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Sample records for alternative starting materials

  1. Alternative starting materials for industrial processes.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J W

    1992-01-01

    In the manufacture of chemical feedstocks and subsequent processing into derivatives and materials, the U.S. chemical industry sets the current standard of excellence for technological competitiveness. This world-class leadership is attributed to the innovation and advancement of chemical engineering process technology. Whether this status is sustained over the next decade depends strongly on meeting increasingly demanding challenges stimulated by growing concerns about the safe production and use of chemicals without harmful impacts on the environment. To comply with stringent environmental regulations while remaining economically competitive, industry must exploit alternative benign starting materials and develop environmentally neutral industrial processes. Opportunities are described for development of environmentally compatible alternatives and substitutes for some of the most abundantly produced, potentially hazardous industrial chemicals now labeled as "high-priority toxic chemicals." For several other uniquely important commodity chemicals where no economically competitive, environmentally satisfactory, nontoxic alternative starting material exists, we advocate the development of new dynamic processes for the on-demand generation of toxic chemicals. In this general concept, which obviates mass storage and transportation of chemicals, toxic raw materials are produced in real time, where possible, from less-hazardous starting materials and then chemically transformed immediately into the final product. As a selected example for semiconductor technology, recent progress is reviewed for the on-demand production of arsine in turnkey electrochemical generators. Innovation of on-demand chemical generators and alternative processes provide rich areas for environmentally responsive chemical engineering processing research and development for next-generation technology. Images PMID:11607260

  2. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  3. Life's Starting Materials Found in Dusty Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Full Image of Graph

    This graph, or spectrum, from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope tells astronomers that some of the most basic ingredients of DNA and protein are concentrated in a dusty planet-forming disk circling a young sun-like star called IRS 46. These data also indicate that the ingredients -- molecular gases called acetylene and hydrogen cyanide -- are located in the star's terrestrial planet zone, the region where scientists believe Earth-like planets would be most likely to form.

    The data were acquired by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which split light from the star's disk into distinct features characteristic of a particular chemical. The features, seen here as bumps and squiggles, are like bar codes used in supermarkets to identify different products. In this case, the products are the two DNA and protein precursors, acetylene and hydrogen cyanide, as well as carbon dioxide gas. All three gases are termed 'organic' because they contain the element carbon.

    The shapes of the features in this spectrum helped pinpoint the location of the gases in the star's disk. A feature's shape reflects the temperature of the gas. By comparison with model spectra, astronomers were able to deduce that the gases are present in regions where the temperature ranges from approximately the boiling point of water on Earth (212 degrees Fahrenheit), to nearly a thousand degrees Fahrenheit. Such hot temperatures place the gases in the star's terrestrial planet zone, which is sometimes referred to as the 'Goldilocks' zone because it is just right for Earths.

    Acetylene and hydrogen cyanide are some of life's most basic starting materials. If you mix them together in a test tube with water, and give them some kind of surface on which to be concentrated and react, you'll get a slew of organic compounds, including many of the 20 essential amino acids and one of the four chemical units, called bases, that make up

  4. Alternate film dielectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C. . Neutron Devices Dept.); Harris, J.O.; Martinez, J.I. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents data on polymeric dielectric films evaluated to support the design of high-energy-density capacitors. Evaluated materials include polycarbonate (two sources), polyphenylene sulfide, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyethermide (three sources), polyimide (four sources), polyethersulfone, and polyetherether ketone. A polyester was evaluated as the control material since many of our prior designs utilized this dielectric. The film evaluations were based on dielectric constant and dissipation factor variation as a function of temperature from {minus}55{degree}C to 300{degree}C, as well as dielectric breakdown strength. Additionally, film/foil capacitors in a dry, wrap-and-fill configuration were fabricated and tested to determine insulation resistance, breakdown voltage, and radiation hardness. Results will be presented for all the evaluations based on the several criteria. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Complimentary and alternative medicine use among patients starting warfarin.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Nadine A; Kenny, Martin W; Davies, Graham; Patel, Jignesh P

    2005-09-01

    The use of complimentary and alternative medicines (CAM) among the UK population is on the increase. For patients requiring warfarin therapy, it is important to maintain an adequate and safe level of anticoagulation. As some forms of CAM can interact with warfarin, it is imperative that any patient considered for warfarin, is asked about their use of CAM. Our report describes the incidence and type of CAM usage among patients about to start or recently commenced on warfarin therapy attending our outpatient anticoagulant clinic. All patients attending clinic for the first time were seen by a pharmacist. A retrospective analysis of the pharmaceutical care plans for all patients seen during 2003 were analysed regarding the degree of CAM usage. Of 631 care plans reviewed, 170 (26.9%) patients were taking some form of CAM. Ninety-nine (58% of all CAM users) were taking a CAM that could interact with warfarin; the commonest forms were cod-liver oil capsules and garlic capsules. We conclude that many patients new to warfarin therapy were significant users of CAM, many of which had the potential to interact with warfarin. By taking a full drug history, potential CAM/warfarin interactions could be avoided. PMID:16115136

  6. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  7. Alternate capacitor dielectric film materials

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    New high-temperature, high-energy density, and high-radiation tolerant capacitor applications require the evaluation of alternate dielectric materials. Evaluation work was performed at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque. US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for capacitor function and environments are unique, and the representations included in this report do not constitute an endorsement of any material or manufacturer. This report presents data on polymeric dielectric films evaluated to support the design of new high-energy density capacitors. Materials which were evaluated include polycarbonate (two sources), polyphenylene sulfide, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyetherimide (three sources), polyimide (four sources), polyethersulfone, and polyetherether ketone. A polyester was evaluated as the control material since many prior designs utilized this dielectric. The film evaluations were based on dielectric constant and dissipation factor variation as a function of temperature ({minus}55{degree}C to 300{degree}C) as well as dielectric breakdown strength. Additionally, film/foil capacitors in a dry wrap-and-fill configuration were fabricated and tested to determine insulation resistance, breakdown voltage, and radiation hardness. Results are given for all evaluations. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Improved Starting Materials for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An improved type of starting materials for the fabrication of silicon-based imaging integrated circuits that include back-illuminated photodetectors has been conceived, and a process for making these starting materials is undergoing development. These materials are intended to enable reductions in dark currents and increases in quantum efficiencies, relative to those of comparable imagers made from prior silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting materials. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the improved starting materials and process. A prior SOI starting material, depicted in the upper part the figure, includes: a) A device layer on the front side, typically between 2 and 20 m thick, made of p-doped silicon (that is, silicon lightly doped with an electron acceptor, which is typically boron); b) A buried oxide (BOX) layer (that is, a buried layer of oxidized silicon) between 0.2 and 0.5 m thick; and c) A silicon handle layer (also known as a handle wafer) on the back side, between about 600 and 650 m thick. After fabrication of the imager circuitry in and on the device layer, the handle wafer is etched away, the BOX layer acting as an etch stop. In subsequent operation of the imager, light enters from the back, through the BOX layer. The advantages of back illumination over front illumination have been discussed in prior NASA Tech Briefs articles.

  9. Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K. A.; Schmidt, F. A.; Frerichs, A. E.; Ament, K. A.

    2013-08-20

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La1-xRx)(Ni1-yMy)(Siz), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  10. 20 CFR 404.242 - Use of old-start primary insurance amount as guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of old-start primary insurance amount as guaranteed alternative. 404.242 Section 404.242 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts...

  11. Fluoride glass starting materials - Characterization and effects of thermal treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, William; Dunn, Bruce; Shlichta, Paul; Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The production of heavy metal fluoride (HMF) glasses, and the effects of thermal treatments on the HMF glasses are investigated. ZrF4, BaF2, AlF3, LaF3, and NaF were utilized in the synthesis of zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum-sodium fluoride glass. The purity of these starting materials, in particular ZrF4, is evaluated using XRD analysis. The data reveal that low temperature heating of ZrF4-H2O is effective in removing the water of hydration, but causes the production of ZrF4 and oxyfluorides; however, dehydration followed by sublimation results in the production of monoclinic ZrFe without water or oxyfluoride contaminants.

  12. Feasibility Study of Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Permanent Magnet Alternator Start Sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Tokars, Roger P.

    2006-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission was a proposed, (recently cancelled) long duration science mission to study three moons of Jupiter: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. One design of the JIMO spacecraft used a nuclear heat source in conjunction with a Brayton rotating machine to generate electrical power for the electric thrusters and the spacecraft bus. The basic operation of the closed cycle Brayton system was as follows. The working fluid, a heliumxenon gas mixture, first entered a compressor, then went through a recuperator and hot-side heat exchanger, then expanded across a turbine that drove an alternator, then entered the cold-side of the recuperator and heat exchanger and finally returned to the compressor. The spacecraft was to be launched with the Brayton system off-line and the nuclear reactor shut down. Once the system was started, the helium-xenon gas would be circulated into the heat exchangers as the nuclear reactors were activated. Initially, the alternator unit would operate as a motor so as to drive the turbine and compressor to get the cycle started. This report investigated the feasibility of the start up sequence of a permanent magnet (PM) machine, similar in operation to the alternator unit, without any position or speed feedback sensors ("sensorless") and with a variable load torque. It is found that the permanent magnet machine can start with sensorless control and a load torque of up to 30 percent of the rated value.

  13. REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

  14. Starting Point: Linking Methods and Materials for Introductory Geoscience Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, R. H.; Merritts, D.; Savina, M.

    2004-12-01

    Introductory courses are one of the most challenging teaching environments for geoscience faculty. Courses are often large, students have a wide variety of background and skills, and student motivation can include completing a geoscience major, preparing for a career as teacher, fulfilling a distribution requirement, and general interest. The Starting Point site (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/index.html) provides help for faculty teaching introductory courses by linking together examples of different teaching methods that have been used in entry-level courses with information about how to use the methods and relevant references from the geoscience and education literature. Examples span the content of geoscience courses including the atmosphere, biosphere, climate, Earth surface, energy/material cycles, human dimensions/resources, hydrosphere/cryosphere, ocean, solar system, solid earth and geologic time/earth history. Methods include interactive lecture (e.g think-pair-share, concepTests, and in-class activities and problems), investigative cases, peer review, role playing, Socratic questioning, games, and field labs. A special section of the site devoted to using an Earth System approach provides resources with content information about the various aspects of the Earth system linked to examples of teaching this content. Examples of courses incorporating Earth systems content, and strategies for designing an Earth system course are also included. A similar section on Teaching with an Earth History approach explores geologic history as a vehicle for teaching geoscience concepts and as a framework for course design. The Starting Point site has been authored and reviewed by faculty around the country. Evaluation indicates that faculty find the examples particularly helpful both for direct implementation in their classes and for sparking ideas. The help provided for using different teaching methods makes the examples particularly useful. Examples are chosen from

  15. Directory of Head Start Audiovisual Professional Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilds, Thomas, Comp.

    The directory contains over 265 annotated listings of audiovisual professional training materials related to the education and care of preschool handicapped children. Noted in the introduction are sources of the contents, such as lists of audiovisual materials disseminated by a hearing/speech center, and instructions for use of the directory.…

  16. Getting Started: Materials and Equipment for Active Learning Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nancy

    This book provides information to guide the development of an active learning early childhood program by assisting in the selection of materials and equipment to support children's cognitive, physical and social development. The guide considers the arrangement of classroom areas, and elements of the daily routine. The following classroom interest…

  17. The B2 aluminides as alternative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of the B2 aluminides as structural material alternatives for the strategic element containing superalloys currently used in gas turbine engines is being explored with emphasis on the equiatomic Fe and Ni aluminides. Although Co is a strategic material, the equiatomic Co aluminide is also being studied to gain a more complete understanding of these fourth period intermetallics. Research focuses on initial processing techniques such as ingot melting, power metallurgy, and rapid solidification with and without additional thermomechanical processing; high temperature deformation - primarily compressive creep; compositional effects within the binary B2 aluminides; third-element alloying addition effects on high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, and near room temperature ductility as influenced by processing, alloying, and grain size. Various programs now underway are reviewed and some highlights of research results are presented.

  18. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine1. Although the efficient laboratory syntheses of alkaloids would enable researchers to study and optimize their biological properties,2 the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways – for example, through stereochemical instability and neighboring group participation – complicates their preparation in the laboratory. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen3; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduce additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies4. In this manuscript, we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest-linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route employs several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages conferred by the use of aromatic starting materials. PMID:26375010

  19. Cobalt Nanocrystals as Starting Materials for Shape Modificationand Assembly Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdonmez, Can Kerem

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant-coated cobalt nanocrystals can be prepared with areasonable degree of control over particle size and shape using athermolytic route. The small crystallite size, enhanced reactivity andtunable interparticle interactions enable use of this material asstarting material for demonstration of achievement of novel structuresusing extremely simple solution-based approaches. In particular,formation of hollow cobalt sulfide nanocrystals upon chemicalmodification and emergence of long-range orientational order upondrying-mediated assembly of cobalt nanocrystals is reportedhere.Colloidal preparation of Co nanocrystals has been well-studied.Here, we emphasize general principles and crystallographic/morphologicalcharacterization of disk-shaped hcp-Co nanocrystals. Use of surfactantmolecules enables achievement of multiple morphologies in one syntheticsystem.Formation of hollow structures upon in-solution sulfidation of Conanocrystals is presented and discussed. A Kirkendall-type effect,involving dominant outward mass transport during formation of the ionicshell material explains the results naturally. It is expected that thisphenomenon will generalize extensively to formation of hollow structuresof an enormous variety of compositions. Detailed study of particlemorphology as a function of reaction conditions suggest phenomena likelyto be generally relevant to use of this approach. A short report ofcrystallographic co-alignment into vortex-like structures is alsoprovided. Our current best picture of this process involves an interplayof packing and magnetic interactions between facetedparticles.

  20. New lightweight x-ray optics: alternative materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulinova, M.; Hudec, R.; Sik, J.; Lorenc, M.; Pina, L.; Semencova, V.

    2009-05-01

    Future space X-ray astronomy and astrophysics projects require accurate but light and high throughput multiple nested X-ray optics. The Czech Republic started being the full member of ESA in November, 2008 and the participant in the innovative technology developments for the new space mission represents the natural continuation of the efforts of the Czech team in development of innovative X-ray telescopes, focusing on particular demands and requirements of a concrete project, with emphasis on fully new and light-weight technologies. We will report not only on silicon or glass but also on other alternative materials such as SiC or glossy carbon, which could be considered as suitable materials for the producing of precise light weight X-ray optics due to their physical and chemical properties.

  1. Head Start's Impact Is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data ("n" = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this article examined the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral…

  2. Research study for gel precursors as glass and ceramic starting materials for space processing applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, R. L.; Miller, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of techniques for the preparation of glass and ceramic starting materials that will result in homogeneous glasses or ceramic products when melted and cooled in a containerless environment is described. Metal-organic starting materials were used to make compounds or mixtures which were then decomposed by hydrolysis reactions to the corresponding oxides. The sodium tungstate system was chosen as a model for a glass with a relatively low melting temperature. The alkoxide tungstates also have interesting optical properties. For all the compositions studied, comparison samples were prepared from inorganic starting materials and submitted to the same analyses.

  3. Alternative Approaches to Group IV Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedaker, Matthew Loren

    In the pursuit of energy efficiency, there is a demand for systems capable of recovering waste heat. A temperature gradient across a thermoelectric material results in the thermal diffusion of charge carriers from the hot side to the cold side, giving rise to a voltage that can be used to convert waste heat to electricity. Silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys are the standard materials used for thermoelectric generators at high temperatures. We report an alternative method for preparing p-type Si1- xGex alloys from a boron-doped silica-germania nanocomposite. This is the first demonstration of the thermoelectric properties of SiGe-based thermoelectrics prepared at temperatures below the alloy's melting point through a magnesiothermic reduction of the (SiO 2)1-x(GeO2) x. We observe a thermoelectric power factor that is competitive with the literature record for the conventionally prepared SiGe. The large grain size in our hot pressed SiGe limits the thermoelectric figure of merit to 0.5 at 800°C for an optimally doped p-type Si80Ge 20 alloy. A phosphorus-doped oxide can yield n-type Si1- xGex; however, the current processing method introduces a background boron content that compensates ~10% of the donor impurities and limits the thermoelectric power factor. Spark plasma sintering of the nano-Si1-xGe x yields a heterogeneous alloy with thermal conductivity lower than that of the hot pressed homogeneous alloy due to a reduction in the average crystallite size. Magnesiothermic reduction in the presence of molten salts allows some control over crystallite growth and the extent of Si-Ge alloying.

  4. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-09-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents.

  5. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, Brendan T; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-09-24

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents. PMID:26375010

  6. Training Migrant Paraprofessionals in Bilingual Mini Head Start. Mexican Cultural Heritage Materials for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermea, Maria Teresa Cruz

    Given in this manual are materials used in the Bilingual Mini Head Start Program to teach migrant preschool children about their Mexican cultural heritage. Presented in Spanish, the activities include pronunciation exercises, rhymes, tales, songs, dances, games, and manual activities. Materials are given for teaching about: (1) El Dia de la…

  7. So You Want To Start an Alternative School! A How-To-Do-It Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Judith K.

    The practical steps outlined in this manual are based on the experience of establishing Marquette (Michigan) Alternative Senior High (MASH), organized in 1978 to serve rural youth who had dropped out or were not benefiting significantly from the regular high school programs. Chapters are organized in chronological progression and each refers to…

  8. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  9. Status and prognosis for alternative engine materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1988-01-01

    The current state of research and development of new materials for advanced aircraft engines is reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of intermetallic compounds and refractory metals as replacements for today's nickel-base alloys are discussed along with some results of research directed at overcoming some of the problems which restrict their application. It is concluded that continuous fiber reinforced intermetallic matrix composites offer one of the best chances for success. However, major technical barriers still exist, especially in the development of suitable fibers. The introduction of these materials into aircraft engines is expected to take in excess of 5 to 10 years.

  10. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Kish, Joseph; Singbeil, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  11. Determination of component mobilities in bimineralic reaction rims using isotopically doped starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachim, Bastian; Abart, Rainer; Höschen, Carmen; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2013-04-01

    Rim growth experiments were performed between monticellite (CaMgSiO4) single crystals and wollastonite (CaSiO3) powder at 900° C and 1.2 GPa to produce bimineralic diopside (CaMgSi2O6) + merwinite (Ca3MgSi2O8) reaction rims. Symmetrical makeup of the internal rim microstructure implies that rims grow from the original interface towards both reactants at identical rates, indicating that solely MgO-diffusion controls overall rim growth with logD (MgO) = -16.3 ± 0.2 m2s-1 (Joachim et al. 2012). Presence of ppm-amounts of water significantly affects the internal rim microstructure. At "very dry" condition, a lamellar microstructure of alternating palisade-shaped diopside and merwinite grains elongated normal to the reaction front is generated, indicating that CaO and SiO2-mobilities are significantly smaller compared to the MgO-mobility. In presence of minute amounts of water a segregated multilayer microstructure with almost perfectly monomineralic merwinite - diopside - merwinite layers oriented parallel to the reaction front develops, indicating a sufficient additional mobility of either CaO or SiO2 compared to MgO. We used isotopically doped wollastonite (44Ca29SiO3) to identify, which component mobility, CaO or SiO2, is enhanced in presence of ppm amounts of water. Both, 44Ca stemming from the wollastonite as well as 40Ca stemming from the monticellite are distributed across the entire rim. In addition to that, small amounts of 40Ca are found within the wollastonite and substantial amounts of 44Ca are found in the monticellite starting material. In contrast to that, 28Si and 29Si remain in the regions that were originally occupied by their respective source materials monticellite and wollastonite, indicating that the SiO2-mobility is comparatively low. This suggests that the presence of small amounts of water significantly enhances the relative mobility of CaO. Consequently minute amounts of water may not only affect overall rim growth kinetics but also the

  12. Evolution of sourdough microbiota in spontaneous sourdoughs started with different plant materials.

    PubMed

    Ripari, Valery; Gänzle, Michael G; Berardi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of sourdough in bakeries may include the use of inocula, e.g. fruits, flowers or rumen cuts to accelerate the process of selection of suitable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of these inocula on the microbial evolution in sourdoughs. First, the microbiota of nineteen traditional sourdoughs that were initially started with diverse inocula was identified. Second, de novo sourdoughs were started with plant materials and the evolution of sourdough microbiota was investigated by culture, and by high-resolution melting curve quantitative PCR (HRM-qPCR). This study developed a new protocol for HRM-qPCR analysis of yeast microbiota in sourdough, and indicates this independent culture method suitable for characterization of yeasts. Microbiota of traditional sourdoughs were largely independent from the use of inoculum, however, Acetobacter spp. were identified only in sourdoughs started with apple flowers or apple pulp. In de novo sourdoughs started with plant materials, microbiota rapidly stabilized, and were characterized by Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus graminis, or Lactobacillus rossiae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as dominant species. Competition experiments revealed that the ecological fitness of L. plantarum, L. graminis, and L. rossiae in wheat or rye malt sourdoughs was lower when compared to L. sanfranciscensis, demonstrating that their presence in de novo sourdoughs reflects dispersal limitation. In conclusion, establishment of microbiota in de novo sourdoughs is dispersal limited. This study provides scientific support for the artisanal practice to inoculate de novo sourdoughs with flowers, berries, or related plant material. PMID:27240218

  13. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steve; Moore, D.

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  14. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  15. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    PubMed Central

    Beyth, Nurit; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Domb, Avi; Khan, Wahid; Hazan, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present review discusses the activities of nanoparticles as an antimicrobial means, their mode of action, nanoparticle effect on drug-resistant bacteria, and the risks attendant on their use as antibacterial agents. Factors contributing to nanoparticle performance in the clinical setting, their unique properties, and mechanism of action as antibacterial agents are discussed in detail. PMID:25861355

  16. Quantum Interactive Dualism: An Alternative to Materialism

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P

    2005-06-01

    Materialism rest implicitly upon the general conception of nature promoted by Galileo and Newton during the seventeenth century. It features the causal closure of the physical: The course of physically described events for all time is fixed by laws that refer exclusively to the physically describeable features of nature, and initial conditions on these feature. No reference to subjective thoughts or feeling of human beings enter. That simple conception of nature was found during the first quarter of the twentieth century to be apparently incompatible with the empirical facts. The founders of quantum theory created a new fundamental physical theory, quantum theory, which introduced crucially into the causal structure certain conscious choices made by human agents about how they will act. These conscious human choices are ''free'' in the sense that they are not fixed by the known laws. But they can influence the course of physically described events. Thus the principle of the causal closure of the physical fails. Applications in psycho-neuro-dynamics are described.

  17. Heat Treatments of ZnSe Starting Materials for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Palosz, W.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of different heat treatments on stoichiometry and residual gas pressure in ZnSe physical vapor transport system was investigated. The dependence of the amount and composition of the residual gas on various heat treatment procedures is reported. Heat treatment of ZnSe starting materials by baking under the condition of dynamic vacuum to adjust its stoichiometry was performed and the effectiveness of the treatment was confirmed by the measurements of the partial pressure of Se2, P(sub Se2), in equilibrium with the heat treated samples. Optimum heat treatment procedures on the ZnSe starting material for the physical vapor transport process are discussed and verified experimentally.

  18. Heat Treatments of ZnSe Starting Materials for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Palosz, W.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different heat treatments on stoichiometry and residual gas pressure in ZnSe physical vapor transport system was investigated. The dependence of the amount and composition of the residual gas on various heat treatment procedures is reported. Heat treatment of ZnSe starting materials by baking under the condition of dynamic vacuum to adjust its stoichiometry was performed and the effectiveness of the treatment was confirmed by the measurements of the partial pressure of Se2, P(sub Se2), in equilibrium with the heat treated samples. Optimum heat treatment procedures on the ZnSe starting material for the physical vapor transport process are discussed and verified experimentally.

  19. Start of fluidization of a bulk granular material in laminar flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhdestvenskii, O.I.; Bednyakov, G.E.; Zayats, E.I.; Kirillov, I.N.; Serebryakova, T.V.

    1982-04-20

    This report examines the usage and transformation of an equation of the form Re/sub cr/=Ar(1400+5.22/Ar) which is used in design calculations for determination of the velocity of the start of fluidization of a granular material bearing initial voidage e/sub o/=0.4. Variations of the Reynold's number corresponding to the Critical Fluidization velocity at various voidages of the granular bed and different values of the Archimedes number in laminar flow are presented. Results indicate that the equation cannot be recommended for use even for rough estimates of the bulk materials in laminar flow.

  20. Neutronic analysis of alternative structural materials for fusion reactor blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1988-07-01

    The neutronic performance of the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) blanket was studied when several alternative structural materials were used instead of the INTOR reference structural material, type 316 stainless steel. The alternative structural materials included: ferritic-, vanadium-, titanium-, long range ordered-, manganese austenitic-, and nimonic-alloys. All were treated both with and without a first-wall coating of beryllium or graphite. The tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, and the gas (hydrogen and helium) production rates in the structural materials were calculated for the possible combinations of structural material and first-wall coating. These parameters were compared with those obtained by using SS-316. The nimonic alloy was the only one with worse neutronic performance than the SS-316.

  1. A new synthesis of brassinosteroids with a cholestane framework based on a highly functionalized starting material.

    PubMed

    Alshakova, Irina D; Ermolovich, Yuri V; Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2015-05-01

    A new route to the synthesis of minor brassinosteroids with a cholestane framework (28-norcastasterone and 28-norbrassinolide) has been proposed. It makes use of commercially available 24-epicastasterone as a starting material. In addition, [26,26,26-(2)H3]-28-norcastasterone and [26,26,26-(2)H3]-28-norbrassinolide have been prepared as tools for analytical applications. The key steps were regioselective manipulations of functional groups in 24-epicastasterone, oxidative cleavage of 22,23-diol group and Claisen rearrangement.

  2. Influence of production variables and starting material on charcoal stable isotopic and molecular characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Wormald, P.; Snape, C. E.; Apperley, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic study on the effect of starting species, gas composition, temperature, particle size and duration of heating upon the molecular and stable isotope composition of high density (mangrove) and low density (pine) wood. In both pine and mangrove, charcoal was depleted in δ 13C relative to the starting wood by up to 1.6‰ and 0.8‰, respectively. This is attributed predominantly to the progressive loss of isotopically heavier polysaccharides, and kinetic effects of aromatization during heating. However, the pattern of δ 13C change was dependant upon both starting species and atmosphere, with different structural changes associated with charcoal production from each wood type elucidated by Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. These are particularly evident at lower temperatures, where variation in the oxygen content of the production atmosphere results in differences in the thermal degradation of cellulose and lignin. It is concluded that production of charcoal from separate species in identical conditions, or from a single sample exposed to different production variables, can result in significantly different δ 13C of the resulting material, relative to the initial wood. These results have implications for the use of charcoal isotope composition to infer past environmental change.

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  4. Interlibrary Loan of Alternative Format Materials: A Balanced Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massis, Bruce E., Ed.; Vitzansky, Winnie, Ed.

    This document presents perspectives on, and a reference guide to internationally interlending materials in alternate formats (recordings, braille, large print). A questionnaire was sent to the world's known libraries serving the blind; results of the survey include specific lending information from 29 countries including: South Africa, Hong Kong,…

  5. Tissue-specific expression of the bovine aromatase-encoding gene uses multiple transcriptional start sites and alternative first exons.

    PubMed

    Fürbass, R; Kalbe, C; Vanselow, J

    1997-07-01

    Here we report on the genomic structure of the bovine aromatase cytochrome P450-encoding gene (Cyp19) and its tissue-specific transcript variants. The gene comprises at least 14 exons (1.1, 1.2a, 1.2b, 1.3,1.4, and 2-10) spanning more than 56 kilobases of genomic DNA. The coding area is confined to exons 2-10. Transcriptional start sites of Cyp19 were examined in granulosa cells, placenta, testis, adrenal gland, and brain, employing 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends) and primer extension. The analysis of 5'-RACE clones revealed six Cyp19 transcript variants that were different within their 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR). Yet, the coding region was identical in all clones. Although two of these 5'-UTR (the first 152 nucleotides of exon 2 and exon 1.4) are conserved among different species, four others (exons 1.1, 1.2a, 1.2b, and 1.3) did not show sequence homology to any other species. Transcription from exons 1.1 and 2 starts at several adjacent sites. In granulosa cells and placenta, but not in brain, a fraction of transcripts starting with exon 1.2a contains an additional untranslated exon, 1.2b, due to alternative splicing. Transcript variants comprising exon 1.1, 1.2a, 1.2b, or 1.3 were mainly found in the placenta, those with the 5'-UTR of exon 2 were predominant in granulosa cells, and transcripts with exon 1.4 prevailed in the brain. Estimates of Cyp19 transcript concentrations in six different tissues revealed high levels in granulosa cells and placenta, intermediate levels in testis and brain, and low levels in adrenal gland and liver. Our experiments demonstrate that six transcript variants of the bovine Cyp19 gene, including 9-11 exons, are expressed with tissue-specific preferences. These transcripts are presumably generated using five different promoter regions and tissue-specific alternative splicing. PMID:9202222

  6. Sweet potato starch residue as starting material to prepare polyacrylonitrile adsorbent via SI-SET-LRP.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhihai; Wang, Dongju; Chen, Hou; Sun, Jinming; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2014-02-26

    Sweet potato starch residue (SPSR) was used as starting material to prepare an eco-friendly adsorbent. SPSR was modified by bromoacetyl bromide to obtain a macroinitiator for surface-initiated single electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SI-SET-LRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) catalyzed by La(0)/hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of ascorbic acid (VC). The amidoxime (AO) adsorbent was prepared by the reaction of the graft copolymer bromoactylated sweet potato starch (BSPS)/polyacrylonitrile (BSPS-g-PAN) with hydroxylamine. The maximum adsorption capacity for Hg(II) was 4.03 mmol·g(-1). This simple method provided a novel approach to recycle and reuse agricultural residues for controlling heavy metal pollution. PMID:24512626

  7. Influence of starting material on the degassing behavior of trachytic and phonolitic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, Oliver; Marxer, Holger; Nowak, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    The dynamic magmatic processes beneath volcanic systems, occurring during magma ascent, cannot be observed directly in nature. Simulation of magma ascent in the lab realized by continuous decompression (CD) of a volatile containing melt is essential to understand these processes that may lead to potentially catastrophic eruptions threatening millions of people in highly populated areas like Naples located between the Campi Flegrei Volcanic Field and the Monte Somma-Vesuvio strato-volcano. In this project, experimental simulations of Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) magma ascent will give insight to the mechanisms of the CI super eruption, thus providing tools for volcanic hazard assessment at the high risk Campanian Volcanic District and other comparable volcanic systems. Additionally, comparable experiments with the same conditions using the 'white pumice' composition of the catastrophic Vesuvius AD 79 (VAD79) eruption, have been conducted. So far, the experiments were performed in an internally heated argon pressure vessel coupled with a high-pressure low-flow metering valve and a piezoelectric nano-positioning system using a starting pressure of 200 MPa, H2O content of about 5 wt% and two different decompression rates (0.024 and 0.17 MPa/s) at a superliquidus temperature of 1050 ° C to ensure a crystal free melt and a homogeneous bubble nucleation. Experiments were conducted with both, glass powder and cylinders, subsequently decompressed to 75 and 100 MPa and rapidly quenched. Beside the results that e.g. decompression rate, volatile content, fluid solubility and target pressure affect the degassing behavior of the melt, the influence of the starting material on the degassing processes is significant. Analyses of BSE- and transmitted light microscopy images revealed a different degassing behavior of glass cylinder experiments compared to powders. Nitrogen has a very low solubility in hydrous silicate melts, supporting our suggestion that preexisting nitrogen rich

  8. Alternative material study for heat assisted magnetic recording transducer application

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, B. X. Cen, Z. H.; Hu, J. F.; Tsai, J. W. H.

