Science.gov

Sample records for alternatives analysis

  1. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  2. First passage failure: Analysis alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    PAEZ,THOMAS L.; NGUYEN,H.P.; WIRSCHING,PAUL H.

    2000-04-17

    Most mechanical and structural failures can be formulated as first passage problems. The traditional approach to first passage analysis models barrier crossings as Poisson events. The crossing rate is established and used in the Poisson framework to approximate the no-crossing probability. While this approach is accurate in a number of situations, it is desirable to develop analysis alternatives for those situations where traditional analysis is less accurate and situations where it is difficult to estimate parameters of the traditional approach. This paper develops an efficient simulation approach to first passage failure analysis. It is based on simulation of segments of complex random processes with the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, use of these simulations to estimate the parameters of a Markov chain, and use of the Markov chain to estimate the probability of first passage failure. Some numerical examples are presented.

  3. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  4. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  5. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie; Seager, Thomas; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina

    2016-10-28

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. Assess whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We conclude the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: (1) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; (2) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; (3) supporting transdisciplinary research; and (4) supporting education and outreach efforts.

  6. Alternate Spectrometric Oil Analysis Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Spectrometric Analysis 75 V. CONCLUSIONS 81 VI. RECOMMENDAT IONS 85 APPENDIX A MICROFILTRATION TEST RIG DATA 87 APPENDIX B MEMBRANE FILTRATION TEST DATA 135...SPECTROETERS 9 2. DESCRIPTION OF MICROFILTRATION TEST RIG FLUIDS 12 3. DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES USED FOR 3 MICRON PORE SIZE MEMBRANE FILTRATION 15 4... microfiltration , 10-20 ml portions of the used oil samples were passed through a 3 Pm Nucleopore membrane filter. 14 TABLE 3 DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES USED

  7. Business System Planning Project, Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    The CHG Chief Information Officer (CIO) requested a study of alternatives to the current business system computing environment. This Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project Alternatives Analysis document presents an analysis of the current Project Controls, Work Management, and Business Management systems environment and alternative solutions that support the business functions. The project team has collected requirements and priorities from stakeholders in each business area and documented them in the BSP System Requirements Specification (SRS), RPP-6297. The alternatives analysis process identifies and measures possible solutions in each of the business process areas against the requirements as documented in the SRS. The team gathered input from both internal and external sources to identify and grade the possible solutions. This document captures the results of that activity and recommends a suite of software products. This study was to select the best product based on how well the product met the requirements, not to determine the platform or hardware environment that would be used. Additional analysis documentation can be found in BSP project files.

  8. ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS: A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions about land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in Oregon's Willamette River Basin. Three alternative future landscapes for the year 2050 were depicted and compare...

  9. ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS: A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions about land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in Oregon's Willamette River Basin. Three alternative future landscapes for the year 2050 were depicted and compare...

  10. PAMS photo image retrieval prototype alternatives analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    Photography and Audiovisual Services uses a system called the Photography and Audiovisual Management System (PAMS) to perform order entry and billing services. The PAMS system utilizes Revelation Technologies database management software, AREV. Work is currently in progress to link the PAMS AREV system to a Microsoft SQL Server database engine to provide photograph indexing and query capabilities. The link between AREV and SQLServer will use a technique called ``bonding.`` This photograph imaging subsystem will interface to the PAMS system and handle the image capture and retrieval portions of the project. The intent of this alternatives analysis is to examine the software and hardware alternatives available to meet the requirements for this project, and identify a cost-effective solution.

  11. Nonlinear finite element analysis: An alternative formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merazzi, S.; Stehlin, P.

    1980-01-01

    A geometrical nonlinear analysis based on an alternative definition of strain is presented. Expressions for strain are obtained by computing the change in length of the base vectors in the curvilinear element coordinate system. The isoparametric element formulation is assumed in the global Cartesian coordinate system. The approach is based on the minimization of the strain energy, and the resulting nonlinear equations are solved by the modified Newton method. Integration of the first and second variation of the strain energy is performed numerically in the case of two and three dimensional elements. Application is made to a simple long cantilever beam.

  12. 76 FR 11310 - Alternatives Analysis Program Discretionary Funding Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Alternatives Analysis Program Discretionary Funding Allocations AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Alternatives Analysis Program Announcement of Project...

  13. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  14. Analysis of alternative keyboards using learning curves.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Allison M; Mirka, Gary A; Joines, Sharon M B; Kaber, David B

    2009-02-01

    To quantify learning percentages for alternative keyboards (chord, contoured split, Dvorak, and split fixed angle) and understand how physical, cognitive, and perceptual demand affect learning. Alternative keyboards have been shown to offer ergonomic benefits over the conventional, single-plane QWERTY keyboard design, but productivity-related challenges may hinder their widespread acceptance. Sixteen participants repeatedly typed a standard text passage using each alternative keyboard. Completion times were collected and subsequent learning percentages were calculated. Participants were asked to subjectively rate the physical, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each keyboard, and these values were then related to the calculated learning percentages. Learning percentage calculations revealed the percentage for the split fixed-angle keyboard (90.4%) to be significantly different (p < .05) from the learning percentages for the other three keyboards (chord, 77.3%; contour split, 76.9%; Dvorak, 79.1%). The average task completion time for the conventional QWERTY keyboard was 40 s, and the average times for the fifth trial on the chord, contoured split, Dvorak, and split fixed-angle keyboards were 346, 69, 181, and 42 s, respectively. Productivity decrements can be quickly regained for the split fixed-angle and contour split keyboard but will take considerably longer for Dvorak and chord keyboards. The split fixed-angle keyboard involved physical learning, whereas the others involved some combination of physical and cognitive learning, a result supported by the subjective responses. Understanding the changes in task performance time that come with learning can provide additional information for a cost-benefit analysis when considering the implementation of ergonomic interventions.

  15. 32 CFR 989.8 - Analysis of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.8 Analysis of alternatives. (a) The Air Force must analyze... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analysis of alternatives. 989.8 Section 989.8... reasonable alternatives raised during the scoping process (see § 989.18) or suggested by others, as well...

  16. Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

    2003-12-01

    A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

  17. System 6 alternatives: an economic analysis

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Hansen; Hugh W. Reynolds; Hugh W. Reynolds

    1984-01-01

    Three System 6 mill-size alternatives were designed and evaluated to determine their overall economic potential for producing standard-size hardwood blanks. Internal rates of return ranged from about 15 to 35 percent after taxes. Cost per square foot of blanks ranged from about $0.88 to $1.19, depending on mill size and the amount of new investment required.

  18. Alternative Teacher Certification: A Program Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Jay Paredes; Heinen, Ethan

    2009-01-01

    "Alternative teacher certification program" (ATCP) is widely used as a term for a variety of programs designed to train and credential teachers in expedited fashion. In practice, however, ATCPs consist of a loose confederation of programs and practices ranging from "emergency certification to very sophisticated and well-designed…

  19. Automated analysis of timber access road alternatives.

    Treesearch

    Doyle. Burke

    1974-01-01

    The evaluation of timber access road alternatives is one of the primary tasks in timber harvest planning and design. During the planning stages, it is also one of the most difficult to accomplish quantitatively because a basis for comparison is related to such values as grade, length, horizontal and vertical curvature, and volumes of excavation and embankment. Within...

