatments, fractionated extracts of five soils were bioassayed for mutagenic activity with a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella histidine reversion assay. Soils were extracted by sonication using dichloromethane (DCM). The five extracts were fractionated in triplicate (two for bioassay and one for chemical analysis) by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using hexane/DCM/methanol, and the fraction for bioassay were solvent-exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide by nitrogen evaporation. Forty HPLC fractions for each sample were bioassayed in strain YG1041 with and without exogenous liver metabolic activation. As shown in a companion paper, the mutagenicity of two treatments (BS and BP) was significantly greater than the mutagenicity of the untreated soil. Mutagenic fractions (> 500 revertants) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PAH analysis of the soils indicated that all treatments were effective in reducing the total PAH concentration (48-74%). Qualitative GC/MS analysis of the mutagenic fractions from the BS and BP treatments indicated that they contained azaarenes, which are mutagens. The CMP and LT processes were the most effective and least toxic bioremediation procedures based on mutagenic potency and chemical analysis. This research demonstrated that the combination of bioassays and chemical analysis provided a more accurate determination of

  17. Human somatic, germinal and heritable mutagenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report deals with the general process of variant formation rather than with the consequences of a specific variant being present. It focusses on mutational mechanisms, mutagens, and the method for detecting de novo mutants and estimating mutation rate. It is to human genetics much like disease causation and prevention medicine are to medicine as a whole. The word ''mutagenicity'' is used in the title and throughout the text to connote the causation of all classes of genetic damage. Mutagenicity and the corresponding words mutation, mutagen and mutagenesis can have multiple meaning, sometimes relating to gene mutation, sometimes to heritable mutation, and somtimes to all types of genetic damage. 38 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Mutagenicity of some lipsticks and their dyes.

    PubMed

    Green, M R; Pastewka, J V

    1980-03-01

    Twenty-four lipsticks of various shades and colors were tested for mutagencitiy with the histidine-requiring tester strain Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Nine lipsticks were mutagenic without microsomal (S-9) activation. Dose-response effects were observed. Eight colorants listed as ingredients of the mutagenic lipsticsk were tested with and without S-9. Drug and Cosmetic (D&C) Orange No. 17, a monoazo dye with two nitro groups, was highly mutagenic in the absence of S-9. The mutagenic effect was decreased or lost in the presence of S-9 prepared from livers of male noninbred Sprague-Dawley rats given a single injection of Aroclor 1254. Eight lipsticsk matched for ingredients other than dyes were tested. Two containing D&C Orange No. 17 were directly mutagenic. The mutagenic effect was decreased by the presence of S-9. Only D&C Orange No. 17 was sufficiently mutagenic without microsomal activation to account for the mutagenicity observed in these lipsticks. Lipsticks containing D&C Orange No. 17 and those labeled with the words "may contain" D&C Orange No. 17 should be suspected of being mutagenic for S. typhimurium TA98. This dye and 2,4-dinitrosaniline, which may also be present, are potential health hazards. Assessment of their carcinogenicity awaits evaluation of results obtained by appropriate testing in animals.

  19. The production of mutagens in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Shen, N H; Felton, J.S. )

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that many human cancers are caused by dietary factors {sup 8}, but determining the causitive factors has proven difficult. The introduction of the Ames/Salmonella mutation test in l975 provided a quick way to determine mutagenic potencies of chemicals and complex mixtures. The mutagenic response is thought to be one step in cancer induction. In this review the authors compare the mutagenic profiles for fish, chicken, and beef and discuss probable precursors for formation of these mutagenic heterocyclic amines.

  20. Acceptability of aversive procedures and medication as treatment alternatives for deviant child behavior.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1984-06-01

    The present investigation evaluated the acceptability of alternative treatments for deviant child behavior. Clinical cases of children who displayed severe behavioral problems at home and a school were described along with three different treatments. The treatments, time-out from reinforcement, locked seclusion, and medication, were rated by psychiatric inpatient children and parents in a 3 X 3 replicated Latin-square design. The investigation also evaluated whether acceptability ratings were influenced by the clinical effectiveness of treatment in altering behavior. Although children and parents did not differ overall in acceptability ratings, they differed in their ranking of different treatments. Children viewed medication as the most acceptable treatment, whereas parents viewed time-out as the most acceptable treatment. For both children and parents, treatments described as producing marked effects were rated as more acceptable than treatments producing weaker effects. The results indicated that disturbed children and their parents can readily distinguish the acceptability of alternative treatments. The implications of treatment acceptability for clinical applications of treatment are discussed.

  1. Mutagenicity in a Molecule: Identification of Core Structural Features of Mutagenicity Using a Scaffold Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsiang; Su, Bo-Han; Tu, Yi-Shu; Lin, Olivia A.; Tseng, Yufeng J.

    2016-01-01

    With advances in the development and application of Ames mutagenicity in silico prediction tools, the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) has amended its M7 guideline to reflect the use of such prediction models for the detection of mutagenic activity in early drug safety evaluation processes. Since current Ames mutagenicity prediction tools only focus on functional group alerts or side chain modifications of an analog series, these tools are unable to identify mutagenicity derived from core structures or specific scaffolds of a compound. In this study, a large collection of 6512 compounds are used to perform scaffold tree analysis. By relating different scaffolds on constructed scaffold trees with Ames mutagenicity, four major and one minor novel mutagenic groups of scaffold are identified. The recognized mutagenic groups of scaffold can serve as a guide for medicinal chemists to prevent the development of potentially mutagenic therapeutic agents in early drug design or development phases, by modifying the core structures of mutagenic compounds to form non-mutagenic compounds. In addition, five series of substructures are provided as recommendations, for direct modification of potentially mutagenic scaffolds to decrease associated mutagenic activities. PMID:26863515

  2. PTSD and comorbid AUD: a review of pharmacological and alternative treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Ralevski, Elizabeth; Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A; Petrakis, Ismene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) frequently co-occur there are no specific treatments for individuals diagnosed with these comorbid conditions. The main objectives of this paper are to review the literature on pharmacological options for PTSD and comorbid AUD, and to summarize promising behavioral and alternative interventions for those with these dual diagnoses. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search on PsycINFO and MEDLINE/PubMed databases using Medical Subject Headings terms in various combinations to identify articles that used pharmacotherapy for individuals with dual diagnoses of PTSD and AUD. Similar strategies were used to identify articles on behavioral and alternative treatments for AUD and PTSD. We identified and reviewed six studies that tested pharmacological treatments for patients with PTSD and comorbid AUD. Results The literature on treatment with US Food and Drug Administration approved medications for patients with dual diagnosis of PTSD and AUD is very limited and inconclusive. Promising evidence indicates that topiramate and prazosin may be effective in reducing PTSD and AUD symptoms in individuals with comorbidity. Seeking safety has had mixed efficacy in clinical trials. The efficacy of other behavioral and alternative treatments (mindfulness-based, yoga, and acupuncture) is more difficult to evaluate since the evidence comes from small, single studies without comparison groups. Conclusion There is a clear need for more systematic and rigorous study of pharmacological, behavioral, and alternative treatments for patients with dual diagnoses of PTSD and AUD. PMID:24648794

  3. Preharvest treatments with chitosan and other alternatives to conventional fungicides to control postharvest decay of strawberry.

    PubMed

    Feliziani, Erica; Landi, Lucia; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of the control of postharvest decay of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 'Alba' and 'Romina' cvs.) fruit following field applications of chitosan, laminarin, extracts of Abies spp., Polygonum spp., and Saccharomyces spp., an organic acids and calcium combination, and benzothiadiazole, were compared with a fungicide strategy. These compounds were sprayed every 5 days on the strawberry canopy, from flowering to ripening, in 2012 and 2013. The treatments with alternative compounds provided ∼ 30% reduction in postharvest decay of strawberry compared to the water-treated controls, mainly against gray mold and Rhizopus rot, and without negatively affecting fruit color and firmness. Chitosan and benzothiadiazole were the most effective alternative treatments. Preharvest spraying with these alternative treatments can complement the use of conventional fungicides in the control of postharvest decay of strawberry fruit, especially when disease pressure is low. PMID:26256331

  4. Alternative Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... marketed as a “medical food” called Axona®) and coconut oil Caprylic acid is the active ingredient of ... a medium-chain triglyceride (fat) produced by processing coconut oil or palm kernel oil. The body breaks ...

  5. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of suspended particulate matter in the Seine river estuary.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Heas-Moisan, Karine; Munschy, Catherine; Tronczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-24

    Highly mutagenic compounds such as some PAHs have been identified in surface waters and sediments of the Seine river estuary. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) represents a dynamic medium that may contribute to the exposure of aquatic organisms to toxic compounds in the water column of the estuary. In order to investigate major sources of mutagenic contaminants along the estuary, water samples were taken at 25 m downstream of the outlet of an industrial wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP). SPM samples were analyzed for their genotoxicity with two short-term tests, the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (TA98+S9 mix) and the comet assay in the human HepG2 cell line. Sampling sites receiving effluents from a chemical dye industry and WWTP showed the highest mutagenic potencies, followed by petrochemical industries, petroleum refinery and pulp and paper mills. These data indicate that frame-shift mutagens are present in the Seine river estuary. Furthermore, the comet assay revealed the presence of compounds that were genotoxic for human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells). We also observed a high level of mutagenic potency in the sediment of the lower estuary (3 × 10⁴ revertants/g). The source of mutagenic and genotoxic compounds seems to be associated with various types of effluents discharged in the Seine river estuary. Both test systems resulted in the same assessment of the genotoxicity of particulate matter, except for three of the 14 samples, underlying the complementarity of bioassays.

  6. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  7. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-06-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies.

  8. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Sarah; Smith, Caroline A; Hay, Phillipa

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review critically appraises the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder. Sixteen studies were included in the review. The results of this review show that the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder is unclear and further studies should be conducted. A potential role was found for massage and bright light therapy for depression in those with Bulimia Nervosa and a potential role for acupuncture and relaxation therapy, in the treatment of State Anxiety, for those with an eating disorder. The role of these complementary therapies in treating eating disorders should only be provided as an adjunctive treatment only.

  9. [Therapeutic alternatives in case of failure of first-line treatment of intestinal helminthiasis in adults].

    PubMed

    Rey, P; Debonne, J M

    2006-08-01

    Development of antiparasite medications over the last 15 years has greatly reduced the number of treatment failures for intestinal helminthiasis. Benzimidazole derivatives, ivermectine, praziquantel and triclabendazole are easy to use, well tolerated and generally curative. First-line treatment are currently so reliable that failure should lead first to investigation of possible "false failure" causes such as misdiagnosis, poor identification of the parasite, inadequate or incorrect treatment, and repeat contamination, before concluding that genuine parasite resistance is involved and that alternative therapy is needed. Nitazoxanide is an alternative treatment for fascioliasis and teniasis. Albendazole can be beneficial for taeniasis and strongyloidiasis. Metronidazole can be effective for fascioliasis. Artemisinine derivatives are useful for schistosomiasis. Combined therapies are necessary for refractory ankylostomiasis. PMID:16999037

  10. Alternatives to potentially inappropriate medications for use in e-prescribing software: triggers and treatment algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Anne L; Quilliam, Brian J; Goldman, Roberta; Eaton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of evidence-based electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) triggers and treatment algorithms for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for older adults. Design Literature review, expert panel and focus group. Setting Primary care with access to e-prescribing systems. Participants Primary care physicians using e-prescribing systems receiving medication history. Interventions Standardised treatment algorithms for clinicians attempting to prescribe PIMs for older patients. Main outcome measure Development of 15 treatment algorithms suggesting alternative therapies. Results Evidence-based treatment algorithms were well received by primary care physicians. Providing alternatives to PIMs would make it easier for physicians to change decisions at the point of prescribing. Conclusion Prospectively identifying older persons receiving PIMs or with adherence issues and providing feasible interventions may prevent adverse drug events. PMID:21719560

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  12. Mutagenic activity in diesel exhaust particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtman, J.P.; Xiao-bai, X.; Rappaport, S.M.; Talcott, R.E.; Wei, E.T.

    1981-10-01

    Chloroform eluates of diesel exhaust particulate extracts were mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of approximately 480 revertants/100 ..mu..g of extract/plate did not require liver enzymes for its expression. The addition of liver enzymes decreased mutagenic activity, an effect which has previously been shown to be non-specific binding of the mutagen to liver proteins. After reduction of the diesel exhaust extract with sodium borohydride, the S-9 independent activity was greatly diminished. Addition of S-9 to the reduced sample revealed the presence of S-9 dependent mutagenic activity. These results, although not conclusive, provide additional evidence for the presence of nitronarene mutagens in diesel exhaust particulates. If, for example, the samples contained nitrofluorene, nitronaphthalene or nitropyrene, the reduction reaction would have formed aminofluorene, aminonaphthalene, and aminopyrene, compounds which are mutagens requiring liver enzyme activation in the Ames test. Attempts to isolate the amine by acidic extraction were not successful, however, because of the weak mutagenic activity in the sample.

  13. Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

    1981-01-01

    Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen. PMID:7039509

  14. [New alternatives for the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Sebastián; Iruretagoyena, Mirentxu; Gutiérrez, Miguel A

    2013-08-01

    For years the mainstay of antiphospholipid syndrome treatment has been anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, but the autoimmune nature of the disease, and complications of these therapies, created the need to develop new therapeutic strategies. New therapeutic alternatives inhibit at different levels, the cascade of events leading to the pro-thrombotic state characteristic of the antiphospholipid syndrome. We conducted a literature review of these new treatments, focusing on the pathophysiological bases that support them and their possible clinical applications. PMID:24448861

  15. Assessment of wastewater treatment alternatives for small communities: An analytic network process approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Gómez, Trinidad; Caballero, Rafael; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    The selection of the most appropriate wastewater treatment (WWT) technology is a complex problem since many alternatives are available and many criteria are involved in the decision-making process. To deal with this challenge, the analytic network process (ANP) is applied for the first time to rank a set of seven WWT technology set-ups for secondary treatment in small communities. A major advantage of ANP is that it incorporates interdependent relationships between elements. Results illustrated that extensive technologies, constructed wetlands and pond systems are the most preferred alternatives by WWT experts. The sensitivity analysis performed verified that the ranking of WWT alternatives is very stable since constructed wetlands are almost always placed in the first position. This paper showed that ANP analysis is suitable to deal with complex decision-making problems, such as the selection of the most appropriate WWT system contributing to better understand the multiple interdependences among elements involved in the assessment.

  16. Assessment of wastewater treatment alternatives for small communities: An analytic network process approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Gómez, Trinidad; Caballero, Rafael; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    The selection of the most appropriate wastewater treatment (WWT) technology is a complex problem since many alternatives are available and many criteria are involved in the decision-making process. To deal with this challenge, the analytic network process (ANP) is applied for the first time to rank a set of seven WWT technology set-ups for secondary treatment in small communities. A major advantage of ANP is that it incorporates interdependent relationships between elements. Results illustrated that extensive technologies, constructed wetlands and pond systems are the most preferred alternatives by WWT experts. The sensitivity analysis performed verified that the ranking of WWT alternatives is very stable since constructed wetlands are almost always placed in the first position. This paper showed that ANP analysis is suitable to deal with complex decision-making problems, such as the selection of the most appropriate WWT system contributing to better understand the multiple interdependences among elements involved in the assessment. PMID:26119382

  17. Old and New Controversies in the Alternative Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial…

  18. Alternatives to Incarceration: Prevention or Treatment. Monograph on Youth in the 1990s. Issue #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Anthony, Ed.; Bocarro, Jason, Ed.

    The articles in this collection address various definitions, viewpoints, and treatments for youth at risk and youth offenders. Articles not only examine alternatives to incarceration, but also provide examples of value-forming experiences beneficial to all young people. The articles and authors are: (1) "Introduction" (Anthony Richards); (2) "The…

  19. Imagining the Alternatives to Life Prolonging Treatments: Elders' Beliefs about the Dying Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Parker, Barbara; Schneider, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Deciding for or against a life-prolonging treatment represents a choice between prolonged life and death. When the death alternative is not described, individuals must supply their own assumptions. How do people imagine the experience of dying? The authors asked 40 elderly people open-ended questions about dying without 4 common life-prolonging…

  20. Bacterial mutagenicity screening in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Escobar, P A; Kemper, R A; Tarca, J; Nicolette, J; Kenyon, M; Glowienke, S; Sawant, S G; Christensen, J; Johnson, T E; McKnight, C; Ward, G; Galloway, S M; Custer, L; Gocke, E; O'Donovan, M R; Braun, K; Snyder, R D; Mahadevan, B

    2013-01-01

    Genetic toxicity testing is used as an early surrogate for carcinogenicity testing. Genetic toxicity testing is also required by regulatory agencies to be conducted prior to initiation of first in human clinical trials and subsequent marketing for most small molecule pharmaceutical compounds. To reduce the chances of advancing mutagenic pharmaceutical candidates through the drug discovery and development processes, companies have focused on developing testing strategies to maximize hazard identification while minimizing resource expenditure due to late stage attrition. With a large number of testing options, consensus has not been reached on the best mutagenicity platform to use or on the best time to use a specific test to aid in the selection of drug candidates for development. Most companies use a process in which compounds are initially screened for mutagenicity early in drug development using tests that require only a few milligrams of compound and then follow those studies up with a more robust mutagenicity test prior to selecting a compound for full development. This review summarizes the current applications of bacterial mutagenicity assays utilized by pharmaceutical companies in early and late discovery programs. The initial impetus for this review was derived from a workshop on bacterial mutagenicity screening in the pharmaceutical industry presented at the 40th Annual Environmental Mutagen Society Meeting held in St. Louis, MO in October, 2009. However, included in this review are succinct summaries of use and interpretation of genetic toxicity assays, several mutagenicity assays that were not presented at the meeting, and updates to testing strategies resulting in current state-of the art description of best practices. In addition, here we discuss the advantages and liabilities of many broadly used mutagenicity screening platforms and strategies used by pharmaceutical companies. The sensitivity and specificity of these early mutagenicity screening

  1. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  2. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  3. Mutagenicity of photochemically-transformed polycyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Nickols, J.W.; Okinaka, R.T.; Whaley, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic amines (PAA) constitute a class of suspect genotoxic chemicals found in certain energy-related complex organic mixtures. A variety of studies are reported on the photochemical transformation (oxidation) of polycyclic aromatic amines and the increase in genotoxicity of the resulting complex mixtures of radiation-generated products. Biological endpoints of cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were measured in the Ames/Salmonella standard-plate assay. Chemical fractionation and identification of various photoproducts was accomplished with h.p.l.c., uv and ir spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. The benchmark PAA in these studies was aminofluorene (2-AF). Photooxidation of 2-AF can occur at both the exocyclic nitrogen and certain ring positions resulting in the formation of direct-acting and potent bacterial mutagens, including 2-nitrosofluorene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 2-nitrofluoren-9-one. UVA-irradiated 2-AF solutions also contain promutagenic compounds, i.e., is 2-aminofluoren-9-one. These results support the hypothesis that the critical step in the activation of major, identified direct-acting mutagenic 2-AF photoproducts is their reduction by bacterial nitroreductase enzymes to reactive hydroxylamines. Photochemical oxidation is an alternative mechanism of transforming PAA into direct-acting genotoxins. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  4. An exploratory study of alternative configurations of governing boards of substance abuse treatment centers

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Boards of directors are the ultimate governing authorities for most organizations providing substance abuse treatment. A governing board may establish policies, monitor and improve operations, and represent a treatment organization to the public. This paper explores alternative configurations of governing boards in a national sample of 500 substance abuse treatment centers. The study proceeds from the premise that boards may be configured with varying levels of engagement in five aspects of internal management and external connections in treatment center operating environments. Based on interviews with treatment center administrative directors, four clusters emerge, describing boards that are: (1) active and balanced across internal and external domains; (2) active boundary spanners concentrating primarily on external relationships; (3) focused primarily on internal organizational management; and (4) relatively inactive. In post hoc analysis, we found that placement in these clusters is associated with treatment center attributes such as rate of growth and financial results, use of evidence based practices and provision of integrated care. PMID:21489737

  5. The use of complementary/alternative medicine for the treatment of asthma in the United States.

    PubMed

    Davis, P A; Gold, E B; Hackman, R M; Stern, J S; Gershwin, M E

    1998-01-01

    Despite our advances in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, the incidence of mortality is increasing in developed countries. As patients and health care providers seek new options for the treatment and prevention of asthma, various complementary and alternative medical therapies are being used. With funding from the Office of Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, our goal was to identify the type and prevalence of complementary and alternative treatments for asthma in use in the United States in order to establish a research agenda for the study of the most promising therapies. A survey was developed by an expert panel. After undergoing a preliminary round of testing and improvement, the survey was then sent along with a postage-paid return envelope as inserts in the May 1996 issue of Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, a peer-reviewed periodical of complementary and alternative medical research and scholarly activity; 10,000 surveys were distributed. We asked that only those who treated asthma respond. The surveys were designed to identify characteristics of the respondent, their particular practice type, use of complementary and alternative medicine, or conventional medicine in general, patient characteristics and numbers, and their use of 20 specific potential therapies to treat asthma. A total of 564 surveys were returned. The 5.64% response rate was low but was reflective of the demographics of the readership of this journal of complementary and alternative medicine. The survey population was 46% male and 43% female; 11% did not specify gender. They ranged in age from under 31 years old to over 70. The largest group (37%) of respondents held degrees as medical doctors, 27% held doctorates in complementary and alternative medicine related disciplines, 11% had registered nursing degrees, 4% were acupuncturists and 18% did not specify their training. Practice characteristics between MD and non-MD asthma care providers did not differ

  6. Occurrence and detection of natural mutagens and modifying factors in food products.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven, J C

    1985-01-01

    Various food products of plant origin were investigated for the occurrence of natural mutagens using the Salmonella/microsome assay. In general, food plants were freeze-dried and subsequently extracted with a number of solvents. Solvents were evaporated and the residues obtained were tested for mutagenicity. In addition to S9-mix, gut flora extracts were applied for metabolic activation. From bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) a novel mutagen, designated Aquilide A, was isolated and its chemical structure was identified. Aquilide A requires activation to become mutagenic. This activation occurs spontaneously at pH levels above 6-7. Activated Aquilide A was found to be genotoxic in cultured mammalian cells. Natural mutagens were detected in 4 out of 6 vegetables investigated. In addition, broad beans (Vicia faba) were found to be mutagenic after treatment with nitrite. All mutagenic vegetables showed marked intercultivar variations. From lettuce and string beans quercetin was isolated (after chemical hydrolysis) and in rhubarb emodin, an anthraquinon, was detected. The mutagenic activity of these two compounds was further investigated using cultured mammalian cells. Quercetin and emodin responded negative or weakly positive in the systems applied. The genotoxic properties of a number of pyrrolizidin alkaloids, which are reported to occur in various flowering plants and as a result occur in honey and some herbal preparations, were studied using a cocultivation system of V79 Chinese hamster cells and primary cultures of chick embryo hepatocytes (PCCEH/V79). All four pyrrolizidine alkaloids investigated were found to be potent inducers of SCEs in this test system. Anti-mutagenic effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) were detected using the PCCEH/V79 cocultivation system. This indicates that the cocultivation system described can be a valuable tool for the screening of various products for potential anti-carcinogenic properties. Extracts

  7. Acupuncture treatment for women with concurrent substance use and anxiety/depression: an effective alternative therapy?

    PubMed

    Courbasson, Christine M A; de Sorkin, Alicia Araujo; Dullerud, Berit; Van Wyk, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated the benefits of adding auricular acupuncture to a 21-day outpatient structured psychoeducational treatment program for women with concurrent substance use problems, anxiety, and depression. Women receiving acupuncture (n = 185) reported having reduced physiological cravings for substances, felt significantly less depressed, less anxious, and were better able to reflect on and resolve difficulties than women in the control group (n = 101). It was found that auricular acupuncture, as an adjunct therapy to a comprehensive psychoeducational treatment program for women with addictions, shows promise in being an effective, more viable treatment alternative to anxiolytics.

  8. Combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and peripheral photocoagulation: an alternative treatment in eales disease.

    PubMed

    Cp, Juarez; Al, Gramajo; Jd, Luna

    2013-01-01

    To report the efficacy of combination therapy (bevacizumab and photocoagulation) in a case of Eales Disease this study has been performed. Bevacizumab (Avastin, 1.25 mg/0.05 ml) was injected intravitreously for the treatment of iris and retinal neovascularization in a 56-year old Hispanic female with photocoagulation treatment to control the recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage. Our results revealed that stabilization of the disease and improvement in visual acuity were achieved without any signs of recurrence. Intravitreal bevacizumab in combination with photocoagulation treatment of ischemic retinal areas may be a good alternative for patients with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage due to Eales disease.

  9. Combination of Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Peripheral Photocoagulation: An Alternative Treatment in Eales Disease

    PubMed Central

    CP, Juarez; AL, Gramajo; JD, Luna

    2013-01-01

    To report the efficacy of combination therapy (bevacizumab and photocoagulation) in a case of Eales Disease this study has been performed. Bevacizumab (Avastin, 1.25 mg/0.05 ml) was injected intravitreously for the treatment of iris and retinal neovascularization in a 56-year old Hispanic female with photocoagulation treatment to control the recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage. Our results revealed that stabilization of the disease and improvement in visual acuity were achieved without any signs of recurrence. Intravitreal bevacizumab in combination with photocoagulation treatment of ischemic retinal areas may be a good alternative for patients with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage due to Eales disease. PMID:24600639

  10. Alternative vs. conventional treatment given on-demand for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Per G; Heibert, Mathis; Høeg, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Background Alternative treatments are commonly used for various disorders and often taken on-demand. On-demand treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with pharmaceutical products is an established, cost-effective strategy. Comparisons between alternative medicine and pharmaceutical products are rare. The aim of this trial was to compare on-demand treatment with a pectin-based, raft-forming, natural, anti-reflux agent (PRA) with that of esomeprazole 20 mg (Eso20) in patients with mild/moderate GERD. Methods Patients with mild/moderate GERD were randomised to a six weeks' on-demand treatment with PRA or Eso20 in a pragmatic, open, multicentre trial. Overall satisfaction with treatment, satisfactory relief on a weekly basis, reflux symptoms, and treatment preferences were noted. Results Seventy-seven patients were included in the analyses. Eso20 was significantly superior to PRA for proportion of overall satisfied patients (92% and 58% respectively; p = 0.001), reduction of symptoms (mean symptom scores at the end 5.9 and 8.0 respectively; p = 0.019), proportion of weeks of satisfactory relief (89% and 62% respectively; p = 0.008) and proportion preferring continuation with the same treatment (85% and 42% respectively; p < 0.001). Older patients were more satisfied than younger, and patients preferring on-demand treatment had lower symptom scores at inclusion than those preferring regular treatment. Conclusion On-demand treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg was clearly superior to the pectin-based raft-forming agent. Most patients preferred on-demand treatment to regular treatment. Those preferring regular therapy had significantly more symptoms at inclusion. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00184522. PMID:19236727

  11. Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Systematic review of scientific and lay literature.

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on common alternative remedies for treatment of symptoms attributed to menopause and to contrast this with available lay literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Scientific articles were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, and HEALTH databases from 1966 to mid-1997 for English-language articles. More than 200 references were reviewed; 85 were selected for citation based on specific reference to alternative medicine for symptoms commonly attributed to menopause (e.g., hot flashes), to the effects of changing estrogen levels (e.g., irregular menses, vaginal dryness), and to reported side effects of the treatments. MAIN FINDINGS: The scientific literature was categorized under the headings nutritional supplements, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, and physical approaches. Some scientific evidence of the safety and efficacy of alternative treatments during menopause was uncovered, with the strongest evidence emerging in favour of phytoestrogens, which occur in high concentrations as isoflavones in soy products. CONCLUSIONS: In available controlled studies, the strongest data support phytoestrogens for their role in diminishing menopausal symptoms related to estrogen deficiency and for possible protective effects on bones and the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials, standardization of dosage, and accurate safety and efficacy labeling are required to ensure proper use of alternative remedies. PMID:9640524

  12. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  13. Understanding antimicrobial stewardship: Disease severity treatment thresholds and antimicrobial alternatives among organic and conventional calf producers.

    PubMed

    Habing, Greg; Djordjevic, Catherine; Schuenemann, Gustavo M; Lakritz, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in livestock antimicrobial use (AMU) can be achieved through identification of effective antimicrobial alternatives as well as accurate and stringent identification of cases requiring antimicrobial therapy. Objective measurements of selectivity that incorporate appropriate case definitions are necessary to understand the need and potential for reductions in AMU through judicious use. The objective of this study was to measure selectivity using a novel disease severity treatment threshold for calf diarrhea, and identify predictors of more selective application of antimicrobials among conventional dairy producers. A second objective of this study was to describe the usage frequency and perceptions of efficacy of common antimicrobial alternatives among conventional and organic producers. The cross-sectional survey was mailed to Michigan and Ohio, USA dairy producers and contained questions on AMU attitudes, AMU practices, veterinary-written protocols, and antimicrobial alternatives. The treatment threshold, defined based on the case severity where the producer would normally apply antimicrobials, was identified with a series of descriptions with increasing severity, and ordinal multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between the treatment threshold and individual or herd characteristics. The response rate was 49% (727/1488). Overall, 42% of conventional producers reported any veterinary-written treatment protocol, and 27% (113/412) of conventional producers had a veterinary-written protocol for the treatment of diarrhea that included a case identification. The majority (58%, 253/437) of conventional producers, but a minority (7%) of organic producers disagreed that antibiotic use in agriculture led to resistant bacterial infections in people. Among conventional producers, the proportion of producers applying antimicrobials for therapy increased from 13% to 67% with increasing case severity. The treatment threshold was low

  14. Toxicity, uptake, and mutagenicity of particulate and soluble nickel compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, G G; Rossetto, F E; Turnbull, J D; Nieboer, E

    1994-01-01

    Toxicity testing in AS52 cells (24-hr exposures) gave LC50 values of 2 to 130 micrograms Ni/ml for particulate nickel compounds and 45 to 60 micrograms Ni/ml for water-soluble salts (NiCl2, NiSO4, Ni(CH3COO)2). The Ni(OH)2, NiCO3, and sulfides (Ni3S2, Ni7S6, "amorphous NiS") exhibited similar toxicities (LC50's of 2 to 8 micrograms Ni/ml), while three nickel oxides were more variable and less toxic (LC50's of 18 to 130 micrograms Ni/ml). Most compounds displayed nuclear to cytoplasmic nickel ratios of approximately 1:1.5 to 1:5 (except approximately 1:20 for nickel salts). At the LC50's, a 75-fold range in exposure levels occurred compared to a 10-fold range in cytoplasmic and nuclear nickel concentrations, [Ni]. Cellular nickel distribution indicated three groupings: inert compounds (green NiO, lithium nickel oxide, relatively low nuclear and cytosolic [Ni]); water-soluble salts (very low nuclear [Ni]; high cytosolic [Ni]), and slightly soluble compounds (relatively high cytosolic and nuclear [Ni]). Nickel compounds are considered to be only weak or equivocal mutagens. In this study, a low but significant increase in mutation rate at the gpt locus was shown. Although the results would not be sufficient to deem nickel compounds mutagenic by traditional criteria, characterization by PCR analysis indicated that the spontaneous and nickel-induced mutants exhibited different and compound-specific mutational spectra (thus confirming nickel compound involvement). The results reported illustrate some of the methodologic problems involved in testing "weak" mutagens and indicate that alternative approaches may be necessary in classifying the mutagenicity of nickel and other compounds. PMID:7843140

  15. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Rojanapo, W; Tepsuwan, A; Siripong, P

    1990-01-01

    Crude extracts and partially purified as well as purified fractions were prepared from three Thai medicinal plants, namely, Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, Plumbago indica Linn, and Rhinacanthus nasuthus Kurz, and then tested for their mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. All fractions tested were not mutagenic toward either strain TA98 or TA100 whether tested in the presence or absence of S-9 mix. Interestingly, however, various fractions--especially those extracted by organic solvents such as petroleum ether, hexane, and chloroform, as well as some purified compounds from these plants--could strongly inhibit the mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), an indirect mutagen, when tested in the presence of S-9 mix but not that of 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (AF-2), which does not require metabolic activation for its mutagenicity. Furthermore, these fractions could markedly inhibit the activity of rat liver aniline hydroxylase, which is one of the cytochrome-P450-mediated reactions. These results therefore suggest that these Thai medicinal plants contain an antimutagen(s) which inhibits chemical mutagenesis by inhibiting the enzyme activities necessary for activation of indirect mutagens/carcinogens. Identification as well as anticarcinogenicity of purified compounds of these plants are being investigated in our laboratory.

  16. Mutagenicity and metabolism studies on 12 thiuram and dithiocarbamate compounds used as accelerators in the Swedish rubber industry.

    PubMed

    Hedenstedt, A; Rannug, U; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1979-12-01

    12 thiuram and dithiocarbamate compounds used in the rubber industry as accelerators, and to some extent as sources of sulfur, were tested, as well as carbon disulfide, a metabolite found in vivo after dithiocarbamate treatment, for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium. A mutagenic effect on the base-substitution-sensitive strains TA1535 and TA100 was found for 7 compounds. The most potent directly acting mutagens were: tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD), zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram), cadmium diethyldithiocarbamate and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate. Tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TETD), also known as Antabus, and carbon disulfide were non-mutagenic. The relatively low direct mutagenic effect of tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM) was enhanced in the presence of a metabolizing system (S9 mix). A hypothesis is given regarding the activation process of the monosulfide TMTM.