    2015-05-07

    In heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), optical near field transducer (NFT) is a key component. Au is currently used as NFT material because of its strong surface plasmon effect. Due to the soft property of Au material, reliability of Au NFT becomes a key issue for realizing HAMR production. In this paper, the possibility of alternative materials, including transition metal nitrides (TMNs) and transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) to replace Au is studied. The results show that all of the listed TMN and TCO materials can meet the mechanical requirements at room temperature in terms of hardness and thermal expansion. An optical model, which includes optical waveguide, NFT and FePt media, is used to simulate NFT performances. The results indicate that the resonant wavelengths for NFT with TCO materials are longer than 1500 nm, which is not suitable for HAMR application. TMN materials are suitable for NFT application at wavelength band of around 800 nm. But the NFT efficiency is very low. ZrN is the best material among TMN materials and the efficiency of ZrN NFT is only 13% of the Au NFT's efficiency. Reducing refractive index (n) and increasing extinction coefficient (k) will both lead to efficiency increase. Increasing k contributes more in the efficiency increase, while reducing n has a relatively low NFT absorption. For materials with the same figure of merit, the NFT with larger k material has higher efficiency. Doping materials to increase the material conduction electron density and growing film with larger size grain may be the way to increase k and reduce n.

  9. Effect of starting material particle size on its agglomeration behavior in high shear wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Sherif I Farag; Hussain, Munir A

    2004-05-11

    The effect of anhydrous lactose particle size distribution on its performance in the wet granulation process was evaluated. Three grades of anhydrous lactose were used in the study: "as is" manufacturer grade and 2 particle size fractions obtained by screening of the 60M lactose. Particle growth behavior of the 3 lactose grades was evaluated in a high shear mixer. Compactibility and porosity of the resulting granules were also evaluated. A uniaxial compression test on moist agglomerates of the 3 lactose grades was performed in an attempt to explain the mechanism of particle size effect observed in the high shear mixer. Particle growth of anhydrous lactose in the high shear mixer was inversely related to the particle size of the starting material. In addition, granulation manufactured using the grade with the smallest particle size was more porous and demonstrated enhanced compactibility compared with the other grades. Compacts with similar porosity and low liquid saturation demonstrated brittle behavior and their breakage strength was inversely related to lactose particle size in the uniaxial compression test, suggesting that material with smaller particle size may exhibit more pronounced nucleation behavior during wet granulation. On the other hand, compacts prepared at higher liquid saturation and similar compression force exhibited more plastic behavior and showed lower yield stress for the grade with smallest particle size. The lower yield stress of compacts prepared with this grade may indicate a higher coalescence tendency for its granules during wet granulation. PMID:15760071

  10. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. Results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Postconsolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  11. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-01

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot isostatic pressing (HEPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. The results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Post consolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  12. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carlos G; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities from the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to the reagent and the specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the reagent stocks had impurity profiles that differentiated them from one another. This was demonstrated by building classification models with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and obtaining average stock classification errors of 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, and 11% by cross-validation for chloroform (7 stocks), thionyl chloride (3 stocks), acetone (7 stocks), and TEA (3 stocks), respectively, and 0% for a validation set of chloroform samples. In addition, some reagent impurities indicative of reagent type were found in the HN3 batches that were originally present in the reagent stocks and presumably not altered during synthesis. More intriguing, impurities in HN3 batches that were apparently produced by side reactions of impurities unique to specific TEA and chloroform stocks, and thus indicative of their use, were observed. PMID:27116337

  13. Recommendation to replace PVC disposable shoe cover with alternative materials

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, A.E.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-17

    An alternative for disposable shoe covers presently fabricated from PVC (polyvinyl chloride) was investigated to minimize disposal costs. Plans are to incinerate these items for disposal. The exhaust from the incineration of PVC must be processed through a sodium hydroxide scrubber to remove the chlorides. A substantial cost savings ($70OK/yr) would be expected from replacing these supplies with similar items fabricated from a material that contains no chlorides. This report contains evaluations of submitted to the Savannah River Laboratory for testing.

  14. An alternative Biot's displacement formulation for porous materials.

    PubMed

    Dazel, Olivier; Brouard, Bruno; Depollier, Claude; Griffiths, Stéphane

    2007-06-01

    This paper proposes an alternative displacement formulation of Biot's linear model for poroelastic materials. Its advantage is a simplification of the formalism without making any additional assumptions. The main difference between the method proposed in this paper and the original one is the choice of the generalized coordinates. In the present approach, the generalized coordinates are chosen in order to simplify the expression of the strain energy, which is expressed as the sum of two decoupled terms. Hence, new equations of motion are obtained whose elastic forces are decoupled. The simplification of the formalism is extended to Biot and Willis thought experiments, and simpler expressions of the parameters of the three Biot waves are also provided. A rigorous derivation of equivalent and limp models is then proposed. It is finally shown that, for the particular case of sound-absorbing materials, additional simplifications of the formalism can be obtained.

  15. Tribological performance of some alternative bearing materials for artificial joints.

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, B.; Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G.; Erdemir, A.; Liang, H.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Alaska

    2003-08-01

    In current artificial joints consisting of metal or ceramic and polyethylene (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, UHMWPE) bearing surfaces, the wear debris of polyethylene is the main cause for shortening implant's life. In order to enhance the durability of human artificial joints, alternative bearing surfaces may be needed. In the present study, the tribological performance of several candidate implant materials, including the diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film coating on stainless steel were investigated. A pin-on-flat contact configuration in reciprocating sliding was used for preliminary materials evaluation and friction and wear testing. Test pairs were lubricated with bovine blood serum. The DLC coating sliding against uncoated stainless steel showed the lowest friction coefficient and very little, if any, wear. Wear mechanisms in tests of ceramics and steel pairs were primarily abrasive.

  16. Alternative comparison, analysis, and evaluation of solid waste and materials system alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact of solid waste technical options on values and objectives that are important to the public. It is written in support of the Solid Waste and Materials Systems Alternatives Study (WHC, 1995). Described are the values that were identified, the major programmatic risks, how the impacts were measured, the performance of alternatives, the methodology used for the analysis, and the implications of the results. Decision analysis was used to guide the collection and analysis of data and the logic of the evaluation. Decision analysis is a structured process for the analysis and evaluation of alternatives. It is theoretically grounded in a set of axioms that capture the basic principles of decision making (von Neuman and Morgenstern 1947). Decision analysis objectively specifies what factors are to be considered, how they are to be measured and evaluated, and heir relative importance. The result is an analysis in which the underlying rationale or logic upon which the decision is based is made explicit. This makes possible open discussion of the decision basis in which facts and values are clearly distinguished, resulting in a well- documented decision that can be clearly explained and justified. The strategy of decision analysis is to analyze the various components relevant to the decision separately and then integrate the individual judgments to arrive at an overall decision. This assures that all the relevant factors are identified and their relative importance is considered. The procedure for obtaining the individual judgments, and the decision rules, for combining them and evaluating alternatives, have both theoretical and empirical foundation in mathematics, economics, and psychology.

  17. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Corey R; Geist, William H; West, James D

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  18. Materials for Alternative Energies: Computational Materials Discovery and Crystal Structure Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Chris

    2013-03-01

    Many of the key technological problems associated with alternative energies may be traced back to the lack of suitable materials. The materials discovery process may be greatly aided by the use of computational methods, particular those atomistic methods based on density functional theory. In this talk, we present an overview of recent work on energy-related materials from density-functional based approaches. We have developed novel computational tools which enable accurate prediction of crystal structures for new materials (using both Monte Carlo and Genetic Algorithm based approaches), materials discovery via high-throughput, data mining techniques, and automated phase diagram calculations. We highlight applications in the area of Li battery materials and hydrogen storage materials.

  19. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    Increasing concerns for the escalating issues activated by the effect of carbon dioxide emissions on the global climate from extensive use of fossil fuels and the limited amount of fossil resources has led to an in-depth search for alternative energy systems, primarily based on nuclear or renewable energy sources. Recent innovations in the production of more efficient devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured materials into electrochemical systems. The aforementioned nano-electrochemical energy systems hold particular promise for alternative energy transportation related technologies including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical supercapacitors. In each of these devices, nanostructured materials can be used to increase the surface area where the critical chemical reactions occur within the same volume and mass, thereby increasing the energy density, power density, electrical efficiency, and physical robustness of the system. Durable corrosion resistant carbon support materials for fuel cells have been designed by adding conductive low cost carbon materials with chemically robust ceramic materials. Since a strict control of the pore size is mandatory to optimize properties for improved performance, chemical activation agents have been utilized as porogens to tune surface areas, pore size distributions, and composition of carbon-based mesoporous materials. Through the use of evaporative self-assembly methods, both randomly disordered and surfactant-templated, ordered carbon-silica nanocomposites have been synthesized with controlled surface area, pore volume, and pore size ranging from 50-800 m2/g, 0.025-0.75 cm3/g, and 2-10 nm, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) ranging from 0.05-1.0 wt. % were added to the aforementioned carbon-silica nanocomposites, which provided an additional increase in surface area and improved conductivity. Initially, a conductivity value of 0.0667 S

  20. Alternative materials lead to practical nanophotonic components (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, Nathaniel; Ferrera, Marcello; DeVault, Clayton; Kim, Jongbum; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2015-09-01

    Recently, there has been a flurry of research in the field of alternative plasmonic materials, but for telecommunication applications, CMOS compatible materials titanium nitride and doped zinc oxides are among the most promising materials currently available. TiN is a gold-like ceramic with a permittivity cross-over near 500nm. In addition, TiN can attain ultra-thin, ultra-smooth epitaxial films on substrates such as c-sapphire, MgO, and silicon. Partnering TiN with CMOS compatible silicon nitride enables a fully solid state waveguide which is able to achieve a propagation length greater than 1cm for a ~8μm mode size at 1.55μm. Utilizing doped zinc oxide films as a dynamic material, high performance modulators can also be realized due to the low-loss achieved by the TiN/Si3N4 waveguide. Simply by placing a thin layer of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) on top of the waveguide structure, a modulator with very low insertion loss is achieved. Our recent work has investigated optical tuning of AZO films by the pump-probe method, demonstrating a change in the refractive index of -0.17+0.25i at 1.3μm with an ultrafast response of 1ps. Assuming this change in the refractive index for the AZO film, a modulation of ~0.7dB/μm is possible in the structure with ~0.5dB insertion loss and an operational speed of 1THz. Further optimization of the design is expected to lead to an increased modulation depth without sacrificing insertion loss or speed. Consequently, nanophotonic technologies are reaching a critical point where many applications including telecom, medicine, and quantum science can see practical systems which provide new functionalities.

  1. How to Start Your Own Business. Women Entrepreneurs Project. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Barbara S.; McNamara, Patricia P.

    This text consisting of eight learning activities packages (LAP's) was developed during the California Women Entrepreneurs Project for use in a course designed to help women entrepreneurs learn how to start their own small business. The LAP's included here are self-paced, student-centered modules which take the learner step by step through the…

  2. DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Start-Up Experience (Alternative Fuel Transit Buses Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    2000-06-30

    This report, based on interviews and site visits conducted in October 1999, describes the start-up activities of the DART liquefied natural gas program, identifying problem areas, highlighting successes, and capturing the lessons learned in DART's ongoing efforts to remain at the forefront of the transit industry.

  3. 46 CFR 58.50-15 - Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate material for construction of independent fuel... Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks. (a) Materials other than those specifically... tank construction only if the tank as constructed meets material and testing requirements approved...

  4. 46 CFR 58.50-15 - Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternate material for construction of independent fuel... Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks. (a) Materials other than those specifically... tank construction only if the tank as constructed meets material and testing requirements approved...

  5. 46 CFR 58.50-15 - Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate material for construction of independent fuel... Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks. (a) Materials other than those specifically... tank construction only if the tank as constructed meets material and testing requirements approved...

  6. 46 CFR 58.50-15 - Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate material for construction of independent fuel... Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks. (a) Materials other than those specifically... tank construction only if the tank as constructed meets material and testing requirements approved...

  7. 46 CFR 58.50-15 - Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate material for construction of independent fuel... Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks. (a) Materials other than those specifically... tank construction only if the tank as constructed meets material and testing requirements approved...

  8. Use of pulp mill inorganic wastes as alternative liming materials.

    PubMed

    Cabral, F; Ribeiro, H M; Hilário, L; Machado, L; Vasconcelos, E

    2008-11-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation study was performed during 18 weeks under controlled conditions to assess the effects of applying different doses of pulp mill inorganic wastes on the physical-chemical properties of an acid Dystric Cambissol. Three different inorganic wastes were tested - wood ash, dregs and grits, and an agriculture limestone was used as reference. Results showed that increasing the dose applied of the different inorganic wastes tested always led to significant raises of soil pH at different incubation times demonstrating that its use as alternative-liming materials could be a valid and less expensive option to the use of commercial agricultural limestone. Moreover, no immediate concerns seem to be expected related to soil exchangeable sodium (Na) content, at least for the doses needed to increase soil pH until the targeted value 6.5. Particularly for wood ash a pronounced increase on soil extractable potassium and phosphorous was observed, indicating that besides the liming effect this waste can contribute to improve soil fertility by supplying significant available amounts of these nutrients. Finally, metals do not seem to be a limiting factor for the application to land of these by-products.

  9. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  10. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  11. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  12. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  13. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  14. Preparation of nanofluids based on solar salt and boehmite nanoparticles: Characterization of starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, B.; Nieto-Maestre, J.; Iparraguirre-Torres, I.; Sánchez-García, J. A.; Julia, J. E.; García-Romero, A.

    2016-05-01

    A nanofluid composed of Solar Salt (SS) and boehmite nanoparticles (A) in a concentration of 1% by weight, is proposed as thermal storage medium for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants. A wide characterization of the raw materials has been done, focused on their thermal stability and the nanoparticle primary size and shape among other properties such as its specific heat and crystalline structure. Some features of the final nanofluids have been also investigated: thermal stability, nanoparticle sizes and their distribution and specific heat. The showed results confirm that these materials are thermally stable in the working temperature range both individually and combined. In addition, the synthesis procedure implemented is effective to keep the nanoparticle sizes in the nanometric range (<100 nm). These findings mean the first step to carry on research and characterization of this nanofluid.

  15. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  16. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M.; Moore, L.R.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  17. Alternative Processing of High Temperature Hafnium and Zirconium Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Gusman, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of refractory hafnium and zirconium based materials are being investigated at NASA Ames as part of ongoing research aimed at developing superior heat resistant materials for aerospace applications. Hafnium and zirconium diboride based materials have shown high temperature capabilities in simulated reentry environments indicating that these materials may successfully operate as reusable oxidation resistant components for leading edge applications. Due to the refractory nature of these materials, processing of fine-grained uniform microstructures poses a number of challenges. To better understand the process-property-microstructure relationship, processing of these materials has been carried out with conventional hot pressing in addition to the novel approach of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The two processing methods are compared and contrasted in an evaluation of the sintering behavior of high temperature diboride based materials and preliminary physical and mechanical properties are presented.

  18. Dispersion, spatial growth rate, and start current of a Cherenkov free-electron laser with negative-index material

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Yanyu; Jiang, Xuebing; Tang, Xianfeng; Shi, Xianbao; Gong, Yubin; Li, Dazhi; Takano, Keisuke; Nakajima, Makoto; Feng, Jinjun; Miyamoto, Shuji

    2015-08-15

    We present an analysis of a Cherenkov free-electron laser based on a single slab made from negative-index materials. In this system, a flat electron beam with finite thickness travelling close to the surface of the slab interacts with the copropagating electromagnetic surface mode. The dispersion equation for a finitely thick slab is worked out and solved numerically to study the dispersion relation of surface modes supported by negative-index materials, and the calculations are in good agreement with the simulation results from a finite difference time domain code. We find that under suitable conditions there is inherent feedback in such a scheme due to the characteristics of negative-index materials, which means that the system can oscillate without external reflectors when the beam current exceeds a threshold value, i.e., start current. Using the hydrodynamic approach, we setup coupled equations for this system, and solve these equations analytically in the small signal regime to obtain formulas for the spatial growth rate and start current.

  19. Dispersion, spatial growth rate, and start current of a Cherenkov free-electron laser with negative-index material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Yanyu; Li, Dazhi; Takano, Keisuke; Nakajima, Makoto; Jiang, Xuebing; Tang, Xianfeng; Shi, Xianbao; Gong, Yubin; Feng, Jinjun; Miyamoto, Shuji

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of a Cherenkov free-electron laser based on a single slab made from negative-index materials. In this system, a flat electron beam with finite thickness travelling close to the surface of the slab interacts with the copropagating electromagnetic surface mode. The dispersion equation for a finitely thick slab is worked out and solved numerically to study the dispersion relation of surface modes supported by negative-index materials, and the calculations are in good agreement with the simulation results from a finite difference time domain code. We find that under suitable conditions there is inherent feedback in such a scheme due to the characteristics of negative-index materials, which means that the system can oscillate without external reflectors when the beam current exceeds a threshold value, i.e., start current. Using the hydrodynamic approach, we setup coupled equations for this system, and solve these equations analytically in the small signal regime to obtain formulas for the spatial growth rate and start current.

  20. Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Processing and interactions of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Chick, L.A.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. The overall approach for this research and development is to: minimize the number of cations in the electrode, electrolyte, and interconnection by developing yttrium compounds, such as Y(Ca)CrO{sub 3} as the interconnection, and Y(M{prime})MnO{sub 3} as the air electrode; develop advanced synthesis and fabrication processes for air sintering, below 1,500 C, of chromite interconnections through (1) the use of sintering aids; and (2) the synthesis of submicrometer powders; establish methods for the simultaneous processing and consolidation of air-sinterable powders; electrochemically evaluate interface reactions (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) for both the alternate and state-of-the-art materials and cell components developed under this program; and evaluate the chemical reactivity and interdiffusion effects that take place between the various fuel cell components: electrolyte/cathode, interconnect/cathode, and interconnect/anode. This paper describes a comprehensive study that assessed the processing of air-sinterable chromites, the sintering mechanism of chromites, and the chemical reactivity and interdiffusional effects between the interconnect, air, and fuel electrodes. Materials evaluated were La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31}CrO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.29}CrO{sub 3}, (Y{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}){sub 1.05}Cr{sub 0.95}O{sub 3}, La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, La{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}.

  1. CRADA (AL-C-2009-02) Final Report: Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl; Schmidt, Frederick; Frerichs, A. E.; Ament, Katherine A.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La{sub 1-x}R{sub x})(Ni{sub 1-y}M{sub y})(Si{sub z}), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  2. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  3. Heavy Duty and Industrial Alternative Fuel Applications. Forklift and Material Handling. Alternative Fuels Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Doug; Casto, Lori

    This training manual is designed to lay the foundation for trainers and technicians by showing the steps to achieve and maintain good indoor air quality through use of cleaner-burning forklifts and materials handlers. The first part of the manual consists of nine units that provide informational material and diagrams on these topics: comparison of…

  4. An alternative buildup material: combine dressing and liquid paraffin.

    PubMed

    Rykers, K; Trenkner, S

    1998-01-01

    A tissue substitute of combine dressing (gauze and cottonwool) soaked with liquid paraffin was found to be a practical, easily manufactured and inexpensive buildup material for use in treating radiation therapy patients with electron and photon beams. Tissue equivalence was measured for electron energies of 6, 9, 12, and 16 MeV and photon energies of 6 MV and 10 MV delivered by a Varian 2100C linear accelerator. The solid water equivalence of the combine dressing/liquid paraffin material was approximately 1.2 times the geometric thickness of tissue substitute material across all energies.

  5. A framework of analysis for field experiments with alternative materials in road construction.

    PubMed

    François, D; Jullien, A

    2009-01-01

    In France, a wide variety of alternative materials is produced or exists in the form of stockpiles built up over time. Such materials are distributed over various regions of the territory depending on local industrial development and urbanisation trends. The use of alternative materials at a national scale implies sharing local knowledge and experience. Building a national database on alternative materials for road construction is useful in gathering and sharing information. An analysis of feedback from onsite experiences (back analysis) is essential to improve knowledge on alternative material use in road construction. Back analysis of field studies has to be conducted in accordance with a single common framework. This could enable drawing comparisons between alternative materials and between road applications. A framework for the identification and classification of data used in back analyses is proposed. Since the road structure is an open system, this framework has been based on a stress-response approach at both the material and structural levels and includes a description of external factors applying during the road service life. The proposal has been shaped from a review of the essential characteristics of road materials and structures, as well as from the state of knowledge specific to alternative material characterisation.

  6. Testing of Alternative Materials for Advanced Suit Bladders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Makinen, Janice; Tang, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate advanced pressure bladder membrane materials have been developed for NASA Johnson Space Center by DSM Biomedical for selective permeability of carbon dioxide and water vapor. These materials were elasthane and two other formulations of thermoplastic polyether polyurethane. Each material was tested in two thicknesses for permeability to carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor. Although oxygen leaks through the suit bladder would amount to only about 60 cc/hr in a full size suit, significant amounts of carbon dioxide would not be rejected by the system to justify its use. While the ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen permeability is about 48 to 1, this is offset by the small partial pressure of carbon dioxide in acceptable breathing atmospheres of the suit. Humidity management remains a possible use of the membranes depending on the degree to which the water permeability is inhibited by cations in the sweat. Tests are underway to explore cation fouling from sweat.

  7. Press Start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  8. Electrolytic actuators: alternative, high-performance, material-based devices.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Colin G; Freund, Michael S

    2002-06-11

    The emerging field of materials-based actuation continues to be the focus of considerable research because of its inherent scalability and its promise to drive micromechanical devices that cannot be realized with conventional mechanical actuator strategies. The electrolytic phase transformation actuator offers a new broad-spectrum solution to the problem of direct conversion of electrical to mechanical energy. Strains of 136,000% and unoptimized work cycle efficiencies near 50% are demonstrated in a prototype device. Conceivably capable of generating stress beyond 200 MPa, this new approach promises performance orders of magnitude beyond other novel actuation strategies.

  9. DNA Sensors with Diamond as a Promising Alternative Transducer Material

    PubMed Central

    Vermeeren, Veronique; Wenmackers, Sylvia; Wagner, Patrick; Michiels, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Bio-electronics is a scientific field coupling the achievements in biology with electronics to obtain higher sensitivity, specificity and speed. Biosensors have played a pivotal role, and many have become established in the clinical and scientific world. They need to be sensitive, specific, fast and cheap. Electrochemical biosensors are most frequently cited in literature, often in the context of DNA sensing and mutation analysis. However, many popular electrochemical transduction materials, such as silicon, are susceptible to hydrolysis, leading to loss of bioreceptor molecules from the surface. Hence, increased attention has been shifted towards diamond, which surpasses silicon on many levels. PMID:22346717

  10. Electrolytic actuators: Alternative, high-performance, material-based devices

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Colin G.; Freund, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    The emerging field of materials-based actuation continues to be the focus of considerable research because of its inherent scalability and its promise to drive micromechanical devices that cannot be realized with conventional mechanical actuator strategies. The electrolytic phase transformation actuator offers a new broad-spectrum solution to the problem of direct conversion of electrical to mechanical energy. Strains of 136,000% and unoptimized work cycle efficiencies near 50% are demonstrated in a prototype device. Conceivably capable of generating stress beyond 200 MPa, this new approach promises performance orders of magnitude beyond other novel actuation strategies. PMID:12060728

  11. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigáč, Július

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I -SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  12. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P; T. Adams

    2008-09-12

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques.

  13. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T; Paul Korinko, P

    2007-11-13

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using both electrochemical and gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques..

  14. Alternate anode materials for cathodic protection of steel reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, James H.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cryer, Curtis B.

    2001-01-01

    Consumable and non-consumable anodes were evaluated in the laboratory for use in cathodic protection (CP) systems for steel reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments and in areas where deicing salts are employed. The anode materials included Zn-hydrogel and thermal-sprayed Zn, Zn-15Al, Al-12Zn-0.2In, and cobalt-sprayed Ti. These anodes were evaluated for service in both galvanic (GCP) and impressed current (ICCP) cathodic protection systems. Impressed current CP anodes were electrochemically aged at a current density 15 times as great as that used by the Oregon Department of Transportation in typical coastal ICCP systems (2.2 mA/m2 based on anode area). Increasing moisture at the anode-concrete interface reduced the operating voltage of all the anodes. Bond strength between the anodes and concrete decreased with electrochemical aging. The Zn-15Al and Al-12Zn-0.2In anodes provided adequate protection in GCP but their life was too short in the accelerated ICCP tests. Zinc had an adequate life in ICCP tests but was inadequate as a galvanic anode. Zinc-hydrogel performed well in both tests when the hydrogel was kept moist. Titanium was an excellent anode for ICCP, but is not suitable for GCP.

  15. Implementation of safeguards and security for fissile materials disposition reactor alternative facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, C.D.; Duggan, R.A.; Tolk, K.M.

    1995-10-01

    A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered and include facilities which provide for long-ten-n and interim storage, convert and stabilize fissile materials for other disposition alternatives, immobilize fissile material in glass and/or ceramic material, fabricate fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and dispose of fissile material using a number of geologic alternatives. Particular attention will be given to the reactor alternatives which include existing, partially completed, advanced or evolutionary LWRs and CANDU reactors. The various reactor alternatives are all very similar and include processing which converts Pu to a usable form for fuel fabrication, a MOX fuel fab facility located in either the US or in Europe, US LWRs or the CANDU reactors and ultimate disposal of spent fuel in a geologic repository. This paper focuses on how the objectives of reducing security risks and strengthening arms reduction and nonproliferation will be accomplished and the possible impacts of meeting these objectives on facility operations and design. Some of the areas in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threat, and (4) potential proliferation risks, the impacts on the facilities, and safeguards and security issues unique to the presence of Category 1 or strategic special nuclear material.

  16. Development of a high-throughput real time PCR based on a hot-start alternative for Pfu mediated by quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Fuming; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Lin; Ren, Jicun; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2015-09-01

    Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour preincubation at 50 °C before real time PCR. Moreover, the results obtained by QD-based HS PCR were comparable to a commercial Taq antibody DNA polymerase. However, no obvious HS effect of QDs was found in real time PCR using Taq DNA polymerase. The findings of this study demonstrated that a cost-effective high-throughput real time PCR based on QD triggered HS PCR could be established with high consistency, sensitivity and accuracy.Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour

  17. Assay at low ppm level of dimethyl sulfate in starting materials for API synthesis using derivatization in ionic liquid media and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Nelu; Albu, Florin; Fandrick, Keith; Iorgulescu, Elena; Medvedovici, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) is frequently used in pharmaceutical manufacturing processes as an alkylating agent. Trace levels of DMS in drug substances should be carefully monitored since the compound can become an impurity which is genotoxic in nature. Derivatization of DMS with dibenzazepine leads to formation of the N-methyl derivative, which can be retained on a reversed phase column and subsequently separated from other potential impurities. Such derivatization occurs relatively slowly. However, it can be substantially speed up if ionic liquids are used as reaction media. In this paper we report the use of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (IL1) and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (IL2) as reaction media for the derivatization of DMS with dibenzazepine. It was determined that the stoichiometry between the substrate and DMS may be 1:1 or 2:1, in relation with the nature of the reaction media. An (+)ESI-MS/MS approach was used for quantitation of the derivatized product. Alternatively, DMS derivatization may be carried out with pyridine in acetonitrile (ACN). The N-methylpyridinium derivative was separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and detected through (+)ESI-MS (in the SIM mode). In both cases, a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 μg/ml DMS was achievable, with a linearity range up to 10 μg/ml. Both analytical alternatives were applied to assay DMS in 4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenol, which is used as a starting material in the synthesis of metoprolol.

  18. Assay at low ppm level of dimethyl sulfate in starting materials for API synthesis using derivatization in ionic liquid media and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Nelu; Albu, Florin; Fandrick, Keith; Iorgulescu, Elena; Medvedovici, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) is frequently used in pharmaceutical manufacturing processes as an alkylating agent. Trace levels of DMS in drug substances should be carefully monitored since the compound can become an impurity which is genotoxic in nature. Derivatization of DMS with dibenzazepine leads to formation of the N-methyl derivative, which can be retained on a reversed phase column and subsequently separated from other potential impurities. Such derivatization occurs relatively slowly. However, it can be substantially speed up if ionic liquids are used as reaction media. In this paper we report the use of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (IL1) and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (IL2) as reaction media for the derivatization of DMS with dibenzazepine. It was determined that the stoichiometry between the substrate and DMS may be 1:1 or 2:1, in relation with the nature of the reaction media. An (+)ESI-MS/MS approach was used for quantitation of the derivatized product. Alternatively, DMS derivatization may be carried out with pyridine in acetonitrile (ACN). The N-methylpyridinium derivative was separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and detected through (+)ESI-MS (in the SIM mode). In both cases, a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 μg/ml DMS was achievable, with a linearity range up to 10 μg/ml. Both analytical alternatives were applied to assay DMS in 4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenol, which is used as a starting material in the synthesis of metoprolol. PMID:23312378

  19. Findings and Recommendations from the NIST Workshop on Alternative Fuels and Materials: Biocorrosion.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Sowards, Jeffrey W; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Applied Chemicals and Materials Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted a workshop to identify and prioritize research needs in the area of biocorrosion. Materials used to store and distribute alternative fuels have experienced an increase in corrosion due to the unique conditions caused by the presence of microbes and the chemistry of biofuels and biofuel precursors. Participants in this workshop, including experts from the microbiological, fuel, and materials communities, delved into the unique materials and chemical challenges that occur with production, transport, and storage of alternative fuels. Discussions focused on specific problems including: a) the changing composition of "drop-in" fuels and the impact of that composition on materials; b) the influence of microbial populations on corrosion and fuel quality; and c) state-of-the-art measurement technologies for monitoring material degradation and biofilm formation.

