Science.gov

Sample records for alternative test methods

  1. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  2. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  3. Proposal for a Brazilian centre on alternative test methods.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Chantra; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa de Moura; Nunes, Jadir; Presgrave, Octavio; de Carvalho, Dermeval; Masson, Philippe; Rivera, Ekaterina; Coecke, Sandra; Kreysa, Joachim; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several initiatives have recently taken place in Brazil in order to foster the creation of centers dedicated to alternatives to animal testing. In 2008, Vanessa Sá-Rocha organized a meeting with Brazilian regulatory authorities and the major stakeholders in the field of testing to foster discussions on the process of funding, development, and validation of alternative methods in Brazil. Octavio Presgrave published a scientific article on "The Need for the Establishment of a Brazilian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods." Also in 2008, Jadir Nunes, together with Dermeval de Carvalho, prepared and presented a proposal to the Brazilian National Agency of Health Surveillance (ANVISA) for the creation of a Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. ECVAM and other European stakeholders have been involved in the initiatives. Furthermore, also in 2008, a new legislation has been adopted in Brazil regarding the use of animals for scientific purposes ("lei Arouca"). The legislation establishes, among other provisions, the task of monitoring and evaluating the introduction of alternative methods. However, the legislation does not provide for promotion of or information about, existing alternative methods to the larger Brazilian scientific community. In order to streamline the different activities, Chantra Eskes acted as a facilitator by establishing a new joint proposal with the current Brazilian stakeholders, aimed at setting up a Brazilian Center on Alternative Test Methods. PMID:20383476

  4. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories.

  5. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization... for the evaluation of alternative skin sensitization test methods and testing strategies. The National... niceatm@niehs.nih.gov are preferred. NICEATM, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,...

  6. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  7. An Alternative Method Of Specifying Shock Test Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.; Clayton, J.; Alldredge, D.; Irvine, T.

    2008-01-01

    Shock testing of aerospace vehicle hardware has presented many challenges over the years due to the high magnitude and short duration of the specifications. Recently, component structural failures have occurred during testing that have not manifested themselves on over 200 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) flights (two boosters per flight). It is suspected that the method of specifying shock test criteria may be leaving important information out of the test process. The traditional test criteria specification, the shock response spectrum, can be duplicated by any number of waveforms that may not resemble the actual flight test recorded time history. One method of overcoming this limitation is described herein, which may prove useful for qualifying hardware for the upcoming Constellation Program.

  8. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  9. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...-type volumetric field standards and associated test procedures) widely used by weights and measures officials and service companies to test commercial measuring devices as well as proposed alternatives...

  10. 75 FR 7593 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). EPA will continue to announce... 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  11. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals... published at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  12. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  13. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public–private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  14. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  15. Biostatistical methods for the validation of alternative methods for in vitro toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Edler, Lutz; Ittrich, Carina

    2003-06-01

    Statistical methods for the validation of toxicological in vitro test assays are developed and applied. Validation is performed either in comparison with in vivo assays or in comparison with other in vitro assays of established validity. Biostatistical methods are presented which are of potential use and benefit for the validation of alternative methods for the risk assessment of chemicals, providing at least an equivalent level of protection through in vitro toxicity testing to that obtained through the use of current in vivo methods. Characteristic indices are developed and determined. Qualitative outcomes are characterised by the rates of false-positive and false-negative predictions, sensitivity and specificity, and predictive values. Quantitative outcomes are characterised by regression coefficients derived from predictive models. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) technique, applicable when a continuum of cut-off values is considered, is discussed in detail, in relation to its use for statistical modelling and statistical inference. The methods presented are examined for their use for the proof of safety and for toxicity detection and testing. We emphasise that the final validation of toxicity testing is human toxicity, and that the in vivo test itself is only a predictor with an inherent uncertainty. Therefore, the validation of the in vitro test has to account for the vagueness and uncertainty of the "gold standard" in vivo test. We address model selection and model validation, and a four-step scheme is proposed for the conduct of validation studies. Gaps and research needs are formulated to improve the validation of alternative methods for in vitro toxicity testing.

  16. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  17. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    PubMed

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  18. The Continuized Log-Linear Method: An Alternative to the Kernel Method of Continuization in Test Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    Von Davier, Holland, and Thayer (2004) laid out a five-step framework of test equating that can be applied to various data collection designs and equating methods. In the continuization step, they presented an adjusted Gaussian kernel method that preserves the first two moments. This article proposes an alternative continuization method that…

  19. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... scientific experts from government, industry, and academia to review these methods and to define efforts... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine... Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces...

  20. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  1. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately. PMID:27280352

  2. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  3. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  4. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated. PMID:21533817

  5. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test as an alternative test method for serious eye damage/eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Spöler, Felix; Kray, Oya; Kray, Stefan; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert F

    2015-07-01

    Ocular irritation testing is a common requirement for the classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals (substances and mixtures). The in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD Test Guideline 405) is considered to be the regulatory reference method for the classification of chemicals according to their potential to induce eye injury. In the Draize test, chemicals are applied to rabbit eyes in vivo, and changes are monitored over time. If no damage is observed, the chemical is not categorised. Otherwise, the classification depends on the severity and reversibility of the damage. Alternative test methods have to be designed to match the classifications from the in vivo reference method. However, observation of damage reversibility is usually not possible in vitro. Within the present study, a new organotypic method based on rabbit corneas obtained from food production is demonstrated to close this gap. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) retains the full biochemical activity of the corneal epithelium, epithelial stem cells and endothelium. This permits the in-depth analysis of ocular chemical trauma beyond that achievable by using established in vitro methods. In particular, the EVEIT is the first test to permit the direct monitoring of recovery of all corneal layers after damage. To develop a prediction model for the EVEIT that is comparable to the GHS system, 37 reference chemicals were analysed. The experimental data were used to derive a three-level potency ranking of eye irritation and corrosion that best fits the GHS categorisation. In vivo data available in the literature were used for comparison. When compared with GHS classification predictions, the overall accuracy of the three-level potency ranking was 78%. The classification of chemicals as irritating versus non-irritating resulted in 96% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 95% accuracy.

  6. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  7. MANOVA versus alternative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

    2014-12-01

    Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a powerful tool in analysing multivariate data of multi-factorial experiments. However one of the assumptions in MANOVA requires the data to be normally distributed. This study concerned with the violation of this assumption, particularly when the data are either moderately non-normal or extremely non-normal. Possible alternative methods of handling such data are (i) permutational MANOVA (PMANOVA) or (ii) analysis of distance (AoD). Both of these alternative methods were compared with MANOVA via Monte Carlo experiments using the power of tests. The experiments focussed on testing interaction effects by incorporating different data types (i.e. having multivariate normal distribution, moderately non-normal and extremely non-normal), three level of inter-variable correlations (low: 0.25, medium: 0.5 and high: 0.75), two designs (small: 3×3 and large: 7×7) and two sample sizes (2 and 5 replicates). Overall, the results revealed that irrespective of the data types and the level of inter-variable correlations MANOVA performed satisfactorily in situations having larger sample size (5 replicates). In these situations, no alternative method is necessary. However, in small design with high inter-variable correlations PMANOVA performed slightly better. In small samples (2 replicates), AoD outperformed both MANOVA and PMANOVA. This is especially true in situation having small sample (2 replicates), large design and highly correlated inter-variables.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Titration 4500-ClO2 E. Alternative Testing Methods for Disinfectant Residuals Listed at 40 CFR 141.131(c)(1... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st edition 1 Other Total Coliforms Total... Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6) Organism Methodology SM 20thedition 6...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prescribed in 40 CFR 141.132(b)(2)(i)(A). Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 E. Alternative Testing Methods for... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st edition 1 Other Total Coliforms Total... Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6) Organism Methodology SM 20thedition 6...

  10. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    PubMed

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  11. 76 FR 9777 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Register notice published at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on EPA's Web site at http://www.epa... test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals for... for Method 16A Stationary Kraft Pulp wherein the Sources Mills. titration (Impinger analysis...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Pa which equals an over-pressure inside the packaging of 95 kPa. The air in the testing chamber must... must be restrained while an internal air pressure is applied; the method of restraint may not affect... pressurize the interior of the packaging to the specified air pressure and to determine if there is...

  13. The weighted walking test as an alternative method of assessing aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Andrzej T; Klimek, Adam

    2007-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) directly during uphill walking exercise and to compare these values with those achieved during running and cycling exercise. Forty untrained students (20 males and 20 females) took part in three exercise tests. The running test was performed on a horizontal treadmill and the speed was gradually increased by 0.3 m . s(-1) every 3 min. The walking test was conducted on a treadmill inclined at 12% (speed of 1.8 m . s(-1)). The load was further increased every 3 min by the addition of a mass of one-twentieth of the body mass of the participant (plastic containers filled with water and added to a backpack carried by the participant). During the bicycle ergometry test, the workload was increased by 20 W every 2 min. All tests were performed until volitional exhaustion. During all tests, oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, heart rate, hydrogen ion concentration, base excess, and blood lactate concentration were analysed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the weighted walking test and the commonly applied running and bicycle ergometry tests indicate a strong association with the new test in evaluating maximal oxygen uptake. The negligible differences in VO2max between the three tests for the male participants (running: 61.0 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); walking: 60.4 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); cycling: 60.2 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1)), and the fact that the females achieved better results on the walking test than the cycle ergometer test (running: 45.0 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); walking: 42.6 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); cycling: 40.1 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1)), confirm the suitability of the new method for evaluating aerobic power. The weighted walking test could be useful in the assessment of aerobic power in individuals for whom running is not advised or is difficult. In addition, the new test allows for determination of VO2max on small treadmills with a limited speed regulator

  14. The weighted walking test as an alternative method of assessing aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Andrzej T; Klimek, Adam

    2007-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) directly during uphill walking exercise and to compare these values with those achieved during running and cycling exercise. Forty untrained students (20 males and 20 females) took part in three exercise tests. The running test was performed on a horizontal treadmill and the speed was gradually increased by 0.3 m . s(-1) every 3 min. The walking test was conducted on a treadmill inclined at 12% (speed of 1.8 m . s(-1)). The load was further increased every 3 min by the addition of a mass of one-twentieth of the body mass of the participant (plastic containers filled with water and added to a backpack carried by the participant). During the bicycle ergometry test, the workload was increased by 20 W every 2 min. All tests were performed until volitional exhaustion. During all tests, oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, heart rate, hydrogen ion concentration, base excess, and blood lactate concentration were analysed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the weighted walking test and the commonly applied running and bicycle ergometry tests indicate a strong association with the new test in evaluating maximal oxygen uptake. The negligible differences in VO2max between the three tests for the male participants (running: 61.0 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); walking: 60.4 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); cycling: 60.2 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1)), and the fact that the females achieved better results on the walking test than the cycle ergometer test (running: 45.0 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); walking: 42.6 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); cycling: 40.1 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1)), confirm the suitability of the new method for evaluating aerobic power. The weighted walking test could be useful in the assessment of aerobic power in individuals for whom running is not advised or is difficult. In addition, the new test allows for determination of VO2max on small treadmills with a limited speed regulator

  15. [The necessity for alternative methods of hygienic testing of air technical designs for operating rooms].

    PubMed

    Seipp, H M; Barth, U

    1994-06-01

    The performance assessment of technical systems for the supply of clean air is fraught with problems which are caused by the present assessment procedures and norms. Until now the distribution of germs in a clean room has been considered as stationary and has been tested as though it was independent of the measuring time. Accordingly the quality of clean air rooms has to date been determined by measurements of particle or germ concentrations (Federal Standard 209; European Standard 209-WG-1; VDI 2083/1). By contrast different methods demonstrate that the contaminations introduced into a clean air room as particles or as particle-bound bacteria are eliminated according to an exponential function in a time-dependent manner. Therefore the measurements of single concentrations without the consideration of the time-dependence of concentration changes must needs lead to extremely faulty results. Furthermore the influence of disturbing factors (test persons, properties of different air supply ceilings, measuring instruments). As a consequence of the poor reliability and lacking validity of presently valid assessment methods, there is a discrepancy between the seemingly high performance of the clean air supply systems under laboratory conditions (DIN 4799) on the one hand, and the frequently unsatisfactory functioning of the same systems under practical conditions. This discrepancy has caused a significant loss of confidence towards the whole clean air technique, especially among the users. Therefore critical test and evaluation methods should be immediately set up for comprehensive testing of technical clean air systems, methods which include the time-dependence of particle or germ elimination as well as test-dependent disturbing factors. PMID:7916866

  16. Testing an Alternative Method for Estimating the Length of Fungal Hyphae Using Photomicrography and Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.; Hedley, Mike J.; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test an unbiased and rapid methodology to estimate the length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in soil. The traditional visual gridline intersection (VGI) method, which consists in a direct visual examination of the intersections of hyphae with gridlines on a microscope eyepiece after aqueous extraction, membrane-filtration, and staining (e.g., with trypan blue), was refined. For this, (i) images of the stained hyphae were taken by using a digital photomicrography technique to avoid the use of the microscope and the method was referred to as “digital gridline intersection” (DGI) method; and (ii), the images taken in (i) were processed and the hyphal length was measured by using ImageJ software, referred to as the “photomicrography–ImageJ processing” (PIP) method. The DGI and PIP methods were tested using known grade lengths of possum fur. Then they were applied to measure the hyphal lengths in soils with contrasting phosphorus (P) fertility status. Linear regressions were obtained between the known lengths (Lknown) of possum fur and the values determined by using either the DGI (LDGI) (LDGI = 0.37 + 0.97 × Lknown, r2 = 0.86) or PIP (LPIP) methods (LPIP = 0.33 + 1.01 × Lknown, r2 = 0.98). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the LDGI and LPIP values. While both methods provided accurate estimation (slope of regression being 1.0), the PIP method was more precise, as reflected by a higher value of r2 and lower coefficients of variation. The average hyphal lengths (6.5–19.4 m g–1) obtained by the use of these methods were in the range of those typically reported in the literature (3–30 m g–1). Roots growing in P-deficient soil developed 2.5 times as many hyphae as roots growing in P-rich soil (17.4 vs 7.2 m g–1). These tests confirmed that the use of digital photomicrography in conjunction with either the grid–line intersection principle or image processing is a suitable

  17. Go3R - semantic Internet search engine for alternative methods to animal testing.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Grune, Barbara; Doms, Andreas; Alvers, Michael R; Spielmann, Horst; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consideration and incorporation of all available scientific information is an important part of the planning of any scientific project. As regards research with sentient animals, EU Directive 86/609/EEC for the protection of laboratory animals requires scientists to consider whether any planned animal experiment can be substituted by other scientifically satisfactory methods not entailing the use of animals or entailing less animals or less animal suffering, before performing the experiment. Thus, collection of relevant information is indispensable in order to meet this legal obligation. However, no standard procedures or services exist to provide convenient access to the information required to reliably determine whether it is possible to replace, reduce or refine a planned animal experiment in accordance with the 3Rs principle. The search engine Go3R, which is available free of charge under http://Go3R.org, runs up to become such a standard service. Go3R is the world-wide first search engine on alternative methods building on new semantic technologies that use an expert-knowledge based ontology to identify relevant documents. Due to Go3R's concept and design, the search engine can be used without lengthy instructions. It enables all those involved in the planning, authorisation and performance of animal experiments to determine the availability of non-animal methodologies in a fast, comprehensive and transparent manner. Thereby, Go3R strives to significantly contribute to the avoidance and replacement of animal experiments.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as prescribed in 40 CFR 141.132(b)(2)(i)(A) Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 E 4500-ClO2 E... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21stEdition 1 SM 22ndEdition 28 Other Total... ColitagTM 13 Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(5)...

  19. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II; Ferguson, A.F.

    1995-04-19

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 1 of the project, Conceptual Design of an accelerated test method and apparatus, was successfully completed in June 1993. The culmination of that effort was the concept of the Simulated Stator Unit (SSU) test. The objective of the Phase 2 limited proof-of-concept demonstration was to: answer specific engineering/design questions; design and construct an analog control sequencer and supporting apparatus; and conduct limited tests to determine the viability of the SSU test concept. This report reviews the SSU test concept, and describes the results through the conclusion of the proof-of-concept prototype tests in March 1995. The technical design issues inherent in transforming any conceptual design to working equipment have been resolved, and two test systems and controllers have been constructed. Pilot tests and three prototype tests have been completed, concluding the current phase of work. One prototype unit was tested without thermal stress loads. Twice daily insulation property measurements (IPMs) on this unit demonstrated that the insulation property measurements themselves did not degrade the SSU.

  20. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, P. F., II; Ferguson, A. F.

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 1 of the project, Conceptual Design of an accelerated test method and apparatus, was successfully completed in June 1993. The culmination of that effort was the concept of the Simulated Stator Unit (SSU) test. The objective of the Phase 2 limited proof-of-concept demonstration was to: answer specific engineering/design questions; design and construct an analog control sequencer and supporting apparatus; and conduct limited tests to determine the viability of the SSU test concept. This report reviews the SSU test concept, and describes the results through the conclusion of the proof-of-concept prototype tests in March 1995. The technical design issues inherent in transforming any conceptual design to working equipment have been resolved, and two test systems and controllers have been constructed. Pilot tests and three prototype tests have been completed, concluding the current phase of work. One prototype unit was tested without thermal stress loads. Twice daily insulation property measurements (IPM's) on this unit demonstrated that the insulation property measurements themselves did not degrade the SSU.

  1. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  2. Utilizing alternative developmental and neurotoxicity screening methods to prioritize compounds for further mammalian testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are being phased out of commercial use, leading to the increased use of alternative chemicals such as the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). Due to the structural similarity of th...

  3. Quantitative Differences in Retest Effects across Different Methods Used to Construct Alternate Test Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Allowing respondents to retake a cognitive ability test has shown to increase their test scores. Several theoretical models have been proposed to explain this effect, which make distinct assumptions regarding the measurement invariance of psychometric tests across test administration sessions with regard to narrower cognitive abilities and general…

  4. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 3: Reproducibility and discrimination testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II; Ferguson, A.F.; Fuentes, K.T.

    1996-05-06

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. This report presents the results of phase three concerning the reproducibility and discrimination testing.

  5. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  6. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... rulemaking (Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558). \\2\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0002. \\3\\ 73 FR 74350, December 8, 2008. \\4\\ 73 FR 74403, December 8, 2008. \\5\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0005. \\6\\ 74 FR 6233, February 6, 2009. EPA is proposing to allow ASTM D6550-05 (SFC) as an alternative...

  7. Using Computer-Based Testing as Alternative Assessment Method of Student Learning in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapriati, Amalia; Zuhairi, Aminudin

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: (1) students' inability to sit for the scheduled test; (2) conflicting…

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the results of the test. The exterior surface of all seams and welds must be coated with a solution of soap suds or a water and oil mixture. The test must be conducted for a period of time sufficient to... packaging must be coated with a soap solution over the entire side seam and a distance of not less...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the results of the test. The exterior surface of all seams and welds must be coated with a solution of soap suds or a water and oil mixture. The test must be conducted for a period of time sufficient to... packaging must be coated with a soap solution over the entire side seam and a distance of not less...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the results of the test. The exterior surface of all seams and welds must be coated with a solution of soap suds or a water and oil mixture. The test must be conducted for a period of time sufficient to... packaging must be coated with a soap solution over the entire side seam and a distance of not less...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the results of the test. The exterior surface of all seams and welds must be coated with a solution of soap suds or a water and oil mixture. The test must be conducted for a period of time sufficient to... packaging must be coated with a soap solution over the entire side seam and a distance of not less...

  12. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  13. The lateral flow card test: an alternative method for the detection of Trichinella infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Patrascu, I; Gamble, H R; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, L; Radulescu, R; Andrei, A; Ionescu, V; Timoceanu, V; Boireau, P; Cuperlovic, K; Djordjevic, M; Murrell, K D; Noeckler, K; Pozio, E

    2001-06-01

    A novel lateral flow card (TS-Card pork) test was developed for the serological detection of Trichinella infected pigs. Based on extensive studies performed in Romania during 1999-2000 this test proved to be highly specific sensitive, rapid (3-12 minutes) and easy to use (no need for laboratory facilities). It can be used both for the detection of Trichinella infection in carcasses and for epizooliological studies using a variety of samples including whole or dried blood, serum, or tissue fluids. The TS-Card pork test, used as a screening test, can be the foundation of an on-farm or field based inspection system to significantly improve food safety in countries with a high prevalence of Trichinella in pigs or other food animal species. The results presented are also promising for application of the test in an on-line laboratory based inspection system since the speed of the test allows sufficient time to rail out suspected hog carcasses during the slaughter process. PMID:11484368

  14. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  15. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science. PMID:22307314

  16. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing... for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the...

  17. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    PubMed

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice.

  18. THE MURINE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY: AN ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CHEMICALS TO ELICIT ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The process that a new toxicology test method must undergo to attain acceptance and regulatory implementation may seem daunting. As the first test method to undergo Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) review, the local...

  19. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  20. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy.

  1. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  2. Position of Totally Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation: An Alternative Method of Conduction Testing

    PubMed Central

    Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Haldar, Shouvik; Soliman, Rafik F.B.; Fatullayev, Javid; Jones, David; Hussain, Wajid; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Markides, Vias; Wong, Tom; Bahrami, Toufan

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in surgical techniques and understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation has led to the development of a less invasive thoracoscopic surgical treatment including video-assisted bilateral pulmonary vein isolation using bipolar radiofrequency ablation clamps. More recently, the same operation became possible via a totally thoracoscopic approach. In this paper we describe technical aspects of the thoracoscopic approach to surgical treatment of AF and discuss its features, benefits and limitations. Furthermore, we present a new alternative technique of conduction testing using endoscopic multi-electrode recording catheters. An alternative electrophysiological mapping strategy involves a multi-electrode recording catheter designed primarily for percutaneous endocardial electrophysiologic mapping procedure. According to our initial experience, the recordings obtained from the multi-electrode catheters positioned around the pulmonary veins are more accurate than the recordings obtained from the multifunctional ablation and pacing pen. The totally thoracoscopic surgical ablation approach is a feasible and efficient treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation. The conduction testing can be easily and rapidly performed using a multifunctional pen or multi-electrode recording catheter. PMID:25904211

  3. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  4. t-Test at the Probe Level: An Alternative Method to Identify Statistically Significant Genes for Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Boareto, Marcelo; Caticha, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Microarray data analysis typically consists in identifying a list of differentially expressed genes (DEG), i.e., the genes that are differentially expressed between two experimental conditions. Variance shrinkage methods have been considered a better choice than the standard t-test for selecting the DEG because they correct the dependence of the error with the expression level. This dependence is mainly caused by errors in background correction, which more severely affects genes with low expression values. Here, we propose a new method for identifying the DEG that overcomes this issue and does not require background correction or variance shrinkage. Unlike current methods, our methodology is easy to understand and implement. It consists of applying the standard t-test directly on the normalized intensity data, which is possible because the probe intensity is proportional to the gene expression level and because the t-test is scale- and location-invariant. This methodology considerably improves the sensitivity and robustness of the list of DEG when compared with the t-test applied to preprocessed data and to the most widely used shrinkage methods, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) and Linear Models for Microarray Data (LIMMA). Our approach is useful especially when the genes of interest have small differences in expression and therefore get ignored by standard variance shrinkage methods.