  17. Decision making software for effective selection of treatment train alternative for wastewater using analytical hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A D; Tembhurkar, A R

    2013-10-01

    Proper selection of treatment process and synthesis of treatment train is complex engineering activity requires crucial decision making during planning and designing of any Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Earlier studies on process selection mainly considered cost as the most important selection criteria and number of studies focused on cost optimization models using dynamic programming, geometric programming and nonlinear programming. However, it has been noticed that traditional cost analysis alone cannot be applied to evaluate Treatment Train (TT) alternatives, as number of important non-tangible factors cannot be easily expressed in monetary units. Recently researches focus on use of multi-criteria technique for selection of treatment process. AHP provides a powerful tool for multi-hierarchy and multi-variable system overcoming limitation of traditional techniques. The AHP model designed to facilitate proper decision making and reduce the margin of errors during optimization due to number of parameters in the hierarchy levels has been used in this study. About 14 important factors and 13 sub factors were identified for the selection of treatment alternatives for wastewater and sludge stream although cost is one of the most important selection criteria. The present paper provides details of developing a soft-tool called "ProSelArt" using an AHP model aiding for proper decision making. PMID:25906585

  18. Transcriptional characterization of Salmonella TA100 in log and stationary phase: influence of growth phase on mutagenicity of MX.

    PubMed

    Ward, William O; Swartz, Carol D; Hanley, Nancy M; DeMarini, David M

    2010-10-13

    The Salmonella mutagenicity assay can be performed using cells that are in different growth phases. Thus, the plate-incorporation assay involves plating stationary-phase cells with the mutagen, after which the cells undergo a brief lag phase and, consequently, are exposed to the mutagen and undergo mutagenesis while in the logarithmic (log) phase. In contrast, a liquid-suspension assay involves exposure of either log- or stationary-phase cells to the mutagen for a specified period of time, sometimes followed by a wash, resulting in the cells growing in medium in the absence of the mutagen. To explore global gene expression in Salmonella, and to test for possible effects of growth phase and transcriptional status on mutagenesis, we performed microarray analysis on cells of Salmonella strain TA100 exposed to the drinking-water mutagen MX in either the log or stationary phase. The genes in functional pathways involving amino acid transport and metabolism and energy metabolism were expressed differentially in log-phase cells, whereas genes in functional pathways involving protein trafficking, cell envelope, and two-component systems using common signal transduction were expressed differentially in stationary-phase cells. More than 90% of the ribosomal-protein biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in stationary- versus log-phase cells. MX was equally mutagenic to cells in log- and stationary-phase growth when the results were expressed as mutant frequencies (revertants/survivors/μM), but it was twice as mutagenic in stationary-phase cells when the results were expressed as mutant yields (revertants/nmole or revertants/μM). There was a complex transcriptional response underlying these results, with mucA/B being greatly up-regulated in log-phase cells but umuC/D up-regulated in stationary-phase cells. The transcriptional state of TA100 cells at the time of mutagen treatment may influence the outcome of mutagen treatment.

  19. Applying the least restrictive alternative principle to treatment decisions: A legal and behavioral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. M.; Sherman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The least restrictive alternative concept is widely used in mental health law. This paper addresses how the concept has been applied to treatment decisions. The paper offers both a legal and a behavioral analysis to some problems that have emerged in recent years concerning the selection of behavioral procedures used to change client behavior. The paper also offers ways of improving the application of the concept, which involve developing a more behaviorally functional perspective toward restrictiveness. PMID:22478138

  20. What is the role of alternative treatments in late-life depression?

    PubMed

    Nyer, Maren; Doorley, James; Durham, Kelley; Yeung, Albert S; Freeman, Marlene P; Mischoulon, David

    2013-12-01

    Late-life depression remains challenging to treat. One major limitation to treatment is the concern over medication-related side effects to which the elderly are especially vulnerable. Also, because many elderly people are already taking multiple medications for medical conditions, there is the concern over drug-drug interactions. This article reviews various complementary and alternative medicine interventions for late-life depression, including natural remedies, exercise, yoga, tai chi, massage therapy, music therapy, and religion and spirituality.

  1. Cystectomy and substitution enterocystoplasty: alternative primary treatment for T2/3 bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S A; Christmas, T J; Kirby, R S; Hendry, W F

    1992-03-01

    The optimal treatment for invasive bladder cancer remains controversial. Although external beam radiotherapy is able to eradicate the disease in a number of patients, the difficulty is selecting those who will respond. Those who do develop a local recurrence will require a salvage cystectomy combined with urinary diversion. The results of performing cystectomy and bladder reconstruction as a primary procedure are presented and the concept of combining this with chemotherapy as an alternative strategy for the management of bladder cancer is discussed.

  2. Imagining the alternatives to life prolonging treatments: elders' beliefs about the dying experience.

    PubMed

    Winter, Laraine; Parker, Barbara; Schneider, Melissa

    2007-08-01

    Deciding for or against a life-prolonging treatment represents a choice between prolonged life and death. When the death alternative is not described, individuals must supply their own assumptions. How do people imagine the experience of dying? We asked 40 elderly people open-ended questions about dying without 4 common life-prolonging treatments, eliciting beliefs about pain, length of time, loneliness, and palliative care. Beliefs were diverse, loneliness was commonly assumed, and palliation was rarely mentioned spontaneously. Results underscore needs for improved understanding of the dying process and palliative care and for fuller communication between patients and healthcare providers. PMID:17847574

  3. Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a minimally invasive treatment alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez, Robert F.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.; Aronoff, David R.; de Riese, Werner T. W.

    2003-06-01

    The use of minimally invasive treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been introduced into the medical community. Over the last decade several minimally invasive treatment techniques have been approved for use. In particular, interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) has shown pomise as an alternative to the current gold standard, transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). Studies show ILC to have equal efficacy as TURP while causing less side effects. Future technical advances as well as increased physician experience with ILC could lead to the replacement of TURP as the gold standard in trestment of BPH.

  4. Use of conventional, complementary, and alternative treatments for pain among individuals seeking primary care treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Savant, Jonathan D.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Moore, Brent A.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Fiellin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have not examined patterns of pain treatment use among patients seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT) for opioid dependence. Objectives To examine, among individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence, the use of pain treatment modalities, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment while in BNT. Methods 244 patients seeking office-based BNT for opioid dependence completed measures of demographics, pain status (i.e. “chronic pain (CP)” [pain lasting at least 3 months] vs. “some pain (SP)” [pain in the past week not meeting the duration criteria for chronic pain]), pain treatment use, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in receiving pain treatment while in BNT. Results In comparison to the SP group (N = 87), the CP group (N = 88) was more likely to report past-week medical use of opioid medication (AOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.4), lifetime medical use of non-opioid prescribed medication (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.7), and lifetime use of prayer (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6.5), and was less likely to report lifetime use of yoga (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) to treat pain. While the two pain groups did not differ on levels of perceived efficacy of prior lifetime pain treatments, in comparison to the SP group, the CP group was more likely to report interest in receiving pain treatment while in BNT (P < 0.001). Conclusions Individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence report a wide range of conventional, complementary, and alternative pain-related treatments and are interested (especially those with CP) in receiving pain management services along with BNT. PMID:23041680

  5. The influence of roasting procedure on the formation of mutagenic compounds in coffee.

    PubMed

    Albertini, S; Friederich, U; Schlatter, C; Würgler, F E

    1985-06-01

    Mutagenic products can be formed during the processing of food and especially as a result of heat treatment. Direct acting mutagenic activity was found in extracts of instant coffee and roasted coffee beans using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in vitro. The mutagenic activities of the four pure coffee varieties examined (Coffea arabica Santos, Coffea arabica Columbia, Coffee robusta Indonesia, Coffee robusta Camerun) were within the same range. Twenty milligrams per plate freeze-dried powder prepared from aqueous roast coffee extracts induced between six and ten times the number of revertants found in the negative controls. Green coffee beans had no mutagenic activity. Mutagenicity increased with roasting time up to 4 min in the Probat drum roaster and then remained constant (i.e. no further increase after 8 min, the time normally used to roast coffee). The genotoxic compounds were quickly formed at temperatures below 220 degrees C (in normally roasted coffee the beans must reach a temperature of 220 degrees C). Mutagenic activity was independent of the roasting procedure (Jetzon procedure v. Probat drum roaster). PMID:3891559

  6. Assessment of multiple sustainability demands for wastewater treatment alternatives: a refined evaluation scheme and case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Yu, Han-Qing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Guo, Xuesong

    2012-05-15

    Current estimation schemes as decision support tools for the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives focus primarily on the treatment efficiency, effluent quality, and environmental consequences for receiving water bodies. However, these schemes generally do not quantify the potential to convert pollutants in wastewater to recoverable resources. This study proposes a refined evaluation scheme for choices of wastewater treatment processes that quantifies not only adverse environmental effects but also bioenergy and nutrient recovery indices. An original means of data processing was established and clear estimate indicators were consequently obtained to allow a smooth overall estimation. An array of wastewater treatment alternatives that meet three effluent limits were used as case studies to demonstrate how the present scheme works, simultaneously, to identify optimum choices. It is concluded in the overall estimation that the lower sustainability of wastewater treatment contributed by increasingly stringent discharge demands was offset and mitigated by the resource-recovery scenarios involved, and the scenario of recovering nutrients via excess-sludge composting was of more benefit. Thus, before tightening wastewater discharge requirements, one should bear in mind the situation of multiple sustainability by setting a goal to achieve not only the greatest reduction in environmental burden but also the maximum resource-recovery benefits. PMID:22530769

  7. [Mutagenic effects of ionized plasma light flux].

    PubMed

    Stupin, I V; Dombrovskiĭ, A M; Novokshonov, A I; Belova, L L; Belous, G G

    1990-10-01

    The effect of ion plasma light flux on the genomes of auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain and Drosophilla melanogaster has been examined. Essentially no mutagenic effect was found in doses close to therapeutic ones. PMID:2126213

  8. A Review of Complementary and Alternative Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hendren, Robert; Hurt, Elizabeth; Arnold, L. Eugene; Butter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Given the severe and chronic problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and the limitations of available treatments, there exists a large public health need for additional interventions. As more parents are inquiring about complementary and alternative treatments (CATs), both parents and practitioners require up-to-date information about them and whether and how to integrate them into treatment. After presenting data on CAT usage patterns for ASD, we review 13 ingestible (i.e., orally administered) and 6 noningestible (i.e., externally administered) CATs for ASD. For each CAT we briefly describe its definition; rationale for use; current research support, limitations, and future directions; safety issues; and whether we currently recommend, not recommend, or find it acceptable for the treatment of ASD. We conclude this paper with recommendations for future research and ten clinical recommendations for practitioners. PMID:23243505

  9. Mutagenicity and cytoxicity of irradiated foods and food components*

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Jack

    1969-01-01

    The preservation of foods by treatment with ionizing radiation can significantly increase the world's food resources by reducing spoilage and waste. However, irradiation can bring about chemical transformations in food and food components resulting in the formation of potential mutagens, particularly hydrogen peroxide and various organic peroxides. In order to evaluate the safety of irradiated foods for general consumption by the public, and, indeed, the safety of all foods subjected to environmental factors such as food additives, pesticides, drugs, air and water pollutants, etc., it is necessary to supplement the usual feeding tests with procedures designed to detect all classes of genetic damage. This article includes a comprehensive critical review of (1) the experimental evidence relating to the presence of mutagenic and cytotoxic agents in irradiated media, as detected by their effects on mammalian and non-mammalian cells; (2) the chemical changes produced in irradiated media, especially those which produce known mutagenic substances; and (3) new and convenient in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of genetic damage in mammals. PMID:4908553

  10. Change in mutagenicity in white rice after accelerated and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Pahulu, H F; Davidson, R T; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Steele, F M; Pike, O A

    2007-03-01

    Certain reactions that occur in food during storage, such as nonenzymatic browning and lipid oxidation, form compounds that have been shown to be mutagenic. It is possible that over long storage periods, significant amounts of these products could be formed. Although some research has been published concerning the mutagenicity of foods due to processing or cooking, little research has been done regarding mutagenicity of foods stored for an extended time. The objective of this research was to determine the potential mutagenicity of white rice held in accelerated and long-term storage using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Fresh long-grain white rice was packaged in foil laminate pouches and held at 60 degrees C for 18 wk. Rice stored for > 25 y in an oxygen-free environment at or below room temperature in size number 10 cans was obtained from residential storage. The standard plate-incorporation method was used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of all treatments using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Samples were plated at 5 dilutions with and without rat liver S9 enzyme. A solvent control was also plated for each strain. Treatments yielding counts at least double the solvent control level were considered mutagenic. Plate counts for all treatments fell well below the required doubling of the solvent control value. White rice held in accelerated and long-term storage appears not to increase in mutagenic compounds as measured by the Ames assay, supporting its use for long-term storage purposes such as emergency preparedness and humanitarian food aid. PMID:17995827

  11. Effect of alternative on-site wastewater treatment on the viability and culturability of Salmonella choleraesuis.

    PubMed

    Pundsack, J W; Hicks, R E; Axler, R P

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how alternative on-site wastewater treatment systems (i.e. subsurface flow constructed wetlands, intermittent sand filters and intermittent peat filters) affect the viability and culturability of Salmonella choleraesuis (serotype typhimurium, ATCC 23567). Influent was a high strength septic tank effluent (BOD5 240-344 mgL(-1), TN approximately 100 mgL(-1), TP approximately 15 mgL(-1)) at the Natural Resources Research Institute's (NRRI) alternative treatment system test facility in northern Minnesota. Treatment systems were inoculated with cultures of S. choleraesuis for 5-7 consecutive days in summer and winter during 1998-99. After the seeding, outflow samples were taken until Salmonella counts were sustained at background levels. In addition to culture-based enumeration, S. choleraesuis abundances were also measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) alone and in combination with the direct viable count method (DVC) to determine if plate counts underestimated total and viable Salmonella abundances and if the Salmonella cell viability changed after passing through the treatment systems. In most cases, total and viable cell abundances in treatment system effluents were several orders of magnitude higher than cultured cell abundances. Our results indicate that the culture-based method underestimated viable concentrations of the model pathogen, S. choleraesuis. Salmonella cell viability decreased in effluents during the summer but increased during the winter. Using a culture-based enumeration method alone to determine removal efficiencies of bacterial indicators and pathogens for wastewater treatment systems may result in artificially high estimates of effective treatment.

  12. An open source multistep model to predict mutagenicity from statistical analysis and relevant structural alerts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutagenicity is the capability of a substance to cause genetic mutations. This property is of high public concern because it has a close relationship with carcinogenicity and potentially with reproductive toxicity. Experimentally, mutagenicity can be assessed by the Ames test on Salmonella with an estimated experimental reproducibility of 85%; this intrinsic limitation of the in vitro test, along with the need for faster and cheaper alternatives, opens the road to other types of assessment methods, such as in silico structure-activity prediction models. A widely used method checks for the presence of known structural alerts for mutagenicity. However the presence of such alerts alone is not a definitive method to prove the mutagenicity of a compound towards Salmonella, since other parts of the molecule can influence and potentially change the classification. Hence statistically based methods will be proposed, with the final objective to obtain a cascade of modeling steps with custom-made properties, such as the reduction of false negatives. Results A cascade model has been developed and validated on a large public set of molecular structures and their associated Salmonella mutagenicity outcome. The first step consists in the derivation of a statistical model and mutagenicity prediction, followed by further checks for specific structural alerts in the "safe" subset of the prediction outcome space. In terms of accuracy (i.e., overall correct predictions of both negative and positives), the obtained model approached the 85% reproducibility of the experimental mutagenicity Ames test. Conclusions The model and the documentation for regulatory purposes are freely available on the CAESAR website. The input is simply a file of molecular structures and the output is the classification result. PMID:20678181

  13. Atomized sludges via spray-drying at low temperatures: an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Cusidó, Joan A; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2012-08-30

    Removal of sludges from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) represents a serious worldwide environmental problem for which alternatives other than their simple incineration are investigated. In this work the treatment of raw sludge from urban WWTP by means of a minimization process through spray-drying is analyzed as well as some proposals for revaluating the resulting dry product. Analysis is supported by some experimental results obtained with a laboratory spray dryer. The experimental procedure at laboratory scale is extrapolated to an industrial plant scale. An economic analysis of the proposal in relation to other possible sludge treatments is presented, taking into account in this case the comparison between the costs of the processes of sludge thickening, stabilization and dehydratation and the costs of spray-drying (especially power consumption), minimization of the final waste and reuse options. Finally, an environmental balance of the process is presented. In contrast with the classical treatment line, this alternative allows transforming sludges, i.e., a waste, into a valuable product with several applications. PMID:22525834

  14. Effects of human intestinal flora on mutagenicity of and DNA adduct formation from food and environmental mutagens.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, K; Baranczewski, P; Akerlund, J E; Midtvedt, T; Möller, L; Rafter, J

    2000-11-01

    Although the intestinal flora is believed to have a critical role in carcinogenesis, little is known about the role of the human intestinal flora on the effects of mutagens in vivo. The aim of the present study was to address a possible role of the human intestinal flora in carcinogenesis, by exploiting human-flora-associated (HFA) mice. The capacity of human faeces to activate or inactivate 2-amino-3-methyl-3H:-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-nitrofluorene was determined using the Ames assay. Human faecal suspensions that were active in this regard were then selected and orally inoculated into germfree NMRI mice to generate HFA mice. HFA, germfree, conventionalized and conventional mice were administered IQ, 2-amino-9H:-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (2-amino-alpha-carboline; AAC) and 2-nitrofluorene. The activity of human intestinal flora against mutagens could be transferred into the mice. In comparing germfree mice and mice harbouring an intestinal flora, the presence of a flora was essential for the activities of faeces against mutagens. After administration of IQ and 2-nitrofluorene, DNA adducts were observed in the mice with a flora, while adducts were extremely low or absent in germfree animals. DNA adducts after AAC treatment were higher in germfree mice in some tissues including colon than in mice with bacteria. Differences in DNA adduct formation were also observed between HFA mice and mice with mouse flora in many tissues. These results clearly indicate that the intestinal flora have an active role in DNA adduct formation and that the role is different for the different chemicals to which the animals are exposed. The results also demonstrate that the human intestinal flora have different effects from the mouse flora on DNA adduct formation as well as in vitro metabolic activities against mutagens. Studies using HFA mice could thus provide much-needed information on the role of the human intestinal flora on carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:11062175

  15. The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300

  16. Action of mutagenic agents and antiviral inhibitors on foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Pariente, Nonia; Sierra, Saleta; Airaksinen, Antero

    2005-02-01

    Our current knowledge on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) entry into error catastrophe is reviewed. FMDV can establish cytolytic and persistent infections in the field and in cell culture. Both types of FMDV infection in cell culture can be treated with mutagens, with or without classical (non-mutagenic) antiviral inhibitors, to drive the virus to extinction. 5-Fluorouracil (FU) and 5-azacytidine (AZC) have been employed as mutagenic agents to treat cytolytic FMDV infections, and ribavirin (Rib) to treat persistent infections. Extinction is dependent on the relative fitness of the viral isolate, as well as on the viral load. In cytolytic infections, extinctions could be efficiently obtained with combinations of mutagens and inhibitors. High-fitness FMDV extinction could only be achieved with treatments that contained a mutagen, and not with combinations of inhibitors that exerted the same antiviral effect. Persistent infections could be cured with Rib treatment alone. The results presented here show entry into error catastrophe as a valid strategy for treatment of viral infections, although much work remains to be done before it can be implemented.

  17. THE MUTAGENICITY OF METALLIZED AND UNMETALLIZED AZO AND FORMAZAN DYES IN THE SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mutagenicity of metallized and unmetallized azo and formazan dyes in the Salmonella mutagenicity
    Laura. C. Edwards', Harold S. Freeman'*, and Larry D. Claxton2

    Abstract
    In previous papers, the synthesis and chemical properties of iron complexed azo and formazan d...

  18. Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.

    PubMed Central

    Ames, B N; Kammen, H O; Yamasaki, E

    1975-01-01

    We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for dectecting carcinogens as mutagens. We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity:2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components (p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminotuluene, and 2,5-diaminoanisole) become strongly mutagenic after oxidation by H2O2: the mutagenic product of p-phenylenediamine is identified as the known trimer, Bandrowski's base. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, a hair dye component until recently, is also shown to be mutagenic: this compound has been shown to be a carcinogen in rats and is used in large amounts in the polyurethane foam industry. About 20,000,000 people (mostly women) dye their hair in the U.S. and the hazard could be considerable if these chemicals are actually mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. Images PMID:1094469

  19. On-site sanitation: a viable alternative to modern wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, K M

    2007-01-01

    Rapid population growth and urbanization are exerting excessive pressure on soil and water resources. To address these problems this paper proposes a cheap and sustainable alternative sanitation system, which accelerates nutrient recycling ("closing the loop"): ecological sanitation (ecosan) is a potential alternative to conventional sanitation systems that replenishes the organic matter and nutrients of the soil that are taken off as the crop harvest. A comparison is made of the environmental and the operation and maintenance costs between a modern wastewater treatment plant and on-site sanitation. An elevated double box urine diverting toilet ("ecotoilet") is proposed and its advantages and disadvantages over a system with a centrally controlled modern WWTP are discussed. Bagmati Area Sewerage Project in Kathmandu is taken as an example of modern WWTP and ecosan being practiced in a village in Nepal is taken as an example of ecotoilet for the comparison.

  20. A mutagenicity and cytotoxicity study of limonium effusum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames and MTT tests.

    PubMed

    Eren, Y; Ozata, A; Konuk, M; Akyil, D; Liman, R

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays plants or plant extracts have become very important for alternative medicine. Plants and their extracts have many therapeutical advantages but some of them are potentially toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Root, stem and leafparts of Limonium effusum were used in this study and this species is an endemic species for Turkey. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of root, stem and leaf aqueous extracts were observed with Allium, Ames and MTT tests. Allium root growth inhibition test and mitotic index studies showed that aqueous extracts have dose-dependent toxic effects. Chromosome aberration studies indicated that especially sticky chromosome, anaphase-telophase disorder and laggard chromosome anomalies were highly observed. Ames test performed with Limonium effusum root aqueous extracts, showed weak mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain with S9. MTT test based on mitochondrial activity indicated that most of the aqueous extracts have cytotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of L. effusum aqueous extracts by using bacterial, plant and mammalian cells. This research showed that some low concentrations of the L. effusum extracts have inhibited cytotoxic effects but high concentrations have induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand only a weak mutagenic activity was identified by Ames test with TA98 S9(+). PMID:26030975

  1. Potential genotoxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of coffee: a review.

    PubMed

    Nehlig, A; Debry, G

    1994-04-01

    Coffee and caffeine are mutagenic to bacteria and fungi, and in high concentrations they are also mutagenic to mammalian cells in culture. However, the mutagenic effects of coffee disappear when bacteria or mammalian cells are cultured in the presence of liver extracts which contain detoxifying enzymes. In vivo, coffee and caffeine are devoid of mutagenic effects. Coffee and caffeine are able to interact with many other mutagens and their effects are synergistic with X-rays, ultraviolet light and some chemical agents. Caffeine seems to potentiate rather than to induce chromosomal aberrations and also to transform sublethal damage of mutagenic agents into lethal damage. Conversely, coffee and caffeine are also able to inhibit the mutagenic effects of numerous chemicals. These antimutagenic effects depend on the time of administration of coffee as compared to the acting time of the mutagenic agent. In that case, caffeine seems to be able to restore the normal cycle of mitosis and phosphorylation in irradiated cells. Finally, the potential genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the most important constituents of coffee are reviewed. Mutagenicity of caffeine is mainly attributed to chemically reactive components such as aliphatic dicarbonyls. The latter compounds, formed during the roasting process, are mutagenic to bacteria but less to mammalian cells. Hydrogen peroxide is not very active but seems to considerably enhance mutagenic properties of methylglyoxal. Phenolic compounds are not mutagenic but rather anticarcinogenic. Benzopyrene and mutagens formed during pyrolysis are not mutagenic whereas roasting of coffee beans at high temperature generates mutagenic heterocyclic amines. In conclusion, the mutagenic potential of coffee and caffeine has been demonstrated in lower organisms, but usually at doses several orders of magnitude greater than the estimated lethal dose for caffeine in humans. Therefore, the chances of coffee and caffeine consumption in moderate to

  2. Mutagens in larger fungi. II. The mutagenicity of commercial pickled Lactarius necator in the Salmonella assay.

    PubMed

    Sterner, O; Bergman, R; Franzén, C; Kesler, E; Nilsson, L

    1982-01-01

    In the course of an ongoing screening of larger mushrooms for the occurrence of chemical mutagens, 33 out of 48 species tested exhibited a significant direct mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay (Sterner et al., 1982). (No mutagens requiring metabolic activation were indicated.) These findings are of some concern, since mushrooms are used extensively as food in many areas, and there are strong indications that carcinogens in food are of considerable importance in cancer aetiology (Sugimura, 1979). A recent communication by Knuutinen and von Wright (1982) on the mutagenicity of 4 Lactarius species collected in Finland prompts us to report our own results from mutagenicity tests with commercially preserved (pickled) Lactarius necator.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated.We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: "CAM" in conjunction with "OM" and "children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies.The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications.The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated.We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: "CAM" in conjunction with "OM" and "children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies.The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications.The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  5. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    SciTech Connect

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  6. Mutagenicity of surface soil from residential areas in Kyoto city, Japan, and identification of major mutagens.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tetsushi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Konishi, Erina; Hoshino, Yuri; Hasei, Tomohiro; Asanoma, Masaharu; Hirayama, Teruhisa; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the mutagenic potential of surface soil in residential areas in Kyoto city, surface soil samples were collected twice or three times from 12 sites, and their organic extracts were examined by the Ames/Salmonella assay. Almost all (>92%) samples showed mutagenicity in TA98 without and with S9 mix, and 8/25 (32%) samples showed high (1000-10,000 revertants/g of soil) or extreme (>10,000 revertants/g of soil) activity. Moreover, to identify the major mutagens in surface soil in Kyoto, a soil sample was collected at a site where soil contamination with mutagens was severe and continual. The soil extract, which showed potent mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix, was fractionated by diverse column chromatography methods. Five major mutagenic constituents were isolated and identified to be 1,6-dinitropyrene (DNP), 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-trinitropyrene (TNP), 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene (DNF), and 3,6-dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (DNBeP) by co-chromatography using high performance liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. Contribution ratios of 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-TNP, 3,9-DNF, and 3,6-DNBeP to total mutagenicity of the soil extract in TA98 without S9 mix were 3, 10, 10, 10, and 6%, respectively. These nitroarenes were detected in surface soil samples collected from four different residential sites in other prefectures, and their contribution ratios to soil mutagenicity were from 0.7 to 22%. These results suggest that surface soil in residential areas in Kyoto was widely contaminated with mutagens and there were some sites where surface soils were heavily polluted. 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-TNP, 3,9-DNF, and 3,6-DNBeP may be major mutagenic constituents that contaminate surface soil in Kyoto and other residential areas.

  7. Mutagenicity tobacco snuff: possible health implications for coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Whong, W.Z.; Ames, R.G.; Ong, T.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenicity of tobacco snuff extracts was studied using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay system. No mutagenic activity was found for tobacco snuff extracts without S9 activation. However, mutagenic substances were formed from tobacco snuff extracts in an acidic environment. The mutagenic substances induced predominantly frameshift mutations and were direct-acting mutagens. Mutagenic activity of tobacco snuff extracts was enhanced in the presence of coal-dust extracts at low pH. Since tobacco snuff has been used by some coal miners to substitute for cigarettes, a possible risk for gastric cancer induction among coal miners is proposed.

  8. An alternating treatment comparison of oral and total communications training programs with echolalic autistic children.

    PubMed

    Barrera, R D; Sulzer-Azaroff, B

    1983-01-01

    An alternating treatment comparison was conducted of the relative effectiveness of oral and total communication training models for teaching expressive labeling skills to three echolalic autistic children. The results of this comparison demonstrated that total communication proved to be the most successful approach with each of the subjects. In addition, the replication of these findings both within and across subjects suggest that total communication may be, in general, the most effective of these two training models for teaching basic vocal language skills to echolalic children. A number of hypotheses are presented that may provide a basis for the demonstrated effect.

  9. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils. PMID:26841290

  10. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals", "Special Diet",…

  11. Mutagenic potential of fine wastes from dimension stone industry.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Tonon, Camila Bruschi; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Cristina Araújo; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-03-01

    The industrial treatment of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, includes a stage of plate polishing, in which resins and abrasives are used, producing a fine grained waste with high moisture content. These wastes pass through decantation tanks in order to separate the solid and liquid phases. Until now, there is no knowledge about the mutagenic effects that this effluent can cause to organisms exposed to it. Thus, this study evaluated the mutagenic potential of dimension stone polishing wastes in onion root cells and fish erythrocytes. The onion seeds were germinated in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened in the liquid phase of the effluent. After germination, the onion roots were prepared for analysis of chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells. The fishes were exposed during 72h to the solid phase of the effluent diluted in pure groundwater. Blood samples were used for counting of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities. The onion seeds had similar germination and mitotic index in all treatments. However, it was observed in the seeds exposed to the polishing waste, numbers significantly higher of micronucleus, nuclear buds and other chromosomal aberrations when compared with the negative control. The fishes exposed to the waste showed numbers significantly higher of micronucleus when compared with the negative control. The fishes from all treatments showed significant increase in nuclear abnormalities when compared to the negative control. We concluded that the analysed wastes have mutagenic potential at the studied conditions; this effect can be related to the high content of phenolic compounds identified in the samples. PMID:26685783

  12. Mutagenic heterocyclic imidazoamines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Shen, N.H.; Wu, Rebekah; Becher, G.

    1987-06-01

    Cooking ground beef at 300/sup 0/C produces at least 8 distinct mutagens. All of these compounds fit into a general chemical class called aminoimidazoazaarenes (AIAs). Our studies suggest that most of this set of AIAs are present in cooked beef, pork, and chicken. Described in this manuscript are two new mutagens that appear to have oxygen atoms in the ring system. The amounts of these very potent bacterial mutagens vary from 20 ppB to <0.1 ppB depending on the mutagen, cooking conditions, and food tested. The production of these mutagens in food depends on the presence of creatine or creatinine and specific amino acids and cooking temperatures between 150 to 300/sup 0/C for an appropriate period of time. In CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells, the relative potency of the compounds differed significantly from the bacterial responses. The risk from consuming these compounds is still very unclear because of their relatively low levels in our diet and the lack of consistency in the biological response data. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  14. [Autologous serum and alternative blood products for the treatment of ocular surface disorders].

    PubMed

    Geerling, G; Unterlauft, J D; Kasper, K; Schrader, S; Opitz, A; Hartwig, D

    2008-07-01

    Eye drops made from autologous serum have been increasingly used in the past decade to treat ocular surface disorders such as persistent epithelial defects and dry eye. Due to biologically active ingredients such as growth factors, vitamins, and nutrients, they can be used to lubricate the ocular surface and support epithelial wound healing. According to current legal requirements, they can be dispensed only for outpatient treatment if the producer has obtained a license from the appropriate local authorities. Therefore, the production and dispensing of autologous serum eye drops in Germany is currently limited to a very few institutions and their patients. We review the current evidence on the use of serum eye drops, recommend a standard protocol for their production, and describe a number of recently emerging alternative blood products for the treatment of ocular surface diseases along with their potential advantages and limitations.

  15. Updated review of complementary and alternative medicine treatments for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Greco, Carol M; Nakajima, Claire; Manzi, Susan

    2013-11-01

    It is estimated that over 50 % of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have utilized complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to reduce symptoms and manage their health. However, there are relatively few randomized controlled trials of CAM for SLE. This review describes recent studies of vitamins and supplements, acupuncture, and mind-body interventions in SLE patients. The recent trials of CAM treatments for SLE indicate that supplements such as vitamin D, omega 3 fatty acids, N-acetyl cysteine and turmeric show some promise for reducing SLE disease activity. In addition, mind-body methods such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and other counseling interventions may improve mood and quality of life in SLE.

  16. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ran; Ali, Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS.

  17. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ran; Ali, Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  18. Errors of Omission and Commission during Alternative Reinforcement of Compliance: The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Yanerys; Wilder, David A.; Majdalany, Lina; Myers, Kristin; Saini, Valdeep

    2014-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effects of errors of omission and commission during alternative reinforcement of compliance in young children. In Experiment 1, we evaluated errors of omission by examining two levels of integrity during alternative reinforcement (20 and 60%) for child compliance following no treatment (baseline) versus…

  19. Linking mutagenic activity to micropollutant concentrations in wastewater samples by partial least square regression and subsequent identification of variables.

    PubMed

    Hug, Christine; Sievers, Moritz; Ottermanns, Richard; Hollert, Henner; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2015-11-01

    We deployed multivariate regression to identify compounds co-varying with the mutagenic activity of complex environmental samples. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents with a large share of industrial input of different sampling dates were evaluated for mutagenic activity by the Ames Fluctuation Test and chemically characterized by a screening for suspected pro-mutagens and non-targeted software-based peak detection in full scan data. Areas of automatically detected peaks were used as predictor matrix for partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS) in combination with measured mutagenic activity. Detected peaks were successively reduced by the exclusion of all peaks with lowest variable importance until the best model (high R(2) and Q(2)) was reached. Peaks in the best model co-varying with the observed mutagenicity showed increased chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and nitrogen abundance compared to original peak set indicating a preferential selection of anthropogenic compounds. The PLS regression revealed four tentatively identified compounds, newly identified 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine, and three known micropollutants present in domestic wastewater as co-varying with the mutagenic activity. Co-variance between compounds stemming from industrial wastewater and mutagenic activity supported the application of "virtual" EDA as a statistical tool to separate toxicologically relevant from less relevant compounds. PMID:26070082

  20. Mutagenicity of selected sulfonated azo dyes in the Salmonella/microsome assay: use of aerobic and anaerobic activation procedures.