  20. Findings and Recommendations from the NIST Workshop on Alternative Fuels and Materials: Biocorrosion

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Sowards, Jeffrey W.; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Applied Chemicals and Materials Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted a workshop to identify and prioritize research needs in the area of biocorrosion. Materials used to store and distribute alternative fuels have experienced an increase in corrosion due to the unique conditions caused by the presence of microbes and the chemistry of biofuels and biofuel precursors. Participants in this workshop, including experts from the microbiological, fuel, and materials communities, delved into the unique materials and chemical challenges that occur with production, transport, and storage of alternative fuels. Discussions focused on specific problems including: a) the changing composition of “drop-in” fuels and the impact of that composition on materials; b) the influence of microbial populations on corrosion and fuel quality; and c) state-of-the-art measurement technologies for monitoring material degradation and biofilm formation. PMID:26958436

  1. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  2. Preliminary Structural Sizing and Alternative Material Trade Study of CEV Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steve M.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary structural sizing and alternate material trade study for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM). This critical CEV component will house the astronauts during ascent, docking with the International Space Station, reentry, and landing. The alternate material design study considers three materials beyond the standard metallic (aluminum alloy) design that resulted from an earlier NASA Smart Buyer Team analysis. These materials are graphite/epoxy composite laminates, discontinuously reinforced SiC/Al (DRA) composites, and a novel integrated panel material/concept known as WebCore. Using the HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation) structural sizing software and NASTRAN finite element analysis code, a comparison is made among these materials for the three composite CM concepts considered by the 2006 NASA Engineering and Safety Center Composite Crew Module project.

  3. Non-proliferation issues for the disposition of fissile materials using reactor alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, C.D.; Duggan, R.A.; Tolk, K.M.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is analyzing long-term storage on options for excess weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of the disposition alternatives are being considered which involve the use of reactors. The various reactor alternatives are all very similar and include front-end processes that could convert plutonium to a usable form for fuel fabrication, a MOX fuel fab facility, reactors to bum the MOX fuel and ultimate disposal of spent fuel in some geologic repository. They include existing, partially completed, advanced or evolutionary light water reactors and Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. In addition to the differences in the type of reactors, other variants on these alternatives are being evaluated to include the location and number of the reactors, the location of the mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility, the ownership of the facilities (private or government) and the colocation and/or separation of these facilities. All of these alternatives and their variants must be evaluated with respect to non-proliferation resistance. Both domestic and international safeguards support are being provided to DOE`s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) and includes such areas as physical protection, nuclear materials accountability and material containment and surveillance. This paper will focus on how the non-proliferation objective of reducing security risks and strengthening arms reduction will be accomplished and what some of the nonproliferation issues are for the reactor alternatives. Proliferation risk has been defined in terms of material form, physical environment, and the level of security and safeguards that is applied to the material. Metrics have been developed for each of these factors. The reactor alternatives will be evaluated with respect to these proliferation risk factors at each of the unit process locations in the alternative.

  4. Evaluation of Alternative Refractory Materials for the Main Flame Deflectors at KSC Launch Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Trejo, David; Rutkowsky, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The deterioration of the refractory materials used to protect the KSC launch complex steel base structures from the high temperatures during launches results in frequent and costly repairs and safety hazards. KSC-SPEC-P-0012, Specification for Refractory Concrete, is ineffective in qualifying refractory materials. This study of the specification and of alternative refractory materials recommends a complete revision of the specification and further investigation of materials that were found to withstand the environment of the Solid Rocket Booster main flame deflector better than the refractory materials in current use in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, shrinkage, and abrasion.

  5. Materials and degradation modes in an alternative LLW (low-level waste) disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in the construction of alternative low-level waste disposal facilities will be subject to interaction with both the internal and the external environments associated with the facilities and unless precautions are taken, may degrade, leading to structural failure. This paper reviews the characteristics of both environments with respect to three alternative disposal concepts, then assesses how reaction with them might affect the properties of the materials, which include concrete, steel-reinforced concrete, structural steel, and various protective coatings and membranes. It identifies and evaluates the probability of reactions occurring which might lead to degradation of the materials and so compromise the structure. The probability of failure (interpreted relative to the ability of the structure to restrict ingress and egress of water) is assessed for each material and precautionary measures, intended to maximize the durability of the facility, are reviewed. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  7. Biofilm development during the start-up period of anaerobic biofilm reactors: the biofilm Archaea community is highly dependent on the support material

    PubMed Central

    Habouzit, Frédéric; Hamelin, Jérôme; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Steyer, Jean-P; Bernet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the nature of the support material on its colonization by a methanogenic consortium, four substrata made of different materials: polyvinyl chloride, 2 polyethylene and polypropylene were tested during the start-up of lab-scale fixed-film reactors. The reactor performances were evaluated and compared together with the analysis of the biofilms. Biofilm growth was quantified and the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities were characterized by molecular fingerprinting profiles (capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism). The composition of the inoculum was shown to have a major impact on the bacterial composition of the biofilm, whatever the nature of the support material or the organic loading rate applied to the reactors during the start-up period. In contrast, the biofilm archaeal populations were independent of the inoculum used but highly dependent on the support material. Supports favouring Archaea colonization, the limiting factor in the overall process, should be preferred. PMID:24612643

  8. Head Start Evaluation and Research Center, the University of Chicago. Report E, Comparative Use of Alternative Modes for Assessing Cognitive Development in Bilingual or Non-English Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Virginia C.

    In order to assess the feasibility of alternative methods for determining the cognitive development of bilingual or non-English speaking children from a disparate cultural background, 28 Seminole Indian children from two Head Start centers were administered a series of intelligence tests, some based on verbal ability, some not. The tests used were…

  9. Carbon/graphite composite material study. Appendix C: NASA studies on modification of carbon/graphite fibers and alternative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of modifying resin matrix composites to reduce the potential of electrical shorting from fire released fiber was explored. The effort included modifications to or coatings for graphite fibers, alternative fibers, modifications to matrix materials, and hybrid composites. The objectives included reduction of the conductivity of the graphite fiber, char formation to reduce fiber release, glass formation to prevent fiber release, catalysis to assure fiber consumption in a fire, and replacement of the graphite fibers with nonconductive fibers of similar mechanical potential.

  10. On the scent of asymmetrical dandelion dendrimers. Part I. Starting materials from the regiospecific aminolysis of N 3P 3Cl 6 by amino-alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sournies, François; Zai, Karine; Vercruysse, Karine; Labarre, Marie-Christine; Labarre, Jean-François

    1997-07-01

    Starting materials for the design of asymmetrical dandelion dendrimers were synthesized upon the preliminary fixation of suitable amino-alcohols on hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene, N 3P 3Cl 6, as "blockers". Further linkage of diamines on solid supports leads to the expected asymmetrical moieties.

  11. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  12. Alternative methods for determination of composition and porosity in abradable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Matejicek, Jiri . E-mail: jmatejic@ipp.cas.cz; Kolman, Blahoslav; Dubsky, Jiri; Neufuss, Karel; Hopkins, Noel; Zwick, Jochen

    2006-07-15

    Materials properties and performance are governed by their composition and structure. These are commonly characterized using materialography and image analysis. However, in abradable materials, obtaining a reliable and representative sample (polished section) for this widespread technique is complicated by their abradable nature and heterogeneity. Therefore, alternative methods are also considered in this paper. They are namely X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis to determine the composition, and mercury intrusion porosimetry, Archimedean porosimetry and helium pycnometry to determine the porosity. These methods, including materialography, were applied on representative abradable materials produced by plasma spraying; their results are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of each method are discussed.

  13. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ``state routing agency``, defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ``lessons learned`` by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  14. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  15. The Start of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the Head Start program occurred at break-neck speed with many dramatic turns and many colorful players. No one tells the story better than Edward Zigler in "Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment"--a detailed and personal, behind the scenes look at the program's inception. From this…

  16. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  17. Effect of the purity of starting materials on the growth and properties of potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals – A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, P.; Charoen In, Urit; Manyum, Prapun; Ramasamy, P.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Bulk size KDP crystal has been grown with higher growth rate. • Systematic study on the effect of starting materials has been done. • Crystalline perfection is maintained in the entire crystal. - Abstract: A systematic study on the effect of purity of starting materials on the growth and properties of potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals is crucial for the future study of the material for nonlinear optical applications. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals were grown using high pure (99.999%) and ordinary (99.9%) starting raw materials using slow cooling method in identical conditions. Their optical transparency and crystalline perfection are studied by UV and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses respectively. The results are checked with the help of etching analyses. The full width at half maximum is 8″ which is close to that expected from the plane wave theory of dynamical X-ray diffraction for an ideally perfect crystal. Results of those studies are correlated with each other. The quantitative results show that the raw material plays an important role in the growth of good quality crystals.

  18. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1995-09-26

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center ( a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year. In addition, there are vast energetic materials demilitarization inventories world-wide, including those in the former Soviet Union and eastern Bloc countries. Although recycling and reusing is the preferred method of dealing with these surplus materials, there will always be the necessity of destroying intractable or unusable energetic materials. Traditionally, open bum/open detonation (OB/OD) has been the method of choice for the destruction of energetic materials. Public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations have made open burning and open detonation of energetic materials increasingly costly and nearly unacceptable. Thus, the impetus to develop environmentally sound alternatives to dispose of energetic materials is great.

  19. Commercial-scale recycling of NdFeB-type magnets with grain boundary modification yields products with 'designer properties' that exceed those of starting materials.

    PubMed

    Zakotnik, M; Tudor, C O

    2015-10-01

    NdFeB-type magnets dominate the market for high performance magnetic materials, yet production of 'virgin' magnets via mining is environmentally, financially and energetically costly. Hence, interest is growing in 'magnet to magnet' recycling schemes that offer the potential for cheaper, more environmentally-friendly solutions to the world's growing appetite for rare-earth based magnetic materials. Unfortunately, previously described recycling processes only partially capitalise on this potential, because the methods described to date are limited to 'laboratory scale' or operate only under ideal conditions and result in products that fail to recapture the coercivity of the starting, scrap materials. Herein, we report a commercial scale process (120 kg batches) that completely recovers the properties of the starting scrap magnets. Indeed, 'grain boundary modification', via careful addition of a proprietary mix of blended elements, produces magnets with 'designer properties' that can exceed those of the starting materials and can be closely tailored to meet a wide variety of end-user applications, including high-coercivity (>2000 kA/m), sintered magnets suitable for motor applications.

  20. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate Method of Determining the Color of... Subpart F of Part 655—Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and...-fluorescent retroreflective materials may be measured in accordance with ASTM Test Method E1349,...

  1. Compared to What? Estimating Causal Effects for Latent Subgroups to Understand Variation in the Impacts of Head Start by Alternate Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Avi; Grindal, Todd; Miratrix, Luke; Page, Lindsay C.

    2014-01-01

    Head Start programs currently provide early childhood education and family support services to more than 900,000 low-income children and their families across the United States with an annual budget of around $8 billion in state and federal funds. Researchers and policy makers have debated the program's effectiveness since its inception in 1964.…

  2. Start Young!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Penni

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of early interest in science and how effective it is on career choice in adult stages of life. Recommends starting mathematics and science activities in preschool and kindergarten. Describes how to create a career-oriented learning center in the classroom with examples of kitchen chemistry, nutrition/botany, zoology,…

  3. Gas permeability of biochar-amended clay: potential alternative landfill final cover material.

    PubMed

    Wong, James Tsz Fung; Chen, Zhongkui; Ng, Charles Wang Wai; Wong, Ming Hung

    2016-04-01

    Compacted biochar-amended clay (BAC) has been proposed as an alternative landfill final cover material in this study. Biochar has long been proposed to promote crop growth, mitigate odor emission, and promote methane oxidation in field soils. However, previous studies showed that soil-gas permeability was increased upon biochar application, which will promote landfill gas emission. The objective of the present study is to investigate the possibility of using compacted BAC as an alternative material in landfill final cover by evaluating its gas permeability. BAC samples were prepared by mixing 425-μm-sieved peanut shell biochar with kaolin clay in different ratios (0, 5, 10, and 15 %, w/w) and compacting at different degrees of compactions (DOC) (80, 85, and 90 %) with an optimum water content of 35 %. The gas permeability of the BACs was measured by flexible wall gas permeameter and the microstructure of the BACs was analyzed by SEM with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the effects of biochar content on BAC gas permeability is highly dependent on the DOC. At high DOC (90 %), the gas permeability of BAC decreases with increasing biochar content due to the combined effect of the clay aggregation and the inhibition of biochar in the gas flow. However, at low DOC (80 %), biochar incorporation has no effects on gas permeability because it no longer acts as a filling material to the retard gas flow. The results from the present study imply that compacted BAC can be used as an alternative final cover material with decreased gas permeability when compared with clay.

  4. Gas permeability of biochar-amended clay: potential alternative landfill final cover material.

    PubMed

    Wong, James Tsz Fung; Chen, Zhongkui; Ng, Charles Wang Wai; Wong, Ming Hung

    2016-04-01

    Compacted biochar-amended clay (BAC) has been proposed as an alternative landfill final cover material in this study. Biochar has long been proposed to promote crop growth, mitigate odor emission, and promote methane oxidation in field soils. However, previous studies showed that soil-gas permeability was increased upon biochar application, which will promote landfill gas emission. The objective of the present study is to investigate the possibility of using compacted BAC as an alternative material in landfill final cover by evaluating its gas permeability. BAC samples were prepared by mixing 425-μm-sieved peanut shell biochar with kaolin clay in different ratios (0, 5, 10, and 15 %, w/w) and compacting at different degrees of compactions (DOC) (80, 85, and 90 %) with an optimum water content of 35 %. The gas permeability of the BACs was measured by flexible wall gas permeameter and the microstructure of the BACs was analyzed by SEM with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the effects of biochar content on BAC gas permeability is highly dependent on the DOC. At high DOC (90 %), the gas permeability of BAC decreases with increasing biochar content due to the combined effect of the clay aggregation and the inhibition of biochar in the gas flow. However, at low DOC (80 %), biochar incorporation has no effects on gas permeability because it no longer acts as a filling material to the retard gas flow. The results from the present study imply that compacted BAC can be used as an alternative final cover material with decreased gas permeability when compared with clay. PMID:26092359

  5. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur. PMID:27047021

  6. Starting from Scratch: Greening Your Game Day--The Collegiate Football Sustainable Materials Management Toolkit. Version 1.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Collegiate Football Sustainable Materials Management Toolkit" was researched by student interns in the Virginia Tech Office of Energy & Sustainability, developed in collaboration with the US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) and a national panel of technical experts from universities across the nation, and driven forward by CURC…

  7. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  8. Alternate manufacturing processes and materials for the SSC dipole magnet coil end parts

    SciTech Connect

    Lipski, A.; Bossert, R.; Brandt, J.; Hoffman, J.; Kobliska, G.; Zweibohmer, J.; Higinbotham, W.; Shields, R.; Sims, R.

    1992-04-01

    Modern magnet designs such as the SSC dipole utilize smaller bore diameter and wider superconducting cable. Challenging winding techniques place greater emphasis on the role of the coil end parts. Their complex configuration is derived from their function of confining the conductors to a consistent given shape and location. Present end parts, made of G-10 composite, are manufactured utilizing complex and expensive 5-axis machining techniques. Several alternate manufacturing processes and materials described in this paper will result in a substantial cost reduction for mass producing the end parts. The alternate processes are divided into two major groups. The composite group consists of Resin Transfer Molding (RAM), Compound Transfer Mold (CAM), Injection Molded Composite (IMP) and Compression Molded Composite (CC). The base metal coated group consists of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CAD) dip coating and hard coatings/anodizing. The paper will provide an overview of the various processes and compare test performance and cost to that of the process currently used.

  9. Sequestration of phosphorus from wastewater by cement-based or alternative cementitious materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjun; Chen, Jiding; Kong, Yaping; Shi, Xianming

    2014-10-01

    Cement-based and alternative cementitious materials were tested in the laboratory for their capability of removing phosphate from wastewater. The results demonstrated that both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were suitable for describing the adsorption characteristics of these materials. Among the four types of filter media tested, the cement-based mortar A has the highest value of maximum adsorption (30.96 mg g(-1)). The P-bonding energy (KL) and adsorption capacity (K) exhibited a positive correlation with the total content of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in each mortar. The maximum amount of P adsorbed (Qm) and adsorption intensity (1/n) exhibited a positive correlation with the CaO content in each mortar. For three of them, the P-removal rates were in excess of 94 percent for phosphorus concentrations ranging from 20 to 1000 mg L(-1). The underlying mechanisms were examined using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM), coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results reveal that the removal of phosphate predominantly followed a precipitation mechanism in addition to weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent filter media and the metallic salts of phosphate. The use of cement-based or alternative cementitious materials in the form of ground powder shows great promise for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable technology for P-sequestration and for wastewater treatment.

  10. Analysis of Burnup and Economic Potential of Alternative Fuel Materials in Thermal Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Oggianu, Stella Maris; No, Hee Cheon; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2003-09-15

    A strategy is proposed for the assessment of nuclear fuel material economic potential use in future light water reactors (LWRs). In this methodology, both the required enrichment and the fuel performance limits are considered. In order to select the best fuel candidate, the optimal burnup that produces the lowest annual fuel cost within the burnup potential for a given fuel material and smear density ratio is determined.Several nuclear materials are presented as examples of the application of the methodology proposed in this paper. The alternative fuels considered include uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium carbide (UC), uranium nitride (UN), metallic uranium (U-Zr alloy), combined thorium and uranium oxides (ThO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2}), and combined thorium and uranium metals (U/Th). For these examples, a typical LWR lattice geometry in a zirconium-based cladding was assumed. The uncertainties in the results presented are large due to the scarcity of experimental data regarding the behavior of the considered materials at high burnups. Also, chemical compatibility issues are to be considered separately.The same methodology can be applied in the future to evaluate the economic potential of other nuclear fuel materials including different cladding designs, dispersions of ceramics into ceramics, dispersions of ceramics into metals, and also for geometries other than the traditional circular fuel pin.

  11. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF.

  12. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    PubMed

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  13. Influence of various alternative bedding materials on pododermatitis in broilers raised in a built-up litter system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broilers in the United States are frequently raised on built-up litter systems, primarily bedded with pine wood chips (shavings) or sawdust. There is continuing interest in alternative bedding materials as pine products are often in short supply and prices rise accordingly. Alternative bedding mat...

  14. Vapor-Phase Stoichiometry and Heat Treatment of CdTe Starting Material for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Lehoczky, S. L.; Liu, Hao-Chieh; Fang, Rei; Brebrick, R. F.

    1998-01-01

    Six batches of CdTe, having total amounts of material from 99 to 203 g and gross mole fraction of Te, X(sub Te), 0.499954-0.500138, were synthesized from pure Cd and Te elements. The vapor-phase stoichiometry of the assynthesized CdTe batches was determined from the partial pressure of Te2, P(sub Te2) using an optical absorption technique. The measured vapor compositions at 870 C were Te-rich for all of the batches with partial pressure ratios of Cd to Te2, P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2), ranging from 0.00742 to 1.92. After the heat treatment of baking under dynamic vacuum at 870 C for 8 min, the vapor-phase compositions moved toward that of the congruent sublimation, i.e. P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2) = 2.0, with the measured P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2) varying from 1.84 to 3.47. The partial pressure measurements on one of the heat-treated samples also showed that the sample remained close to the congruent sublimation condition over the temperature range 800-880 C.

  15. Alternative approaches of SiC & related wide bandgap materials in light emitting & solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmann, Peter; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-03-01

    Materials for optoelectronics give a fascinating variety of issues to consider. Increasingly important are white light emitting diode (LED) and solar cell materials. Profound energy savings can be done by addressing new materials. White light emitting diodes are becoming common in our lighting scene. There is a great energy saving in the transition from the light bulb to white light emitting diodes via a transition of fluorescent light tubes. However, the white LEDs still suffer from a variety of challenges in order to be in our daily use. Therefore there is a great interest in alternative lighting solutions that could be part of our daily life. All materials create challenges in fabrication. Defects reduce the efficiency of optical transitions involved in the light emitting diode materials. The donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a potential light converter for a novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LED. In spite of considerable research, the internal quantum efficiency is far less than theoretically predicted and is likely a fascinating scientific field for studying materials growth, defects and optical transitions. Still, efficient Si-based light source represents an ongoing research field in photonics that requires high efficiency at room temperature, wavelength tuning in a wide wavelength range, and easy integration in silicon photonic devices. In some of these devices, rare earth doped materials is considered as a potential way to provide luminescence spanning in a wide wavelength range. Divalent and trivalent oxidation states of Eu provide emitting centers in the visible region. In consideration, the use of Eu in photonics requires Eu doped thin films that are compatible with CMOS technology but for example faces material science issues like a low Eu solid solubility in silica. Therefore approaches aim to obtain efficient light emission from silicon oxycarbide which has a luminescence in the visible range and can be a host material for rare earth ions. The

  16. Evaluation of the odour reduction potential of alternative cover materials at a commercial landfill.

    PubMed

    Solan, P J; Dodd, V A; Curran, T P

    2010-02-01

    The availability of virgin soils and traditional landfill covers are not only costly and increasingly becoming scarce, but they also reduce the storage capacity of landfill. The problem can be overcome by the utilisation of certain suitable waste streams as alternative landfill covers. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Construction & Demolition fines (C&D), Commercial & Industrial fines (C&I) and woodchip (WC) as potential landfill cover materials in terms of odour control. Background odour analysis was conducted to determine if any residual odour was emitted from the cover types. It was deemed negligible for the three materials. The odour reduction performance of each of the materials was also examined on an area of an active landfill site. A range of intermediate cover compositions were also studied to assess their performance. Odour emissions were sampled using a Jiang hood and analysed. Results indicate that the 200 mm deep combination layer of C&D and wood chip used on-site is adequate for odour abatement. The application of daily cover was found to result in effective reduction allowing for the background odour of woodchip. PMID:19786346

  17. Alternative approaches of SiC & related wide bandgap materials in light emitting & solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmann, Peter; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-03-01

    Materials for optoelectronics give a fascinating variety of issues to consider. Increasingly important are white light emitting diode (LED) and solar cell materials. Profound energy savings can be done by addressing new materials. White light emitting diodes are becoming common in our lighting scene. There is a great energy saving in the transition from the light bulb to white light emitting diodes via a transition of fluorescent light tubes. However, the white LEDs still suffer from a variety of challenges in order to be in our daily use. Therefore there is a great interest in alternative lighting solutions that could be part of our daily life. All materials create challenges in fabrication. Defects reduce the efficiency of optical transitions involved in the light emitting diode materials. The donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a potential light converter for a novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LED. In spite of considerable research, the internal quantum efficiency is far less than theoretically predicted and is likely a fascinating scientific field for studying materials growth, defects and optical transitions. Still, efficient Si-based light source represents an ongoing research field in photonics that requires high efficiency at room temperature, wavelength tuning in a wide wavelength range, and easy integration in silicon photonic devices. In some of these devices, rare earth doped materials is considered as a potential way to provide luminescence spanning in a wide wavelength range. Divalent and trivalent oxidation states of Eu provide emitting centers in the visible region. In consideration, the use of Eu in photonics requires Eu doped thin films that are compatible with CMOS technology but for example faces material science issues like a low Eu solid solubility in silica. Therefore approaches aim to obtain efficient light emission from silicon oxycarbide which has a luminescence in the visible range and can be a host material for rare earth ions. The

  18. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface coating materials: Their compositions and potential as an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Choi, In-Young; Son, Youn-Suk; Song, Kyu-Yong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2016-03-01

    A sampling system was designed to determine the composition ratios of VOCs emitted from 31 surface coating materials (SCMs). Representative architectural, automotive, and marine SCMs in Korea were investigated. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were the predominant VOCs. The VOC levels (wt%) from automotive SCMs were significantly higher than those from architectural and marine paints. It was found that target SCMs comprised mainly VOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms in molecules, which could be adsorbed by activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon which had already adsorbed toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene was combusted. The saturated activated carbon was more combustible than new activated carbon because it comprised inflammable VOCs. Therefore, it could be an alternative fuel when using in a "fuelization system". To use the activated carbon as a fuel, a control technology of VOCs from a coating process was also designed and introduced.

  19. Search for greener Li-ion batteries: an alternative offered by organic electroactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Joaquin; Renault, Stéven; Poizot, Philippe; Dolhem, Franck

    2011-06-01

    The threats of climate change and the issues of secure energy supply are among the fundamental challenges of the 21stcentury that push humanity to adopt a sustainable development and to favour the use of renewable sources of energy. In addition to their historical use, LIBs seem on the road to power the next "Zero Emission" vehicles or could be used to assist the integration of renewable energy sources both on- and off-the-grid. Consequently, production of LIBs is expected to keep on growing. However LIBs are nearly exclusively based on inorganic compounds, non-renewable and energy-greedy materials. Thus in parallel with regular research on inorganic-based LIBs, we have recently proposed to probe an alternative pathway by searching for redox-active organic materials, easier to discard while possibly derived from biomass resources. As solid-state electrochemistry of organics is not that well documented, our current approach consists in a global survey of selected organic structures in order to grasp relevant parameters that affect the redox potential, the stability upon cycling and so on. In this report, we extend our current database of redox-active organic structures by evaluating vs. Li bulky pyrazine-based structures and dilithium polyporate as a supplementary specimen of p-benzoquinone derivatives.

  20. Toenails as an alternative source material for the extraction of DNA from decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Andrew; Grimble, Katelyn; Azim, Arani; Owen, Rebecca; Hartman, Dadna

    2016-01-01

    The DNA identification of decomposed human remains for coronial investigations at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine routinely requires the retrieval and processing of a bone sample obtained from the deceased. Bone is a difficult sample type to work with as it requires surgical removal from the deceased, refrigerated storage, and additional processing steps prior to DNA analysis in comparison to other samples types such as buccal swabs or blood stains. In an attempt to overcome the issues posed by bone, a DNA extraction method utilising toenails as an alternate source material was optimised and trialled. Two DNA extraction methods were optimised for digestion of toenail material, with the method utilising the QIAGEN DNA Investigator Kit selected for a casework trial. Single source DNA profiles, matching those of the conventional samples taken, were obtained for toenail samples collected from 28 of 30 coronial cases available for this study. Of these, 26 toenail samples produced full profiles. Although the overall DNA profile quality from the toenails was less than that of the conventional sample, the profiles from toenails met the reporting requirements for identification. Based on the results obtained, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine will be implementing toenails as the primary sample type for collection from decomposed remains when blood is not a suitable sample type.

  1. Poly(3-Hydroxypropionate): a Promising Alternative to Fossil Fuel-Based Materials

    PubMed Central

    Andreeßen, Björn; Taylor, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage compounds synthesized by numerous microorganisms and have attracted the interest of industry since they are biobased and biodegradable alternatives to fossil fuel-derived plastics. Among PHAs, poly(3-hydroxypropionate) [poly(3HP)] has outstanding material characteristics and exhibits a large variety of applications. As it is not brittle like, e.g., the best-studied PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(3HB)], it can be used as a plasticizer in blends to improve their properties. Furthermore, 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is considered likely to become one of the new industrial building blocks, and it can be obtained from poly(3HP) by simple hydrolysis. Unfortunately, no natural organism is known to accumulate poly(3HP) so far. Thus, several efforts have been made to engineer genetically modified organisms capable of synthesizing the homopolymer or copolymers containing 3HP. In this review, the achievements made so far in efforts to obtain biomass which has accumulated poly(3HP) or 3HP-containing copolymers, as well as the properties of these polyesters and their applications, are compiled and evaluated. PMID:25149521

  2. Materials behavior in alternate (hydrogen) water chemistry in the Ringhals-1 boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungberg, L.G.; Cubicciotti, D.; Trolle, M.

    1986-05-01

    In-plant studies on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized austenitic stainless steel (SS) have been performed at the Swedish Ringhals-1 boiling water reactor (BWR). The studies have covered the present (full-temperature (normal)) water chemistry (PWC) and the alternate (primary) water chemistry (AWC) with hydrogen addition. The test techniques applied were constant extension rate testing (CERT) and electrochemical potential (ECP) measurements. The program was covered by extensive environment monitoring. The results verify earlier laboratory studies which show that sensitized austenitic SS is susceptible to IGSCC in PWC, but not in AWC. Other pressure-bearing BWR construction materials are not adversely affected by AWC. The boundary conditions in Ringhals-1 have been established for an AWC, which is defined as an environment that does not produce IGSCC in sensitized SS. The results are compared with a similar program at Dresden-2, and the points of agreement and discordance in the results are discussed. The relevance of ECP measurements for the control of AWC is discussed.

  3. Application of broadband alternating current magnetic susceptibility to the characterization of magnetic nanoparticles in natural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed for characterizing magnetic particles by measuring low-field alternating current magnetic susceptibility at a number of frequency steps spanning four orders of magnitude, from 125 Hz to 512 kHz. This method was tested using natural samples with various grain size distributions, including basalt (Kilauea, Hawaii), loess and paleosol (Luochuan, China), tuff (Yucca Mountain, Nevada), granite (Minnesota Valley, Minnesota), and andesite (Sakurajima, Japan). The resulting frequency spectrum of magnetic susceptibility (FSMS) of the basalt, loess/paleosol, and tuff decreases with increasing frequency, but at different rates of decrease. The FSMS of the basalt is characterized by a monotonic decrease with increasing frequency over the entire range. The FSMS of the loess/paleosol and the tuff decreases more markedly than that of the basalt, which agrees with previous results showing that superparamagnetic particles are dominant in such material. Quantitative estimates using FSMSs allow reconstruction of characteristic grain size distributions and clearly identify differences in the distribution of superparamagnetic particles. The multidomain granite sample has no distinct frequency dependence, which is probably due to the smooth displacement of domain walls in the presence of the external field. In contrast, the FSMSs of the andesite samples exhibit maxima over a limited frequency range, between 16 and 128 kHz. This behavior, together with low-temperature measurements, can be accounted for by magnetic resonance of domain walls in the multidomain phenocrysts.

  4. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, T.; O'Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  5. Exciton Dynamics in Alternative Solar Cell Materials: Polymers, Nanocrystals, and Small Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundsack, Thomas J.