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  1. Analysis of Alternative Ring Resonator Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    the ring strip of the antenna as in the case of the original design. Both the alternative dielectric laminate and the increased thickness laminate...adjustments to the geometry parameters. 2. Ring Resonator Antenna Design The ring resonator is a two port antenna consisting of a ring strip and two...differing thicknesses for resonator antennas of the same design suggests that the RF fields penetrate slightly more or that the resonator can “see” a

  2. Analysis of alternative-fuel price trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-31

    Findings are presented from a study to (1) acquire, analyze, and report alternative published price projections including both oil- and coal-price trajectories, and to (2) apply the fixed-annuity formula to the updated primary source projections (Energy Information Administration; Data Resources, Inc.; and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates, Inc.) and to the newly acquired price projections. This report also encompasses: comparisons of key assumptions underlying the price projections, and a discussion of the applicability of the fixed-annuity formula as used in the alternative-cost calculation. Section II contains graphic presentations of all updated and newly acquired coal and oil price forecasts and the corresponding calculated annuity equivalents, tabulated presentations and discussions of each forecast and underlying assumptions, and a description of how each forecast price series was transformed into input for the present-value formulas. Section III presents the fixed-annuity formula employed and discusses its appropriateness for this application. Section IV discusses the applicability of the net present value approach for comparing alternate-fuel price trajectories. Appendix A contains a listing of contacts as potential sources of price forecasts. Appendix B contains the raw forecast data from each forecast source and the coal and oil price series derived from the raw data which were actually input into the cost calculation procedure. Appendix C contains a description and listing of the computer program developed to implement the cost calculation procedure. Finally, Appendix D contains tabulations and discussions of other alternative world crude price forecasts that were identified, but for which no corresponding coal-price projections were available. (MCW)

  3. An Alternative Front End Analysis Strategy for Complex Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    POC: M. Glenn Cobb 14. ABSTRACT This initial phase of a three phase research effort designs and recommends an alternative front end analysis ( FEA ...to growing concerns that current task-based FEA processes are increasingly insufficient to identify performance and training requirements for complex... FEA approaches, and complex task performance and training. Two alternative FEA strategies were developed, leveraging known issues and research

  4. An Analysis of Alternative School Effectiveness on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Scott Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis investigating student achievement, attendance rates, grade point average and credit earned by at-risk students attending an alternative high school of choice, at-risk students attending a traditional high school and at-risk students attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Placement Campus within the same…

  5. An Analysis of Alternative School Effectiveness on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Scott Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis investigating student achievement, attendance rates, grade point average and credit earned by at-risk students attending an alternative high school of choice, at-risk students attending a traditional high school and at-risk students attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Placement Campus within the same…

  6. Technical analysis of alternative fueled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The current status of alternative fueled vehicles, such as methanol fueled, compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, and electric vehicles, that have feasibility to take the place of oil fueled ones is analyzed from the viewpoints of environmental pollution control, energy resources conservation, and economic performances. As for environmental pollution control, these three vehicles are compared by such items as nitrogen oxides, photochemical reactivity, adaptability to future regulations, earth warming substances, and toxicity. As for practical applicability, the following items are compared: power density (torque, power, acceleration performance), energy density, range, energy consumption, vehicle initial costs, energy costs, freight transportation energy costs (yen/ton/km), and energy supply suitability. Conclusions include: methanol vehicles have the problem of fueling stations to be arranged; since CNG vehicles are considered to be loaded with CNG fuel tanks on the top of vehicles, safety must be ensured; electric vehicles still have many problems in spite of their many advantages.

  7. Alternatives to Center of Gravity Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-04

    provide better clarity in understanding our rivals in the current operating environment versus solely using Center of Gravity (COG) analysis. The...and internal (self-examination and alliances) environment analysis tools discuss the opportunity to determine the problems and root causes within...17 Figure 5. Caribbean Tourism SGM

  8. Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

  9. TOOLS FOR COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES: COMPETING OR COMPLEMENTARY PERSPECTIVES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A third generation of environmental policymaking and risk management will increasingly impose environmental measures, which may give rise to analyzing countervailing risks. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of these risks associated with the decision alternatives at hand will e...

  10. TOOLS FOR COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES: COMPETING OR COMPLEMENTARY PERSPECTIVES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A third generation of environmental policymaking and risk management will increasingly impose environmental measures, which may give rise to analyzing countervailing risks. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of these risks associated with the decision alternatives at hand will e...

  11. Comparative analysis of alternate MHS configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera-Mercader, Carlos R.; Staelin, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Given the possibility that the passive Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) may have to be replaced, two alternate configurations are analyzed in this document. One option mirrors AMSU-B, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) moisture sounder; which consists of five channels at 89, 150, 183 +/- 1, 183 +/- 3, and 183 +/- 7 GHz. The second option contains an additional channel at 183 +/- 14 GHz and replaces the channels at 89 and 150 GHz with three channels at 118 +/- 0.5, 118 +/- 1.4, and 118 +/- 3 GHz. The latter configuration is considered to be superior due to its greater scientific benefits and reduced cost and complexity -- it would require only two local oscillators and a smaller antenna size for a given resolution on the ground. As shown by means of simulations, humidity profile retrieval accuracy for the second option is superior in most cases and only slightly degraded relative to the first option in the worst-case scenario. The results are summarized. Including the 118-GHz channels also offers the possibility of cell-top altitude retrievals and improved temperature profile retrievals when used in conjunction with a temperature sounder such as the 15-channel AMSU-A.

  12. Computational Analysis of the SRS Phase III Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Dimenna, R.A.

    1999-10-07

    Completion of the Phase III evaluation and comparison of salt disposition alternatives was supported with enhanced computer models and analysis for each case on the ''short list'' of four options. SPEEDUP(TM) models and special purpose models describing mass and energy balances and flow rates were developed and used to predict performance and production characteristics for each of the options. Results from the computational analysis were a key part of the input used to select a primary and an alternate salt disposition alternative.

  13. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  14. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  15. Alternative comparison, analysis, and evaluation of solid waste and materials system alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact of solid waste technical options on values and objectives that are important to the public. It is written in support of the Solid Waste and Materials Systems Alternatives Study (WHC, 1995). Described are the values that were identified, the major programmatic risks, how the impacts were measured, the performance of alternatives, the methodology used for the analysis, and the implications of the results. Decision analysis was used to guide the collection and analysis of data and the logic of the evaluation. Decision analysis is a structured process for the analysis and evaluation of alternatives. It is theoretically grounded in a set of axioms that capture the basic principles of decision making (von Neuman and Morgenstern 1947). Decision analysis objectively specifies what factors are to be considered, how they are to be measured and evaluated, and heir relative importance. The result is an analysis in which the underlying rationale or logic upon which the decision is based is made explicit. This makes possible open discussion of the decision basis in which facts and values are clearly distinguished, resulting in a well- documented decision that can be clearly explained and justified. The strategy of decision analysis is to analyze the various components relevant to the decision separately and then integrate the individual judgments to arrive at an overall decision. This assures that all the relevant factors are identified and their relative importance is considered. The procedure for obtaining the individual judgments, and the decision rules, for combining them and evaluating alternatives, have both theoretical and empirical foundation in mathematics, economics, and psychology.