    PubMed

    Brown, J P; Dietrich, P S

    1983-03-01

    A selection of 16 sulfonated azo dyes of both the monoazo type and diazo dyes based on benzidine, o-tolidine and o-dianisidine were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 employing both aerobic and anaerobic preincubation procedures. 3 food dyes, FD & C Red No. 40 and Yellows No. 5 and No. 6 were non-mutagenic in all tests. 5 dyes were mutagenic with aerobic treatment (trypan blue, Pontacyl Sky Blue 4BX, Congo Red, Eriochrome Blue Black B, dimethylaminoazobenzene) and 6 were mutagenic aerobically with riboflavin and cofactors (Deltapurpurin, trypan blue, Pontacyl Sky Blue 4BX, Congo Red, methyl orange, Ponceau 3R). Anaerobic preincubation involving enzymatic reduction of the dyes led to a different pattern of mutagenicity, with trypan blue giving much enhanced mutagenicity; Eriochrome Blue Black B, Pontacyl Sky Blue 4BX, Deltapurpurin and Congo Red exhibiting similar activity to aerobic preincubation; and methyl orange and Ponceau 3R yielding no mutagenicity. The results are interpreted with respect to an hypothesis involving partial reduction of the azo bond under differing degrees of aerobiosis via azo-anion radicals and hydrazo intermediates.

  1. Therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: A Delphi technique-based consensus

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Juan P; Claro, Juan C; Arancibia, Juan P; Contreras, Jorge; Gómez, Fernando; Muñoz, Cristian; Nazal, Leyla; Roessler, Eric; Wolff, Rodrigo; Arrese, Marco; Benítez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    AIM To propose several alternatives treatment of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1) what is the most severe expression of circulatory dysfunction on patients with portal hypertension. METHODS A group of eleven gastroenterologists and nephrologists performed a structured analysis of available literature. Each expert was designated to review and answer a question. They generated draft statements for evaluation by all the experts. Additional input was obtained from medical community. In order to reach consensus, a modified three-round Delphi technique method was used. According to United States Preventive Services Task Force criteria, the quality of the evidence and level of recommendation supporting each statement was graded. RESULTS Nine questions were formulated. The available evidence was evaluated considering its quality, number of patients included in the studies and the consistency of its results. The generated questions were answered by the expert panel with a high level of agreement. Thus, a therapeutic algorithm was generated. The role of terlipressin and norepinephrine was confirmed as the pharmacologic treatment of choice. On the other hand the use of the combination of octreotide, midodrine and albumin without vasoconstrictors was discouraged. The role of several other options was also evaluated and the available evidence was explored and discussed. Liver transplantation is considered the definitive treatment for HRS-1. The present consensus is an important effort that intends to organize the available strategies based on the available evidence in the literature, the quality of the evidence and the benefits, adverse effects and availability of the therapeutic tools described. CONCLUSION Based on the available evidence the expert panel was able to discriminate the most appropriate therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of HRS-1.

  2. Therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: A Delphi technique-based consensus

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Juan P; Claro, Juan C; Arancibia, Juan P; Contreras, Jorge; Gómez, Fernando; Muñoz, Cristian; Nazal, Leyla; Roessler, Eric; Wolff, Rodrigo; Arrese, Marco; Benítez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    AIM To propose several alternatives treatment of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1) what is the most severe expression of circulatory dysfunction on patients with portal hypertension. METHODS A group of eleven gastroenterologists and nephrologists performed a structured analysis of available literature. Each expert was designated to review and answer a question. They generated draft statements for evaluation by all the experts. Additional input was obtained from medical community. In order to reach consensus, a modified three-round Delphi technique method was used. According to United States Preventive Services Task Force criteria, the quality of the evidence and level of recommendation supporting each statement was graded. RESULTS Nine questions were formulated. The available evidence was evaluated considering its quality, number of patients included in the studies and the consistency of its results. The generated questions were answered by the expert panel with a high level of agreement. Thus, a therapeutic algorithm was generated. The role of terlipressin and norepinephrine was confirmed as the pharmacologic treatment of choice. On the other hand the use of the combination of octreotide, midodrine and albumin without vasoconstrictors was discouraged. The role of several other options was also evaluated and the available evidence was explored and discussed. Liver transplantation is considered the definitive treatment for HRS-1. The present consensus is an important effort that intends to organize the available strategies based on the available evidence in the literature, the quality of the evidence and the benefits, adverse effects and availability of the therapeutic tools described. CONCLUSION Based on the available evidence the expert panel was able to discriminate the most appropriate therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of HRS-1. PMID:27660674

  3. Testing the environment for dispersed mutagens: use of plant bioconcentrators coupled with microbial mutagen assays.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, W S; Klekowski, E J

    1978-01-01

    Mutagens dispersed in ecosystems are usually in low concentration and episodic in occurrence. The possibility of detecting such dispersed mutagens by utilizing indigenous bioconcentrator organisms coupled with a microbial mutagen assay offer a useful screening protocol. There are numerous examples of plant and animal species which concentrate toxic substances from the environment. Body extracts of these bioconcentrators can be suitably fractioned and tested for mutagens with various microbial mutagen assays. The fractions may be tested with a broad range of microbial assays covering numerous genetic end points as well as both with and without mammalian microsomal activation. This kind of environmental screening has an advantage over physicochemical techniques, in that sampling techniques are simpler and a wider chemical spectrum can be screened. There are problems inherent with testing a complex biological extract, however. If a reversion assay is used, the metabolite necessary for growth may be present. Toxins may be introduced, either concentrated from the environment in the same way as the mutagen, or produced by the concentrator itself. Finally, the concentrator may also produce an endogenous mutagen which will give spuriously active extracts. Methods for minimizing some of these difficulties are discussed. PMID:367775

  4. Mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat extracts: Mutagenicity assay, analysis and mechanism of mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-11-01

    Cooking of meat usually aims in producing microbiologically safe food suitable for human consumption. However, doing so at such high temperatures may produce some cooking toxicants or mutagens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat after different cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying and charcoal grilling) using Ames Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay. In addition, the content of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the meat extracts prepared under different cooking methods were measured using HPLC. In a trial to investigate the causes behind the mutagenicity of different meat extracts, HepG2 cell line was exposed to different modelled-heat-treated meat extracts. mRNA expression levels of various phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) were examined using real time PCR. The results obtained declared that pan-fried and charcoal grilled-meat extracts significantly induced production of histidine+ revertants in the Ames mutagenicity assay. Grilled-meat extracts had the highest residual concentrations of B[a]P followed by pan-fried-meat, boiled meat and raw meat extracts, respectively. Induction of XMEs especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and NQO1 may contribute to the mutagenic ability of these extracts. It is highly advisable to control cooking temperature, time and method in order to reduce cooked-meat mutagens.

  5. Ames mutagenicity tests of overheated brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Blair, C A; Shibamoto, T

    1984-12-01

    Five kinds of coffee samples were prepared from a commercial drip-grind coffee in order to examine the mutagenicity of brewed coffee using the Ames test. The samples prepared were a thick coffee syrup, coffee solid residues, dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of solid residues, a dichloromethane extract of a distillate from normally heated brewed coffee and dichloromethane extracts of distillates from overheated (150-300 degrees C) brewed coffee. The samples were tested for mutagenicity towards Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 both with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mix). Only the extracts of the distillates obtained from coffee heated to 150 degrees or 300 degrees C exhibited mutagenicity towards strain TA98 with S-9 mix. PMID:6392045

  6. Mutagenic effects of lead (II) bromide.

    PubMed

    Maslat, A O; Haas, H J

    1989-12-01

    The mutagenicity of lead (II) bromide (a combustion product of the gasoline additives lead (IV) tetraethyl and 1,2-dibromoethane) was investigated using various strains of bacteria. Taking prodigiosin (the red pigment) production as a marker, lead (II) bromide was found to be mutagenic in S. marcescens, leading to the appearance of white mutant colonies that are unable to produce such a pigment. This compound was also found to be mutagenic in E. coli KMBL1851, resulting in the appearance of rifampicin-resistant mutants in addition to Met+ and His+ revertants. Some of the S. marcescens mutants were found to be reversible, able to resynthesize prodigiosin. Differences in the sensitivity to antibiotics as well as in the biochemical properties were detected between the mutants and their corresponding wild types. Lead (II) bromide gave positive results in the Ames test performed with strain TA 1535.

  7. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicity

    Abstract
    Mutagens
    in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, Richard; Balla, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the evidence supporting complementary and alternative medicine approaches to treatment and prevention of the common cold in adults. Quality of Evidence MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 1966 to September 2009 combining the key words common cold or influenza with echinacea, garlic, ginseng, probiotics, vitamin C, and zinc. Clinical trials and prospective studies were included. Main Message For prevention, vitamin C demonstrated benefit in a large meta-analysis, with possibly increased benefit in patients subjected to cold stress. There is inconsistent evidence for Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Allicin was highly effective in 1 small trial. For treatment, Echinacea purpurea is the most consistently useful variety; it was effective in 5 of 6 trials. Zinc lozenges were effective in 5 of 9 trials, likely owing to dose and formulation issues. Overall, the evidence suggests no benefit from probiotics for prevention or treatment of the common cold. Conclusion Vitamin C can be recommended to Canadian patients for prevention of the common cold. There is moderate evidence supporting the use of Echinacea purpurea and zinc lozenges for treatment. Ginseng and allicin warrant further research. PMID:21322286

  9. An alternative treatment option for a bony defect from large odontoma using recycled demineralization at chairside.

    PubMed

    Lee, JuHyon; Lee, Eun-Young; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Eun-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Odontoma is the most common odontogenic benign tumor, and the treatment of choice is generally surgical removal. After excision, bone grafts may be necessary depending on the need for further treatment, or the size and location of the odontoma. Although the osteogenic capacity of a demineralized tooth was verified as early as 1967 by Urist and many other investigators, the cumbersome procedure, including a long demineralization time, may be less than comfortable for clinicians. A modified ultrasonic technology, with periodic negative pressure and temperature control, facilitated rapid and aseptic preparation of demineralized teeth for bone grafts. This approach reduces the demineralization time dramatically (≤80 minutes), so that the graft material can be prepared chairside on the same day as the extraction. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases of large compound odonotomas used as graft material prepared chairside for enucleation-induced bony defects. These two clinical cases showed favorable wound healing without complications, and good bony support for future dental implants or orthodontic treatment. Finally, this report will suggest the possibility of recycling the benign pathologic hard tissue as an alternative treatment option for conventional bone grafts in clinics.

  10. An alternative treatment option for a bony defect from large odontoma using recycled demineralization at chairside

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Odontoma is the most common odontogenic benign tumor, and the treatment of choice is generally surgical removal. After excision, bone grafts may be necessary depending on the need for further treatment, or the size and location of the odontoma. Although the osteogenic capacity of a demineralized tooth was verified as early as 1967 by Urist and many other investigators, the cumbersome procedure, including a long demineralization time, may be less than comfortable for clinicians. A modified ultrasonic technology, with periodic negative pressure and temperature control, facilitated rapid and aseptic preparation of demineralized teeth for bone grafts. This approach reduces the demineralization time dramatically (≤80 minutes), so that the graft material can be prepared chairside on the same day as the extraction. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases of large compound odonotomas used as graft material prepared chairside for enucleation-induced bony defects. These two clinical cases showed favorable wound healing without complications, and good bony support for future dental implants or orthodontic treatment. Finally, this report will suggest the possibility of recycling the benign pathologic hard tissue as an alternative treatment option for conventional bone grafts in clinics. PMID:25922824

  11. Latent Class Analysis: An Alternative Perspective on Subgroup Analysis in Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Brittany L.

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to introduce latent class analysis (LCA) as an alternative approach to latent subgroup analysis. Traditionally, subgroup analysis aims to determine whether individuals respond differently to a treatment based on one or more measured characteristics. LCA provides a way to identify a small set of underlying subgroups characterized by multiple dimensions which could, in turn, be used to examine differential treatment effects. This approach can help to address methodological challenges that arise in subgroup analysis, including a high Type I error rate, low statistical power, and limitations in examining higher-order interactions. An empirical example draws on N=1,900 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Six characteristics (household poverty, single-parent status, peer cigarette use, peer alcohol use, neighborhood unemployment, and neighborhood poverty) are used to identify five latent subgroups: Low Risk, Peer Risk, Economic Risk, Household & Peer Risk, and Multi-Contextual Risk. Two approaches for examining differential treatment effects are demonstrated using a simulated outcome: 1) a classify-analyze approach and, 2) a model-based approach based on a reparameterization of the LCA with covariates model. Such approaches can facilitate targeting future intervention resources to subgroups that promise to show the maximum treatment response. PMID:21318625

  12. Ustekinumab as an Alternative Treatment Option for Chronic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Davila, Ulysses; Cohen, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is an exceptionally rare, chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Patients classically present with small, follicular keratosis and salmon-colored plaques that begin at the head and neck and slowly progress to widespread erythroderma including the palms and soles. It is difficult to distinguish PRP from other inflammatory dermatoses; however, features that help aid in the diagnosis include ‘islands’ of spared skin, orangish hue and typical findings on biopsy. There are no specific guidelines on therapy and treatment options include corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Unfortunately options are limited for patients when these drugs do not work. We report a case of chronic PRP, refractory to conventional treatment, successfully treated with ustekinumab monotherapy. The patient was treated with 90 mg subcutaneous ustekinumab injections and began to show improvement within only 8 weeks. Long-term control of the disease has been attained without any significant side effects. We report this case to show that ustekinumab can be used as an alternative treatment method for patients with chronic, unremitting PRP. Treatment response is remarkably rapid and the infrequent dosing leads to patient compliance and a significantly improved quality of life. PMID:25969677

  13. Development of Chemical Treatment Alternatives for Tetraphenylborate Destruction in Tank 48H

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    2003-03-11

    This study assessed chemical treatment options for decomposing the tetraphenylborate in High Level Waste (HLW) Tank 48H. Tank 48H, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC, contains approximately one million liters of HLW. The tetraphenylborate slurry represents legacy material from commissioning of an In Tank Precipitation process to separate radioactive cesium and actinides from the nonradioactive chemicals. During early operations, the process encountered an unplanned chemical reaction that catalytically decomposed the excess tetraphenylborate producing benzene. Subsequent research indicated that personnel could not control the operations within the existing equipment to both meet the desired treatment rate for the waste and maintain the benzene concentration within allowable concentrations. Since then, the Department of Energy selected an alternate treatment process for handling high-level waste at the site. However, the site must destroy the tetraphenylborate before returning the tank to HLW service. The research focuses on identifying treatments to decompose tetraphenylborate to the maximum extent feasible, with a preference for decomposition methods that produce carbon dioxide rather than benzene. A number of experiments examined whether the use of oxidants, catalysts or acids proved effective in decomposing the tetraphenylborate. Additional experiments developed an understanding of the solid, liquid and gas decomposition products.

  14. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  15. Mutagens in contaminated soil: a review.

    PubMed

    White, Paul A; Claxton, Larry D

    2004-11-01

    The intentional and accidental discharges of toxic pollutants into the lithosphere results in soil contamination. In some cases (e.g., wood preserving wastes, coal-tar, airborne combustion by-products), the contaminated soil constitutes a genotoxic hazard. This work is a comprehensive review of published information on soil mutagenicity. In total, 1312 assessments of genotoxic activity from 118 works were examined. The majority of the assessments (37.6%) employed the Salmonella mutagenicity test with strains TA98 and/or TA100. An additional 37.6% of the assessments employed a variety of plant species (e.g., Tradescantia clone 4430, Vicia faba, Zea mays, Allium cepa) to assess mutagenic activity. The compiled data on Salmonella mutagenicity indicates significant differences (p<0.0001) in mean potency (revertents per gram dry weight) between industrial, urban, and rural/agricultural sites. Additional analyses showed significant empirical relationships between S9-activated TA98 mutagenicity and soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration (r2=0.19 to 0.25, p<0.0001), and between direct-acting TA98 mutagenicity and soil dinitropyrene (DNP) concentration (r2=0.87, p<0.0001). The plant assay data revealed excellent response ranges and significant differences between heavily contaminated, industrial, rural/agricultural, and reference sites, for the anaphase aberration in Allium cepa (direct soil contact) and the waxy locus mutation assay in Zea mays (direct soil contact). The Tradescantia assays appeared to be less responsive, particularly for exposures to aqueous soil leachates. Additional data analyses showed empirical relationships between anaphase aberrations in Allium, or mutations in Arabidopsis, and the 137Cs contamination of soils. Induction of micronuclei in Tradescantia is significantly related to the soil concentration of several metals (e.g., Sb, Cu, Cr, As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn). Review of published remediation exercises showed effective removal of

  16. Review of the mutagenicity of chloroform

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although chloroform (CHCl/sub 3/) is metabolized in vivo and in vitro to a substance that covalently interacts with protein and lipid, its potential for binding to DNA is low. In addition, most of the assays for genotoxicity are negative. However, many of the genotoxicity results are inconclusive because of inadequacies in the experimental protocols. The types of genotoxicity tests this report is based on include bacterial, yeast, host-mediated, Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal, mammalian cell mutagenicity, sperm head abnormality, cytogenetic, and DNA damage. On the basis of presently available information, no definitive conclusion on the mutagenic potential of CHCl/sub 3/ can be reached.

  17. Mutagenicity of four hair dyes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Blijleven, W G

    1977-04-01

    The hair dye constituents p-phenylenediamine, 2,4-diaminoanisole sulfate, 2,4-diaminotoluene and 4-nitro-0-phenylenediamine were tested for mutagenicity in Drosophila melanogaster. The compounds were given orally to adult males. The induction of sex-linked recessive lethal mutation was used as a measure of mutagenicity. All four of the dyes tested were mutagenic with a peak mutagenic activity in metabolically active germ cells (spermatids and spermatocytes). PMID:406556

  18. Prediction of PAH mutagenicity in human cells by QSAR classification.

    PubMed

    Papa, E; Pilutti, P; Gramatica, P

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants of high environmental concern. The experimental data of a mutagenicity test on human B-lymphoblastoid cells (alternative to the Ames bacterial test) for a set of 70 oxo-, nitro- and unsubstituted PAHs, detected in particulate matter (PM), were modelled by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) classification methods (k-NN, k-Nearest Neighbour, and CART, Classification and Regression Tree) based on different theoretical molecular descriptors selected by Genetic Algorithms. The best models were validated for predictivity both externally and internally. For external validation, Self Organizing Maps (SOM) were applied to split the original data set. The best models, developed on the training set alone, show good predictive performance also on the prediction set chemicals (sensitivity 69.2-87.1%, specificity 62.5-87.5%). The classification of PAHs according to their mutagenicity, based only on a few theoretical molecular descriptors, allows a preliminary assessment of the human health risk, and the prioritisation of these compounds.

  19. Evolutionary Ensemble for In Silico Prediction of Ames Test Mutagenicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Yao, Xin

    Driven by new regulations and animal welfare, the need to develop in silico models has increased recently as alternative approaches to safety assessment of chemicals without animal testing. This paper describes a novel machine learning ensemble approach to building an in silico model for the prediction of the Ames test mutagenicity, one of a battery of the most commonly used experimental in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests for safety evaluation of chemicals. Evolutionary random neural ensemble with negative correlation learning (ERNE) [1] was developed based on neural networks and evolutionary algorithms. ERNE combines the method of bootstrap sampling on training data with the method of random subspace feature selection to ensure diversity in creating individuals within an initial ensemble. Furthermore, while evolving individuals within the ensemble, it makes use of the negative correlation learning, enabling individual NNs to be trained as accurate as possible while still manage to maintain them as diverse as possible. Therefore, the resulting individuals in the final ensemble are capable of cooperating collectively to achieve better generalization of prediction. The empirical experiment suggest that ERNE is an effective ensemble approach for predicting the Ames test mutagenicity of chemicals.

  20. Mutagenic fate of insecticide fenitrothion in the environment-mutagenicity increases both by anaerobic biodegradation and photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Taniwaki, S; Ikeba, K

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, our objectives were (1) using the Ames assay, to evaluate the change in mutagenicity of a fenitrothion-containing solution during aerobic biodegradation, anaerobic biodegradation, and photodegradation, and (2) to identify possible mutagenic transformed products (TPs) that contributed substantially to any increase in mutagenicity. Mutagenicity of the fenitrothion-containing solution did not increase during aerobic biodegradation with any of the tested bacterial strains. In contrast, the mutagenicity increased for strain YG1029 during anaerobic biodegradation because of the generation of a strongly mutagenic TP, amino-fenitrothion. During photodegradation, mutagenicities increased slightly for YG1021 and YG1024, possibly owing to the production of a previously unreported mutagenic TP.

  1. Mutagenicity of instant coffee on cultured Chinese hamster lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nakasato, F; Nakayasu, M; Fujita, Y; Nagao, M; Terada, M; Sugimura, T

    1984-10-01

    Coffee showed mutagenic activity in cultured Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells as assessed by using diphtheria toxin resistance as a selective marker. Most of the mutagenicity was suppressed in the presence of sodium bisulfite. The contribution of methylglyoxal to the total mutagenicity of coffee was less than 3%.

  2. Mutagenicity study on pyrazole, seven pyrazole derivatives, and two nitroimidazoles with the L-arabinose resistance test of Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandre-Duran, E.; Ruiz-Rubio, M.; Claramunt, R.M.; Lopez, C.; Pueyo, C.

    1986-01-01

    The mutagenicity of pyrazole and seven pyrazole derivatives (4-nitropyrazole, 4-bromopyrazole, 1-methyl-4-nitropyrazole, 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitropyrazole, 1-methyl-4-bromopyrazole, 4,4'-dinitro-1, 1'-methylene-dipyrazole and 4,4'-dibromo-1,1'-methylene-dipyrazole) has been investigated with the L-arabinose forward mutation assay of Salmonella typhimurium. Two nitroimidazoles (1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole and metronidazole) were included as reference drugs. The mutagenicity of each chemical was determined by both preincubation and liquid tests, in the presence or absence of S9 microsomal fraction. The mutagenic responses was expressed as the absolute number of L-arabinose resistant mutants growing in selective plates, supplemented with traces of D-glucose. Strain BA13 with a wild-type lipopolysaccharide barrier was used as a comparison to the deep rough derivative BA9. No mutagenic effect was detected with pyrazole and two of its derivatives, 1-methyl-4-bromopyrazole and 4,4'-dibromo-1,1'-methylene-dipyrazole. The other five pyrazole derivatives were mutagenic to different degrees, although their mutagenic potencies were always considerably lower than those of the two nitroimidazoles. The results suggest that 4-nitropyrazoles, as well as 4,4'-dinitro-1, 1'-methylene-dipyrazoles, should be investigated further as alternatives to, or even substitutes for, the currently used nitroimidazoles.

  3. Mutagenicity of octane and tetrasodium pyrophosphate in bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Rim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the genotoxicities or mutagenicities of 2 chemicals (octane and tetrasodium pyrophosphate) with limited toxicological data in spite of their common usage based on Ames reverse mutation test. In this test, treatment of 2 chemicals at each five dose did not induce mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and in Escherichia coli WP2uvrA with and without metabolic activation. These results indicate that 2 chemicals do not have mutagenic potentials under the conditions examined in each study. Despite these results, it can affect by inducing inhalation, skin or eye contact, ingestion, and have affected central nervous system as a target organ. It is thus necessary to prepare the local exhaust system and personal protective equipments. Based on this study, we suggest that future studies should be directed toward chronic inhalation, carcinogenic test and so on.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the Treatment of Obesity: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Mazaheri, Tina; Vahidi Rad, Mona; Noshad, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Context: Obesity and its associated morbidities pose a major health hazard to the public. Despite a multiplex of available diet and exercise programs for losing and maintaining weight, over the past years, interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for obesity treatment has greatly increased. Evidence Acquisition: We searched PubMed, Google scholar and the Cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to December 2013. Results: In this review, the efficacy and safety of the more commonly used CAM methods for the treatment of obesity, namely herbal supplements, acupuncture, and non-invasive body-contouring, are briefly discussed. The evidence supporting the effectiveness and safety of these methods is either lacking or point to a negligible clinical benefit, barely surpassing that of the placebo. Furthermore, several limitations are observed in the available scientific literature. These shortcomings include, without being limited to, uncontrolled trial designs, non-random allocation of subjects to treatment arms, small number of patients enrolled, short durations of follow-up, and ambiguous clinical and laboratory endpoints. Conclusions: Further investigations are necessary to accurately determine the efficacy, safety, standard dosage/procedure, and potential side effects of the various CAM methods currently in use. PMID:25892995

  5. Novel Virtual Environment for Alternative Treatment of Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Juliana M; Fernandes, Rafael Carneiro G; Pinto, Cristtiano S; Pinheiro, Plácido R; Ribeiro, Sidarta; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a severe condition usually caused by decreased brain oxygenation during pregnancy, at birth or soon after birth. Conventional treatments for cerebral palsy are often tiresome and expensive, leading patients to quit treatment. In this paper, we describe a virtual environment for patients to engage in a playful therapeutic game for neuropsychomotor rehabilitation, based on the experience of the occupational therapy program of the Nucleus for Integrated Medical Assistance (NAMI) at the University of Fortaleza, Brazil. Integration between patient and virtual environment occurs through the hand motion sensor "Leap Motion," plus the electroencephalographic sensor "MindWave," responsible for measuring attention levels during task execution. To evaluate the virtual environment, eight clinical experts on cerebral palsy were subjected to a questionnaire regarding the potential of the experimental virtual environment to promote cognitive and motor rehabilitation, as well as the potential of the treatment to enhance risks and/or negatively influence the patient's development. Based on the very positive appraisal of the experts, we propose that the experimental virtual environment is a promising alternative tool for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27403154

  6. Novel Virtual Environment for Alternative Treatment of Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Juliana M; Fernandes, Rafael Carneiro G; Pinto, Cristtiano S; Pinheiro, Plácido R; Ribeiro, Sidarta; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a severe condition usually caused by decreased brain oxygenation during pregnancy, at birth or soon after birth. Conventional treatments for cerebral palsy are often tiresome and expensive, leading patients to quit treatment. In this paper, we describe a virtual environment for patients to engage in a playful therapeutic game for neuropsychomotor rehabilitation, based on the experience of the occupational therapy program of the Nucleus for Integrated Medical Assistance (NAMI) at the University of Fortaleza, Brazil. Integration between patient and virtual environment occurs through the hand motion sensor "Leap Motion," plus the electroencephalographic sensor "MindWave," responsible for measuring attention levels during task execution. To evaluate the virtual environment, eight clinical experts on cerebral palsy were subjected to a questionnaire regarding the potential of the experimental virtual environment to promote cognitive and motor rehabilitation, as well as the potential of the treatment to enhance risks and/or negatively influence the patient's development. Based on the very positive appraisal of the experts, we propose that the experimental virtual environment is a promising alternative tool for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy.

  7. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE PRODUCTS AS A NOVEL TREATMENT STRATEGY FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Lindsey N.; Zhou, Yuning; Qiu, Suimin; Wang, Qingding; Evers, B. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract; the etiology is unknown and treatment is directed at systemic immunosuppression. Natural products, including medicinal herbs, have provided approximately half of the drugs developed for clinical use over the past 20 years. The purpose of our current study was to determine the effects of a novel combination of herbal extracts on intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD. Female Swiss-Webster mice were randomized to receive normal water or 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) drinking water to induce colitis. Mice were treated with either a novel combination of herbal aqueous extracts or vehicle control per os (po) or per rectum (pr) every 24h for 7-8d. Disease activity index score (DAI) was determined daily; mice were sacrificed and colons analyzed by H&E staining, MPO assay, and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6) ELISAs. Mice treated with the combination of herbal extracts, either po or pr, had significantly less rectal bleeding and lower DAI scores when compared to the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, colonic ulceration, leukocytic infiltration, and cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-6) were decreased in the colons of herbal-treated mice, reflected by H&E staining, MPO assay, and cytokine ELISA. Treatment with the combination of medicinal herbs decreases leukocyte infiltration and mucosal ulceration, ameliorating the course of acute colonic inflammation. This herbal remedy may prove to be a novel and safe therapeutic alternative in the treatment of IBD. PMID:19051360

  8. Novel Virtual Environment for Alternative Treatment of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Juliana M.; Fernandes, Rafael Carneiro G.; Pinto, Cristtiano S.; Pinheiro, Plácido R.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a severe condition usually caused by decreased brain oxygenation during pregnancy, at birth or soon after birth. Conventional treatments for cerebral palsy are often tiresome and expensive, leading patients to quit treatment. In this paper, we describe a virtual environment for patients to engage in a playful therapeutic game for neuropsychomotor rehabilitation, based on the experience of the occupational therapy program of the Nucleus for Integrated Medical Assistance (NAMI) at the University of Fortaleza, Brazil. Integration between patient and virtual environment occurs through the hand motion sensor “Leap Motion,” plus the electroencephalographic sensor “MindWave,” responsible for measuring attention levels during task execution. To evaluate the virtual environment, eight clinical experts on cerebral palsy were subjected to a questionnaire regarding the potential of the experimental virtual environment to promote cognitive and motor rehabilitation, as well as the potential of the treatment to enhance risks and/or negatively influence the patient's development. Based on the very positive appraisal of the experts, we propose that the experimental virtual environment is a promising alternative tool for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27403154

  9. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATE STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE TREATMENTS FOR MASS SPECTROSCOPY AND OTHER TRITIUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Mauldin, C.; Neikirk, K.

    2012-02-29

    There are specific components in the SRS Tritium Facilities that are required to introduce as few chemical impurities (such as protium and methane) as possible into the process gas. Two such components are the inlet systems for the mass spectroscopy facilities and hydrogen isotope mix standard containers. Two vendors now passivate stainless steel components for these systems, and both are relatively small businesses whose future viability can be questioned, which creates the need for new sources. Stainless steel containers were designed to evaluate alternate surface treatment vendors for tritium storage and handling for these high purity tritium systems. Five vendors applied their own 'best' surface treatments to two containers each - one was a current vendor, another was a chemical vapor deposited silicon coating, and the other three were electropolishing and chemical cleaning vendors. Pure tritium gas was introduced into all ten containers and the composition was monitored over time. The only observed impurities in the gas were some HT, less CT{sub 4}, and very small amounts of T{sub 2}O in all cases. The currently used vendor treated containers contained the least impurities. The chemical vapor deposited silicon treatment resulted in the highest impurity levels. Sampling one set of containers after about one month of tritium exposure revealed the impurity level to be nearly the same as that after more than a year of exposure - this result suggests that cleaning new stainless steel components by tritium gas contact for about a month may be a worthy operation.

  10. Comparison of efficacy of alternative medicine with allopathy in treatment of oral fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Maghu, Sahil; Desai, Vela D; Sharma, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    This clinical study assessed and compared the efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO), an alternative form of medicine, with clotrimazole (i.e., allopathy) and a conservative form of management in the treatment of oral fungal infection. In this interventional, observational, and comparative study, we enrolled 36 medically fit individuals of both sexes who were aged 20-60 years old. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group I was given TTO (0.25% rinse) as medicament, Group II was given clotrimazole, and Group III was managed with conservative treatment. The results were analyzed from the clinical evaluation of lesions, changes in four most common clinical parameters of lesions, and subjective symptoms on periodic follow-up. Based on the results, the percentage efficiency of the two groups were taken and compared through a bar graph on the scale of 1. No toxicity to TTO was reported. Group I (TTO) was found to be more efficient than the other two groups, as changes in four parameter indices of lesions were noted, and results for all three groups were compared on a percentage basis. The study concluded that TTO, being a natural product, is a better nontoxic modality compared to clotrimazole, in the treatment of oral fungal infection and has a promising future for its potential application in oral health products. PMID:26870682

  11. Demagnetization Treatment of Remanent Composite Microspheres Studied by Alternating Current Susceptibility Measurements

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, Susanne; Erné, Ben H.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample. PMID:24009021

  12. The PLUNC 3D treatment planning system: a dynamic alternative to commercially available systems.

    PubMed

    Tewell, Marshall A; Adams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning is an integral step in the treatment of various cancers when radiation is prescribed as either the primary or adjunctive modality, especially when the gross tumor volume lies in a difficult to reach area or is proximal to critical bodily structures. Today, 3D systems have made it possible to more precisely localize tumors in order to treat a higher ratio of cancer cells to normal tissue. Over the past 15 years, these systems have evolved into complex tools that utilize powerful computational algorithms that offer diverse functional capabilities, while simultaneously attempting to maintain a user-friendly quality. A major disadvantage of commercial systems is that users do not have access to the programming source code, resulting in significantly limited clinical and technological flexibility. As an alternative, in-house systems such as Plan-UNC (PLUNC) offer optimal flexibility that is vital to research institutions and important to treatment facilities. Despite this weakness, commercially available systems have become the norm because their commissioning time is significantly less and because many facilities do not have computer experts on-site.

  13. Comparison of efficacy of alternative medicine with allopathy in treatment of oral fungal infection

    PubMed Central

    Maghu, Sahil; Desai, Vela D.; Sharma, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    This clinical study assessed and compared the efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO), an alternative form of medicine, with clotrimazole (i.e., allopathy) and a conservative form of management in the treatment of oral fungal infection. In this interventional, observational, and comparative study, we enrolled 36 medically fit individuals of both sexes who were aged 20–60 years old. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group I was given TTO (0.25% rinse) as medicament, Group II was given clotrimazole, and Group III was managed with conservative treatment. The results were analyzed from the clinical evaluation of lesions, changes in four most common clinical parameters of lesions, and subjective symptoms on periodic follow-up. Based on the results, the percentage efficiency of the two groups were taken and compared through a bar graph on the scale of 1. No toxicity to TTO was reported. Group I (TTO) was found to be more efficient than the other two groups, as changes in four parameter indices of lesions were noted, and results for all three groups were compared on a percentage basis. The study concluded that TTO, being a natural product, is a better nontoxic modality compared to clotrimazole, in the treatment of oral fungal infection and has a promising future for its potential application in oral health products. PMID:26870682

  14. Treatment of sewage sludge in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR) with alternate aeration cycles.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Sordi, Marco; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    The management of sewage sludge is becoming a more and more important issue, both at national and international level, in particular due to the uncertain recovery/disposal future options. Therefore, it is clear that the development of new technologies that can mitigate the problem at the source by reducing sludge production is necessary, such as the European Directive 2008/98/EC prescribes. This work shows the results obtained with a thermophilic membrane reactor, for processing a biological sludge derived from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that treats urban and industrial wastewater. Sewage sludge was treated in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR), at pilot-scale (1 m(3) volume), with alternate aeration cycles. The experimentation was divided into two phases: a "startup phase" during which, starting with a psychrophilic/mesophilic biomass, thermophilic conditions were progressively reached, while feeding a highly biodegradable substrate; the obtained thermophilic biomass was then used, in the "regime phase", to digest biological sludge which was fed to the plant. Good removal yields were observed: 64% and 57% for volatile solids (VS) and total COD (CODtot), respectively, with an average hydraulic retention time (HRT) equal to 20 d, an organic loading rate (OLR) of about 1.4-1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and aeration/non aeration cycles alternated every 4 h.