    To keep fossil fuel usage in 2040 even with 2010 usage, 50% of global energy will need to come from alternative sources such as solar cells. While the photovoltaic market is currently dominated by crystalline silicon, there are many low-cost solar cell materials such as conjugated polymers, semiconductor nanocrystals, and organic small molecules which could compete with fossil fuels. To create cost-competitive devices, understanding the excited state dynamics of these materials is necessary. The first section of this thesis looks at aggregation in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) which is commonly used in organic photovoltaics. The amount of aggregation in P3HT thin films was controlled by using a mixture of regioregular and regiorandom P3HT. Even with few aggregates present, excited states were found to transfer from amorphous to aggregate domains in <50 fs which could indicate efficient long-range energy transfer. To further study P3HT aggregation, a triblock consisting of two P3HT chains with a coil polymer between them was investigated. By changing solvents, aggregation was induced in a stable and reversible manner allowing for spectroscopic studies of P3HT aggregates in solution. The polarity of the solvent was adjusted, and no change in excited state dynamics was observed implying the excited state has little charge-transfer character. Next, the conduction band density of states for copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals (CZTS NCs) was measured using pump-probe spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with theoretical results. The density of states shifted and dilated for smaller NCs indicative of quantum confinement. The excited state lifetime was found to be short (<20 ps) and independent of NC size which could limit the efficiency of CZTS photovoltaic devices. Finally, triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) was studied in platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) thin films. By analyzing pump-probe spectra, the product of TTA in PtOEP thin films was assigned to a long

  6. Solar power satellite: Analysis of alternatives for transporting material to geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Huang, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    A systems design study of the alternative methods and relative merits of various approaches to transporting and assembling a solar power satellite in geosynchronous orbit was conducted. State of the art alternatives for chemical and electrical interorbital propulsion were studied, and several possible scenarios for construction were proposed.

  7. Supramolecular Alternating Polymer from Crown Ether and Pillar[5]arene-Based Double Molecular Recognition for Preparation of Hierarchical Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Fan, Xiaodong; Qi, Miao; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Haitao; Tian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel supramolecular alternating polymer is constructed based on double molecular recognition events of benzo-21-crown-7 with a secondary ammonium salt and of pillar[5]arene with a neutral guest. The resulting polymer is utilized to prepare hierarchical materials with different dimensionalities for the first time. These materials included zero-dimensional spherical aggregates, one-dimensional nanofibers, two-dimensional microstructured films, and three-dimensional ordered glue. This development will be helpful for designing and preparing supramolecular hierarchical materials with different dimensionalities. PMID:26555439

  8. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  10. Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

    2001-07-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

  11. Formation of Mg{sub 2}Ni with enhanced kinetics: Using MgH{sub 2} instead of Mg as a starting material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Bin; Fang Fang; Sun Dalin; Zhang Qingan; Wei Shiqiang; Cao Fenglei; Sun Huai; Ouyang Liuzhang; Zhu Min

    2012-08-15

    At a temperature over the decomposition point (375 Degree-Sign C) of MgH{sub 2}, the formation of Mg{sub 2}Ni is greatly enhanced from the 2MgH{sub 2}+Ni system, as compared to the 2Mg+Ni system. In support of this finding, in-situ observation of X-ray absorption fine structure of the two systems indicates that Mg---Ni bonds form faster in the 2MgH{sub 2}+Ni system than in the 2Mg+Ni system. Furthermore, theoretical modeling also shows that Mg atoms are readily released from MgH{sub 2} using much less energy and thus are more available to react with Ni once the dehydrogenation of MgH{sub 2} occurs, as compared to normal Mg. - Graphical Abstract: The formation of Mg{sub 2}Ni is greatly enhanced by using MgH{sub 2} instead of Mg at a temperature higher than the MgH{sub 2} decomposition point. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new and efficient synthesis of Mg-based compounds at a reduced temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg{sub 2}Ni formation is enhanced by using MgH{sub 2} instead of Mg as a starting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XAFS results show that Mg---Ni bonds are formed faster in 4MgH{sub 2}+Ni than in 4Mg+Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DFT calculations show that Mg atoms are released from MgH{sub 2} more readily than from Mg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg formed by MgH{sub 2} dehydrogenation is more available to react with Ni than normal Mg.

  12. Synthesis of a reactive polymethacrylate capillary monolith and its use as a starting material for the preparation of a stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kip, Çiğdem; Erkakan, Damla; Gökaltun, Aslıhan; Çelebi, Bekir; Tuncel, Ali

    2015-05-29

    Poly(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), poly(HPMA-Cl-co-EDMA) capillary monolith was proposed as a reactive starting material with tailoring flexibility for the preparation of monolithic stationary phases. The reactive capillary monolith was synthesized by free radical copolymerization of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA-Cl) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA). The mean pore size, the specific surface area and the permeability of poly(HPMA-Cl-co-EDMA) monoliths were controlled by adjusting porogen/monomer volume ratio, porogen composition and polymerization temperature. The porogen/monomer volume ratio was found as the most effective factor controlling the porous properties of poly(HPMA-Cl-co-EDMA) monolith. Triethanolamine (TEA-OH) functionalized polymethacrylate monoliths were prepared by using the reactive chloropropyl group of poly(HPMA-Cl-co-EDMA) monolith via one-pot and simple post-functionalization process. Poly(HPMA-Cl-co-EDMA) monolith reacted with TEA-OH was evaluated as a stationary phase in nano-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (nano-HILIC). Nucleotides, nucleosides and benzoic acid derivatives were satisfactorily separated with the plate heights up to 20μm. TEA-OH attached-poly(HPMA-Cl-co-EDMA) monolith showed a reproducible and stable retention behaviour in nano-HILIC runs. However, a decrease in the column performance (i.e. an increase in the plate height) was observed with the increasing retention factor. Hence "retention-dependent column efficiency" behaviour was shown for HILIC mode using the chromatographic data collected with the polymer based monolith synthesized.

  13. THE USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS FOR DAILY COVER AT MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS. A Project Summary (EPA/600/SR-93/172)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation was conducted to assess the applicability of currently available (ca. 1992) alternative materials for use as daily cover at landfills. Information on characteristics, material and equipment requirements, methods of preparation and application, climatic and ope...

  14. Evaluation of Anticorrosion Performance of New Materials for Alternative Superheater Tubes in Biomass Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Hongliang; He, Yuwu

    2016-09-01

    One way of controlling alkali chloride-induced corrosion in biomass boilers is by designing new alloy materials used as superheater tubes. Four newly designed Cr-Ni alloy was designed and studied for applicability in biomass power plants. High-temperature oxidation experiments and high-temperature corrosion experiments were carried out for evaluation material characterization. Through analysis and discussion of the corrosion kinetics and oxidation kinetics, it can be concluded that materials with series number of "2xx" and "3xx" had better endurance ability in KCl environment under 650°C and 700°C than TP316 material. In the same conditions, 3xx material had better anticorrosion ability in 700°C with KCl environment.

  15. Embodied Energy Assessment and Comparisons for a Residential Building Using Conventional and Alternative Materials in Indian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen Kishore, K.; Chouhan, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Building sector is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use and 24 % of carbon dioxide emissions in India. The main source of green house gas emissions from buildings is due to energy consumption. This paper aims to assess the embodied energy index and environmental impact of a two storied residential building. The study proposes various alternative materials which can be used in day to day construction in order to mitigate the environmental impact and climate change due to construction activity in India. Two types of construction techniques have been considered for the study, namely load bearing and reinforced concrete framed construction. Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions of walling and roofing components using conventional and alternative materials has also been analyzed and compared. The comparison is done based on two parameters namely, embodied energy/m2 and CO2 emissions per unit of floor area. The study shows that bricks, cement and steel are the three major contributors to the energy cost of constructing a building by conventional methods. A conventional two storied load bearing structure is 22 % more energy efficient when compared to a reinforced concrete structure. It has also been observed from the study that use of alternative material in the building envelope gives embodied energy savings between 50 and 60 % for a two storey load bearing structure and 30-42 % for a two storey reinforced concrete structure. Hence a load bearing construction is certainly a better alternative to RC framed construction for up to two storied structures in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts.

  16. Alternative Media Technologies for the Open University. A Research Report on Costed Alternatives to the Direct Transmission of Audio-Visual Materials. Final Report. I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting No. 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Tony; Kern, Larry

    This study examines alternatives to direct transmission of television and radio programs for courses with low student enrollment at the Open University. Examined are cut-off points in terms of student numbers at which alternative means of distributing audio or audio-visual materials become more economical than direct television or radio…

  17. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-09-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center (a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year.

  18. Fibre Reinforced Composite: Post and Core Material in a Pediatric Patient - An Alternative to Usual

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    Fractured teeth are always a challenge to the dentist. The root canal therapy today can retain even very badly broken teeth. One of the most accepted techniques involve restoration of extensively carious or badly fractured teeth by the fabrication of a post and core while utilizing the root canal space for anchorage. So far, the only materials that are available to the dentist for this procedure have been a variety of metallic alloys. These materials are hard and need to be cast precisely so that they can fit the canals. Today materials are available which usually eliminates all the intermediate steps which are done in laboratories and the total control is rendered in the hands of the dentist, to fabricate on the chair, a resilient, aesthetic and bonded post and core. One such material is discussed here in a pediatric permanent anterior tooth. PMID:25584339

  19. Optical detection of special nuclear materials: an alternative approach for standoff and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. Bruce; Reeve, S. W.; Burns, W. A.; Allen, Susan D.

    2010-04-01

    Termed Special Nuclear Material (SNM) by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, fissile materials, such as 235U and 239Pu, are the primary components used to construct modern nuclear weapons. Detecting the clandestine presence of SNM represents an important capability for Homeland Security. An ideal SNM sensor must be able to detect fissile materials present at ppb levels, be able to distinguish between the source of the detected fissile material, i.e., 235U, 239Pu, 233U or other fission source, and be able to perform the discrimination in near real time. A sensor with such capabilities would provide not only rapid identification of a threat but, ultimately, information on the potential source of the threat. For example, current detection schemes for monitoring clandestine nuclear testing and nuclear fuel reprocessing to provide weapons grade fissile material rely largely on passive air sampling combined with a subsequent instrumental analysis or some type of wet chemical analysis of the collected material. It would be highly useful to have a noncontact method of measuring isotopes capable of providing forensic information rapidly at ppb levels of detection. Here we compare the use of Kr, Xe and I as "canary" species for distinguishing between 235U and 239Pu fission sources by spectroscopic methods.

  20. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  1. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation.

  2. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation. PMID:19630202

  3. Interventional uroradiologic procedures performed using gadodiamide as an alternative to iodinated contrast material

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, David J.; Angle, J. Fritz; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Hartwell, Gary D.; Jenkins, Alan D.; Matsumoto, Alan H.

    2000-01-15

    Three patients with either a history of severe allergic reactions to iodinated contrast or marked renal insufficiency underwent interventional uroradiologic procedures using full-strength gadodiamide (Gd) as a contrast agent in place of iodinated contrast material. The procedures were percutaneous access for nephrostolithotomy, antegrade pyelography with placement of a nephroureteral stent, and a diagnostic nephrostogram with exchange of a nephroureteral stent. Gd was visualized fluoroscopically and produced satisfactory digital radiographs without allergic reaction or worsening renal function. Gd can be useful in guiding interventional uroradiologic procedures when iodinated contrast material is contraindicated.

  4. Evaluation of alternative phase change materials for energy storage in solar dynamic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of fluoride salt and metallic thermal energy storage materials are compared in terms of basic performance as applied to solar dynamic power generation. Specific performance considerations include uniformity of cycle inlet temperature, peak cavity temperature, TES utilization, and system weights. Also investigated were means of enhancing the thermal conductivity of the salts and its effect on the system performance.

  5. The Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation Using Alternative Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoph, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Among the surprising results of research on the relation between a person's material circumstances and his or her subjective well-being was the finding that this relationship appears to be rather weak (throughout this paper the terms "(general) life satisfaction", "(subjective) satisfaction", "happiness" and "subjective well-being" will be used…

  6. Alternatives of informed consent for storage and use of human biological material for research purposes: Brazilian regulation.

    PubMed

    Marodin, Gabriela; França, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de; Salgueiro, Jennifer Braathen; Motta, Marcia Luz da; Tannous, Gysélle Saddi; Lopes, Anibal Gil

    2014-12-01

    Informed consent is recognized as a primary ethical requirement to conduct research involving humans. In the investigations with the use of human biological material, informed consent (IC) assumes a differentiated condition on account of the many future possibilities. This work presents suitable alternatives for IC regarding the storage and use of human biological material in research, according to new Brazilian regulations. Both norms - Resolution 441/11 of the National Health Council, approved on 12 May 2011, and Ordinance 2.201 (NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR BIOREPOSITORIES AND BIOBANKS OF HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL FOR RESEARCH PURPOSE) of the Brazil Ministry of Health, approved on 14 September 2011 - state that the consent of subjects for the collection, storage and use of samples stored in Biobanks is necessarily established by means of a Free and Informed Consent Form (ICF). In order to obtain individual and formal statements, this form should contain the following two mutually exclusive options: an explanation about the use of the stored material in each research study, and the need for new consent or the waiver thereof when the material is used for a new study. On the other hand, ICF suitable for Biorepositories must be exclusive and related to specific research. Although Brazilian and international regulations identify the main aspects to be included in the IC, efforts are still necessary to improve the consent process, so that the document will become a bond of trust between subject and researcher.

  7. Partial replacement of non renewable fossil fuels energy by the use of waste materials as alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrawati, V.; Manaf, A.; Purwadi, G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports recent investigations on the use of biomass like rice husk, palm kernel shell, saw dust and municipal waste to reduce the use of fossil fuels energy in the cement production. Such waste materials have heat values in the range approximately from 2,000 to 4,000 kcal/kg. These are comparable to the average value of 5800 kcal/kg from fossil materials like coals which are widely applied in many industrial processing. Hence, such waste materials could be used as alternative fuels replacing the fossil one. It is shown that replacement of coals with such waste materials has a significant impact on cost effectiveness as well as sustainable development. Variation in moisture content of the waste materials, however should be taken into account because this is one of the parameter that could not be controlled. During fuel combustion, some amount of the total energy is used to evaporate the water content and thus the net effective heat value is less.

  8. The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woo Jin; Griebel, Jared J; Kim, Eui Tae; Yoon, Hyunsik; Simmonds, Adam G; Ji, Hyun Jun; Dirlam, Philip T; Glass, Richard S; Wie, Jeong Jae; Nguyen, Ngoc A; Guralnick, Brett W; Park, Jungjin; Somogyi, Arpád; Theato, Patrick; Mackay, Michael E; Sung, Yung-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    An excess of elemental sulfur is generated annually from hydrodesulfurization in petroleum refining processes; however, it has a limited number of uses, of which one example is the production of sulfuric acid. Despite this excess, the development of synthetic and processing methods to convert elemental sulfur into useful chemical substances has not been investigated widely. Here we report a facile method (termed 'inverse vulcanization') to prepare chemically stable and processable polymeric materials through the direct copolymerization of elemental sulfur with vinylic monomers. This methodology enabled the modification of sulfur into processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties, which leads to well-defined sulfur-rich micropatterned films created by imprint lithography. We also demonstrate that these copolymers exhibit comparable electrochemical properties to elemental sulfur and could serve as the active material in Li-S batteries, exhibiting high specific capacity (823 mA h g(-1) at 100 cycles) and enhanced capacity retention. PMID:23695634

  9. Pumping through porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials: an alternative technology for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin; Ye, Yin-Dong; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Xi; Wang, Xu; Wu, Liang; Wang, Jin-Long; Ding, Hang; Yong, Ni; He, Ling-Hui; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-04-01

    Recently, porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials (PHOMs) have been shown to be the most promising candidates for cleaning up oil spills; however, due to their limited absorption capacity, a large quantity of PHOMs would be consumed in oil spill remediation, causing serious economic problems. In addition, the complicated and time-consuming process of oil recovery from these sorbents is also an obstacle to their practical application. To solve the above problems, we apply external pumping on PHOMs to realize the continuous collection of oil spills in situ from the water surface with high speed and efficiency. Based on this novel design, oil/water separation and oil collection can be simultaneously achieved in the remediation of oil spills, and the oil sorption capacity is no longer limited to the volume and weight of the sorption material. This novel external pumping technique may bring PHOMs a step closer to practical application in oil spill remediation.

  10. The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woo Jin; Griebel, Jared J.; Kim, Eui Tae; Yoon, Hyunsik; Simmonds, Adam G.; Ji, Hyun Jun; Dirlam, Philip T.; Glass, Richard S.; Wie, Jeong Jae; Nguyen, Ngoc A.; Guralnick, Brett W.; Park, Jungjin; Somogyi, Árpád; Theato, Patrick; Mackay, Michael E.; Sung, Yung-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    An excess of elemental sulfur is generated annually from hydrodesulfurization in petroleum refining processes; however, it has a limited number of uses, of which one example is the production of sulfuric acid. Despite this excess, the development of synthetic and processing methods to convert elemental sulfur into useful chemical substances has not been investigated widely. Here we report a facile method (termed ‘inverse vulcanization’) to prepare chemically stable and processable polymeric materials through the direct copolymerization of elemental sulfur with vinylic monomers. This methodology enabled the modification of sulfur into processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties, which leads to well-defined sulfur-rich micropatterned films created by imprint lithography. We also demonstrate that these copolymers exhibit comparable electrochemical properties to elemental sulfur and could serve as the active material in Li-S batteries, exhibiting high specific capacity (823 mA h g-1 at 100 cycles) and enhanced capacity retention.

  11. Fusible heat sink materials - Evaluation of alternate candidates. [for PLSS cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.; Lomax, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. Materials with greater thermal storage capability than water could enable both an extension of time between recharging and/or a reduction in size and/or mass. An extensive literature search identified 1,215 candidates with a solid-liquid transformation within the temperature range of -13 C to 5 C. Based on data available in the literature, several candidates with a cooling capacity significantly greater than water were identified. Measurements of the transformation temperature and enthalpy of transformation were then undertaken with a differential scanning calorimeter in order to confirm the accuracy of the literature. Laboratory measurements have thus far not been able to corroborate the extremely high values found from the literature. This paper presents the approach for materials selection utilized in this study, the experimental procedure, and the results of the measurements thus far undertaken.

  12. Investigation of alternative materials for impregnation of Nb3Sn accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Deepak Reddy Chichili, Jay Hoffman and Alexander Zlobin

    2003-11-17

    Insulation is one of the most important elements of magnet design, which determines the electrical, mechanical, and thermal performance as well as lifetime of the magnet. The exposure to high radiation loads especially for the proposed LHC second-generation interaction region Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles further limits the choices of the insulation materials. Traditionally Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets were impregnated with epoxy to improve both the mechanical and electrical properties. However, the acceptable radiation limit for epoxy is low which reduces the lifetime of the magnet. The paper presents the results of the feasibility study to replace epoxy with high radiation-resistant material during vacuum impregnation. The mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of samples impregnated with Matrimid were measured and compared with epoxy-impregnated samples.

  13. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates.

    PubMed

    Bossard, M; Boussey, J; Le Drogoff, B; Chaker, M

    2016-02-19

    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints. PMID:26783068

  14. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard, M.; Boussey, J.; Le Drogoff, B.; Chaker, M.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints.

  15. The use of adhesive metal-ceramic restorations as an alternative to conventional crown and bridge materials.

    PubMed

    Bishop, K; Priestley, D; Deans, R; Joshi, R

    1997-02-01

    A compromise is often necessary when choosing the most appropriate material in the construction of crowns and bridges. The most commonly used material is porcelain fused to metal since it is aesthetic and has acceptable physical characteristics to be used in the restoration of both anterior and posterior teeth. Unfortunately, to achieve a predictable and durable result extensive tooth preparation is invariably necessary. More conservative alternatives such as dentine-bonded crowns may have inferior physical characteristics and allow less predictable control over the occlusal contour. This paper describes the construction of fixed restorations which use both lost wax and refractory die techniques in their construction. This results in a restoration which has the combined advantages of both traditional porcelain fused to metal and dentine-bonded crowns and bridges.

  16. The Thermochemical Degradation of Hot Section Materials for Gas Turbine Engines in Alternative-Fuel Combustion Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalbano, Timothy

    Gas turbine engines remain an integral part of providing the world's propulsion and power generation needs. The continued use of gas turbines requires increased temperature operation to reach higher efficiencies and the implementation of alternative fuels for a lower net-carbon footprint. This necessitates evaluation of the material coatings used to shield the hot section components of gas turbines in these new extreme environments in order to understand how material degradation mechanisms change. Recently, the US Navy has sought to reduce its use of fossil fuels by implementing a blended hydroprocessed renewable diesel (HRD) derived from algae in its fleet. To evaluate the material degradation in this alternative environment, metal alloys are exposed in a simulated combustion environment using this blended fuel or the traditional diesel-like fuel. Evaluation of the metal alloys showed the development of thick, porous scales with a large depletion of aluminum for the blend fuel test. A mechanism linking an increased solubility of the scale to the blend fuel test environment will be discussed. For power generation applications, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants can provide electricity with 45% efficiency and full carbon capture by using a synthetic gas (syngas) derived from coal, biomass, or another carbon feedstock. However, the combustion of syngas is known to cause high water vapor content levels in the exhaust stream with unknown material consequences. To evaluate the effect of increased humidity, air-plasma sprayed (APS), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is thermally aged in an environment with and without humidity. An enhanced destabilization of the parent phase by humid aging is revealed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-TEM (STEM) indicate an enhanced coarsening of the domain structure of the YSZ in the humid environment. The enhanced

  17. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  18. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. PMID:26628666

  19. Development of an alternate pathway for materials destined for disposition to WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Georgette Y; Mckerley, Bill; Veazey, Gerald W; Ricketts, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory currently has an inventory of process residues that may be viable candidates for disposition to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) located at Carlsbad, New Mexico. A recent 'Attractiveness Level D' exemption allows for the discard of specified intractable materials regardless of the percent plutonium. However, the limits with respect to drum loadings must be met. Cementation is a key component of the aqueous nitrate flowsheet and serves as a 'bleed-off' stream for impurities separated from the plutonium during processing operations. The main 'feed' to the cementation operations are the 'bottoms' from the evaporation process. In the majority of cases, the cemented bottoms contain less than the allowed amount per drum for WIPP acceptance. This project would expand the route to WIPP for items that have no defined disposition path, are difficult to process, have been through multiple passes, have no current recovery operations available to recover the plutonium and that are amenable to cementation. This initial work will provide the foundation for a full scale disposition pathway of the candidate materials. Once the pathway has been expanded and a cementation matrix developed, routine discard activities will be initiated.

  20. New alternative approach to all-optical flip-flop with nonlinear material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Dibyendu; Das, Partha Pratima

    2010-07-01

    Due to its inherent parallelism and tremendous operational speed, optical signal is the most suitable for data processing and digital communication in various fields. Conventional electronic and opto-electronic systems are unable to fulfill this arena, because of their low speed and time delay. In the case of pure electronic flip-flop, when a switch is turned ON, there is notable propagation delay on the order of nanoseconds. For an opto-electronic flip-flop although the propagation delay time is much less than that of an electronic flip-flop (about 10 to 100 times less), there are many disadvantages. Some of these disadvantages are delay of response time due to the use of spatial light modulators, an O/E converter that does not operate at all frequencies or wavelengths, and the unavailability of such materials. An optical input encoding methodology is proposed for the performance of all-optical flip-flop operations possible for two inputs. These operations were conducted in all-optical mode and are parallel in nature. All the operations are treated with proper exploitation of some nonlinear materials.

  1. Determination of allowable fluid temperature during start-up operation of outlet header under the assumption of constant and temperature-dependent material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.

  2. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material.

    PubMed

    Skowronek, R; Tomsia, M; Droździok, K; Kabiesz, J

    2014-01-01

    In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR) sequences and short tandem repeat (STR) profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut) of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  3. Off-Hugoniot characterization of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-05-01

    The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign, a glow- discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple- shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile [1]. We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) and compare with GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP.

  4. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  5. Head Start Facilities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Assessment Management, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    A quality Head Start facility should provide a physical environment responsive both to the needs of the children and families served and to the needs of staff, volunteers, and community agencies that share space with Head Start. This manual is a tool for Head Start grantees and delegate agencies for assessing existing facilities, making…

  6. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    PubMed

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  7. Electrohydrodynamic bubbling: an alternative route to fabricate porous structures of silk fibroin based materials.

    PubMed

    Ekemen, Zeynep; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Kaplan, David; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-05-13

    Conventional fabrication techniques and structures employed in the design of silk fibroin (SF) based porous materials provide only limited control over pore size and require several processing stages. In this study, it is shown that, by utilizing electrohydrodynamic bubbling, not only can new hollow spherical structures of SF be formed in a single step by means of bubbles, but the resulting bubbles can serve as pore generators when dehydrated. The bubble characteristics can be controlled through simple adjustments to the processing parameters. Bubbles with diameters in the range of 240-1000 μm were fabricated in controlled fashion. FT-IR characterization confirmed that the rate of air infused during processing enhanced β-sheet packing in SF at higher flow rates. Dynamic mechanical analysis also demonstrated a correlation between air flow rate and film tensile strength. Results indicate that electrohydrodynamically generated SF and their composite bubbles can be employed as new tools to generate porous structures in a controlled manner with a range of potential applications in biocoatings and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  8. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-11-02

    As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

  9. Bio-based alternative to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with controlled materials properties.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Anthony; Spinella, Stephen; Gross, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    A series of biobased epoxy monomers were prepared from diphenolic acid (DPA) by transforming the free acid into n-alkyl esters and the phenolic hydroxyl groups into diglycidyl ethers. NMR experiments confirmed that the diglycidyl ethers of diphenolates (DGEDP) with methyl and ethyl esters have 6 and 3 mol % of glycidyl ester. Increasing the chain length of DGEDP n-alkyl esters from methyl to n-pentyl resulted in large decreases in epoxy resin viscosity (700-to-11 Pa·s). Storage modulus of DPA epoxy resins, cured with isophorone diamine, also varied with n-alkyl ester chain length (e.g., 3300 and 2100 MPa for the methyl and n-pentyl esters). The alpha transition temperature of the cured materials showed a linear decrease from 158 to 86 °C as the ester length increases. The Young's modulus and tensile strengths were about 1150 and 40 MPa, respectively, for all the cured resins tested (including DGEBA) and varied little as a function of ester length. Degree of cure for the different epoxy resins, determined by FTIR and DSC, closely approached the theoretical maximum. The result of this work demonstrates that diglycidyl ethers of n-alkyl diphenolates represent a new family of biobased liquid epoxy resins that, when cured, have similar properties to those from DGEBA. PMID:25633466

  10. US strategic and critical materials imports: Dependency and vulnerability. The Latin American alternative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, J.L.

    1989-05-31

    In time of war or during a National Emergency, it will be necessary for the United States to minimize dependence on extra hemisphere supply. This paper examines the extent to which current suppliers of strategic and critical imported minerals and petroleum, received from outside the American Continent, could be superseded with Latin American sources, including the Caribbean, Central and South America. The paper concludes that this substitution of trade would be a desirable course of action now, to be pursued in peacetime, not only for the U.S. but also for the Latin American States as well. This paper lists the strategic and critical imported materials for the U.S., and also identifies current supply sources; determines to what extent current supply sources could be replaced by Latin American ones; identifies major U.S. policy changes that would be required to make new trade arrangements suitable, feasible, and acceptable; proposes conclusions, which are related to the future of the U.S. strategic stockpiling and to the improvement of the Latin American sources of supply.

  11. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    PubMed

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

  12. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel A; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-09-15

    Copper-indium-gallium-selenium-sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS₂ p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane.

  13. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel A; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-09-15

    Copper-indium-gallium-selenium-sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS₂ p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane. PMID:23811631

  14. A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, João L; Figueira, José A; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Ornelas, Laura P; Branco, Ricardo N; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2014-10-01

    The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products - such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC-qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40 °C for 30 min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials.

  15. Producing Gender-Sensitive Materials for Open and Distance Learning. Knowledge Series. A Topical, Start-Up Guide to Distance Education Practice and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Maree; Bentley, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity to someone's gender is crucial, not only in life, but also in learning. In developing countries where the opportunities for face-to-face education are often limited, open and distance learning (ODL) can provide basic education, skills training and lifelong learning. Appropriate ODL materials are especially important for women who live…

  16. AFM as an alternative for Young’s modulus determination in ceramic materials in elastic deformation regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, J. J.; Oncins, G.; Dias, F. T.; Vieira, V. N.; Schaf, J.; Segarra, M.

    2011-09-01

    A novel alternative to the conventional nanoindentation technique for hard materials is presented. An atomic force microscopy probe is used as an indenter, applying loads in the nN range and producing elastic deformations of a few nanometres. This new technique allows a reduction of the different inherent nanoindenter problems. This result in an increase in the quality of the overall results, and thus provide better understanding of the contact mechanism between the indenter and the sample, yielding Young’s modulus values consistent with the literature. This is confirmed by a series of experiments performed on different YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x textured and single crystal samples textured using different techniques.

  17. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article.

  18. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article. PMID:27510619

  19. Starting School in August

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the controversial decision of the school board from the Broward County, Florida to start the school year on August 9. School boards across the country that are grappling with the idea of starting school earlier in the year are increasingly running up against strong opposition from parents. In many districts,…

  20. Luminescence properties of M2Si5N8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) mixed nitrides prepared by metal hydrides as starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Daiki; Kim, Hyo Sung; Horikawa, Takashi; Itoh, Masahiro; Machida, Ken-ichi

    2012-08-01

    Mixed metal nitrides, M2Si5N8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba), were synthesized from M2-yCeySi5 or an appropriate mixture of MSiHx, Si3N4 and CeF3, by a direct nitriding process in N2 gas: 2 MSiHx + Si3N4 + CeF3 → M2Si5N8:Ce3+. Also, charge-compensated materials, M2AlzSi5-zN8:Ce3+ were prepared (from an appropriate mixture of MSiHx, MAlSiHx, Si3N4 and CeF3) and the luminescence properties were characterized. The resultant phosphors showed green emission suitable for LED illumination by optimizing the mixing ratio of metal elements.

  1. Assessment outcome is weakly correlated with lecture attendance: influence of learning style and use of alternative materials.

    PubMed

    Horton, Dane M; Wiederman, Steven D; Saint, David A

    2012-06-01

    The relation between lecture attendance and learning is surprisingly weak, and the role of learning styles in this is poorly understood. We hypothesized that 1) academic performance is related to lecture attendance and 2) learning style influences lecture attendance and, consequently, affects performance. We also speculated that the availability of alternative resources would affect this relationship. Second-year Bachelor of Science physiology students (n = 120) self-reported their lecture attendance in a block of 21 lectures (attendance not compulsory) and use of alternative resources. Overall self-reported lecture attendance was 73 ± 2%. Female students (n = 71) attended more lectures (16.4 ± 0.6) than male students (14.3 ± 0.08, n = 49) and achieved a higher composite mark in all assessments (73.6% vs. 69.3%, P < 0.02). Marks in the final exam were not statistically different between the sexes and correlated only weakly with lecture attendance (r = 0.29, n = 49, P < 0.04 for male students; r = 0.10, n = 71, P = not significant for female students; and r =0.21, n = 120, P < 0.02 for the whole class). Of the students who passed the exam, poor attenders (<11 lectures) reported significantly more use of lecture recordings (37 ± 8%, n = 15, vs. 10 ± 1%, n = 85, P < 0.001). In a VARK learning style assessment (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is reading/writing, and K is kinesthetic), students were multimodal, although female students had a slightly higher average percentage of the R learning style (preferred read/write) compared with male students (28.9 ± 0.9%, n = 63, vs. 25.3 ± 1.3%, n = 32, P < 0.03). Lecture attendance was not correlated with measured learning style. We concluded that lecture attendance is only weakly correlated with academic performance and is not related to learning style. The substitution of alternative materials for lecture attendance appears to have a greater role than learning style in determining academic outcomes.