  5. Development of a list of reference chemicals for evaluating alternative methods to in vivo fish bioaccumulation tests.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Cronin, Mark Timothy David; Lillicrap, Adam; Madden, Judith Clare; Piechota, Przemyslaw; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-12-01

    The aim to reduce the number of animals in experiments has highlighted the need to develop and validate nonanimal methods as alternatives to bioaccumulation studies using fish. The present study details a novel 3-tier approach to develop a list of reference compounds to aid this process. The approach was based on 1) the inclusion of relevant chemical classes supported by high-quality in vivo data for the bioconcentration factor (BCF), whole-body biotransformation rates (K(met)), and metabolism characterization for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (tiers I and II); and 2) the refinement to ensure a broad coverage of hydrophobicity, bioconcentration potential, molecular weight, maximum molecular diameter, whole-body biotransformation half-lives, and metabolic pathways (tier III). In silico techniques were employed to predict maximal log BCF and molecular and metabolic properties. Of the 157 compounds considered as reference compounds, 144 were supported by high-quality BCF data, 8 were supported by K(met) data, and 5 were supported by in vivo metabolism data. Additional criteria for refinement of the list of reference compounds were suggested to aid practical implementation in experimental efforts. The present list of reference compounds is anticipated to facilitate the development of alternative approaches, enhance understanding of in vivo and in vitro bioaccumulation relationships, and refine in silico BCF and metabolism predictions.

  6. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  7. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Chlorite—daily monitoring as prescribed in 40 CFR 141.132(b)(2)(i)(A). Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 E... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st edition 1 Other Total Coliforms Total... Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6) Organism Methodology SM 20thedition 6...

  9. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments.

  10. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  11. Alternatives to animal testing: A review

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Sonali K.; Dhawale, Shashikant C.

    2013-01-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  12. Towards fully automated genotyping: use of an X linked recessive spastic paraplegia family to test alternative analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Matise, T C; Perlin, M W; Marks, H G; Hoffman, E P

    1995-05-01

    Advances in dinucleotide-based genetic maps open possibilities for large scale genotyping at high resolution. The current rate-limiting steps in use of these dense maps is data interpretation (allele definition), data entry, and statistical calculations. We have recently reported automated allele identification methods. Here we show that a 10-cM framework map of the human X chromosome can be analyzed on two lanes of an automated sequencer per individual (10-12 loci per lane). We use this map and analysis strategy to generate allele data for an X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia family with a known PLP mutation. We analyzed 198 genotypes in a single gel and used the data to test three methods of data analysis: manual meiotic breakpoint mapping, automated concordance analysis, and whole chromosome multipoint linkage analysis. All methods pinpointed the correct location of the gene. We propose that multipoint exclusion mapping may permit valid inflation of LOD scores using the equation max LOD-(next best LOD). PMID:7759066

  13. Effect-based interpretation of toxicity test data using probability and comparison with alternative methods of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Markle, P.J.; Bottomley, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is described that incorporates the intra- and intertest variability and the biological effect of bioassay data in evaluating the toxicity of single and multiple tests for regulatory decision-making purposes. The single- and multiple-test regulatory decision probabilities were determined from t values (n {minus} 1, one-tailed) derived from the estimated biological effect and the associated standard error at the critical sample concentration. Single-test regulatory decision probabilities below the selected minimum regulatory decision probability identify individual tests as noncompliant. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability below the multiple-test regulatory decision minimum identifies groups of tests in which the magnitude and persistence of the toxicity is sufficient to be considered noncompliant or to require enforcement action. Regulatory decision probabilities derived from the t distribution were compared with results based on standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests using single- and multiple-concentration toxicity test data from an actual national pollutant discharge incorporated the precision of the effect estimate into regulatory decisions at a fixed level of effect. Also, probability-based interpretation of toxicity tests provides incentive to laboratories to produce, and permit holders to use, high-quality, precise data, particularly when multiple tests are used in regulatory decisions. These results are contrasted with standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests in which the intratest precision is a determining factor in setting the biological effect used for regulatory decisions.

  14. The alternatives for insulation testing.

    PubMed

    Backes, John

    2010-04-01

    Electrical safety testing of medical equipment is essential to ensure that the apparatus is safe for operators and patients alike. Rigel Medical's John Backes looks at the latest tests used to assess the integrity of insulation in electrical appliances.

  15. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test... Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental... CONTACT: David H. Rubin, 202-268-2986. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Postal Service...

  16. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

  17. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  18. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of ELISA methods as an alternative screening test to indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. Evaluation of five commercial kits.

    PubMed

    Tonuttia, Elio; Bassetti, Danila; Piazza, Anna; Visentini, Daniela; Poletto, Monica; Bassetto, Franca; Caciagli, Patrizio; Villalta, Danilo; Tozzoli, Renato; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2004-03-01

    Detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a fundamental laboratory test for diagnosing systemic autoimmune diseases. Currently, the method of choice is indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on a HEp-2 cell substrate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for ANA detection and to verify the possibility of using them as an alternative to the IIF method. The study involved 1513 patients, 315 of whom were diagnosed with a systemic autoimmune disease and 1198 in whom an autoimmune disorder was excluded. For all sera, ANA detection was performed via IIF and with five different EIA kits. The results were evaluated in relation to clinical diagnosis and the presence of possible specific autoantibodies (anti-ENA or anti-dsDNA); lastly, they were compared with the results obtained using ANA-IIF as the method of reference. The positive rate of the ANA-IIF test in subjects with systemic autoimmune diseases was 92%, whereas in the five ANA-EIA kits there was broad diversity in terms of response, with positive rates ranging from 74 to 94%. All the EIA kits correctly detected the presence of antibodies (anti-dsDNA, anti-RNP, anti-Ro/SSA) responsible for homogeneous and speckled fluorescence pattern, but at the same time they showed substantial inaccuracy with the nucleolar pattern, with a mean sensitivity of approximately 50% in this case. Instead, there was a large kit-to-kit difference in terms of identification of anti-Scl70 and centromere patterns, for which sensitivities ranged between 45 and 91%, and between 49 and 100%, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that the commercially available ANA-EIA kits show different levels of sensitivity and specificity. Some of them have a diagnostic accuracy that is comparable and, in some cases, even higher than the IIF method. Consequently, these could be used as an alternative screening test to IIE. However, others do not ensure acceptable

  20. A FRAME response to the Draft Report on Alternative (Non-animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects--2010.

    PubMed

    Balls, Michael; Clothier, Richard

    2010-10-01

    This response on behalf of FRAME to the European Commission's consultation on the five chapters of the Draft Report on Alternative (Non-animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects--2010, is via a Comment in ATLA, rather than via the template supplied by the Commission. This is principally so that a number of general points about cosmetic ingredient testing can be made. It is concluded that the five draft chapters do not provide a credible basis for the Commission's forthcoming report to the European Parliament and the European Council on the five cosmetic ingredient safety issues for which the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive's ban on animal testing was postponed until 2013. This is mainly because there is insufficient focus in the draft chapters on the specific nature of cosmetic ingredients, their uses, their local effects and metabolism at their sites of application, and, in particular, on whether their possible absorption into the body would be likely to lead to their accumulation in target sites at levels approaching Thresholds of Toxicological Concern. Meanwhile, there continues to be uncertainty about how the provisions of the Cosmetics Directive should be applied, given the requirements of the REACH system and directives concerned with the safety of other chemicals and products.

  1. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  2. Effects of Alternate Test Formats in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare differences in methods of testing for two undergraduate online courses to determine the effect of alternate test formats in relation to participant grades. Specific purposes of this study were to determine whether a difference existed in student test scores between the control and treatment groups and…

  3. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific... Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the NTP Interagency Center for...

  4. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  5. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest.

  6. Towards a Strategic Approaches in Alternative Tests for Pesticide Safety

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory animals is inevitable in scientific evaluation and alternative approaches have limitations in the whole coverage, continuous effort is necessary to minimize animal use and to develop reliable alternative tests for pesticide evaluation. This review discusses alternative approaches for pesticide toxicity tests and hazard evaluation that have been used in peer-reviewed reports and could be applied in future studies based on the critical animal research principles of reduction, replacement, and refinement. PMID:25343009

  7. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  8. An Examination of Alternative Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peggy D.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic shifts, advances in technology, and changing student perceptions and expectations have influenced the development of alternative means and methods for offering and delivering traditional college courses. This study reports student perceptions of four alternatives at one university where students were asked to rate course offerings…

  9. Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  10. Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  11. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, R.

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  12. Inter-laboratory study of human in vitro toxicogenomics-based tests as alternative methods for evaluating chemical carcinogenicity: a bioinformatics perspective.

    PubMed

    Herwig, R; Gmuender, H; Corvi, R; Bloch, K M; Brandenburg, A; Castell, J; Ceelen, L; Chesne, C; Doktorova, T Y; Jennen, D; Jennings, P; Limonciel, A; Lock, E A; McMorrow, T; Phrakonkham, P; Radford, R; Slattery, C; Stierum, R; Vilardell, M; Wittenberger, T; Yildirimman, R; Ryan, M; Rogiers, V; Kleinjans, J

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals with alternative, human-based in vitro systems has become a major goal of toxicogenomics. The central read-out of these assays is the transcriptome, and while many studies exist that explored the gene expression responses of such systems, reports on robustness and reproducibility, when testing them independently in different laboratories, are still uncommon. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge about variability induced by the data analysis protocols. We have conducted an inter-laboratory study for testing chemical carcinogenicity evaluating two human in vitro assays: hepatoma-derived cells and hTERT-immortalized renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, representing liver and kidney as major target organs. Cellular systems were initially challenged with thirty compounds, genome-wide gene expression was measured with microarrays, and hazard classifiers were built from this training set. Subsequently, each system was independently established in three different laboratories, and gene expression measurements were conducted using anonymized compounds. Data analysis was performed independently by two separate groups applying different protocols for the assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and for the prediction of carcinogenic hazard. As a result, both workflows came to very similar conclusions with respect to (1) identification of experimental outliers, (2) overall assessment of robustness and inter-laboratory reproducibility and (3) re-classification of the unknown compounds to the respective toxicity classes. In summary, the developed bioinformatics workflows deliver accurate measures for inter-laboratory comparison studies, and the study can be used as guidance for validation of future carcinogenicity assays in order to implement testing of human in vitro alternatives to animal testing.

  13. TESLA test facility alternate cryostat design

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    Collaborators on the design of a Tevatron Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA) are working toward construction of a test cell consisting of four full length cryostats, 12 meters long, each consisting of eight, 9-cell superconducting RF cavities. The purpose of this facility is to test all aspects of the accelerator system design; vacuum, cryogenics, RF, and electron source, prior to initiating construction of the full linac. The design for these cryostats pose many interesting challenges to cryostat designers. The systems must be capable of supporting all eight cavity structures within tight alignment tolerances, impose very low thermal heat loads on the 1.8K cryogenic system, provide strength and stiffness to resist structural loads during fabrication, shipping, and installation, and be manufactured at low cost. Several design options are being explored, each of which attempt to address requirements imposed by the reference design guidelines. This paper describes the design and analysis of one design alternative.

  14. High Power Alternator Test Unit (ATU) Electrical System Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and it s interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the JIMO AC Power System Requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. Results of these tests will be used for the development and validation of analytical models for performance and lifetime prediction.

  15. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  16. From alternative methods to a new toxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Mechanistic toxicology has evolved by relying, to a large extent, on methodologies that substitute or complement traditional animal tests. The biotechnology and informatics revolutions of the last decades have made such technologies broadly available and useful, but regulatory toxicology has been slow to embrace these new approaches. Major validation efforts, however, have delivered the evidence that new approaches do not lower safety standards and can be integrated into regulatory safety assessments. Particularly in the EU, political pressures, such as the REACH legislation and the 7th Amendment to the cosmetic legislation, have prompted the need of new approaches. In the US, the NRC vision report calling for a toxicology for the 21st century (and its most recent adaptation by EPA for their toxicity testing strategy) have initiated a debate about how to create a novel approach based on human cell cultures, lower species, high-throughput testing, and modeling. Lessons learned from the development, validation, and acceptance of alternative methods support the creation of a new approach based on identified toxicity pathways. Conceptual steering and an objective assessment of current practices by evidence-based toxicology (EBT) are required. EBT is modeled on evidence-based medicine, which has demonstrated that rigorous systematic reviews of current practices and meta-analyses of studies provide powerful tools to provide health care professionals and patients with the current best scientific evidence. Similarly, a portal for high-quality reviews of toxicological approaches and tools for the quantitative meta-analyses of data promise to serve as door opener for a new regulatory toxicology.

  17. 40 CFR 136.5 - Approval of alternate test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and to the Alternate Test Procedure Program Coordinator, Office of Science and Technology (4303... to the Alternate Test Procedure Program Coordinator, Office of Science and Technology (4303), Office... will be forwarded to the Alternate Test Procedure Program Coordinator, Office of Science and...

  18. 40 CFR 136.5 - Approval of alternate test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and to the Alternate Test Procedure Program Coordinator, Office of Science and Technology (4303... to the Alternate Test Procedure Program Coordinator, Office of Science and Technology (4303), Office... will be forwarded to the Alternate Test Procedure Program Coordinator, Office of Science and...

  19. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  20. Alternatives to Serologic Testing for Diagnosis of Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Capraro, Gerald A

    2015-12-01

    Although serologic testing remains the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease, the antibody response may take several weeks to increase greater than the limit of detection. Because of this extended time frame, it is necessary to identify new diagnostic methods for earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Lyme disease. Alternative diagnostic modalities, such as Borrelia culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, may be beneficial in specific clinical scenarios. In early phases of acute infection, before the development of an immune response, detection of Borrelia DNA from clinical specimens may help establish the diagnosis sooner than serologic methods.

  1. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  2. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  3. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that.../live ). SACATM advises the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative...

  4. Development of a decision support system for the introduction of alternative methods into local irritancy/corrosivity testing strategies. Creation of fundamental rules for a decision support system.

    PubMed

    Gerner, I; Zinke, S; Graetschel, G; Schlede, E

    2000-01-01

    groups were categorised on the basis of their empirical formulae, and rules were defined of the type IF (physicochemical property) A, THEN not (toxic) effect B, based on correlations between specific local effects and measured physicochemical values. Other rules of the type IF substructure A, THEN effect B were developed based on correlations between specific local effects and the submitted structural formulae. Reactive chemical substructures relevant to the formation of local lesions and rules for the prediction of the absence of any skin irritation potential were identified. Proposals are made relating to the development of alternatives to eye irritation testing with rabbits.

  5. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  6. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  7. Ignitability test method. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

  8. LEAKAGE TESTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-08-12

    A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.

  9. Evaluation of a rabies ELISA as an alternative method to seroneutralisation tests in the context of international trade of domestic carnivores.

    PubMed

    Wasniewski, M; Labbe, A; Tribout, L; Rieder, J; Labadie, A; Schereffer, J L; Cliquet, F

    2014-01-01

    For several years, international movements with pets have greatly increased. Most countries have relaxed their quarantine measures and adopted a scheme combining vaccination of pets against rabies followed by a serological test to check the efficacy of vaccination. This new scheme has been strongly supported by the OIE, WHO and the European Commission to facilitate the free movement of people and pets around the world. Currently, only two reference methods are recognised and prescribed (the FAVN test and the RFFIT) to measure rabies antibody levels in serum samples for international trade. They are reliable and valuable methods of assessing the efficacy of rabies vaccination but they are time-consuming and require well-trained people and specialised laboratory facilities. A few years ago, an ELISA (Platelia™ Rabies II kit ad usum Veterinarium) was developed for domestic carnivores and wildlife. To our knowledge, this ELISA is the only one certified and prescribed by the OIE. Following its marketing, one task of the EURL for rabies serology was to evaluate the performance of laboratories using this new kit. The results revealed that 26% of the participants, which were already approved laboratories for rabies serology, failed the inter-laboratory trial. Such unsatisfactory results have never been observed during any of the previous proficiency tests organised annually since 2000 by the EURL for rabies serology using reference methods. More investigations were undertaken through internal and collaborative studies to assess the performance of this newly marketed ELISA kit. The results of the internal study revealed that even with a specificity of 100%, the sensitivity evaluated on 593 samples of domestic carnivores came to 78.2%. An issue regarding the underestimation of serum titres was also revealed during the study. The results of a collaborative study involving 23 international laboratories reinforced the preliminary conclusions regarding lack of sensitivity

  10. Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the Asbestos Releasability Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative Asbestos Control Method shows promise in speed, cost, and efficiency if equally protective. ORD conducted side by side test of AACM vs NESHAP on identical asbestos-containing buildings at Fort Chaffee. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on pr...

  11. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  12. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  13. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  14. Standard environmental test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  15. Complementary and alternative methods in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, William L

    2009-10-01

    There are no published studies specifically addressing complementary and alternative treatments in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). However, national surveys of adults with chronic disabilities document that a majority of them use such treatments, that they are willing to pay out of pocket, if necessary, and that they believe that pursuing such treatment relieves pain, reduces stress and anxiety, and leads to improved feelings of fitness and well-being. Individuals enjoy taking charge of their own health care decisions, and frequently feel more in control with these therapies than with more traditional methods. In contrast to adults, there is some information on complementary and alternative methods (CAM) in children with CP. This article discusses some of the CAM used in children that may be carried over into adulthood, as well as the pitfalls for patients and conventional physicians as they try to sort out what might be helpful and what might be harmful in this arena. Practitioners of both conventional and CAM therapies believe that exercise can be beneficial; accordingly, activities such as recreational sports, yoga, and hippotherapy may be continued from childhood into adulthood. General treatments for stress and anxiety, through such activities as yoga and meditation, though not directed at CP per se, may be more popular for adults than children. Research in this area should first identify what methods are being utilized and then subject these methods to well-designed outcome studies that take into account any associated risks.

  16. Replacement of animal procedures: alternatives in research, education and testing.

    PubMed

    Balls, M

    1994-07-01

    The origins of the concept of replacement alternatives in the 1950s, and the impact of societal changes in the 1960s and 1970s, resulting in stricter controls on animal experimentation from the 1980s, based on the Three Rs of Russell and Burch (reduction, refinement and replacement), are reviewed. The range of replacement alternative methods, and some of the ethical issues they raise, and progress toward their incorporation into fundamental and applied research, education, and, in particular, toxicity testing, are discussed. It is concluded that much greater effort should be put into overcoming the barriers to the acceptance of replacement alternatives, which currently limit the contributions they have to make toward greater humanity and better biomedical science. Particular emphasis is place on the need to ensure that the validation of non-animal tests (for their reliability and relevance for specific purposes) is conducted fairly and objectively, and that greater heed is paid to the warning of Russell and Burch about the high fidelity fallacy and the questionable relevance of data provided by animal models for human hazard and risk assessment. Finally, the role of ECVAM in the promotion of valid replacement alternatives, and the opportunities afforded by the Sixth Amendment to the EC Cosmetics Directive, are discussed.

  17. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942....4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the...

  18. 77 FR 52333 - International Workshop on Alternatives to the Murine Histamine Sensitization Test (HIST) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... promotes the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of testing methods that more accurately assess...: The NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces... series of specialized vaccine workshops, will review new methods and approaches for acellular...

  19. Alternative Vocabularies in the Test Validity Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Justification of testing practice involves moving from one state of knowledge about the test to another. Theories of test validity can (a) focus on the beginning of the process, (b) focus on the end, or (c) encompass the entire process. Analyses of four case studies test and illustrate three claims: (a) restrictions on validity entail a supplement…

  20. Alternate Methods to Experimentally Investigate Shock Initiation Properties of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingala, Forrest; Lee, Richard; Sutherland, Gerrit; Samuels, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Reactive flow models are desired for many new explosives early in the formulation development stage. Traditionally, these models are parameterized by carefully-controlled 1-D shock experiments, including gas-gun testing with embedded gauges and wedge testing with explosive plane wave lenses (PWL). These experiments are easy to interpret, due to their 1-D nature, but are generally expensive to perform, and cannot be performed at all explosive test facilities. We investigate alternative methods to probe shock-initiation behavior of new explosives using widely-available pentolite gap test donors and simple time-of-arrival type diagnostics. These methods can be performed at a low cost at virtually any explosives testing facility, which allows experimental data to parameterize reactive flow models to be collected much earlier in the development of an explosive formulation. However, the fundamentally 2-D nature of these tests may increase the modeling burden in parameterizing these models, and reduce general applicability. Several variations of the so-called modified gap test were investigated and evaluated for suitability as an alternative to established 1-D gas gun and PWL techniques. At least partial agreement with 1-D test methods was observed for the explosives tested, and future work is planned to scope the applicability and limitations of these experimental techniques.

  1. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. Link to an amendment... model, either from testing the basic model or from applying an alternative method for determining...

  2. Assessment of the potential irritation and photoirritation of novel amino acid-based surfactants by in vitro methods as alternative to the animal tests.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Tomas; Martínez, Verónica; Mitjans, Montserrat; Infante, María Rosa; Moran, Carmen; Clapés, Pere; Clothier, Richard; Vinardell, María Pilar

    2004-09-01

    The ultraviolet-A radiation damage effects on skin and eyes will be increased by phototoxic compounds which could be present in pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. Great efforts have been made in the last years to find surfactants to replace those with phototoxic potential in commercial use. Series of different in vitro models for phototoxicity, included to validated neutral red uptake (NRU) 3T3 phototoxicity assay are useful screening tools. The phototoxic effects of a novel family of glycerol amino acid-based surfactant compounds were examined via these assays. Human red blood cells and two immortalised cell lines, murine fibroblast cell line 3T3, and one human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were the in vitro models employed to predict potential photoirritation. The phototoxic end-points assessed were hemolysis (human red blood cell test) and resazurin transformation to resorufin and NRU in cell culture methods. The results suggest that no phototoxic effects by any new amino acid derived-surfactants, could be identified.

  3. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  4. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  5. 40 CFR 211.206-2 - Alternative test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative test data. 211.206-2 Section 211.206-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-2 Alternative test data. (a) In...