  16. Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capabilities Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Bryan; Bill Landman; Porter Hill

    2012-12-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for the Advanced Post-Irradiation Capabilities (APIEC) project in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets”. The Alternatives Analysis considered six major alternatives: ? No Action ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities distributed among multiple locations ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities consolidated at a few locations ? Construct New Facility ? Commercial Partnership ? International Partnerships Based on the alternatives analysis documented herein, it is recommended to DOE that the advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities be provided by a new facility constructed at the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS FOR SELECTING ET #3 SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.; Hamm, L.

    2012-02-13

    Engineered trenches (ETs) are considered to be a cost-effective method for disposing Low Level Waste (LLW). Based on waste forecasts from waste generators, the last engineered trench in operation (ET No.2) is anticipated to close in FY14, requiring development of a new ET. Solid Waste requested that SRNL develop an assessment report that reviews four disposal options for this new ET (ET No.3) and determine which option would provide the 'best' Performance Assessment (PA) disposal limits for LLW (Appendix A). Those four options (see option footprint locations in Figure 1-1) are: (1) Disposal at grade on TRU Pads 7-13 where soil would be mounded over waste packages; (2) Excavation at a slightly modified SLIT No.13 location - near the Used Equipment Storage Area; (3) Excavation at a modified SLIT No.12 location - near the 643-26E Naval Reactor Component Disposal Area; and (4) Excavation east of TRU Pad No.26 that replaces northeast portions of four slit trench (ST) disposal units in the eastern set of STs. The assessment consisted of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analysis captured key aspects that were readily quantifiable and had predictable impacts on limits and doses. A simplified modeling strategy stemming from current Special Analysis (SA) practices was employed. Both inventory capacity for a specific nuclide (a quasi-inventory limit) and overall performance for specified inventory mixtures (doses resulting from historical inventories) were considered. The qualitative analysis evaluated other key aspects based on engineering judgment in the form of pros and cons.

  18. Economic Analysis of Hazardous Waste Minimization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    OF REPORT OF THIS PP,,E OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassilied Unclassified SAR NSN 7540 01-280 5500 SuxVl form t (Rev 2- R ]I Pe•nbed or ANSi Srd 2r39...Consulting Associates, Inc.. 15 June 1987). Chapter 7. T . Page, R . Harris, and J. Bruser, Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water: A Cost-Benefit Analysis...Pretreatment of Hazardous Waste, EPA/600/D-87/047 (EPA, January 1987), pp 58-70. Page, T ., R . Harris, and J. Bruser. Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water

  19. Alternative and effective proteomic analysis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Espagne, Christelle; Martinez, Aude; Valot, Benoît; Meinnel, Thierry; Giglione, Carmela

    2007-10-01

    Various functional genomics platforms are required to define the phenotype associated with a mutant. Global protein analyses may be included in any study. We describe here a rapid method of protein sample preparation and analysis, suitable for all laboratories and using Arabidopsis plantlets as the starting material. This reliable and reproducible method for high yield protein extraction from small amounts of material can be used on even the most recalcitrant tissues. The proteins extracted are suitable for many types of protein analysis, including nondenaturing investigations. This method was validated by a rigorous 2-DE approach, coupled with unambiguous LC-MS/MS identifications featuring strong sequence coverage (average of 26% with eight different peptides/spot protein). The reproducibility of the method was demonstrated by multiple protein identifications from identical series of spots. An interactive map (http://www.isv.cnrsgif.fr/gel2d/), including 435 protein variants showed that (i) 38% of the proteins were yet unreported, (ii) reduced subfractionation, (iii) had frequent protein modifications (average of two spots/protein entry), and (iv) underwent no major proteolytic events other than leader peptide cleavage. Finally, a simple mobility shift method for the large subunit of RuBisCo (LS) in the first dimension made it possible to characterize previously masked protein spots.

  20. Analysis of Pulsed Flow Modification Alternatives, Lower Missouri River, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The graphical, tabular, and statistical data presented in this report resulted from analysis of alternative flow regime designs considered by a group of Missouri River managers, stakeholders, and scientists during the summer of 2005. This plenary group was charged with designing a flow regime with increased spring flow pulses to support reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon. Environmental flow components extracted from the reference natural flow regime were used to design and assess performance of alternative flow regimes. The analysis is based on modeled flow releases from Gavins Point Dam (near Yankton, South Dakota) for nine design alternatives and two reference scenarios; the reference scenarios are the run-of-the-river and the water-control plan implemented in 2004. The alternative designs were developed by the plenary group with the goal of providing pulsed spring flows, while retaining traditional social and economic uses of the river.

  1. A review of recent NEPA alternatives analysis case law

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael D. . E-mail: michael.smith@humboldt.edu

    2007-03-15

    According to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the analysis and comparison of alternatives is considered the 'heart' of the NEPA process. Although over 20 years have passed since the original mandate appeared to construct and assess a 'reasonable range' of alternatives contained in the CEQ Regulations, there is a perception that there is still a significant amount of confusion about what exactly constitutes a legally-compliant alternatives analysis. One manifestation of this confusion is the increasing amount of litigation over the alternatives analysis in NEPA documents. This study examined decisions on challenges to alternative analyses contained in federal agency NEPA documents in federal Courts of Appeals for the ten-year period 1996-2005. The results show that federal agencies are overwhelmingly successful against such challenges - winning 30 of the 37 cases. The most common challenge was that federal agencies had not included a full reasonable range of alternatives, while the second most frequent was that agencies had improperly constructed their purpose and need for their projects. Brief descriptions of several of the key court decisions are provided that illustrate the main factors that led to agencies being successful, as well as being unsuccessful, in their court challenges. The results provide little support for recent calls to amend the NEPA Statute and the CEQ Regulations to better clarify the requirements for alternatives analysis. The conclusion to the study focuses on practical steps NEPA practitioners can take to prepare their alternatives analyses in a manner that fulfills the requirements of the NEPA Statute and Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations and makes them less vulnerable to an unfavorable court decision if legally challenged.

  2. 32 CFR 989.8 - Analysis of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.8 Analysis of alternatives. (a) The Air Force must analyze... within the power of the Air Force to implement. They may involve another government agency or military...

  3. 32 CFR 989.8 - Analysis of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.8 Analysis of alternatives. (a) The Air Force must analyze... within the power of the Air Force to implement. They may involve another government agency or military...

  4. 32 CFR 989.8 - Analysis of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.8 Analysis of alternatives. (a) The Air Force must analyze... within the power of the Air Force to implement. They may involve another government agency or military...

  5. 32 CFR 989.8 - Analysis of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.8 Analysis of alternatives. (a) The Air Force must analyze... within the power of the Air Force to implement. They may involve another government agency or military...