  2. Starting an aphasia center?

    PubMed

    Elman, Roberta J

    2011-08-01

    Starting an aphasia center can be an enormous challenge. This article provides initial issues to review and consider when deciding whether starting a new organization is right for you. Determining the need for the program in your community, the best size and possible affiliation for the organization, and available resources, as well as developing a business plan, marketing the program, and building awareness in the community, are some of the factors that are discussed. Specific examples related to starting the Aphasia Center of California are provided.

  3. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and MS2 coliphage: effects of additives and alternative container materials.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael B; Iriarte, Mercedes; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-04-15

    The use of alternative container materials and added oxidants accelerated the inactivation of MS2 coliphage and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. bacteria during solar water disinfection (SODIS) trials. Specifically, bottles made from polypropylene copolymer (PPCO), a partially UVB-transparent plastic, resulted in three-log inactivation of these organisms in approximately half the time required for disinfection in bottles made from PET, polycarbonate, or Tritan(®), which absorb most UVB light. Furthermore, the addition of 125 mg/L sodium percarbonate in combination with either citric acid or copper plus ascorbate tended to accelerate inactivation by factors of 1.4-19. Finally, it was observed that the inactivation of E. coli and enterococci derived from local wastewater was far slower than the inactivation of laboratory-cultured E. coli and Enterococcus spp., while the inactivation of MS2 was slowest of all. These results highlight the importance of UVB in SODIS under certain conditions, and also the greater sunlight resistance of some viruses and of bacteria of fecal origin, as compared to the laboratory-cultured bacteria commonly used to model their inactivation. Furthermore, this study illustrates promising new avenues for accelerating the inactivation of bacteria and viruses by solar disinfection.

  4. The physics of tokamak start-up

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.

    2013-05-15

    Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases, inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection, and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current.

  5. The physics of tokamak start-upa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.

    2013-05-01

    Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases, inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection, and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current.

  6. The Physics of Tokamak Start-up

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller

    2012-11-13

    Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. ITER, the National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current.

  7. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  8. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prohibition of dumping dredged and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) materials in streams and oceans, diminishing land fill space, skyrocketing landfill costs, and concerns over air pollution from incineration of wastes have contributed to a strong public interest in finding alternative, environmenta...

  9. Amorphous carbon nitride as an alternative electrode material in electroanalysis: simultaneous determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Roberta A; Matos, Roberto; Benchikh, Abdelkader; Saidani, Boualem; Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine; Deslouis, Claude; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films are excellent electrode materials, whose electrochemical activity for some analytes can be tuned by controlling their surface termination, most commonly either to predominantly hydrogen or oxygen. This tuning can be accomplished by e.g. suitable cathodic or anodic electrochemical pretreatments. Recently, it has been shown that amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) films may present electrochemical characteristics similar to those of BDD, including the influence of surface termination on their electrochemical activity toward some analytes. In this work, we report for the first time a complete electroanalytical method using an a-CNx electrode. Thus, an a-CNx film deposited on a stainless steel foil by DC magnetron sputtering is proposed as an alternative electrode for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in synthetic biological samples by square-wave voltammetry. The obtained results are compared with those attained using a BDD electrode. For both electrodes, a same anodic pretreatment in 0.1 mol L(-1) KOH was necessary to attain an adequate and equivalent separation of the DA and AA oxidation potential peaks of about 330 mV. The detection limits obtained for the simultaneous determination of these analytes using the a-CNx electrode were 0.0656 μmol L(-1) for DA and 1.05 μmol L(-1) for AA, whereas with the BDD electrode these values were 0.283 μmol L(-1) and 0.968 μmol L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the results obtained in the analysis of the analytes in synthetic biological samples were satisfactory, attesting the potential application of the a-CNx electrode in electroanalysis.

  10. Hypervelocity Impacts on ISS Handrails and Evaluation of Alternative Materials to Prevent Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Glove Damage During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eruc; Davis, B. Alan; Ordonez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    During post-flight processing of STS-116, damage to crewmember Robert Curbeam's Phase VI Glove Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment was discovered. This damage consisted of: loss of RTV-157 palm pads on the thumb area on the right glove, a 0.75 inch cut in the Vectran adjacent to the seam and thumb pad (single event cut), constituting the worst glove damage ever recorded for the U.S. space program. The underlying bladder and restraint were found not be damaged by this event. Evaluation of glove damage found that the outer Vectran fibers were sliced as a result of contact with a sharp edge or pinch point rather than general wear or abrasion (commonly observed on the RTV pads). Damage to gloves was also noted on STS-118 and STS-120. One potential source of EMU glove damages are sharp crater lips on external handrails, generated by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. In this paper, the results of a hypervelocity impact (HVI) test program on representative and actual ISS handrails are presented. These tests were performed in order to characterize impact damage profiles on ISS handrails and evaluate alternatives for limiting risk to future missions. It was determined that both penetrating and non-penetrating MMOD impacts on aluminum and steel ISS handrails are capable of generating protruding crater profiles which exceed the heights required for EMU glove abrasion risk by an order of magnitude. Testing demonstrated that flexible overwraps attached to the outside of existing handrails are capable of limiting contact between hazardous crater formations and crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (EVA). Additionally, replacing metallic handrails with high strength, low ductility, fiber reinforced composite materials would limit the formation of protruding crater lips on new ISS modules.

  11. Effect of Alternative Insulation Materials on Quench Propagation in ReBa2Cu3O7-delta Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Makita R.

    ReBa2Cu3Odelta-7 (REBCO) coils have the potential to impact a variety of magnet applications but due to slow normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV), quench detection and protection remain difficult. It is therefore important to understand how quench behavior is affected by various aspects of coil design, geometric considerations and material properties. Although past studies have explored the effects of varying the conductor properties, it is important to investigate the influence of insulation as well. In this study, the effect of insulation properties on three-dimensional (3D) quench propagation in REBCO-based coils is investigated. At present, superconducting magnets primarily use insulators that are electrically and thermally insulating; typically Kapton. Here the impact of electrically insulating, thermally conducting insulators on quench behavior was studied. In particular, the behavior of a Kapton insulated coil was compared to doped-TiO2 and ideal Al2O3 insulated coils. A non-insulated coil was also evaluated. Using a mixed-dimensional model the effect of various insulation materials on multiple quench parameters in REBCO coated conductor coils was studied. The comparison of the usage alternative insulation was conducted for a 20 mum and 100 mum case using three models: Concept Model 1, 2 and 3. Concept model 1 studied the effects on 3D propagation behavior, including the 3D current sharing volume (CSV) and key quench parameters, including minimum quench energy, hotspot temperature and NZPV. Concept model 2 (CM 2) cooled a room temperature coil configuration from room temperature to 50 K for a 15 min duration. The radial and hoop stresses were observed at the cleavage edge, middle height and along the conductor width in the central conductor. Concept model 3 (CM 3) determined the thermal stresses based upon the thermal development of CM 1 during a quench. Concept model 1 found that ideal Al2O3 insulation resulted in the highest MQE, lowest peak temperature

  12. Comparative evaluation of pumice stone as an alternative immobilization material for 1,3-propanediol production from waste glycerol by immobilized Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Cagdas; Gungormusler, Mine; Azbar, Nuri

    2012-12-01

    In this study, pumice stone (PS), which is a vastly available material in Turkey, was evaluated as an alternative immobilization material in comparison to other commercially available immobilization materials such as glass beads and polyurethane foam. All immobilized bioreactors resulted in much better 1,3-propanediol production from waste glycerol in comparison to the suspended cell culture bioreactor. It was also demonstrated that the locally available PS material is as good as the commercially available immobilization material. The maximum volumetric productivity (8.5 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained by the PS material, which is 220 % higher than the suspended cell system. Furthermore, the immobilized bioreactor system was much more robust against cell washout even at very low hydraulic retention time values.

  13. Starting in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Through its signature initiative, Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP), the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) is promoting a vision for learning that begins in school: Starting in School . . . Rigorous and rich curriculum focused on the essential learning outcomes; comprehensive, individualized, and…

  14. TARCOG Home Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Top of Alabama Regional Council of Governments, Huntsville. Human Resources Program.

    This report describes the Top of Alabama Regional Council of Governments (TARCOG) Home Start Program. Five aspects of the program are presented. (1) The nutrition component is aimed at helping parents make the best use of food resources through good planning, buying, and cooking. (2) The health program involves provision of medical and dental…

  15. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials Appendix to Subpart F of Part 655 Highways FEDERAL... Pavement Marking Materials 1. Although the FHWA Color Tolerance Charts depreciate the use of... for Retroreflective Pavement Marking Material With CIE 2° Standard Observer and 45/0 (0/45)...

  16. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials Appendix to Subpart F of Part 655 Highways FEDERAL... Pavement Marking Materials 1. Although the FHWA Color Tolerance Charts depreciate the use of... for Retroreflective Pavement Marking Material With CIE 2° Standard Observer and 45/0 (0/45)...

  17. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials Appendix to Subpart F of Part 655 Highways FEDERAL... Pavement Marking Materials 1. Although the FHWA Color Tolerance Charts depreciate the use of... for Retroreflective Pavement Marking Material With CIE 2° Standard Observer and 45/0 (0/45)...

  18. Biosolids and dredged materials: alternative sources of nutrients for crop productivity and sustainability of pasture-based agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or “biosolids” and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and cha...

  19. When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. What conditions increase the need to start ART? HIV-infected people with the following conditions should ... consider starting ART immediately. Once a person starts ART, why is medication adherence important? ART is a ...

  20. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  1. Nutriendo la Promesa: Materiales Para la Aplicacion de las Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start. Guia Para la Utilizacion de los Materiales [y] Transparencias (Nurturing the Promise: Set of Training Materials on the Head Start Program Performance Standards. User's Guide [and] Set of Transparencies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Since 1975, the Head Start Program Performance Standards have defined the services that local programs are required to provide to enrolled children and families. With revisions effective in 1998, the Program Performance Standards translate the Head Start vision into quality practices implemented at the local level. This document is comprised of a…

  2. Training Curriculum for Alternative Clothes Cleaning. Volume I: Curriculum [and] Volume II: Instructor's Manual [and Presentation Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luskin, Jack; Manning, Teena; Siegel, Jodie

    This two-volume document consists of a curriculum and an instructor's manual for a learner-centered workshop on alternative clothes cleaning that is intended for operators of dry-cleaning establishments and individuals who are interested in opening a garment wet cleaning facility. Volume 1, the curriculum, contains 11 learning modules. Each module…

  3. Collecting Forever or Just-in-Time: An Alternative to Enhance Customers' Access to Chinese Language Materials through Resource Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Situ, Ping; Voyles, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    Libraries need to weigh the benefits, usage, and cost-effectiveness of owning collections against seeking alternatives to deliver the information needed by customers. The University of Arizona Library investigated different approaches for meeting the research needs of East Asian Studies faculty and students under great pressure of physical space…

  4. Starting at the Top.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explains why the ceiling systems that schools choose are as important to creating a constructive learning environment as any other finishing material and furnishing. Some effective wall system strategies are also highlighted. (GR)

  5. Fusible heat sink materials - An identification of alternate candidates. [for astronaut thermoregulation in EVA portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lomax, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. An extensive database search was undertaken to identify candidate materials with liquid solid transformations over the temperature range of -18 C to 5 C; and 1215 candidates were identified. Based on available data, 59 candidate materials with thermal storage capability, DeltaH values higher than that of water were identified. This paper presents the methodology utilized in the study, including the decision process used for materials selection.

  6. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  7. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  8. In vivo degradation in modern orthopaedic UHMWPE bearings and structural characterization of a novel alternative UHMWPE material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinitz, Steven D.

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) remains the most common bearing material for total joint arthroplasty. Advances in radiation cross-linking and other post-consolidation treatments have led to a rapid differentiation of polyethylene products on the market, with more than twenty unique materials currently being sold by the five largest orthopaedic manufacturers alone. Through oxidation, cross-link density, and free radical measurements, this work demonstrates for the first time that in vivo material degradation is occurring in cross-linked UHMWPE materials. Based on the rate of the reaction in certain materials, it is concluded that oxidative degradation may compromise the mechanical properties of the bearings in as few as ten years, potentially leading to early clinical failure of the devices. Using the knowledge gained from this work as well as previously published observations about UHMWPE oxidation, a two-mechanism model of oxidation is proposed that offers an explanation for the observed in vivo changes. From this model it is concluded that oxidative degradation is in part the result of in vivo chemical species. The two-mechanism model of oxidation suggests that different processing techniques for UHMWPE may reduce the risk of oxidative degradation. It is concluded that by avoiding any radiation cross-linking step, Equal Channel Angular Processing (ECAP) can produce UHMWPE materials with a reduced risk for in vivo oxidation while at the same time offering superior mechanical properties compared to commercially available UHMWPE materials, as well as similar wear behavior. Using dynamic mechanical analysis, the entanglement density in ECAP materials is quantified, and is related back to the ECAP processing parameters. The relationship between entanglement density and resultant material properties is established. The results will allow informed processing parameter selection for producing optimized materials for orthopaedics and other applications.

  9. Tetra methyl substituted Cu(II) phthalocyanine as alternative hole transporting material for organometal halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfyri, Georgia; Kumar, Challuri Vijay; Wang, Yu-Long; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Krontiras, C. A.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine is a promising hole transporting material, which can be employed with solid state perovskite solar cells. Tetra methyl substituted copper phthalocyanine was presently studied as a hole transporting material and demonstrated improved performance with respect to unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine. This material shows a strong absorption in the Visible and Near IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum contributing to the absorption of photons. Its LUMO and HOMO level are favourably positioned for injecting electrons and scavenging holes. Methyl substitution facilitates closer molecular packing leading to a stronger extinction coefficient, stronger π-π interaction and higher charge carrier mobility.

  10. "Start With a Pin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jennifer

    1970-01-01

    Describes first grade science activity using soda straws, piNs, blocks of wood, paper clips, and washers as an introduction to weights and measures. Children worked independently in a problem solving manner with materials and recorded results by writing, drawing or tape recording. Varying student approaches, responses, and conclusions are…

  11. Dependence of the mechanical behavior of alloys on their electron work function—An alternative parameter for materials design

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hao; Hua, Guomin; Li, Dongyang

    2013-12-23

    In this article, we demonstrate that the electron work function (EWF) as an intrinsic parameter can provide information or clues in a simple or straightforward way for material design, modification, and development. A higher work function of a material represents a more stable electronic state, which consequently generates a higher resistance to any attempt of changing the electronic state and other corresponding states, e.g., changes in structure or microstructure caused by mechanical and electrochemical actions. Using Cu-Ni alloy as an example, we demonstrate the correlation between the EWF and Young's modulus of the material as well as its hardness. The properties of a material can be modified using elements with appropriate work functions. This is also applicable for tailoring inter-phase boundaries or interfaces.

  12. In vitro Alternative Methodologies for Central Nervous System Assessment: A Critique using Nanoscale Materials as an Example.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the potential health hazards to the central nervous system of a new family of materials presents many challenges. Whole-animal toxicity testing has been the tradition, but in vitro methods have been steadily gaining popularity. There are numerous challenges in testing...

  13. Direct-current arc and alternating-current spark emission spectrographic field methods for the semiquantitative analysis of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, D.J.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1968-01-01

    Two spectrographic methods are used in mobile field laboratories of the U. S. Geological Survey. In the direct-current arc method, the ground sample is mixed with graphite powder, packed into an electrode crater, and burned to completion. Thirty elements are determined. In the spark method, the sample, ground to pass a 150-mesh screen, is digested in hydrofluoric acid followed by evaporation to dryness and dissolution in aqua regia. The solution is fed into the spark gap by means of a rotating-disk electrode arrangement and is excited with an alternating-current spark discharge. Fourteen elements are determined. In both techniques, light is recorded on Spectrum Analysis No. 1, 35-millimeter film, and the spectra are compared visually with those of standard films.

  14. Technical assessment of critical Plasma-Materials Interaction (PMI) and High Heat Flux (HHF) issues for alternative fusion concepts (AFCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.N.

    1986-03-01

    A number of approaches to fusion energy are being pursued as alternative fusion concepts (AFCs). The goal of these systems is to provide a more desirable method of producing fusion energy than the mainline programs. Some of the AFCs have both a Low Power Density (LPD) option and a High Power Density (HPD) option. A summary of representative AFC programs and their associated PMI and HHF issues is followed by the technical assessment of the critical issues. These requirements are discussed relative to the mainline and/or HPD components. The HPD options are contrasted with a tabulation of the characteristics of components for the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), which is representative of the HPD concept.

  15. Maryland Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, Maryland has provided state supplemental funds to Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) programs to improve access. Local EHS programs may use funds, through child care partnerships, to extend the EHS day or year. Maryland's approach to building on EHS includes: (1) Increase the capacity of existing Head Start and EHS programs to…

  16. Enhanced electrochemical performance of mesoporous NiCo2O4 as an excellent supercapacitive alternative energy storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhojane, Prateek; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the supercapacitive properties of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) synthesized by fast, inexpensive and facile chemical bath method, by avoiding high pressure, high temperature and chemical complexity. Physico-chemical characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman Spectra, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis is performed to characterize the electrode material. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements reveal the surface area 52.86 m2 g-1 and from Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH), typical pores size ranges between 10 and 50 nm, also confirms the mesoporosity. The electrochemical properties are measured by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charging/discharging. The synthesized material exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 1130 F g-1 at 1 mV s-1 sweep rate and 1125 F g-1 at current density of 0.05 A g-1, highest without supporting base like carbon cloth, Ni-foam, Ti- foil used for direct growth (deposition) of electrode material. It is superior to those of its individual and hybrid components prepared by similar technique. Ragone plot shows high specific energy density (49.25 Wh kg-1) and corresponding specific power density (1851.31 W kg-1) even at high current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  17. Some considerations in the evaluation of concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW (low-level radioactive waste) disposal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop information needed to evaluate the long-term performance of concrete and reinforced concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal methods. The capability to carry out such an evaluation is required for licensing a site which employs one of these alternative methods. The basis for achieving the study objective was the review and analysis of the literature on concrete and its properties, particularly its durability. In carrying out this program characteristics of concrete useful in evaluating its performance and factors that can affect its performance were identified. The factors are both intrinsic, i.e., associated with composition of the concrete (and thus controllable), and extrinsic, i.e., due to external environmental forces such as climatic conditions and aggressive chemicals in the soil. The testing of concrete, using both accelerated tests and long-term non-accelerated tests, is discussed with special reference to its application to modeling of long-term performance prediction. On the basis of the study's results, conditions for acceptance are recommended as an aid in the licensing of disposal sites which make use of alternative methods.

  18. Evaluation of calcium alginate gel as electrode material for alternating current iontophoresis of lidocaine using excised rat skin.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Tomoko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Haida, Haruka; Wakita, Ryo; Ando, Shizuka; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2014-01-01

    Iontophoresis (IOP) is a noninvasive method of delivering medication transcutaneously through the skin. The electrodes used in this method should tightly fit to rough and irregular surfaces and be biologically safe, easy to handle and prepare, and cost-effective. To satisfy these requirements, calcium alginate gel can be a candidate electrode for IOP. Using calcium alginate gel electrodes, we examined whether lidocaine can be effectively transported across an excised rat skin by squarewave alternating current (AC) application. A squarewave AC with either a 70% or 80% duty cycle was continuously applied to 0.5% calcium alginate gel electrodes containing 10% lidocaine at 10 V and 1 kHz for 60 min. Lidocaine concentration was measured using a spectrophotometer and the temperature of the gel was determined. The lidocaine concentrations for AC-IOP at the 70% and 80% duty cycles were significantly higher than that without AC-IOP. Furthermore, the group with the 80% duty cycle showed higher lidocaine concentrations than the group with the 70% duty cycle. The temperatures of all the groups were lower than 28 °C throughout the procedure. In conclusion, the calcium alginate gel can be used as a possible matrix for IOP electrodes.

  19. Confine Clay in an Alternating Multilayered Structure through Injection Molding: A Simple and Efficient Route to Improve Barrier Performance of Polymeric Materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feilong; Deng, Hua; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2015-05-20

    Various methods have been devoted to trigger the formation of multilayered structure for wide range of applications. These methods are often complicated with low production efficiency or require complex equipment. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of polymeric sheets containing multilayered structure with enhanced barrier property through high speed thin-wall injection molding (HSIM). To achieve this, montmorillonite (MMT) is added into PE first, then blended with PP to fabricate PE-MMT/PP ternary composites. It is demonstrated that alternating multilayer structure could be obtained in the ternary composites because of low interfacial tension and good viscosity match between different polymer components. MMT is selectively dispersed in PE phase with partial exfoliated/partial intercalated microstructure. 2D-WAXD analysis indicates that the clay tactoids in PE-MMT/PP exhibits an uniplanar-axial orientation with their surface parallel to the molded part surface, while the tactoids in binary PE-MMT composites with the same overall MMT contents illustrate less orientation. The enhanced orientation of nanoclay in PE-MMT/PP could be attributed to the confinement of alternating multilayer structure, which prohibits the tumbling and rotation of nanoplatelets. Therefore, the oxygen barrier property of PE-MMT/PP is superior to that of PE-MMT because of increased gas permeation pathway. Comparing with the results obtained for PE based composites in literature, outstanding barrier property performance (45.7% and 58.2% improvement with 1.5 and 2.5 wt % MMT content, respectively) is achieved in current study. Two issues are considered responsible for such improvement: enhanced MMT orientation caused by the confinement in layered structure, and higher local density of MMT in layered structure induced denser assembly. Finally, enhancement in barrier property by confining impermeable filler into alternating multilayer structure through such

  20. Potential Alternatives for Advanced Energy Material Processing in High Performance Li-ion Batteries (LIBs) via Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duh, Jenq-Gong; Chuang, Shang-I.; Lan, Chun-Kai; Yang, Hao; Chen, Hsien-Wei

    2015-09-01

    A new processing technique by atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) jet treatment of LIBs was introduced. Ar/N2 plasma enhanced the high-rate anode performance of Li4Ti5O12. Oxygen vacancies were discovered and nitrogen doping were achieved by the surface reaction between pristine Li4Ti5O12 and plasma reactive species (N* and N2+). Electrochemical impedance spectra confirm that plasma modification increases Li ions diffusivity and reduces internal charge-transfer resistance, leading to a superior capacity (132 mAh/g) and excellent stability with negligible capacity decay over 100 cycles under 10C rate. Besides 2D material surface treatment, a specially designed APP generator that are feasible to modify 3D TiO2 powders is proposed. The rate capacity of 20 min plasma treated TiO2 exhibited 20% increment. Plasma diagnosis revealed that excited Ar and N2 was contributed to TiO2 surface reduction as companied by formation of oxygen vacancy. A higher amount of oxygen vacancy increased the chance for excited nitrogen doped onto surface of TiO2 particle. These findings promote the understanding of APP on processing anode materials in high performance LIBs.

  1. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  2. A Systematic Review of Root Canal Filling Materials for Deciduous Teeth: Is There an Alternative for Zinc Oxide-Eugenol?

    PubMed Central

    Barja-Fidalgo, Fernanda; Moutinho-Ribeiro, Michele; Oliveira, Maria Angelina Amorim; de Oliveira, Branca Heloísa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether there is a root canal filling for deciduous teeth equally or more effective than zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE). Six clinical trials selected for inclusion were independently reviewed by two researchers. Only two showed statistically significant different success rates between the test and the control groups. One found that an iodoform paste with calcium hydroxide (IP + Ca) performed better than ZOE, and the other found that ZOE performed similarly to IP + Ca. The other four studies compared ZOE with an iodoform paste (IP), a calcium hydroxide cement (Ca(OH)2), or IP + Ca. In these trials, the success rates in the ZOE groups were slightly lower than in the other groups. There seems to be no convincing evidence to support the superiority of any material over ZOE, and both ZOE and IP + Ca appear to be suitable as root canal fillings for deciduous teeth. PMID:21991471

  3. Carbon/PEEK composite materials as an alternative for stainless steel/titanium hip prosthesis: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farshid; Hassani, Kamran; Solhjoei, Nosratollah; Karimi, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) has been ranked within the most typical surgical processes in the world. The durability of the prosthesis and loosening of prosthesis are the main concerns that mostly reported after THR surgeries. In THR, the femoral prosthesis can be fixed by either cement or cementless methods in the patient's bones. In both procedures, the stability of the prosthesis in the hosted bone has a key asset in its long-term durability and performance. This study aimed to execute a comparative finite element simulation to assess the load transfer between the prosthesis, which is made of carbon/PEEK composite and stainless steel/titanium, and the femur bone. The mechanical behavior of the cortical bone was assumed as a linear transverse isotropic while the spongy bone was modeled like a linear isotropic material. The implants were made of stainless steel (316L) and titanium alloy as they are common materials for implants. The results showed that the carbon/PEEK composites provide a flatter load transfer from the upper body to the leg compared to the stainless steel/titanium prosthesis. Furthermore, the results showed that the von Mises stress, principal stress, and the strain in the carbon/PEEK composites prosthesis were significantly lower than that made of the stainless steel/titanium. The results also imply that the carbon/PEEK composites can be applied to introduce a new optimum design for femoral prosthesis with adjustable stiffness, which can decrease the stress shielding and interface stress. These findings will help clinicians and biomedical experts to increase their knowledge about the hip replacement.

  4. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, Caroline Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl; Gather, Malte C.

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  5. Carbon/PEEK composite materials as an alternative for stainless steel/titanium hip prosthesis: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farshid; Hassani, Kamran; Solhjoei, Nosratollah; Karimi, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) has been ranked within the most typical surgical processes in the world. The durability of the prosthesis and loosening of prosthesis are the main concerns that mostly reported after THR surgeries. In THR, the femoral prosthesis can be fixed by either cement or cementless methods in the patient's bones. In both procedures, the stability of the prosthesis in the hosted bone has a key asset in its long-term durability and performance. This study aimed to execute a comparative finite element simulation to assess the load transfer between the prosthesis, which is made of carbon/PEEK composite and stainless steel/titanium, and the femur bone. The mechanical behavior of the cortical bone was assumed as a linear transverse isotropic while the spongy bone was modeled like a linear isotropic material. The implants were made of stainless steel (316L) and titanium alloy as they are common materials for implants. The results showed that the carbon/PEEK composites provide a flatter load transfer from the upper body to the leg compared to the stainless steel/titanium prosthesis. Furthermore, the results showed that the von Mises stress, principal stress, and the strain in the carbon/PEEK composites prosthesis were significantly lower than that made of the stainless steel/titanium. The results also imply that the carbon/PEEK composites can be applied to introduce a new optimum design for femoral prosthesis with adjustable stiffness, which can decrease the stress shielding and interface stress. These findings will help clinicians and biomedical experts to increase their knowledge about the hip replacement. PMID:26462678

  6. Are allogenic or xenogenic screws and plates a reasonable alternative to alloplastic material for osteosynthesis--a histomorphological analysis in a dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, C; Obwegeser, J A

    2010-12-01

    Despite invention of titanium and resorbable screws and plates, still, one of the main challenges in bone fixation is the search for an ideal osteosynthetic material. Biomechanical properties, biocompatibility, and also cost effectiveness and clinical practicability are factors for the selection of a particular material. A promising alternative seems to be screws and plates made of bone. Recently, xenogenic bone pins and screws have been invented for use in joint surgery. In this study, screws made of allogenic sheep and xenogenic human bone were analyzed in a vital and dynamic sheep-model and compared to conventional titanium screws over a standard period of bone healing of 56 days with a constant applied extrusion force. Biomechanical analysis and histomorphological evaluation were performed. After 56 days of insertion xenogenic screws made of human bone showed significantly larger distance of extrusion of on average 173.8 μm compared to allogenic screws made of sheep bone of on average 27.8 and 29.95 μm of the titanium control group. Severe resorption processes with connective tissue interposition were found in the histomorphological analysis of the xenogenic screws in contrast to new bone formation and centripetal vascularization of the allogenic bone screw, as well as in processes of incorporation of the titanium control group. The study showed allogenic cortical bone screws as a substantial alternative to titanium screws with good biomechanical properties. In contrast to other reports a different result was shown for the xenogenic bone screws. They showed insufficient holding strength with confirmative histomorphological signs of degradation and insufficient osseointegration. Before common clinical use of xenogenic osteosynthetic material, further evaluation should be performed. PMID:20813368

  7. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  8. Studies of selected plant raw materials as alternative sources of triterpenes of oleanolic and ursolic acid types.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Radosław

    2007-02-01

    The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of triterpene aglycones of saponin fractions isolated from vegetative and generative organs of three Silphium species, Silphium perfoliatum, Silphium trifoliatum, and Silphium integrifolium, as compared to materials used in the herbal industry such as Panax quinquefolium root and Calendula officinalis flower, was performed. The analyses revealed that triterpene aglycones of saponins isolated from tested Silphium and Calendula species were oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. It was found that Panax roots contained only the aglycone of oleanolic acid within the triterpene saponin group. The leaves of Silphium harvested in May were characterized by the highest content of oleanolic acid-They contained 17.03 mg/g dry weight of the triterpenic acid, on average. The seasons before flowering and at the beginning of that stage appeared to be the most efficient periods for leaf collection in reference to triterpene aglycone contents in plant yield. Moreover, it was found that inflorescences of S. trifoliatum and S. integrifolium contained oleanolic acid in amounts of 22.05 and 17.95 mg/g dry weight respectively, whereas Calendula flowers contained 20.53 mg/g dry weight. The oleanolic acid content in Panax roots was 3.15 mg/g dry weight. Ursolic acid most abundantly occurred in S. integrifolium and S. trifoliatum at concentrations of about 14.98 mg/g dry weight in leaves harvested before flowering (June) and to 15.50 mg/g dry weight in leaves collected during flowering. PMID:17263457

  9. Optimization of two methods based on ultrasound energy as alternative to European standards for soluble salts extraction from building materials.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Gómez-Laserna, O; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M

    2012-11-01

    The Italian recommendation NORMAL 13/83, later replaced by the UNI 11087/2003 norm, were used as standard for soluble salts extraction from construction materials. These standards are based on long-time stirring (72 and 2h, respectively) of the sample in deionized water. In this work two ultrasound based methods were optimized in order to reduce the extraction time while efficiency is improved. The instrumental variables involved in the extraction assisted by ultrasound bath and focused ultrasounds were optimized by experimental design. As long as it was possible, the same non-instrumental parameters values as those of standard methods were used in order to compare the results obtained on a mortar sample showing a black crust by the standards and the optimized methods. The optimal extraction time for the ultrasounds bath was found to be of two hours. Although the extraction time was equal to the standard UNI 11087/2003, the obtained extraction recovery was improved up to 119%. The focused ultrasound system achieved also better recoveries (up to 106%) depending on the analyte in 1h treatment time. The repeatabilities of the proposed ultrasound based methods were comparables to those of the standards. Therefore, the selection of one or the other of the ultrasound based methods will depend on topics such as laboratory facilities or number of samples, and not in aspects related with their quality parameters.