  6. 40 CFR 211.206-2 - Alternative test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alternative test data. 211.206-2 Section 211.206-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-2 Alternative test data. (a) In...

  7. 40 CFR 211.206-2 - Alternative test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative test data. 211.206-2 Section 211.206-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-2 Alternative test data. (a) In...

  8. Alternative Inspection Methods for Single Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Timothy J.; Alzheimer, James M.; Hurley, David E.

    2010-01-19

    This document was prepared to provide evaluations and recommendations regarding nondestructive evaluation methods that might be used to determine cracks and bowing in the ceiling of waste storage tanks on the Hanford site. The goal was to determine cracks as small as 1/16 in. wide in the ceiling, and bowing as small as 0.25 in. This report describes digital video camera methods that can be used to detect a crack in the ceiling of the dome, and methods for determining the surface topography of the ceiling in the waste storage tanks to detect localized movements in the surface. A literature search, combined with laboratory testing, comprised this study.

  9. An Alternative Method to Project Wind Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadillioglu, Cagla; Kiyisuren, I. Cagatay; Collu, Kamil; Turp, M. Tufan; Kurnaz, M. Levent; Ozturk, Tugba

    2016-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the major clean and sustainable energy sources. Beside its various advantages, wind energy has a downside that its performance cannot be projected very accurately in the long-term. In this study, we offer an alternative method which can be used to determine the best location to install a wind turbine in a large area aiming maximum energy performance in the long run. For this purpose, a regional climate model (i.e. RegCM4.4) is combined with a software called Winds on Critical Streamline Surfaces (WOCSS) in order to identify wind patterns for any domains even in a changing climate. As a special case, Çanakkale region is examined due to the terrain profile having both coastal and mountainous features. WOCSS program was run twice for each month in the sample years in a double nested fashion, using the provisional RegCM4.4 wind data between years 2020 and 2040. Modified version of WOCSS provides terrain following flow surfaces and by processing those data, it makes a wind profile output for certain heights specified by the user. The computational time of WOCSS is also in reasonable range. Considering the lack of alternative methods for long-term wind performance projection, the model used in this study is a very good way for obtaining quick indications for wind performance taking the impact of the terrain effects into account. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  10. The test chemical selection procedure of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods for the EU Project ReProTect.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Patricia; Pellizzer, Cristian; Stummann, Tina C; Hareng, Lars; Bremer, Susanne

    2010-08-01

    The selection of reference compounds is crucial for a successful in vitro test development in order to proof the relevance of the test system. This publication describes the criteria and the selection strategy leading to a list of more than 130 chemicals suitable for test development within the ReProTect project. The presented chemical inventory aimed to support the development and optimization of in vitro tests that seek to fulfill ECVAM's criteria for entering into the prevalidation. In order to select appropriate substances, a primary database was established compiling information from existing databases. In a second step, predefined selection criteria have been applied to obtain a comprehensive list ready to undergo a peer review process from independent experts with industrial, academic and regulatory background. Finally, a peer reviewed chemical list containing 13 substances challenging endocrine disrupter tests, additional 50 substances serving as reference chemicals for various tests evaluating effects on male and female fertility, and finally 61 substances were identified as known to provoke effects on the early development of mammalian offspring. The final list aims to cover relevant and specific mode/site of actions as they are known to be relevant for various substance classes. However, the recommended list should not be interpreted as a list of reproductive toxicants, because such a description requires proven associations with adverse effects of mammalian reproduction, which are subject of regulatory decisions done by involved competent authorities.

  11. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Parts 429, 430, and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed modifications to the regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining...

  12. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  13. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  14. Bioconvective Assay As Alternative To Draize Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1993-01-01

    Protocol to determine toxicities of chemicals implemented relatively cheaply by use of equipment and materials packaged in convenient kit form. Tests involve observation of macroscopic patterns formed at high concentrations of free-swimming protozoan species Tetrahymena pyriformis in liquid media. Provides more-sensitive indication of toxicity and costs less. Given that there are no data on toxicities of 70 to 80 percent of commercial chemicals, high cost of, and current opposition to, testing on higher animals, new protocol helps meet pressing need.

  15. Maggot Debridement: An Alternative Method for Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Objective: To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: The topic is elucidated from different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Results: Literature and own results demonstrate that MDT is a safe method with few side effects. Maggot debridement therapy is as good as or better than conventional often surgical debridement, is more selective than surgical debridement, decreases time to healing and stay of patients in the ward, and may decrease the risk of major amputations. However, the evidence of these effects of MDT on the highest level is presently lacking. A detailed description of how to use MDT in practice is provided including a visual demonstration in a video. Conclusion: In spite of lacking clinical evidence, MDT clinical experience strongly suggests that this technique is effective and safe. It can be used for most types of problem wounds, but our indication is primarily diabetic foot ulcers, because of its selectivity for debriding necrotic dead tissue. It may be a valuable alternative surgical/sharp debridement. PMID:21776326

  16. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  17. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010".

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto; Carney, Edward; Coenen, Joachim; Conolly, Rory B; Corsini, Emanuela; Green, Sidney; Faustman, Elaine M; Gaspari, Anthony; Hayashi, Makoto; Wallace Hayes, A; Hengstler, Jan G; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James M; Pfaller, Walter; Roggen, Erwin L

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near future pending validation. Various recommendations expand the original report. The reviewers agree with the report that there is greater promise in the short term for the areas of sensitization and toxicokinetics. Additional opportunities lie in more global collaborations and the inclusion of other industry sectors.

  18. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010".

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto; Carney, Edward; Coenen, Joachim; Conolly, Rory B; Corsini, Emanuela; Green, Sidney; Faustman, Elaine M; Gaspari, Anthony; Hayashi, Makoto; Wallace Hayes, A; Hengstler, Jan G; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James M; Pfaller, Walter; Roggen, Erwin L

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near future pending validation. Various recommendations expand the original report. The reviewers agree with the report that there is greater promise in the short term for the areas of sensitization and toxicokinetics. Additional opportunities lie in more global collaborations and the inclusion of other industry sectors. PMID:21993956

  19. Testing alternative vicariance scenarios in Western Mediterranean discoglossid frogs.

    PubMed

    Fromhage, Lutz; Vences, Miguel; Veith, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Dated molecular phylogenies are often used to interpret evolutionary history with respect to paleogeographic events. Where more than one interpretation is possible, it is desirable but difficult to assess the alternatives in an objective manner. The present work demonstrates a formalized method for testing molecular clock calibrations and biogeographic scenarios based on them. We assessed the plausibility of several previously published biogeographic hypotheses, using the frog genera Alytes, Discoglossus, and Bombina as model groups. Our data set comprised ca. 900bp of partial mitochondrial 16S and 12S rRNA gene sequences (both genes evolved in a clock-like manner across genera) from nearly all the species and subspecies in the three genera. We tested several calibrations of a molecular clock, which resulted in competing temporal settings for the evolution of taxa. Although only one scenario was in complete accordance with paleogeographic data, statistical testing did not reject the alternatives. Limitations encountered with the present approach may be overcome by more comprehensive analyses in future.

  20. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  1. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  2. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  3. Testing alternative theories of gravity using LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.; Yunes, Nicolás

    2004-09-01

    We investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on alternative theories of gravity using gravitational wave detection from inspiralling compact binaries with the proposed LISA space interferometer. Specifically, we estimate lower bounds on the coupling parameter ω of scalar tensor theories of the Brans Dicke type and on the Compton wavelength of the graviton λg in hypothetical massive graviton theories. In these theories, modifications of the gravitational radiation damping formulae or of the propagation of the waves translate into a change in the phase evolution of the observed gravitational waveform. We obtain the bounds through the technique of matched filtering, employing the LISA sensitivity curve generator (SCG), available online. For a non-spinning neutron star on a quasi-circular inspiral into a non-spinning 103Modot black hole in the Virgo Cluster, in a two-year integration, we find a lower bound ω > 3 × 105. For lower-mass black holes, the bound could be as large as 2 × 106. The bound is independent of LISA arm length, but is inversely proportional to the LISA position noise error, under the assumption that position error noise dominates laser shot noise. Lower bounds on the graviton Compton wavelength ranging from 1015 km to 5 × 1016 km can be obtained from one-year observations of massive binary black-hole inspirals at cosmological distances (3 Gpc) for masses ranging from 104 to 107Modot. For the highest-mass systems (107Modot), the bound is proportional to (LISA arm length)1/2 and to (LISA acceleration noise)-1/2. For the others, the bound is independent of these parameters because of the dominance of white-dwarf confusion noise in the relevant part of the frequency spectrum. These bounds improve and extend earlier work which used analytic formulae for the noise curves.

  4. Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    2011-01-01

    Demagnetization temperature of a linear alternator (LA) can be accurately predicted through an analytical Maxwell model. The M-H characteristics of the alternator magnets must be known. Vendor data are given for cube-shaped magnets, and the shape of a LA magnet may affect its magnetic properties. At GRC, M-H data are directly measured for each LA magnet. This method was validated using TDC alternator tests on the Alternator Test Rig. The analytical Maxwell modeling was utilized on a different style linear alternator to predict demagnetization temperatures for the Advanced Stirling Convertor.

  5. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  6. Alternative methods to determine headwater benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.S.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.

    1997-11-10

    In 1992, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began using a Flow Duration Analysis (FDA) methodology to assess headwater benefits in river basins where use of the Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) model may not result in significant improvements in modeling accuracy. The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy and appropriateness of the FDA method for determining energy gains in less complex basins. This report presents the results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) validation of the FDA method. The validation is based on a comparison of energy gains using the FDA method with energy gains calculated using the MWBEG model. Comparisons of energy gains are made on a daily and monthly basis for a complex river basin (the Alabama River Basin) and a basin that is considered relatively simple hydrologically (the Stanislaus River Basin). In addition to validating the FDA method, ORNL was asked to suggest refinements and improvements to the FDA method. Refinements and improvements to the FDA method were carried out using the James River Basin as a test case.

  7. Alternative methods of normalising EMG during running.

    PubMed

    Albertus-Kajee, Yumna; Tucker, Ross; Derman, Wayne; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

    2011-08-01

    We evaluated possible methods of normalising EMG measured during running. MVC, Sprint and 70% Peak Running Speed methods were evaluated and their repeatability, reliability and sensitivity to incremental running speed were compared. Twelve runners performed the same experimental protocol on three separate occasions. Each day, subjects firstly performed MVCs, followed by a 20 m maximal sprint (with a 20-30 m run-up). Following this, they performed the peak running speed (PRS) test until exhaustion. After which they ran at 70% of PRS for 5 laps. Results indicated that normalising EMG data to MVC and Sprint methods are more repeatable for VM, BF, MG and RF, VL, LG, respectively, with the average ICC>0.80. The 70% PRS demonstrated poor to fair levels of repeatability ranging between ICC 0.27 and 0.70. Whereas the 70% PRS method had the least intra-subject variability and the greatest sensitivity to increasing running speeds. More specifically, demonstrating significant changes in muscle activity in VM with increasing running speed while MVC and Sprint methods were unable to detect these changes. The dynamic methods were the most appropriate for EMG normalisation showing repeatability, better intra-subject reliability and better sensitivity during running over different days and for once-off measurements. PMID:21531148

  8. Nonmicrobial alternative to reagent quality control testing.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, S M

    1982-01-01

    The traditional approach to quality control in microbiology involves the routine testing of both media and reagents with live microbial cultures. This is expensive, time consuming, and subject to the variables associated with the use of live organisms. A system of reagent quality control based on the pure chemical form of the metabolic end products important to the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae was evaluated. The metabolite reagent control system is simple, reliable, and extremely cost effective, and it eliminates the need for live microbial cultures and media for reagent quality control. PMID:6759528

  9. Genetic testing and disability insurance: an alternative opinion.

    PubMed

    Dodge, John H; Christianson, David J

    2007-01-01

    As members of the Working Group on Genetic Testing in Disability Insurance, the authors of this alternative opinion describe their areas of disagreement with some of the conclusions in the paper written by Susan M. Wolf and Jeffrey P. Kahn.

  10. Alternative Test Criteria in Covariance Structure Analysis: A Unified Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satorra, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Within covariance structural analysis, a unified approach to asymptotic theory of alternative test criteria for testing parametric restrictions is provided. More general statistics for addressing the case where the discrepancy function is not asymptotically optimal, and issues concerning power analysis and the asymptotic theory of testing-related…

  11. 40 CFR 89.114 - Special and alternate test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart E of this part or 40 CFR part 86, subpart I. (b) Alternate test procedures. (1) A manufacturer may... generated under the specified procedures. (3) A manufacturer may elect to use the test procedures in 40 CFR... procedures in 40 CFR part 1065. For any EPA testing with Tier 2 or Tier 3 engines, EPA will use...

  12. 40 CFR 89.114 - Special and alternate test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart E of this part or 40 CFR part 86, subpart I. (b) Alternate test procedures. (1) A manufacturer may... generated under the specified procedures. (3) A manufacturer may elect to use the test procedures in 40 CFR... procedures in 40 CFR part 1065. For any EPA testing with Tier 2 or Tier 3 engines, EPA will use...

  13. Alternate methods to teach history of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Manisha S; Desai, Sukumar P

    2014-02-01

    Residency programs in anesthesiology in the United States struggle to balance the conflicting needs of formal didactic sessions, clinical teaching, and clinical service obligations. As a consequence of the explosion in knowledge about basic and applied sciences related to our specialty, residents and fellows are expected to make substantial efforts to supplement formal lectures with self-study. There is strong evidence to suggest that members of the younger generation use nontraditional methods to acquire information. Although training programs are not required to include topics related to history of anesthesia (HOA) in the didactic curriculum, and despite the fact that such knowledge does not directly impact clinical care, many programs include such lectures and discussions. We describe and discuss our experience with 3 alternate modalities of teaching HOA.First, we provide brief descriptions of HOA-related historical narratives and novels within the domain of popular literature, rather than those that might be considered textbooks. Second, we analyze content in movies and videodiscs dealing with HOA and determine their utility as educational resources. Third, we describe HOA tours to sites in close proximity to our institutions, as well as those in locations elsewhere in the United States and abroad.We suggest that informal HOA teaching can be implemented by every residency program without much effort and without taking away from the traditional curriculum. Participating in this unique and enriching experience may be a means of academic advancement. It is our hope and expectation that graduates from programs that incorporate such exposure to HOA become advocates of history and may choose to devote a part of their academic career toward exploration of HOA. PMID:24445641

  14. An alternate method to springback compensation for sheet metal forming.

    PubMed

    Siswanto, Waluyo Adi; Anggono, Agus Dwi; Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  15. An Alternate Method to Springback Compensation for Sheet Metal Forming

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  16. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  17. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  18. An Alternative Field Method for Screening Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, N. E.; Mauro, A. O.; Tihohood, D.

    1998-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) has become an increasingly severe problem in soybean production areas in Brazil. The development and use of resistant cultivars is the most efficient method of minimizing losses due to this pathogen. Our objective was to test the efficiency of an alternative method for screening soybean genotypes for resistance to H. glycines in field plots. The alternative method was compared to the standard method of sowing the test genotypes in fields found to be infested during the previous crop season. In the alternative method, the test genotypes are sown in the furrow following the uprooting of 45-day-old infected plants. The alternative method resulted in twice the cyst population and fewer escapes, and more consistent results than the standard method. The major advantage of the alternative method is that it permits screening in a more homogeneous distribution of H. glycines in the soil. PMID:19274244

  19. F-Test Alternatives to Fisher's Exact Test and to the Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity in 2x2 Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; Starbuck, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative to Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for homogeneity in two-by-two tables is developed. The method provides for Type I error rates which are closer to the stated alpha level than either of the alternatives. (JKS)

  20. Searching for Alternatives to Standardized Tests: Whys, Whats, and Whithers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Walter; Madaus, George

    1989-01-01

    The continuing interest in standardized testing alternatives suggests that the make-a-better-mousetrap mentality still flourishes in education and employment assessment circles. Some promising new testing technologies might broaden the range of human talents assessed. However, educators must refuse to accept bondage to any single technology, no…

  1. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the...

  3. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  4. An Alternative Approach to Test Analysis and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This reflection paper challenges current test scoring practices on the grounds that most wrong-answer selections are thoughtful not random, presenting research supporting this proposition. An alternative test scoring system is presented, described and its outcomes discussed. This new scoring system increases the number of variables considered,…

  5. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-02-08

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is conducting in-house research on rare-earth permanent magnets and linear alternators to assist in developing free-piston Stirling convertors for radioisotope space power systems and for developing advanced linear alternator technology. This research continues at GRC, but, with the exception of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator references, the work presented in this paper was conducted in 2005. A special arc-magnet characterization fixture was designed and built to measure the M-H characteristics of the magnets used in Technology Demonstration Convertors developed under the 110-W Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) project. This fixture was used to measure these characteristics of the arc magnets and to predict alternator demagnetization temperatures in the SRG110 application. Demagnetization tests using the TDC alternator on the Alternator Test Rig were conducted for two different magnet grades: Sumitomo Neomax 44AH and 42AH. The purpose of these tests was to determine the demagnetization temperatures of the magnets for the alternator under nominal loads. Measurements made during the tests included the linear alternator terminal voltage, current, average power, magnet temperatures, and stator temperatures. The results of these tests were found to be in good agreement with predictions. Alternator demagnetization temperatures in the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-developed under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator project) were predicted as well because the prediction method had been validated through the SRG110 alternator tests. These predictions led to a specification for maximum temperatures of the ASC pressure vessel.

  7. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  8. Proposed modifications of Environmental Protection Agency Method 1601 for detection of coliphages in drinking water, with same-day fluorescence-based detection and evaluation by the performance-based measurement system and alternative test protocol validation approaches.

    PubMed

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Conklin, Ernestine; Rosen, Jeff; Clancy, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    Coliphages are microbial indicators specified in the Ground Water Rule that can be used to monitor for potential fecal contamination of drinking water. The Total Coliform Rule specifies coliform and Escherichia coli indicators for municipal water quality testing; thus, coliphage indicator use is less common and advances in detection methodology are less frequent. Coliphages are viral structures and, compared to bacterial indicators, are more resistant to disinfection and diffuse further distances from pollution sources. Therefore, coliphage presence may serve as a better predictor of groundwater quality. This study describes Fast Phage, a 16- to 24-h presence/absence modification of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1601 for detection of coliphages in 100 ml water. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that the somatic and male-specific coliphage modifications provide results equivalent to those of Method 1601. Five laboratories compared the modifications, featuring same-day fluorescence-based prediction, to Method 1601 by using the performance-based measurement system (PBMS) criterion. This requires a minimum 50% positive response in 10 replicates of 100-ml water samples at coliphage contamination levels of 1.3 to 1.5 PFU/100 ml. The laboratories showed that Fast Phage meets PBMS criteria with 83.5 to 92.1% correlation of the same-day rapid fluorescence-based prediction with the next-day result. Somatic coliphage PBMS data are compared to manufacturer development data that followed the EPA alternative test protocol (ATP) validation approach. Statistical analysis of the data sets indicates that PBMS utilizes fewer samples than does the ATP approach but with similar conclusions. Results support testing the coliphage modifications by using an EPA-approved national PBMS approach with collaboratively shared samples.

  9. Which Alternative Purchasing Methods Do Large School Districts Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung; Choi, Namok

    1999-01-01

    School districts are constantly seeking alternative purchasing methods to ease paperwork, lost time, storage problems, and overstocking. A study showed that in large districts, fast-track electronic requisition and online purchasing were most commonly used alternative electronic purchasing methods. Most common nonelectronic methods were direct and…

  10. 49 CFR 218.29 - Alternate methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate methods of protection. 218.29 Section....29 Alternate methods of protection. Instead of providing blue signal protection for workers in accordance with § 218.27, the following methods for blue signal protection may be used: (a) When workers...

  11. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars in accordance with § 218.75 or § 218.77, the following methods of protection may be used: (a) When occupied...

  12. Learning Potential Tests: An Alternative to Intelligence Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnstra, Johan M.

    This paper presents preliminary results regarding the predictive validity of learning potential tests administered in an exploratory study in Rotterdam (Holland) concerning the referral of minority students to special education. The central question of the study was why some students of Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin were placed in…

  13. Accelerated Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Neural network systems were evaluated for use in predicting wear of mechanical systems. Three different neural network software simulation packages were utilized in order to create models of tribological wear tests. Representative simple, medium, and high complexity simulation packages were selected. Pin-on-disk, rub shoe, and four-ball tribological test data was used for training, testing, and verification of the neural network models. Results showed mixed success. The neural networks were able to predict results with some accuracy if the number of input variables was low or the amount of training data was high. Increased neural network complexity resulted in more accurate results, however there was a point of diminishing return. Medium complexity models were the best trade off between accuracy and computing time requirements. A NASA Technical Memorandum and a Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers paper are being published which detail the work.

  14. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  15. Alternate Conceptions of Preservice Elementary Teachers: The Itakura Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effectiveness of the inquiry-based Itakura method for mediating alternate conceptions of preservice elementary teachers (N = 38) in an integrated mathematics, science, and technology methods course. We investigated alternate conceptions in the expansion of solids due to heating. There was a significant increase in…

  16. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Alternative methods of sale... Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale. (a) Sale by auction... forfeited administratively may be sold, the Director or his delegate shall cause a notice of sale to...

  17. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Jasson, Vicky; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel; Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-09-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant bibliography. Perspectives on future development and the potential of the rapid method for routine application in food diagnostics are discussed. As various alternative "rapid" methods in different formats are available on the market, it can be very difficult for a food business operator or for a control authority to select the most appropriate method which fits its purpose. Validation of a method by a third party, according to international accepted protocol based upon ISO 16140, may increase the confidence in the performance of a method. A list of at the moment validated methods for enumeration of both utility indicators (aerobic plate count) and hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coagulase positive Staphylococcus) as well as for detection of the four major pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157 and Campylobacter spp.) is included with reference to relevant websites to check for updates. In a second part of this study, selection criteria are introduced to underpin the choice of the appropriate method(s) for a defined application. The selection criteria link the definition of the context in which the user of the method functions - and thus the prospective use of the microbial test results - with the technical information on the method and its operational requirements and sustainability. The selection criteria can help the end user of the method to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant factors to be taken into account for selection of a method for microbial analysis. PMID:20630313

  18. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  19. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes considering that most of the previously proposed methods are expensive and cannot be easily implemented. Two-hundred toothbrushes with standardized dimensions and bristles were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 20 experimental groups (n = 10), according to microorganism considered and chemical agent used. The toothbrushes were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. The following disinfectants were tested: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% white vinegar, a triclosan-containing dentifrice solution, and a perborate-based tablet solution. The disinfection method was immersion in the disinfectant for 10 min. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated. The values of cfu/toothbrush of each group of microorganism after disinfection were compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons (5%). The chlorhexidine digluconate solution was the most effective disinfectant. The triclosan-based dentifrice solution promoted a significant reduction of all microorganisms' counts in relation to the control group. As to the disinfection with 50% vinegar, a significant reduction was observed for all the microorganisms, except for C. albicans. The sodium perborate solution was the less effective against the tested microorganisms. Solutions based on triclosan-containing dentifrice may be considered effective, nontoxic, cost-effective, and an easily applicable alternative for the disinfection of toothbrushes. The vinegar solution reduced the presence of S. aureus, S. mutans and S. pyogenes on toothbrushes. PMID:20339710

  20. 40 CFR 136.4 - Application for alternate test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedure, together with references to published studies of the applicability of the alternate test..., Office of Science and Technology (4303), Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... procedure, together with references to published or other studies confirming the general applicability...