  6. A semi-Markov reliability analysis of alternating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kwang Nam; Cho, Nam Zin

    1989-01-01

    Current nuclear power plants must be highly reliable with respect to safety and economy. Consequently, development of a new safety evaluation methodology is desired for the accurate evaluation of safety and economy. A nuclear power plant consists of many systems. This paper is concerned with the reliability evaluation of alternating systems. An alternating system usually consists of multitrains, and its operation alternates from one train to another. Examples of these are the nuclear service cooling water system, the component cooling water system, and the chemical and volume control system. The alternating systems exhibit strong dynamic time-dependent reliability characteristics because of the alternating operational mode and the technical specification requirements that are particularly difficult to analyze by static fault-tree techniques. The method used in this paper is based on the semi-Markov reliability analysis. The system performance measures evaluated are its contribution to the total risk of the plant (e.g., core damage probability) and to plant unavailability (reactor downtime). It is concluded that the methodology developed in this study can be applied to existing alternating systems for plant-specific evaluation of the various alternatives in technical specifications.

  7. Alternate approaches to vibration and shock analysis using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denver, R. E.; Menichello, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A method that derives an approximate equivalent static load to a base excitation shock analysis is described. The transient analysis in the current level of NASTRAN, level 16, does not directly provide for either input acceleration forcing functions or enforced boundary displacement. In the suggested alternate analysis format, equivalent force input functions are applied to the constrained locations by using the artifice of placing a large mass, with respect to the total system mass, at the desired acceleration input points. This shortcut static analysis approach is presented to approximate the expensive and time consuming dynamics analysis approach to the base excitation shock analysis.

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) quantifies the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coatings. The estimates in this CBA are to be used for assessing the relative merits of the selected alternatives. The actual economic effects at any specific facility will depend on the alternative material or technology implemented, the number of actual applications converted, future workloads, and other factors . The participants initially considered eighteen (18) alternative coatings as described in the Potential Alternatives Report entitled Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB. Of those, 8 alternatives were selected for testing in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, and the Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives 10 Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both of which were prepared by ITB. A joint Test Report entitled Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB, documents the results of the laboratory and field testing, as well as any

  9. An Economic Analysis of Alternative Tray Pack Sizes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    I"IC FILE COPY TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-90/048 AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE TRAY PACK SIZES BY NMARK M. DAVIS BENTLEY COLLEGE, WALTHAM...AUGUST 199 FINAL REPORT APR 89 TO SEP 89 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PE 62 786 TRAY PACK SIZES PR AH99...the current tray pack container to a 6/9 and to an 8/12 portion tray padr container. Force structures for field feeding were derived from data

  10. An Analysis of Indiana Schools Implementing Alternative Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Corey Wade

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this content analysis research project was to determine if there were predictive qualities of the demographic groupings; student population, free and reduced percentage, and geographic setting on the teacher evaluation tools that are an alternative to the Indiana RISE model. This study surveyed Indiana superintendents regarding…

  11. A Review of Nonparametric Alternatives to Analysis of Covariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; Algina, James

    1985-01-01

    Five distribution-free alternatives to parametric analysis of covariance are presented and demonstrated: Quade's distribution-free test, Puri and Sen's solution, McSweeney and Porter's rank transformation, Burnett and Barr's rank difference scores, and Shirley's general linear model solution. The results of simulation studies regarding Type I…

  12. Decisions, Science, and Values: Crafting Regulatory Alternatives Analysis.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy; Blake, Ann; Linkov, Igor; Sinsheimer, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Emerging "prevention-based" approaches to chemical regulation seek to minimize the use of toxic chemicals by mandating or directly incentivizing the adoption of viable safer alternative chemicals or processes. California and Maine are beginning to implement such programs, requiring manufacturers of consumer products containing certain chemicals of concern to identify and evaluate potential safer alternatives. In the European Union, the REACH program imposes similar obligations on manufacturers of certain substances of very high concern. Effective prevention-based regulation requires regulatory alternatives analysis (RAA), a methodology for comparing and evaluating the regulated chemical or process and its alternatives across a range of relevant criteria. RAA has both public and private dimensions. To a significant degree, alternatives analysis is an aspect of product design; that is, the process by which private industry designs the goods it sells. Accordingly, an RAA method should reflect the attributes of well-crafted product design tools used by businesses. But RAA adds health and environmental objectives to the mix of concerns taken into account by the product designer. Moreover, as part of a prevention-based regulatory regime, it implicates important public values such as legitimacy, equity, public engagement, and accountability. Thus, an RAA should reflect both private standards and public values, and be evaluated against them. This article adopts that perspective, identifying an integrated set of design principles for RAA, and illustrating the application of those principles.

  13. Alternative Theories of Inference in Expert Systems for Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    D-A153 649 ALTERNATIVE THEORIES OF INFERENCE IN EXPERT SYSTEMS FR 12 IMAGE ANALYSIS (U) DECISION SCIENCE CONSORTIUM INC FALLS CHURCH VAl M S COHEN ET...TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF StANDARDS-1963 A .- ., mETLN..b ? (0 Alentv thoreso inference in expert systems * for image analysis Marvin Cohen Decision...distribution unlimited 4. P[RFCR%0.NG ORCANIZATION REPORT NUMBERIS) s. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT h.UMdiRISI 6. NAMAE 0F PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  14. Alternative financial institutions? Sustainability, development, social reproduction, and gender analysis.

    PubMed

    Kidder, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for alternative financial institutions in Nicaragua. The article includes a discussion on innovative services and policies, which differentiate CARUNA (National Savings and Credit Cooperative ¿Caja Rural¿), and other financial institutions from conventional banks. It further examines theories that have altered the way development practitioners think about the economy, poverty reduction, and the positions of men and women in the society. These theories are the feminist economic theory and alternative development theories. Specific ways to incorporate the concepts of alternative and feminist economic theories in the design of financial institutions include open credit, savings, and remittance mechanisms, and coordinating councils. The gender analysis approach was used to evaluate the design of financial institutions.

  15. 100-KE REACTOR CORE REMOVAL PROJECT ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS WORKSHOP REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    HARRINGTON RA

    2010-01-15

    On December 15-16, 2009, a 100-KE Reactor Core Removal Project Alternative Analysis Workshop was conducted at the Washington State University Consolidated Information Center, Room 214. Colburn Kennedy, Project Director, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) requested the workshop and Richard Harrington provided facilitation. The purpose of the session was to select the preferred Bio Shield Alternative, for integration with the Thermal Shield and Core Removal and develop the path forward to proceed with project delivery. Prior to this workshop, the S.A. Robotics (SAR) Obstruction Removal Alternatives Analysis (565-DLV-062) report was issued, for use prior to and throughout the session, to all the team members. The multidisciplinary team consisted ofrepresentatives from 100-KE Project Management, Engineering, Radcon, Nuclear Safety, Fire Protection, Crane/Rigging, SAR Project Engineering, the Department of Energy Richland Field Office, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board, and Deactivation and Decommission subject matter experts from corporate CH2M HILL and Lucas. Appendix D contains the workshop agenda, guidelines and expectations, opening remarks, and attendance roster going into followed throughout the workshop. The team was successful in selecting the preferred alternative and developing an eight-point path forward action plan to proceed with conceptual design. Conventional Demolition was selected as the preferred alternative over two other alternatives: Diamond Wire with Options, and Harmonic Delamination with Conventional Demolition. The teams preferred alternative aligned with the SAR Obstruction Removal Alternative Analysis report conclusion. However, the team identified several Path Forward actions, in Appendix A, which upon completion will solidify and potentially enhance the Conventional Demolition alternative with multiple options and approaches to achieve project delivery

  16. Computational analysis of the SRS Phase III salt disposition alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Dimenna, R.A.