  10. An alternative hypothesis for high-T 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum discordance in polyphase extraterrestrial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassata, W. S.; Shuster, D. L.; Renne, P. R.; Weiss, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    A common feature observed in 40Ar/39Ar age spectra of extraterrestrial (ET) rocks is a conspicuous decrease in the ages of high temperature extractions relative to lower temperature steps and a correlated increase in Ca/K, often succeeded by a monotonic increase in ages. This feature is routinely attributed to recoil-implanted 39Ar from a potassium (K)-rich donor phase into a K-poor receptor phase (e.g., 1,2). While 39Ar recoil redistribution is undoubtedly manifested in many terrestrial and ET 40Ar/39Ar whole-rock age spectra, it cannot easily explain the magnitude of high release temperature 40Ar*/39ArK anomalies observed in Martian meteorites ALH 84001 and Nakhla, as well as other course-grained meteorites and lunar rocks. Depending on the aliquot and sample, 50 - 100% of the pyroxene release spectra in ALH 84001 and Nakhla appear strongly perturbed to lower ages. As the mean recoil distance of 39Ar ~0.1 µm, the recoil hypothesis demands that a high-K phase be ubiquitously distributed amongst sub-micron to micron sized pyroxene crystals to account for the observed pyroxene age spectra. However, in both Nakhla and ALH 84001, pyroxene is often completely isolated from high-K phases and individual grains commonly exceed 100 µm in diameter. 40Ar/39Ar analyses of pyroxene-bearing terrestrial basalts, wherein fine-grained pyroxene and plagioclase are intimately adjoined, show that recoil-implanted 39Ar into pyroxene produces much less precipitous anomalies in 40Ar*/39ArK, as predicted by the recoil lengthscale. An alternative hypothesis is that whole-rock age spectra of ET samples with anomalously low ages at high temperatures may reflect diffusive 40Ar distributions within considerably degassed pyroxene grains. Owing to apparent differences in activation energies between glass and/or plagioclase and pyroxene, 40Ar may diffuse more rapidly from pyroxene under certain high-temperature conditions (i.e., above the temperature at which the extrapolated Ar Arrhenius

  11. Steel slag: a waste industrial by-product as an alternative sustainable green building material in construction applications--an attempt for solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Pofale, Arun D; Nadeem, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility of utilizing granular slag as an alternative to fine aggregate (natural sand) in construction applications like masonry and plastering. Construction industry utilizes large volume of fine aggregate in all the applications which has resulted into shortage of good quality naturally available fine aggregate. Use of granular slag serves two fold purposes, i.e. waste utilisation as well as alternative eco-friendly green building material for construction. The investigation highlights comparative study of properties with partial and full replacement of fine aggregate (natural sand) by granular slag in cement mortar applications (masonry and plastering). For this purpose, cement mortar mix proportions from 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 & 1:6 by volume were selected for 0, 25, 50, 75 & 100% replacement levels with w/c ratios of 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 & 0.72 respectively. Based on the study results, it could be inferred that replacement of natural sand with granular slag from 25 to 75% increased the packing density of mortar which resulted into reduced w/c ratio, increased strength properties of all mortar mixes. Hence, it could be recommended that the granular slag could be effectively utilized as fine aggregate in masonry and plastering applications in place of conventional cement mortar mixes using natural sand.

  12. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  13. Nebraska: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…

  14. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  15. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  16. Accountability Starts with the Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Kenneth E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes how Lawndale District, near Los Angeles, developed a system of accountability starting with the superintendent. Describes the subgoals and objectives developed by the superintendent in cooperation with the Board of Trustees and members of the community. (JF)

  17. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  18. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Matet, Alexandre; Amar, Nawel; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Barale, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. Methods The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. Results None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. Conclusion The combination of an autograft of superficial temporalis fascia and a scleral flap efficiently prevented leakage through the sclerotomy site, ocular hypotony, and conjunctival erosion by the extrascleral electronics case. This modified technique is suitable for the implantation of existing and forthcoming retinal prostheses. Superficial temporalis fascia may also be used as alternative to commercial tectonic tissues for scleral wound repair in clinical settings where they

  19. 2D materials: to graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2011-01-01

    This review is an attempt to illustrate the different alternatives in the field of 2D materials. Graphene seems to be just the tip of the iceberg and we show how the discovery of alternative 2D materials is starting to show the rest of this iceberg. The review comprises the current state-of-the-art of the vast literature in concepts and methods already known for isolation and characterization of graphene, and rationalizes the quite disperse literature in other 2D materials such as metal oxides, hydroxides and chalcogenides, and metal-organic frameworks.

  20. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  1. Synthesis of Functionalized Cinnamaldehyde Derivatives by an Oxidative Heck Reaction and Their Use as Starting Materials for Preparation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde derivatives were synthesized in good to excellent yields in one step by a mild and selective, base-free palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative Heck reaction starting from acrolein and various arylboronic acids. Prepared α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were used for synthesis of novel α-aryl substituted fosmidomycin analogues, which were evaluated for their inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase. IC50 values between 0.8 and 27.3 μM were measured. The best compound showed activity comparable to that of the most potent previously reported α-aryl substituted fosmidomycin-class inhibitor. PMID:21936546

  2. A comparison of soft start mechanisms for mining belt conveyors

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Belt Conveyors are an important method for transportation of bulk material in the mining industry. The control of the application of the starting torque from the belt drive system to the belt fabric effects the performance, life cost, and reliability of the conveyor. This paper examines application of each starting method within the coal mining industry.

  3. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  4. Calcium carbonate precipitation by strain Bacillus licheniformis AK01, newly isolated from loamy soil: a promising alternative for sealing cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Ali; Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Vali, Hojatollah; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2015-01-01

    The relevant experiments were designed to determine the ability of indigenous bacterial strains isolated from limestone caves, mineral springs, and loamy soils to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. Among all isolates examined in this study, an efficient carbonate-precipitating soil bacterium was selected from among the isolates and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Bacillus licheniformis AK01. The ureolytic isolate was able to grow well on alkaline carbonate-precipitation medium and precipitate calcium carbonate more than 1 g L(-1). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) examinations were performed in order to confirm the presence of calcium carbonate in the precipitate and to determine which polymorphs were present. The selected isolate was determined to be an appropriate candidate for application in a surface treatment of cement-based material to improve the properties of the mortar. Biodeposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of cement specimens resulted in filling in pore spaces. This could be an alternative method to improve the durability of the mortar. The kind of bacterial culture and medium composition had a profound impact on the resultant CaCO(3) crystal morphology.

  5. Structural and thermoelectric properties of pure and La, Y doped HoMnO3 for their use as alternative energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Banaras; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Razghandi, N.; Maqbool, M.; Jalali Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2015-02-01

    HoMnO3 and its La and Y doped compounds Ho0.67La0.33MnO3 and Ho0.67Y 0.33MnO3 are investigated for their structural and thermoelectric transport properties. Small bandgaps of these compounds, as investigated by first principles calculations, make them suitable for application in thermoelectric devices. It is found that the bandgap of pure HoMnO3 increases with La and Y dopants. Thermoelectric parameters such as Seebeck coefficient, electric conductivity and thermal conductivity are calculated and their dependences on chemical potential are reported. Electrical conductivity is found to be of the order of 1020 1/m Ω s, and thermal conductivity of the order of 1015 W/mKs for all these alloys. HoMnO3 in pure form and in the presence of La and Y dopants is very suitable for thermoelectric devices and as alternative energy materials.

  6. Calcium carbonate precipitation by strain Bacillus licheniformis AK01, newly isolated from loamy soil: a promising alternative for sealing cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Ali; Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Vali, Hojatollah; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2015-01-01

    The relevant experiments were designed to determine the ability of indigenous bacterial strains isolated from limestone caves, mineral springs, and loamy soils to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. Among all isolates examined in this study, an efficient carbonate-precipitating soil bacterium was selected from among the isolates and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Bacillus licheniformis AK01. The ureolytic isolate was able to grow well on alkaline carbonate-precipitation medium and precipitate calcium carbonate more than 1 g L(-1). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) examinations were performed in order to confirm the presence of calcium carbonate in the precipitate and to determine which polymorphs were present. The selected isolate was determined to be an appropriate candidate for application in a surface treatment of cement-based material to improve the properties of the mortar. Biodeposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of cement specimens resulted in filling in pore spaces. This could be an alternative method to improve the durability of the mortar. The kind of bacterial culture and medium composition had a profound impact on the resultant CaCO(3) crystal morphology. PMID:25590872

  7. 45 CFR 1306.36 - Additional Head Start program option variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., home-based, combination programs, and family child care options defined in this part, the Director of the Office of Head Start retains the right to fund alternative program variations to meet the unique needs of communities or to demonstrate or test alternative approaches for providing Head Start services....

  8. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  9. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  10. MAKING WAVES, DENVER HEAD START.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Opportunity, CO.

    THIS DOCUMENT PROVIDES A DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY OF PROJECT HEAD START ACTIVITIES IN DENVER, COLORADO. THE PRIMARY EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM ARE CITED AS (1) CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT THROUGH EXPERIENCES IN AN ENLARGED ENVIRONMENT, (2) SELF-CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SUCCESSFUL INTERACTION WITH TEACHERS AND WITH PEERS, AND (3) THE DEVELOPMENT OF…

  11. Start Where Your Students Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robyn R.

    2010-01-01

    Starting where your students are means understanding how currencies are negotiated and traded in the classroom. Any behavior that students use to acquire the knowledge and skills needed in the classroom functions as currency. Teachers communicate the kinds of currencies they accept in their classrooms, such as getting good grades; students do…

  12. Head Start Dental Health Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This curriculum for Head Start programs provides preschool learning experiences that teach about dental health. The majority of the curriculum guide is devoted to the following lesson plans: (1) "Introduction of 'Smiley the Super Pup'," an optional puppet character which may be used to review the concepts covered in each lesson; (2) "Visiting the…

  13. Math Club Starting in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Starting a math club as early as kindergarten and having a range of grade levels in attendance can be successful. With the help of the older students, the varied age groups are entertained and excited about attending math club. The purpose of the club is to enrich the classroom mathematics curriculum with hands-on activities and to have members…

  14. Rigor Made Easy: Getting Started

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2012-01-01

    Bestselling author and noted rigor expert Barbara Blackburn shares the secrets to getting started, maintaining momentum, and reaching your goals. Learn what rigor looks like in the classroom, understand what it means for your students, and get the keys to successful implementation. Learn how to use rigor to raise expectations, provide appropriate…

  15. Alternative strategies: a better alternative.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations.

  16. Bilingual/Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Proceedings of Head Start Regional Conferences, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Kenneth A.; Arenas, Soledad

    This summary of the presentation given at four Head Start Regional Bilingual/Multicultural Conferences consists of materials related to the Head Start Strategy for Spanish-speaking Children. Keynote addresses focus on Head Start policy implications, the future of Head Start in the 1980s, and the relation of bilingual/bicultural programs to the…

  17. [Start-up of full-scale UASB reactors].

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Sheng, F; Lu, Z

    2001-09-01

    The UASB reactors treating high-temperature citric acid wastewater could be started up in the alternation of mesophilic and thermophilic ranges because the local climate changed greatly by seasons. The reactors were started up in mesophilic range, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 77%-86%; when the temperature of reactors reached 44 degrees C-45 degrees C, the reactors were operated in thermophilic range, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 84%-93%; the reactors were re-operated in mesophilic range after closing about 38 days, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 82%-96%. The start-up in the alternation of mesophilic and thermophilic ranges of the full-scale UASB reactors and the characteristics of mesophilic and thermophilic granular sludge were reported in this paper.

  18. School start times for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life. PMID:25156998

  19. School start times for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life.

  20. Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Lopez, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Congressionally-mandated Head Start Impact Study is being conducted across 84 nationally representative grantee/delegate agencies. Approximately 5,000 newly entering 3- and 4-year-old children applying for Head Start were randomly assigned to either a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or to a non-Head Start group…

  1. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Dyches, G.M.; Dudar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a patent description for a system to start an internal combustion engine. Remote starting and starting by hearing impaired persons are addressed. The system monitors the amount of current being drawn by the starter motor to determine when the engine is started. When the engine is started the system automatically deactivates the starter motor. Five figures are included.

  2. Reducing restraints: where to start.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, T L; Terpstra, T L; Van Doren, E

    1998-01-01

    To begin a restraint reduction program at a large neuropsychiatric Veterans Affairs medical center, nursing educators examined perceptions of and knowledge about restraint use among 113 nursing staff members employed on one acute, two intermediate, and five long-term care units. Strumpf and Evans' (1988) Perceptions of Restraint Use Questionnaire, a knowledge test, and questions about personal characteristics were used. Top reasons for restraint use identified were to prevent pulling on an intravenous line, to prevent breaking open sutures, and to protect from a fall. Although knowledge scores were high, they did not correlate significantly with ability to suggest alternatives. Respondents viewed restraint use as a somewhat important intervention. Statistically significant differences were found between level of practice and number of alternatives listed, knowledge score, and personal perception score. Implications for nursing educators embarking on a restraint reduction program are discussed including myths and quality-of-life issues.

  3. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  4. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  5. Quantifying Variation in Head Start Effects on Young Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Skills Using Data from the National Head Start Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Weiland, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), a nationally representative multisite randomized trial, to quantify variation in effects of Head Start during 2002-2003 on children's cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes relative to the effects of other local alternatives, including parent care. We find that (1) treatment and control…

  6. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  7. Regional Applied Research Effort Project (RARE) with Region 8 - Beneficial Use of Red and Brown Mud and Phosphogypsum as Alternative Construction Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Red and brown muds are the secondary materials generated from the extraction of alumina from bauxite, an aluminum-containing sedimentary rock (Ref. 2). Phosphogypsum is the secondary material generated by the phosphorous fertilizer industry from phosphate-containing sedimentary ...

  8. Preventing obesity starts with breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Preventing obesity starts with breastfeeding. An infant's nutrition at birth affects not only short-term health outcomes but also the health of that person as a child, adolescent, and adult. This article examines major findings that all conclude that any breastfeeding will help protect an infant from obesity and overweight. Research supports that the more exclusive and longer a child is breastfed, the more protection from overweight and obesity is conferred. Mechanisms of action are explored in this article. It is of paramount importance to provide evidence-based lactation support and care to families to improve the incidence, exclusivity, and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is one concrete method to address the obesity epidemic that is growing worldwide.

  9. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  10. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  11. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  17. Alternating Poly(ester-anhydride) by Insertion Polycondensation.

    PubMed

    Haim-Zada, Moran; Basu, Arijit; Hagigit, Tal; Schlinger, Ron; Grishko, Michael; Kraminsky, Alexander; Hanuka, Ezra; Domb, Abraham J

    2016-06-13

    We report on a synthetic method where polyanhydride is used as starting material and the ester monomers are inserted through complete esterification, leading to an alternating ester-anhydride copolymer. The molar ratio of ricinoleic acid (RA) and sebacic acid (SA) was optimized until polysebacic acid is completely converted to carboxylic acid-terminated RA-SA and RA-SA-RA ester-dicarboxylic acids. These dimers and trimers were activated with acetic anhydride, polymerized under heat and vacuum to yield alternating RA-SA copolymer. The resulting alternating poly(ester-anhydride) have the RA at regular intervals. The regular occurrences of RA side chains prevent anhydride interchange, enhancing hydrolytic stability, which allows storage of the polymer at room temperature. PMID:27198864

  18. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  19. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  20. [Alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Mitello, L

    2001-01-01

    In a critical situation of world official medicine, we can find different alternatives therapies: natural therapy traditional and complementary, survival sometimes, of antique stiles and conditions of life. New sciences presented for them empiricism to the margin of official science. Doctors and sorcerer do the best to defeat the horrible virus that contribute to build symbols categories of sick. The alternatives put dangerously in game the scientific myth of experiment and exhume, if they got lost, antique remedy, almost preserved like cultural wreck very efficient where the medicine is impotent. Besides alternatives and complementary therapies, that are remedies not recognized conventional from official medicine, there are the homeopathic, phytotherapy, pranotherapy, nutritional therapy, the ayurveda, the yoga, ecc. Italians and internationals research show a composite picture of persons that apply that therapies. Object of this work is to understand and know the way that sick lighten their sufferings and role that have o that can assume the nurses to assist this sick. PMID:12146072

  1. Cosmic alternatives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  2. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  3. Chitosan as a starting material for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Ostafe, V; Borchard, G; Jordan, O

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives have attracted great attention due to their properties beneficial for application to wound healing. The main focus of the present review is to summarize studies involving chitosan and its derivatives, especially N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (TMC), N,O-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) and O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (CMTMC), used to accelerate wound healing. Moreover, formulation strategies for chitosan and its derivatives, as well as their in vitro, in vivo and clinical applications in wound healing are described.

  4. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  5. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  6. Alternative quaternary chalcopyrite sulfides (Cu2FeSnS4 and Cu2CoSnS4) as electrocatalyst materials for counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag

    2016-02-01

    Quaternary chalcopyrite sulfides are attracting considerable interest as electrocatalysts for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Conventionally, the much expensive platinum (Pt) is being used as an electrocatalyst material for counter electrodes (CEs) in DSSCs. The present study reports the synthesis of quaternary chalcopyrite sulfides (Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS) and Cu2CoSnS4 (CCTS) nanoparticles for their application as alternative CE materials in DSSCs. For the first time, CCTS is being explored as a CE material for DSSCs. Physical properties such as crystal structure, elemental composition and morphological characteristics of the as synthesized nanoparticles and the sulfurized films are studied. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements demonstrated that the CCTS CE is more effective for tri-iodide reduction as compared to CFTS CE. The photo conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of DSSCs fabricated using CCTS and CFTS as CEs are found to be 7.4% and 7.1% respectively, while DSSC fabricated with Pt as the CE showed an efficiency of 8.2%. This indicates that they both can potentially be used as alternative CE materials in DSSCs in place of the more expensive Pt.

  7. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  8. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  9. Engine management during NTRE start up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulman, Mel; Saltzman, Dave

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: total engine system management critical to successful nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) start up; NERVA type engine start windows; reactor power control; heterogeneous reactor cooling; propellant feed system dynamics; integrated NTRE start sequence; moderator cooling loop and efficient NTRE starting; analytical simulation and low risk engine development; accurate simulation through dynamic coupling of physical processes; and integrated NTRE and mission performance.

  10. Alaska Head Start Annual Program Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education and Early Devolopment, Juneau. Head Start State Collaboration Office.

    This annual report details the accomplishments of the Alaska Head Start Program for fiscal year 1999. The report begins with a description of the Head Start program and its core values, and delineates the administrative and program partners of Head Start, its service population, eligibility requirements, funding sources, service models, and…

  11. Alaska Head Start. Annual Report for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau.

    This annual report details the accomplishments of the Alaska Head Start Program for fiscal year 1998. The report begins with a graphic presentation of the locations of Alaska Head Start programs and a table delineating the administrative and program partners of Head Start, its service population, eligibility requirements, funding sources, service…

  12. Solvent alternatives guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elion, J.M.; Monroe, K.R.; Hill, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

  13. The New Youth Entrepreneur: Money To Get Started. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourilsky, Marilyn; And Others

    The New Youth Entrepreneur curriculum is a series of 12 youth-oriented educational modules containing instructional materials, learning activities, and checkup exercises designed to teach students key elements of entrepreneurship. This document is the fifth module, and introduces students to the financial issues involved in starting a business,…

  14. Blending Head Start and Montessori: The Best of Both Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Suellen

    2002-01-01

    A Head Start program located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in Colorado incorporated the Montessori approach in their program beginning in 1997. Findings from numerous focus group interviews with a cross-section of community members suggest that the educational materials, learning environment, and teaching techniques appropriately…

  15. SO YOU WANT TO START A CENTRALIZED ELEMENTARY LIBRARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOBER, VIRGINIA

    THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS THE NECESSARY INFORMATION FOR STARTING A CENTRALIZED ELEMENTARY LIBRARY. THE FOLLOWING ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--SOURCES OF PROFESSIONAL AND NONPROFESSIONAL HELP, ORGANIZATIONS AND COMPANIES TO CONTACT FOR CATALOGS AND SUPPLIES, HOW TO SURVEY THE PHYSICAL RESOURCES AND UTILIZE THEM, TYPES OF MATERIAL FOUND IN AN ELEMENTARY…

  16. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  17. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.

  18. Method for starting operation of a resistance melter

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher Charles

    1977-01-01

    A method for starting the operation of a resistance furnace, where heating occurs by passing a current through the charge between two furnace electrodes and the charge is a material which is essentially electrically nonconductive when in a solid physical state but which becomes more electrically conductive when in a molten physical state, by connecting electrical resistance heating wire between the furnace electrodes, placing the wire in contact with the charge material between the electrodes and passing a current through the wire to heat the wire to a temperature sufficient to melt the material between the furnace electrodes so that as the material melts, current begins to pass between the electrodes through the melted material, further heating and melting more material until all current between the electrodes passes through the charge material without the aid or presence of the resistance element.

  19. Biomechanical analysis of backstroke swimming starts.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, K; de Jesus, K; Figueiredo, P; Gonçalves, P; Pereira, S; Vilas-Boas, J P; Fernandes, R J

    2011-07-01

    The relationships between the start time and kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic data were examined in order to establish the common features of an effective backstroke swimming start. Complementarily, different starting positions were analysed to identify the parameters that account for the fastest backstroke start time under different constraints. 6 high-level swimmers performed 4×15 m maximal trials of each start variants with different feet position: parallel and entirely submerged (BSFI) and above water surface (BSFE), being monitored with synchronized dual-media image, underwater platform plus handgrip with a load cell, and eletromyographic signal of RECTUS FEMORIS and GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS. Mean and SD values of start time for BSFI and BSFE were 2.03 ± 0.19 and 2.14 ± 0.36 s, respectively. In both starts, high associations (r > =0.75, p < 0.001) were observed between start time and centre of mass resultant average velocity at glide phase and horizontal impulse at take-off for BSFI, and centre of mass horizontal position at the start signal for BSFE. It was concluded that the greater impulse during the take-off and its transformation into a fast underwater movement are determinant to decrease the start time at BSFI. Regarding BSFE, a greater centre of mass pool-wall approximation might imply a flatter take-off angle, compromising underwater velocity and starting performance. PMID:21563041

  20. Layout decomposition and synthesis for a modular technology to solve the edge-placement challenges by combining selective etching, direct stitching, and alternating-material self-aligned multiple patterning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyi; Han, Ting; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Yijian

    2016-03-01

    To overcome the prohibitive barriers of edge-placement errors (EPE) in the cut/block/via step of complementary lithography, we propose a modular patterning approach by combining layout stitching, selective etching, and alternating-material self-aligned multiple patterning (altSAMP) processes. In this patterning approach, altSAMP is used to create line arrays with two materials alternatively which allow a highly selective etching process to remove one material without attacking the other, therefore more significant EPE effect can be tolerated in line-cutting step. With no need of connecting vias, the stitching process can form 2-D features by directly stitching two components of patterns together to create 2-D design freedom as well as multiple-CD/pitch capability. By adopting this novel approach, we can potentially achieve higher processing yield and more 2-D design freedom for continuous IC scaling down to 5 nm. We developed layout decomposition and synthesis algorithms for critical layers, and the fin/gate/metal layer from NSCU open cell library is used to test the proposed algorithms.

  1. Are There Feasible Alternatives to Laboratory Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses several alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in investigating biomedical problems. Alternatives include tissue culture, use of plant and bacterial material, redesigning experiments, and construction of mathematical and computer models. (CS)

  2. Combustion of an oil palm residue with elevated potassium content in a fluidized-bed combustor using alternative bed materials for preventing bed agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Ninduangdee, Pichet; Kuprianov, Vladimir I

    2015-04-01

    Palm kernel shell (PKS) was burned at 45 kg/s and excess air of 20-80% in a fluidized-bed combustor using alumina, dolomite, and limestone as the bed material. Temperature and gas concentrations were recorded along the reactor centerline as well as at stack. A SEM-EDS analysis was performed to investigate morphology and elemental composition of bed particles. An X-ray fluorescence method was used to determine the composition of used/reused bed materials and PM emitted from the combustor at different operating times. Excess air of 40% seems to be most appropriate for burning PKS in this combustor with an alumina bed, whereas 60% excess air is more suitable when using dolomite and limestone, as ensuring high (98.6-98.9%) combustion efficiency and acceptable CO and NO emissions. By using the selected bed materials, bed agglomeration can be prevented in this combustor. However, the bed materials exhibit substantial time-domain changes in physical and chemical properties. PMID:25704101

  3. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  4. Microcomputer controlled soft start of motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Miao; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Shian

    2005-12-01

    Improving the starting characteristics of a motor is an important part of the motor control. An intelligent soft starting technique was adopted in the starter and used in the present study because of its many advantages compared with conventional starting processes. The core of the soft starter was a single chip (Atmel 8098), its soul was the software and its control object was a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). The starter achieved not only current-limit starting, but also closed-loop control with a stator current detection circuit. In conclusion, as a result of digital control, starting characteristic can be conveniently chosen according to the load. In addition the starter is of small size, and starting is smooth and reliable due to current feedback.

  5. Evaluation of Alternate Materials for Coated Particle Fuels for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Karen Wright; Jian Gan; David Petti; Todd Allen; Jake Blanchard

    2006-09-01

    Candidate ceramic materials were studied to determine their suitability as Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor particle fuel coatings. The ceramics examined in this work were: TiC, TiN, ZrC, ZrN, AlN, and SiC. The studies focused on (i) chemical reactivity of the ceramics with fission products palladium and rhodium, (ii) the thermomechanical stresses that develop in the fuel coatings from a variety of causes during burnup, and (iii) the radiation resiliency of the materials. The chemical reactivity of TiC, TiN, ZrC, and ZrN with Pd and Rh were all found to be much lower than that of SiC. A number of important chemical behaviors were observed at the ceramic-metal interfaces, including the formation of specific intermetallic phases and a variation in reaction rates for the different ceramics investigated. Based on the data collected in this work, the nitride ceramics (TiN and ZrN) exhibit chemical behavior that is characterized by lower reaction rates with Pd and Rh than the carbides TiC and ZrC. The thermomechanical stresses in spherical fuel particle ceramic coatings were modeled using finite element analysis, and included contributions from differential thermal expansion, fission gas pressure, fuel kernel swelling, and thermal creep. In general the tangential stresses in the coatings during full reactor operation are tensile, with ZrC showing the lowest values among TiC, ZrC, and SiC (TiN and ZrN were excluded from the comprehensive calculations due to a lack of available materials data). The work has highlighted the fact that thermal creep plays a critical role in the development of the stress state of the coatings by relaxing many of the stresses at high temperatures. To perform ion irradiations of sample materials, an irradiation beamline and high-temperature sample irradiation stage was constructed at the University of Wisconsin’s 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator Facility. This facility is now capable of irradiating of materials to high dose while controlling sample temperature

  6. Family Connections: Helping Early Head Start/Head Start Staff and Parents Address Mental Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardslee, William R.; Avery, Mary Watson; Ayoub, Catherine; Watts, Caroline L.

    2009-01-01

    Early Head Start/Head Start teachers and staff encounter parents who have wrestled with depression and other adversities every day. This article describes an innovative program of trainings for and consultation to Early Head Start/Head Start staff to help them effectively deal with mental heath challenges faced by parents and children. The program…

  7. Wireless "Jump" Starts for Partly Disabled Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment activated when normal remote starting does not work Beam from nearby station first carries raw energy and then subsystemactivating signals to equipment crippled by discharged storage batteries. Operators start up equipment without approaching it under hazardous conditions. Potential terrestrial applications for scheme include starting of robots on such remotely-controlled hazardous tasks as handling of explosives or retrieval or deposition of objects in hostile environments.

  8. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    SciTech Connect

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-04-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty.

  9. Iodine confinement into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-low temperature sintering glasses to form novel glass composite material (GCM) alternative waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Sava, Dorina Florentina

    2010-11-01

    The safe handling of reprocessed fuel addresses several scientific goals, especially when considering the capture and long-term storage of volatile radionuclides that are necessary during this process. Despite not being a major component of the off-gas, radioiodine (I{sub 2}) is particularly challenging, because it is a highly mobile gas and {sup 129}I is a long-lived radionuclide (1.57 x 10{sup 7} years). Therefore, its capture and sequestration is of great interest on a societal level. Herein, we explore novel routes toward the effective capture and storage of iodine. In particular, we report on the novel use of a new class of porous solid-state functional materials (metal-organic frameworks, MOFs), as high-capacity adsorbents of molecular iodine. We further describe the formation of novel glass-composite material (GCM) waste forms from the mixing and sintering of the I{sub 2}-containing MOFs with Bi-Zn-O low-temperature sintering glasses and silver metal flakes. Our findings indicate that, upon sintering, a uniform monolith is formed, with no evidence of iodine loss; iodine is sequestered during the heating process by the in situ formation of AgI. Detailed materials characterization analysis is presented for the GCMs. This includes powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), thermal analysis (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), and chemical durability tests including aqueous leach studies (product consistency test (PCT)), with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of the PCT leachate.

  10. The Use of Small-Particle Sized TiO2 Supported on Clays as Photocatalytic Materials: A Low- Cost Alternative Technology for the Degradation of Air Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibanova, D.; Trejo, M.; Destaillats, H.; Cervini-Silva, J.