  15. The role of the Internet in cancer patients' engagement with complementary and alternative treatments.

    PubMed

    Broom, Alex; Tovey, Philip

    2008-04-01

    This article draws on a study of 80 National Health Service cancer patients and their experiences of using the Internet within disease and treatment processes. It focuses on the role the Internet plays in the context of potential or actual engagement with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The results depart from previous conceptualizations of the Internet as a major source of CAM knowledge, and second, as a major pathway to patient CAM usage. Moreover, the results highlight significant anxiety as patients attempt to process vast amounts of complex biomedical diagnostic and prognostic information online. For patients attempting to embrace alternative therapeutic models of cancer care, exposure to prognostic data may pose considerable risks to individual well-being and engagement with healing practices. On the basis of these results we problematize social theorizations of the Internet as contributing to such things as: the democratization of knowledge; the deprofessionalization of medicine; and patient empowerment. We emphasize, instead, the potential role of the Internet in reinforcing biomedicine's paradigmatic dominance in cancer care. PMID:18400826

  16. Treatment of refractory low grade lymphoma with chlorambucil alternating with interferon and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Talavera, A; Guzmán, R; Cuadra, I

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of a clinical trial of chlorambucil (CB) alternating with interferon alfa 2b (IFN) in previously treated patients with low-grade lymphoma who were refractory to previous treatment. Patients received CB 10 mg/m2, po, daily, days 1-14, alternating with IFN 5.0 MU three times a week days 15-28 (six doses) by six monthly cycles. If partial response was achieved, patients received extended field radiotherapy to sites of nodal residual postchemotherapy disease. Forty-three patients were enrolled into the study, and 30 were evaluable for response and toxicity. Nineteen out of 39 (40%) achieved complete remission and 14 out of 39 (35%) had partial remission, thus the overall response was observed in 83% of the cases. Ten patients with partial response and residual nodal disease received radiotherapy and achieved complete response criteria. The median duration of response has not been achieved, yet, 23 patients remain in complete response after a median follow-up of 98.5 months. Toxicity was mild and 95% of the patients received the planned dose of CB and IFN. These results suggest that combination of CB and IFN and addition of radiotherapy to residual postchemotherapy nodal disease may be effective in patients with low-grade lymphoma without excessive toxicity and adequate quality of life. PMID:8590892

  17. Alternate Strategies of Hsp90 Modulation for the Treatment of Cancer and Other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Gary E. L.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2010-01-01

    The 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) has become a validated target for the development of anti-cancer agents. Several Hsp90 inhibitors are currently under clinical trial investigation for the treatment of cancer. All of these agents inhibit Hsp90’s protein folding activity by binding to the N-terminal ATP binding site of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone. Administration of these investigational drugs elicits induction of the heat shock response, or the overexpression of several Hsps, which exhibit antiapoptotic and pro-survival effects that may complicate the application of these inhibitors. To circumvent this issue, alternate mechanisms for Hsp90 inhibition that do not elicit the heat shock response have been identified and pursued. After providing background on the structure, function, and mechanism of the Hsp90 protein folding machinery, this review describes several mechanisms of Hsp90 modulation via small molecules that do not induce the heat shock response. PMID:19860731

  18. Eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.E. . Banbury Center); McDonald, J.F. ); Weinstein, I.B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents. Topics covered include: overview of prokaryotic transposable elements, mutational effects of transposable element insertions, inducers/regulators of transposable element expression and transposition, genomic stress and environmental effects, and inducers/regulators of retroviral element expression.

  19. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence. PMID:8499796

  20. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  1. OVERVIEW OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF URBAN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past 25 years, there has been great interest in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ambient air and in the sources of those genotoxicants. Prior to the 1980's, the evaluation of airborne toxicants was done on a pollutant-by-pollutant basis. However, the assessment of ...

  2. A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of children who have been abused. This article examines childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for two alternative treatment models for previously abused children and their…

  3. A synopsis of short-term responses to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the intermountain west. This synopsis...

  4. Increased Mutagen Sensitivity and DNA Damage in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Chiara; Drake, Kylie M.; Rigelsky, Christina M.; McNelly, Lauren N.; Meade, Sirena L.; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious lung condition characterized by vascular remodeling in the precapillary pulmonary arterioles. We and others have demonstrated chromosomal abnormalities and increased DNA damage in PAH lung vascular cells, but their timing and role in disease pathogenesis is unknown. Objectives: We hypothesized that if DNA damage predates PAH, it might be an intrinsic cell property that is present outside the diseased lung. Methods: We measured DNA damage, mutagen sensitivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung and blood cells from patients with Group 1 PAH, their relatives, and unrelated control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline DNA damage was significantly elevated in PAH, both in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (P < 0.05) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (P < 0.001). Remarkably, PBMC from unaffected relatives showed similar increases, indicating this is not related to PAH treatments. ROS levels were also higher (P < 0.01). DNA damage correlated with ROS production and was suppressed by antioxidants (P < 0.001). PBMC from patients and relatives also showed markedly increased sensitivity to two chemotherapeutic drugs, bleomycin and etoposide (P < 0.001). Results were consistent across idiopathic, heritable, and associated PAH groups. Conclusions: Levels of baseline and mutagen-induced DNA damage are intrinsically higher in PAH cells. Similar results in PBMC from unaffected relatives suggest this may be a genetically determined trait that predates disease onset and may act as a risk factor contributing to lung vascular remodeling following endothelial cell injury. Further studies are required to fully characterize mutagen sensitivity, which could have important implications for clinical management. PMID:25918951

  5. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of drinking water in Guelma region, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Abda, Ahlem; Benouareth, Djamel E; Tabet, Mouna; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Khallef, Messaouda; Taher, Ali

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a battery of genotoxicity assays for monitoring drinking water was performed to assess the quality of the water resulting from the treatment plants. Five different types of samples were collected: raw water (P1), treated after pre-chlorination (P2), treated after decantation (P3), treated post-chlorination (P4), and consumers' taps (P5-P12). This study aims to evaluate the formation/occurrence of mutagenic and/or genotoxic compounds in surface drinking waters treated with chlorine disinfectant, during four seasonal experiments: summer, autumn, winter, and spring between 2012 and 2013 by bacterial reverse mutation assay in both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9 mix) and Allium cepa root meristematic cells, respectively. All of water samples, except at P1, P2, and P5 in summer; P1 in autumn; and P1 and P3-P12 in spring without S9 mix, and at P1 and P2 in summer and P6 and P8-P12 in spring with S9 mix, were found to be mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA98. However, only P11 and P12 in winter were found to be mutagenic for TA100 without S9 mix. The tested preparations in Allium anaphase-telophase test revealed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and a simultaneous increase in chromosome aberrations (CAs) compared to the control. The bridge, stickiness, vagrant chromosomes, and disturbed chromosome aberrations were observed in anaphase-telophase cells. Physicochemical analysis, trihalomethanes (THMs), romoform (CHBr3), chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) levels in water samples were also determined. The results show also that this short-term battery tests are applicable in the routine monitoring of drinking water quality before and after distribution.

  6. Contribution of chlorination to the mutagenic activity of drinking water extracts in Salmonella and Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Lebel, G.

    1986-11-01

    The production of chlorinated by-products through chlorine disinfection of drinking water has been well documented. Natural organic precursors for these chemicals include fulvic and humic acids, the chlorination of which leads to the production of mutagenic compounds. Comparisons of extracts of raw versus treated waters have confirmed that clorination during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the Salmonella (Ames) test. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw and chlorinated water from six municipalities in the Great Lakes region of Canada has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and the micronucleus (MN) induction in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. All extracts of treated (chlorinated), but none of untreated, water were mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of both treated and untreated water samples showed activity in the SCE and MN assays, but no consistent pattern of response with regard to treatment (chlorination) was evident. These data show that chlorination contributes mutagens to drinking water and suggest that mammalian in vitro assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in water samples than the Salmonella test.

  7. Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E

    2001-06-01

    A previous review of alternative treatments (Tx) of ADHD--those other than psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx--was supplemented with an additional literature search focused on adults with ADHD. Twenty-four alternative Tx were identified, ranging in scientific documentation from discrediting controlled studies through mere hypotheses to positive controlled double-blind clinical trials. Many of them are applicable only to a specific subgroup. Although oligoantigenic (few-foods) diets have convincing double-blind evidence of efficacy for a properly selected subgroup of children, they do not appear promising for adults. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization, relaxation/EMG biofeedback, and deleading also have controlled evidence of efficacy. Iron supplementation, magnesium supplementation, Chinese herbals, EEG biofeedback, massage, meditation, mirror feedback, channel-specific perceptual training, and vestibular stimulation all have promising prospective pilot data, many of these tests reasonably controlled. Single-vitamin megadosage has some intriguing pilot trial data. Zinc supplementation is hypothetically supported by systematic case-control data, but no systematic clinical trial. Laser acupuncture has promising unpublished pilot data and may be more applicable to adults than children. Essential fatty acid supplementation has promising systematic case-control data, but clinical trials are equivocal. RDA vitamin supplementation, non-Chinese herbals, homeopathic remedies, and antifungal therapy have no systematic data in ADHD. Megadose multivitamin combinations are probably ineffective for most patients and are possibly dangerous. Simple sugar restriction seems ineffective. Amino acid supplementation is mildly effective in the short term, but not beyond 2-3 months. Thyroid treatment is effective in the presence of documented thyroid abnormality. Some alternative Tx of ADHD are effective or probably effective, but mainly for certain patients. In some

  8. Topical antiseptics as an alternative in the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidosis.

    PubMed

    Friese, K; Neumann, G; Siebert, J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this prospective, multicenter, randomized, case-control study was to investigate the efficacy of a nonspecific mucosal antiseptic (octenidine dihydrochloride, phenoxyethanol) with proven antifungal effects, in patients with acute symptomatic vaginal candidosis, in comparison with a specific topical antifungal agent (clotrimazole), particularly in respect to non-Candida albicans yeasts. A total of 491 patients from 29 gynecological practices, who had new clinical vaginal mycosis, not treated with antifungal agents in the last 12 months, were included in the study. The diagnosis in each case was confirmed by microscopy or positive culture. The majority of the vaginal mycoses were infections with C. albicans (72%). In 28% of patients a non- Candida species (mainly C. glabrata) contributed to the infection. Except for vaginal discharge, the success of treatment was between 71% and 91% for both clinical and subjective parameters. The control preparation was significantly better than the treatment in the test group. Mycological cure rate on the basis of cultures was 78% in the test group and 87% in the control group. These results were also significantly different. The relatively high proportion of C. glabrata isolates in this study tended to be more successfully treated by the antiseptic (to 72%) than by the administration of clotrimazole (59%). Even though therapeutic success with clotrimazole was overall significantly better than with the test preparation, the success of treatment with the antiseptic used was within the range between 70% and 90% described for topical antifungal agents. Both the good efficacy of the topical antiseptic and the increased prevalence of non-Candida albicans species causing vaginal infections mean that the use of an antiseptic may be considered a suitable alternative therapeutic concept to an appropriate topical antifungal agent in the treatment of acute vaginal candidosis.

  9. Alternatives to chemotherapy and radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, F A

    1997-06-01

    Because adjuvant chemotherapy has resulted in only modest prolongation of survival for patients with lung cancer, investigators have turned to the evaluation of alternative treatment strategies for this patient population. Immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum, and levamisole has been evaluated in several prospective randomized trials, and no study has shown a statistically significant difference in overall survival. Interferon has been evaluated in three trials of adjuvant therapy after response to chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer. Different interferon preparations were used, but none of the trials showed a significant prolongation of survival. The retinoids have been evaluated as adjuvant treatment after complete resection of stage IN-SCLC. One trial showed a reduction in second primary tumors, and in particular, tumors to tobacco smoking in patients treated with retinyl palmitate. A second trial using 13-cis retinoic acid is ongoing in North America. In the last decade, several inhibitors of angiogenesis have been identified, and they are now beginning to be evaluated in the clinical setting. The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer have initiated a study of adjuvant marimastat, a metalloproteinase inhibitor, for patients who have responded to induction chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer. This is the first adjuvant antiangiogenesis factor trial to be initiated for any tumor type. Other investigational agents which are currently undergoing Phase I and Phase II testing include monoclonal antibodies which may inhibit tumour cell growth by binding to growth factors, or which may be conjugated to toxins or chemotherapeutic agents which result in tumour cell death. In the last decade, we have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge and understanding of the regulation of normal and neoplastic cell growth at the molecular level. It remains

  10. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  11. Application of urine mutagenicity to monitor coal liquefaction workers.

    PubMed

    Recio, L; Enoch, H G; Hannan, M A; Hill, R H

    1984-06-01

    The Salmonella/microsomal assay was used to monitor workers' urine for mutagenicity as a potential indicator of human exposure to mutagens/carcinogens. Urine samples from 57 workers at a coal liquefaction pilot plant in Catlettsburg, Kentucky, were assayed for mutagenicity during work periods. Urine samples were collected twice during plant operations and once when the individuals were away from the plant for at least 48 h. In 7 individual smokers (5 operator/maintenance workers and 2 administrative staff workers) there was an indication of enhanced urine mutagenicity during work periods. Urine mutagenicity of nonsmokers from the pilot plant was significantly higher than that of an additional control group of nonsmokers from Lexington, Kentucky. While cigarette smoking was the major factor affecting urine mutagenicity, no significant mutagenicity that could be directly attributed to the pilot plant workers' environment was evident.

  12. Mutagenicity of airborne particles from a nonindustrial town

    SciTech Connect

    Whong, W.Z.; Stewart, J.; McCawley, M.; Major, P.; Merchant, J.A.; Ong, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of ambient air particles from Morgantown, West Virginia, has been monitored for 6 months using the Ames Salmonella assay system. Airborne particles, collected on glass fiber filters using a Hi-Vol sampler, were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and/or ethyl acetate plus methanol (E + M) in sequence. A dose-dependent mutagenic response was observed in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 for DCM extracts from all samples. E + M extracts were mutagenic only when samples were extracted with E + M before DCM extration. The mutagenic activity of samples collected in June and July was independent of S-9 in vitro activation, whereas the mutagenicity of those collected from October to December increased in the presence of S-9 activation. The class fractionation of extracts showed that only acidic and polynuclear aromatic fractions were mutagenic. The mutagenicity of particles from Morgantown air was also detected with the Salmonella arabinose-resistant assay system.

  13. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results.

  14. Anterior plating as a surgical alternative in the treatment of humeral shaft non-union.

    PubMed

    Livani, Bruno; Belangero, William; Medina, Giovanna; Pimenta, Ciro; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Mongon, Mauricio

    2010-10-01

    This study included 15 patients with humeral shaft fractures who had no clinical, radiological or bone scan signs of healing after eight months. The patients were followed for a mean of 35.8 months. No patient was lost to follow-up. Anterior plating of humeral shaft nonunion via an anterior approach was performed using a straight plate and compression for well-vascularised non-unions and wave plating with a tricortical graft for poorly vascularised non-unions. All non-unions healed within 6-18 weeks (mean, nine weeks) without local complication. One patient had a mild decrease in elbow and shoulder range of motion. No neurovascular injury was observed. Anterior plating is a simple, safe and effective treatment for humeral shaft non-union. As this approach avoids the need for radial nerve visualisation and extensive soft-tissue dissection, and the healing time is similar to that of other methods, we suggest this treatment as an alternative option. PMID:19730860

  15. Anterior plating as a surgical alternative in the treatment of humeral shaft non-union

    PubMed Central

    Belangero, William; Medina, Giovanna; Pimenta, Ciro; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Mongon, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    This study included 15 patients with humeral shaft fractures who had no clinical, radiological or bone scan signs of healing after eight months. The patients were followed for a mean of 35.8 months. No patient was lost to follow-up. Anterior plating of humeral shaft nonunion via an anterior approach was performed using a straight plate and compression for well-vascularised non-unions and wave plating with a tricortical graft for poorly vascularised non-unions. All non-unions healed within 6–18 weeks (mean, nine weeks) without local complication. One patient had a mild decrease in elbow and shoulder range of motion. No neurovascular injury was observed. Anterior plating is a simple, safe and effective treatment for humeral shaft non-union. As this approach avoids the need for radial nerve visualisation and extensive soft-tissue dissection, and the healing time is similar to that of other methods, we suggest this treatment as an alternative option. PMID:19730860

  16. Laser-mediated Photodynamic Therapy: An Alternative Treatment for Actinic Keratosis?

    PubMed

    Kessels, Janneke P H M; Nelemans, Patty J; Mosterd, Klara; Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W J; Krekels, Gertruud A M; Ostertag, Judith U

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with light emitting diode (LED) illumination is a frequently used treatment modality for actinic keratosis (AK) with excellent cosmetic outcome. A major disadvantage, however, is the high pain score. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) illumination has been suggested, but the long-term efficacy of this treatment is unknown. In this split-face study we prospectively treated 61 patients with AK, with both LED-PDT and PDL-PDT. The mean change in the number of lesions between the end of follow-up and start of therapy was -4.25 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) -5.07; -3.43) for LED-PDT and -3.88 (95% CI -4,76; -2.99) for PDL-PDT, with a non-significant difference (p = 0.258) of -0.46 (95% CI -1.28; 0.35). The percentage decrease from baseline in the total number of AK was 55.8% and 47.8%, respectively, at 12-month follow-up. Visual analogue scale pain score was lower after PDL (mean 2.64) compared with LED illumination (mean 6.47). These findings indicate that PDL-PDT is an effective alternative illumination source fo. PMID:26551377

  17. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a mouse gene upregulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment reveals alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kejun; Chen, Yaoming; Dai, Zongming; Bi, Yuan; Cai, Tongjian; Hou, Lichao; Chai, Yubo; Song, Qinghe; Chen, Sumin; Luo, Wenjing; Chen, Jingyuan

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of mouse cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently initiates an inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to characterize cDNA sequences of a new mouse LPS-responsive gene, and to evaluate the effects of MLrg. Full-length cDNAs were obtained from LPS-treated NIH3T3 cells. We report that the MLrg gene produces two alternative splice products (GenBank Accession Nos. (DQ316984) and (DQ320011)), respectively, encoding MLrgW and MLrgS polypeptides. Both proteins contain zinc finger and leucine zipper domains and are thus potential regulators of transcription. Expression of MLrgW and MLrgS were robustly upregulated following LPS treatment, and the proteins were localized predominantly in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm. In stable transfectants over-expressing MLrgW the proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly reduced, while in cells over-expressing MLrgS the proportion of cells in G2 was significantly increased; both proteins are thus potential regulators of cell cycle progression. Upregulation of MLrgW and MLrgS may be an important component of the LPS inflammatory pathway and of the host response to infection with GNB.

  18. New Alternatives for Autoimmune Disease Treatments: Physicochemical and Clinical Comparability of Biosimilar Etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Hernández, Mariana P.; López-Morales, Carlos A.; Perdomo-Abúndez, Francisco C.; Salazar-Flores, Rodolfo D.; Ramírez-Ibanez, Nancy D.; Pérez, Nestor O.; Molina-Pérez, Aarón; Revilla-Beltri, Jorge; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F.; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a recombinant fusion protein approved for the treatment of TNF-α mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Herein, we present an evaluation of the physicochemical and biological properties of a biosimilar etanercept and its reference product followed by a clinical study in patients diagnosed with RA intended to demonstrate comparability of their immunomodulatory activity. Identity analyses showed a total correspondence of the primary and higher-order structure between the two products. In regard to intrinsic heterogeneity, both products showed to be highly heterogenous; however the biosimilar etanercept exhibited similar charge and glycan heterogeneity intervals compared to the reference product. Apoptosis inhibition assay also showed that, despite the high degree of heterogeneity exhibited by both products, no significant differences exist in their in vitro activity. Finally, the clinical assessment conducted in RA-diagnosed patients did not show significant differences in the evaluated pharmacodynamic markers of both products. Collectively, the results from the comparability exercise provide convincing evidence that the evaluated biosimilar etanercept can be considered an effective alternative for the treatment of RA. PMID:27382576

  19. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. PMID:26951719

  20. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal.

  1. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal. PMID:26760486

  2. Usefulness of Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Therapeutic Alternative in the Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Paola; Deboli, Tommaso; Previgliano, Alberto; Broganelli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in individuals with fair skin type (I–II) and steadily increasing in incidence (70% of skin malignancy). It is locally invasive but metastasis is usually very rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.0028%–0.55%. Conventional therapy is surgery, especially for the H region of the face and infiltrative lesions; in case of inoperable tumors, radiotherapy is a valid option. Recently, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an effective treatment in the management of superficial and small nodular BCC. PDT is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the administration of a photo-sensibilizing agent followed by irradiation at a pre-defined wavelength; this determines the creation of reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. The only major side effect is pain, reported by some patients during the irradiation. The high cure rate and excellent cosmetic outcome requires considering this possibility for the management of patients with both sporadic and hereditary BCC. In this article, an extensive review of the recent literature was made, in order to clarify the role of PDT as a possible alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of BCC. PMID:26426005

  3. Chemopreventive effect and lack of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Malini, M; Camargo, M S; Hernandes, L C; Vargas-Rechia, C G; Varanda, E A; Barbosa, A M; Dekker, R F H; Matsumoto, S T; Antunes, L M G; Cólus, I M S

    2016-10-01

    Carbohydrate biopolymers of fungal-origin are an important natural resource in the search for new bioagents with therapeutic and nutraceutical potential. In this study the mutagenic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties of the fungal exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran, a (1→3)(1→6)-β-D-glucan, from Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05, was evaluated. The mutagenicity was assessed at five concentrations in Salmonella typhimurium by the Ames test. Normal and tumor (Jurkat cells) human T lymphocyte cultures were used to evaluate the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity (Comet assay) of botryosphaeran alone and in combination with the mutagen methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The ability of botryosphaeran to reduce the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generated by hydrogen peroxide was assessed using the CM-H2DCFDA probe in lymphocyte cultures under different treatment times. None of the evaluated botryosphaeran concentrations were mutagenic in bacteria, nor induced genotoxicity in normal and tumor lymphocytes. Botryosphaeran protected lymphocyte DNA against damage caused by MMS under simultaneous treatment and post-treatment conditions. However, botryosphaeran was not able to reduce the RONS generated by H2O2. Besides the absence of genotoxicity, botryosphaeran exerted a protective effect on human lymphocytes against genotoxic damage caused by MMS. These results are important in the validation of botryosphaeran as a therapeutic agent targeting health promotion. PMID:27387458

  4. Chemopreventive effect and lack of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Malini, M; Camargo, M S; Hernandes, L C; Vargas-Rechia, C G; Varanda, E A; Barbosa, A M; Dekker, R F H; Matsumoto, S T; Antunes, L M G; Cólus, I M S

    2016-10-01

    Carbohydrate biopolymers of fungal-origin are an important natural resource in the search for new bioagents with therapeutic and nutraceutical potential. In this study the mutagenic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties of the fungal exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran, a (1→3)(1→6)-β-D-glucan, from Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05, was evaluated. The mutagenicity was assessed at five concentrations in Salmonella typhimurium by the Ames test. Normal and tumor (Jurkat cells) human T lymphocyte cultures were used to evaluate the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity (Comet assay) of botryosphaeran alone and in combination with the mutagen methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The ability of botryosphaeran to reduce the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generated by hydrogen peroxide was assessed using the CM-H2DCFDA probe in lymphocyte cultures under different treatment times. None of the evaluated botryosphaeran concentrations were mutagenic in bacteria, nor induced genotoxicity in normal and tumor lymphocytes. Botryosphaeran protected lymphocyte DNA against damage caused by MMS under simultaneous treatment and post-treatment conditions. However, botryosphaeran was not able to reduce the RONS generated by H2O2. Besides the absence of genotoxicity, botryosphaeran exerted a protective effect on human lymphocytes against genotoxic damage caused by MMS. These results are important in the validation of botryosphaeran as a therapeutic agent targeting health promotion.

  5. Alterations in activation and deactivation of mutagens in aging rat liver.

    PubMed

    Masuda, M; Nukuzuma, C; Kazusaka, A; Fujita, S

    1995-09-01

    Age-associated alternations in activation and deactivation of benzo[a]pyrene (BP), furylfuramide (AF2), and 2-nitrofluorene (NF) in rat liver were investigated. A modified Ames mutagenicity test system used liver 9000 g supernatant (S-9) from male Fischer 344 rats aged 3, 6, 12, and 24 months fortified with NADPH generating system alone or together with cofactors of conjugating enzymes. The numbers of revertant colonies due to mutagenic activation of BP during preincubation were markedly high in young rats and decreased with aging. They were decreased by the addition of UDP-glucuronic acid (15 mM) or glutathione (30 mM), the cofactors of UDP-glucuronyl transferase and glutathione S-transferase, respectively, in the preincubation mixture. The difference in the BP activation by liver S-9 from different age groups almost disappeared by the addition of reduced glutathione. A direct mutagen, AF2, was not metabolized during preincubation in the absence of cofactors of conjugating enzymes, but detoxified up to about 50% by the addition of glutathione to the preincubation mixture containing liver S-9 from rats of any age group. Another direct mutagen, NF, was partly detoxified during preincubation by liver S-9 from 3-month-old rats more than by that from 24-month-old rats. It is suggested that incidence of chemical carcinogenesis may increase along with aging due to the altered xenobiotics metabolism. PMID:7671022

  6. Seasonal pathogen removal by alternative on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Pundsack, J; Axler, R; Hicks, R; Henneck, J; Nordman, D; McCarthy, B

    2001-01-01

    Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, sand filters, and peat filters near Duluth, Minnesota, were studied to determine their seasonal performance for removing pathogens from wastewater. Influent was a high-strength septic tank effluent (mean values of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were 294, 96, and 15 mg/L, respectively) at the Natural Resources Research Institute's alternative treatment system test facility in northern Minnesota. Each treatment system was inoculated with cultures of Salmonella choleraesuis (serotype typhimurium) for 5 to 7 consecutive days in summer and winter during 1998 to 1999. After the seeding, outflow samples were taken until Salmonella counts were sustained at background levels. The removal of Salmonella was calculated for each system, although the exact removal mechanisms were not determined. During the summer, the wetlands removed 99.6 to 99.999 4% (2.4 to 5.3 log10 reduction) of the culturable Salmonella. The sand filters demonstrated a greater than 7 log10 removal of Salmonella cells, whereas the peat filters were responsible for a greater than 8 log10 loss of cells. Fewer Salomonella cells were removed by all of these systems during the winter, although the pattern of removal was similar to their summer operation. During the winter, the wetlands and sand filters removed greater than 1 log10 of culturable cells, but the peat filters were responsible for a greater than 5 log10 loss of cells. Fecal coliform removal patterns reflected those for Salmonella by treatment systems for summer and winter periods. Based on Salmonella and fecal coliform removal, the peat filters operated most effectively followed by the sand filters and the constructed wetlands.

  7. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  8. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  9. Improving adhesion between luting cement and zirconia-based ceramic with an alternative surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Martins, Aurealice Rosa Maria; Gotti, Valéria Bisinoto; Shimano, Marcos Massao; Borges, Gilberto Antônio; Gonçalves, Luciano de Souza

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an alternative surface treatment on the microshear bond strength (μsbs) of zirconia-based ceramic. Thirty-five zirconia disks were assigned to five groups according to the following treatments: Control (CO), glass and silane were not applied to the zirconia surface; G1, air blasted with 100μm glass beads + glaze + silane; G2, a gel containing 15% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; G3, a gel containing 25% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; and G4, a gel containing 50% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane. The specimens were built up using RelyX ARC®, according to the manufacturer's recommendations, and inserted in an elastomeric mold with an inner diameter of 0.8 mm. The μsbs test was performed using a testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05) were applied to the bond strength values (in MPa). CO (15.6 ± 4.1) showed the lowest μsbs value. There were no statistical differences between the G1 (24.9 ± 7.4), G2 (24.9 ± 2.3), G3 (35.0 ± 10.3) and G4 (35.3 ± 6.0) experimental groups. Those groups submitted to surface treatments with higher concentrations of glass showed a lower frequency of adhesive failures. In conclusion, the glass application improved the interaction between the ceramic and the luting cement. PMID:25859635

  10. Development of Chemical Treatment Alternatives for Tetraphenylborate Destruction in Tank 48H

    SciTech Connect

    LAMBERT, DANIELP.

    2004-05-04

    This study assessed chemical treatment options for decomposing the tetraphenylborate in High Level Waste (HLW) Tank 48H. Tank 48H, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC, contains approximately one million liters of HLW. The tetraphenylborate slurry represents legacy material from commissioning of an In Tank Precipitation process to separate radioactive cesium and actinides from the non radioactive chemicals. During early operations, the process encountered an unplanned chemical reaction that catalytically decomposed the excess tetraphenylborate producing benzene. Subsequent research indicated that personnel could not control the operations within the existing equipment to both meet the desired treatment rate for the waste and maintain the benzene concentration within allowable concentrations. Since then, the Department of Energy selected an alternate treatment process for handling high-level waste at the site. However, the site must destroy the tetraphenylborate before returning the tank to HLW service. The research focuses on identifying treatments to decompose tetraphenylborate to the maximum extent feasible, with a preference for decomposition methods that produce carbon dioxide rather than benzene. A number of experiments examined whether the use of oxidants, catalysts or acids proved effective in decomposing the tetraphenylborate. Additional experiments developed an understanding of the solid, liquid and gas decomposition products. The testing identified several successful treatment options including: an iron catalyst combined with hydrogen peroxide (Fenton's reagent) with added acid; sodium permanganate with added acid; and copper catalyst with added acid. A mistake occurred in the selection and make-up of the Tank 48H simulant recipe which led to an under representation of the amount of monosodium titanate and insoluble sludge solids compared to the simulant target. The amount of added MST and sludge proved about a factor of 40 low relative to the

  11. Mutagenicity of blue rayon extracts of fish bile as a biomarker in a field study.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Patrícia Estevam; Kummrow, Fábio; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Ana Cecília Rizzatti; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão

    2010-03-01

    Blue rayon (BR) in combination with the Salmonella/microsome assay was used to evaluate the mutagenicity of fish bile samples. Specimens of Mugil curema from two sites were collected over a 1-year period. Piaçaguera channel contains high concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other contaminants, while Bertioga channel was considered the reference sites in this study. Bile was extracted with BR and tested with TA98, TA100, and YG1041 strains with and without S9 in dose response experiments. PAH metabolite equivalents were analyzed using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography /fluorescence. Higher mutagenic responses were observed for the contaminated site; YG1041 with S9 was the most sensitive strain/condition. Mutagenicity ranged from 3,900 to 14,000 rev./mg at the contaminated site and from 1,200 to 2,500 rev./mg of BR at the reference site. The responses of YG1041 were much higher in comparison with the TA98 indicating the presence of polycyclic compounds from the aromatic amine class that cause frameshift mutation. TA100 showed a positive mutagenic response that was enhanced following S9 treatment at both sites suggesting the presence of polycyclic compounds that require metabolic activation. benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene metabolite equivalents were also higher in the bile of fish collected at the contaminated site. It was not possible to correlate the PAH metabolite quantities with the mutagenic potency. Thus, a combination of the Salmonella/microsome assay with YG1041 with S9 from BR bile extract seems to be an acceptable biomarker for monitoring the exposure of fish to mutagenic polycyclic compounds.

  12. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Guelma's urban wastewater, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tabet, Mouna; Abda, Ahlem; Benouareth, Djamel E; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Khallef, Messaouda; Taher, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Assessment of water pollution and its effect upon river biotic communities and human health is indispensable to develop control and management strategies. In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of urban wastewater of the city of Guelma in Algeria were examined between April 2012 and April 2013. For this, two biological tests, namely Amesand chromosomal aberrations (CA) test in Allium cepa root tips were employed on the samples collected from five different sampling stages (S1-S5). In Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation (S9-mix) were used. All water samples were found to be mutagenic to S. typhimurium TA98 with or without S9-mix. A significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) was observed with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the prophase and an increase in the telophase. Main aberrations observed were anaphase bridges, disturbed anaphase-telophase cells, vagrants and stickiness in anaphase-telophase cells. All treatments of wastewater in April 2012, at S5 in July 2012, at S1 and S5 in November 2012, at S5 in February 2013, and at S1 in April 2013 induced CA when compared to the negative control. Some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Cu) were also recorded in the samples examined.