  1. Qualifications and Assignments of Alternatively Certified Teachers: Testing Core Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Smith, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing data from the Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors empirically test four of the core assumptions embedded in current arguments for expanding alternative teacher certification (AC): AC attracts experienced candidates from fields outside of education; AC attracts top-quality, well-trained teachers; AC disproportionately trains…

  2. 40 CFR 85.1414 - Alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1414 Alternative... shall be representative of in-use urban bus operation. The requestor shall supply relevant technical... test is representative of in-use urban bus operation, the Agency shall determine whether to set...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1414 - Alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1414 Alternative... shall be representative of in-use urban bus operation. The requestor shall supply relevant technical... test is representative of in-use urban bus operation, the Agency shall determine whether to set...

  4. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  5. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  6. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  7. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  8. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  9. Specific migration testing with alternative fatty food simulants.

    PubMed

    Cooper, I; Goodson, A; O'Brien, A

    1998-01-01

    Many additives used in plastics materials and articles intended for food contact are expected to be assigned specific migration limits (SMLs) in a future amendment to EC Directive 90/128/EEC. In order to demonstrate compliance with these restrictions, specific migration tests will need to be performed on the finished plastics packaging using foods or the appropriate EC food simulants. Owing to the involatile and lipophilic nature of many of these additives, their analysis in the conventional fatty food simulant, olive oil, presents technical difficulties. One way of overcoming these difficulties would be to use a simple solvent alternative to olive oil as has been proposed for overall migration testing. The objective of this work is to compare specific migration data obtained using olive oil with alternative fat simulants iso-octane and 95% ethanol, to find out if similar results are obtained and identify the most appropriate alternative simulant to use for future testing. Good agreement with the olive oil migration data was obtained using 95% ethanol (equivalent exposure conditions) for both of the additives studied in polyolefins. For the polystyrene materials studied it is unlikely that the SMLs for the two additives would be exceeded, and in these cases iso-octane (1.5 h at 60 degrees C) could be used as a rapid 'alternative test'.

  10. Alternate differencing technique for the synthetic method

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbard, E.M.; Khalil, H.

    1983-01-01

    Larsen and coworkers have shown that the effectiveness of the synthetic method is often determined by the techniques used to difference the diffusion equation, the equation taken, in current forms of the synthetic method, as the low-order approximation. They have also developed their own differencing technique. On the other hand, the Los Alamos (LA) approach generates point-centered diffusion difference equations, a feature which is inconvenient for the many people now using box-centered codes. More importantly, for the weighted-diamond scheme the LA method yields difference equations involving not only the scalar fluxes, but also the currents and, at this point, no way to eliminate the currents has been devised. A different differencing technique is proposed for the synthetic method, one which gives, for the XY weighted-diamond scheme, box-centered equations in the scalar flux alone.

  11. Invertebrates in testing of environmental chemicals: are they alternatives?

    PubMed Central

    Lagadic, L; Caquet, T

    1998-01-01

    An enlarged interpretation of alternatives in toxicology testing includes the replacement of one animal species with another, preferably a nonmammalian species. This paper reviews the potential of invertebrates in testing environmental chemicals and provides evidence of their usefulness in alternative testing methodologies. The first part of this review addresses the use of invertebrates in laboratory toxicology testing. Problems in extrapolating results obtained in invertebrates to those obtained from vertebrates are noted, suggesting that invertebrates can essentially be used in addition to rather than as replacements for vertebrates in laboratory toxicity tests. However, evaluation of the ecologic impact of environmental chemicals must include defining end points that may frequently differ from those classically used in biomedical research. In this context, alternative approaches using invertebrates may be more pertinent. The second part of the review therefore focuses on the use of invertebrates in situ to assess the environmental impact of pollutants. Advantages of invertebrates in ecotoxicologic investigation are presented for their usefulness for seeking mechanistic links between effects occurring at the individual level and consequences for higher levels of biologic organization (e.g., population and community). In the end, it is considered that replacement of vertebrates by invertebrates in ecotoxicity testing is likely to become a reality when basic knowledge of metabolic, physiologic, and developmental patterns in the latter will be sufficient to assess the effect of a given chemical through end points that could be different between invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:9599707

  12. Ultrasonic testing method

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, N.C.

    1989-02-21

    This patent describes an ultrasonic sound scanning method for detection of ultrasonic anomalies in a workpiece having an inspection surface and at least one formation which results in an echo-masked zone in the workpiece, the method including carrying out an inspection pass by (a) directing a beam of ultrasonic sound pulses from a probe along a beam axis through a transmission medium and impinging the beam upon the inspection surface at a selected impingement angle and thence into the workpiece, (b) receiving echo pulses thereby reflected from the workpiece, (c) displaying the echo pulses to reveal those, if any, which indicate the existence of anomalies within the workpiece, and (d) traversing the beam in a pre-selected path along the inspection surface, the improvement comprising: making one or more first inspection passes with the probe oriented so that, relative to the workpiece, the beam lies within one or more first scanning planes which are non-perpendicular to at least one of the return-reflecting formation at its point or respective points of intersection with the first plane or planes, whereby to reduce the volume of the echo-masked zone relative to that which would be generated with the probe oriented in a corresponding number or one or more scanning planes which are perpendicular to at least one return-reflecting formation.

  13. An update on testing of CFC alternatives for electronics manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Higbie, E.

    1995-12-31

    The Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF) is a U.S. Navy Center of Excellence tasked to do research in electronics manufacturing. The EMPF has performed extensive research on various cleaning materials and processes for printed circuit board assemblers. The flagship of the EMPF cleaning projects has been a joint effort with other Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC) to find alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based solvents for cleaning electronics. The group established a 3-phase test plan that is used to evaluate new alternative materials and processes. Phase 1 characterizes the cleaning ability of a CFC-based solvent and establishes the cleanliness results as a benchmark to which alternative candidates are compared. Phase 2 uses the same manufacturing processes and procedures that were established in Phase 1, changing only the cleaning process to the alternative candidate. Phase 3 examines the potential use of alternative manufacturing processes such as, water soluble fluxes with aqueous cleaning, low residue fluxes with no cleaning and Controlled Atmosphere Soldering (CAS) using adipic and formic acids as a {open_quotes}flux{close_quotes} with no cleaning. This paper is an update on the ongoing study and description of some of the alternative processes.

  14. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs.

  15. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs. PMID:27273523

  16. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  17. Methods for Scaling Icing Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate several methods to establish suitable alternative test conditions when the test facility limits the model size or operating conditions. The first method was proposed by Olsen. It can be applied when full-size models are tested and all the desired test conditions except liquid-water content can be obtained in the facility. The other two methods discussed are: a modification of the French scaling law and the AEDC scaling method. Icing tests were made with cylinders at both reference and scaled conditions representing mixed and glaze ice in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Reference and scale ice shapes were compared to evaluate each method. The Olsen method was tested with liquid-water content varying from 1.3 to .8 g/m(exp3). Over this range, ice shapes produced using the Olsen method were unchanged. The modified French and AEDC methods produced scaled ice shapes which approximated the reference shapes when model size was reduced to half the reference size for the glaze-ice cases tested.

  18. Superitem Test: An Alternative Assessment Tool to Assess Students' Algebraic Solving Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam; Idris, Noraini

    2010-01-01

    Superitem test based on the SOLO model (Structure of the Observing Learning Outcome) has become a powerful alternative assessment tool for monitoring the growth of students' cognitive ability in solving mathematics problems. This article focused on developing a superitem test to assess students' algebraic solving ability through interview method.…

  19. Bending fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes under alternating stress at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a testing method for fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes containing a small amount of SiC filaments under alternating stress is reported. The fatigue strength curves resulting for this composite are discussed. They permit an estimate of its behavior under continuous stress and in combination with various other matrices, especially metal matrices.

  20. A Simple Alternative to the IMViC Test in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a singular alternative to the Indole Methyl-red Voges-Proskauer Citrate (IMViC) test that uses bile-esculin agar to distinguish between the Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria. Includes materials and methods, results, and conclusions for the test. (MDH)

  1. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vavra, J.; /SLAC

    2011-03-01

    In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), dE/dx cluster counting, and Time Of Flight (TOF) techniques. The TRD technique is mature and has been tried in many hadron colliders. It needs space though, about 20cm of detector radial space for every factor of 10 in the {pi}/e rejection power, and this tends to make such detectors large. Although the cluster counting technique is an old idea, it was never tried in a real physics experiment. Recently, there are efforts to revive it for the SuperB experiment using He-based gases and waveform digitizing electronics. A factor of almost 2 improvement, compared to the classical dE/dx performance, is possible in principle. However, the complexity of the data analysis will be substantial. The TOF technique is well established, but introduction of new fast MCP-PMT and G-APD detectors creates new possibilities. It seems that resolutions below 20-30ps may be possible at some point in the future with relatively small systems, and perhaps this could be pushed down to 10-15ps with very small systems, assuming that one can solve many systematic issues. However, the cost, rate limitation, aging and cross-talk in multi-anode devices at high BW are problems. There are several groups working on these issues, so progress is likely. Table 6 summarizes the author's opinion of pros and cons of various detectors presented in this paper based on their operational capabilities. We refer the reader to Ref.40 for discussion of other more general limits from the PID point of view.

  2. An Alternative Method for Multiplication of Rhotrices. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, an alternative multiplication method for rhotrices is proposed. The method establishes some relationships between rhotrices and matrices. This article has discussed a modified multiplication method for rhotrices. The method has a direct relationship with matrix multiplication, and so rhotrices under this multiplication procedure…

  3. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance.

  4. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  5. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  6. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  7. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  8. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  9. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  10. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zaihuan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  11. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zaihuan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  12. Alternate bearing design fabrication and test program, exhibit B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A 50 ft-lb-sec (FPS) reaction wheel was modified with an ironless armature brushless dc motor and a magnetic bearing suspension. The purpose was to demonstrate the performance of an alternate bearing concept, i.e., a magnetic bearing suspension, which could be used in Skylab type CMG's to meet the attitude control requirements of long term space stations. A magnetic suspension was built, installed and tested in the 50 FPS reaction wheel. A secondary effort included the build and test of a compatible reaction wheel motor. Performance characteristics of both are presented and discussed.

  13. A Modified Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.

    2002-07-01

    The alternating direction method is an attractive method for solving large-scale variational inequality problems whenever the subproblems can be solved efficiently. However, the subproblems are still variational inequality problems, which are as structurally difficult to solve as the original one. To overcome this disadvantage, in this paper we propose a new alternating direction method for solving a class of nonlinear monotone variational inequality problems. In each iteration the method just makes an orthogonal projection to a simple set and some function evaluations. We report some preliminary computational results to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  14. Development of an in vitro antigen-detection test as an alternative method to the in vivo plaque reduction neutralization test for the quality control of Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Keun; Kim, Hye-Youn; Kim, Joo-Young; Ye, Michael B; Park, Kee-Bum; Han, Euiri; Kim, Jaeok; Ja Ban, Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Park, Yong Keun; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes diseases that attack the human central nervous system. Traditionally, the quality control for JEV vaccines, in which the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) titer is measured by the national control laboratories before the vaccine batches are marketed, has required laboratory animal testing. However, classical animal tests have inherent problems, including the very fact that animals are used, ethical issues, and the possibility of error. In this study, JEV antigen was measured in an in vitro assay to assess the feasibility of replacing in vivo assays that measure the PRN titers of JEV vaccines. We constructed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DS-ELISA) that could detect JEV envelope (E). Initially, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the JEV E protein were generated and characterized. We isolated 18 mAbs against JEV E protein, and most were the IgG1 or IgG2a isotype. The mAbs (5F15 and 7D71) were selected as the most suitable mAb pair to detect JEV E protein. DS-ELISA with this pair detected as little as approximately 3 μg/mL JEV E protein and demonstrated a relationship between the amount of JEV E protein and the PRN titer. From these results, we surmise that this DS-ELISA may be useful, not only in terms of measuring the amount of JEV E protein, but also as a substitute for the PRN test for JEV vaccine evaluation.

  15. Alternatives to ozone depleting refrigerants in test equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Richard L.; Johnson, Madeleine R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the initial results of a refrigerant retrofit project at the Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center (AGMC) at Newark Air Force Base, Ohio. The objective is to convert selected types of test equipment to properly operate on hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) alternative refrigerants, having no ozone depleting potential, without compromising system reliability or durability. This paper discusses the primary technical issues and summarizes the test results for 17 different types of test equipment: ten environmental chambers, two ultralow temperature freezers, two coolant recirculators, one temperature control unit, one vapor degreaser, and one refrigerant recovery system. The postconversion performance test results have been very encouraging: system capacity and input power remained virtually unchanged. In some cases, the minimum operating temperature increased by a few degrees as a result of the conversion, but never beyond AGMC's functional requirements.

  16. Placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Hall, Jocelyn C

    2010-04-01

    The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade. Closer examination revealed that parsimony analysis failed to integrate over phylogenetic uncertainty. We then tested our mountain goat placement against nine published alternatives using non-parametric tests, and the parametric SOWH test. Non-parametric tests returned ambiguous results, but the SOWH test rejected all alternative hypotheses. Our study represents the first explicit testing of all hypotheses for the placement of mountain goats and supports a relatively basal position for the taxon. PMID:20097296

  17. Placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Hall, Jocelyn C

    2010-04-01

    The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade. Closer examination revealed that parsimony analysis failed to integrate over phylogenetic uncertainty. We then tested our mountain goat placement against nine published alternatives using non-parametric tests, and the parametric SOWH test. Non-parametric tests returned ambiguous results, but the SOWH test rejected all alternative hypotheses. Our study represents the first explicit testing of all hypotheses for the placement of mountain goats and supports a relatively basal position for the taxon.

  18. Test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

    1994-01-01

    Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

  19. Operational Results From a High Power Alternator Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and its interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the current Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. These results successfully demonstrated excellent ATU power bus characteristics and rectified user load power quality during steady state and transient conditions. Information gained from this work could be used to assist the design and primary power quality considerations for a possible future FSPS. This paper describes the LPSF components and some preliminary test results.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury

  1. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  2. 27 CFR 24.22 - Alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate method or procedure. 24.22 Section 24.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by, the specifically prescribed method or...

  3. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  4. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  5. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  6. Testing biodegradability with standardized methods.

    PubMed

    Pagga, U

    1997-12-01

    Laboratory test methods are used by industry laboratories to determine biodegradability, an important parameter for the evaluation of the ecological behaviour of substances. Biodegradability has a key role due to the simple fact that a degradable substance will cause no long term risk in the environment. The great variety of biodegradation processes in the natural environment and in technical plants for treating waste water and solid wastes gave rise to a rather large number of test methods based on different test principles. To guarantee the acceptance of the test results by authorities and customers internationally standardized methods (ISO, OECD) and established quality criteria (GLP, EN 45,000, ISO 9000) are used. PMID:9415981

  7. An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, T.J.; Vehar, D.W.

    2011-07-01

    Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because it

  8. [Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test as an Alternative for the Mouse Inoculation Test

    PubMed

    Zanoni, R.; Hörnlimann, B.; Wandeler, A. I.; Kappeler, A.; Kipfer, R.; Peterhans, E.

    1990-01-01

    Rabies has disappeared from large parts of Switzerland. Due to systematic oral fox-vaccination campaings that started in 1987, cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals have been confined to the western frontier with France in the last three years. Nevertheless, some cases of severe exposition of man by rabid or rabies-suspect animals still occur. Rabies can be diagnosed in brain smears of infected animals with high specificity and sensitivity by a direct immunofluorescence method. According to WHO recommendations, negative results are to be confirmed in cases of a human exposition by intracerebral inoculation of brain suspensions in three-weeks-old mice. This method has an excellent sensitivity and is able to detect false-negative results in immunofluorescence, which occur in a very small percentage (0.043%). The disadvantage of this confirmatory assay is the sacrification of relatively high numbers of mice (in the Swiss rabies center about 1,300 animals each year), and the long time required for a final diagnosis: 7-20 days in positive, 21 days in negative cases. The cultivation of virus from brain suspensions on a mouse neuroblastoma cell line is a tempting alternative to the mouse inoculation test. This method usually provides a conclusive diagnosis within a few days. However, in our hands it showed in preliminary experiments an unsatisfactory sensitivity (80.7%). The necessity to carry out strict reproducibility controls in this assay has to be emphasized. Further work must be invested in the improvement of the rabies tissue culture infection test and a careful long-term comparison with the mouse inoculation test will be necessary before the mouse inoculation test can be replaced.

  9. 77 FR 41370 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the...

  10. 77 FR 47361 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the...

  11. EU member state government contribution to alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy

    2014-01-01

    Article 47 of the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires national governments to contribute to the development and promotion of alternative methods. A recent survey of EU member states found that reported funding of alternative (3Rs) methods totalled € 18.7 million in 2013, provided by only seven countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the UK). There were indications that the contributions of some of these countries have increased since the implementation of the new Directive. However, funding of alternatives is between 0 and 0.036% of national science R&D expenditure and nearly half of the countries that responded reported that they do not specifically contribute. Data (and, by assumption, financial contribution) remains unavailable from half of the member states across the EU, regardless of the method of collection.

  12. Alternatives to in vivo Tests to Detect Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in Fish and Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of current research in risk assessment of chemicals is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, replace or refine the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. In 2009, the US EPA began implementation of t...

  13. The Effects of Alternative Study Guide Labels on Testing in Developmental Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Shellie Calhoun

    2012-01-01

    Methods and teaching tools have been researched to determine if they prove to be successful in effectively teaching the underprepared. This study was conducted to compare the differences in the utilization of alternative labeling on study guides to determine if the usage affects the outcome on participant's test scores. A quasi-experimental…

  14. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    SciTech Connect

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...-substantiation of an AEDM or ARM as a result of a change in standard or test procedure. 76 FR 12492 (March 7... development and validation criteria are met, for commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC... testing for substantiation of the AEDM for commercial HVAC and water heater equipment warranted? Would...

  16. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  17. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  18. Methods for testing transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1991-11-14

    Substantial progress has been made over the past year on six aspects of the work supported by this grant. As a result, we have in hand for the first time a fairly complete set of transport models and improved statistical methods for testing them against large databases. We also have initial results of such tests. These results indicate that careful application of presently available transport theories can reasonably well produce a remarkably wide variety of tokamak data.

  19. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  20. Full Scale Alternative Catalyst Testing for Bosch Reactor Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Katherine; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    Current air revitalization technology onboard the International Space Station (ISS) cannot provide complete closure of the oxygen and hydrogen loops. This makes re-supply necessary, which is possible for missions in low Earth orbit (LEO) like the ISS, but unviable for long term space missions outside LEO. In comparison, Bosch technology reduces carbon dioxide with hydrogen, traditionally over a steel wool catalyst, to create water and solid carbon. The Bosch product water can then be fed to the oxygen generation assembly to produce oxygen for crew members and hydrogen necessary to reduce more carbon dioxide. Bosch technology can achieve complete oxygen loop closure, but has many undesirable factors that result in a high energy, mass, and volume system. Finding a different catalyst with an equal reaction rate at lower temperatures with less catalyst mass and longer lifespan would make a Bosch flight system more feasible. Developmental testing of alternative catalysts for the Bosch has been performed using the Horizontal Bosch Test Stand. Nickel foam, nickel shavings, and cobalt shavings were tested at 500 C and compared to the original catalyst, steel wool. This paper presents data and analysis on the performance of each catalyst tested at comparable temperatures and recycle flow rates.

  1. 27 CFR 19.26 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.26 Section 19.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... preserved until renewed unless revoked by operation of law due to the enactment of law that is contrary...

  2. 27 CFR 19.665 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.665 Section 19.665 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... April 18, 2011, which are not contrary to the regulations in this part, are preserved until...

  3. Alternative methods of obtaining the computed tomography dose index.

    PubMed

    Knox, H H; Gagne, R M

    1996-08-01

    The most direct way of getting the value of the multiple scan average dose (MSAD) in computed tomography is to employ a pencil chamber for integration of a single scan dose profile. Because the active length of the pencil chamber is fixed, the measurement can represent the value of the MSAD from a different number of contiguous scans depending on the slice thickness. This characteristic makes it difficult to compare the value of MSAD using the pencil chamber to the information required by Federal regulations on the computed tomography dose index (CTDI). The CTDI, which is the MAD at the center of a set of 14 contiguous scans, is the dose descriptor used in the Federal Performance Standard. Two alternative methods were developed to make the CTDI measurements at the center of a CT dosimetry phantom. These alternative methods were compared to the results of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements from more than 20 different CT scanners. One alternative method involved the use of radio-opaque sleeves with the pencil chamber to limit the length of the single scan dose profile incident on the pencil chamber. In addition, the TLD data were also used to obtain a set of conversion factors for converting the results of a measurement with the pencil chamber without a radio-opaque sleeve to a value of the CTDI. The alternative methods of obtaining the CTDI agree on the average to better than 10% for all values of slice thickness on the different CT scanners.

  4. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  5. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  6. 27 CFR 17.3 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 17.3 Section 17.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS General Provisions §...

  7. Distributional Impacts of Alternative Methods of Financing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, George M.

    1978-01-01

    The income redistributive effects of financing public higher education in a midwestern state is measured. The results show that the financing scheme is regressive in that low-income families' share of program costs exceeds their benefits. The effects of four alternative methods of financing are also considered. (Author/LBH)

  8. Alternative Techniques for Testing A Highway Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, Truman; Mast, Truman

    1974-01-01

    The highway transport system as contrasted with other modes of transportation is quite unique in that the users of the system are responsible for the guidance and control functions of the vehicle. Research has shown that improved forms of motorist information, such as highway signs and markings, can enhance the predictability and reliability of the driving task. Test and evaluation of promising new concepts in motorist information must preceed widespread endorsement and implementation on our highway system. This paper reviews the merits and limitations of presently available human factor research techniques--laboratory, instrumented vehicle and traffic performance studies on operational facilities--for evaluating the efficacy of motorist information concepts. Specific examples are given to demonstrate the utility and the interrelationships of the alternative research techniques and there is a discussion of the most pressing immediate and future needs for improved highway signing and road marking research methodology.