    2007-05-01

    Assisted photocatalysis by TiO2 is an advanced oxidation process that has been employed for air and water remediation. Clays are natural porous materials bearing high surface areas and interlayer spacing that allows entrapment of small-sized particles. Pillared clays exchanged with small-sized TiO2 can constitute materials with interesting photocatalytic properties because high surface area values and large contents of mesospores, which enables analyte trapping. Furthermore, intercalation at the clay interlayer enables TiO2 to become more resistant to aggregation when in solution. Just recently it has been reported that clays can lead to increases in the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 when the mesopores size is adequate to host organic solutes and ensure their effective interaction with the TiO2 particles. In this paper we study the photocatalytic properties of small-sized TiO2 supported on the following clay samples: Montmorillonite [SWy-2, Na0.2Ca0.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2(H2O)10 ] from Crook Country, Wyoming, USA; Hectorite [SHCa-1, Na0.4Mg2.7Li0.3Si4O10(OH)2 ] from San Bernardino. Country, California, USA; Kaolinite [KGa-1b, Al2Si2O5(OH)4 ] from Washington Country, Georgia, USA. Deposition of TiO2 on the clay surface was conducted by using a sol-gel synthetic method. Anatase TiO2 particles transformation at the clay interlayer was achieved by thermic treatment at 180 °C. Material characterization was conducted using FTIR microspectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and XRD analysis. The organic compound used as probe was ethanol

  11. A paradigm shift in patterning foundation from frequency multiplication to edge-placement accuracy: a novel processing solution by selective etching and alternating-material self-aligned multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ting; Liu, Hongyi; Chen, Yijian

    2016-03-01

    Overlay errors, cut/block and line/space critical-dimension (CD) variations are the major sources of the edge-placement errors (EPE) in the cut/block patterning processes of complementary lithography when IC technology is scaled down to sub-10nm half pitch (HP). In this paper, we propose and discuss a modular technology to reduce the EPE effect by combining selective etching and alternating-material (dual-material) self-aligned multiple patterning (altSAMP) processes. Preliminary results of altSAMP process development and material screening experiment are reported and possible material candidates are suggested. A geometrical cut-process yield model considering the joint effect of overlay errors, cut-hole and line CD variations is developed to analyze its patterning performance. In addition to the contributions from the above three process variations, the impacts of key control parameters (such as cut-hole overhang and etching selectivity) on the patterning yield are examined. It is shown that the optimized altSAMP patterning process significantly improves the patterning yield compared with conventional SAMP processes, especially when the half pitch of device patterns is driven down to 7 nm and below.

  12. Using Music with Head Start Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Louise

    This pamphlet describes the function of music in Head Start programs. Suggestions are made to help children sense motion and develop their self-concepts and motor coordination skills through rhythmic songs and activities. The construction and use of rhythm instruments are suggested as a means of involving mothers in Head Start programs. Certain…

  13. Head Start Impact Study. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed to provide technical detail to support the analysis and findings presented in the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2010). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Head Start Impact Study and its findings. Chapter 2 provides technical information on the…

  14. Head Start Impact Study. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This report addresses the following four questions by reporting on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and 1st grade years: (1) What difference does Head Start make to key outcomes of development and learning (and in particular, the multiple domains of school readiness) for low-income…

  15. Administration for Children and Families: Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Head Start program. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act), $1 billion will be provided to the Office of Head Start to promote the school readiness of low-income children, including children on federally-recognized reservations and children of migratory farm workers, by enhancing…

  16. Delivering Sure Start in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willan, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores and questions some of the evidence used to support early childhood interventions in the UK, and reports on discussions with three rural Mini Sure Start project leaders in Devon. Sure Start funding in the UK has been repeatedly increased to provide more centres for 0-3-year-olds and their parents. It is increasingly linked to…

  17. When Do Start-Ups Make Sense?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemeyer, Clement J.

    2005-01-01

    The start-up has received considerable attention in the last few years. While the National Research Council of Canada has generated many start-ups over its 88-year history, the creation of a formal entrepreneurship programme in the mid-1990s dramatically accelerated the pace at which they were created. Many factors come into play in the decision…

  18. The Texas Head Start Metro Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mary Tom, Ed.; Flores, Alfredo R., Ed.

    The Texas Metro Network (TMN) is an informal group of Head Start Directors and Executive Directors organized for the purposes of improving the delivery of training and technical assistance and for assisting communication between large scale Head Start programs in the metropolitan areas of Texas. In pursuit of these aims, each member unit of the…

  19. Head Start's Broken Promise. On the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    2005-01-01

    In this short essay, Douglas J. Besharov argues that Congress should mandate an honest assessment of Head Start's strengths and weaknesses to enable the program to more effectively enhance early childhood education. He discusses evidence of Head Start's limited effectiveness and proposes that it begin operating based on research.

  20. Head Start. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Head Start" is a national, federally funded program that provides services to promote school readiness for children from birth to age 5 from predominantly low-income families. Based on a review of the research, the WWC found "Head Start" to have potentially positive effects on general reading achievement and no discernible…

  1. JobStart: The Road to Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Aging, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Family Friends is an intergenerational program that brings senior volunteers into the lives of children with disabilities or chronic illnesses. JobStart is a training program in which volunteers help children with disabilities who are 10 years of age or older prepare to enter the world of work. A JobStart team is formed for each child in the…

  2. Historical Perspectives on Project Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    Historical changes in the emphasis and focus of Project Head Start from 1965 to the present are briefly reviewed in this paper. Head Start was conceived of as primary prevention designed to enable children from lower income families to obtain educational prerequisites to formal schooling. The early years of the project were also characterized by…

  3. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  5. Use of alternative carrier materials in AOAC Official Method 2008.05, efficacy of liquid sporicides against spores of Bacillus subtilis on a hard, nonporous surface, quantitative three-step method.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Stephen F; Rastogi, Vipin K; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S; Hamilton, Martin A; Pines, Rebecca M

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative Three-Step Method (TSM) for testing the efficacy of liquid sporicides against spores of Bacillus subtilis on a hard, nonporous surface (glass) was adopted as AOAC Official Method 2008.05 in May 2008. The TSM uses 5 x 5 x 1 mm coupons (carriers) upon which spores have been inoculated and which are introduced into liquid sporicidal agent contained in a microcentrifuge tube. Following exposure of inoculated carriers and neutralization, spores are removed from carriers in three fractions (gentle washing, fraction A; sonication, fraction B; and gentle agitation, fraction C). Liquid from each fraction is serially diluted and plated on a recovery medium for spore enumeration. The counts are summed over the three fractions to provide the density (viable spores per carrier), which is log10-transformed to arrive at the log density. The log reduction is calculated by subtracting the mean log density for treated carriers from the mean log density for control carriers. This paper presents a single-laboratory investigation conducted to evaluate the applicability of using two porous carrier materials (ceramic tile and untreated pine wood) and one alternative nonporous material (stainless steel). Glass carriers were included in the study as the reference material. Inoculated carriers were evaluated against three commercially available liquid sporicides (sodium hypochlorite, a combination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, and glutaraldehyde), each at two levels of presumed efficacy (medium and high) to provide data for assessing the responsiveness of the TSM. Three coupons of each material were evaluated across three replications at each level; three replications of a control were required. Even though all carriers were inoculated with approximately the same number of spores, the observed counts of recovered spores were consistently higher for the nonporous carriers. For control carriers, the mean log densities for the four materials ranged from 6.63 for

  6. Advancing safer alternatives through functional substitution.

    PubMed

    Tickner, Joel A; Schifano, Jessica N; Blake, Ann; Rudisill, Catherine; Mulvihill, Martin J

    2015-01-20

    To achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable chemicals management policy–the transition to safer chemicals, materials, products, and processes–current chemicals management approaches could benefit from a broader perspective. Starting with considerations of function, rather than characterizing and managing risks associated with a particular chemical, may provide a different, solutions-oriented lens to reduce risk associated with the uses of chemicals. It may also offer an efficient means, complementing existing tools, to reorient chemicals management approaches from time-intensive risk assessment and risk management based on single chemicals to comparative evaluation of the best options to fulfill a specific function. This article describes a functional approach to chemicals management we call “functional substitution” that encourages decision-makers to look beyond chemical by chemical substitution to find a range of alternatives to meet product performance. We define functional substitution, outline a rationale for greater use of this concept when considering risks posed by uses of chemicals, and provide examples of how functional approaches have been applied toward the identification of alternatives. We also discuss next steps for implementing functional substitution in chemical assessment and policy development.

  7. PEAT: an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Schora, F. C.; Punwani, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

  8. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs. PMID:21744516

  9. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker's cooperatives: an alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city's main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers' cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:23347581

  10. Prepsolv (TM): The optimum alternative to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone for hand-wipe cleaning of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. Scott; Purvis, John A.; Moran, Wade W.

    1995-01-01

    Engineers at Hercules Aerospace, a rocket motor manufacturer in Utah, have worked closely with chemists at Glidco Organics to study the feasibility of using terpenes for zero-residue wipe cleaning. The result of this work is a technological breakthrough, in which the barrier to ultra-low non-volatile residue formation has been broken. After 2 years of development and testing, SCM Glidco Organics has announced the availability of Glidsafe(registered trademark) Prepsolv(TM): a state-of-the-art ultra-low residue terpene wipe cleaning agent that does not require rinsing. Prepsolv(TM) can successfully be used in simple hand-wipe cleaning processes without fear of leaving surface residues. Industry testing has confirmed that Prepsolv(TM) is not only highly effective, but can even be less expensive to use than traditional cleaning solvents like methyl chloroform. This paper addresses the features and benefits of Prepsolv(TM), and presents performance and material compatibility data that characterizes this unique cleaning agent. Since its commercialization, Hercules Aerospace has chosen Prepsolv(TM) as the optimum cleaning agent to replace ozone-depleting solvents in their weapons factory in Magna, UT. Likewise, Boeing has approved Prepsolv(TM) for cleaning components in the manufacture of commercial aircraft at their facilities in Seattle, WA and Wichita, KS. Additional approvals are forthcoming for this uniquely safe and effective solvent.

  11. The biomechanical structure of swim start performance.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sebastian; Kibele, Armin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the significance of various biomechanical parameters in swim start performance for the grab and track start techniques. To do so, structural equation models were analysed, incorporating measurements for the take-off phase, flight phase and entry phase. Forty-six elite German swimmers (18 female and 28 male; age: 20.1 ± 4.2 yrs; PB (100 m Freestyle): 53.6 ± 2.9 s) participated in the study. Their swim start performance was examined within a 25-m sprint test. Structural equation modelling was conducted in separate models for the block time, flight time and water time and in a combined model for swim start time. Our main finding was that swim start time is predominantly related to water time and determined to a lesser extent by block time and flight time. We conclude that more emphasis should be given to the water immersion behaviour and the gliding phase when analysing swim start performance. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the grab start and track techniques as regards the biomechanical parameters representing the take-off phase and water phase. PMID:27239685

  12. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  13. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  14. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors Started with Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.

    2006-07-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since {sup 233}U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing {sup 233}U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce {sup 233}U are examined here: directly in standard Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium as fissile matter and then operated in the Th/{sup 233}U cycle; or in dedicated Molten Salt Reactors started and fed with Plutonium as fissile matter and Thorium as fertile matter. The idea is to design a critical reactor able to burn the Plutonium and the minor actinides presently produced in PWRs, and consequently to convert this Plutonium into {sup 233}U. A particular reactor configuration is used, called 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum, allowing Plutonium to be used as fissile matter. The conversion capacities of such Molten Salt Reactors are excellent. For Molten Salt Reactors only started with Plutonium, the assets of the Thorium fuel cycle turn out to be quickly recovered and the reactor's characteristics turn out to be equivalent to Molten Salt Reactors operated with {sup 233}U only. Using a combination of Molten Salt Reactors started or operated with Plutonium and of Molten Salt Reactors started with {sup 233}U, the deployment capabilities of these reactors fully satisfy the condition of sustainability. (authors)

  15. Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.

  16. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  17. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  18. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation.

  19. Head Start 2010: Fulfilling the Promise. Report of the Head Start 2010 National Advisory Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Head Start Association, Alexandria, VA.

    In anticipation of the 35th anniversary of Project Head Start, the National Head Start Association (NHSA) launched a national initiative to discover how Head Start can best serve children and families in the new millennium. A series of hearings and open forums were conducted throughout the country in 1999, along with a special session featuring…

  20. Mid South Middle Start: Studies of Three Middle Start Schools in the Mid South Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lea Williams; Cheney, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    These three case studies highlight the implementation and impact of Mid South Middle Start by: (1) contributing toward an in-depth understanding of what it means to be a school implementing Middle Start; (2) describing a holistic portrait of the schools' participation in Mid South Middle Start; and (3) assisting the Academy for Educational…

  1. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  2. Training Head Start Coordinators for Workplace Preparedness. NCCU Head Start Monograph, October 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Central Univ., Durham.

    This monograph summarizes results from academic capstone activities of graduate students and faculty advisors regarding issues consistent with Head Start national priorities and practice needs. The following theses are summarized: (1) "Multicultural Education in Head Start Programs in North Carolina" (S.K. Gant); (2) "The Impact of Head Start on…

  3. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  4. Doctors' Group Backs Later School Start Times

    MedlinePlus

    ... School Start Times New policy aims to tackle sleep deprivation among teens To use the sharing features on ... June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- To help ease sleep deprivation among teens, the American Medical Association recommends that ...

  5. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  6. Progress Against Heart Deaths Starting to Wane

    MedlinePlus

    ... Against Heart Deaths Starting to Wane, Report Warns Obesity, diabetes epidemics may be to blame, doctors say To ... It is likely that the dual epidemics of obesity and diabetes, which began around 1985, are the major contributors ...

  7. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Robles, Raquel O; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yongsheng; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-05-26

    Thermophones are highly promising for applications such as high-power SONAR arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets provide the most attractive performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large-size freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets and other even more exotic materials recently investigated hampers the field. We describe alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high-energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanostructured materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. We demonstrate that the heat capacity of aerogel-like nanostructures can be extracted by a thorough analysis of the sound pressure spectra. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high-power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  8. A new start from ground zero?

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-01

    It is pointed out that one of the main reasons of lack of real conceptual progress in the field may lie in the fact that questions concerning the biogenesis of macromolecules have never been asked or addressed in a proper way. We should start again research on the origin of life starting from "ground zero" and focusing on the prebiotic synthesis of ordered sequences of proteins and nucleic acids. PMID:25618540

  9. A New Start from Ground Zero?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-01

    It is pointed out that one of the main reasons of lack of real conceptual progress in the field may lie in the fact that questions concerning the biogenesis of macromolecules have never been asked or addressed in a proper way. We should start again research on the origin of life starting from "ground zero" and focusing on the prebiotic synthesis of ordered sequences of proteins and nucleic acids.

  10. Preference for starting and finishing behavior patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Shimp, C P; Sabulsky, S L; Childers, L J

    1989-01-01

    Pigeon's key pecking was reinforced with food in two experiments in which the correspondence between preference for starting one of two reinforced behavior patterns and the likelihood of finishing it subsequently was examined. Reinforcers were scheduled according to concurrent schedules for two classes of interresponse times, modified such that reinforcers followed a center-key peck terminating either a shorter interresponse time started by a left-key peck or a longer interresponse time started by a right-key peck. In Experiment 1, the times when reinforcers potentially were available were not discriminated, whereas in Experiment 2 they were. Absolute reinforced pattern durations were varied. The relative frequency of starting a particular pattern was highly correlated with relative frequency of that completed pattern in both experiments. Other relations between starting and finishing a pattern depended on whether reinforced interresponse times were discriminated. For instance, preference for starting a pattern sometimes correlated negatively with the likelihood of subsequently completing it. The present experiments are described as capturing part of the ordinary language meaning of "intention," according to which an organism's behavior at one moment sets the occasion for an observer to say that the organism "intends" in the future to engage in one behavior rather than another. PMID:2584918

  11. Scaling and the start-up phase of space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    By terrestrial standards very little mass is needed to construct the space portion of a 10,000 megawatt (10 GW) power system. Use of lunar materials makes it reasonable to consider alternatives to silicon solar cells for conversion of sunlight to electricity and thereby avoid present major problems associated with solar cell production. Machinery needed on the moon to excavate lunar materials and deliver them to a transport system, to beneficiate lunar materials, to produce glasses and ceramics from lunar materials and to chemically process lunar materials into their major oxides and elements are minor mass fractions of the total mass of equipment needed in space to produce an SPS. In addition the processing equipment can throughput several hundred times their own mass each year with very little requirement for makeup mass from earth.

  12. Thermoelectric converters for alternating current standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Taschuk, D. D.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoelectric converters of alternating current remain priority instruments when creating standard equipment. This work presents the results of design and manufacture of alternating current converter for a military standard of alternating current in Ukraine. Results of simulation of temperature distribution in converter elements, ways of optimization to improve the accuracy of alternating current signal reproduction are presented. Results of metrological trials are given. The quality of thermoelectric material specially created for alternating current metrology is verified. The converter was used in alternating current standard for the frequency range from 10 Hz to 30 MHz. The efficiency of using thermoelectric signal converters in measuring instruments is confirmed.

  13. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…

  14. Partial oxidation for improved cold starts in alcohol-fueled engines: Phase 2 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Alcohol fuels exhibit poor cold-start performance because of their low volatility. Neat alcohol engines become difficult, if not impossible, to start at temperatures close to or below freezing. Improvements in the cold-start performance (both time to start and emissions) are essential to capture the full benefits of alcohols as an alternative transportation fuel. The objective of this project was to develop a neat alcohol partial oxidation (POX) reforming technology to improve an alcohol engine`s ability to start at low temperatures (as low as {minus}30 C) and to reduce its cold-start emissions. The project emphasis was on fuel-grade ethanol (E95) but the technology can be easily extended to other alcohol fuels. Ultimately a compact, on-vehicle, ethanol POX reactor was developed as a fuel system component to produce a hydrogen-rich, fuel-gas mixture for cold starts. The POX reactor is an easily controllable combustion device that allows flexibility during engine startup even in the most extreme conditions. It is a small device that is mounted directly onto the engine intake manifold. The gaseous fuel products (or reformate) from the POX reactor exit the chamber and enter the intake manifold, either replacing or supplementing the standard ethanol fuel consumed during an engine start. The combustion of the reformate during startup can reduce engine start time and tail-pipe emissions.

  15. Alcohol cold starting - A theoretical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two theoretical computer models have been developed to study cold starting problems with alcohol fuels. The first model, a droplet fall-out and sling-out model, shows that droplets must be smaller than 50 microns to enter the cylinder under cranking conditions without being slung-out in the intake manifold. The second model, which examines the fate of droplets during the compression process, shows that the heat of compression can be used to vaporize small droplets (less than 50 microns) producing flammable mixtures below freezing ambient temperatures. While droplet size has the greater effect on startability, a very high compression ratio can also aid cold starting.

  16. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Gregory

    2013-07-24

    This project has been in effect from July 25th, 2008 to July 24th, 2013. It supported 19 graduate students and 6 post-doctoral students and resulted in 23 publications, 7 articles in preparation, 44 presentations, and many other outreach efforts. Two representative recent publications are appended to this report. The project brought in more than $750,000 in cost share from North Carolina State University. The project funds also supported the purchase and installation of approximately $667,000 in equipment supporting solar energy research.

  17. Start up testing for the secure automated fabrication line

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, E.W.; Benson, E.M.; Dahl, R.E.

    1986-10-21

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Line has been designed and built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The SAF Line will provide the capability for remote manufacture of fuel for Liquid Metal Reactors, and will supply fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The SAF process is highly automated and represents a major advancement in nuclear fuel manufacturing, offering significant improvements in product quality, productivity, safety, and accountability of Special Nuclear Materials. The construction phase of the project is complete, and testing has been initiated to accomplish start up of the plant for manufacture of FFTF fuel. This paper describes the test methodology used for SAF Line start up.

  18. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  19. 34 CFR 200.16 - Starting points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting points. 200.16 Section 200.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  20. How to Start Intergenerational Programs in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document is designed for use by community organizers in creating, developing and maintaining an intergenerational program. Starting with a brief overview of the Maryland Intergenerational Coalition, the document describes (in short, bulleted entries) the activities and accomplishments of various intergenerational programs in Maryland, such as…

  1. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  2. Starting Salary Outcomes of Cooperative Education Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of 370 engineering co-op graduates with 1,037 nonco-op engineering graduates showed that co-op participants had higher starting salaries; 5 or fewer terms of co-op had better effects. Women, especially electrical, mechanical, or chemical majors, had substantially better salaries with co-op experience. (SK)

  3. Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorvine, Benjamin J.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, fathers have been underexamined relative to mothers in research on parenting. Fathers in poverty, as well as stepfathers and nonresidential fathers, have been a particularly understudied group. This study explores Head Start fathers' involvement with their children. Fathers are defined to include stepfathers as well as…

  4. How To Start a Child Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Phylis M., Comp.; Hollestelle, Kay, Comp.

    This paper is addressed to those who want to start their own child care center, and provides guidelines for doing so. It identifies the first things to be considered--planning and conducting a community needs assessment to analyze the competition in the area and make the decision of opening a day care center, and gathering information from a…

  5. Promoting Reading and Writing in Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister

    1997-01-01

    Notes Head Start's obligation to promote literacy skills; presents pertinent strategies: (1) encourage families to talk with and read to children; (2) read to children every day; (3) create a print-rich environment; and (4) infuse reading and writing activities throughout the curriculum. Discusses importance of focusing on language and literacy…

  6. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  7. Effects of sled towing on sprint starts.

    PubMed

    Cottle, Casey A; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Sled towing is a popular method of sprint training. Researchers have struggled to identify a loading scheme that is most appropriate to improve sprint performance in the acceleration phase. The purpose of this study was to determine if loads of 10% body weight (BWT) or 20% BWT produced significantly greater propulsive ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, peak propulsive GRF, or a greater propulsive rate of force development (RFD) than an unweighted sprint start. Seventeen healthy court and field athletes (10 men, 7 women; 20.9 ± 1.1 years) completed 5 starts of each condition (unweighted, 10% BWT, 20% BWT). Participants began each start in an upright staggered stance. Propulsive GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT condition than the unweighted condition in both limbs and greater in the 20% BWT condition than the 10% BWT condition in the front leg only, and vertical GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT than the unweighted condition. In summary, our results suggest that a 10% BWT load is not sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. A loading scheme of 20% BWT is sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. Coaches seeking to improve sprint starts may observe improvements using a load of 20% BWT during training while towing a sled.

  8. Verifying the INF and START treaties

    SciTech Connect

    Ifft, Edward

    2014-05-09

    The INF and START Treaties form the basis for constraints on nuclear weapons. Their verification provisions are one of the great success stories of modern arms control and will be an important part of the foundation upon which the verification regime for further constraints on nuclear weapons will be constructed.

  9. Starting with "I": Personal Essays by Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, Andrea, Ed.; Kay, Philip, Ed.

    In personal essays, teenagers express their views on serious subjects like violence, racism, and teen parenting, and discuss common teen experiences like dating, getting a job, and starting college. This collection contains the following: (1) "Brotherly Love" (Jessica Vicuna); (2) "How To Survive Shopping with Mom" (Chris Kanarick); (3) "A…

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne K.; Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Fuddy, Loretta; Sia, Calvin; Young, Elizabeth

    This conference paper discusses the results of a study that investigated the characteristics and needs of mothers participating in Hawaii's Healthy Start Program (HSP). The HSP is a screening and outreach program with two components: (1) the early identification component, which consists of community-based screening to identify newborns at…

  11. Evaluation of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne K.; McFarlane, Elizabeth C.; Windham, Amy M.; Rohde, Charles A.; Salkever, David S.; Fuddy, Loretta; Rosenberg, Leon A.; Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Sia, Calvin C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Hawaii's Healthy Start Program (HST), its ongoing evaluation study, and evaluation findings at the end of two of a planned three years of family-program participation and follow-up. HST uses home visitors to help prevent abusive and neglectful parenting. Found significant differences in program implementation among the three…

  12. How to Start a Day Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day Care and Child Development Council of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This publication describes the necessary steps a day care planner should follow from his or her initial thoughts of starting a day care center through to opening the door to care for children. The following steps are suggested: (1) consult appropriate offices to obtain licensing regulations, and zoning codes, as well as information on major…

  13. Verifying the INF and START treaties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifft, Edward

    2014-05-01

    The INF and START Treaties form the basis for constraints on nuclear weapons. Their verification provisions are one of the great success stories of modern arms control and will be an important part of the foundation upon which the verification regime for further constraints on nuclear weapons will be constructed.

  14. Head Start and Private/Public Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Maggie

    1994-01-01

    Describes educational partnerships between Head Start programs and the Whirlpool Corporation, Johnson and Johnson, the Girl Scouts, Palmolive Corporation, and Children's World Learning Centers. Also provides advice and specific strategies for educators seeking to initiate partnerships with public and private organizations. (MDM)

  15. Start the New Year in the Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Vernon B.; Smith, Steven H.

    1994-01-01

    Most schools need to review and revise disciplinary rules each year, but good administrator never publishes list of rules that have not been endorsed by "significant others" on staff or in community. By starting process in April or May, instead of August, the principal has several months to secure the necessary endorsements and involve parents.…

  16. Arcjet power supply and start circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Robert P. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A dc power supply for spacecraft arcjet thrusters has an integral automatic starting circuit and an output averaging inductor. The output averaging inductor, in series with the load, provides instantaneous current control, and ignition pulse and an isolated signal proportional to the arc voltage. A pulse width modulated converter, close loop configured, is also incorporated to give fast response output current control.

  17. Getting-Started Strategies and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Offers several strategies for implementing cooperative learning in the classroom. Suggests sample exercises including (1) a scavenger hunt; (2) a reaction wheel; (3) cooperative brainstorming and classification; (4) a "pair of pairs" exercise; and (5) a three-step interview. Explains that the examples are starting points that have been used in…

  18. 34 CFR 200.16 - Starting points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting points. 200.16 Section 200.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  19. Starting a Business in the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Danny

    The business and economic development center of Midland College provides assistance to small businesses. Written for use by future and current small business owners and entrepreneurs living in a 17-county area of the Permian Basin of Texas, this guidebook describes the procedures for developing a business plan and for successfully starting and…

  20. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  1. Start-Up Success: Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awe, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    All those who dream of working for themselves and being their own boss, whether they are fresh college graduates, recently unemployed, or newly retired from one career, have a thousand questions about where and how to begin. New entrepreneurs especially will need professional, expert help to start and run a small business effectively and…

  2. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  3. A climate change simulation starting from 1935

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubasch, U.; Hegerl, G. C.; Hellbach, A.; Höck, H.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Santer, B. D.; Voss, R.

    1995-03-01

    Due to restrictions in the available computing resources and a lack of suitable observational data, transient climate change experiments with global coupled ocean-atmosphere models have been started from an initial state at equilibrium with the present day forcing. The historical development of greenhouse gas forcing from the onset of industrialization until the present has therefore been neglected. Studies with simplified models have shown that this “cold start” error leads to a serious underestimation of the anthropogenic global warming. In the present study, a 150-year integration has been carried out with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model starting from the greenhouse gas concentration observed in 1935, i.e., at an early time of industrialization. The model was forced with observed greenhouse gas concentrations up to 1985, and with the equivalent C02 concentrations stipulated in Scenario A (“Business as Usual”) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change from 1985 to 2085. The early starting date alleviates some of the cold start problems. The global mean near surface temperature change in 2085 is about 0.3 K (ca. 10%) higher in the early industrialization experiment than in an integration with the same model and identical Scenario A greenhouse gas forcing, but with a start date in 1985. Comparisons between the experiments with early and late start dates show considerable differences in the amplitude of the regional climate change patterns, particularly for sea level. The early industrialization experiment can be used to obtain a first estimate of the detection time for a greenhouse-gas-induced near-surface temperature signal. Detection time estimates are obtained using globally and zonally averaged data from the experiment and a long control run, as well as principal component time series describing the evolution of the dominant signal and noise modes. The latter approach yields the earliest detection time (in the decade 1990 2000) for the

  4. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  5. Science Literacy and Alternative Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, George T.

    Presented is an operational definition of science literacy including knowledge of science, the processes of science, the nature of science and the social implications of science. Future-oriented supplemental teaching materials are proposed as the most viable alternative available for achieving literacy in science within the present school…

  6. An Alternative School Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lee A.

    This model is designed to serve as a conceptual framework for alternative programs with primary emphasis on provisioning (the way in which time, space, material, equipment, and activities are used in the learning environment). The model's concern is to assess concrete examples or tendencies of teachers, students, and the education program. The…

  7. Alternative thinking about starting points of obesity. Development of child taste preferences.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R

    2011-04-01

    Food marketers are at the epicenter of criticism for the unfolding obesity epidemic as societies consider banning advertising to children and taxing "junk" foods. While marketing's role in obesity is not well understood, there is clear evidence that children are regularly targeted with calorie-dense, nutrient-poor food. Much of the past research seeks to understand how marketing influences brand preference and child requests. The authors argue that understanding palate development offers new insights for discussion. Two studies consider whether a sugar/fat/salt (SFS) palate is linked to children's knowledge of food brands, experience with products, and advertising. In study 1, the authors develop a survey measure of taste preferences and find that a child's SFS palate (as reported by parents) relates significantly to children's self-reported food choices. Study 2 examines how knowledge of certain branded food and drinks is related to palate. Findings show that children with detailed mental representations of fast-food and soda brands--developed via advertising and experience--have higher scores on the SFS palate scale.

  8. Alternative thinking about starting points of obesity. Development of child taste preferences.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R

    2011-04-01

    Food marketers are at the epicenter of criticism for the unfolding obesity epidemic as societies consider banning advertising to children and taxing "junk" foods. While marketing's role in obesity is not well understood, there is clear evidence that children are regularly targeted with calorie-dense, nutrient-poor food. Much of the past research seeks to understand how marketing influences brand preference and child requests. The authors argue that understanding palate development offers new insights for discussion. Two studies consider whether a sugar/fat/salt (SFS) palate is linked to children's knowledge of food brands, experience with products, and advertising. In study 1, the authors develop a survey measure of taste preferences and find that a child's SFS palate (as reported by parents) relates significantly to children's self-reported food choices. Study 2 examines how knowledge of certain branded food and drinks is related to palate. Findings show that children with detailed mental representations of fast-food and soda brands--developed via advertising and experience--have higher scores on the SFS palate scale. PMID:21238522

  9. First Impressions: An Alternative Way to Start a Systems Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellers, Jack W.

    2008-01-01

    The first meeting of any course and its many activities sets in motion the establishment of a course climate and addressing student expectations. How can students be actively and collaboratively engaged, in a non-threatening environment, having their curiosity aroused, and begin to learn about the course all during the first class meeting? This…

  10. An Alternative to Business Plan Based Advice for Start-Ups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Simon; Hegarty, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Business plans are advocated by many business support professionals and others, such as educators in higher education institutions, because they suit their purposes. A typical view is that a business plan is "one of the most important steps in setting up any new business" (Burns, 2011); but their hegemony is now being questioned. Sarasvathy (2008)…

  11. 78 FR 2038 - Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts and Small Starts Policy Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Investment Projects published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register. Specifically, this proposed... capital investment projects each time the agency makes significant changes to the process and criteria... announcing the availability of proposed policy guidance to sponsors of New Starts and Small Starts...

  12. 77 FR 3838 - Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts/Small Starts Policy Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Major Capital Investment Projects by describing the detailed measures proposed for evaluation of projects seeking New Starts and Small Starts funding and the way these measures would be used in project ratings if adopted. The proposed regulations and appendix are intended...

  13. Special Analysis of Migrant Education Even Start Data. Even Start Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Fumiyo; Arriola, Christine

    This report analyzes data submitted by 11 of 14 state Migrant Education Even Start (MEES) projects operating in 1994-95. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. The data were drawn from the Even Start Information System (ESIS), which collected…

  14. National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program: Report on Migrant Even Start Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Marjorie; Gamse, Beth; Swartz, Janet; Tao, Fumiyo; Tarr, Hope

    In fall 1994, 14 state Migrant Education Programs were receiving direct federal grants to administer Migrant Even Start projects. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. As part of the national evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program,…

  15. Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    1998-09-30

    Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.