  13. Insecticidal, mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation of annonaceous acetogenins.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Colom, Olga; Salvatore, Analia; Willink, Eduardo; Ordóñez, Roxana; Isla, María I; Neske, Adriana; Bardón, Alicia

    2010-03-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins represent a class of bioactive compounds whose primary mode of action is the inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Mitochondrial Complex I). Given the potential pesticidal use of these compounds, we evaluated the effects of seven acetogenins: squamocin (1), molvizarin (2), itrabin (3), almuñequin (4), cherimolin-1 (5), cherimolin-2 (6), and tucumanin (7) isolated from Annona cherimolia Mill. against Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Tephritidae). These acetogenins did not display insecticidal action at 250 microg of treatment per g of adult diet. However, the oviposition capacity of C. capitata females was significantly altered by some of the acetogenins at this concentration. The most potent compounds were itrabin, molvizarin and squamocin. Moreover, significant differences were detected in the preference of oviposition sites when itrabin and squamocin were spread on the surface of artificial fruits at doses of 30 microg/cm2. Additionally, we investigated the mutagenic effects displayed by itrabin, as well as the phytotoxic and genotoxic action of squamocin and itrabin. Both compounds displayed slight phytotoxic and genotoxic effects on roots of Allium cepa at 2.5 microg/mL though no mutagenic effects were detected at 0.25, 0.5 and 2.5 microg/mL on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. PMID:20420314

  14. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Guelma's urban wastewater, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tabet, Mouna; Abda, Ahlem; Benouareth, Djamel E; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Khallef, Messaouda; Taher, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Assessment of water pollution and its effect upon river biotic communities and human health is indispensable to develop control and management strategies. In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of urban wastewater of the city of Guelma in Algeria were examined between April 2012 and April 2013. For this, two biological tests, namely Amesand chromosomal aberrations (CA) test in Allium cepa root tips were employed on the samples collected from five different sampling stages (S1-S5). In Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation (S9-mix) were used. All water samples were found to be mutagenic to S. typhimurium TA98 with or without S9-mix. A significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) was observed with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the prophase and an increase in the telophase. Main aberrations observed were anaphase bridges, disturbed anaphase-telophase cells, vagrants and stickiness in anaphase-telophase cells. All treatments of wastewater in April 2012, at S5 in July 2012, at S1 and S5 in November 2012, at S5 in February 2013, and at S1 in April 2013 induced CA when compared to the negative control. Some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Cu) were also recorded in the samples examined. PMID:25632904

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  16. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DePew, R.E.; Rickett, K.; Redus, K.S.; DuMont, S.P.; Lewis, B.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Van Hoesen, S.D. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP.

  17. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z <= 4) the cross section decreases with increasing energy. For ions of Z = 10, it is nearly independent of energy. For heavier ions (Z >= 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  18. Addition Polyimides from Non-Mutagenic Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, Peter; Klopotek, David L.; Hardy-Green, DeNise; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to find an acceptable non-mutagenic diamine to replace 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), a suspect carcinogen, which is currently being used in PMR-15 polyimide applications. Several diamines containing fluorine and trifluoromethyl substituent groups were synthesized. The diamines were polymerized with the dimethyl ester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), using the monomethyl ester of nadic acid (NE) as an endcap. The effect of diamine structure on rheological properties, glass transition temperature, and thermo-oxidative stability was investigated. Unidirectional laminates were fabricated from selected resins, using carbon fiber as the reinforcement. The results indicate that some of the diamines containing trifluoromethyl groups are non-mutagenic, and have potential to replace MDA in PMR polyimides for long-term applications at temperatures up to 300 C.

  19. Carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects of arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Bencko, V

    1977-01-01

    This review outlines briefly the history and present status of the problem of carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects of arsenic. Discrepancies between clinical observations and positive results of epidemiological studies and the experimental induction of cancer by arsenic are discussed. The present knowledge of the mechanism of teratogenic and mutagenic effects of arsenic is analyzed. The growing importance of arsenic as an environmental pollutant is demonstrated. Continuation of throughly organized epidemiological studies in regions with excessive arsenic exposure of the population and standardization of an epidemiological approach to this problem on an international basis are recommended. New approaches in experimental studies of the carcinogenicity of arsenic in combination with other known or suspected carcinogens are recommended as well. PMID:908296

  20. (Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The current objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence will be studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions will be investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains which differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This report discusses progress incurred from 4/1/1988--10/1/1990. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    PubMed

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of alternative primaquine regimens to standard treatment in preventing relapses by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo Perez, María-Eulalia; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens currently used to prevent relapses by P. vivax. Methods: A systematic review was carried out to identify clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety to prevent malaria recurrences by P. vivax of primaquine regimen 0.5 mg/kg/ day for 7 or 14 days compared to standard regimen of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Efficacy of primaquine according to cumulative incidence of recurrences after 28 days was determined. The overall relative risk with fixed-effects meta-analysis was estimated. Results: For the regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/7 days were identified 7 studies, which showed an incidence of recurrence between 0% and 20% with follow-up 60-210 days; only 4 studies comparing with the standard regimen 0.25 mg/kg/day/14 days and no difference in recurrences between both regimens (RR= 0.977, 95% CI= 0.670 to 1.423) were found. 3 clinical trials using regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/14 days with an incidence of recurrences between 1.8% and 18.0% during 330-365 days were identified; only one study comparing with the standard regimen (RR= 0.846, 95% CI= 0.484 to 1.477). High risk of bias and differences in handling of included studies were found. Conclusion: Available evidence is insufficient to determine whether currently PQ regimens used as alternative rather than standard treatment have better efficacy and safety in preventing relapse of P. vivax. Clinical trials are required to guide changes in treatment regimen of malaria vivax. PMID:26848199

  3. Assessing cancer treatment related information online: unintended retrieval of complementary and alternative medicine web sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Lee, H R; Nam, E M

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the number of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) web sites retrieved form Korean search engines, and to evaluate the quality of online CAM content. We evaluated results retrieved by the use of the key word 'anticancer treatment' on six common search engines in Korea. Among a total of 651 web sites, 226 web sites (35%) related to CAM were identified. The quality and risk of these sites were assessed for 97 web sites after removing duplicate and dysfunctional web sites. We evaluated the quality of the sites using Sandvik score. Scores in this study varied between 5 and 12 points, with a maximum of 14 points. We categorized the risk score for each web site based on the following criteria: (1) the site discourages the use of conventional medicine (23%: 22/97); (2) the site discourages adherence to the advice of a clinician (15%:15/97); (3) the site either provides opinions and experiences, or factual details (26%: 25/97); and (4) the site provides commercial details (46%: 45/97). The most popular web sites in Korea that relate to CAM for cancer offer information of extremely variable quality. Clinicians should be aware of the risks of inaccurate online information and attempt to protect their patients from those.

  4. Double-pigtail stents for distal ureteral calculi: an alternative form of definitive treatment.

    PubMed

    Deliveliotis, C; Giannakopoulos, S; Louras, G; Koutsokalis, G; Alivizatos, G; Kostakopoulos, A

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we treated patients with a solitary distal ureteral stone of less than 10 mm in maximum diameter by placing a double-pigtail stent and subsequently removing it allowing the calculus to pass spontaneously. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study with a mean stone size of 5.1 x 3.5 mm (range 2-8 mm in length and 2-7 mm in width). The indication for intervention was intractable pain in 5 patients, infection due to obstruction in 2, highly obstructed urinary tract in 10, absence of progression for 30 days in 21 and desire of the patient to be free of stone in 2. A double-pigtail stent was inserted in the involved ureter under local anesthesia and left in place for 2 weeks. After stent removal, 34 patients succeeded in passing the stone within an average time of 5.8 days. The overall success rate was 85%. We suggest this method as an alternative form of treatment for distal ureteral calculi to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of ureterolithotripsy under selected clinical circumstances.

  5. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Martínez-Montiel, Mónica; Gaspariano-Cholula, Mayra Patricia; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca D

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics. PMID:27610372

  6. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf extract: An alternative approach for the treatment of staphylococcal bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mordmuang, Auemphon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic residues in dairy products as well as emergence of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens have been recognized as global public health concerns. The present work was aimed to study a potent antibacterial extract from natural product as an alternative treatment for staphylococcal bovine mastitis. Staphylococcal isolates (n=44) were isolated from milk samples freshly squeezed from individual cows. All staphylococcal isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin, except vancomycin. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf ethanolic extract was accessed for its antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory potential. The extract exhibited profound antibacterial activity against all of staphylococcal isolates with MIC and MBC values ranged from 16-64 μg/ml and 64->128 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extract also exerted anti-protein denaturation and human red blood cell membrane stabilizing activity. The results support the use of R. tomentosa extract that could be applied to cure bovine mastitis and to reduce inflammatory injury caused by the bacterial infections.

  7. Sutureless prepuceplasty with wound healing by second intention: An alternative surgical approach in children's phimosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Christianakis, Efstratios

    2008-01-01

    Background A new technique for the treatment of children's phimosis is presented that minimizes the repairing time, the postoperative complications and maintains the physical foreskin appearance intact. Methods Eightyseven children with phimosis were treated with this new developed technique, between 2003 and 2005. Sutureless prepuceplasty creates a permanent surgical extension of the close prepuce. Stretching and retraction of phimotic foreskin reveals a tight prepuce ring that is cutting in its dorsal surface longitudinally. Rarely triple symmetric incisions in the preputial outlet are necessary. The foreskin is loose and moves absolutely free in bilateral courses. The wounds are healing by second intention. Antisepsis, steroids and Elicina cream, (which contains allantoin, collagen, elastin, glycolic acid and vitamins A, D, and E) should apply daily, for twenty to thirty days. Results The foreskin is moving in centripetal or efferent courses absolutely loosely, painlessly and bloodlessly. The mean time of follow-up was 27 months (one to four years). No complications were observed. Conclusion Sutureless prepuceplasty may present an acceptable alternative in children's phimosis reconstruction. PMID:18318903

  8. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Martínez-Montiel, Mónica; Gaspariano-Cholula, Mayra Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics. PMID:27610372

  9. Drug repurposing as an alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the options for treating such infections are decreasing, due the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The pharmaceutical industry has produced few new types of antibiotics in more than a decade. Researchers are taking several approaches toward developing new classes of antibiotics, including (1) focusing on new targets and processes, such as bacterial cell-cell communication that upregulates virulence; (2) designing inhibitors of bacterial resistance, such as blockers of multidrug efflux pumps; and (3) using alternative antimicrobials such as bacteriophages. In addition, the strategy of finding new uses for existing drugs is beginning to produce results: antibacterial properties have been discovered for existing anticancer, antifungal, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review, we discuss the antimicrobial properties of gallium compounds, 5-fluorouracil, ciclopirox, diflunisal, and some other FDA-approved drugs and argue that their repurposing for the treatment of bacterial infections, including those that are multidrug resistant, is a feasible strategy.

  10. Temperature as an alternative tracer for the determination of the mixing characteristics in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ahnert, Markus; Kuehn, Volker; Krebs, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The hydraulic characteristics, i.e. the residence time distributions, of wastewater treatment plant reactors are usually determined using conventional tracers. This paper aims to present an alternative approach based on wastewater temperature. The step in temperature change, e.g. from stormwater events with cold rainwater, is used as a tracer signal. The method was verified using lab- and pilot-scale tests that showed very good agreement of the time series estimated both with conventional and temperature tracer methods. Results from lab-scale tests exhibit a zone with a minor water exchange of about 10% of the volume of all reactors, while the respective zone in the pilot-scale tests was estimated at about 30% of the total volume. The short-circuit flow was more than 50% of the inflow resulting from gaps between the walls inside the reactor cascade. An application example shows the importance of reliable residence time distribution underlying activated sludge modelling and the uncertainty associated with neglecting the determination of appropriate flow-through characteristics. PMID:20036410

  11. Drug repurposing as an alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Bernstein, Lawrence R.; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the options for treating such infections are decreasing, due the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The pharmaceutical industry has produced few new types of antibiotics in more than a decade. Researchers are taking several approaches toward developing new classes of antibiotics, including (1) focusing on new targets and processes, such as bacterial cell–cell communication that upregulates virulence; (2) designing inhibitors of bacterial resistance, such as blockers of multidrug efflux pumps; and (3) using alternative antimicrobials such as bacteriophages. In addition, the strategy of finding new uses for existing drugs is beginning to produce results: antibacterial properties have been discovered for existing anticancer, antifungal, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review, we discuss the antimicrobial properties of gallium compounds, 5-fluorouracil, ciclopirox, diflunisal, and some other FDA-approved drugs and argue that their repurposing for the treatment of bacterial infections, including those that are multidrug resistant, is a feasible strategy. PMID:25914685

  12. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Martínez-Montiel, Mónica; Gaspariano-Cholula, Mayra Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics.

  13. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of benfuracarb insecticide.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasin; Erdoğmuş, Sevim Feyza; Akyıl, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu

    2016-08-01

    Benfuracarb is a carbamate insecticide used to control insect pests in vegetables and it has anti-acetylcholinesterase activity lower than other carbamates. Cytotoxic effects of benfuracarb were evaluated by using root growth inhibition (EC50), mitotic index (MI), and mitotic phase determinations on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa and mutagenic effects were determined in Salmonella typhymurium Ames test by TA98 and TA100 strains with and without metabolic activation. In Allium test, 1 % DMSO was used as negative control group and 10 ppm MMS was used as positive control group. 75 ppm concentration of benfuracarb was found as EC50. In MI and mitotic phases determination study, 37.5, 75 and 150 ppm doses of benfuracarb were used. Dose-dependent cytotoxic activity was found by root growth inhibition and MI studies. It was identified that mitotic inhibition activity of benfuracarb was higher than 10 ppm MMS. In Ames test, mutagenic activity was not observed and over 200 µg/plate of benfuracarb was determined as cytotoxic to S. typhymurium strains. Benfuracarb can be called as "mitotic inhibitor" but not called as mutagen. PMID:25381170

  14. Monitoring hospital wastewaters for their probable genotoxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pratibha; Mathur, N; Singh, A; Sogani, M; Bhatnagar, P; Atri, R; Pareek, S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Excluding the genetic factors, environmental factors, mainly the pollutants, have been implicated in the causation of the majority of cancers. Wastewater originated from health-care sectors such as hospitals may carry vast amounts of carcinogenic and genotoxic chemicals to surface waters or any other source of drinking water, if discharged untreated. Humans get exposed to such contaminants through a variety of ways including drinking water. The aim of the present study was, thus, to monitor the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of wastewaters from three big hospitals located in Jaipur (Rajasthan), India. One of them was operating an effluent treatment plant (ETP) for treatment of its wastewater and therefore both the untreated and treated effluents from this hospital were studied for their genotoxicity. Two short-term bacterial bioassays namely the Salmonella fluctuation assay and the SOS chromotest were used for the purpose. Results of fluctuation assay revealed the highly genotoxic nature of all untreated effluent samples with mutagenicity ratios (MR) up to 23.13 ± 0.18 and 42.25 ± 0.35 as measured with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, respectively. As determined with the chromotest, all untreated effluents produced significant induction factors (IF) ranging from 3.29 ± 1.11 to 13.35 ± 3.58 at higher concentrations. In contrast, treated effluent samples were found to be slightly genotoxic in fluctuation test only with an MR = 3.75 ± 0.35 for TA100 at 10 % concentration. Overall, the results indicated that proper treatment of hospital wastewaters may render the effluents safe for disposal contrary to the untreated ones, possessing high genotoxic potential. PMID:25487460

  15. Evaluation of healthcare waste treatment/disposal alternatives by using multi-criteria decision-making techniques.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Aysun

    2013-02-01

    Healthcare waste should be managed carefully because of infected, pathological, etc. content especially in developing countries. Applied management systems must be the most appropriate solution from a technical, environmental, economic and social point of view. The main objective of this study was to analyse the current status of healthcare waste management in Turkey, and to investigate the most appropriate treatment/disposal option by using different decision-making techniques. For this purpose, five different healthcare waste treatment/disposal alternatives including incineration, microwaving, on-site sterilization, off-site sterilization and landfill were evaluated according to two multi-criteria decision-making techniques: analytic network process (ANP) and ELECTRE. In this context, benefits, costs and risks for the alternatives were taken into consideration. Furthermore, the prioritization and ranking of the alternatives were determined and compared for both methods. According to the comparisons, the off-site sterilization technique was found to be the most appropriate solution in both cases.

  16. Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, D.; Schoeny, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The following samples were found to be mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium: ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16, and ETTM-17. ETTM-13 was marginally mutagenic for TA1537. ETTM-14 was slightly mutagenic for TA1537, TA1538, and TA98. Mutagenicity by all samples was demonstrated only in the presence of hepatic enzyme extracts (S9) which provided metabolic activation. ETTM-11 was shown to be the most mutagenic sample assayed thus far; specific activity was 2.79 x 10/sup 4/ TA98 revertants/mg sample. Fractionation by serial extractions with increasingly polar organic solvents was done at least 2 x with ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16 and ETTM-17. For some samples highly mutagenic fractions were observed.

  17. Detection of Mutagenic Activity in Cigarette Smoke Condensates

    PubMed Central

    Kier, Larry D.; Yamasaki, Edith; Ames, Bruce N.

    1974-01-01

    The Salmonella typhimurium microsomal test system for mutagenic activity was successfully used to detect the presence of mutagenic compounds in the smoke condensates of several types of cigarettes. The condensates were shown to contain compounds which could cause frameshift mutations when activated by microsomal enzymes. An analysis of fractions of smoke condensate revealed that the detected mutagenic activity was distributed in several of the fractions. Most of the activity of the whole condensate was in basic fractions and in a weakly acidic fraction. Condensates from cigarettes treated with magnesium nitrate differed from other condensates in two respects. They contained frameshift mutagens which did not require microsomal activation and mutagens which could cause base-pair substitution mutations. Although the detection system usually employs rat liver microsomal preparations, a rat lung microsomal preparation was also found to be capable of converting smoke condensates and known chemical carcinogens into mutagenic forms. PMID:4610572

  18. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  19. Assessment of potential impacts of municipal solid waste treatment alternatives by using life cycle approach: a case study in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2013-10-01

    In Vietnam, most of municipal solid waste (MSW) is disposed of at open dumping and landfill sites, and the methane gas from waste is the un-ignorable source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. It is indispensable to explore the possibility for GHG mitigation in MSW management. The objective of this study was to estimate alternative waste treatment practices towards the GHG emission mitigation, energy consumption and generation, reduction of landfill volume, and various benefits for proposing the appropriate selection by scenario analyses for representative Vietnam's cities. Impacts were calculated by utilizing life cycle assessment (LCA) method. A literature review survey on the current applicability of LCA database for assessing impacts from waste sector in developing countries, especially for Vietnam, was carried out. This study assessed the contribution of alternative solid waste treatment practices. The result showed that, except investment and operation costs, incineration with energy recovery seems the suitable alternative for treating waste from representative cities of Vietnam according to reduction of GHG emission and waste burden to landfill sites and energy recovery and generation. Besides, MSW composition was identified as an important factor directly influencing to impacts as well as other products and benefits of waste treatment alternatives. Reliable data on waste composition are indispensable for assessing to choose, improve, or plan the waste treatment practices towards sustainable development. PMID:23475528

  20. Risk assessment of a cold argon plasma jet in respect to its mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Wende, K; Bekeschus, S; Schmidt, A; Jatsch, L; Hasse, S; Weltmann, K D; Masur, K; von Woedtke, T

    2016-03-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas represent a favorable option for the treatment of heat sensitive materials and human or animal tissue. Beneficial effects have been documented in a variety of medical conditions, e.g., in the treatment of chronic wounds. It is assumed that the main mechanism of the plasma's efficacy is mediated by a stimulating dissipation of energy via radiation and/or chemical energy. Although no evidence on undesired side effects of a plasma treatment has yet been presented, skepticism toward the safety of the exposure to plasma is present. However, only little data regarding the mutagenic potential of this new treatment option is available. Accordingly, we investigated the mutagenic potential of an argon plasma jet (kinpen) using different testing systems in accordance with ISO norms and multiple cell lines: a HPRT1 mutation assay, a micronucleus formation assay, and a colony formation assay. Moderate plasma treatment up to 180 s did not increase genotoxicity in any assay or cell type investigated. We conclude that treatment with the argon plasma jet kinpen did not display a mutagenic potential under the test conditions applied and may from this perspective be regarded as safe for the use in biomedical applications. PMID:26994493

  1. Risk assessment of a cold argon plasma jet in respect to its mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Wende, K; Bekeschus, S; Schmidt, A; Jatsch, L; Hasse, S; Weltmann, K D; Masur, K; von Woedtke, T

    2016-03-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas represent a favorable option for the treatment of heat sensitive materials and human or animal tissue. Beneficial effects have been documented in a variety of medical conditions, e.g., in the treatment of chronic wounds. It is assumed that the main mechanism of the plasma's efficacy is mediated by a stimulating dissipation of energy via radiation and/or chemical energy. Although no evidence on undesired side effects of a plasma treatment has yet been presented, skepticism toward the safety of the exposure to plasma is present. However, only little data regarding the mutagenic potential of this new treatment option is available. Accordingly, we investigated the mutagenic potential of an argon plasma jet (kinpen) using different testing systems in accordance with ISO norms and multiple cell lines: a HPRT1 mutation assay, a micronucleus formation assay, and a colony formation assay. Moderate plasma treatment up to 180 s did not increase genotoxicity in any assay or cell type investigated. We conclude that treatment with the argon plasma jet kinpen did not display a mutagenic potential under the test conditions applied and may from this perspective be regarded as safe for the use in biomedical applications.

  2. Evaluation of azo food dyes for mutagenicity and inhibition of mutagenicity by methods using Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Prival, M J; Davis, V M; Peiperl, M D; Bell, S J

    1988-10-01

    The mutagenicity of 4 azo dyes (FD&C Yellow No. 5, FD&C Yellow No. 6, FD&C Red No. 40 and amaranth) that are widely used to color food has been evaluated. 4 different methods were used: (1) the standard Ames plate-incorporation assay performed directly on the dyes in the absence of S9 and in the presence of rat- or hamster-liver S9; (2) application of the standard plate assay to ether extracts of aqueous solutions of the dyes; (3) a variant of the standard assay, using hamster liver S9, preincubation, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and other modifications designed to facilitate azo reduction; and (4) reduction of the dyes with sodium dithionite, followed by ether extraction and the standard plate assay. Assays that include chemical reduction (methods 3 and 4) were included because azo compounds ingested orally are reduced in the intestine with the release of free aromatic amines. No mutagenic activity was seen for any of the azo dyes tested by using the standard Ames plate assay (method 1). Ether extracts of some samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6, FD&C Red No. 40 and amaranth were active (method 2), but only at high doses, generally 250 mg-equivalents or more per plate. These results indicate the presence of low levels of ether-extractable mutagenic impurities. The FMN preincubation assay (method 3) gave negative results for all dye samples tested. Most batches of FD&C Red No. 40 tested had mutagenic activity that was detectable when the ether extract of less than 1 mg of dithionite-reduced dye was plated in the presence of S9 (method 4). This finding implies that an impurity in these samples of FD&C Red No. 40 can be reduced to yield an ether-extractable mutagen. Dithionite-reduced samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6 and amaranth showed ether-extractable mutagenic activity only at much higher doses than those at which activity was seen with most dithionite-reduced samples of FD&C Red No. 40 (method 4). FD&C Yellow No. 5 showed no mutagenic activity with this method. Mutagenic

  3. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies of homemade "rust-proof cutting fluid".

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Huang, W Q; Wang, H W

    1988-01-01

    A homemade rust-proof cutting fluid (RPCF) used in China was tested for carcinogenicity by an in vivo chronic experiment and for mutagenicity by the Ames Salmonella microsomal assay. Undiluted and threefold water-diluted fluid were given as drinking water to groups of young adult Wistar rats for 2 years. The treatment induced 11/40 malignant tumors with 9/40 acinar adenocarcinomas of the pancreas in the high-dose group. Simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid dissolved in the undiluted fluid at 2 g acid per 1 g sodium nitrite resulted in 1/40 pancreatic carcinoma. The results of the Ames test showed that the technical RPCF was mutagenic to TA100 with or without metabolic activation. It was concluded that the homemade RPCF, which is comprised of sodium nitrite, triethanolamine, and polyethylene glycol, may form direct-acting mutagen(s) upon storage and form, in vivo, e.g., nitrosamines that caused acinar pancreatic carcinoma in Wistar rats. Simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid is suggested for the protection of workers exposed to the rust-proof cutting fluid.

  4. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies of homemade rust-proof cutting fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Huang, W.Q.; Wang, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A homemade rust-proof cutting fluid (RPCF) used in China was tested for carcinogenicity by an in vivo chronic experiment and for mutagenicity by the Ames Salmonella microsomal assay. Undiluted and threefold water-diluted fluid were given as drinking water to groups of young adult Wistar rats for 2 years. The treatment induced 11/40 malignant tumors with 9/40 acinar adenocarcinomas of the pancreas in the high-dose group. Simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid dissolved in the undiluted fluid at 2 g acid per 1 g sodium nitrite resulted in 1/40 pancreatic carcinoma. The results of the Ames test showed that the technical RPCF was mutagenic to TA100 with or without metabolic activation. It was concluded that the homemade RPCF, which is comprised of sodium nitrite, triethanolamine, and polyethylene glycol, may form direct-acting mutagen(s) upon storage and form, in vivo, e.g., nitrosamines that caused acinar pancreatic carcinoma in Wistar rats. Simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid is suggested for the protection of workers exposed to the rust-proof cutting fluid.

  5. Modulatory Effect of Betulinic Acid on the Genotoxicity Induced by Different Mutagens in V79 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acésio, Nathália Oliveira; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Mastrocola, Daiane Fernanda Pereira; Lima, Ildercílio Mota de Souza; Munari, Carla Carolina; Sato, Vânia Luiza Ferreira Lucatti; Souza, Andressa Aparecida Silva; Flauzino, Lúzio Gabriel Bocalon; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpene that can be isolated from many medicinal plants around the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of BA and its effect on the genotoxicity induced by different mutagens in V79 cells using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Different BA concentrations were combined with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), doxorubicin (DXR), camptothecin (CPT), and etoposide (VP-16). The frequencies of micronuclei in cultures treated with different BA concentrations did not differ from those of the negative control. Treatment with BA and MMS resulted in lower micronucleus frequencies than those observed for cultures treated with MMS alone. On the other hand, a significant increase in micronucleus frequencies was observed in cultures treated with BA combined with DXR or VP-16 when compared to these mutagens alone. The results showed no effect of BA on CPT-induced genotoxicity. Therefore, BA was not genotoxic under the present experimental conditions and exerted a different influence on the genotoxicity induced by different mutagens. The modulatory effect of BA depends on the type of mutagen and concentrations used. PMID:27195016

  6. Exposure to mutagenic chemicals in foundry and urban environments.

    PubMed

    Barański, B; Palus, J; Janik-Spiechowicz, E

    1989-01-01

    The study was aimed at the estimation of occupational exposure to mutagenic substances in a piston-ring foundry. The following samples were examined: solid phase of aerosol from the foundry and from different places of urban environment together with the foundry workers' urine collected during the 8-hour shift. The mutagenic substances were extracted from the collected material with acetone or concentrated with XAD-2 resin. The mutagenic property was estimated with the Ames' test using S. typhimurium strain TA98 without and with S9 fraction. The highest mutagenic activity was found at the following work-posts: caster, moulder, steerer of an induction furnace, and smelter and in the office rooms and in the flat occupied by heavy smokers. The mutagenic activity of aerosol at some other productive workposts in the foundry was similar to the mutagenic activity of aerosol in the office and flat rooms occupied by nonsmokers or in the street in Lodz. The mutagenic activity of urine from foundry workers was not correlated with the level of the occupational inhalation exposure to the mutagenic substances, however, the mutagenic activity of urine from smoking workers was about 10-20 times higher than from nonsmokers. PMID:2489412

  7. Allopathic, complementary, and alternative medical treatment utilization for pain among methadone-maintained patients: An exploratory study1

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Garnet, Brian; Joshi, Dipa; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 150 methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) patients about pain, pain treatment utilization, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment at the MMTP. Respondents with chronic severe pain (CSP) (i.e., pain lasting at least 6 months with moderate to severe pain intensity or significant pain interference) and “some pain” (i.e., pain reported in the previous week but not CSP) endorsed similar rates of past-week and lifetime allopathic or standard medical (with the exception of lifetime medical use of non-opiate medication) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization for pain reduction. Prior pain treatments were perceived to be less effective by CSP than SP patients but both groups had equivalent high rates of interest in pain treatment associated with the MMTP. These findings may have implications for resource and program planning in MMT programs. PMID:19874157

  8. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A S; Köser, C; Adler-Nissen, J

    2001-08-01

    Several alternative strategies were examined for improving conventional juice fining procedures for cherry juice clarification and fining in laboratory-scale experiments: Centrifugation of freshly pressed juice from 1000g to 35,000g induced decreased turbidity according to a steep, negative power function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter combinations. Gelatin-silica sol consistently had the best effect on juice clarity. Centrifugation of cherry juice (10,000g for 15 min) prior to clarification treatment significantly improved juice clarity and diminished the rate of haze formation during cold storage of juice. Both treatment of precentrifuged cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co-addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin-silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative clarification strategies deserve further consideration in large-scale cherry juice processing. Precentrifugation of juice before clarification and fining is immediately recommended. PMID:11513641

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine use for treatment and prevention of late-life mood and cognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lavretsky, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Late-life mood disorders and cognitive aging are the most common reasons for using complementary and alternative therapies. The amount of rigorous scientific data to support the efficacy of complementary therapies in the treatment of depression or cognitive impairment is extremely limited. The areas with the most evidence for beneficial effects are exercise, herbal therapy (Hypericum perforatum), the use of fish oil, and, to a lesser extent, acupuncture and relaxation therapies. There is a need for further research involving randomized, controlled trials to investigate the efficacy of complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of depression and cognitive impairment in late-life. This research may lead to the development of effective treatment and preventive approaches for these serious conditions. PMID:19956796

  10. Minireview: the health implications of water treatment with ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, N.G.; Winder, C.; Borges, S.H.; Backhouse, B.L.; Lewis, P.D.

    1982-01-11

    Ozone is a highly efficient disinfectant which may have significant advantages in water treatment compared to chlorine. It has, however, been shown that mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic byproducts may be produced under certain conditions of ozonation. Light chlorination following ozonization may meet the highest standards of disinfection. In addition the destruction of much of the organic matter by prior ozone treatment may well result in less harmful chlorinated and brominated products in the finished water. In many cases ozone treatment alone may suffice. It would be desirable to test with long term in vivo experiments which of the alternatives produces the best combination of microbiologically clean and pleasant water with minimum mutagenic and carcinogenic effect.

  11. Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery, a Feasible Alternative to the Frame-Based Technique for the Treatment of Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Graff, Andrew E; Thomas, Andrew S; Reed, Aaron D; Skinner, William K

    2016-01-01

    Classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) causes severe facial pain. Several treatment options exist for classic TN refractory to medical therapy, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Most studies in the medical literature used a frame-based SRS technique. Improvements in linear accelerator-based treatment systems and image guidance have led to the use of frameless SRS as a safe and feasible alternative to the frame-based technique for the treatment of refractory TN. We present a case of refractory TN successfully treated with frameless SRS. PMID:27186453

  12. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-28

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic.

  13. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  14. URINARY MUTAGENICITY: A BIOMARKER OF GENOTOXIC EXPOSURES VIA AIR, WATER, AND DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 30 years, ~100 studies have evaluated human urine for mutagenic activity using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay. Urinary mutagenicity has been shown to correlate well with other biomarkers, including DNA and hemoglobin adducts, urinary metabolites, and chr...

  15. Antioxidant activity, mutagenicity/anti-mutagenicity, and clastogenicity/anti-clastogenicity of lutein from marigold flowers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingchen; Tsao, Rong; Zhang, Shanfeng; Dong, Ziming; Yang, Raymond; Gong, Jianhua; Pei, Yingxin

    2006-09-01

    High dietary intake of lutein has been associated with risk reduction of many chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Lutein in food is generally regarded as safe. However, information on the toxicological and beneficial effect of lutein at higher doses is limited. In this study, large amount of lutein was extracted and purified from marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L.). The antioxidant activity of lutein was examined by using the photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay and the beta-carotene-linoleic acid model system (beta-CLAMS). Lutein showed a greater antioxidant activity than the other two common carotenoids, beta-carotene and lycopene. The mutagenicity and anti-mutagenicity of lutein at 334, 668 and 1335 microg/plate were examined using the standard Ames test in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Lutein was not only found to be non-mutagenic at all doses, but it showed an anti-mutagenic effect in a dose-dependent manner. Similar results were found in a chromosome aberration test using Chinese hamster ovary cells for the evaluation of clastogenicity and anti-clastogenicity of lutein at 66.8, 133.5 and 267.0 mg/L. Our findings provided scientific evidence for the safe use and health beneficial effects of lutein. PMID:16757077

  16. Mutagenicity testing of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E D; Coppinger, W J; Valencia, R; Iavicoli, J

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (diEGBE) was examined with a Tier I battery of in vitro assays followed by a Tier II in vivo Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay. The in vitro battery consisted of: the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the L5178Y mouse lymphoma test, a cytogenetics assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells and the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat hepatocytes. Results of the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the cytogenetics test, and the rat hepatocyte assay were negative at concentrations up to 20 microL/plate, 7.92 microL/mL, and 4.4 microL/mL, respectively. Toxicity was clearly demonstrated at all high doses. A weak, but dose-related increase in the mutation frequency (4-fold increase over the solvent control at 5.6 microL/mL with 12% survival) was obtained in the L5178Y lymphoma test in the absence of metabolic activation. Results of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay results were assessed by performing the Tier II sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila in which the target tissue is maturing germinal cells. Both feeding (11,000 ppm for 3 days) and injection (0.3 microL of approximately 14,000 ppm solution) routes of administration were employed in the Drosophila assay. Approximately 11,000 individual crosses with an equal number of negative controls were performed for each route of administration. diEGBE produced no increase in recessive lethals under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6389113

  17. [The mutagenic potential of the fungicide thiram].

    PubMed

    Andrés, J A; Correa, N S; Rosas, S B

    1999-01-01

    Chemical products used in agriculture require detailed formulation and knowledge on their mode of action and uses. This is essential for understanding the pesticide's biological behavior and also to establish safety criteria for humans and animals. At the present time, there are numerous studies concerning physical and chemical agents present in the media which increase the incidence of tumors. In this paper, we demonstrate the mutagenic capacity of the fungicide thiram, using the microbiological Ames test, at a concentration of 1 mg/ml active ingredient in the culture medium. Higher concentrations were lethal to the microorganisms used in the test.