  9. Perceived game realism: a test of three alternative models.

    PubMed

    Ribbens, Wannes

    2013-01-01

    Perceived realism is considered a key concept in explaining the mental processing of media messages and the societal impact of media. Despite its importance, little is known about its conceptualization and dimensional structure, especially with regard to digital games. The aim of this study was to test a six-factor model of perceived game realism comprised of simulational realism, freedom of choice, perceptual pervasiveness, social realism, authenticity, and character involvement and to assess it against an alternative single- and five-factor model. Data were collected from 380 male digital game users who judged the realism of the first-person shooter Half-Life 2 based upon their previous experience with the game. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to investigate which model fits the data best. The results support the six-factor model over the single- and five-factor solutions. The study contributes to our knowledge of perceived game realism by further developing its conceptualization and measurement.

  10. Cost/benefit analysis method for evaluating coal cleaning alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, R.

    1981-01-01

    A general analytical method that can be used to evaluate multiple coal cleaning alternatives by comparing their costs and benefits is described. The benefits and costs of coal cleaning are briefly reviewed. To illustrate how the general method may be applied to a given set of conditions, a specific case is presented. Certain non-quantifiable factors that should be considered during the evalution process are identified.

  11. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate Method of Determining the Color of... Subpart F of Part 655—Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and...-fluorescent retroreflective materials may be measured in accordance with ASTM Test Method E1349,...

  12. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  13. 76 FR 62044 - Alternative Testing Requirements for Small Batch Manufacturers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...'s products and toys or the heavy metals content of the paints and surface coatings used on toys...-size cribs, pacifiers, small parts, children's metal jewelry, baby bouncers, walkers, and jumpers) or... CPSIA (Test Method CPSC-CH- Lead Content in Children's E1001-08 or CPSC-CH-E1001-08.1). Metal...

  14. Office of Inspector General audit of alternatives to testing at the Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.H.

    1998-03-13

    Since the 1950s, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have done weapons program testing at the Tonopah Test Range (Tonopah). Beginning the in 1990s, DOE`s testing at Tonopah declined dramatically. This decline was coincident with the signing of various international treaties, the end of the Cold War, and the movement of some types of tests to other ranges. As a result, Tonopah was left with some bomb and work-for-others testing. The objective of this audit was to determine if there were viable, cost effective alternatives to testing at Tonopah. During the early 1990s, DOE`s Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), which operates Tonopah for DOE, explored the alternative of testing elsewhere. Some of the data gathered by Albuquerque and Sandia provided indications that testing at another range would be practical and economical. This audit followed up on the Albuquerque/Sandia studies and also indicated that testing could be done elsewhere, at a potential cost savings of several million dollars annually. Therefore, it was recommended that Albuquerque conduct a comprehensive study of all testing alternatives. Albuquerque agreed to implement this recommendation but raised technical questions regarding issues such as environmental permits, scheduling flexibility, and cost components, which warrant a more detailed examination as part of the recommended study. It was also recommended that, if the study found that it was not feasible or economical to move the testing elsewhere, Albuquerque reduce the cost of Tonopah to the minimum level necessary to support testing requirements. Albuquerque agreed to this recommendation and stated that it and Sandia continued to actively pursue cost reductions at Tonopah.

  15. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  16. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  17. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  18. Alternative Ultrafiltration Membrane Testing for the SRS Baseline Process

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Mann; R. S. Herbst; T. G. Garn; M. R. Poirier; S. D. Fink

    2004-06-01

    The ability to more rapidly process high-level waste sludge and supernate, without sacrificing cost savings, continues to be a crucial challenge facing the Savannah River Site (SRS). There has, to date, not been any extensive investigation of alternative filter technologies for the SRS baseline process. To address this problem, a focused investigation into alternative, state-of-the art filtration technologies to facilitate the strontium and actinide removal process, which can be cost effectively implemented in existing facilities and current equipment designs, was completed. Filter technologies manufactured by Mott (0.1 µm and 0.5 µm) Graver (0.07 µm), Pall (0.1 µm and 0.8 µm) and GKN (0.1 µm) were evaluated. Membranes had a nominal inside diameter of 3/8 inches and an active membrane length of 2 feet. The investigation was performed in two phases. The first phase of testing evaluated the consistency or variability in flux through the different membranes using water and a standard 5.0 wt% strontium carbonate slurry. The second phase of testing evaluated the achievable permeate flux and clarity through the various membranes using the SRS average salt supernate simulant at solids loadings of 0.06, 0.29 and 4.5 wt%. Membrane variation data indicate that membranes having an asymmetric ceramic coating (Pall 0.1 µm and Graver 0.07 µm), typically displayed the lowest variability with water. Membranes without a ceramic asymmetric coating (Mott 0.5 µm and GKN 0.1 µm) displayed the highest variability. This is most likely associated with the experimental uncertainties in measuring large volumes of permeate in a short amount of time and to the impact of impurities in the water. In general, variability ranging from 4-56% was observed when using water for all membranes. In the case of variation testing using strontium carbonate, variability decreased to 3-12%. In addition, membrane structure or composition had little effect on the variability. Data obtained from SRS

  19. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  20. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    PubMed

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  1. Effect of the overshoot level in an alternative method for processing of tail chopped lightning impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Barbosa, C. R. H.; Silva, M. T.; Azevedo, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The construction of new Ultra High Voltage laboratories requires more studies about standards for equipment as well as for testing and measurement techniques. Currently, the analysis of tail chopped lightning impulse waveforms is possible only by prior application of a full reference lightning impulse, creating difficulties for testing and processing of waveforms. A new method for evaluating the relevant parameters of tail chopped waveforms has been previously developed and this paper studies the effect of the overshoot in this alternative method.

  2. Predicting sediment yield from alternative surface mining methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, R.C.; Wells, L.G.; Barfield, B.J.; Moore, I.D.; Wilson, B.N.

    1982-12-01

    The focus of this research was to compare the predicted sediment yield and hydrologic impact of three alternative surface mining methods used in the Central and Southern Appalachian coal regions. The mining methods investigated were: 1) mountaintop removal, 2) post-1977 block-cut haul-back contour mining, and 3) pre-1977 contour mining. Sediment and hydrologic impacts were predicted through use of the SEDIMOT model. For the mine plans analyzed the post-1977 block-cut haul-back mining method produced significantly lower sediment and peak storm response.

  3. Alternative to the Palatini method: A new variational principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    2010-06-01

    A variational principle is suggested within Riemannian geometry, in which an auxiliary metric and the Levi Civita connection are varied independently. The auxiliary metric plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier and introduces nonminimal coupling of matter to the curvature scalar. The field equations are 2nd order PDEs and easier to handle than those following from the so-called Palatini method. Moreover, in contrast to the latter method, no gradients of the matter variables appear. In cosmological modeling, the physics resulting from the alternative variational principle will differ from the modeling using the standard Palatini method.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that the subpart in 40 CFR part 63 requires. If you want to expand the applicable range of the method... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that the subpart in 40 CFR part 63 requires. If you want to expand the applicable range of the method... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that the subpart in 40 CFR part 63 requires. If you want to expand the applicable range of the method... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that the subpart in 40 CFR part 63 requires. If you want to expand the applicable range of the method... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone...

  8. Alternative Processing Methods for Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusman, Michael; Beckman, Sarah; Gasch, Matthew; Ellerby, Don; Lau, Kai-Hung; Sanjurjo, Angel; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are being developed for possible use in a number of structural applications including hypersonic vehicles, engines, plasma arc electrodes and high temperature shielding. Alternative methods of processing Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) will be discussed. Techniques that may improve oxidation resistance, strength, and reduce the processing temperature of the UHTCs will be presented. Hot-pressed UHTCs made using either milled/uncoated powders or non-milled coated powders will be compared.

  9. Schwarz alternating methods for anisotropic problems with prolate spheroid boundaries.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenlong; Du, Qikui; Liu, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The Schwarz alternating algorithm, which is based on natural boundary element method, is constructed for solving the exterior anisotropic problem in the three-dimension domain. The anisotropic problem is transformed into harmonic problem by using the coordinate transformation. Correspondingly, the algorithm is also changed. Continually, we analysis the convergence and the error estimate of the algorithm. Meanwhile, we give the contraction factor for the convergence. Finally, some numerical examples are computed to show the efficiency of this algorithm. PMID:27625977

  10. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Modern biostatistical methods for assessing in vitro/in vivo correlation of severely eye irritating chemicals in a validation study of in vitro alternatives to the Draize eye test.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, H; Liebsch, M; Moldenhauer, F; Holzhutter, H G; de Silva, O

    1995-08-01

    The HET-CAM test and 3T3 cell neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assay were evaluated in a national German validation project to replace the Draize eye test for classifying severely eye irritating chemicals, which have to be labelled 'R-41' according to EU regulations. As testing of 200 chemicals in the two in vitro assays did not sufficiently allow severely eye irritating chemicals to be identified and since the scoring system of the HET-CAM assay has been derived empirically, it was investigated whether modern biostatistical methods, for example discriminant analysis, would improve the selection of predictive endpoints of the HET-CAM assay. Comparison of HET-CAM data with adverse reactions observed in different tissues of the rabbit's eye proved that complex regression models are better describing in vitro /in vivo correlations than simple linear models. Discriminant analysis revealed that among the nine endpoints routinely determined in the HET-CAM test, coagulation was the only acceptable endpoint to classify severely irritating chemicals 'R-41' according to EU regulations. To identify R-41 chemicals the reaction time of appearance of coagulation of a 10% solution was the best discriminating factor and coagulation of the undiluted chemical for the less water-soluble ones. The results suggest that only R-41 chemicals are inducing coagulation of the CAM within 50 sec, and can therefore be classified without further testing in vivo. Stepwise discriminant analysis allowed an in vitro testing strategy to be developed to identify R-41 chemicals by combining coagulation data of the HET-CAM assay with cytotoxicity data. Validity of the model for future data sets was assessed by cross-validation. The results obtained with 200 chemicals under blind conditions suggest that this approach will provide an acceptable sensitivity, predictivity and percentage of false positive data for severely eye irritating chemicals.

  12. Alternative Methods for Measuring Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ashley E.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women. PMID:23483836

  13. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  14. 48 CFR 32.503-9 - Liquidation rates-alternate method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-alternate method. 32.503-9 Section 32.503-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Liquidation rates—alternate method. (a) The liquidation rate determined under 32.503-8 shall apply throughout... the alternate method in this 32.503-9. The objective of the alternate liquidation rate method is...

  15. A Method of Partly Automated Testing of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Mike; Visser, Willem; Washington, Rich; Artho, Cyrille; Goldberg, Allen; Haveland, Klaus; Pasareanu, Corina; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Roflu, Grigore

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated testing of software has been developed that provides an alternative to the conventional mostly manual approach for software testing. The method combines (1) automated generation of test cases on the basis of systematic exploration of the input domain of the software to be tested with (2) run-time analysis in which execution traces are monitored, verified against temporal-logic specifications, and analyzed by concurrency-error-detection algorithms. In this new method, the user only needs to provide the temporal logic specifications against which the software will be tested and the abstract description of the input domain.

  16. 19 CFR 101.9 - Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test programs or procedures; alternate... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.9 Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements. (a) General testing. For purposes of conducting a test program or procedure designed to...

  17. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    PubMed

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps. PMID:27454102

  18. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    PubMed

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps.

  19. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  20. Alternative HEPA Filter Full-Scale Single Element Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.J.

    2003-01-15

    Conventional disposable glass-fiber high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are used throughout the Department of Energy complex in various process systems. Alternative filter media is being addressed that would have a long life on the HLW tanks.

  1. Alternative sewerage solution: Condominial method and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker, Umut

    In this study, the fundamental of the theory of condominial sewer design is discussed through a readily available computer program and the theory is used to bring out the effect of pipe diameter and sewer gradient on design calculations through alternative solutions. It is proved that the roughness of the pipe is effective on the size, lifetime, and cost-saving property of the condominial sewer system, whereas the pipe diameter is not a vital parameter for the same criteria. Any expansion on the pipe roughness increased the gradient of flow and thus enlarged the excavation area hence; undermine the cost-saving property of the condominial method.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  5. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in...) Knowledge tests: (1) States must use the FMCSA pre-approved pool of test questions to develop...

  6. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  7. Alternative methods of reproduction. Effects on the child.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, B Z

    1987-01-01

    Artificial donor insemination (DI), surrogate parenting, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer are alternative methods of reproduction being utilized with increasing frequency. Technological developments are being studied in detail. Because of the secrecy inherent in the families involved, there has been little written describing the emotional and psychological well-being of the participants. Significant factors, such as unlimited pregnancies per donor, lack of recordkeeping of the genetic background of each insemination, need for psychological counseling of the parents, the impact of the "family secret" of the pregnancy, and the well-being of the offspring, have not been adequately addressed. There has been little effort to make use of our experience in adoption in relation to many of these same areas. No medical guidelines or legislation exist. The inherent problems associated with these parenting methods and practices are discussed along with recommendations for improvement.

  8. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the 'change-in-estimate' (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE).

  9. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the ‘change-in-estimate’ (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE). PMID:27097747

  10. 46 CFR 160.027-7 - Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... float body must be supported so that the platform is suspended in the air by the net or equivalent... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs. 160... § 160.027-7 Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs. (a) The tests in this section are...

  11. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  12. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  13. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  14. Using Alternative Approaches to Prioritize Testing for the Universe of Chemicals with Potential for Human Exposure (WC9)

    EPA Science Inventory

    One use of alternative methods is to target animal use at only those chemicals and tests that are absolutely necessary. We discuss prioritization of testing based on high-throughput screening assays (HTS), QSAR modeling, high-throughput toxicokinetics (HTTK), and exposure modelin...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test...

  17. Residual solvent testing: a review of gas-chromatographic and alternative techniques.

    PubMed

    B'Hymer, Clayton

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to describe and discuss some of the current analytic procedures including gas-chromatographic and alternative techniques for residual solvent testing. Residual solvents, or organic volatile impurities, are a potential toxic risk for pharmaceutic products and have been a concern of manufacturers for many years. Residual solvents have had official limits in the United States as set in USP XXV and by the FDA in 1997 and have been monitored by most pharmaceutical manufacturers extensively for more than two decades in both bulk and finished products. The chief method of analysis for residual solvents is gas chromatography, which is generally considered the preferred methodology. Sample introduction techniques include both static and dynamic headspace analysis, solid-phase microextraction, and direct injection of solution containing bulk drug substance or drug product into the gas chromatograph. Also, some alternative methodologies for residual solvent testing are discussed in this review. In conclusion, gas chromatograph-based procedures will continue to dominate residual solvent testing because of its specificity for identification of the solvent, but the use of alternative sample introduction techniques into a gas chromatograph will continue to expand in the near future.

  18. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Piersma, A H; Bosgra, S; van Duursen, M B M; Hermsen, S A B; Jonker, L R A; Kroese, E D; van der Linden, S C; Man, H; Roelofs, M J E; Schulpen, S H W; Schwarz, M; Uibel, F; van Vugt-Lussenburg, B M A; Westerhout, J; Wolterbeek, A P M; van der Burg, B

    2013-07-01

    The application of alternative methods in developmental and reproductive toxicology is challenging in view of the complexity of mechanisms involved. A battery of complementary test systems may provide a better prediction of developmental and reproductive toxicity than single assays. We tested twelve compounds with varying mechanisms of toxic action in an assay battery including 24 CALUX transcriptional activation assays, mouse cardiac embryonic stem cell test, ReProGlo assay, zebrafish embryotoxicity assay, and two CYP17 and two CYP19 activity assays. The battery correctly detected 11/12 compounds tested, with one false negative occurring, which could be explained by the absence of the specific mechanism of action of this compound in the battery. Toxicokinetic modeling revealed that toxic concentrations were in the range expected from in vivo reproductive toxicity data. This study illustrates added value of combining assays that contain complementary biological processes and mechanisms, increasing predictive value of the battery over individual assays.

  19. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassett Farrelly, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Alternative schools operate today as a hidden, parallel educational system, providing a separate and often unequal education to many at-risk students, with little to no accountability. The number of alternative schools, and enrollment in alternative schools, is increasing, due in part to excessive use of zero tolerance policies. Students of color,…

  20. An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-10-01

    In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit. PMID:17590430

  1. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.

    2012-04-01

    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  2. Problems and Alternatives in Testing Mexican American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Robert A.

    The problems of standardized tests with regard to Mexican American students, particularly "ethnic validity", are reviewed. Inadequate norm group representation, cultural bias, and language bias are purported by the author to be the most common faults of standardized tests. Suggested is the elimination of standardized testing as a principal means…

  3. 33 CFR 154.2180 - Alternative testing program-Generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and pressure sensor safety testing requirements provided by 33 CFR 154.2150(c) and 33 CFR 154.2250(c... 33 CFR 154.2181. (d) All pressure sensors/switches used in a VCS must be tested for safety system... sensors/switches. (f) Upon failing any test under 33 CFR 154.2181, the facility person in charge...

  4. An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

  5. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  6. Groundwater Remediation and Alternate Energy at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Holger

    2008-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility Core Capabilities: a) Remote Hazardous Testing of Reactive, Explosive, and Toxic Materials and Fluids; b) Hypergolic Fluids Materials and Systems Testing; c) Oxygen Materials and System Testing; d) Hypervelocity Impact Testing; e)Flight Hardware Processing; and e) Propulsion Testing. There is no impact to any drinking water well. Includes public wells and the NASA supply well. There is no public exposure. Groundwater is several hundred feet below ground. No air or surface water exposure. Plume is moving very slowly to the west. Plume Front Treatment system will stop this westward movement. NASA performs on-going monitoring. More than 200 wells and zones are routinely sampled. Approx. 850 samples are obtained monthly and analyzed for over 300 different hazardous chemicals.

  7. Residual flexibility test method for verification of constrained structural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented for deriving constrained modes and frequencies from a model correlated to a set of free-free test modes and a set of measured residual flexibilities. The method involves a simple modification of the MacNeal and Rubin component mode representation to allow verification of a constrained structural model. Results for two spaceflight structures show quick convergence of constrained modes using an easily measurable set of free-free modes plus the residual flexibility matrix or its boundary partition. This paper further validates the residual flexibility approach as an alternative test/analysis method when fixed-base testing proves impractical.

  8. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  9. Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Newsome, Seth D; Gregg, Jillian W

    2005-08-01

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants; or water bodies, and many others. A common problem is having too many sources to allow a unique solution. We discuss two alternative procedures for addressing this problem. One option is a priori to combine sources with similar signatures so the number of sources is small enough to provide a unique solution. Aggregation should be considered only when isotopic signatures of clustered sources are not significantly different, and sources are related so the combined source group has some functional significance. For example, in a food web analysis, lumping several species within a trophic guild allows more interpretable results than lumping disparate food sources, even if they have similar isotopic signatures. One result of combining mixing model sources is increased uncertainty of the combined end-member isotopic signatures and consequently the source contribution estimates; this effect can be quantified using the IsoError model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isotopes/isoerror1_04.htm). As an alternative to lumping sources before a mixing analysis, the IsoSource mixing model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isosource/isosource.htm) can be used to find all feasible solutions of source contributions consistent with isotopic mass balance. While ranges of feasible contributions for each individual source can often be quite broad, contributions from functionally related groups of sources can be summed a posteriori, producing a range of solutions for the aggregate source that may be considerably narrower. A paleo-human dietary analysis example illustrates this method, which involves a terrestrial meat food source, a combination of three terrestrial plant foods, and a combination of three marine foods. In this case, a posteriori aggregation of sources allowed

  10. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. [LCC (Leadless Chip Carriers)

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  11. 40 CFR 35.2211 - Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. 35.2211 Section 35.2211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Treatment Works § 35.2211 Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. The grantee...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2211 - Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. 35.2211 Section 35.2211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Treatment Works § 35.2211 Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. The grantee...

  13. 46 CFR 28.515 - Submergence test as an alternative to stability calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Submergence test as an alternative to stability calculations. 28.515 Section 28.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.515 Submergence test as an alternative to stability calculations. (a) A...

  14. 16 CFR 1615.36 - Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for tests for guaranty purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for... THROUGH 6X (FF 3-71) Rules and Regulations § 1615.36 Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for tests... Commission has set forth conditions under which the Commission will approve the use of test apparatus...

  15. 16 CFR 1616.36 - Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for tests for guaranty purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for... THROUGH 14 (FF 5-74) Rules and Regulations § 1616.36 Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for tests... Commission has set forth conditions under which the Commission will approve the use of test apparatus...

  16. 16 CFR 1615.36 - Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for tests for guaranty purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for... THROUGH 6X (FF 3-71) Rules and Regulations § 1615.36 Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for tests... Commission has set forth conditions under which the Commission will approve the use of test apparatus...

  17. 16 CFR 1616.36 - Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for tests for guaranty purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for... THROUGH 14 (FF 5-74) Rules and Regulations § 1616.36 Use of alternate apparatus or procedures for tests... Commission has set forth conditions under which the Commission will approve the use of test apparatus...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2211 - Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. 35.2211 Section 35.2211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Treatment Works § 35.2211 Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. The grantee...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2211 - Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. 35.2211 Section 35.2211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Treatment Works § 35.2211 Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. The grantee...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2211 - Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. 35.2211 Section 35.2211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Treatment Works § 35.2211 Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. The grantee...

  1. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  2. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affiliations Foundation Focus Newsletter E-Update Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events Spring 2016 ...

  3. Nonparametric Test of Discordance with Ordered Alternatives for "J" Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, T. Mark

    Robustness and power of parametric, semi-parametric, and nonparametric tests of between-group discordance were compared in this simulation study. The empirical Type I error rates and power of nine tests were compared. When data were sampled from the any differences especially favor young women in single-sex Catholic secondary schools, and whether…

  4. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them.

  5. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them. PMID:26188116

  6. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones.

  7. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones. PMID:25591172

  8. Introduction and Testing of an Alternative Control Approach for a Robotic Prosthetic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Lauren; Fahimi, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available robotic prosthetic arms currently use independent joint control. An alternative controller involving only control of the hand in a Cartesian frame rather than controlling each joint independently is proposed and tested. An experimental 4DOF robotic arm was used as the platform for testing the proposed control approach. As opposed to joint control, Cartesian control requires the solution to the inverse kinematics problem. The inverse kinematics solution was developed for the robotic arm using the extended Jacobian method. The two control methodologies, joint control and Cartesian control, were tested on five able-bodied human subjects. Improvement of one control methodology over the other was measured by the time it took for the subjects to complete a simple motor task. The timed trial results indicated that Cartesian control was both more intuitive and more effective than joint control. So, the results suggest that much improvement can be achieved by using the proposed Cartesian control methodology. PMID:25400714

  9. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  10. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  11. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  12. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  13. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  14. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  15. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this...) of this section. (i) From tests conducted using EPA reference method 25d. (ii) By...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods...