    2000-01-04

    In late 1997, the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP), facility was shut down and an evaluation of alternative methods to process the liquid high-level waste stored in the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste storage tanks was begun. The objective was to determine whether another process might avoid the operational difficulties encountered with ITP for a lower cost than modifying the existing structured approach to evaluating proposed alternatives on a common basis to identify the best one. Results from the computational analysis were a key part of the input used to select a primary and a secondary salt disposition alternative. This paper describes the process by which the computation needs were identified, addressed, and accomplished with a limited staff under stringent schedule constraints.

  17. An illustrative analysis of technological alternatives for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalfe, M. R.; Cazalet, E. G.; North, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The demand for satellite communications services in the domestic market is discussed. Two approaches to increasing system capacity are the expansion of service into frequencies presently allocated but not used for satellite communications, and the development of technologies that provide a greater level of service within the currently used frequency bands. The development of economic models and analytic techniques for evaluating capacity expansion alternatives such as these are presented. The satellite orbit spectrum problem, and also outlines of some suitable analytic approaches are examined. Illustrative analysis of domestic communications satellite technology options for providing increased levels of service are also examined. The analysis illustrates the use of probabilities and decision trees in analyzing alternatives, and provides insight into the important aspects of the orbit spectrum problem that would warrant inclusion in a larger scale analysis.

  18. Alternative fuels in fire debris analysis: biodiesel basics.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric; Byron, Doug

    2007-03-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming more prominent on the market today and, soon, fire debris analysts will start seeing them in liquid samples or in fire debris samples. Biodiesel fuel is one of the most common alternative fuels and is now readily available in many parts of the United States and around the world. This article introduces biodiesel to fire debris analysts. Biodiesel fuel is manufactured from vegetable oils and/or animal oils/fats. It is composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and is sold pure or as a blend with diesel fuel. When present in fire debris samples, it is recommended to extract the debris using passive headspace concentration on activated charcoal, possibly followed by a solvent extraction. The gas chromatographic analysis of the extract is first carried out with the same program as for regular ignitable liquid residues, and second with a program adapted to the analysis of FAMEs.

  19. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various energy usages

  20. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  1. Rapid and alternative screening methods for microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, H; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1997-01-01

    Automated analytical instruments for enumerating indicator organisms and diagnostic test kits for pathogens can be used in food microbiology to screen samples and to replace conventional cultural and confirmation steps. Such methods are now available for rapid detection or estimation of groups of (indicator) organisms, pathogenic micro-organisms, bacterial toxins and mycotoxins, and molds. These alternative methods can be classified by the principles on which they are based: modified conventional methods, instrumental measurement of bacterial metabolism, bioluminescence, immunological techniques, DNA techniques, and combinations of these techniques. To meet user expectations, test kits must be accurate, sensitive, specific, rapid (24 h or less), easy to use, and labor-saving. They must also offer the possibility of computerization, a low detection limit, and low investment and running costs. The paper compares the ability of alternative methods to meet these criteria. Variations were found, depending on the techniques used and the target organism of the analysis. Economic reasons can determine whether alternative methods can be used routinely. Adoption of these screening systems also can be hampered by lack of internationally coordinated and accepted validation protocols.

  2. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2002-02-28

    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  3. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management. PMID:23569397

  4. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  5. SSME alternate turbopump (pump section) axial load analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crease, G. A.; Rosello, A., Jr.; Fetfatsidis, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    A flow balancing computer program constructed to calculate the axial loads on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) alternate turbopumps (ATs) pump sections are described. The loads are used in turn to determine load balancing piston design requirements. The application of the program to the inlet section, inducer/impeller/stage, bearings, seals, labyrinth, damper, piston, face and corner, and stationary/rotating surfaces is indicated. Design analysis results are reported which show that the balancing piston's designs are adequate and that performance and life will not be degraded by the turbopump's axial load characteristics.

  6. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management.

  7. Analysis of Alternatives for Risk Assessment Methodologies and Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtigal, Noel M.; Fruetel, Julia A.; Gleason, Nathaniel J.; Helms, Jovana; Imbro, Dennis Raymond; Sumner, Matthew C.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a basic overview and understanding of risk assessment methodologies and tools from the literature and to assess the suitability of these methodologies and tools for cyber risk assessment. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) performed this review in support of risk modeling activities performed for the Stakeholder Engagement and Cyber Infrastructure Resilience (SECIR) division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C). The set of methodologies and tools covered in this document is not intended to be exhaustive; instead, it focuses on those that are commonly used in the risk assessment community. The classification of methodologies and tools was performed by a group of analysts with experience in risk analysis and cybersecurity, and the resulting analysis of alternatives has been tailored to address the needs of a cyber risk assessment.

  8. What Do Alternate Assessments of Alternate Academic Achievement Standards Measure? A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Beddow, Peter A.; Compton, Elizabeth; McGrath, Dawn; Kaase, Kristopher J.; Bruen, Charles; Ford, Lisa; Hinton, Kent

    2010-01-01

    This study featured validity evidence for scores from states' alternate assessments of alternate academic achievement standards (AA-AASs). It evaluated students from 6 states who were eligible for an AA-AAS concurrently with measures of academic competence and adaptive behavior. The investigators also assessed students with disabilities who were…

  9. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  10. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  11. Analysis of Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2012-01-01

    A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition between a subsonic separated and a supersonic attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction as the local flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between the two flow states. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories resulting in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a windtunnel- test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load. I. Introduction One

  12. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  13. Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje

    2013-01-01

    The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was…

  14. Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje

    2013-01-01

    The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was…

  15. An Analysis of State Alternate Assessment Participation Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musson, Jane E.; Thomas, Megan K.; Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kearns, Jacqueline F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine all states' participation guidelines for alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) and to analyze these guidelines for common and contrasting themes. State alternate assessment participation guidelines were found for all 50 states. Participation guidelines were coded, and 12…

  16. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    PubMed

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  18. Progressive collapse analysis using updated models for alternate path analysis after a blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskew, Edward; Jang, Shinae; Bertolaccini, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Progressive collapse is of rising importance within the structural engineering community due to several recent cases. The alternate path method is a design technique to determine the ability of a structure to sustain the loss of a critical element, or elements, and still resist progressive collapse. However, the alternate path method only considers the removal of the critical elements. In the event of a blast, significant damage may occur to nearby members not included in the alternate path design scenarios. To achieve an accurate assessment of the current condition of the structure after a blast or other extreme event, it may be necessary to reduce the strength or remove additional elements beyond the critical members designated in the alternate path design method. In this paper, a rapid model updating technique utilizing vibration measurements is used to update the structural model to represent the real-time condition of the structure after a blast occurs. Based upon the updated model, damaged elements will either have their strength reduced, or will be removed from the simulation. The alternate path analysis will then be performed, but only utilizing the updated structural model instead of numerous scenarios. After the analysis, the simulated response from the analysis will be compared to failure conditions to determine the buildings post-event condition. This method has the ability to incorporate damage to noncritical members into the analysis. This paper will utilize numerical simulations based upon a unified facilities criteria (UFC) example structure subjected to an equivalent blast to validate the methodology.