  18. Microbial tests for mutagenicity/carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Traul, K.

    1985-01-01

    Here is a reference source on combating environmental factors that relate to major diseases. It offers an historical perspective for understanding how induced mutations in bacteria, fungi, or viruses can be applied to study problems of cancer and genetic mutations in people or animals. It presents scientific papers which served as primary stimuli for the development of many test systems currently used in genetic toxicology and key developments in specific topics. Coverage includes: early developments which showed that mutation was an inducible genetic event; formulation of tests for bacteria, fungi, and viruses; metabolic activation of mutagenes by mammalian enzyme systems to help test function; DNA damage tests that utilize microbes.

  19. Comparison of the mutagenic activity of XAD4 and blue rayon extracts of surface water and related drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Celia M; Coimbrão, Carlos A; Roubicek, Deborah A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A

    2003-11-10

    The combination of mutagenicity tests and selective extraction methodologies can be useful to indicate the possible classes of genotoxic organic contaminants in water samples. Treated and source water samples from two sites were analyzed: a river under the influence of an azo dye-processing plant discharge and a reservoir not directly impacted with industrial discharges, but contaminated with untreated domestic sewage. Organic extraction was performed in columns packed with XAD4 resin, that adsorbs a broad class of mutagenic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), arylamines, nitrocompounds, quinolines, antraquinones, etc., including the halogenated disinfection by-products; and with blue rayon that selectively adsorbs polycyclic planar structures. The organic extracts were tested for mutagenicity with the Salmonella assay using TA98 and TA100 strains and the potencies were compared. A protocol for cleaning the blue rayon fibers was developed and the efficiency of the reused fibers was analyzed with spiked samples. For the river water samples under the influence of the azo-type dye-processing plant, the mutagenicity was much higher for both blue rayon and XAD4 extracts when compared to the water from the reservoir not directly impacted with industrial discharges. For the drinking water samples, although both sites showed mutagenic responses with XAD4, only samples from the site under the influence of the industrial discharge showed mutagenic activity with the blue rayon extraction, suggesting the presence of polycyclic compounds in those samples. As expected, negative results were found with the blue rayon extracts of the drinking water collected from the reservoir not contaminated with industrial discharges. In this case, it appears that using the blue rayon to extract drinking water samples and comparing the results with the XAD resin extracts we were able to distinguish the mutagenicity caused by industrial contaminants from the halogenated

  20. Alternate calibration method of radiochromic EBT3 film for quality assurance verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soah; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Taejin; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Koo, Taeryool; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me Yeon; Bae, Hoonsik; Kim, Kyoung Ju

    2016-07-01

    EBT3 film is utilized as a dosimetry quality assurance tool for the verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. In this work, we suggest a percentage-depth-dose (PDD) calibration method that can calibrate several EBT3 film pieces together at different dose levels because photon beams provide different dose levels at different depths along the axis of the beam. We investigated the feasibility of the film PDD calibration method based on PDD data and compared the results those from the traditional film calibration method. Photon beams at 6 MV were delivered to EBT3 film pieces for both calibration methods. For the PDD-based calibration, the film pieces were placed on solid phantoms at the depth of maximum dose (dmax) and at depths of 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, and 22 cm, and a photon beam was delivered twice, at 100 cGy and 400 cGy, to extend the calibration dose range under the same conditions. Fourteen film pieces, to maintain their consistency, were irradiated at doses ranging from approximately 30 to 400 cGy for both film calibrations. The film pieces were located at the center position on the scan bed of an Epson 1680 flatbed scanner in the parallel direction. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were created, and their dose distributions were delivered to the film. The dose distributions for the traditional method and those for the PDD-based calibration method were evaluated using a Gamma analysis. The PDD dose values using a CC13 ion chamber and those obtained by using a FC65-G Farmer chamber and measured at the depth of interest produced very similar results. With the objective test criterion of a 1% dosage agreement at 1 mm, the passing rates for the four cases of the three IMRT plans were essentially identical. The traditional and the PDD-based calibrations provided similar plan verification results. We also describe another alternative for calibrating EBT3 films, i.e., a PDD-based calibration method that provides an easy and time-saving approach

  1. Comparative investigation of the mutagenicity of propenylic and allylic asarone isomers in the Ames fluctuation assay.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kerstin; Bischoff, Roland; Stegmüller, Simone; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    α-, β- and γ-asarone are naturally occurring phenylpropenes that occur in different plant families, mainly in Aristolochiaceae, Acoraceae and Lauraceae. Plants containing asarones are used as flavouring ingredients in alcoholic beverages (bitters), traditional phytomedicines and the rhizome of e.g. Acorus calamus is used to prepare tea. Although α- and β-asarone show a potential in the treatment of several diseases, previous studies have shown carcinogenicity in rodents (duodenum, liver). However, the mechanism of action remained unclear. Studies on the mutagenicity of propenylic α- and β-asarone are inconsistent and data on carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of allylic γ-asarone are lacking completely. Thus, the present study determined the mutagenicity of the three asarone isomers using the Ames fluctuation assay with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 mix) in the standard Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. A concentration dependent increase in mutagenicity could be verified for α- and β-asarone in strain TA100 in the presence of rat liver homogenate. The side-chain epoxides of α- and β-asarone, major metabolites formed in liver microsomes, caused mutations in TA100, supporting the hypothesis that epoxidation of the side chain plays a key role in mutagenicity of the propenylic alkenylbenzenes. The allylic γ-asarone, not undergoing detectable side-chain epoxidation in liver microsomes, was supposed to be activated via side-chain hydroxylation and further sulphonation, a typical pathway for other allylic alkenylbenzenes like estragole or methyleugenol. However, neither y-asarone nor 1'-OH-γ-asarone showed any mutagenic effect even in the human SULT-expressing Salmonella strains (TA100-hSULT1A1 and TA100-hSULT1C2), while 1'-OH-methyleugenol used as a positive control was mutagenic under these conditions. These results indicate that the propenylic asarones are genotoxic via metabolic formation of side-chain epoxides while the side

  2. Comparative investigation of the mutagenicity of propenylic and allylic asarone isomers in the Ames fluctuation assay.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kerstin; Bischoff, Roland; Stegmüller, Simone; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    α-, β- and γ-asarone are naturally occurring phenylpropenes that occur in different plant families, mainly in Aristolochiaceae, Acoraceae and Lauraceae. Plants containing asarones are used as flavouring ingredients in alcoholic beverages (bitters), traditional phytomedicines and the rhizome of e.g. Acorus calamus is used to prepare tea. Although α- and β-asarone show a potential in the treatment of several diseases, previous studies have shown carcinogenicity in rodents (duodenum, liver). However, the mechanism of action remained unclear. Studies on the mutagenicity of propenylic α- and β-asarone are inconsistent and data on carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of allylic γ-asarone are lacking completely. Thus, the present study determined the mutagenicity of the three asarone isomers using the Ames fluctuation assay with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 mix) in the standard Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. A concentration dependent increase in mutagenicity could be verified for α- and β-asarone in strain TA100 in the presence of rat liver homogenate. The side-chain epoxides of α- and β-asarone, major metabolites formed in liver microsomes, caused mutations in TA100, supporting the hypothesis that epoxidation of the side chain plays a key role in mutagenicity of the propenylic alkenylbenzenes. The allylic γ-asarone, not undergoing detectable side-chain epoxidation in liver microsomes, was supposed to be activated via side-chain hydroxylation and further sulphonation, a typical pathway for other allylic alkenylbenzenes like estragole or methyleugenol. However, neither y-asarone nor 1'-OH-γ-asarone showed any mutagenic effect even in the human SULT-expressing Salmonella strains (TA100-hSULT1A1 and TA100-hSULT1C2), while 1'-OH-methyleugenol used as a positive control was mutagenic under these conditions. These results indicate that the propenylic asarones are genotoxic via metabolic formation of side-chain epoxides while the side

  3. Mutagenicity of benzyl chloride in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenesis assay depends on exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Fall, Mamadou; Haddouk, Hasnaà; Morin, Jean-Paul; Forster, Roy

    2007-09-01

    Benzyl chloride (BCl) is a clear yellowish, volatile liquid that is widely used as an intermediate for the production of benzyl alcohol and benzyl compounds used in perfumery, dyes and pharmaceuticals. In previous studies BCl has shown weak and inconsistent mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenesis assay (Ames test). The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential mutagenic activity of BCl using modifications of the standard Ames test in order to adapt the method to the volatile nature of the test compound. Tests were performed using (a) the standard plate-incorporation method, (b) incubation of the treated plates in closed containers, (c) a vaporization-diffusion method to expose Ames test plates to volatilised BCl and (d) the pre-incubation method. Using the standard plate-incorporation method, BCl showed no (in the absence of metabolic activation) or very weak (in the presence of metabolic activation) mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA 100. The use of the pre-incubation method did not improve detection of mutagenic activity of BCl. The use of closed containers significantly increased the response, but the most marked response was obtained by testing BCl in volatilised form in the vaporization-diffusion method. Using the latter approach there appeared to be less toxicity of the BCl treatments to the tester bacteria. Our findings suggest that BCl may show greater mutagenic activity in the gaseous phase. This work underlines the importance of using appropriate methods for the evaluation of volatile compounds. The modifications described here are easy to realize in practice and should prove useful for the investigation of other volatile materials or atmospheric contaminants.

  4. In vivo study of the mutagenicity of biperidine, pipotiazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol

    SciTech Connect

    de Arruda Cardoso Smith, M.; Valentim de Souza, M.A.; Pugliese, S.; Jesus Mari, J. de

    1996-04-09

    The evaluation of the mutagenic potential of drugs during long-term psychiatric use in schizophrenic patients is of interest considering that the incidence and treatment of this disorder comes in the reproductive age and that there is a close correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. We did a case-control study involving 12 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed by DMS III-R, of whom 6 were men and 6 women, with an average age of 33.25 years (s.d. {+-} 7.44) and 12 controls matched for sex and for the same age. This is the first case-controlled study comparing patients under treatment with biperidine, pipotiazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol with normal controls in relation to the frequency of chromosomal lesions. 4 refs.

  5. Dietary phenolics as anti-mutagens and inhibitors of tobacco-related DNA adduction in the urothelium of smokers.

    PubMed

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Pignatelli, B; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1996-10-01

    Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An inverse relationship was found between the inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-mutagenicity by urine extracts in vitro and two DNA adduct measurements: the level of the putatively identified N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl adduct and the total level of all tobacco-smoke-related carcinogen adducts including those probably derived from PhIP. Urinary anti-mutagenicity in vitro appears thus to be a good indicator of the anti-genotoxicity exerted by substances excreted in urine, that protect the bladder mucosal cells (and possibly other cells) against DNA damage. These substances appear to be dietary phenolics and/or their metabolites because (i) the anti-mutagenic activity of urine extracts (n = 18) was linearly related to their content in phenolics; (ii) the concentration ranges of these substances in urine extracts were similar to those of various plant phenols (quercetin, isorhamnetin and naringenin) for which an inhibitory effect on the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP was obtained; (iii) treatment of urines with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase enhanced both anti-mutagenicity and the levels of phenolics in urinary extracts; (iv) urinary extracts inhibited noncompetitively the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP as did quercetin, used as a model phenolics. Several structural features of the flavonoids were identified as necessary for the inhibition of PhIP and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxiline mutagenicity. Fractionation by reverse-phase HPLC and subsequent analysis of two urinary extracts, showed the presence of several anti-mutagenic

  6. METHODS FOR THE SPIRAL SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAY INCLUDING SPECIALIZED APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    An automated approach to bacterial mutagenicity testing--the spiral Salmonella assay--was developed to simplify testing and to reduce the labor and materials required to generate dose-responsive mutagenicity information. This document provides the reader with an ...

  7. Mutagenicity of anaerobic fenitrothion metabolites after aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Taku; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Saeki, Ryo; Inoue, Takanobu

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the mutagenicity of fenitrothion increases during anaerobic biodegradation, suggesting that this insecticide's mutagenicity could effectively increase after it pollutes anaerobic environments such as lake sediments. To investigate possible changes to the mutagenicity of fenitrothion under aerobic conditions after it had already been increased by anaerobic biodegradation, batch incubation cultures were maintained under aerobic conditions. The mutagenicity, which had increased during anaerobic biodegradation, decreased under aerobic conditions with aerobic or facultative bacteria, but did not disappear completely in 22 days. In contrast, it did not change under aerobic conditions without bacteria or under continued anaerobic conditions. These observations suggest that the mutagenicity of anaerobically metabolized fenitrothion would not necessarily decrease after it arrives in an aerobic environment: this would depend on the presence of suitable bacteria. Therefore, fenitrothion-derived mutagenic compounds may pollute the water environment, including our drinking water sources, after accidental pollution of aerobic waters. Although amino-fenitrothion generated during anaerobic biodegradation of fenitrothion was the principal mutagen, non-trivial contributions of other, unidentified metabolites to the mutagenicity were also observed. PMID:16263383

  8. Mutagenic activation of 2-aminofluorene by fluorescent light

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.L.; Heflich, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect of artificially produced light on the direct mutagenicity of 2-aminofluorene, that arylamine was irradiated with either sun, cool-white, black, blue, or yellow fluorescent light or held in the dark prior to assaying for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. The order of effectiveness of these exposures in potentiating the mutagenicity of 2-aminofluorene was sun greater than black greater than cool-white greater than blue greater than yellow approximately equal to dark. By varying the radiant flux densities produced by the lamps and using optical filters, wavelengths of light up to approximately 450 nm were found to be effective in the mutagenic potentiation. Studies using radical scavengers and oxygen modifiers indicated that the light-induced mutagenicity was dependent on oxygen and that singlet oxygen may be an effective activator of 2-aminofluorene. The mutagenicity of fluorene was not increased by exposure to light, while only sunlight potentiated the mutagenicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene. This result suggested the importance of the primary amine in the mutagenic activation of 2-aminofluorene by light. These studies indicate that the effect of light on environmental contaminants must be considered in assessing their genotoxic potential.

  9. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  10. Mutagenicity and possible carcinogenicity of hair colourants and constituents.

    PubMed

    Venitt, S; Searle, C E

    1976-01-01

    Skin painting experiments showed that two semi-permanent hair colorants applied at low concentrations caused an early appearance of tumours in two strains of mice. Both colorants were mutagenic in S. typhimurium and further investigation revealed that three categories of hair colorant contained mutagenic constitutents.

  11. A Current Update on the Rule of Alternative and Complementary Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2013-01-01

    There is a vast body of knowledge which is ever-increasing about the treatment of liver disease with alternative and complementary medicine for which hundreds of thousands of literatures have been documented. Liver disease is a general term. This term covers all the potential problems that cause the liver to fail to perform its specified operations. Liver disease has a variety of presentations and causes a great public health problem worldwide which threatens the wellness of billions of people. Incidences of many types of liver disease are currently rising. Although there is still a debate about the entity of alternative and complementary medicine, it is now widely used and it is improving. And it covers the shortages and compensates for the weaknesses of conventional methods in the treatment of liver diseases. Alternative and complementary medicine for liver diseases provides benefits by regulating immunity, controlling disease progression, improving quality of life, and prolonging survival. This paper reviews the increasing interest and growing research into alternative and complementary medicine for liver diseases, with a look at the rough classification, principle of management, evidence-based applications, and issues for prescription and perspectives. PMID:24109491

  12. Evaluation of a fibrate, specific stimulant of PPARα, as a therapeutic alternative to the treatment of clinical ovine pregnancy toxaemia.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, S; Cal-Pereyra, L G; Benech, A; Acosta-Dibarrat, J; Martin, M J; Abreu, M C; Perini, S; González-Montaña, J R

    2016-10-01

    Ovine pregnancy toxaemia is a metabolic disorder affecting sheep in their last 6 weeks of pregnancy as a result of their inability to maintain adequate energy homoeostasis. Different alternative treatments are available with variable results. The aim of this research was to evaluate a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) stimulant as an alternative to treat clinical pregnancy toxaemia. Thirty-three adult sheep, with known gestation date and carrying a single foetus, were fasted from day 130 of gestation until animals showed clinical disease. From that moment onwards, sheep were treated during 6 days with three different therapeutic alternatives: 10 mg/kg of 2-methyl-2-phenoxy-propionic acid; 10 mg/kg of 2-methyl-2-phenoxy-propionic acid + 100 mL of propylene glycol oral; or 100 mL of propylene glycol oral. Glycaemia and serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHOB) were determined daily. Liver biopsies were taken at day 130 of gestation, at the beginning and end of treatments and at 5 days postpartum, evaluating the extent and degree of the steatosis lesion. Even though in sheep treated with 2-methyl-2-phenoxy-propionic acid, serum concentrations of glucose and BHOB recovered more slowly, we conclude that 2-methyl-2-phenoxy-propionic acid alone or combined with propylene glycol can be used as an alternative to effectively treat fatty liver, and therefore pregnancy toxaemia.

  13. Potential of plant genetic systems for monitoring and screening mutagens.

    PubMed

    Nilan, R A

    1978-12-01

    Plants have too long been ignored as useful screening and monitoring systems of environmental mutagens. However, there are about a dozen reliable, some even unique, plant genetic systems that can increase the scope and effectiveness of chemical and physical mutagen screening and monitoring procedures. Some of these should be included in the Tier II tests. Moreover, plants are the only systems now in use as monitors of genetic effects caused by polluted atmosphere and water and by pesticides. There are several major advantages of the plant test systems which relate to their reproductive nature, easy culture and growth habits that should be considered in mutagen screening and monitoring. In addition to these advantages, the major plant test systems exhibit numerous genetic and chromosome changes for determining the effects of mutagens. Some of these have not yet been detected in other nonmammalian and mammalian test systems, but probably occur in the human organism. Plants have played major roles in various aspects of mutagenesis research, primarily in mutagen screening (detection and verification of mutagenic activity), mutagen monitoring, and determining mutagen effects and mechanisms of mutagen action. They have played lesser roles in quantification of mutagenic activity and understanding the nature of induced mutations.Mutagen monitoring with plants, especially in situ on land or in water, will help determine potential genetic hazards of air and water pollutants and protect the genetic purity of crop plants and the purity of the food supply. The Tradescantia stamen-hair system is used in a mobile laboratory for determining the genetic effects of industrial and automobile pollution in a number of sites in the U.S.A. The fern is employed for monitoring genetic effects of water pollution in the Eastern states. The maize pollen system and certain weeds have monitored genetic effects of pesticides. Several other systems that have considerable value and should be

  14. Potential of plant genetic systems for monitoring and screening mutagens

    PubMed Central

    Nilan, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Plants have too long been ignored as useful screening and monitoring systems of environmental mutagens. However, there are about a dozen reliable, some even unique, plant genetic systems that can increase the scope and effectiveness of chemical and physical mutagen screening and monitoring procedures. Some of these should be included in the Tier II tests. Moreover, plants are the only systems now in use as monitors of genetic effects caused by polluted atmosphere and water and by pesticides. There are several major advantages of the plant test systems which relate to their reproductive nature, easy culture and growth habits that should be considered in mutagen screening and monitoring. In addition to these advantages, the major plant test systems exhibit numerous genetic and chromosome changes for determining the effects of mutagens. Some of these have not yet been detected in other nonmammalian and mammalian test systems, but probably occur in the human organism. Plants have played major roles in various aspects of mutagenesis research, primarily in mutagen screening (detection and verification of mutagenic activity), mutagen monitoring, and determining mutagen effects and mechanisms of mutagen action. They have played lesser roles in quantification of mutagenic activity and understanding the nature of induced mutations. Mutagen monitoring with plants, especially in situ on land or in water, will help determine potential genetic hazards of air and water pollutants and protect the genetic purity of crop plants and the purity of the food supply. The Tradescantia stamen-hair system is used in a mobile laboratory for determining the genetic effects of industrial and automobile pollution in a number of sites in the U.S.A. The fern is employed for monitoring genetic effects of water pollution in the Eastern states. The maize pollen system and certain weeds have monitored genetic effects of pesticides. Several other systems that have considerable value and should be

  15. Mutagenicity of combustion emissions from a biomedical-waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, J.H.; Rogers, H.W.; Claxton, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Ames Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) assay was used to determine the mutagenicity of stack fly ash from a medical/pathological waste incinerator. Stack fly ash also collected from a boiler plant adjacent to the incinerator and ambient air particles (upwind and downwind of the incinerator and boiler facilities) were collected and bioassayed. Downwind particulate mutagenicity (revertants per cubic meter of air) was significantly greater than upwind particulate mutagenicity. Mutagenic emission-rate estimates (revertants per kilogram waste feed) for the incinerator and boiler were less than estimates for ash and downwind ambient-air particulate samples collected during incinerator auxiliary burner failure and demonstrated significant increase in mutagenicity compared to samples collected during routine incinerator operation.

  16. Non-surgical treatment of canine oral malignant melanoma: A case study of the application of complementary alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    ITOH, HIROYASU; MUKAIYAMA, TOSHIYUKI; GOTO, TAKAHIRO; HATA, KEISHI; AZUMA, KAZUO; TSUKA, TAKASHI; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a dog with a clinical stage III oral malignant melanoma that was treated with complementary alternative medicine (CAM). The CAM included high temperature hyperthermia, dendritic cell therapy and lupeol injections. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy were not performed. Two months after the start of treatment, the tumor disappeared and after six months, the follow-up examinations revealed no recurrence or metastasis of the tumor. Quality of life (QOL) of the dog was maintained; therefore, the application of CAM may be an effective treatment for canine oral malignant melanoma. The effective application of CAM has the potential to prolong life and maintain an excellent QOL for pets. PMID:24932241

  17. Photochemical oxidation of 2-aminofluorene: correlation between the induction of direct-acting mutagenicity and the formation of nitro and nitroso aromatics.

    PubMed

    Strniste, G F; Nickols, J W; Okinaka, R T

    1985-08-01

    The kinetics of near ultraviolet light-mediated phototransformation of 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) was studied using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity bioassay. Employing tester strains TA98, TA1538, and the nitroreductase-deficient TA98NR without the addition of exogenous metabolic enzymes, we were able to detect and discriminate between the UVA exposure-dependent formation of two stable photoproducts, 2-nitrosofluorene (2-NOF) and 2-nitrofluorene (2-NO2F). Mutagenicity of irradiated 2-AF solutions (using dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent) in the various tester strains indicates the rapid formation of the photo-labile 2-NOF, after which 2-NO2F accounts for the preponderance of mutagenic activity. Continued UVA irradiation (greater than 72 h at 6.8 J/m2/s) of 2-AF results in the formation of greater than 30 photoproducts resolvable on HPLC, several of which, in addition to 2-NOF and 2-NO2F, are mutagenic on Salmonella but are chemically undefined to date. Prolonged irradiation ultimately destroys the photo-induced mutagenicity of 2-AF. However, UVA-induced 2-AF photoproducts are stable for several weeks when stored in sealed vials in the dark. Light potentiated oxidation of aromatic amines constitutes an alternative mechanism for the transformation of aromatic amines into proximate mutagens/carcinogens. PMID:3894951

  18. Evaluation of toxicity of Cercospora piaropi in a mycoherbicide formulation by using bacterial bioluminescence and the Ames mutagenicity tests.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maricela Martínez; Villasana, Ana María Sandoval

    2009-04-01

    An evaluation of the potential hazards associated with mutagenicity and acute toxicity of a mycoherbicide formulation based on the fungal pathogen Cercospora piaropi was performed. Neither the mycoherbicide nor any of its components were mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation. Both the C. piaropi and the mycoherbicide formulation were shown to be moderately toxic with a bacterial bioluminescence assay. No acute toxicity was found in water samples taken from tanks after treatment of water hyacinth with the mycoherbicide. PMID:18932016

  19. Cost Differentials and the Treatment of Equipment Assets: An Analysis of Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohreich, Lloyd E.

    This paper is a discussion of alternative state approaches to aiding and costing capital outlay programs, particularly equipment purchases for vocational programs. Equipment costs for vocational programs tend to be a larger proportion of the total costs than in other programs. The paper includes a discussion of such topics as the magnitude of…

  20. Brain Games as a Potential Nonpharmaceutical Alternative for the Treatment of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegrzyn, Stacy C.; Hearrington, Doug; Martin, Tim; Randolph, Adriane B.

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood neurobehavioral disorder, affecting approximately 5.5 million children, of which approximately 66% take ADHD medication daily. This study investigated a potential nonpharmaceutical alternative to address the academic engagement of 5th through 11th grade…

  1. The Churchill School: An Alternative to Drug Treatment for Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippner, Stanley

    This paper is a discussion of The Churchill School, founded in 1972 as an alternative approach to serving the educational needs of children diagnosed as hyperactive, hyperkinetic, brain damaged, neurologically impaired, or suffering from minimal brain dysfunction. The school has a student body of 65, ranging between 6 and 13 years of age. The…

  2. Some Contributions for a Pedagogical Treatment of Alternative Conceptions in Biology: An Example from Plant Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz, Adelaine Neto; And Others

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the alternative conceptions of students in a biology and geology teacher education course regarding plant nutrition. Data were collected from first year and final year students using a questionnaire that had both multiple choice and descriptive items. Findings indicate common features related to the…

  3. Mutagenic effects of some water-soluble metal compounds in a somatic eye-color test system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, A

    1985-01-01

    Nickel, cadmium, lead, arsenic, manganese and chromium salts as well as MeHgOH were screened for mutagenicity, using a sensitive somatic eye-color test system in Drosophila melanogaster. The test is based on the insertion of a mobile element which causes instability in the white locus that is somatically enhanced by mutagens. This white locus expression is combined with a mutation, zeste, in another gene, to produce a light yellow eye color. Larval feeding with mutagens causes somatic mutations in the eye imaginal disc cells that develop into easily detectable red spots in the yellow eyes of adult males. Survival tests showed large differences in the toxicity of different metals, but only hexavalent chromium increased the frequency of somatic mutations above the control level. When combined treatments were carried out with MMS and various metals, sodium arsenite caused a reduction of the MMS-induced mutation frequency while methylmercury increased the frequency of somatic spots.

  4. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay

    PubMed Central

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24–48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg−1 and DXR - 5 mg.kg−1) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5–2 g.kg−1), GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg−1 and 1–2 g.kg−1 and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg−1). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  5. INVESTIGATING THE SOURCES OF THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY FOUND IN A RIVER USING THE SALMONELLA ASSAY AND DIFFERENT WATER EXTRACTION PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    As a consequence of the routine surface water quality-monitoring program of Sao Paulo State (Brazil), which includes the Salmonella microsome mutagenicity assay as one of its parameters, we detected a river used as a drinking water source after treatment, that repeate...

  6. Alternative Techniques for Treatment of Complex Below-the Knee Arterial Occlusions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Uccioli, Luigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Del Giudice, Costantino Ros, Valerio Da; Volpi, Tommaso; Meloni, Marco; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe alternative endovascular (EV) techniques and assess their feasibility and efficacy in minimizing failure rates in limb salvage for the treatment of complex below-the knee (BTK) occlusions that could not be crossed with a conventional antegrade access. Between December 2007 and November 2010, 1,035 patients (557 male) underwent EV treatment for critical limb ischemia in our institution. In 124 (12% [83 male], mean age 68.2 {+-} 0.5 years) patients, transfemoral antegrade revascularization attempt failed, and an alternative approach was used. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months. Results were compared with 56 patients treated between November 2002 and November 2007, in whom conventional technique was unsuccessful and unconventional techniques were not adopted. Technical success was achieved in 119 (96%) patients. The limb-salvage rates were 96.8% and 83% at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Sixteen (12.9%) and 33 (26.6%) patients underwent reintervention at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Transcutaneous oxygen tension increased at 1 month (44.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 15.7 {+-} 0.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and remained stable at follow-up. Twenty (16.1%) patients required major amputation. Thirteen (10.4%) patients died during follow-up. In our previous experience, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure, amputation, and death rates were 10.9, 39.2, and 23.2%, respectively. Alternative techniques allowed a significant decrease of major amputation and death rates (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The use of alternative techniques seems feasible in case of a failed antegrade BTK revascularization attempt and could minimize failure rates in the treatment of complex occlusions while providing satisfying clinical success rates at 6 months.

  7. Evaluation of Amphotericin B and Chloramphenicol as Alternative Drugs for Treatment of Chytridiomycosis and Their Impacts on Innate Skin Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Whitney M.; Ebert, Alexander R.; Canning, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, an amphibian skin disease caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been implicated in catastrophic global amphibian declines. The result is an alarming decrease in amphibian diversity that is a great concern for the scientific community. Clinical trials testing potential antifungal drugs are needed to identify alternative treatments for amphibians infected with this pathogen. In this study, we quantified the MICs of chloramphenicol (800 μg/ml), amphotericin B (0.8 to 1.6 μg/ml), and itraconazole (Sporanox) (20 ng/ml) against B. dendrobatidis. Both chloramphenicol and amphotericin B significantly reduced B. dendrobatidis infection in naturally infected southern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] sphenocephala), although neither drug was capable of complete fungal clearance. Long-term exposure of R. sphenocephala to these drugs did not inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) synthesis, indicating that neither drug is detrimental to this important innate skin defense. However, we observed that chloramphenicol, but not amphotericin B or itraconazole, inhibited the growth of multiple R. sphenocephala skin bacterial isolates in vitro at concentrations below the MIC against B. dendrobatidis. These results indicate that treatment with chloramphenicol might dramatically alter the protective natural skin microbiome when used as an antifungal agent. This study represents the first examination of the effects of alternative antifungal drug treatments on amphibian innate skin defenses, a crucial step to validating these treatments for practical applications. PMID:24771024

  8. [Non-mutagenic and mutagenic post-replicative DNA repair in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells].

    PubMed

    Zhestianikov, V D

    2000-01-01

    The review is devoted to mechanisms of repair gaps in DNA daughter strand, formed during the stall of moving replication forks and restart of replication in cells after the action of DNA damaging agents (predominantly--UV light). The repair of daughter DNA, or postreplication DNA repair (PRR), is realized by error-free (non-mutagenic) and error-prone (mutagenic) pathways. The former is a recombination repair, or recombination between two sister duplexes. By this way the major part of postreplication gaps is eliminated. The second way is related with the induction of SOS-response. In Escherichia coli cells mutagenic SOS-response is realized by proteins RecA, UmuD, UmuC, DNA-polymerase III holoenzyme and others. In E. coli some mutagenic enzymes--DNA-polymerase IV (the product of dinB gene) and DNA-polymerase V (the product of umuDC genes) have been recently discovered. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells postreplicative translesion synthesis is realized by newly discovered enzymes deoxycytidilmonophosphatetransferase (encoded by REV1 gene), DNA-polymerase zeta (encoded by REV3 gene), DNA-polymerase eta (encoded by RAD30 gene). All the three enzymes share a great homology with UmuC enzyme of E. coli. DNA polymerase eta correctly inserts adenine residues in the daughter strand opposite noncoded thymine residues in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Based on RAD6 gene of S. cerevisiae, human cells hREV1, hREV3 and hRAD30A have been obtained to encode, respectively, deoxycytidiltransferase, DNA-polymerase zeta and DNA-polymerase eta. It has been shown that the defect of PRR DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum variant is associated with DNA-polymerase eta deficiency. This defect is corrected by the extract of intact HeLa cells. The importance of newly discovered enzymes in the system of mechanisms of DNA repair and replication is discussed.

  9. Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Michael P; Bates, Matthew E; Madison, Marcus; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-01

    Assessing the best options among emerging technologies (e.g., new chemicals, nanotechnologies) is complicated because of trade-offs across benefits and risks that are difficult to quantify given limited and fragmented availability of information. This study demonstrates the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to address technology alternative selection decisions. As a case study, prioritization of six lumber treatment alternatives [micronized copper quaternary (MCQ); alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); water-borne copper naphthenate (CN); oil-borne copper naphthenate (CNo); water-borne copper quinolate (CQ); and water-borne zinc naphthenate (ZN)] for military use are considered. Multiattribute value theory (MAVT) is used to derive risk and benefit scores. Risk scores are calculated using a cradle-to-gate LCA. Benefit scores are calculated by scoring of cost, durability, and corrosiveness criteria. Three weighting schemes are used, representing Environmental, Military and Balanced stakeholder perspectives. Aggregated scores from all three perspectives show CQ to be the least favorable alterative. MCQ is identified as the most favorable alternative from the Environmental stakeholder perspective. From the Military stakeholder perspective, ZN is determined to be the most favorable alternative, followed closely by MCQ. This type of scoring and ranking of multiple heterogeneous criteria in a systematic and transparent way facilitates better justification of technology selection and regulation.