  17. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  18. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods...

  19. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  20. [Alternative tests to PSA for prostate cancer diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Defilippi, Elio; Zitella, Andrea; Tizzani, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is still the most useful tool to select the population requiring prostatebiopsy. The main downsides of PSA are an inadequate sensitivity to be used in screening and a low specificity for cancer detection. So far, a limited value for PSA derivates (velocity, density, free, proisoforms and doubling time) has been recognised. We present a short review of the literature describing a selection of the most promising alternatives to PSA being studied currently: PCA3, serum kallikreins, serum detectable prostate specific membrane antigen, the nuclear matrix protein EPCA, EPCA-2, prostatic acid phosphatase, urine detectable GSTP1, anti-AMACR antibodies, sarcosine, plasminogen activating urokinase, IGFBP, TGF beta 1,PSP94, IL6, plasmatic DNA, serum autoantibodies, neuroendocrine markers, proteomic analysis.

  1. 40 CFR 205.154 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.154... test motorcycles which would not comply with the noise emission standards prescribed in § 205.152...

  2. 40 CFR 205.154 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.154... test motorcycles which would not comply with the noise emission standards prescribed in § 205.152...

  3. 40 CFR 205.154 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.154... test motorcycles which would not comply with the noise emission standards prescribed in § 205.152...

  4. 40 CFR 205.154 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.154... test motorcycles which would not comply with the noise emission standards prescribed in § 205.152...

  5. 40 CFR 205.154 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.154... test motorcycles which would not comply with the noise emission standards prescribed in § 205.152...

  6. Impact Testing of a Stirling Converter's Linear Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Vicente J.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Hughes, William O.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center and Stirling Technology Company, are currently developing a Stirling convertor for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). NASA Headquarters and DOE have identified the SRG for potential use as an advanced spacecraft power system for future NASA deep-space and Mars surface missions. Low-level dynamic impact tests were conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory as part of the development of this technology. The purpose of this test was to identify dynamic structural characteristics of the Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC). This paper addresses the test setup, procedure, and results of the impact testing conducted on the Stirling TDC in May 2001.

  7. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  8. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    PubMed

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed.

  9. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    PubMed

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. PMID:26184446

  10. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  11. The StrataTest® human skin model, a consistent in vitro alternative for toxicological testing.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Cathy; Gratz, Ken; Liebel, Frank; Southall, Michael; Garay, Michelle; Bhattacharyya, Surjya; Simon, Nick; Vander Zanden, Marie; Van Winkle, Kelly; Pirnstill, John; Pirnstill, Sara; Comer, Allen; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn

    2010-10-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro skin models provide an alternative to animal testing for assessing tissue damage caused by chemical or physical agents and for the identification and characterization of agents formulated to mitigate this damage. The StrataTest® human skin model made with pathogen-free NIKS® keratinocyte progenitors is a fully-stratified tissue containing epidermal and dermal components that possesses barrier function as determined by measurements of electrical impedance. Independent batches of skin tissues responded consistently to known chemical irritants even after refrigerated storage for up to 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected after exposure of skin tissues to ozone, cigarette smoke or ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Pretreatment with the antioxidant parthenolide-depleted (PD)-Feverfew extract prevented cigarette smoke-induced or UV irradiation-mediated increases in ROS. Interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) secretion increased in a dose dependent manner following UV irradiation but cytokine release was abrogated by pretreatment with a UVA/UVB sunscreen. Similarly, immunohistochemical detection showed increased thymidine dimer formation in UV-irradiated skin tissue that was prevented with sunscreen pretreatment. These results demonstrate that the StrataTest® human skin model is broadly applicable to a wide range of in vitro toxicological assays.

  12. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... alternative method for determining energy efficiency or energy use (AEDM) to the basic model, in...

  13. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... alternative method for determining energy efficiency or energy use (AEDM) to the basic model, in...

  14. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  15. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  16. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  17. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Susan Glassett; Daniels, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Alternative education plays a critical role in the opportunity gap that persists in the US public education system. However, there has been little research on alternative schools. Scaffolded by a theoretical framework constructed from critical theory, self-determination theory (SDT) and student voice, this research examined how well students in…

  18. Effect of Examiner Experience and Technique on the Alternate Cover Test

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Heather A.; Manny, Ruth E.; Cotter, Susan A.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Irani, Jasmine A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the repeatability of the alternate cover test between experienced and inexperienced examiners and the effects of dissociation time and examiner bias. Methods Two sites each had an experienced examiner train 10 subjects (inexperienced examiners) to perform short and long dissociation time alternate cover test protocols at near. Each site conducted testing sessions with an examiner triad (experienced examiner and two inexperienced examiners) who were masked to each other’s results. Each triad performed the alternate cover test on 24 patients using both dissociation protocols. In an attempt to introduce bias, each of the paired inexperienced examiners was given a different graph of phoria distribution for the general population. Analysis techniques that adjust for correlations introduced when multiple measurements are obtained on the same patient were used to investigate the effect of examiner and dissociation time on each outcome. Results The range of measured deviations spanned 27.5 prism diopters (Δ) base-in to 17.5Δ base-out. The absolute mean difference between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 2.28 ± 2.4Δ and at least 60% of differences were ≤2Δ. Larger deviations were measured with the long dissociation protocol for both experienced and inexperienced examiners (mean difference range = 1.17 to 2.14Δ, p < 0.0001). The percentage of measured small deviations (2Δ base-out to 2Δ base-in) did not differ between inexperienced examiners biased with the narrow vs. wide theoretical distributions (p = 0.41). The magnitude and direction of the deviation had no effect on the size of the differences obtained with different examiners or dissociation times. Conclusions Although inexperienced examiners differed significantly from experienced examiners, most differences were <2Δ suggesting good reliability of inexperienced examiners’ measurements. Examiner bias did not have a substantial effect on inexperienced examiner measurements

  19. Implementation of Alternative Test Strategies for the Safety Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology introduces a new field that requires novel approaches and methods for hazard and risk assessment. For an appropriate scientific platform for safety assessment, nanoscale properties and functions of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including how the physicochemical properties of the materials related to mechanisms of injury at the nano-bio interface, must be considered. Moreover, this rapidly advancing new field requires novel test strategies that allow multiple toxicants to be screened in robust, mechanism-based assays in which the bulk of the investigation can be carried out at the cellular and biomolecular level whilst maintaining limited animal use and is based on the contribution of toxicological pathways to the pathophysiology of disease. First, a predictive toxicological approach for the safety assessment of ENMs will be discussed against the background of a ‘21st-century vision’ for using alternative test strategies (ATSs) to perform toxicological assessment of large numbers of untested chemicals, thereby reducing a backlog that could otherwise become a problem for nanotechnology. An ATS is defined here as an alternative/reduction alternative to traditional animal testing. Secondly, the approach of selecting pathways of toxicity to screen for the pulmonary hazard potential of carbon nanotubes and metal oxides will be discussed, as well as how to use these pathways to perform high-content or high-throughput testing and how the data can be used for hazard ranking, risk assessment, regulatory decision-making and ‘safer-by-design’ strategies. Finally, the utility and disadvantages of this predictive toxicological approach to ENM safety assessment, and how it can assist the 21st- century vision, will be addressed PMID:23879741

  20. METHOD OF TESTING FOR LEAKS

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-07-22

    A method is described for detecting minute holes In fuel element jackets. The method comprises submerging the jacketed body in an atmosphere of a radioactive gas under pressure, the radioactive emanations from said gas being sufficientiy penetratIng to penetrate the jacket of the jacketed body. After the jacketed body is removed from the radtoactive gas atmosphere, it is exannined for the presence of emanations from radioactive gas which entered the jacketed body through the minute holes. In this manner, the detectton of radioactive emanations is a positive indication that the fuel element is not perfectly sealed.

  1. Alternate Methods in Refining the SLS Nozzle Plug Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbank, Scott; Allen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis has shown that the SLS nozzle environmental barrier (nozzle plug) design is inadequate for the prelaunch condition, which consists of two dominant loads: 1) the main engines startup pressure and 2) an environmentally induced pressure. Efforts to reduce load conservatisms included a dynamic analysis which showed a 31% higher safety factor compared to the standard static analysis. The environmental load is typically approached with a deterministic method using the worst possible combinations of pressures and temperatures. An alternate probabilistic approach, utilizing the distributions of pressures and temperatures, resulted in a 54% reduction in the environmental pressure load. A Monte Carlo simulation of environmental load that used five years of historical pressure and temperature data supported the results of the probabilistic analysis, indicating the probabilistic load is reflective of a 3-sigma condition (1 in 370 probability). Utilizing the probabilistic load analysis eliminated excessive conservatisms and will prevent a future overdesign of the nozzle plug. Employing a similar probabilistic approach to other design and analysis activities can result in realistic yet adequately conservative solutions.

  2. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. Results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Postconsolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  3. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-01

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot isostatic pressing (HEPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. The results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Post consolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  4. Alternative production methods to face global molybdenum-99 supply shortage.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Maria; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Roussou, Eirini; Fytros, Stavros; Baka, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The sleeping giant of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) production is grinding to a halt and the world is wondering how this happened. Fewer than 10 reactors in the world are capable of producing radio nuclides for medicine; approximately 50% of the world's supply of raw material comes from National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. Many of these reactors, like the NRU, are old and aging. No one of these reactors, and probably not even all of them in combination, can replace the production of NRU. As the healthcare industry faces an aging population and the demand for diagnostic services using (99m)Tc continues to rise, the need for a consistent, reliable supply of (99)Mo has become increasingly important, so alternative methods to produce (99)Mo or even directly (99m)Tc had to be considered to avoid a supply shortage in the coming years. This need guides to the production of (99)Mo by replacing the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) target in a nuclear reactor with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and furthermore to the use of accelerators for manufacturing (99)Mo or for directly producing (99m)Tc.

  5. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  6. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  7. Testing alternative models of climate-mediated extirpations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Chris, R.A.Y.; Mote, P.W.; Wilkening, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biotic responses to climate change will vary among taxa and across latitudes, elevational gradients, and degrees of insularity. However, due to factors such as phenotypic plasticity, ecotypic variation, and evolved tolerance to thermal stress, it remains poorly understood whether losses should be greatest in populations experiencing the greatest climatic change or living in places where the prevailing climate is closest to the edge of the species' bioclimatic envelope (e.g., at the hottest, driest sites). Research on American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in montane areas of the Great Basin during 1994-1999 suggested that 20th-century population extirpations were predicted by a combination of biogeographic, anthropogenic, and especially climatic factors. Surveys during 2005-2007 documented additional extirpations and within-site shifts of pika distributions at remaining sites. To evaluate the evidence in support of alternative hypotheses involving effects of thermal stress on pikas, we placed temperature sensors at 156 locations within pika habitats in the vicinity of 25 sites with historical records of pikas in the Basin. We related these time series of sensor data to data on ambient temperature from weather stations within the Historical Climate Network. We then used these highly correlated relationships, combined with long-term data from the same weather stations, to hindcast temperatures within pika habitats from 1945 through 2006. To explain patterns of loss, we posited three alternative classes of direct thermal stress: (1) acute cold stress (number of days below a threshold temperature); (2) acute heat stress (number of days above a threshold, temperature); and. (3) chronic heat stress (average summer temperature). Climate change was defined as change in our thermal metrics between two 31-y.r periods: 1945-1975 and 1976-2006. We found that patterns of persistence were well predicted by metrics of climate. Our best models suggest some effects of climate change

  8. Pertussis serological potency test as an alternatively to the intracerebral mouse protection test.

    PubMed

    van der Ark, A; van Straaten-van de Kappelle, I; Hendriksen, C; van de Donk, H

    1996-01-01

    The current potency test for pertussis vaccines, the intracerebral protection test (MPT), is still the only mandatory laboratory model available. This test, however, is a valid, but inhumane and imprecise test and therefore a good candidate for replacement. Recently we have developed the Pertussis Serological Potency Test (PSPT) as an alternative for the MPT. The PSPT is based on in vitro assessment of the humoral immune response against the whole range of surface -antigens of B. pertussis in mice after immunisation with Whole Cell Vaccine (WCV). We have demonstrated a relationship between the mean pertussis antibody concentration at the day of challenge and the proportion of surviving mice at each vaccine dose in the MPT (R = 0.91). The PSPT is a model in which mice (20-24 g) are immunised i.p. with graded doses of vaccine and bled after four weeks. Sera are titrated in a whole cell ELISA and potency based on the vaccine dose-dependent antibody response is estimated by means of a parallel line analysis. In an in-house validation study 13 WCVs were tested in the PSPT and MPT. Homogeneity of both tests was proven by means of the chi-square test; potencies were significantly similar (p = 0.95). Compared to the MPT, the PSPT is more reproducible as is indicated by its smaller 95% confidence intervals. Moreover, by using the PSPT the animal distress can be reduced to an acceptable level and the PSPT also results in a reduction of more than 25% in use of mice. Additional experiments showed that estimation of WCV-potency in the PSPT based on specific antibody responses against protective antigens (PT, FHA, 69- and 92-kDa OMPS) was not possible or did not correlate with protection in MPT. Sera obtained from the PSPT showed a correlation between pertussis antibody levels and complement-mediated killing by pertussis antibodies in in vitro assays. In conclusion, the PSPT is a promising substitute for the MPT though further validation and additional studies on functional

  9. Compressive Testing of Stitched Frame and Stringer Alternate Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2016-01-01

    A series of single-frame and single-stringer compression tests were conducted at NASA Langley Research Center on specimens harvested from a large panel built using the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. Different frame and stringer designs were used in fabrication of the PRSEUS panel. In this report, the details of the experimental testing of single-frame and single-stringer compression specimens are presented, as well as discussions on the performance of the various structural configurations included in the panel.

  10. An alternative method for determining GPS receiver phase biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, Tobias; Schön, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is used in a broad variety of applications to determine very economically high precision parameters for positioning, navigation and timing. In comparison to traditional differential approaches, PPP with undifferenced phase measurements is highly attractive, since the effort on the user side can be reduced to minimum, e.g. due to an unnecessary reference station. The quality of obtained position solutions is comparable to those obtained from a differential approach. One of the most important limiting factor is the long integration time to determine (float) ambiguities. Furthermore, it is critical to consider adequately all occurring error sources. In this context, receiver phase biases are one of the limiting factors and very complex to model. At least they are highly correlated with the ambiguities during the estimation process, (Laurichesse et al. 2009). This contribution presents an alternative method to estimate carrier phase biases of different GPS/GNSS receivers and signals w.r.t. a reference receiver. Receiver phase biases are estimated on a zero baseline and in combination with a very stable and precise clock (H-Maser) using single differences. The presented method will be discussed in detail. This includes a critical look to the estimability of bias values for several GPS/GNSS receivers as well as a discussion on the stability and universality of these bias values. Finally relative phase biases are quantified and it will be discussed how GPS/GNSS observation equations have to be extended, to take these bias values correctly into account. References: Laurichesse D., Mercier F., Berthias J.P., Broca P., Cerri L. (2009): Integer ambiguity resolution on undifferenced GPS phase measurements and its application to PPP and satellite precise orbit determination, In: NAVIGATION, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 56, Number 2, pages: 135 - 149

  11. Gravitational slip as a test of alternative gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Scott Foster

    Cosmic acceleration could be an effect of a "dark energy" fluid pervading the Universe. It could also be an indication that general relativity is not the correct theory of gravity at cosmological length scales. Unfortunately, observations of the cosmic acceleration alone provide insufficient data to allow us to distinguish between these two possibilities. Cosmic perturbation theory may be able to relieve this uncertainty. Without positing a specific alternative gravity theory, we parametrize departures from general relativity in terms of a redshift-dependent, scale-independent gravitational slip between the Newtonian and longitudinal potentials appearing in the perturbed Robertson- Walker metric. We calculate the effects of non-zero values of this new parameter on linear and quasi-linear order cosmological perturbation theory. We find that existing data sets are consistent with unmodified general relativity with a cosmological constant at the ~10% level. We discuss the ability of future work, both in the form of more precise experiments and more detailed theoretical calculations, to either refine or refute this observation.

  12. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  13. 40 CFR 211.206-2 - Alternative test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required by § 211.204-4 that the mean attenuation and standard -deviation values used to calculate -the NRR... according to ANSI STD Z24.22-1957 or ANSI STD S3.19-1974 to determine the mean attenuation and standard deviation for each test frequency and the NRR calculated from those values. Manufacturers whose data...

  14. Recruiting Source Effects: A Test of Two Alternative Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breaugh, James A.; Mann, Rebecca B.

    The source of employee recruitment has been related to numerous important work outcomes (e.g., turnover, performance), but reasons for this relationship are not known. To test the viability of two possible explanations for recruiting source effects, i.e., employee level of realistic expectation, or individual differences, information was gathered…

  15. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    PubMed

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  16. Tests of a homogeneous Poisson process against clustering and other alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents three closely related tests of the hypothesis that data points come from a homogeneous Poisson process. If there is too much observed variation among the log-transformed between-point distances, the hypothesis is rejected. The tests are more powerful than the standard chi-squared test against the alternative hypothesis of event clustering, but not against the alternative hypothesis of a Poisson process with smoothly varying intensity.

  17. Testing of Alternative Materials for Advanced Suit Bladders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Makinen, Janice; Tang, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate advanced pressure bladder membrane materials have been developed for NASA Johnson Space Center by DSM Biomedical for selective permeability of carbon dioxide and water vapor. These materials were elasthane and two other formulations of thermoplastic polyether polyurethane. Each material was tested in two thicknesses for permeability to carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor. Although oxygen leaks through the suit bladder would amount to only about 60 cc/hr in a full size suit, significant amounts of carbon dioxide would not be rejected by the system to justify its use. While the ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen permeability is about 48 to 1, this is offset by the small partial pressure of carbon dioxide in acceptable breathing atmospheres of the suit. Humidity management remains a possible use of the membranes depending on the degree to which the water permeability is inhibited by cations in the sweat. Tests are underway to explore cation fouling from sweat.

  18. Alternative testing systems for evaluating noncarcinogenic, hematologic toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Parchment, R E

    1998-01-01

    Hematopoietic tissues are the targets of numerous xenobiotics. Clinical hematotoxicity is either a decrease or an increase in peripheral blood cell counts in one or more cell lineages--a cytopenia or a cytosis, respectively--that carries a risk of an adverse clinical event. The purpose of in vitro hematotoxicology is the prediction of these adverse hematologic effects from the effects of the toxicants on human hematopoietic targets under controlled experimental conditions in the laboratory. Building on its important foundations in experimental hematology and the wealth of hematotoxicology data found in experimental oncology, this field of alternative toxicology has developed rapidly during the past decade. Although the colony-forming unit-granulocyte/monocyte neutrophil progenitor is most frequently evaluated, other defined progenitors and stem cells as well as cell types found in the marrow stroma can be evaluated in vitro. End points have been proposed for predicting toxicant exposure levels at the maximum tolerated dose and the no observable adverse effect level for the neutrophil lineage, and several clinical prediction models for neutropenia have developed to the point that they are ready for prospective evaluation and validation in both preclinical species and humans. Known predictive end points are the key to successful comparisons across species or across chemical structures when in vitro dose-response curves are nonparallel. Analytical chemistry support is critical for accurate interpretation of in vitro data and for relating the in vitro pharmacodynamics to the in vivo pharmacokinetics. In contrast to acute neutropenia, anemia and acute thrombocytopenia, as well as adverse effects from chronic toxicant exposure, are much more difficult to predict from in vitro data. Pharmacologic principles critical for clinical predictions from in vitro data very likely will apply to toxicities to other proliferative tissues, such as mucositis. PMID:9599702

  19. Tests of alternative reductants in the second uranium purification cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.C.

    1980-05-01

    Miniature mixer-settler tests of the second uranium purification cycle show that plutonium cannot be removed by hydroxylamine-hydrazine (NH/sub 2/OH-N/sub 2/H/sub 4/) because the acidity is too high, or by 2,5-di-t-pentylhydroquinone because HNO/sub 3/ oxidizes the hydroquinone. Plutonium can be removed satisfactorily when U(IV)-hydrazine is used as the reductant.

  20. Are there alternative tests for diagnosis of acromegaly?

    PubMed

    Popovic, V

    2005-01-01

    In acromegaly, clinical features are of the utmost importance, and biochemical confirmation is rarely difficult. However, some clinically manifest acromegalics have subtle abnormalities in GH secretion resulting in post-glucose GH nadir in the designated "normal" range with high IGF-I levels. Clinical decision may be based on the probability of the disease and elevated IGF-I levels. The TRH test or the frequent GH sampling test may help confirm acromegaly but on their own have no diagnostic advantage. A TRH-GH response is not specific to acromegaly, while frequent sampling is not practical. Other tests rarely add information beyond that obtained by usual investigations. Post-treatment assessment of the disease activity and definition of acromegaly cure, by measuring GH secretion, remain problematic. IGF-I levels seem to differentiate normality less clearly and discordance of GH and IGF-I results is frequent. Post-treatment probability for residual disease activity should include more clinical parameters such as insulin sensitivity, leptin and echocardiography. Furthermore, with efforts to achieve tight biochemical control of the disease it is foreseeable that a proportion of patients may be rendered GH deficient, requiring stimulatory testing. Acromegaly is a disfiguring and disabling illness, in which by definition, the disorder is caused by a pituitary GH-secreting adenoma resulting in high circulating levels of GH and IGF-I. The clinical features of acromegaly include those of GH and IGF-I on tissues and the effects of the pituitary tumor itself. There is no single cut-off value for GH with perfect discrimination between acromegaly and normality. The recommended post-glucose GH nadir value of 1 microg/l is now considered to be inappropriately high, and measurement of IGF-I levels although extremely valuable has its limitations. Furthermore, some acromegalics may have subtle abnormalities in GH secretion, resulting in post-glucose GH nadir in the designated

  1. Developing an accelerated test of coking tendencies of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenger, M.D.; Bagby, M.O.; Schwab, A.W.; Goering, C.E.; Savage, L.D.

    1988-07-01

    Burning vegetable oils in direct-injected diesel engines leads to nozzle and combustion chamber coking and eventually to engine damage. Because typical durability tests to detect coking tendencies of fuels are expensive, a one-cylinder diesel engine was instrumented and automated to enable external detection of engine coking in only 5 h. The heat release pattern revealed shifts to later burning as coke accumulated in the engine, but exhaust emissions showed little correlation with coke accumulation.