  19. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An Analysis of State Policies Connected with Alternative School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeld, William C.; Stubblefield, Anna; Templeton, Zach

    2009-01-01

    Many school districts offer alternative education programs for their students who do not succeed in the regular classroom. At the high school level, many of these programs are separated from the regular schools. It seemed that many districts were establishing alternative education programs, but there were differences in the types of programs that…

  1. An Analysis of State Policies Connected with Alternative School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeld, William C.; Stubblefield, Anna; Templeton, Zach

    2009-01-01

    Many school districts offer alternative education programs for their students who do not succeed in the regular classroom. At the high school level, many of these programs are separated from the regular schools. It seemed that many districts were establishing alternative education programs, but there were differences in the types of programs that…

  2. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  3. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

  4. Long-term-consequence analysis of no action alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Staven, L.H.; Serne, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Disposal-Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Data and information is described which pertains to estimated impacts from postulated long-term release of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from alpha-bearing wastes stored at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control (no action alternative 2). Under this alternative, wastes would remain at the generator sites and not be emplaced at WIPP.

  5. Alternative Nonvolatile Residue Analysis with Contaminant Identification Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Kathleen (Compiler); Summerfield, Burton (Compiler); Thompson, Karen (Compiler); Mullenix, Pamela (Compiler); Zeitlin, Nancy (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Cleanliness verification is required in numerous industries including spaceflight ground support, electronics, medical and aerospace. Currently at KSC requirement for cleanliness verification use solvents that environmentally unfriendly. This goal of this project is to produce an alternative cleanliness verification technique that is both environmentally friendly and more cost effective.

  6. Alternatives to Multilevel Modeling for the Analysis of Clustered Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling has grown in use over the years as a way to deal with the nonindependent nature of observations found in clustered data. However, other alternatives to multilevel modeling are available that can account for observations nested within clusters, including the use of Taylor series linearization for variance estimation, the design…

  7. Survey and Analysis of Alternative Education Programs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosley, Nathaniel S.; Hosley, Jessica; Thein, Myint

    2009-01-01

    This research is a follow up to a similar study published by the Center for Rural Pennsylvania in 2003 in which researchers examined alternative education policies and practices among Pennsylvania school districts. The current study extended the previous research to include information on the perceptions of administrators and teachers on the…

  8. Alternatives to Multilevel Modeling for the Analysis of Clustered Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling has grown in use over the years as a way to deal with the nonindependent nature of observations found in clustered data. However, other alternatives to multilevel modeling are available that can account for observations nested within clusters, including the use of Taylor series linearization for variance estimation, the design…

  9. 40 CFR 68.28 - Alternative release scenario analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.28 Alternative release... applicable: (i) Transfer hose releases due to splits or sudden hose uncoupling; (ii) Process piping releases from failures at flanges, joints, welds, valves and valve seals, and drains or bleeds; (iii) Process...

  10. 40 CFR 68.28 - Alternative release scenario analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.28 Alternative release... applicable: (i) Transfer hose releases due to splits or sudden hose uncoupling; (ii) Process piping releases from failures at flanges, joints, welds, valves and valve seals, and drains or bleeds; (iii) Process...

  11. An Alternative Approach to Test Analysis and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This reflection paper challenges current test scoring practices on the grounds that most wrong-answer selections are thoughtful not random, presenting research supporting this proposition. An alternative test scoring system is presented, described and its outcomes discussed. This new scoring system increases the number of variables considered,…

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  13. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  14. Cost analysis of Navy acquisition alternatives for the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcy, T. F.; Smith, G. P.

    1982-12-01

    This research analyzes the life cycle cost (LCC) of the Navy's current and two hypothetical procurement alternatives for NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment. Costs are derived by the ARINC Research Corporation ACBEN cost estimating system. Data presentation is in a comparative format describing individual alternative LCC and differential costs between alternatives. Sensitivity analysis explores the impact receiver-processor unit (RPU) first unit production cost has on individual alternative LCC, as well as cost differentials between each alternative. Several benefits are discussed that might provide sufficient cost savings and/or system effectiveness improvements to warrant a procurement strategy other than the existing proposal.

  15. Alternatives Generation Analysis Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System Storage

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-13

    The long length contaminated equipment was designed and built to aid in the remote removal and transport of highly radioactive, contaminated equipment from various locations in the tank farms to disposal. The equipment has been stored in an open lay-down yard area, exposed to the elements for the past year and a half. The possible alternatives available to provide shelter for the equipment are investigated.

  16. Peptide-Centric Proteome Analysis: An Alternative Strategy for the Analysis of Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, Ying S.; Egertson, Jarrett D.; Payne, Samuel H.; Kim, Sangtae; MacLean, Brendan; Kall, Lukas; Aebersold, Ruedi; Smith, Richard D.; Noble, William; MacCoss, Michael

    2015-09-01

    In mass spectrometry-based bottom-up proteomics, data-independent acquisition (DIA) is an emerging technique due to its comprehensive and unbiased sampling of precursor ions. However, current DIA methods use wide precursor isolation windows, resulting in co- fragmentation and complex mixture spectra. Thus, conventional database searching tools that identify peptides by interpreting individual MS/MS spectra are inherently limited in analyzing DIA data. Here we discuss an alternative approach, peptide-centric analysis, which tests directly for the presence and absence of query peptides. We discuss how peptide-centric analysis resolves some limitations of traditional spectrum-centric analysis, and we outline the benefits of peptide-centric analysis in general.

  17. Multivariate Alternatives to Regression Analysis in the Evaluation of Salary Equity-Parity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Richard D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The analysis of salary equity-parity typically involves the use of multiple regression analysis to determine predicted salary and the residual differences between predicted and actual salary. Two alternatives are presented, canonical analysis and multiple discriminant analysis. (Author/MLW)

  18. An Alternative View of Some FIA Sample Design and Analysis Issues

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2005-01-01

    Sample design and analysis decisions are the result of compromises and inputs from many sources. The end result would likely change if different individuals or groups were involved in the planning process. Discussed here are some alternatives to the procedures that are currently being used for the annual inventory. The purpose is to indicate that alternatives exist and...

  19. A Policy Analysis: Successful Type II Alternative High Schools for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienhuis, Victoria A.; Tendai, Jeanette L.

    2009-01-01

    This policy analysis project is designed at uncovering specific standards that can be utilized by a school district in developing and evaluating their Type II Alternative Schools to ensure high levels of student success within their programs. While there is a substantive body of research in alternative education, there are no universally accepted…

  20. Summary of Plutonium-238 Production Alternatives Analysis Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Werner; Wade E. Bickford; David B. Lord; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2013-03-01

    The Team implemented a two-phase evaluation process. During the first phase, a wide variety of past and new candidate facilities and processing methods were assessed against the criteria established by DOE for this assessment. Any system or system element selected for consideration as an alternative within the project to reestablish domestic production of Pu-238 must meet the following minimum criteria: Any required source material must be readily available in the United States, without requiring the development of reprocessing technologies or investments in systems to separate material from identified sources. It must be cost, schedule, and risk competitive with existing baseline technology. Any identified facilities required to support the concept must be available to the program for the entire project life cycle (notionally 35 years, unless the concept is so novel as to require a shorter duration). It must present a solution that can generate at least 1.5 Kg of Pu-238 oxide per year, for at least 35 years. It must present a low-risk, near-term solution to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s urgent mission need. DOE has implemented this requirement by eliminating from project consideration any alternative with key technologies at less than Technology Readiness Level 5. The Team evaluated the options meeting these criteria using a more detailed assessment of the reasonable facility variations and compared them to the preferred option, which consists of target irradiation at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), target fabrication and chemical separations processing at the ORNL Radiochemical Engineering Development Center, and neptunium 237 storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex at INL. This preferred option is consistent with the Records of Decision from the earlier National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation

  1. Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

  2. Splined version of FLEXSTAB: A critical analysis of alternate schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations are made for improved aerodynamic models and numerical schemes to be considered for inclusion into the FLEXSTAB computer program system. These recommendations are based on a critical analysis of numerical technology.