  10. Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Michael P; Bates, Matthew E; Madison, Marcus; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-01

    Assessing the best options among emerging technologies (e.g., new chemicals, nanotechnologies) is complicated because of trade-offs across benefits and risks that are difficult to quantify given limited and fragmented availability of information. This study demonstrates the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to address technology alternative selection decisions. As a case study, prioritization of six lumber treatment alternatives [micronized copper quaternary (MCQ); alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); water-borne copper naphthenate (CN); oil-borne copper naphthenate (CNo); water-borne copper quinolate (CQ); and water-borne zinc naphthenate (ZN)] for military use are considered. Multiattribute value theory (MAVT) is used to derive risk and benefit scores. Risk scores are calculated using a cradle-to-gate LCA. Benefit scores are calculated by scoring of cost, durability, and corrosiveness criteria. Three weighting schemes are used, representing Environmental, Military and Balanced stakeholder perspectives. Aggregated scores from all three perspectives show CQ to be the least favorable alterative. MCQ is identified as the most favorable alternative from the Environmental stakeholder perspective. From the Military stakeholder perspective, ZN is determined to be the most favorable alternative, followed closely by MCQ. This type of scoring and ranking of multiple heterogeneous criteria in a systematic and transparent way facilitates better justification of technology selection and regulation. PMID:25209330

  11. Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Recommendations of Recent Evidence-Based Interdisciplinary Guidelines with Special Emphasis on Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Buskila, Dan; Shir, Yoram; Sommer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Current evidence indicates that there is no single ideal treatment for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). First choice treatment options remain debatable, especially concerning the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. Methods. Three evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines on FMS in Canada, Germany, and Israel were compared for their first choice and CAM-recommendations. Results. All three guidelines emphasized a patient-tailored approach according to the key symptoms. Aerobic exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, and multicomponent therapy were first choice treatments. The guidelines differed in the grade of recommendation for drug treatment. Anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin) and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine, milnacipran) were strongly recommended by the Canadian and the Israeli guidelines. These drugs received only a weak recommendation by the German guideline. In consideration of CAM-treatments, acupuncture, hypnosis/guided imagery, and Tai Chi were recommended by the German and Israeli guidelines. The Canadian guidelines did not recommend any CAM therapy. Discussion. Recent evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines concur on the importance of treatment tailored to the individual patient and further emphasize the need of self-management strategies (exercise, and psychological techniques). PMID:24348701

  12. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: recommendations of recent evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines with special emphasis on complementary and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Ablin, Jacob; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Buskila, Dan; Shir, Yoram; Sommer, Claudia; Häuser, Winfried

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Current evidence indicates that there is no single ideal treatment for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). First choice treatment options remain debatable, especially concerning the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. Methods. Three evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines on FMS in Canada, Germany, and Israel were compared for their first choice and CAM-recommendations. Results. All three guidelines emphasized a patient-tailored approach according to the key symptoms. Aerobic exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, and multicomponent therapy were first choice treatments. The guidelines differed in the grade of recommendation for drug treatment. Anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin) and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine, milnacipran) were strongly recommended by the Canadian and the Israeli guidelines. These drugs received only a weak recommendation by the German guideline. In consideration of CAM-treatments, acupuncture, hypnosis/guided imagery, and Tai Chi were recommended by the German and Israeli guidelines. The Canadian guidelines did not recommend any CAM therapy. Discussion. Recent evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines concur on the importance of treatment tailored to the individual patient and further emphasize the need of self-management strategies (exercise, and psychological techniques). PMID:24348701

  13. Complementary and alternative therapies for treatment of insomnia in women in postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Hachul, H; Monson, C; Kozasa, E H; Oliveira, D S; Goto, V; Afonso, R; Llanas, A C; Tufik, S

    2014-12-01

    Menopause is an important episode in the life of women and, for the great majority of women, occurs in their fifties. The climacteric period, which is often associated with insomnia, represents one of the most important changes in the female reproductive cycle because it marks the end of reproductive capacity. Hormonal therapy has been considered the most useful and standardized method for treating menopause and climacteric-associated symptoms despite its side-effects. The present study is a review of the scientific literature about the efficacy, toxicity and safety of complementary and alternative therapies used as alternatives to hormone therapy to treat insomnia in menopausal women. Mind-body therapies and the use of isoflavonoids have exhibited promise as interventions for treating insomnia in the climacteric at our Walk-In Clinic of Sleep Disturbance at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. This review will describe the use of complementary and alternative therapies and their effectiveness in treating insomnia in this period of a woman's life.

  14. Alternatives to fluoride in the prevention and treatment of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, different agents have been discussed as potential alternatives to fluoride in the prevention of dental erosion. These agents are intended to form acid-resistant layers on the surface, to induce repair of eroded lesions by mineral precipitation or to prevent the enzymatic degradation of demineralised collagen. The application of adhesives and/or fissure sealants is considered to be an effective alternative to fluoride, but requires professional application and, depending on the product used, a re-sealing of the surface every several months. Studies testing film-forming products, such as polymers, have suggested the potential effectiveness of some of these approaches, such as chitosan, although further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this approach. Other studies have demonstrated that products designed to deliver calcium and/or phosphate have not been successful at providing a significant anti-erosive effect. In advanced erosive lesions, the demineralised collagenous dentine matrix can be degraded by host enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As well as fluorides, epigallocatechin gallate and chlorhexidine have been identified as effective MMP inhibitors, with the potential to reduce the progression of dentine erosion. While fluoride compounds have been shown to have an anti-erosive potential, particularly those containing tin, alternative approaches that provide even greater protective capacity still need to be developed and proven to be effective.

  15. The mutagenicity analysis of imidapril hydrochloride and its degradant, diketopiperazine derivative, nitrosation mixtures by in vitro Ames test with two strains of Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Regulska, Katarzyna; Murias, Marek; Stanisz, Beata; Regulski, Miłosz

    2014-01-01

    Aim The evaluation of mutagenic properties of imidapril hydrochloride (IMD) and its degradation impurity, diketopiperazine derivative (DKP), nitrosation mixtures was conducted in order to analyze the carcinogenic risk of IMD long-term treatment in patients. In this study an in vitro Ames test with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 strains was used. Background IMD and DKP contain nitrogen atoms, which makes them theoretically vulnerable to in vivo nitrosation with the production of N-nitroso compounds (NOC). NOC, in turn, are known animal mutagens indicating that their endogenous production from nitrosable drugs constitutes a carcinogenic hazard. Materials and methods Pure IMD sample was exposed to forced degradation conditions of increased temperature and dry air in order to achieve a DKP sample. Both samples were then treated with a nitrosating agent and the obtained nitrosation mixtures were subjected to mutagenicity analysis by the Ames test with S. typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 strains in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (S9 mix) using a commercial Ames MPF 98/100 microplate format mutagenicity assay kit. Results None of the six concentrations of the investigated nitrosation mixtures exhibited any mutagenic potential in both S. typhimurium strains. The addition of S9 mix did not alter the non-mutagenic properties of the studied compounds. Conclusions The nitrite treatment of both studied compounds has no impact on their mutagenic properties under the conditions of the present studies. Hence, IMD and DKP nitrosation mixtures are classified as non-mutagens in this test. PMID:25337415

  16. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  18. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  19. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  20. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  1. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  2. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  3. Mutagenicity of trinitrotoluene and its metabolites formed during composting.

    PubMed

    Tan, E L; Ho, C H; Griest, W H; Tyndall, R L

    1992-07-01

    TNT was mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium without the need of a rat liver metabolic activation system (S9). The mutagenic potency of TNT decreased in proportion to the number of nitro groups that were reduced to the amino form. The presence of a nitro group on the 4 position of the diamino congener is necessary for mutagenicity. Among the active congeners, mutagenicity was generally greater for TA100 than TA98, except that for the 4-amino congener the reverse was true. In cases when S9 was included in the assay, there was always a decrease in the number of mutants induced as compared with those without S9. Tetryl behaved like TNT, except that it was approximately three times more potent. RDX and HMX were not mutagenic under the conditions of the assay. When TNT was composed, the major metabolites identified in organic extracts of compost samples were the 2-amino and 4-amino congeners. An acetonitrile extract of compost was tested and found to be more mutagenic for TA98 than TA100, much like the authentic 4-amino congener, but the amount of this congener in the extract did not account for the degree of mutagenicity. PMID:1629932

  4. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. ); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. )

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  5. Improved mutagen testing systems in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Roderick, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Our laboratory was the first to induce and ascertain a mammalian chromosomal inversion; we did this by searching for a high frequency of first meiotic anaphase bridges in testes of males whose fathers received post-spermatogonial radiation or mutagenesis from chromosomal breaking chemical mutagens. One test in was examined in each mouse, and those showing a high frequency were then mated to determine if the high frequency were passed on as a dominant and whether linkage analysis suggested the presence of an inversion. A very high incidence (exceeding 20% bridges in first meiotic anaphase bridges) was found in about 1 in 150 males examined and this frequency was generally found to be passed on to the offspring an predicted. Later cytological banding techniques were developed elsewhere and we used them to show visually the inverted orders of the inverted chromosomal segments. Since that time we have induced inversions covering most of the mouse genome.

  6. Assessment of mutagenic potential of thiram.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R C; Shukla, Y; Mehrotra, N K

    1997-05-01

    Thiram is a widely used dithiocarbamate fungicide. In this study, the mutagenicity of thiram was investigated using the micronucleus and dominant lethal tests in Swiss albino mice. A single ip injection of 100 mg thiram/kg body weight, which is the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), significantly induced micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells after 30 and 48 hr of exposure; 50% and 25% of the MTD also induced micronucleus formation after the above time periods. A significant number of dead implants were induced when thiram was given to male mice in the diet at 10% of the oral LD50 during the whole spermatogenesis cycle (8 wk); this post-implantation loss indicates a dominant lethal mutation.

  7. Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion. 9 figs.

  8. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of beryllium.

    PubMed

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R

    1987-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of a number of beryllium compounds has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and this metal has to be treated as a possible carcinogenic threat to man. These carcinogenic properties are associated with mutagenic activity as shown by the results of short-term tests performed in vitro with beryllium chloride and beryllium sulfate. These soluble beryllium compounds can produce some infidelity of in vitro synthesis, forward gene mutations in microorganisms and in mammalian cells. They are also able to induce cell transformation. In addition to the positive results obtained in several short-term assays beryllium compounds have been found to bind to nucleoproteins, to inhibit certain enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, to bind nucleic acids to cell membranes and to inhibit microtubule polymerization. The teratogenicity of beryllium salts is relatively unknown and needs additional investigation.

  9. Mutagenic and genotoxic potential of direct electric current in Escherichia coli and Salmonella thyphimurium strains.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marina das Neves; Cardoso, Janine Simas; Leitão, Alvaro Costa; Quaresma, Carla Holandino

    2016-05-01

    Direct electric current has several therapeutic uses such as antibacterial and antiprotozoal action, tissues scarring and regeneration, as well as tumor treatment. This method has shown promising results in vivo and in vitro, with significant efficacy and almost no side effects. Considering lack of studies regarding direct electric current mutagenic and/or genotoxic effects, the present work evaluated both aspects by using five different bacterial experimental assays: survival of repair-deficient mutants, Salmonella-histidine reversion mutagenesis (Ames test), forward mutations to rifampicin resistance, phage reactivation, and lysogenic induction. In these experimental conditions, cells were submitted to an approach that allows evaluation of anodic, cathodic, and electro-ionic effects generated by 2 mA of direct electric current, with doses ranging from 0.36 to 3.60 Coulombs. Our results showed these doses did not induce mutagenic or genotoxic effects.

  10. Sodium arsenite potentiates the clastogenicity and mutagenicity of DNA cross linking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.C.; Lee, K.C.; Tzeng, Y.J.; Huang, R.Y.; Jan, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    To see if sodium arsenite enhances the clastogenicity and the mutagenicity of DNA crosslinking agents, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human skin fibroblasts were exposed to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-Pt(II)) or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus long-wave ultraviolet light (UVA) and then to sodium arsenite. The results indicate that the clastogenicity of cis-Pt(II) and 8-MOP pllus UVA are enhanced by the post-treatment with sodium arsenite. Chromatid breaks and exchanges are predominantly increased in doubly treated cells. Furthermore, the mutagenicity of cis-Pt(II) at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus is also potentiated by sodium arsenite in CHO cells

  11. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L.; Cooley, C.R.; Biagi, C.

    1996-12-31

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies` results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%.

  12. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  13. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  14. Photodegradation of mutagens in solvent-refined coal liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkwarf, D.R.; Stewart, D.L.; Pelroy, R.A.; Weimer, W.C.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate any changes in the chemical composition and microbial mutagenicities of two representative solvent-refined coal (SRC) liquids as a function of exposure time to sunlight and air. This information was desired to assess potential health hazards arising from ground spills of these liquids during production, transport and use. Results of microbial mutagenicity assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, conducted after exposure, showed that the mutagenicities of both an SRC-II fuel oil blend and an SRC-I process solvent decreased continuously with exposure time to air and that the decrease was accelerated by simultaneous exposure to simulated sunlight. The liquids were exposed as thin layers supported on surfaces of glass, paper, clay or aluminum; but the type of support had little effect on the results. The contrast between these results and the reported increases of mutagenesis in organisms exposed simultaneously to coal liquids and near-ultraviolet light suggested that short-lived mutagenic intermediates, e.g., organic free radicals, were formed in the liquids during exposure to light. The highest activities of microbial mutagenicity in the SRC liquids were found in fractions rich in amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino PAH). After a 36-hour exposure of the fuel oil blend to air in the dark, the mutagenicity of its amine-rich fraction was reduced by 65%; whereas a 36-hour exposure in the light reduced the mutagenicity of this fraction by 92%. Similar rates of reduction in mutagenicity were achieved in exposures of the process solvent. The mutagenicities of other chemical fractions remained low during exposure.

  15. New treatment alternatives in the ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: ultrasound and low-level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Saygı, Evrim Karadağ; Senol, Selcen; Kapcı, Serap; Aydeniz, Banu; Aktaş, İlknur; Gozke, Eren

    2015-09-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (UNE) is the second most common entrapment neuropathy of the arm. Conservative treatment is the treatment of choice in mild to moderate cases. Elbow splints and avoiding flexion of the involved elbow constitute majority of the conservative treatment; indeed, there is no other non-invasive treatment modality. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ultrasound (US) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of UNE to provide an alternative conservative treatment method. A randomized single-blind study was carried out in 32 patients diagnosed with UNE. Short-segment conduction study (SSCS) was performed for the localization of the entrapment site. Patients were randomized into US treatment (frequency of 1 MHz, intensity of 1.5 W/cm(2), continuous mode) and LLLT (0.8 J/cm(2) with 905 nm wavelength), both applied five times a week for 2 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, at the end of the treatment, and at the first and third months by visual analog scale, hand grip strength, semmes weinstein monofilament test, latency change at SSCS, and patient satisfaction scale. Both treatment groups had significant improvements on clinical and electrophysiological parameters (p < 0.05) at first month with no statistically significant difference between them. Improvements in all parameters were sustained at the third month for the US group, while only changes in grip strength and latency were significant for the LLLT group at third month. The present study demonstrated that both US and LLLT provided improvements in clinical and electrophysiological parameters and have a satisfying short-term effectiveness in the treatment of UNE.

  16. New treatment alternatives in the ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: ultrasound and low-level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Saygı, Evrim Karadağ; Senol, Selcen; Kapcı, Serap; Aydeniz, Banu; Aktaş, İlknur; Gozke, Eren

    2015-09-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (UNE) is the second most common entrapment neuropathy of the arm. Conservative treatment is the treatment of choice in mild to moderate cases. Elbow splints and avoiding flexion of the involved elbow constitute majority of the conservative treatment; indeed, there is no other non-invasive treatment modality. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ultrasound (US) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of UNE to provide an alternative conservative treatment method. A randomized single-blind study was carried out in 32 patients diagnosed with UNE. Short-segment conduction study (SSCS) was performed for the localization of the entrapment site. Patients were randomized into US treatment (frequency of 1 MHz, intensity of 1.5 W/cm(2), continuous mode) and LLLT (0.8 J/cm(2) with 905 nm wavelength), both applied five times a week for 2 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, at the end of the treatment, and at the first and third months by visual analog scale, hand grip strength, semmes weinstein monofilament test, latency change at SSCS, and patient satisfaction scale. Both treatment groups had significant improvements on clinical and electrophysiological parameters (p < 0.05) at first month with no statistically significant difference between them. Improvements in all parameters were sustained at the third month for the US group, while only changes in grip strength and latency were significant for the LLLT group at third month. The present study demonstrated that both US and LLLT provided improvements in clinical and electrophysiological parameters and have a satisfying short-term effectiveness in the treatment of UNE. PMID:25319131

  17. Restoring grassland savannas from degraded pinyon-juniper woodlands: effects of mechanical overstory reduction and slash treatment alternatives.

    PubMed

    Brockway, Dale G; Gatewood, Richard G; Paris, Randi B

    2002-02-01

    Although the distribution and structure of pinyon-juiper woodlands in the southwestern United States are thought to be the result of historic fluctuations in regional climatic conditions, more recent increases in the areal extent, tree density, soil erosion rates and loss of understory plant diversity are attributed to heavy grazing by domestic livestock and interruption of the natural fire regime. Prior to 1850, many areas currently occupied by high-density pinyon-juniper woodlands, with their degraded soils and depauperate understories, were very likely savannas dominated by native grasses and forbs and containing sparse tree cover scattered across the landscape. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical overstory reduction and three slash treatment alternatives (removal, clustering and scattering) followed by prescribed fire as techniques for restoring grassland savannas from degraded woodlands. Plant cover, diversity, biomass and nutrient status, litter cover and soil chemistry and erosion rates were measured prior to and for two years following experimental treatment in a degraded pinyon-juniper woodland in central New Mexico. Treatment resulted in a significant increase in the cover of native grasses and, to a lesser degree, forbs and shrubs. Plant species richness and diversity increased most on sites where slash was either completely removed or scattered to serve as a mulch. Although no changes in soil chemistry or plant nutrient status were observed, understory biomass increased over 200% for all harvest treatments and was significantly greater than controls. While treatment increased litter cover and decreased soil exposure, this improvement did not significantly affect soil loss rates. Even though all slash treatment alternatives increased the cover and biomass of native grasses, scattering slash across the site to serve as a mulch appears most beneficial to improving plant species diversity and conserving site resources

  18. Mutagenicity of anthraquinone and hydroxylated anthraquinones in the Ames/Salmonella microsome system.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, D F; Fink, R C; Schaefer, F L; Mulcahy, R J; Stark, A A

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenicity of anthracene, anthraquinone, and four structurally similar compounds of each was evaluated in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay. Anthraquinone was shown to be mutagenic for strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98 in the absence of rat liver homogenate. The four anthraquinone derivatives tested were mutagenic for TA1537 exclusively. None of the anthracenes exhibited mutagenic activity. PMID:7103489

  19. Induction of Abasic Sites by the Drinking-Water Mutagen MX in Salmonella TA100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagen X (MX) is a chlorinated furanone that accounts for more of the mutagenic activity of drinking water than any other disinfection by-product. It is one of the most potent base-substitution mutagens in the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay, producing primarily GC to TA mu...

  20. A historical overview of bacteriophage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wittebole, Xavier; De Roock, Sophie; Opal, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    The seemingly inexorable spread of antibiotic resistance genes among microbial pathogens now threatens the long-term viability of our current antimicrobial therapy to treat severe bacterial infections such as sepsis. Antibiotic resistance is reaching a crisis situation in some bacterial pathogens where few therapeutic alternatives remain and pan-resistant strains are becoming more prevalent. Non-antibiotic therapies to treat bacterial infections are now under serious consideration and one possible option is the therapeutic use of specific phage particles that target bacterial pathogens. Bacteriophage therapy has essentially been re-discovered by modern medicine after widespread use of phage therapy in the pre-antibiotic era lost favor, at least in Western countries, after the introduction of antibiotics. We review the current therapeutic rationale and clinical experience with phage therapy as a treatment for invasive bacterial infection as novel alternative to antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:23973944

  1. Nonpharmacological Alternatives to Benzodiazepine Drugs for the Treatment of Anxiety in Outpatient Populations: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M; Whitburn, Amy Irene; Platt-Koch, Alexander G; Koch, Ronald L

    2016-08-01

    Overuse of benzodiazepine drugs to treat anxiety, mood, and sleep disorders is a growing problem in clinical practice. GABAergic medications (benzodiazepine drugs in particular) have side effects, drug interactions, and the potential to create tolerance and dependence in users. GABA-enhancing dietary supplements have similar and unique risks. Natural, non-chemical, anxiolytic treatments exist and can be safely recommended to patients. Three such treatments have been the focus of study in the past 20 years: mindfulness, meditation, and yoga. Growing evidence exists that these treatments can be safely recommended to patients with anxiety. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 35-42.]. PMID:27479478

  2. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Rosichan, J.L.; Arenaz, P.; Hodgdon, A.L.; Kleinhofs, A.

    1981-01-01

    To utilize pollen for in situ monitoring of the genetic hazards of environmental pollutants, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. These include ornamentation, shape and form, male sterility viability, intraspecific incompatibility, proteins, and starch deposition. Several proteins that meet the necessary criteria for mutagen detection systems are discussed. At Washington State Univ., a waxy pollen system is being developed in barley for in situ mutagen monitoring. Studies are being conducted to develop data concerning the nature of the mutations induced by various environmental mutagens.

  3. Mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of chromium and its compounds.

    PubMed

    Mamyrbaev, Arstan Abdramanovich; Dzharkenov, Timur Agataevich; Imangazina, Zina Amangalievna; Satybaldieva, Umit Abulkhairovna

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experimental observations have been made on microorganisms and culture of the cells of mammals as well as the accounting of the chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells of the mammals and of human cells displayed that the chromium and its compounds possess a pronounced mutagenic effect. Translocation test, induction record of DNA damage and repair systems in the mammalian and human cells with greater precision proves the presence of the mutagenic effect of the chromium and its compounds, which in turn is dependent on dose and time of this metal intoxication. Chromium and its compounds have pronounced mutagenic effect, on increased admission to organism of mammals and protozoa.

  4. Characterization of mutagenic coal fly ash and extracts.

    PubMed

    Griest, W H; Caton, J E; Rao, T K; Harmon, S H; Yeatts, L B; Henderson, G M

    1982-11-01

    Post-electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash samples were collected from a coal-fired electric power generation plant under three modes of plant operation: normal operation, a low NOx-emission mode of combustion, and operation with the ESP shorted-out. Results of chemical and physical characterization of the ashes were compared with bacterial mutagenicity bioassay to determine parameters or compounds correlating with bioactivity. The general physical properties, ultimate composition, and trace elemental and radiochemical species determined did not correlate with the mutagenicity. Only the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons and chemically derivatizable polar organic compounds appeared to be associated with mutagenicity of the fly ash.

  5. Study of mutagenic activity of troxerutin, a flavonoid derivative.

    PubMed

    Marzin, D; Phi, H V; Olivier, P; Sauzieres, J

    1987-02-01

    Troxerutin, a flavonoid derivative, used in vascular diseases was studied in 4 mutagenicity tests: the Ames test, the point mutation test (V79/HPRT), the in vitro metaphase analysis in human lymphocytes and the micronucleus test in mice. The aglycone trihydroxyethylquercetin (THEQ) and quercetin were studied too. Troxerutin was not mutagenic, whereas quercetin was positive in the Ames test, V79 cells and in vitro metaphase analysis. THEQ was negative in the Ames test. The substitution of quercetin with hydroxyethyl groups in 7,3' and 4' positions abolished mutagenic activity of quercetin.

  6. The Five-Day Week: An Alternate Model in Residential Treatment Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrachan, Myrtle

    1975-01-01

    Presents a model which provides residential treatment on a five-day basis for latency-age children. Family therapy, shared parenting, and psychotherapeautic education are combined in this model. (Author/ED)

  7. Ethical aspects of judging the alternative treatment of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Enskär, K

    1995-03-01

    In recent decades the improved treatment of childhood cancer has increased the proportion of children being cured. However, the intensive treatment required also implies a heavy burden for the children and their families. The purpose of this article is to judge the ethical aspects of different treatment regimens used for children with cancer by means of a case study. The analysis is based on the ethical model by Beauchamp and Childress. The assessment is based on every person, or group of persons, involved and is on the principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. The analysis shows that intensification of treatment of children with cancer is ethically justified from a deontological point of view. The consequences are more difficult to anticipate from a utilitarian perspective.

  8. [GLYCYRRHIZINIC ACID--AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR TREATMENT OF CONDYLOMATA ACUMINATA].

    PubMed

    Kolev, N; Bakardzhiev, I; Kovachev, E; Ivanov, St

    2015-01-01

    Condylomata acuminata are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus infection (hereinafter referredto as HPV). It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, whose incidence rate has increased in the last three decades. Current treatment involves the physical destruction of the infected cells. The fact that there are many different types of treatment goes to show that none of them are uniformly effective or directly antiviral. PMID:26863790

  9. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Booij, J. W.; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  10. Soil treatment with hot air (Cultivit) as alternative to methyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Runia, W T; Molendijk, L P G; Neophytou, G; Greenberger, A

    2006-01-01

    A new development in physical soil treatment is the application of hot air. Hot air treatment is based on blowing extremely hot air into rotavating humid soil. The method has been developed and applied commercially in Israel for the last few years. An increased growth response (IGR) was observed in several crops like potato, cauliflower, kohlrabi and the flower Esclepia, when the soil was treated with hot air prior to planting. Scientific trials were performed in Israel and Cyprus to quantify IGR and to evaluate the efficacy against plant-parasitic nematodes. Squash was grown in tunnels on root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita) infested fields in sandy (Israel) and clay loam (Cyprus) soils. In Israel hot air treatment was compared with metam sodium and methyl bromide and a cold air treated control. In Cyprus hot air treatment was compared with untreated control. Hot air treatment increased squash yield in Israel with 90 % and in Cyprus with 150%. Root assessments showed that after hot air treatment the root-knot nematodes were still able to infest plants and cause galling damage. Nematode counts were not reduced by hot air treatment. It may be concluded that the general concept of soil disinfestation is not applicable to hot air treatment. Any positive effect in yield could not be explained by reduction in nematode populations in soil. Possible chemical and biological changes in the hot air treated soils need to be identified. Further research will determine the possibilities and limitations of this method in other crops and under various climatic conditions.

  11. Applicability of bacterial cellulose as an alternative to paper points in endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Aya; Tabuchi, Mari; Uo, Motohiro; Tatsumi, Hiroto; Hideshima, Katsumi; Kondo, Seiji; Sekine, Joji

    2013-04-01

    Dental root canal treatment is required when dental caries progress to infection of the dental pulp. A major goal of this treatment is to provide complete decontamination of the dental root canal system. However, the morphology of dental root canal systems is complex, and many human dental roots have inaccessible areas. In addition, dental reinfection is fairly common. In conventional treatment, a cotton pellet and paper point made from plant cellulose is used to dry and sterilize the dental root canal. Such sterilization requires a treatment material with high absorbency to remove any residue, the ability to improve the efficacy of intracanal medication and high biocompatibility. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is produced by certain strains of bacteria. In this study, we developed BC in a pointed form and evaluated its applicability as a novel material for dental canal treatment with regard to solution absorption, expansion, tensile strength, drug release and biocompatibility. We found that BC has excellent material and biological characteristics compared with conventional materials, such as paper points (plant cellulose). BC showed noticeably higher absorption and expansion than paper points, and maintained a high tensile strength even when wet. The cumulative release of a model drug was significantly greater from BC than from paper points, and BC showed greater compatibility than paper points. Taken together, BC has great potential for use in dental root canal treatment. PMID:23268234

  12. Position of Totally Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation: An Alternative Method of Conduction Testing

    PubMed Central

    Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Haldar, Shouvik; Soliman, Rafik F.B.; Fatullayev, Javid; Jones, David; Hussain, Wajid; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Markides, Vias; Wong, Tom; Bahrami, Toufan

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in surgical techniques and understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation has led to the development of a less invasive thoracoscopic surgical treatment including video-assisted bilateral pulmonary vein isolation using bipolar radiofrequency ablation clamps. More recently, the same operation became possible via a totally thoracoscopic approach. In this paper we describe technical aspects of the thoracoscopic approach to surgical treatment of AF and discuss its features, benefits and limitations. Furthermore, we present a new alternative technique of conduction testing using endoscopic multi-electrode recording catheters. An alternative electrophysiological mapping strategy involves a multi-electrode recording catheter designed primarily for percutaneous endocardial electrophysiologic mapping procedure. According to our initial experience, the recordings obtained from the multi-electrode catheters positioned around the pulmonary veins are more accurate than the recordings obtained from the multifunctional ablation and pacing pen. The totally thoracoscopic surgical ablation approach is a feasible and efficient treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation. The conduction testing can be easily and rapidly performed using a multifunctional pen or multi-electrode recording catheter. PMID:25904211

  13. Alternative treatment of restless legs syndrome: an overview of the evidence for mind-body interventions, lifestyle interventions, and neutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bega, Danny; Malkani, Roneil

    2016-01-01

    Conventional pharmacologic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be limited in some people. Up to 65% of patients with RLS regularly use alternative practices for symptom relief. We reviewed the current clinical evidence, and we proposed physiologic basis for various alternative practices for RLS including mind-body interventions (conventional exercise, yoga, and acupuncture), non-pharmacologic lifestyle interventions (pneumatic compression devices [PCDs], light therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT]), and neutraceuticals (vitamins, valerian, and Chinese herbs). Based on the available evidence, regular physical activity should be recommended for the treatment of RLS symptoms. Oral iron supplementation should be considered for people with RLS who have low ferritin levels, although criteria to identify probable responders, and optimal formulations and durations of treatment are needed. Supplementation for low levels of vitamins E, C, and D could be considered, although evidence specifically in RLS is limited, and it is unclear if levels should routinely be checked in patients with RLS. Insufficient evidence exists for yoga, acupuncture, PCDs, near-infrared light therapy, CBT, valerian, or Chinese herbs, but preliminary studies on each of these suggest that high-quality randomized controlled trials may be warranted to support and verify the data presented. PMID:26847981

  14. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-01-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management. PMID:22690168

  15. Development of the Use of Alternative Cements for the Treatment of Intermediate Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.; Godfrey, I.H.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes initial development studies undertaken to investigate the potential use of alternative, non ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based encapsulation matrices to treat historic legacy wastes within the UK's Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) inventory. Currently these wastes are encapsulated in composite OPC cement systems based on high replacement with blast furnace slag of pulverised fuel ash. However, the high alkalinity of these cements can lead to high corrosion rates with reactive metals found in some wastes releasing hydrogen and forming expansive corrosion products. This paper therefore details preliminary results from studies on two commercial products, calcium sulfo-aluminate (CSA) and magnesium phosphate (MP) cement which react with a different hydration chemistry, and which may allow wastes containing these metals to be encapsulated with lower reactivity. The results indicate that grouts can be formulated from both cements over a range of water contents and reactant ratios that have significantly improved fluidity in comparison to typical OPC cements. All designed mixes set in 24 hours with zero bleed and the pH values in the plastic state were in the range 10-11 for CSA and 5-7 for MP cements. In addition, a marked reduction in aluminium corrosion rate has been observed in both types of cements compared to a composite OPC system. These results therefore provide encouragement that both cement types can provide a possible alternative to OPC in the immobilisation of reactive wastes, however further investigation is needed. (authors)

  16. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories.

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Glue Injection as Alternative Treatment of Femoral Pseudoaneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Aytekin, Cueneyt; Firat, Ali; Yildirim, Erkan; Kirbas, Ismail; Boyvat, Fatih

    2004-11-15

    The interventional angiographic techniques using the percutaneous femoral approach for endovascular revascularization are becoming increasingly more popular. These methods usually require larger sheaths, and most patients need postprocedural anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. As a consequence, the interventional procedure is associated with a higher rate of complications at the arterial entry site compared to diagnostic angiography. The reported incidence of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm formation after coronary artery interventions ranges from 3.2% to 7.7%, and the rates noted after diagnostic angiography range from 0.2% to 1%. Peripheral pseudoaneurysms have traditionally been treated by surgical intervention, but nonsurgical alternatives, such as ultrasound (US)-guided compression, coil embolization, stent-graft placement, and percutaneous thrombin injection with or without balloon occlusion have also been documented. Of these alternatives, direct percutaneous embolization with embolic agents is the most popular method. The tissue adhesive n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (Hystoacryl) (B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) is one of the most popular occluding agents for neurovascular interventions, and has been widely used for more than 20 years [5,6]. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and utility of direct percutaneous injection of NBCA for embolization of femoral pseudoaneurysms.

  18. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories. PMID:23988463

  19. Chemotherapeutic treatment efficacy and sensitivity are increased by adjuvant alternating electric fields (TTFields)

    PubMed Central

    Kirson, Eilon D; Schneiderman, Rosa S; Dbalý, Vladimír; Tovaryš, František; Vymazal, Josef; Itzhaki, Aviran; Mordechovich, Daniel; Gurvich, Zoya; Shmueli, Esther; Goldsher, Dorit; Wasserman, Yoram; Palti, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Background The present study explores the efficacy and toxicity of combining a new, non-toxic, cancer treatment modality, termed Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields), with chemotherapeutic treatment in-vitro, in-vivo and in a pilot clinical trial. Methods Cell proliferation in culture was studied in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and human glioma (U-118) cell lines, exposed to TTFields, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and dacarbazine (DTIC) separately and in combinations. In addition, we studied the effects of combining chemotherapy with TTFields in an animal tumor model and in a pilot clinical trial in recurrent and newly diagnosed GBM patients. Results The efficacy of TTFields-chemotherapy combination in-vitro was found to be additive with a tendency towards synergism for all drugs and cell lines tested (combination index ≤ 1). The sensitivity to chemotherapeutic treatment was increased by 1–3 orders of magnitude by adjuvant TTFields therapy (dose reduction indexes 23 – 1316). Similar findings were seen in an animal tumor model. Finally, 20 GBM patients were treated with TTFields for a median duration of 1 year. No TTFields related systemic toxicity was observed in any of these patients, nor was an increase in Temozolomide toxicity seen in patients receiving combined treatment. In newly diagnosed GBM patients, combining TTFields with Temozolomide treatment led to a progression free survival of 155 weeks and overall survival of 39+ months. Conclusion These results indicate that combining chemotherapeutic cancer treatment with TTFields may increase chemotherapeutic efficacy and sensitivity without increasing treatment related toxicity. PMID:19133110

  20. The use of glucosamine, devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), and acupuncture as complementary and alternative treatments for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Marcus; Grundmann, Oliver

    2011-09-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory conditions seen in the general population. Current pharmacological treatments focus on reduction of pain and increased mobility to improve overall quality of life. However, the relief afforded by current standard care is often insufficient and can be associated with significant side effects. Many patients, therefore, seek the option of non-standard therapies, such as nutritional and herbal supplements, acupuncture, and exercise regimens. Glucosamine, Harpagophytum procumbens, and acupuncture are among the most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine approaches utilized by patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Their clinical relevance, safety, and potential mechanisms of action are discussed in this review. PMID:21951024

  1. Economic evaluation of alternative wastewater treatment plant options for pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Koken, Emre

    2010-11-15

    Excessive water consumption in pulp and paper industry results in high amount of wastewater. Pollutant characteristics of the wastewater vary depending on the processes used in production and the quality of paper produced. However, in general, high organic material and suspended solid contents are considered as major pollutants of pulp and paper industry effluents. The major pollutant characteristics of pulp and paper industry effluents in Turkey were surveyed and means of major pollutant concentrations, which were grouped in three different pollution grades (low, moderate and high strength effluents), and flow rates within 3000 to 10,000m(3)/day range with 1000m(3)/day steps were used as design parameters. Ninety-six treatment plants were designed using twelve flow schemes which were combinations of physical treatment, chemical treatment, aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Detailed comparative cost analysis which includes investment, operation, maintenance and rehabilitation costs was prepared to determine optimum treatment processes for each pollution grade. The most economic and technically optimal treatment processes were found as extended aeration activated sludge process for low strength effluents, extended aeration activated sludge process or UASB followed by an aeration basin for medium strength effluents, and UASB followed by an aeration basin or UASB followed by the conventional activated sludge process for high strength effluents.