  2. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...

  3. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the... manufacturer's recommended maximum thickness mattress and foundation in place, repeat the test in paragraph...

  4. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6... manufacturer's recommended maximum thickness mattress and foundation in place, repeat the test in paragraph...

  5. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...

  6. Alternative methods for management of the complicated gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Fink, A S

    1998-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the procedure of choice for symptomatic cholelithiasis. However, in the presence of acute cholecystitis, 10% to 15% of patients face conversion to laparotomy. Alternatives to conventional therapy may therefore help to improve the clinical outcome of patients with complicated gallbladder disease. In selecting patients for alternative therapies, preoperative and intraoperative factors must be considered. Preoperative factors include the severity of biliary disease and preexisting medical risk factors; whereas intraoperative factors include conditions at the time of surgery that make dissection difficult or unsafe. Alternative therapies provide the least invasive management to safely temporize or definitively treat the acute condition. These alternatives include percutaneous cholecystostomy alone or followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic cholecystostomy followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the gallbladder, and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. By appropriate selection of the initial therapeutic approach, the surgeon may ultimately improve the clinical outcome in these complicated patients.

  7. Performance Testing of a High Temperature Linear Alternator for Stirling Convertors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Geng, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted performance testing of a high temperature linear alternator (HTLA) in support of Stirling power convertor development for potential future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). The high temperature linear alternator is a modified version of that used in Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), and is capable of operation at temperatures up to 200 deg. Increasing the temperature capability of the linear alternator could expand the mission set of future Stirling RPS designs. High temperature Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) magnets were selected for the HTLA application, and were fully characterized and tested prior to use. Higher temperature epoxy for alternator assembly was also selected and tested for thermal stability and strength. A characterization test was performed on the HTLA to measure its performance at various amplitudes, loads, and temperatures. HTLA endurance testing at 200 deg is currently underway.

  8. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  9. Assessment of Etest as an alternative to agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsi; Taylor, Thomas H; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

    2014-05-01

    We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined and compared. Ten laboratory-generated mutants were used to simulate substantially nonsusceptible specimens. The Etest and agar dilution methods were well correlated. Statistical tests produced regression R2 values of 88%, 82%, and 85% and Pearson correlation coefficients of 92%, 91%, and 92% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. When paired comparisons were made, the two tests were 88.7%, 80%, and 87% within 1 log2 dilution from each other for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. The within-2-log2 agreements were 99.1%, 98.3%, and 94.8% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. Notwithstanding the good correlations and the within-2-log2 general agreement, the Etest results produced slightly lower MICs than the agar dilution results. In conclusion, we found that the Etest can be effectively used as an alternative to agar dilution testing to determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, although we recommend further research into extremely resistant isolates. For isolates within the typical range of clinical MICs, reexamination of the Etest interpretation of susceptible and nonsusceptible categories would likely allow for successful transition from agar dilution to the Etest.

  10. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S; Jyoti, S

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening.

  11. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods; Announcement of Meeting; Request for Comments SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological...

  12. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation. PMID:27268116

  13. 78 FR 62472 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative... alternatives to testing for the purposes of certifying compliance with the applicable energy conservation..., U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Alternative...

  14. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  15. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  16. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  17. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  18. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking. 6 figs.

  19. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  20. Opportunities for animal alternatives implementation in the evolving OECD fish testing framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews opportunities for animal alternative approaches in the FTF. These will be placed in the context of in vivo tests required in many regulatory situations for the registration of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. The Framework inte...

  1. Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Yeardley, R.B. Jr.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Pence, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low human health hazard, (c) feasibility of measurement, and (d) chemical stability. Potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) were evaluated as possible alternatives to the one currently in common use, 2-chloroacetamide. Potassium chloride rated the best for the combination of the four criteria, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Coefficients of variation (C.V.s) from control charts of six definitive tests were use to measure reproducibility. The best reproducibility (lowest C.V.) was shown by KCl, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Toxicants ranked KCl < NH{sub 4}Cl {much_lt} 2-chloroacetamide in terms of health hazard; and KCl = NH{sub 4}Cl > 2-chloroacetamide in terms of measurement feasibility. Both 2-chloroacetamide and NH{sub 4}Cl changed in concentration during testing. Evidence is also presented that 2-chloroacetamide degrades rapidly during testing, and that, as dead worms decay, ammonification may be adding another toxicant, ammonia, to tests.

  2. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Lower Knuckle Ultrasonic Testing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    WOLFF, J.J.

    2001-02-21

    Environmental regulations applicable to the River Protection Project require integrity assessment of the double-shell tank (DST) system. In the early 1990s a strategy and plans were developed to conduct the required tank system examinations and integrity assessments. This included plans to conduct ultrasonic testing of six DSTs. In 1997, an ad hoc committee (Tank Structural Integrity Panel, TSIP) working under the direction of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy, published guidelines for managing risks associated with aging degradation of high level waste storage tanks. This included recommendations on non-destructive examination of specific regions of tanks. For the lower knuckle region, defined as the curved transition from the vertical portion of the tank wall to the flat portion of the tank bottom, the TSIP guidelines contained the following recommendation: ''Examine the lower knuckle region including 5% of the length of the upper weld, at least 2.5% of the area of the predicted maximum stress region of the knuckle base metal and 2.5% of the lower weld if accessible. Emphasis should be on weld/HAZ cracking such as SCC. If the lower weld is not accessible, one-square-foot sections whose length adds up to 5% of the circumference of the knuckle base metal shall be examined.'' Also in 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy and Washington Department of Ecology formalized an agreement on the DST system integrity assessment work scope required to satisfy the applicable regulatory requirements. This cited the TSIP guidelines, and included an agreement to conduct ultrasonic examination on six representative DSTs for determination and extent of cracks, corrosion, and pitting.

  3. A Test of Perception of Syntactic Alternatives. Studies in Language Education, Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    The O'Donnell "Perception of Alternate Structures Test" (P. A. S. T.) was designed to produce a more efficient measure of perception of syntactic features. Like Simons'"Deep Structure Recovery Test" (D. S. R. T.), the P. A. S. T. has two sentences in each item that are similar in underlying structure. Like the earlier O'Donnell "Test of…

  4. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  5. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  6. A new path forward: the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM).

    PubMed

    Casey, Warren; Jacobs, Abigail; Maull, Elizabeth; Matheson, Joanna; Clarke, Carol; Lowit, Anna

    2015-03-01

    In 2000, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was congressionally established, with representatives from Federal regulatory and research agencies that require, use, generate, or disseminate toxicologic and safety testing information. For over 15 y, ICCVAM and the National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) have worked together to promote the development, validation, and regulatory acceptance of test methods that replace, reduce, or refine the use of animals in regulatory testing. In 2013, both NICEATM and ICCVAM underwent major changes to their operating paradigms, to increase the speed and efficiency of regulatory approval and industry adoption of 3Rs testing methods within the United States and internationally. Accordingly, increased emphasis has been placed on international activities, primarily through interaction with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and participation in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods. In addition, ICCVAM has committed to increasing public awareness of and transparency about federal agencies' 3R activities and to fostering interactions with stakeholders. Finally, although it continues to support ICCVAM, NICEATM's work now includes validation support for Tox21, a collaboration aimed at identifying in vitro methods and computational approaches for testing chemicals to better understand and predict hazards to humans and the environment. The combination of more efficient operating paradigms, increased international collaboration, improved communication and interaction with stakeholders, and active participation in Tox21 likely will substantially increase the number of 3Rs methods developed and used in the United States and internationally.

  7. A New Path Forward: The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Warren; Jacobs, Abigail; Maull, Elizabeth; Matheson, Joanna; Clarke, Carol; Lowit, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was congressionally established, with representatives from Federal regulatory and research agencies that require, use, generate, or disseminate toxicologic and safety testing information. For over 15 y, ICCVAM and the National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) have worked together to promote the development, validation, and regulatory acceptance of test methods that replace, reduce, or refine the use of animals in regulatory testing. In 2013, both NICEATM and ICCVAM underwent major changes to their operating paradigms, to increase the speed and efficiency of regulatory approval and industry adoption of 3Rs testing methods within the United States and internationally. Accordingly, increased emphasis has been placed on international activities, primarily through interaction with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and participation in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods. In addition, ICCVAM has committed to increasing public awareness of and transparency about federal agencies’ 3R activities and to fostering interactions with stakeholders. Finally, although it continues to support ICCVAM, NICEATM's work now includes validation support for Tox21, a collaboration aimed at identifying in vitro methods and computational approaches for testing chemicals to better understand and predict hazards to humans and the environment. The combination of more efficient operating paradigms, increased international collaboration, improved communication and interaction with stakeholders, and active participation in Tox21 likely will substantially increase the number of 3Rs methods developed and used in the United States and internationally. PMID:25836963

  8. Alternatives in Medical Education: Non-Animal Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Peggy, Ed.

    The technology explosion in medical education has led to the use of computer models, videotapes, interactive videos, and state-of-the-art simulators in medical training. This booklet describes alternatives to using animals in medical education. Although it is mainly intended to describe products applicable to medical school courses, high-quality,…

  9. Methods of Securing Alternative Funding for Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges, Los Angeles, CA.

    Now that the growth period for community colleges is over, and public funding has stabilized or decreased, many colleges are turning to alternative funding sources as a means of financing new projects and maintaining services. Among the funding approaches are the following: (1) grants development, which requires a library of material on funding…

  10. An alternative to animal testing in the quality control of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Gerhard, D; Hothorn, L A; Dingermann, T

    2011-06-01

    A physico-chemical method has been developed as an alternative to the current bioassay in normocythaemic mice for estimating the biological activity of erythropoietin batches. Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for quantification of the isoforms and their substructures were further elucidated by N-glycan mapping techniques. The analytical study was carried out on a total of 40 batches of epoetin beta which were selected to cover an adequate range of precisely established potency values. The relationship between the biological and chemical parameters was evaluated statistically in order to identify suitable covariates for the prediction of the biological activity. Out of several alternatives, a prediction model which is based on the percentages of isoforms per batch and the degree of sialidation was selected and tested. This model is comparable in terms of accuracy to the established in vivo bioassay, but is far superior in terms of precision. Further advantages of the method are improved animal welfare and savings in time and effort. The question whether the prediction model already meets the requirements for replacing the bioassay according to the ICH guideline Q6B is discussed.

  11. Alternative sieving method for extraction of light filth from cheeses: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on an alternative sieving method for the extraction of light filth from cheeses. The alternative method was developed that is applicable to broad variety of cheeses. A 225 g test portion is dispersed in a solution of 5.7% HCl, Igepal CO-730, and Igepal DM-710. Digested cheese is wet-sieved on a No. 230 sieve. The residue is treated with Tergitol Anionic 4, transferred to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate solution, heated, and maintained at 65 degrees-75 degrees C for 10 min. The residue is washed with these 2 surfactants a maximum of 4 times until it is reduced to an amount that is filterable. The residue is filtered and the filter papers are examined microscopically at a magnification of ca 30x. Average recoveries by 9 collaborators for 3 spike levels of rat hairs (5, 10, and 15) were 80, 68, and 81%, respectively; for insect fragments (5, 15, and 30) recoveries were 97, 90, and 92%, respectively. The alternative sieving method for extraction of light filth from cheeses has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:7950417

  12. Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Toothbrush Disinfection: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Ilkay; Akca, Gulcin; Sarikir, Cigdem; Celik, Irem

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative methods for toothbrush disinfection. Methods. Two-hundred eighty toothbrushes were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 7 groups and were contaminated by standardized suspensions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The following disinfectants were tested: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 100% and 50% white vinegar, microwave (MW) oven, ultraviolet (UV) sanitizer, and mouth rinse-containing propolis (MCP). Data were analyzed with Kruskal Wallis and Dunn's tests. Results. Statistically significant differences were found between different methods and control group for all tested bacteria. There were statistically significant differences between all test groups for all microorganisms. MW was the most effective for L. rhamnosus and 100% white vinegar was the most effective method for S. mutans and S. aureus. NaOCl was the most effective for E. coli. Conclusion. This study showed that 100% white vinegar was considered to be effective for tested microorganisms. Similarly, 1% NaOCl is cost-effective, easily accessible, and comparatively effective for toothbrush disinfection. Because these agents are nontoxic, cost-effective and easily accessible, they may be appropriate for household use. PMID:24971388

  13. PE Metrics: Background, Testing Theory, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Rink, Judy; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fox, Connie; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Park, Youngsik; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    New testing theories, concepts, and psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory, test equating, and item bank) developed during the past several decades have many advantages over previous theories and methods. In spite of their introduction to the field, they have not been fully accepted by physical educators. Further, the manner in which…

  14. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see §...

  15. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on...

  16. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content...

  17. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content...

  18. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  19. Development of new hole expansion testing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunok; Shang, Jianhui; Beam, Kevin; Samant, Anoop; Hoschouer, Cliff; Dykeman, Jim

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a new hole expansion (HE) testing method that could be more relevant to the edge cracking problem observed in stamping advanced high strength steel (AHSS). The new testing method adopted a large hole diameter of 75 mm compared to the standard hole diameter of 10 mm. An inline monitoring system was developed to visually monitor the hole edge cracking during the test and synchronize the load-displacement data with the recorded video for capturing the initial crack. A new hole expansion testing method was found to be effective in evaluating the edge cracking by considering the effects of material properties and trimming methods. It showed a much larger difference, up to 11%, of the HE ratio between DP980 and TRIP780 compared to the standard HE testing method giving less than a 2% difference.

  20. Absorbing Software Testing into the Scrum Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomikoski, Janne; Tervonen, Ilkka

    In this paper we study, how to absorb software testing into the Scrum method. We conducted the research as an action research during the years 2007-2008 with three iterations. The result showed that testing can and even should be absorbed to the Scrum method. The testing team was merged into the Scrum teams. The teams can now deliver better working software in a shorter time, because testing keeps track of the progress of the development. Also the team spirit is higher, because the Scrum team members are committed to the same goal. The biggest change from test manager’s point of view was the organized Product Owner Team. Test manager don’t have testing team anymore, and in the future all the testing tasks have to be assigned through the Product Backlog.

  1. Toxicity test method development in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of aquatic toxicity tests is relatively new in southeast Asia. As part of the ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science -- Phase 2, which includes development of marine environmental criteria, a need for tropical toxicity data was identified. A step-wise approach was used for test method development (simple, acute tests and easily measured endpoints first, then more complex short-term chronic methods), for test specific selection (using species found throughout the region first, and then considering species with narrower geographic distribution), and for integration of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) practices into all laboratory activities. Development of test protocols specifically for tropical species included acute and chronic toxicity tests with marine fish, invertebrates and algae. Criteria for test species selection will be reviewed. Method development was based on procedures and endpoints already widely used in North America and Europe (e.g., 96-h LC50 with fish), but adapted for use with tropical species. For example, a bivalve larval development test can use the same endpoints but the duration is only 24 hours. Test method development included research on culture and holding procedures, determination of test conditions (e.g., duration, test containers), and identification of appropriate endpoints. Acute tests with fish and invertebrates were developed first. The next step was development of short-term chronic tests to measure phytoplankton growth, bivalve and echinoderm embryo or larval development, and larval fish growth. The number of species and types of tests was increased in a staged approach, as laboratories became better equipped and personnel gained practical experience. In most cases, method development coincided with training workshops to introduce the principles of toxicity testing.

  2. Inter-observer Reliability of the Prism and Alternate Cover Test in Children with Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between two measurements for the prism and alternate cover test (PACT) at distance and at near fixation. Methods In a test-retest reliability study, 143 children aged 60 months or younger with esotropia were examined by two masked examiners on one or two occasions yielding 199 test-retest pairs for PACT at distance fixation and 239 test-retest pairs for PACT at near fixation. Results For angles >20 prism diopters (PD), the 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between two measurements were ±7.3 PD and ±10.4 PD respectively for PACT at distance, and ±8.3 PD and ±11.7 PD respectively for PACT at near. For angles 10 to 20 PD, the 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between two measurements were ±4.1 PD and ±5.8 PD respectively for PACT at distance, and ±3.3 PD and ±4.7 PD respectively for PACT at near. Conclusion In childhood esotropia, differences of 12 PD or more for angles >20PD, and differences of 6 PD or more for angles between 10 PD and 20PD, are likely to indicate real change. Smaller differences could be real change but could also be due to measurement error. PMID:19139339

  3. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  4. An alternate interconnect method for joining flexible circuits using conductive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Schurman, W.R.

    1990-04-17

    Conductive adhesives were evaluated as a labor-saving alternate method for interconnecting flexible circuit layers in slapper detonators. Short-term aging, high temperature and high humidity storage, thermal cycle, and thermal shock studies were done. The adhesive interconnections were also studied under the high voltage and high current operating conditions of a slapper detonator. In all tests, interconnections made with conductive adhesive compared favorably with standard diffusion bonded joints, demonstrating the feasibility of joining flexible circuit components without metallic solders, brazes, thermo-compression bonds, diffusion bonds, or welds. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. 48 CFR 6302.30 - Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule 30).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.30 Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Settlement Judges and Mini-Trials. These procedures are designed to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative...

  6. 48 CFR 6302.30 - Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule 30).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.30 Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Settlement Judges and Mini-Trials. These procedures are designed to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative...

  7. Evaluation of Alternatives to the Ontario Hydro Method as a Reference Method for CAMR

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2007-03-31

    In June 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). As part of the rule, all coal-fired power plants will be required to do continuous mercury measurements. To complete the required relative accuracy test assessment (RATA), the only reference methods allowed are the wet-chemistry methods: the Ontario Hydro (OH) mercury speciation method (ASTM International D6784-02) and EPA Method 29. Either method will be a challenge and expensive. It would be much more desirable to use an instrumental reference method (IRM) or use sorbent traps as a reference method so that the results can be obtained quickly and cheaply. This report presents the results from testing at Reliant Energy, Inc.'s, Portland Station. The project was designed to compare mercury concentrations measured using sorbent traps to those obtained using the OH method. The tests were done using a RATA scenario and at three different conditions. In addition, as part of the project, limited IRM testing was also completed. The results from the testing show that the sorbent traps compared very well with the OH method and, therefore, must be considered as a potential reference method. Although the IRM testing using manual injection of elemental and oxidized mercury for dynamic spiking showed some promise, it was clear that additional testing was needed. However, this method of dynamic spiking may not be acceptable to EPA, as it does not consider vapor pressure curves for elemental mercury a National Institute of Standards Technology traceable standard.

  8. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....422(b) or 40 CFR 60.112b(a)(3)(ii) shall comply with the requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of leaks to be repaired under 40 CFR 60.503(b), or (ii) Use alternative test methods and procedures...

  9. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....422(b) or 40 CFR 60.112b(a)(3)(ii) shall comply with the requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of leaks to be repaired under 40 CFR 60.503(b), or (ii) Use alternative test methods and procedures...

  10. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....422(b) or 40 CFR 60.112b(a)(3)(ii) shall comply with the requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of leaks to be repaired under 40 CFR 60.503(b), or (ii) Use alternative test methods and procedures...

  11. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....422(b) or 40 CFR 60.112b(a)(3)(ii) shall comply with the requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of leaks to be repaired under 40 CFR 60.503(b), or (ii) Use alternative test methods and procedures...

  12. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recommendations by a group of international specialists in the field is summarized in this report. Initially, the workshop participants identified the different audience groups to be addressed and also the communication media that may be used. The main outcome of the workshop was a framework for a comprehensive educational program. The modular structure of the teaching program presented here allows adaptation to different audiences with their specific needs; different time schedules can be easily accommodated on this basis. The topics cover the 3Rs principle, basic research, toxicological applications, method development and validation, regulatory aspects, case studies and ethical aspects of 3Rs approaches. This expert consortium agreed to generating teaching materials covering all modules and providing them in an open access online repository.

  13. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  14. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  15. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. PMID:21538502

  16. Testing variance components by two jackknife methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The jacknife method, a resampling technique, has been widely used for statistical tests for years. The pseudo value based jacknife method (defined as pseudo jackknife method) is commonly used to reduce the bias for an estimate; however, sometimes it could result in large variaion for an estmimate a...

  17. A Point-of-Care Prothrombin Time Test on a Microfluidic Disk Analyzer Using Alternate Spinning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Kun-Wei; Yen, Daniel; Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Wang, Jiunn-Min; Lin, Chi-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a fully integrated point-of-care prothrombin time test on a microfluidic disk analyzer. The microfluidic functions integrated on the disk were capable of separating whole blood, decanting plasma, and mixing it with reagents in sequence under alternate spinning. The assay protocol was completed by alternate spinning without using microvalves or surface modification. Clinical sample tests on prothrombin time measurement were conducted by both the microfluidic disk analyzer and the reference instrument used in medical centers. The test results showed a good correlation and agreement between the two instruments. PMID:26353663

  18. A Point-of-Care Prothrombin Time Test on a Microfluidic Disk Analyzer Using Alternate Spinning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Kun-Wei; Yen, Daniel; Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Wang, Jiunn-Min; Lin, Chi-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a fully integrated point-of-care prothrombin time test on a microfluidic disk analyzer. The microfluidic functions integrated on the disk were capable of separating whole blood, decanting plasma, and mixing it with reagents in sequence under alternate spinning. The assay protocol was completed by alternate spinning without using microvalves or surface modification. Clinical sample tests on prothrombin time measurement were conducted by both the microfluidic disk analyzer and the reference instrument used in medical centers. The test results showed a good correlation and agreement between the two instruments.

  19. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, Patrick M.; Merten, Jr., Charles W.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament.

  20. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, P.M.; Merten, C.W. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament. 2 figs.

  1. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditioning test simulations. 86.162-03 Section 86.162-03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty... alternative air conditioning test simulations. (a) Upon petition from a manufacturer or upon the Agency's...

  2. 19 CFR 101.9 - Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements. 101.9 Section 101.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.9 Test programs or procedures;...

  3. 19 CFR 101.9 - Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements. 101.9 Section 101.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.9 Test programs or procedures;...

  4. 19 CFR 101.9 - Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements. 101.9 Section 101.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.9 Test programs or procedures;...

  5. 19 CFR 101.9 - Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements. 101.9 Section 101.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.9 Test programs or procedures;...

  6. Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.

    PubMed

    Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2012-06-01

    Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples.