  3. An Alternative to Correspondence Analysis Using Hellinger Distance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    sizes for the populations in the correspondence analysis. The technique of biplots where the populations and the variables are represented on the same...sample sizes for the populations in the correspondence analysis. The technique of biplots where the populations and the variables arc represented on the...the developments are biplots (Gabriel (1971), Gifi (1990), Nishisato (1980), Gower (1993), Greenacre (1993)), multidimensional scaling (Kruskal and

  4. Analysis of Alternative Extensions of the Existing Production Tax Credit for Wind Generators

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    Requestor: Ms. Janice Mays, Chief Counsel, Committee on Ways & Means, U.S. House of Representatives This is a letter response requesting analysis of alternative extensions of the existing production tax credit (PTC) that would apply to wind generators only.

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS OF FARMINGTON BAY WETLANDS IN THE GREAT SALT LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included plan trend and conservation "futures" scenarios projected to 2030. ...

  6. Alternative Futures Analysis Of Farmington Bay Wetlands In The Great Salt Lake Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included both plan trend and conservation "futures" projected to 2030. Scena...

  7. AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS OF FARMINGTON BAY WETLANDS IN THE GREAT SALT LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included plan trend and conservation "futures" scenarios projected to 2030. ...

  8. Alternative Futures Analysis Of Farmington Bay Wetlands In The Great Salt Lake Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included both plan trend and conservation "futures" projected to 2030. Scena...

  9. Alternate modal combination methods in response spectrum analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.K.; Bezler, P.

    1989-01-01

    In piping analyses using the response spectrum method Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) with clustering between closely spaced modes is the combination procedure most commonly used to combine between the modal response components. This procedure is simple to apply and normally yields conservative estimates of the time history results. The purpose of this study is to investigate alternate methods to combine between the modal response components. These methods are mathematically based to properly account for the combination between rigid and flexible modal responses as well as closely spaced modes. The methods are those advanced by Gupta, Hadjian and Lindley-Yow to address rigid response modes and the Double Sum Combination (DSC) method and the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method to account for closely spaced modes. A direct comparison between these methods as well as the SRSS procedure is made by using them to predict the response of six piping systems. For two piping systems thirty-three earthquake records were considered to account for the impact of variations in the characteristics of the excitation. The results provided by each method are compared to the corresponding time history estimates of results as well as to each other. The degree of conservatism associated with each method is characterized. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analysis of generalized Schwarz alternating procedure for domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Engquist, B.; Zhao, Hongkai

    1996-12-31

    The Schwartz alternating method(SAM) is the theoretical basis for domain decomposition which itself is a powerful tool both for parallel computation and for computing in complicated domains. The convergence rate of the classical SAM is very sensitive to the overlapping size between each subdomain, which is not desirable for most applications. We propose a generalized SAM procedure which is an extension of the modified SAM proposed by P.-L. Lions. Instead of using only Dirichlet data at the artificial boundary between subdomains, we take a convex combination of u and {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}n, i.e. {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}n + {Lambda}u, where {Lambda} is some {open_quotes}positive{close_quotes} operator. Convergence of the modified SAM without overlapping in a quite general setting has been proven by P.-L.Lions using delicate energy estimates. The important questions remain for the generalized SAM. (1) What is the most essential mechanism for convergence without overlapping? (2) Given the partial differential equation, what is the best choice for the positive operator {Lambda}? (3) In the overlapping case, is the generalized SAM superior to the classical SAM? (4) What is the convergence rate and what does it depend on? (5) Numerically can we obtain an easy to implement operator {Lambda} such that the convergence is independent of the mesh size. To analyze the convergence of the generalized SAM we focus, for simplicity, on the Poisson equation for two typical geometry in two subdomain case.

  11. Alternate modal combination methods in response spectrum analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.; Wang, Y.K.; Gupta, A.K. )

    1990-10-01

    In piping analyses using the response spectrum method Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) with clustering between closely spaced modes is the combination procedure most commonly used to combine between the modal response components. This procedure is simple to apply and normally yields conservative estimates of the time history results. The purpose of this study is to investigate alternate methods to combine between the modal response components. These methods are mathematically based to properly account for the combination between rigid and flexible modal responses as well as closely spaced modes. The methods are those advanced by Gupta, Hadjian and Lindely-Yow to address rigid response modes and the Double Sum Combination (DSC) method and the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method to account for closely spaced modes. A direct comparison between these methods as well as the SRSS procedure is made by using them to predict the response of six piping systems. The results provided by each method are compared to the corresponding time history estimates of results as well as to each other. The degree of conservatism associated with each method is characterized. 19 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. A thermodynamic analysis of alternative approaches to chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart; Pihl, Josh A

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review and clarify some of the points made by previous authors regarding chemical looping combustion (CLC). While much of the recent interest in chemical looping combustion has been associated with carbon sequestration, our primary interest here is its potential to increase the thermodynamic efficiency of converting fuel chemical energy into useful work. We expand on several points about the details of CLC that we feel have not previously been sufficiently explored, and suggest alternative (and possibly more practical) approaches that exploit some of the same thermodynamic concepts. We illustrate our key points with {First} and {Second} Law analyses of ideal conceptual processes, which in addition to {CLC} also include isothermal, non-equilibrium, preheated combustion and combustion with thermochemical recuperation. Our results suggest that a significant portion of the potential efficiency benefit of CLC might be achieved without the need to handle and transport large quantities of solid oxygen storage material. Exploitation of this fact may lead to higher efficiency approaches for power generation from hydrocarbon fuels combustion.

  13. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in regulatory alternatives analysis: a case study of lead free solder.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy F; Sinsheimer, Peter J; Blake, Ann; Linkov, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Regulators are implementing new programs that require manufacturers of products containing certain chemicals of concern to identify, evaluate, and adopt viable, safer alternatives. Such programs raise the difficult question for policymakers and regulated businesses of which alternatives are "viable" and "safer." To address that question, these programs use "alternatives analysis," an emerging methodology that integrates issues of human health and environmental effects with technical feasibility and economic impact. Despite the central role that alternatives analysis plays in these programs, the methodology itself is neither well-developed nor tailored to application in regulatory settings. This study uses the case of Pb-based bar solder and its non-Pb-based alternatives to examine the application of 2 multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods to alternatives analysis: multi-attribute utility analysis and outranking. The article develops and evaluates an alternatives analysis methodology and supporting decision-analysis software for use in a regulatory context, using weighting of the relevant decision criteria generated from a stakeholder elicitation process. The analysis produced complete rankings of the alternatives, including identification of the relative contribution to the ranking of each of the highest level decision criteria such as human health impacts, technical feasibility, and economic feasibility. It also examined the effect of variation in data conventions, weighting, and decision frameworks on the outcome. The results indicate that MCDA can play a critical role in emerging prevention-based regulatory programs. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods offer a means for transparent, objective, and rigorous analysis of products and processes, providing regulators and stakeholders with a common baseline understanding of the relative performance of alternatives and the trade-offs they present. © 2013 SETAC.