  2. Alternative treatments for withdrawing the long-term benzodiazepine user: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nathan, R G; Robinson, D; Cherek, D R; Sebastian, C S; Hack, M; Davison, S

    1986-02-01

    Anxiolytic therapy with benzodiazepines and their potential for dependence are reviewed. Relaxation training and biofeedback have been used for chemically dependent anxious patients. These techniques have been recommended for benzodiazepine-dependent patients, but not investigated. Previous withdrawal studies offer only limited follow-up data. Stress management treatment was based on a successful case study. Recruitment difficulties were encountered. However, seven patients were randomly assigned to stress management or brief psycho-therapy. All showed improvement, but three of four patients available for 1 year follow-up had returned to pretreatment dependence. These withdrawal difficulties suggest the need for more effective treatments and more adequate follow-up studies.

  3. Alternative treatment for open bite Class III malocclusion in a child with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Giovanni Modesto; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino; da Rocha, Denise Falcão Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Laudimar Alves; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 20,000 - 50,000 live births. WBS children have specific skeletal deformities, dental malformations and rare lingual muscle dysfunction. The need for orthodontic and orthognathic therapy has arisen and has been considered a real clinical challenge even for experienced professionals, once it requires a complex and individualized treatment plan. This study reports a case of orthopedic expansion of the maxilla, in which a modified facial mask was used for protraction of the maxillary complex associated with clockwise rotation of the maxilla. In addition, special considerations about treatment time and orthopedic outcomes are discussed. PMID:25741831

  4. Mutagenicity study of butachlor and its metabolites using Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuei-Yao; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Lin, Jen-Kun; Kuo, Wein-Shung; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2005-12-01

    Butachlor is the most commonly used herbicide in Taiwan and many other countries. It has been reported to be an indirect mutagen and carcinogen in various in vitro assay systems. Previous investigation has also demonstrated that butachlor stimulates cell proliferation, transforms normal embryonic cells, and induces stomach tumors in Spraque-Dawley rats. However, the mechanism of butachlor carcinogenicity is still not clear. In order to clarify the toxicologic and carcinogenic properties of butachlor, we proposed a metabolic pathway, and synthesized the authentic metabolites by chemical methods. In addition, we tested the mutagenicity of butachlor and these metabolites on Salmonella typhimurium. The results indicate that butachlor might manifest its carcinogenicity via the mutagenicity of its metabolic products. Although the molecular mechanism of butachlor-induced cellular toxicity is still not clear, it is likely that the cellular transformation ability of butachlor is partly associated with its mutagenicity.

  5. Inhibitory effect of hemin on the mutagenic activities of carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, S; Negishi, T; Hayatsu, H

    1980-11-01

    An inhibitory effect of hemin on mutagenicities of a range of carcinogens was found by adding hemin to the preincubation mixture of the Ames' test. Strong inhibitions were observed for benzo[alpha]pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, 7,10-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene, chrysene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 2-nitrofluorene and aflatoxin B1. Generally, 50% inhibition was caused by an amount of hemin 1--2 equivalents to the mutagen. Excess of hemin caused complete inhibitions. Hemin did not affect the mutagenicities of 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, nitromin, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, N-nitrosodi-n-butyl-amine, quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide and carbadox. Biliverdin, bilirubin and chlorophyllin were also effective as inhibitors for the mutagenicity of benzo[alpha]pyrene. PMID:7226136

  6. Mutagenic Activity of Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Tamara Regina; Cardoso, Cássia Regina Primila; da Silva Moura, Adriana Candido; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Colus, Ilce Mara Syllos; Vilegas, Wagner; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa, are used as a source of indigo dye and to treat several diseases. The mutagenic activity of the methanolic extracts from aerial parts, glycerolipid, flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of the extract were evaluated by means of Salmonella/microsome assays using TA100, TA98, TA102 and TA97a strains. The methanolic extract of I. truxillensis showed mutagenic activity in the TA98 strain without S9 while glycerolipid fraction was devoid of activity. The flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of both plants showed mutagenicity. Chemical analysis of flavonoid fractions of I. truxillensis and I. suffruticosa resulted in the identification of kaempferol, quercetin and their derivatives. The alkaloid fraction of both the species contained indigo and indirubin and indigo was found mainly responsible for the mutagenic activity. PMID:19696193

  7. Detection of mutagenicity in mussels and their ambient water

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, Shohei; Hayatsu, Hikoya; Ogata, Masana )

    1989-10-01

    Mussels provide an excellent system for monitoring marine pollutants: the system is often called mussel watch. Investigators have reported the susceptibility of this organism to petroleum hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors showed the applicability of this organism to monitor oil pollutions by detecting organosulfur compounds in field samples. In the present study, they undertook the mutagen screening of mussel bodies and ambient water, and investigated the correlation between the mussel- and water-mutagenicities. Mutagenic compounds being detected here are those adsorbable to blue cotton or blue rayon and extractable with a methanol-ammonia solution, and the Ames assay was used for the detection of mutagenicity, with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 as the ester strain and with S9-mix for metabolic activation.

  8. Chemical mutagens: principles and methods for their detection

    SciTech Connect

    de Serres, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the development and validation of short-term assays designed to detect the mutagenic effects of environmental chemicals. Topics considered include the grasshopper neuroblast short-term assay for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on chromosomes and cell kinetics, a comparison of the mutagenic responses of lung-derived and skin-derived human diploid fibroblast populations, the L-arabinose resistance test with Salmonella typhimurium, the Bacillus subtilis multigene sporulation test for the detection of environmental mutagens, the L5178Y/TK gene mutation assay system, the induction of bacteriophage lambda by DNA-interacting chemicals, the granuloma pouch assay, the use of multiply marked Escherichia coli K12 strains in the host-mediated assay, and the detection of mutagens in human feces as an approach to the discovery of causes of colon cancer.

  9. Treatment of Nematodes with Ozone Gas: A Sustainable Alternative to Nematicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msayleb, Nahed; Ibrahim, Saiid

    This study tests Ozone as a Nematicides' alternative. Nematode-infected soil samples were treated with ascending doses of O3 by submerging the outlet of an "MB1000 Ozone Generator" in the 40 ml samples; then to test the O3 nematicidal effect by gas fumigation, Ozone gas was released into a sealed bag containing 80 g of each of the 6 nematode-infected soil samples with ascending doses and a repetition of each. With water-ozonation, 900 mg O3 were needed to kill 100% of nematodes, and the O3-Nematodes LD50 was identified by 420 mg. With the second experiment, O3 soil fumigation for 50 minutes at a dose of 1,125 mg in an air volume of 5 litres, were needed to control 95% of living nematodes.

  10. Problems and Alternatives of Settlement Lagoons for Mine Water Treatment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Kil

    2015-04-01

    A field test and computational flow analysis were conducted to identify the structural problems with existing settlement lagoons and to propose effective alternatives. When it comes to existing settlement lagoons without any specifically designed internal structure, mine water flows along a specific route while other regions remained stagnant. Such a flow pattern along a specific region causes a significant reduction in retention time as well as the ineffective use of the space in a settlement lagoon. When applying the modified settlement lagoon design proposed in this study, the flow distribution of mine drainage became uniform and the time taken for mine drainage to reach the outlet was improved by as much as 360 times and the exchange efficiency was significantly enhanced from 14.5% to 82.7%.

  11. Is preemptive antifungal therapy a good alternative to empirical treatment in prolonged febrile neutropenia?

    PubMed

    Koch, Erica; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-06-09

    Patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia are at high risk of invasive fungal infection, so it has been standard practice to initiate empirical antifungal therapy in these cases. However, this strategy is associated with important toxicity, so diagnostic test-guided preemptive antifungal therapy has been proposed as an alternative. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including twelve studies overall. Four randomized controlled trials addressed the question of this article. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether preemptive strategy affects mortality because the certainty of the evidence is very low, but it might slightly decrease the use of antifungal agents in patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia.

  12. Alternative approaches to Hsp90 modulation for the treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jessica A; Forsberg, Leah K; Blagg, Brian SJ

    2015-01-01

    Hsp90 is responsible for the conformational maturation of newly synthesized polypeptides (client proteins) and the re-maturation of denatured proteins via the Hsp90 chaperone cycle. Inhibition of the Hsp90 N-terminus has emerged as a clinically relevant strategy for anticancer chemotherapeutics due to the involvement of clients in a variety of oncogenic pathways. Several immunophilins, co-chaperones and partner proteins are also necessary for Hsp90 chaperoning activity. Alternative strategies to inhibit Hsp90 function include disruption of the C-terminal dimerization domain and the Hsp90 heteroprotein complex. C-terminal inhibitors and Hsp90 co-chaperone disruptors prevent cancer cell proliferation similar to N-terminal inhibitors and destabilize client proteins without induction of heat shock proteins. Herein, current Hsp90 inhibitors, the chaperone cycle, and regulation of this cycle will be discussed. PMID:25367392

  13. Is preemptive antifungal therapy a good alternative to empirical treatment in prolonged febrile neutropenia?

    PubMed

    Koch, Erica; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia are at high risk of invasive fungal infection, so it has been standard practice to initiate empirical antifungal therapy in these cases. However, this strategy is associated with important toxicity, so diagnostic test-guided preemptive antifungal therapy has been proposed as an alternative. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including twelve studies overall. Four randomized controlled trials addressed the question of this article. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether preemptive strategy affects mortality because the certainty of the evidence is very low, but it might slightly decrease the use of antifungal agents in patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia. PMID:27280389

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine use, Patient Reported Outcomes, and Treatment Satisfaction among Men with Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Zeliadt, Steven B.; Blough, David K.; Fedorenko, Catherine R.; Fairweather, Megan E.; McDermott, Cara L.; Penson, David F.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Hamilton, Ann S.; Arora, Neeraj K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We sought to evaluate the association between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, satisfaction with treatment, and patient-reported outcomes following treatment. Methods The Prostate CAncer Therapy Selection Study (PCATS) prospectively surveyed patients newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer about their treatment decision making process and outcomes. The PCATS study recruited patients in three geographic areas through hospital-based urology clinics and community urology practices. Results More than 700 patients completed the baseline and follow-up surveys. More than 50% of respondents reported using CAM, 39% if prayer was excluded as a type of CAM. In multivariate analysis, factors related to communication with the treating physician, but not CAM use, were associated with treatment satisfaction. The likelihood of stability or improvement in urinary, bowel, and sexual function at 6 months was related to the choice of primary therapy, but unrelated to CAM use. Conclusions In this prospective observational study, CAM use was highly prevalent but unrelated to treatment satisfaction or changes in functional status. The impact of CAM on these endpoints remains to be established in comparative effectiveness studies. PMID:22546381

  15. Assessment of the quality and toxicity of the discharges of a wastewater treatment plant and alternatives to improve its operation.

    PubMed

    Robles-Vargas, Daniel; Montoya-Castillo, Sandra Margarita; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Jauregui-Rincón, Juan; Rodríguez-Valadez, Francisco Javier; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies represent a serious ecological problem worldwide. In underdeveloped and developing countries wastewater treatment plants (WTP) only count with basic treatment, leading to the pollution of important aquatic reservoirs causing critical situations. In the present work, a one year evaluation of toxicity and main physical and chemical parameters of one of the major WTP of the state of Aguascalientes was conducted fortnightly, and to assess treatment alternatives for this WTP we tested: a) three white rot fungi (WRF), b) a photo-electrochemical process, c) ion-exchangers resins and activated carbon. The 3 WRF exhibited high COD removal from influents (72 - 95 %) but only Phanerochaete chrysosporium reached significant toxicity removals (70 and 55 %, for an influent and an effluent, respectively). Treatments with electrochemical advanced oxidation processes resulted with the highest toxicity and COD removals (96 % for both parameters) in comparison to biological and physicochemical treatments. Adsorption with activated carbon, zeolite and chelex ion-exchange resins removed 60 - 90 % of COD and 60 - 99 % toxicity. These results could be used to improve operation of the Industrial Park WTP and to plan future modifications to the plant. PMID:22375542

  16. Summer pruning: an ecological alternative to postharvest calcium treatment to improve storability of high quality apple cv. 'Reinette du Canada'.

    PubMed

    Guerra, M; Casquero, P A

    2010-08-01

    Two strategies, summer pruning and postharvest Ca treatment, were studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. 'Reinette du Canada' in order to analyze its effect on the fruit quality during storage. Summer pruning and Ca treatment reduced external and internal bitter-pits; so after 180 days of storage, both treatments decreased external bitter-pit by 10.0% and 16.7%, respectively. Summer pruning influenced color, firmness, total soluble solids and titratable acidity (TA) of fruit during storage, whereas Ca treatment only affected firmness and TA. Fruit from pruned trees had significant lower K and Mg than those from unpruned trees and Ca treatment increased Ca content. Orchard management, by means of summer pruning, combined with Ca postharvest application would be useful to prevent losses due to bitter-pit during storage in commercial orchards. However, in organic orchards, summer pruning would be the ecological alternative to decrease bitter-pit incidence during storage in high quality apple cv. 'Reinette du Canada'. K/Ca ratio, on the peel at harvest, turned out to be the best parameter to correlate with external and internal bitter-pits during storage; so this ratio would be useful to predict bitter-pit on long-term storage.

  17. Nitrogen Control Through Decentralized Wastewater Treatment: Process Performance and Alternative Management Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decentralized or onsite wastewater treatment (OWT) systems have long been implicated in being a major source of N inputs to surface and ground waters and numerous regulatory bodies have promulgated strict total N (TN) effluent standards in N-sensitive areas. These standards, howe...

  18. Healing Childhood Ear Infections: Prevention, Home Care, and Alternative Treatment. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Michael A.

    This book describes current controversy in medical journals over existing treatments for chronic childhood earaches. It suggests that the causes of otitis media are a series of events which flourish when poor nutrition occurs, noting that careful attention to diet and nutrition to prevent food allergies, and the use of acupressure, homeopathic…

  19. Sanitizing with peracetic acid (PAA)- An alternative treatment to use in aquaculture ...?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the lack of approved treatments for fish disease, disinfectants were tested to treat fish pathogens. One of these substances is peracetic acid (PAA). PAA is an agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harmful ...

  20. Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Elms, Amy Nicole-Marie; Ruding, Lisa Ann

    2003-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition in which persons experience negative health effects in multiple organ systems from exposure to low levels of common chemicals. Although symptoms experienced from particular chemicals vary across persons, they are generally stable within persons. The sensitivities often spread over time, first to related chemicals and then to other classes of chemicals. This study examined self-reported perceived treatment efficacy of 101 treatments used by 917 persons with self-reported MCS. Treatments examined included environmental medicine techniques, holistic therapies, individual nutritional supplements, detoxification techniques, body therapies, Eastern-origin techniques, newer therapies, prescription items, and others. The three most highly rated treatments were creating a chemical-free living space, chemical avoidance, and prayer. Both creating a chemical-free living space and chemical avoidance were rated by 95% of respondents as helpful. Results for most therapies were mixed. Participants had consulted a mean of 12 health care providers and spent over one-third of their annual income on health care costs. We discuss this drain on personal resources and describe respondents' attitudes toward the possibility of healing from MCS. PMID:12948890

  1. Can Subcision with the Cannula be an Acceptable Alternative Method in Treatment of Acne Scars?

    PubMed Central

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali; Lotfi, Elahe; Nickkholgh, Elmira; Salehi, Bahareh; Shokrani, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Most people who experience the acne suffer from damage under the surface of their skin which causes saucer-like depressions or pits on their skin. Sometimes the skin loses its underlying support and develops fibrous bands of tissue between the skin and subcutaneous layer, which pull on the epidermis and cause a wavy texture called as rolling scar. Treatment of acne scars is a therapeutic challenge that may require multiple modalities. Subcision is a procedure that has been reported as a beneficial method in the treatment of rolling acne scars. Although Subcision is a valuable method, its efficacy is mild to moderate because of the high recurrence rate and patients dissatisfaction due to some side effects include post procedure inflammation. Materials and methods: This pilot study is a clinical trial. The 8 patients suffered from mild to severe rolling acne scars on their face with symmetrical distribution of lesions, underwent Subcision with the Cannula No 18 and 21 and followed-up for 3 months. Outcomes of Subcision procedures were assessed by 3 board certified dermatologists (blind) after 2 session of treatment. The patients’ satisfaction was considered to compare with dermatologist’s opinions. The degree of improvement and satisfaction of the treatment estimated with these points: poor: 0, fine: 1-3, good: 4-6, and very good: 7-9. The data were finally analyzed with SPSS-18 software. Results: Subcision with the Cannula showed good and very good improvement in about 88% of patient with a satisfaction good and very good improvement in all of patients (100%). Assessment of photographic data showed 100% improvement in scar depth, topography and overall appearance of acne scars. The average numbers of lesions before the treatment were 24.8 ± 12.1 and after treatment it was reduced to 12.8 ± 2.1 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Subcision with the Cannula appears to be a safe method with high efficacy in the treatment and high satisfaction in

  2. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  3. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-03-14

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant. PMID:15726100

  4. Examination of some fragrance substances for mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Hanna, P J; Briggs, M H

    1984-11-01

    We tested 64 perfumes and aftershaves for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100; most were tested both with and without metabolic activation. None of the test compounds gave a positive mutagenic response. The available amounts of some test samples were very small, however, and the possibility that larger samples might have produced positive results cannot be altogether discounted. Some tests indicated the presence of cytotoxic substances which require chemical analysis.

  5. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of heated foods

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Johansson, M.; Jones, A.L.; Blakley, M.; Felton, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cooked foods were extracted and analyzed for mutagenic activity and assayed for known heterocyclic amines (HAs) by the Ames/Salmonella test and HPLC, respectively. Fried meats contain HAs (predominantly PhIP, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and A{alpha}C) that are potent promutagens in bacteria, mutagenic in cultured mammalian cells, and carcinogenic in rodents and in nonhuman primates. Meats contain levels ranging from undetectable (< 0.1 ppb) to 50 ppb of known HAs when fried at temperatures from 190 to 250{degrees}C. These identified compounds are responsible for ca 75% of the measured mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98. Barbecued beef and chicken have up to several thousand TA98 revertants per gram (rev/g) of cooked meat, with only ca 30% of the mutagenic activity accounted for by known heterocyclic amines. Some heated nonmeat foods also contain potent mutagenic activity. Toasted breads, cereals and snack foods have 0 to 10 TA98 rev/g, but overtoasting yields up to 40 rev/g, wheat and gluten-containing products are associated with higher activity. Grain-based coffee-substitute powders and instant coffees have 190 to 380 rev/g in TA98, and 1100 to 4000 rev/g in strain YG1024. The identify of the compounds responsible for the mutagenic activity are unknown in these non-meat foods. Toasted grain-based foods probably contribute less than 10% of the total mutagenic activity of the diet, with meat products responsible for the reminder. The finding of varying amounts of known and unknown mutagens in some cooked foods may be responsible for the poorly understood variation in human cancer incidence worldwide.

  6. Food mutagens: The role of cooked food in genetic changes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Of all the toxic substances producing during cooking, the most important are likely to be the heterocyclic amines. For 17 years, LLNL researchers have been identifying these food mutagens, measuring their abundance in cooked foods typical of the Western diet, working to understand how they can trigger malignant tumors in laboratory animals that have been exposed to high mutagen doses, and estimating the importance of human exposures. Our success is largely a function of the interdisciplinary approach we have taken to quantify food mutagens and to study their biological effects. LLNL investigators were the first to identify five of the most important mutagens in heated food, including PhIP and DiMeIQx. We have shown that fried beef may be the most important single source of heterocyclic amines in the human diet and the PhIP accounts for most of the combined mass of mutagens in fried beef cooked well-done. Most nonmeat foods contain low or undetectable levels of these types of compounds, but some cooked protein-containing foods, such as those high in wheat gluten, have significant levels of unknown aromatic amine mutagens. Cooking time and temperature significantly affect the amounts of mutagens generated. For example, reducing the frying temperature of ground beef from 250 to 200{degrees}C lowers the mutagenic activity by six- to sevenfold. Microwave pretreatment of meat and discarding the liquid that is formed also greatly reduces the formation of heterocyclic amines. Our related work on dose and risk assessment will be described in a forthcoming article.

  7. Pharmacological Alternatives for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Wasp and Bee Venoms and Their Components as New Neuroactive Tools

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Juliana; Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Gomes, Flávia; Lopes, Kamila; dos Anjos, Lilian; Campos, Gabriel; Arenas, Claudia; Biolchi, Andréia; Gonçalves, Jacqueline; Galante, Priscilla; Campos, Leandro; Mortari, Márcia

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are relentlessly progressive, severely impacting affected patients, families and society as a whole. Increased life expectancy has made these diseases more common worldwide. Unfortunately, available drugs have insufficient therapeutic effects on many subtypes of these intractable diseases, and adverse effects hamper continued treatment. Wasp and bee venoms and their components are potential means of managing or reducing these effects and provide new alternatives for the control of neurodegenerative diseases. These venoms and their components are well-known and irrefutable sources of neuroprotectors or neuromodulators. In this respect, the present study reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms of action and future prospects regarding the use of new drugs derived from wasp and bee venom in the treatment of major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PMID:26295258

  8. Restraint fading and the development of alternative behaviour in the treatment of self-restraint and self-injury.

    PubMed

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A; Smith, R G; Vollmer, T R

    1994-04-01

    Restraint fading and differential reinforcement were used to reduce the self-injurious behaviour (SIB) and self-restraint of a profoundly retarded man. The variables maintaining both behaviours could not be identified via pre-treatment functional analysis; however, self-restraint exerted at least some stimulus control over SIB. In Phase 1, the subject's topography of self-restraint (wrapping arms in shirt) was replaced with another topography (wrapping wrists in towel) that could be more easily faded to a headband. However, the subject's restraints could not be completely faded, and any movement was accompanied by SIB; thus, in Phase 2, a compliance training procedure was implemented to reduce his SIB while increasing time out of restraint. In Phase 3, the subject was taught to mand for edibles during training sessions. Results indicated that restraint fading combined with the development of alternative behaviour could be an effective treatment procedure for those who engage in both self-restraint and SIB.

  9. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac), with or without vitamins A and C, in plant and animal model systems.

    PubMed

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Mariucci, R G; Mantovani, M S; Vicentini, V E P

    2014-01-28

    Fluoxetine, commonly known as Prozac, is the first representative of the so-called new generation of antidepressants that promise efficacy, with few side effects, against deep depression, nervous bulimia, and anxiety. As there is a growing number of people suffering from anxiety and depression; consequently, the use of fluoxetine is also increasing. Verifying absence of drug effects such as cytotoxicity or mutagenicity is of great importance. Certain vitamins, such as vitamin A (retinol, retinoids) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) protect and are extremely active against mutagens. We evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic activity of fluoxetine, with and without concomitant administration of vitamin A or C, in Allium cepa meristem cells and Wistar rat bone marrow cells. The A. cepa meristem cells showed fluoxetine cytotoxicity; concomitant treatment with vitamin A or C proved non-protective. Treatment of Wistar rats with fluoxetine intraperitoneally or via gavage did not affect cell division or cause clastogenic effects. Vitamin A and C did not affect the cytotoxicity or mutagenicity of fluoxetine in the rat cells.

  10. Effect of microwave pretreatment on heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Felton, J S; Fultz, E; Dolbeare, F A; Knize, M G

    1994-10-01

    To investigate a method to reduce the amount of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines formed during frying of ground beef, the mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98 was assessed and the amount of known heterocyclic amines was determined by solid-phase extraction and HPLC. The beef patties received microwave treatment for various times before frying. Microwave pretreatment for 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 3 min before frying at either 200 degrees C or 250 degrees C for 6 min per side reduced heterocyclic aromatic amine precursors (creatine, creatinine, amino acids, glucose), water, and fat up to 30%, in the patties and resulted in a decrease in mutagenic activity up to 95%. The sum of the four heterocyclic aromatic amines shown to be present--2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)--decreased three- to nine-fold compared with control, non-microwaved beef patties fried under identical conditions.

  11. Safety and mutagenicity evaluation of red mold dioscorea fermented from Monascus purpureus NTU 568.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Chuan; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Hong, Chih-Chun; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Monascus-fermented products, including red mold rice and red mold dioscorea, have been developed as functional foods with many health benefits. We performed safety and mutagenic evaluations on red mold dioscorea powder (RMDP) fermented from Monascus purpureus NTU 568. The results of Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 showed that RMDP (⩽5 mg/plate) was not mutagenic. The mammalian chromosomal aberration test showed that the number of Chinese hamster ovary cells with abnormal chromosomes was <3% after RMDP treatment (maximum concentration: 5 mg/mL). Imprinting control region mice were used to estimate the genotoxicity of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) did not show significant differences in the number of reticulocytes or the occurrence of micronucleated reticulocytes. A 28-day oral toxicity assay in Sprague-Dawley rats was performed to investigate the no observed adverse effect level of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) caused no toxicological responses such as mortality, variation in body weight, or toxicopathologic lesions. Thus, RMDP from M. purpureus NTU 568 shows no significant mutagenic or toxic effects.

  12. Evaluation of the Mutagenic Properties of Two Lignans from Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chang-Eui

    2013-01-01

    Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai, a well known traditional herb grown in Jeju Island, South of Korea, has been used as a tonic and sedative agent, as well as in the treatment of diabetes and immune diseases. Mutagenicity of two lignans, syringaresinol and tortoside A isolated from A. koreanum, was assessed using Salmonella/microsome (Ames) test. Tester strains used were Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The mutagenic activity was determined both in the absence or presence of S9 mixture. As a result, tortoside A did not cause any increase in the number of his+ revertants in S. typhimurium and E. coli WP2uvrA strains in the presence or absence of S9 mix, compared to the controls. Similarly, low concentrations of syringaresinol (750 and 1,500 μg/plate) did not show any mutagenic properties in all bacterial strains, in the presence or absence of S9 mixture. However, in the high concentration of syringaresinol (3,000 μg/plate), the number of revertants were increased in TA1535 strains, in the absence of S9 metabolic activation. Therefore, in vivo experiments such as comet assay are needed to further determine the genotoxic/carciogenic potential of syringaresinol isolated from A. koreanum. PMID:24578798

  13. Mutagenic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities of Scandix pecten-veneris L.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Tayeboon, G S; Miri, A; Sharifi-Rad, M; Setzer, W N; Fallah, F; Kuhestani, K; Tahanzadeh, N; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-05-30

    Scandix pecten-veneris L. or Shepherd's-needle is a weed species used in some countries for medicinal purposes. In this study S. pecten-veneris leaves were shade dried, powdered and extracted with methanol. The purpose of this study was to assay the in vitro mutagenic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities of S. pecten-veneris leaf extract. The methanolic extract indicated no mutagenicity when tested with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Antimutagenic activity was reported with inhibition of mutagenicity in a concentration dependent fashion. The methanolic extract demonstrated antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging test (IC50 = 4.57 mg/mL), comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT. Moreover, the extract presented a remarkable and potent inhibition against soybean lipoxygenase (IC50 = 641.57 µg/mL). The methanolic extract was examined for its antimicrobial powers against four different bacteria with MIC values >100. Our results introduced this plant as a useful factor for the treatment of cancer, inflammatory and infectious diseases.

  14. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle fuel... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538. 536.10 Section 536.10 Transportation Other Regulations...

  15. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle fuel... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538. 536.10 Section 536.10 Transportation Other Regulations...

  16. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle fuel... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538. 536.10 Section 536.10 Transportation Other Regulations...

  17. Challenging sequential approach to treatment resistant depression: cost-utility analysis based on the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(⁎)D) trial.

    PubMed

    Olgiati, Paolo; Bajo, Emanuele; Bigelli, Marco; Montgomery, Stuart; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    In major depression, when a first antidepressant does not cause remission of symptoms (60%-75%), there are several options for continuing treatment in the next step. This study is a cost-utility analysis (CUA) of different second-line approaches. In a simulated trial outpatients with MDD were treated with citalopram for 13 weeks (level 1), then based on two alternative algorithms implemented from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(*)D) study. Algorithm A: citalopram was continued until study endpoint (week 26). Algorithm B: patients who remitted during level 1 continued citalopram. Those who did not remit could opt for switching to another antidepressant (venlafaxine; sertraline) (b1) or adding bupropion to citalopram treatment (augmentation; b2). Algorithm B increased remission rate by 10.6% over Algorithm A (number needed to treat: 9.9; sensitivity range: 9.1-12.5). As a comparison, differences between active antidepressants and placebo are associated with NNT values of 6 to 8. In CUA Algorithm B was dominant with an ICER of $11,813 (sensitivity range=$1783 - $21,784), which is <1GDP per capita cost-effectiveness threshold (USA=$47,193). Among Algorithm B options, switching (b1) dominated Algorithm A with a smaller number of responders than augmentation approach (b2) (NNT 11 vs. 7.7), whereas ICER values were similar (b1: $14,738; b2: $15,458). However we cannot exclude a bias in selecting second treatment. This cost-utility analysis shows (in line with current guidelines) a benefit in modifying antidepressant treatment if response to first-line agent does not occur within 3 months, but not a clear-cut evidence in terms of NNT.

  18. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of lipid-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Aye, Mélanie; Di Giorgio, Carole; Berque-Bestel, Isabelle; Aime, Ahissan; Pichon, Benoit P; Jammes, Yves; Barthélémy, Philippe; De Méo, Michel

    2013-01-20

    We proposed to evaluate the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of a new quantum dots (QDs) nanoplatform (QDsN), consisting of CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs encapsulated by a natural fusogenic lipid (1,2-di-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)) and functionalized by a nucleolipid N-[5'-(2',3'-di-oleoyl) uridine]-N',N',N'-trimethylammoniumtosylate (DOTAU). This QDs nanoplatform may represent a new therapeutic tool for the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. The genotoxic, mutagenic and clastogenic effects of QDsN were compared to those of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)). Three assays were used: (1) the Salmonella/microsome assay with four tester strains, (2) the comet assay and (3) the micronucleus test on CHO cells. The contribution of simulated sunlight was studied in the three assays while oxidative events were only explored in the comet assay in aliquots pretreated with the antioxidant l-ergothioneine. We found that QDsN could enter CHO-K1 cells and accumulate in cytoplasmic vesicles. It was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/mutagenicity test whereas CdCl(2) was weakly positive. In the dark, both the QDsN and CdCl(2) similarly induced dose-dependent increases in single-strand breaks and micronuclei. Exposure to simulated sunlight significantly potentiated the genotoxic activities of both QDsN and CdCl(2), but did not significantly increase micronucleus frequencies. l-Ergothioneine significantly reduced but did not completely suppress the DNA-damaging activity of QDsN and CdCl(2). The present results clearly point to the genotoxic properties and the risk of long-term adverse effects of such a nanoplatform if used for human anticancer therapy and diagnosis in the future.

  19. Mutagenicity in emissions from coal- and oil-fired boilers.

    PubMed Central

    Alfheim, I; Bergström, J G; Jenssen, D; Møller, M

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of emission samples from three oil-fired and four coal-fired boilers have been compared by using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Very little or no mutagenic activity was observed in samples from five of these boilers. The sample from one oil-fired boiler showed mutagenic activity of about 500 revertants/MJ, and the sample from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor had an activity of 58,000 revertants/MJ measured with strain TA 98 in the absence of metabolic activation. All samples contained substances that were cytotoxic to the test bacteria, thus making it difficult to obtain linear dose-response curves. Mutagenic activity at low levels may remain undetected due to this toxicity of the samples. Samples with mutagenic activity below the detection limit in the Salmonella test have also been tested for forward mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 hamster cells. Weak mutagenic effects were detected in two of the samples, whereas the sample from one oil-fired boiler remained negative. In this test, as well as in the Salmonella test, a strong cytotoxic effect could be observed with all samples. PMID:6825617

  20. Mutagenic Potency of Food-Derived Heterocyclic Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Wu, R W; Colvin, M E; Hatch, F T; Malfatti, M A

    2006-10-26

    The understanding of mutagenic potency has been primarily approached using ''quantitative structure activity relationships'' (QSAR). Often this method allows the prediction of mutagenic potency of the compound based on its structure. But it does not give the underlying reason why the mutagenic activities differ. We have taken a set of heterocyclic amine structures and used molecular dynamic calculations to dock these molecules into the active site of a computational model of the cytochrome P-450 1A1 enzyme. The calculated binding strength using Boltzman distribution constants was then compared to the QSAR value (HF/6-31G* optimized structures) and the Ames/Salmonella mutagenic potency. Further understanding will only come from knowing the complete set of mutagenic determinants. These include the nitrenium ion half-life, DNA adduct half-life, efficiency of repair of the adduct, and ultimately fixation of the mutation through cellular processes. For two isomers, PhIP and 3-Me-PhIP, we showed that for the 100-fold difference in the mutagenic potency a 5-fold difference can be accounted for by differences in the P450 oxidation. The other factor of 20 is not clearly understood but is downstream from the oxidation step. The application of QSAR (chemical characteristics) to biological principles related to mutagenesis is explored in this report.