  16. First LNG from North field overcomes feed, start-up problems

    SciTech Connect

    Redha, A.; Rahman, A.; Al-Thani, N.H.; Ishikura, Masayuki; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1998-08-24

    Qatar Gas LNG is the first LNG project in the gas-development program of the world`s largest gas reservoir, North field. The LNG plant was completed within the budget and schedule. The paper discusses the LNG plant design, LNG storage and loading, alternative mercaptan removal, layout modification, information and control systems, training, data management systems, start-up, and performance testing.

  17. Let's Start in Our Own Backyard: Children's Engagement with Science through the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Athalie; Russo, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Capitalising on areas in which teachers feel most comfortable, the teaching of Biology, environmental education or nature to young children can be an alternative way of introducing and understanding Science. A "Citizen Science" program currently being run by the University of South Australia (UniSA) may be an appropriate starting point. "Citizen…

  18. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  19. Alternating copolymers and alternative device geometries for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells. PMID:22434441

  20. A new class of hybrid materials via salt inclusion: novel copper(II) arsenates Na(5)ACu(4)(AsO(4))(4)Cl(2) (A = Rb, Cs) composed of alternating covalent and ionic lattices.

    PubMed

    Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Ulutagay-Kartin, Mutlu; Clayhold, Jeffrey A; Mackay, Richard; Wardojo, Tina A; O'Connor, Charles J; Krawiec, Mariusz

    2002-10-23

    Two novel copper(II) arsenates Na5ACu4(AsO4)4Cl2 (A = Rb, Cs) were synthesized by conventional solid-state methods using reactive molten salt media. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in an orthorhombic lattice (Fmmm, No. 69; Z = 8). The cell constants are a = 14.632(3) A, b = 18.872(2) A, c = 14.445(3) A, V = 3989(1) A3, for A = Rb; a = 14.638(3) A, b = 18.990(4) A, c = 14.418(3) A, V = 4008(1) A3, for A = Cs. Single-crystal structure studies reveal a new composite framework consisting of alternating covalent and ionic lattices. The covalent lattice contains highly oriented oligomeric mu-oxo [Cu4O12]16- tetrameric units with a cyclo-S8-like Cu4O4 magnetic core that resembles the building block of layered cuprates. The ionic slab consists of a novel framework of mixed alkali metal chloride lattice and rarely seen Na6O8 clusters. Similar to organic-inorganic hybrid materials, the title compounds present a new class of host-guest chemistry via salt inclusion reactions.

  1. Start currents in an overmoded gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeddulla, M.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2003-11-01

    High-power long-pulse millimeter-wave gyrotrons operate in high-order modes. The spectral density of these modes is very high. Therefore, self-excitation conditions can be fulfilled for several modes simultaneously. Correspondingly, in order to determine which mode will be excited first in such a device, the starting currents of competing modes should be calculated much more accurately than in gyrotrons with a rarer spectrum. In the present paper, an existing linear theory is generalized to take into account effects of magnetic field tapering, cavity profile, finite beam thickness, velocity spread and axially dependent beam coupling to the fields of competing modes. Starting currents are calculated for the operating and the most dangerous competing mode in a 140 GHz gyrotron, which is under development at Communication and Power Industries. Calculations show that the radial position of the electron beam plays a critical role in deciding which mode dominates the mode competition.

  2. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Dyches, Gregory M.; Dudar, Aed M.

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion engine starting apparatus uses a signal from a curt sensor to determine when the engine is energized and the starter motor should be de-energized. One embodiment comprises a transmitter, receiver, computer processing unit, current sensor and relays to energize a starter motor and subsequently de-energize the same when the engine is running. Another embodiment comprises a switch, current transducer, low-pass filter, gain/comparator, relay and a plurality of switches to energize and de-energize a starter motor. Both embodiments contain an indicator lamp or speaker which alerts an operator as to whether a successful engine start has been achieved. Both embodiments also contain circuitry to protect the starter and to de-energize the engine.

  3. Verifying START: From satellites to suspect sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, D. )

    1990-10-01

    When applied together, NTM (national technical means), inspections, and cooperative measures will have a synergistic effect, giving the United States high confidence that it can detect any militarily significant START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) violation. Give the large strategic retaliatory capability both sides will retain under a START treaty, only large-scale cheating would be militarily significant, and there is little doubt such cheating could be easily detected. While counting mobile ICBMs (inter-continental ballistic missiles) will be more difficult than monitoring fixed silos, the web of verification provisions now agreed upon will answer the challenge. A large number of ICBMs cannot be maintained and operated without a massive supporting infrastructure, including command and control, deployment, maintenance, and testing facilities. The large covert infrastructure needed to deploy even a few hundred illegal mobile ICBM warheads would surely be detected. Further, the United States should be able to detect any recurring pattern of small violations.

  4. Starting procedure for internal combustion vessels

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Harry A.

    1978-09-26

    A vertical vessel, having a low bed of broken material, having included combustible material, is initially ignited by a plurality of ignitors spaced over the surface of the bed, by adding fresh, broken material onto the bed to buildup the bed to its operating depth and then passing a combustible mixture of gas upwardly through the material, at a rate to prevent back-firing of the gas, while air and recycled gas is passed through the bed to thereby heat the material and commence the desired laterally uniform combustion in the bed. The procedure permits precise control of the air and gaseous fuel mixtures and material rates, and permits the use of the process equipment designed for continuous operation of the vessel.

  5. Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Lopez, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Congressionally-mandated Head Start Impact Study is being conducted across 84 nationally representative grantee/delegate agencies. Approximately 5,000 newly entering 3- and 4-year-old children applying for Head Start were randomly assigned to either a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or to a non-Head Start group…

  6. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Paquette, David G.

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  7. ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

  8. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts... policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation process and criteria...) published by FTA in June 2010, which sought public comment on the New Starts and Small Starts...

  9. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The United States imports 50-100 percent of certain metals critical to the aerospace industry, namely, cobalt, columbium, chromium, and tantalum. In an effort to reduce this dependence on foreign sources, NASA is planning a program called Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM), which will provide technology minimizing strategic metal content in the components of aerospace structures such as aircraft engines. With a proposed starting date of October 1981, the program will consist of strategic element substitution, process technology development, and alternate materials research. NASA's two-fold pre-COSAM studies center on, first, substitution research involving nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys (Waspaloy, Udimet-700, MAE-M247, Rene 150, HA-188) used in turbine disks, low-pressure blades, turbine blades, and combustors; and, second, alternate materials research devoted initially to investigating possible structural applications of the intermetallic alloys nickel aluminide and iron aluminide.

  10. Turbojet-engine Starting and Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Cafferty, R. J.; Straight, D. M.

    1956-01-01

    From considerations of safety and reliability in performance of gas-turbine aircraft, it is clear that engine starting and acceleration are of utmost importance. For this reason extensive efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the factors involved in the starting and acceleration of engines. In chapter III it is shown that certain basic combustion requirements must be met before ignition can occur; consequently, the design and operation of an engine must be tailored to provide these basic requirements in the combustion zone of the engine, particularly in the vicinity of the ignition source. It is pointed out in chapter III that ignition by electrical discharges is aided by high pressure, high temperature, low gas velocity and turbulence, gaseous fuel-air mixture, proper mixture strength, and-an optimum spark. duration. The simultaneous achievement of all these requirements in an actual turbojet-engine combustor is obviously impossible, yet any attempt to satisfy as many requirements as possible will result in lower ignition energies, lower-weight ignition systems, and greater reliability. These factors together with size and cost considerations determine the acceptability of the final ignition system. It is further shown in chapter III that the problem of wall quenching affects engine starting. For example, the dimensions of the volume to be burned must be larger than the quenching distance at the lowest pressure and the most adverse fuel-air ratio encountered. This fact affects the design of cross-fire tubes between adjacent combustion chambers in a tubular-combustor turbojet engine. Only two chambers in these engines contain spark plugs; therefore, the flame must propagate through small connecting tubes between the chambers. The quenching studies indicate that if the cross-fire tubes are too narrow the flame will not propagate from one chamber to another. In order to better understand the role of the basic factors in actual engine operation, many

  11. Getting started in academic cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Verrier, E D

    2000-04-01

    Preparing to begin a career in academic cardiothoracic surgery requires forethought and desire. Success mandates honesty, discipline, opportunity, and support. This article will attempt to review some fundamental concepts important in starting such an academic career. The thoughts are somewhat personal and not meant to be inclusive. The article will briefly discuss the following issues: choosing the first job, transitions, effective time management, developing clinical confidence, the continued need for mentorship, developing educational value, developing a philosophy of academic growth, intellectual and emotional honesty, myths, mental and physical health, and keys to success. PMID:10727955

  12. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    PubMed

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P < .01). Net horizontal impulse (taking into account both positive and negative impulses) 5-10 m after the start was lower during DP than during DIA and FREE (both P < .05). All subjects skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  13. Responding to Alternative Conceptions in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how students' alternative conceptions about curriculum topics interfere with classroom learning. Describes the Royal Society of Chemistry's Teacher Fellowship Project entitled "Challenging Misconceptions in the Classroom," which develops classroom materials to diagnose and challenge specific alternative conceptions. Uses key ideas of how…

  14. Alternative nuclear technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-10-01

    The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

  15. Locality Aware Concurrent Start for Stencil Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Gao, Guang R.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.

    2015-02-10

    Stencil computations are at the heart of many physical simulations used in scientific codes. Thus, there exists a plethora of optimization efforts for this family of computations. Among these techniques, tiling techniques that allow concurrent start have proven to be very efficient in providing better performance for these critical kernels. Nevertheless, with many core designs being the norm, these optimization techniques might not be able to fully exploit locality (both spatial and temporal) on multiple levels of the memory hierarchy without compromising parallelism. It is no longer true that the machine can be seen as a homogeneous collection of nodes with caches, main memory and an interconnect network. New architectural designs exhibit complex grouping of nodes, cores, threads, caches and memory connected by an ever evolving network-on-chip design. These new designs may benefit greatly from carefully crafted schedules and groupings that encourage parallel actors (i.e. threads, cores or nodes) to be aware of the computational history of other actors in close proximity. In this paper, we provide an efficient tiling technique that allows hierarchical concurrent start for memory hierarchy aware tile groups. Each execution schedule and tile shape exploit the available parallelism, load balance and locality present in the given applications. We demonstrate our technique on the Intel Xeon Phi architecture with selected and representative stencil kernels. We show improvement ranging from 5.58% to 31.17% over existing state-of-the-art techniques.

  16. The GlueX Start Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llodra, Anthony; Pooser, Eric; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The GlueX experiment, which is online as of October of 2014, will study meson photo production with unprecedented precision. This experiment will use the coherent bremsstrahlung technique to produce a 9 GeV linearly polarized photon beam incident on a liquid H2 target kept at a few degrees Kelvin. A Start Counter detector has been fabricated to identify the accelerator electron beam buckets, approximately 2 nanoseconds apart, and to provide accurate timing information. This detector is designed to operate at photon intensities of up to 108 γ/s in the coherent peak and provide a timing resolution of less than 350 picoseconds so as to provide successful identification of the electron beam buckets. It consists of a cylindrical array of 30 scintillators with pointed ends that bend towards the beam at the downstream end. The EJ-200 scintillator is best suited for the Start Counter due to its fast decay time on the order of 2 nanoseconds and long attenuation length. Silicon Photo Multiplier (SiPM) detectors have been selected as the readout system and are to be placed as close as possible, less than 300 micron, to the upstream end of each scintillator. The methods/details of the assembly and the optimization of the surface quality of scintillator paddles are discussed. This work was supported in part by DoE Contracts DE-FG02-99ER41065 and DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  17. 40 CFR 65.102 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.102 Alternative means of emission... equipment leaks of a regulated material may apply to the Administrator for approval of an alternative...

  18. 40 CFR 65.102 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.102 Alternative means of emission... equipment leaks of a regulated material may apply to the Administrator for approval of an alternative...

  19. 40 CFR 65.102 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.102 Alternative means of emission... equipment leaks of a regulated material may apply to the Administrator for approval of an alternative...

  20. 40 CFR 65.102 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.102 Alternative means of emission... equipment leaks of a regulated material may apply to the Administrator for approval of an alternative...

  1. 40 CFR 65.102 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.102 Alternative means of emission... equipment leaks of a regulated material may apply to the Administrator for approval of an alternative...

  2. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-12-15

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  3. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  4. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkiewicz, M.

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  5. Working for tomorrow - why start today?

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, E.N.; Freers, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The American Nuclear Society is the single national professional organization uniquely suited to address the public apathy about the benefits of using radioactive materials and radiation and the overconcern about their risks. This paper discusses several of these areas.

  6. Are there acceptable alternatives to amalgam?

    PubMed

    Mackert, J Rodway; Wahl, Michael J

    2004-07-01

    Amalgam has been the material of choice for restoring posterior teeth for more than 100 years. The past 25 years have witnessed significant advances in restorative materials themselves and in the bonding systems for retaining a restoration in the prepared tooth. As a result, there has been a shift toward resin composite materials during this same period because of concerns about the esthetics and biocompatibility of dental amalgam. In addition, other materials such as glass ionomer cements, ceramic inlays and onlays, and gold alloys have been used as alternatives to amalgam. This article will review recent studies on the longevity and biocompatibility of these alternatives to dental amalgam.

  7. Method and apparatus for starting supersonic compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Lawlor, Shawn P

    2013-08-06

    A supersonic gas compressor with bleed gas collectors, and a method of starting the compressor. The compressor includes aerodynamic duct(s) situated for rotary movement in a casing. The aerodynamic duct(s) generate a plurality of oblique shock waves for efficiently compressing a gas at supersonic conditions. A convergent inlet is provided adjacent to a bleed gas collector, and during startup of the compressor, bypass gas is removed from the convergent inlet via the bleed gas collector, to enable supersonic shock stabilization. Once the oblique shocks are stabilized at a selected inlet relative Mach number and pressure ratio, the bleed of bypass gas from the convergent inlet via the bypass gas collectors is effectively eliminated.

  8. Getting started in medical education scholarship.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A

    2010-01-01

    Education scholarship and research are critically important in extending our ability to teach and assess effectively. Those considering a scholarly project in medical education should consider the following tips, learned from personal experience and supported by literature: 1) get some training, 2) find a mentor, 3) ask important questions, 4) start small and grow, 5) aim high, 6) don't wait for the perfect study, 7) plan for adequate time and other resources, 8) attend to ethical issues, 9) network with others in the field, and 10) recognize that this is hard work. By following these steps and planning ahead, scholars will be better poised to make meaningful contributions to the art and science of medical education.

  9. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    PubMed

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  10. Move signals the 'start of new era'.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-one years after its establishment in a small office in Wigan, independent life safety equipment manufacturer, C-TEC, has moved into a new 75,000 ft2 factory, 'the size of three football pitches', marking the start of what founder and MD, Andrew Foster, dubs 'the next phase in our exciting development'. The past year has also seen the firm busy on the new product front, with the launch of a 'revolutionary' new range of touchscreen-controlled analogue addressable fire alarms panels which the company claims will put it 'way ahead of the competition', and, in response to demand from nursing and care home operator customers, the introduction of a range of components designed to facilitate dementia care as an extension to its well-established Quantec addressable call system. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports.

  11. Choosing Wisely? Let's Start with Working Wisely.

    PubMed

    Kurdyak, Paul; Wiesenfeld, Lesley; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing emphasis on quality and, relatedly, cost-effectiveness as it relates to the delivery of health care. Choosing Wisely is an initiative adopted by numerous specialties with the goal of starting a dialogue about efficient use of health care resources. People need to be able to access care to have an opportunity to choose wisely. There is a considerable amount of evidence that access to care is poor for specialty mental health care, particularly access to psychiatrists. Consequently, we suggest that psychiatrists and the broader mental health system need to consider working wisely, and in our paper outline key issues (for example, implementation of wait times and objective measures of need in a centralized referral management system; incorporation of performance indicators with longitudinal monitoring for continuous quality improvement) that need to be addressed to develop a mental health system that would allow people to access care to choose wisely. PMID:27582450

  12. Re-starting an Arnoldi iteration

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Arnoldi iteration is an efficient procedure for approximating a subset of the eigensystem of a large sparse n x n matrix A. The iteration produces a partial orthogonal reduction of A into an upper Hessenberg matrix H{sub m} of order m. The eigenvalues of this small matrix H{sub m} are used to approximate a subset of the eigenvalues of the large matrix A. The eigenvalues of H{sub m} improve as estimates to those of A as m increases. Unfortunately, so does the cost and storage of the reduction. The idea of re-starting the Arnoldi iteration is motivated by the prohibitive cost associated with building a large factorization.

  13. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    PubMed

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  14. Mechanisms and consequences of alternative polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Di Giammartino, Dafne Campigli; Nishida, Kensei; Manley, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as a widespread mechanism used to control gene expression. Like alternative splicing, usage of alternative poly(A) sites allows a single gene to encode multiple mRNA transcripts. In some cases, this changes the mRNA coding potential; in other cases, the code remains unchanged but the 3’UTR length is altered, influencing the fate of mRNAs in several ways, for example, by altering the availability of RNA binding protein sites and microRNA binding sites. The mechansims governing both global and gene-specific APA are only starting to be deciphered. Here we review what is known about these mechanisms and the functional consequences of alternative polyadenlyation. PMID:21925375

  15. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  16. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  17. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  18. 46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed air starting. 112.50-7 Section 112.50-7... air starting. A compressed air starting system must meet the following: (a) The starting, charging... air compressors addressed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. (b) The compressed air...

  19. Head Start Celebrates 20th Anniversary and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfredo; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Articles in this serial publication highlight the past, present, and possible future of Project Head Start and celebrate the project's 20th birthday. "Head Start: Today and Yesterday" (Alfred Flores) emphasizes the goals of Head Start. "Why Head Start Is a Winner" (Mary Tom Riley and Jamie Tucker) reports the results of longitudinal studies of the…

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  1. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  2. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  4. Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies are increasingly used by many pregnant women in the United States; however, limited research is available on many therapies. The number of studies should increase with the establishment of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the National Institutes of Health. This column reviews recent studies of both herbal medicines and alternative therapies used in pregnancy. PMID:17273285

  5. Alternative Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Carol; Thomas, Kay

    This paper examines issues related to alternative teacher certification, discussing teacher certification in Texas and noting that most researchers agree that both traditional and alternative routes to teacher preparation need improvement. For over a decade, alternative certification has become increasingly available in Texas. This paper…

  6. Respect--Where Do We Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Marie-Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Respect is important because it contributes to a context of safety, openness, and reflection; this context is crucial for the brain to effectively process and encode academic material, as opposed to being preoccupied with emotional concerns. Although educators genuinely intend to foster respect--and they spend much time identifying and following a…

  7. 4 Steps to Getting Started with OER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Digital text, changes in textbook adoptions, 1-to-1 computing, Common Core standards, the rise in digital learning objects and online curricula, the push for personalized learning--all of these and other factors are part of an ongoing drama in education today that puts the future of curriculum materials very much in play. But thanks to open…

  8. Making a start with district health libraries.

    PubMed

    Materia, E; Omar, M A; Guerra, R; Ahmed, A M

    1994-01-01

    The dissemination of information at the district level in developing countries is hampered by an acute shortage of teaching materials and health information and the lack of libraries accessible to potential users. The lack of libraries is particularly serious, because of their usefulness in continuing education, job training, and supportive supervision. Health workers are helped by libraries in rural areas where professional support is lacking. Health workers in rural areas could serve to spread information on primary care and as literature resources for planners and evaluators of health services, and to facilitate the transmission of information from the system in which they operate. It is important that basic training be reinforced with updated health information; sophisticated systems of communication may not be affordable in remote or rural areas. A pilot project to address these concerns was developed by the Instituto Superiore di Sanita in Rome; the project would establish 30 district health libraries in Uganda and the Tanzania. The libraries would provide materials relevant to the users' local work activities, working environments, learning styles, language and semantics, and complementary to other available materials. Selection of materials would take place in consultation with local personnel. Questionnaires were administered to 30 district medical officers in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda; included in the survey were questions about their recommendations for 25 essential books and 20 books selected from the World Health Organization and Teaching Aids at Low Cost lists. A standard package of materials was prepared on clinical medicine, preventive health measures, primary care management, and other germane topics, and delivered to the target countries in July and August, 1992. Simultaneously coordinated workshops were held to introduce the packages to district medical officers, discuss the role of libraries in the continuing education of health workers

  9. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOEpatents

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  10. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  11. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  12. Alternative models in developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-yul; Inselman, Amy L; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Hansen, Deborah K

    2012-02-01

    In light of various pressures, toxicologists have been searching for alternative methods for safety testing of chemicals. According to a recent policy in the European Union (Regulation, Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH), it has been estimated that over the next twelve to fifteen years, approximately 30,000 chemicals may need to be tested for safety, and under current guidelines such testing would require the use of approximately 7.2 million laboratory animals [ Hofer et al. 2004 ]. It has also been estimated that over 80% of all animals used for safety testing under REACH legislation would be used for examining reproductive and developmental toxicity [Hofer et al., 2004]. In addition to REACH initiatives, it has been estimated that out of 5,000 to 10,000 new drug entities that a pharmaceutical company may start with, only one is finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration at a cost of over one billion dollars [ Garg et al. 2011 ]. A large portion of this cost is due to animal testing. Therefore, both the pharmaceutical and chemical industries are interested in using alternative models and in vitro tests for safety testing. This review will examine the current state of three alternative models - whole embryo culture (WEC), the mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST), and zebrafish. Each of these alternatives will be reviewed, and advantages and disadvantages of each model will be discussed. These models were chosen because they are the models most commonly used and would appear to have the greatest potential for future applications in developmental toxicity screening and testing.

  13. Pushed or Pulled? Exploring the Factors Underpinning Graduate Start-Ups and Non-Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, G.; Walmsley, A.; Holden, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the nature and mixture of push--pull factors in the journey from higher education into graduate entrepreneurship. Using longitudinal data from 15 graduates of a British university, it compares graduates who started their own business with graduates that did not. Importantly, both groups had initially indicated a strong desire to…

  14. Early Head Start Research: Pathways to Quality and Full Implementation in Early Head Start Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Paulsell, Diane; Love, John M.; Raikes, Helen

    As part of a multi-faceted effort, the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project examined the nature and extent of implementation in key program areas and the quality of crucial child development services in 17 research programs funded early in the initiative. Implementation data were collected through three rounds of site visits,…

  15. A Comparison of Written Compositions of Head-Start Pupils with Non-Head-Start Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, David Ree

    This study--a follow-up to one conducted by Giles in 1965-- compared the written compositions of fourth grade pupils who had been in Project Head Start in the summer of 1965 with those of comparable pupils not in the program to determine possible differences in their written language development. Seventy Negro students were divided by sex and…

  16. National Head Start Association Position Paper: Why Conservatives Should Support Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ben; Greene, Sarah; McGrady, Michael; Boel, Bridget; Ryan, Joel; Whitehead, Diane; Smith, Angela; Kane, Elizabeth; Qualls, Brocklin; Wahid, Kahree

    Head Start is a comprehensive federal preschool program, serving children prenatal through age 5 and their families with the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. Noting that the program has typically garnered strong support from political liberals and moderates, this position paper of the…

  17. Enhancing Health in the Head Start Workplace. Training Guides for the Head Start Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    This training guide is intended to increase the understanding and skills of Head Start managers and directors to: (1) identify the ways in which employee health affects the organization's effectiveness; (2) design training programs that encourage employees to improve their own health; (3) understand how the organization contributes to the overall…

  18. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An...

  19. The effect of entrainment on starting vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Giuseppe; Rival, David

    2015-11-01

    Recent work shows that vortex detachment behind accelerating plates coincides with when streamlines enclosing the starting vortex (SV) form a full saddle. In the case of a linearly accelerating plate, it can be shown that vorticity-containing mass, and thus the SV's development scale with only dimensionless towed distance, while the SV's circulation scales with the acceleration rate. This results in shear-layer instabilities whose structure is Reynold-number independent, but whose strength scale with Reynolds number. It is hypothesized that the increased strength of the instabilities promotes entrainment, which causes the formation of the full saddle and thereby detachment to occur at an earlier dimensionless towed distance. To test this hypothesis, a circular plate is linearly accelerated from rest to pinch-off with chord-based Reynolds numbers of 103, 104, and 105 at the midpoint of the motion. Planar PIV data is acquired, from which FTLE and enstrophy fields are calculated. Vortex detachment is identified from the dynamics of the FTLE saddles, while the enstrophy fields are used to calculate both the vorticity-containing mass entering from the shear layer and the mass entrained from the quiescent surroundings.

  20. A Head Start to a Healthy Heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Cambridge Heart, Inc., has licensed the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-cleared tool to identify those at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). The Microvolt T-Wave Alternans Test(TM) was invented by Dr. Richard J. Cohen, a professor at the Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Division of Health Sciences and Technology, with developmental support and funding from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) in Houston, Texas. In 1993, MIT licensed the technology to Cambridge Heart, Inc., a start-up company that Dr. Cohen helped to establish. Cambridge Heart's non-invasive technology measures T-wave alternans, a change from one heartbeat to the next that is too minute to be detected by a standard electrocardiogram. Cardiac patients with such a change in heartbeat regulation are faced with a much greater risk of ventricular arrhythmia and SCD than those without it. The company's ability to measure electrical alternans on a microvolt level has been clinically proven to be just as accurate as - and in some studies, more accurate than - more costly and somewhat risky, invasive procedures, such as electrophysiological testing.

  1. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  2. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  3. Kyrgyzstan starts up its first refinery

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, G.

    1997-05-05

    The Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan started up its first oil refinery in October 1996. The 10,000 b/d plant is designed to produce gasoline, diesel, and mazut (heavy fuel oil) from local Kyrgyz crude. Before construction of the Jalalabad refinery, all finished petroleum products were imported from neighboring countries. Kyrgyzstan`s demand for finished products is about 40,000 b/d. The new refinery was designed and constructed by Petrofac of Tyler, Texas, on behalf of Kyrgoil Corp., Calgary. Kyrgoil is a partner with the Kyrgyz state oil company, Kyrgyzsneft, in a venture called Kyrzgyz Petroleum Co. (KPC). KPC has undertaken restoration and continued development of the oil fields in Kyrgyzstan`s Fergana basin, in addition to the refinery project. The company also has marketing rights for finished products within Kyrgyzstan. The refinery comprises: a hydroskimming (atmospheric distillation) section, diesel steam stripping, gasoline blending, and utilities and off-sites, including steam generation, power generation, tank farm, truck and rail tank-car loading and unloading facilities, crude inlet pipeline, high-voltage power line, substation, air compression, laboratory, and maintenance facilities.

  4. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  5. [Indications for starting kidney replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Tornero Molina, F; Remón Rodríguez, C

    2008-01-01

    In view of the lack of scientific evidence to support the initiation of KRT from a specific filtration rate, certain conclusions can be drawn whose application in clinical practice may be useful. The recommendations we could make are: - Scheduled initiation of KRT is associated with a better patient prognosis (Strength of Recommendation B). - KRT should be planned in advance so that the patient can freely choose the technique for KRT (Strength of Recommendation B). - If the patient starts HD with a permanent vascular access, his/her course will be better (Strength of Recommendation B). - When the patient has any clinical indication for initiating KRT, this should not be postponed (Strength of Recommendation A). - Glomerular filtration rate is the best way to assess kidney function (Strength of Recommendation B). - Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 15 ml/min and any symptom associated with uremia not correctable by conventional treatment should be assessed for the initiation of KRT (Strength of Recommendation C). - Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 6-8 ml/min should initiate KRT even if they are minimally symptomatic (Strength of Recommendation C). - Patients with more comorbidities or more extreme ages (children, elderly, diabetics, heart disease patients,...) could benefit from the initiation of KRT before other types of patients (Strength of Recommendation C). - Some patients with associated comorbid conditions could even benefit from the initiation of KRT with glomerular filtration rates above 15 ml/min (Strength of Recommendation C). PMID:19018746

  6. Training Materials Developed for Latino Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreo, Christina; Miller, Wayne; Farmer, Frank; Moon, Zola; McCullough, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the materials and training program that Extension created to assist current and potential Latino immigrant entrepreneurs in starting businesses in Arkansas. The content-based educational materials describe the process for starting a new business, government regulatory requirements, start-up costs and considerations, and how…

  7. Shift mechanism for engine starting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J.A.; Colvill, R.G.; Smock, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a shift lever mechanism for translating axial movement of the plunger of a starter solenoid into axial movement of a pinion of an engine starting apparatus. This apparatus consists of, a starter solenoid having an axially shiftable plunger and a coil winding, a spring opposing pull-in movement of the plunger and a solenoid switch operated to a closed condition when the plunger is completely pulled-in, a shift lever actuator carried by the plunger for axial movement therewith. The actuator has a pair of spaced surfaces, a pivotally mounted shift lever one end of which is adapted to be coupled to the pinion. The opposite end of the shift lever has a pair of opposed shift lever surfaces that respectively engage the surfaces on the actuator. The actuator surfaces and the shift lever surfaces are substantially engaged when the shift lever is in an at rest postion. The surfaces on the shift lever are at different radial distances from the pivot point of the shift lever and are arranged relative to the surfaces on the actuator such that when the solenoid plunger pulls-in the surface on the shift lever that is at the greater radial distance from the pivot point is moved by a surface of the actuator and the other surface on the shift lever becomes separated by a predetermined amount from its cooperating surface on the actuator. The amount of separation is sufficient to allow the solenoid switch to be actuated to an open condition when the solenoid coil winding is deenergized and the spring shifts and plunger to reengage the separated surfaces.

  8. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  9. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  10. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were

  11. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  12. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  13. Investigations on Absorber Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Marhauser, Frank; Elliott, Thomas; Rimmer, Robert

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the 12 GeV upgrade project for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) improvements are being made to refurbish cryomodules housing Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (JLab) original 5-cell cavities. Recently we have started to look into a possible simplification of the existing Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorber design combined with the aim to find alternative material candidates. The absorbers are implemented in two HOM-waveguides immersed in the helium bath and operate at 2 K temperature. We have built a cryogenic setup to perform measurements on sample load materials to investigate their lossy characteristics and variations from room temperature down to 2 K. Initial results are presented in this paper.

  14. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  15. Alternative Solar Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  16. Alternative solar indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, L. J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  17. Alternate drop pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

  18. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  19. 40 CFR 1065.930 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... otherwise, start, restart, and shut down the test engine for field testing as follows: (a) Start or restart... continue testing. (d) Shut down and restart the engine according to the manufacturer's specifications,...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.930 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... otherwise, start, restart, and shut down the test engine for field testing as follows: (a) Start or restart... continue testing. (d) Shut down and restart the engine according to the manufacturer's specifications,...