  7. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  8. Report on noninvasive prenatal testing: classical and alternative approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pantiukh, Kateryna S.; Chekanov, Nikolay N.; Zaigrin, Igor V.; Zotov, Alexei M.; Mazur, Alexander M.; Prokhortchouk, Egor B.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns of traditional prenatal aneuploidy testing methods, such as low accuracy of noninvasive and health risks associated with invasive procedures, were overcome with the introduction of novel noninvasive methods based on genetics (NIPT). These were rapidly adopted into clinical practice in many countries after a series of successful trials of various independent submethods. Here we present results of own NIPT trial carried out in Moscow, Russia. 1012 samples were subjected to the method aimed at measuring chromosome coverage by massive parallel sequencing. Two alternative approaches are ascertained: one based on maternal/fetal differential methylation and another based on allelic difference. While the former failed to provide stable results, the latter was found to be promising and worthy of conducting a large-scale trial. One critical point in any NIPT approach is the determination of fetal cell-free DNA fraction, which dictates the reliability of obtained results for a given sample. We show that two different chromosome Y representation measures—by real-time PCR and by whole-genome massive parallel sequencing—are practically interchangeable (r=0.94). We also propose a novel method based on maternal/fetal allelic difference which is applicable in pregnancies with fetuses of either sex. Even in its pilot form it correlates well with chromosome Y coverage estimates (r=0.74) and can be further improved by increasing the number of polymorphisms. PMID:27781087

  9. Phylogeny and evolution of the Sulidae (Aves:Pelecaniformes): a test of alternative modes of speciation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Anderson, D J

    1997-04-01

    Although the allopatric model of speciation is widely accepted, it does not provide a satisfactory explanation for many evolutionary phenomena. Several alternative models exist, but they remain largely untested for vertebrate animals. In the present paper, a molecular phylogeny was used to test competing models of speciation in a seabird family, the Sulidae. A segment including 807 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced from all extant sulid species, and phylogenetic methods were used to test model-specific predictions regarding tree topologies, distributions of sister taxa, timing of vicariant events, and comparative biology. Both the neighbor-joining and parsimony analyses placed sequences of gannets (Morus spp.) and boobies of the genus Sula in separate, monophyletic lineages. Sequences of Cape (M. capensis) and Australasian (M. serrator) gannets clustered together, and the sequence of Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) was basal to those of the gannets. Sequences of blue-footed (S. nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies were sisters and formed a monophyletic group with the masked booby (S. dactylatra). The red-footed booby (S. sula) sequence was the most divergent of the Sula boobies. All relationships received strong support from standard-error tests and bootstrap analysis. Substitution rates were similar to those suggested for mammals and suggested that most lineages arose within the last 3 million years. Lineage divergence events for which the mode of speciation could be deduced did not fit the predictions of either allopatric or sympatric models, but apparently involved either peripatric or parapatric processes.

  10. Phylogeny and evolution of the Sulidae (Aves:Pelecaniformes): a test of alternative modes of speciation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Anderson, D J

    1997-04-01

    Although the allopatric model of speciation is widely accepted, it does not provide a satisfactory explanation for many evolutionary phenomena. Several alternative models exist, but they remain largely untested for vertebrate animals. In the present paper, a molecular phylogeny was used to test competing models of speciation in a seabird family, the Sulidae. A segment including 807 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced from all extant sulid species, and phylogenetic methods were used to test model-specific predictions regarding tree topologies, distributions of sister taxa, timing of vicariant events, and comparative biology. Both the neighbor-joining and parsimony analyses placed sequences of gannets (Morus spp.) and boobies of the genus Sula in separate, monophyletic lineages. Sequences of Cape (M. capensis) and Australasian (M. serrator) gannets clustered together, and the sequence of Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) was basal to those of the gannets. Sequences of blue-footed (S. nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies were sisters and formed a monophyletic group with the masked booby (S. dactylatra). The red-footed booby (S. sula) sequence was the most divergent of the Sula boobies. All relationships received strong support from standard-error tests and bootstrap analysis. Substitution rates were similar to those suggested for mammals and suggested that most lineages arose within the last 3 million years. Lineage divergence events for which the mode of speciation could be deduced did not fit the predictions of either allopatric or sympatric models, but apparently involved either peripatric or parapatric processes. PMID:9126567

  11. 33 CFR 154.2181 - Alternative testing program-Test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... testing program—Test requirements. (a) The safety system function test required by 33 CFR 154.2180 must be... (CE) test required by 33 CFR 154.2180 must be performed once every month and documented as shown in... an adjustment is made. ER16JY13.003 (c) The calibration drift (CD) test required by 33 CFR...

  12. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  13. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, J.S.; Kankam, M.D.; Santiago, W.; Madi, F.J.

    1992-08-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  14. An Alternative Method To Measure MIS Faculty Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Judith C.; Soliman, Khalid S.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a method of measuring a professor's performance using student evaluations in the field of information systems by measuring differences in student perceptions and knowledge. Findings for 328 students show the usefulness of this method in assessing teacher performance. (SLD)

  15. An Alternative Method to the Classical Partial Fraction Decomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Chokri

    2007-01-01

    PreCalculus students can use the Completing the Square Method to solve quadratic equations without the need to memorize the quadratic formula since this method naturally leads them to that formula. Calculus students, when studying integration, use various standard methods to compute integrals depending on the type of function to be integrated.…

  16. Timing of peripheral blood stem cell yield: comparison of alternative methods with the classic method for CD34+ cell determination.

    PubMed

    Fatorova, I; Blaha, M; Lanska, M; Vokurkova, D; Rezacova, V; Zak, P

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34(+) cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34(+) cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser), detection of CD133(+) cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients) were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%). HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  17. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  18. Alternative Method for the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, A. C.; Omidvar, K.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter)-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70s to the mid-80s. In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  19. Alternative Methods of the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett. Adam C.; Omidvar, Kazem; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. [1991] was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70's to the mid-80's In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  20. Multidimensional Programming Methods for Energy Facility Siting: Alternative Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, B. D.; Haynes, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of multidimensional optimization methods in solving power plant siting problems, which are characterized by several conflicting, noncommensurable objectives is addressed. After a discussion of data requirements and exclusionary site screening methods for bounding the decision space, classes of multiobjective and goal programming models are discussed in the context of finite site selection. Advantages and limitations of these approaches are highlighted and the linkage of multidimensional methods with the subjective, behavioral components of the power plant siting process is emphasized.

  1. Joint Test Report For Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This joint Test Report (JTR) documents the results of the laboratory and field testing as well as any test modifications made during the execution of the testing. The technical stakeholders agreed upon test procedure modifications documented in this document. This JTR is made available as a reference for future pollution prevention endeavors by other NASA centers, the Department of Defense and commercial users to minimize duplication of effort. All coating system candidates were tested using approved NASA and AFSPC standard coating systems as experimental controls. This study looked at eight alternative coating systems and two control coating systems and was divided into Phase I Screening Tests, Phase II Tests, and Field Testing. The Phase I Screening Tests were preliminary tests performed on all the selected candidate coating systems. Candidate coating systems that did not meet the acceptance criteria of the screening tests were eliminated from further testing. Phase I Screening Tests included: Ease of Application, Surface Appearance, Dry-To-Touch (Sanding), Accelerated Storage Stability, Pot Life (Viscosity), Cure Time (Solvent Rubs), Cleanability, Knife Test, Tensile (pull-off) Adhesion, and X-Cut Adhesion by Wet

  2. Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods through Radio Broadcasting in West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Bokar; Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify which extension methods are most effective in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of alternative extension methods on adoption of the triple bagging cowpea storage technology in Niger and Burkina Faso. This study was designed as a quasi-experiment with two alternative extension…

  3. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  6. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  7. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  8. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  9. Methods for the evaluation of alternative disaster warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Anderson, R. J., Jr.; Lanen, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    For each of the methods identified, a theoretical basis is provided and an illustrative example is described. The example includes sufficient realism and detail to enable an analyst to conduct an evaluation of other systems. The methods discussed in the study include equal capability cost analysis, consumers' surplus, and statistical decision theory.

  10. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  11. Alternative method for Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs in image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoutte, A.; Salat, H.; Vachier, C.

    2011-03-01

    Multiscale signal analysis has been used since the early 1990s as a powerful tool for image processing, notably in the linear case. However, nonlinear PDEs and associated nonlinear operators have advantages over linear operators, notably preserving important features such as edges in images. In this paper, we focus on nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs defined with adaptive speeds or, alternatively, on adaptive morphological fiters also called semi-flat morphological operators. Semi-flat morphology were instroduced by H. Heijmans and studied only in the case where the speed (or equivalently the filtering parameter) is a decreasing function of the luminance. It is proposed to extend the definition suggested by H. Heijmans in the case of non decreasing speeds. We also prove that a central property for defining morphological filters, that is the adjunction property, is preserved while dealing with our extended definitions. Finally experimental applications are presented on actual images, including connection of thin lines by semi-flat dilations and image filtering by semi-flat openings.

  12. An alternative method for Ra determinations in water

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, D.H.; Drake, E.N. 2d.

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra in 13 wells distributed throughout McCulloch and Mason counties in the Hickory Aquifer of the Llano Uplift Region of West-Central Texas are reported. Measurable alpha-particle activity is present in all wells, with seven wells having /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentrations greater than 185 Bq m-3 (5 pCi L-1). An alternative methodology for measuring /sup 226/Ra, /sup 224/Ra and /sup 228/Ra is described. The EPA-approved methodology for estimating total Ra is shown to be invalid for aquifers containing significant levels of /sup 224/Ra. Alpha-particle activity measurements made in the interval of 12 to 300 h after Ra isolation lead to self-consistent solutions for radioactivity concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra, with negligible contributions from /sup 228/Ra. Radioactivity concentrations of /sup 228/Ra can be calculated from grow-in terms for this isotope used with alpha-particle activity measurements at post-isolation times significantly longer than 800 h. Comparison of the /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentration with that reported previously by the Texas Department of Health for a single well indicates acceptable agreement. However, the radioactivity concentration attributable to /sup 228/Ra for the same well was found to be in significant disagreement with the Texas Department of Health value.

  13. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  14. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  15. An alternative method for the recovery of lithium from spodumene

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, L.F.; El - Naggar, M.M.A.A.

    1984-12-01

    Two important processes applied presently for the extraction of lithium from spodumene, the acid method and the lime method, are described in this paper. The less common method of chlorination roasting is also discussed. The behavior of tachydrite and spodumene, individually, during heating is investigated by differential thermal analysis. It was observed that tachydrite gradually loses its water of crystallization, becoming anhydrous at 573 K. Spodumene, on the other hand, is stable, showing a mass loss of 0.3 pct. around 693 K. At the reaction temperatures used in this study, the mixture can then be regarded as a mixture of spodumene plus MgO and CaCl/sub 2/.

  16. An alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal vacuum testing often requires temperature control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C range. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate temperature range: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint temperature; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint temperature. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic temperatures. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling temperature excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different temperatures, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during temperature transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available temperature controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system

  17. A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective on the Use of Alternative Test Strategies for Nanomaterial Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Andre E.; Nasser, Elina; Godwin, Hilary; Avery, David; Bahadori, Tina; Bergeson, Lynn; Beryt, Elizabeth; Bonner, James C.; Boverhof, Darrell; Carter, Janet; Castranova, Vince; DeShazo, J. R.; Hussain, Saber M.; Kane, Agnes B.; Klaessig, Fred; Kuempel, Eileen; Lafranconi, Mark; Landsiedel, Robert; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Morris, Jeffery; Moss, Kenneth; Oberdorster, Gunter; Pinkerton, Kent; Pleus, Richard C.; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Thomas, Rusty; Tolaymat, Thabet; Wang, Amy; Wong, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    There has been a conceptual shift in toxicological studies from describing what happens to explaining how the adverse outcome occurs, thereby enabling a deeper and improved understanding of how biomolecular and mechanistic profiling can inform hazard identification and improve risk assessment. Compared to traditional toxicology methods, which have a heavy reliance on animals, new approaches to generate toxicological data are becoming available for the safety assessment of chemicals, including high-throughput and high-content screening (HTS, HCS). With the emergence of nanotechnology, the exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in research, development, and commercialization requires a robust scientific approach to screen ENM safety in humans and the environment rapidly and efficiently. Spurred by the developments in chemical testing, a promising new toxicological paradigm for ENMs is to use alternative test strategies (ATS), which reduce reliance on animal testing through the use of in vitro and in silico methods such as HTS, HCS, and computational modeling. Furthermore, this allows for the comparative analysis of large numbers of ENMs simultaneously and for hazard assessment at various stages of the product development process and overall life cycle. Using carbon nanotubes as a case study, a workshop bringing together national and international leaders from government, industry, and academia was convened at the University of California, Los Angeles to discuss the utility of ATS for decision-making analyses of ENMs. After lively discussions, a short list of generally shared viewpoints on this topic was generated, including a general view that ATS approaches for ENMs can significantly benefit chemical safety analysis. PMID:23924032

  18. On the rate of convergence of the alternating projection method in finite dimensional spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galántai, A.

    2005-10-01

    Using the results of Smith, Solmon, and Wagner [K. Smith, D. Solomon, S. Wagner, Practical and mathematical aspects of the problem of reconstructing objects from radiographs, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 83 (1977) 1227-1270] and Nelson and Neumann [S. Nelson, M. Neumann, Generalizations of the projection method with application to SOR theory for Hermitian positive semidefinite linear systems, Numer. Math. 51 (1987) 123-141] we derive new estimates for the speed of the alternating projection method and its relaxed version in . These estimates can be computed in at most O(m3) arithmetic operations unlike the estimates in papers mentioned above that require spectral information. The new and old estimates are equivalent in many practical cases. In cases when the new estimates are weaker, the numerical testing indicates that they approximate the original bounds in papers mentioned above quite well.

  19. Formal methods for test case generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John (Inventor); De Moura, Leonardo Mendonga (Inventor); Hamon, Gregoire (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of model checkers to generate efficient test sets for hardware and software systems. The method provides for extending existing tests to reach new coverage targets; searching *to* some or all of the uncovered targets in parallel; searching in parallel *from* some or all of the states reached in previous tests; and slicing the model relative to the current set of coverage targets. The invention provides efficient test case generation and test set formation. Deep regions of the state space can be reached within allotted time and memory. The approach has been applied to use of the model checkers of SRI's SAL system and to model-based designs developed in Stateflow. Stateflow models achieving complete state and transition coverage in a single test case are reported.

  20. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; King, W.; Hay, M.; Jones, D.

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  1. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, K.A.

    1995-05-22

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

  2. Standard Test Methods for Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Standard testing methods for composite laminates reinforced with continuous networks of braided, woven, or stitched fibers have been evaluated. The microstructure of these textile' composite materials differs significantly from that of tape laminates. Consequently, specimen dimensions and loading methods developed for tape type composites may not be applicable to textile composites. To this end, a series of evaluations were made comparing testing practices currently used in the composite industry. Information was gathered from a variety of sources and analyzed to establish a series of recommended test methods for textile composites. The current practices established for laminated composite materials by ASTM and the MIL-HDBK-17 Committee were considered. This document provides recommended test methods for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Specifically, test methods are suggested for: unnotched tension and compression; open and filled hole tension; open hole compression; bolt bearing; and interlaminar tension. A detailed description of the material architectures evaluated is also provided, as is a recommended instrumentation practice.

  3. Evaluation of Alternate Stainless Steel Surface Passivation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  4. Non-animal test methods for predicting skin sensitization potentials.

    PubMed

    Mehling, Annette; Eriksson, Tove; Eltze, Tobias; Kolle, Susanne; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and it is estimated that 15-20 % of the general population suffers from contact allergy, with increasing prevalence. Evaluation of the sensitization potential of a substance is usually carried out in animal models. Nowadays, there is much interest in reducing and ultimately replacing current animal tests. Furthermore, as of 2013, the EU has posed a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients that includes skin sensitization. Therefore, predictive and robust in vitro tests are urgently needed. In order to establish alternatives to animal testing, the in vitro tests must mimic the very complex interactions between the sensitizing chemical and the different parts of the immune system. This review article summarizes recent efforts to develop in vitro tests for predicting skin sensitizers. Cell-based assays, in chemico methods and, to a lesser extent, in silico methods are presented together with a discussion of their current status. With considerable progress having been achieved during the last years, the rationale today is that data from different non-animal test methods will have to be combined in order to obtain reliable hazard and potency information on potential skin sensitizers. PMID:22707154

  5. FMEA, the alternative process hazard method. [Failure Mode Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is an old reliability/assurance tool finding its way into the HPI. Not popular yet, this hazard technique has some viable applications that can improve hazard assessment data. Notably, FMEA studies can identify possible areas for improvement that may have not been discovered using other methods. Also, FMEA is not as labor intensive and costly as other process hazard analysis (PHA) methods. PSHA 1910.119 set in place an informational structure whose main purpose is the reduction of potential accidents and minimizing risks in the event of an accident. Consequently, HPI operators must evaluate their process systems and identify potential major hazards, such as fires, explosions and accidental release of toxic/hazardous chemicals, and protect their facilities, employees, the public and the environment. But, which PHA method(s) apply to a particular plant or process still remains a difficult question. This paper describes what FMEA is; types of FMEA; how to conduct a FMEA study; comparison with HAZOP (hazard and operability study); computer software; applicability of FMEA; and examples of its use.

  6. Evaluation of Alternative Difference-in-Differences Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Difference-in-differences (DID) strategies are particularly useful for evaluating policy effects in natural experiments in which, for example, a policy affects some schools and students but not others. However, the standard DID method may produce biased estimation of the policy effect if the confounding effect of concurrent events varies by…

  7. Inhibitions within Idea Generating Groups: An Alternative Method of Brainstorming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochery, Tim

    Alex F. Osborn's group brainstorming treatment remains the most frequently applied procedure for the creative generation of ideas despite considerable evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. This paper synthesizes many findings that challenge the premise that Osborn's traditional "group" brainstorming treatment is the optimal method for…

  8. An alternative method for neonatal cerebro-myocardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; De Rita, Fabrizio; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Several techniques have already been described for selective cerebral perfusion during repair of aortic arch pathology in children. One method combining cerebral with myocardial perfusion has also been proposed. A novel technique is reported here for selective and independent cerebro-myocardial perfusion for neonatal and infant arch surgery. Technical aspects and potential advantages are discussed.

  9. The alternative methods for disinfection of E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetim, Tuba; Görmez, Arzu; Gürkök, Sümeyra

    2016-04-01

    Recently, advanced oxidation processes have gained significant interest for bacterial inactivation. In the present study, the efficacy of sonolysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis was evaluated for disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain. Sonophotocatalysis proved to be the most effective disinfection methods by generating greater amount of •OHradical.

  10. Use of Benkelman Beams for Measuring LTE in Whitetopping: An Alternative Tool to FWD Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jundhare, D. R.; Khare, K. C.; Jain, R. K.

    2012-09-01

    Whitetopping is a rehabilitation or structural strengthening alternative on hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement. It is constructed on the top of existing HMA pavement. Generally, falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflection measurements are used to obtain the load transfer efficiency (LTE) of the transverse joints. However, the use of FWD in India has been very limited so far because of its high cost and difficulties encountered in maintaining the equipment. Therefore, a need has been aroused to identify an alternative to FWD test, which can be cost effective and easily available. In this work, Benkelman beam deflection test has been conducted using two Benkelman beams simultaneously placed on two adjacent slabs near transverse joint for measuring LTE of 150 mm thick in-service thin whitetopping constructed at Dahanukar Colony, Kothrud, Pune city. An alternative tool has been developed for measuring LTE in whitetopping.

  11. Development of test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Ifju, Peter G.; Fedro, Mark J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Program was initiated in 1990 with the purpose of developing less costly composite aircraft structures. A number of innovative materials and processes were evaluated as a part of this effort. Chief among them are composite materials reinforced with textile preforms. These new forms of composite materials bring with them potential testing problems. Methods currently in practice were developed over the years for composite materials made from prepreg tape or simple 2-D woven fabrics. A wide variety of 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit preforms were suggested for application in the ACT program. The applicability of existing test methods to the wide range of emerging materials bears investigation. The overriding concern is that the values measured are accurate representations of the true material response. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish a set of test methods to evaluate the textile composites developed for the ACT Program.

  12. Aflatoxin plate kit. Performance Tested Method 081003.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Arthur; Fan, Titan; LaBudde, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The level of total aflatoxin contamination was analyzed in naturally contaminated and spiked samples of corn and peanut using the Aflatoxin Plate Kit. This kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for rapid testing of grains and peanuts. The assay was evaluated for ruggedness and linearity of the standard curve. The test kit results were then statistically evaluated for accuracy, precision, and correlation to a validated HPLC method (AOAC 994.08). The results were verified by an independent laboratory.

  13. Residual flexibility test method for verification of constrained structural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for deriving constrained modes and frequencies from a reduced model based on a subset of the free-free modes plus the residual effects of neglected modes. The method involves a simple modification of the MacNeal and Rubin component mode representation to allow development of a verified constrained (fixed-base) structural model. Results for two spaceflight structures having translational boundary degrees of freedom show quick convergence of constrained modes using a measureable number of free-free modes plus the boundary partition of the residual flexibility matrix. This paper presents the free-free residual flexibility approach as an alternative test/analysis method when fixed-base testing proves impractical.

  14. Comparison of Two Alternative Methods for Tracking Toe Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Brady, Rachel; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Warren, Liz; Feiveson, Al; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Toe trajectory during the swing phase of locomotion has been identified as a precise motor control task (Karst, et al., 1999). The standard method for tracking toe trajectory is to place a marker on the superior aspect of the distal end of the 2nd toe itself (Karst, et al., 1999; Winter, 1992). However, others have based their toe trajectory results either on a marker positioned on the lateral aspect of the 5th metatarsal head (Dingwell, et al., 1999; Osaki, et al., 2007), or on a virtual toe marker computed at the anterior tip of the second toe based on the positions of other real foot markers (Miller, et al., 2006). While these methods for tracking the toe may seem similar, their results may not be directly comparable. The purpose of this study was to compute toe trajectory parameters using a 5th metatarsal marker and a virtual toe marker, and compare their results with those of the standard toe marker.

  15. Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukic, Bojan

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.

  16. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  17. A Communication Researchers' Guide to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Weber, Rene; Park, Hee Sun; Hullett, Craig R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a practical guide to use null hypotheses significance testing and its alternatives. The focus is on improving the quality of statistical inference in quantitative communication research. More consistent reporting of descriptive statistics, estimates of effect size, confidence intervals around effect sizes, and increasing the…

  18. Alternatives to IQ Testing: An Approach to the Identification of Gifted "Minority" Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    This paper explores historical, behavioral, and cultural aspects of cross-cultural assessment as background to a discussion of alternative approaches to I.Q. testing as a way of identifying gifted minority children. Chapter I, "Cross Cultural Assessment in Historical Perspective," is a historical look at cross-racial attitudes on intelligence and…

  19. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  20. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…