  14. 40 CFR 68.28 - Alternative release scenario analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Consequence Analysis Guidance or any commercially or publicly available air dispersion modeling techniques, provided the techniques account for the specified modeling conditions and are recognized by industry as applicable as part of current practices. Proprietary models that account for the modeling conditions may be...

  15. Application of an Alternative Cost Analysis Model to Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilby, Albert E.

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of a cost analysis model for use by curriculum planners and developers in evaluating educational programs. The paper consists of four major sections that focus in turn on the need to approach educational costs from a nontraditional perspective, development of a cost model, implementation of…

  16. A Benefit Cost Analysis of Alternative Library Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Teh-Wei; And Others

    The application of cost-benefit analysis to two library delivery systems--bookmobiles and books-by-mail (BBM)--is described. The study surveyed 36 bookmobiles and the mail order delivery (MOD) of books in Pennsylvania. The analyses are intended to provide decision-makers with guidance in determining (1) the kinds of information which must be…

  17. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  18. Is acoustic analysis of snoring an alternative to sleep nasendoscopy?

    PubMed

    Saunders, N C; Tassone, P; Wood, G; Norris, A; Harries, M; Kotecha, B

    2004-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that acoustic analysis may be useful in distinguishing different types of snoring prior to possible corrective surgery. This study aimed to establish whether it could replace sleep nasendoscopy in a clinical setting. Thirty-five patients undergoing sleep nasendoscopy had their snoring recorded and analysed using commercially available equipment. It was found that centre frequency can be used to distinguish pure palatal from tongue base snoring, with a clear cut-off value of 90 Hz between the two. Multisegmental snoring cannot be identified on the basis of centre frequency alone. It may be distinguished from tongue base, but not palatal snoring by the nature of the frequency distribution plot (sensitivity 77%, specificity 81%). Blinded assessment of waveforms of individual snores gave poor accuracy (53%) and poor interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.10). Acoustic analysis may help screen for pure tongue base snoring. However, we feel that it is unlikely to replace sleep nasendoscopy.

  19. Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) Process Improvement Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    of U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Analysis Center (TRAC’s) AoA Primer and previous acquisition reviews (Decker- Wagner , etc.). (5...2009................................................................36 Figure E-7. Decker- Wagner (Army Acquisition Review) Findings, Jan 2011(1 of 2...37 Figure E-8. Decker- Wagner (Army Acquisition Review) Findings, Jan 2011(2 of 2).................38 Figure E-9. Goldwater Nichols

  20. Alternative Analysis Techniques for Needs and Needs Documentation Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-20

    economic if business planning *s to Forecasting in the seventies, if it is to be be effective in the seventies.’ Little is report- effective, must include...The strategic business planning and related perspective-tree approach to the identification research and development planning. of threats and...the Seventies: a Trend Analysis for Business Planning (New York: McGraw-Hi Book Com- from either business or technical planning. peny. 1970). FEBRUARY

  1. Alternative Factor Models and Factorial Invariance of the GHQ-12: A Large Sample Analysis Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This study tested alternative factor models of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), based on previous research findings, with a large sample using confirmatory factor analysis. An alternative models framework was used to test 6 factor analytic models. A 3-factor model was the best explanation of the sample data. The 3 factors were labeled…

  2. Low-level waste management alternatives and analysis in DOE`s programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstein, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The PEIS has been divided into an Environmental Restoration section and a Waste Management section. Each section has a unique set of alternatives. This paper will focus on the waste management alternatives and analysis. The set of alternatives for waste management has been divided into waste categories. These categories are: high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, greater-than-class C and low-level waste from commercial sources, hazardous waste, and spent nuclear fuel. This paper will discuss the alternatives and analytical approach that will be used to evaluate these alternatives for the low-level waste section. Although the same alternatives will be considered for all waste types, the analysis will be performed separately for each waste type. In the sections that follow, information will be provided on waste management configurations, the analysis of waste management alternatives, waste types and locations, facility and transportation activities, the facility and transportation impacts assessment, and the compilation of impacts.

  3. Air quality analysis of transportation alternatives for Yosemite National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Raley, D.L.; Wilcox, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    An air quality analysis was conducted to characterize and quantify mobile source air emissions associated with ten transportation scenarios for Yosemite National Park in support of the Yosemite Valley Implementation Plan Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. These transportation strategies are aimed at reducing traffic congestion in Yosemite Valley by eliminating day-use visitor vehicles from the east end of the Valley and providing shuttle bus transportation from staging areas within and outside the Park. Air emissions were estimated to be reduced under all scenarios.

  4. FMEA, the alternative process hazard method. [Failure Mode Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is an old reliability/assurance tool finding its way into the HPI. Not popular yet, this hazard technique has some viable applications that can improve hazard assessment data. Notably, FMEA studies can identify possible areas for improvement that may have not been discovered using other methods. Also, FMEA is not as labor intensive and costly as other process hazard analysis (PHA) methods. PSHA 1910.119 set in place an informational structure whose main purpose is the reduction of potential accidents and minimizing risks in the event of an accident. Consequently, HPI operators must evaluate their process systems and identify potential major hazards, such as fires, explosions and accidental release of toxic/hazardous chemicals, and protect their facilities, employees, the public and the environment. But, which PHA method(s) apply to a particular plant or process still remains a difficult question. This paper describes what FMEA is; types of FMEA; how to conduct a FMEA study; comparison with HAZOP (hazard and operability study); computer software; applicability of FMEA; and examples of its use.

  5. Attributed Goal-Oriented Analysis Method for Selecting Alternatives of Software Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuma; Saeki, Motoshi

    During software requirements analysis, developers and stakeholders have many alternatives of requirements to be achieved and should make decisions to select an alternative out of them. There are two significant points to be considered for supporting these decision making processes in requirements analysis; 1) dependencies among alternatives and 2) evaluation based on multi-criteria and their trade-off. This paper proposes the technique to address the above two issues by using an extended version of goal-oriented analysis. In goal-oriented analysis, elicited goals and their dependencies are represented with an AND-OR acyclic directed graph. We use this technique to model the dependencies of the alternatives. Furthermore we associate attribute values and their propagation rules with nodes and edges in a goal graph in order to evaluate the alternatives with them. The attributes and their calculation rules greatly depend on the characteristics of a development project. Thus, in our approach, we select and use the attributes and their rules that can be appropriate for the project. TOPSIS method is adopted to show alternatives and their resulting attribute values.

  6. Analysis of alternative pathways for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Kaufman, Katherine R; Lenox, Carol S; Hubbell, Bryan J

    2015-09-01

    Strategies for reducing tropospheric ozone (O3) typically include modifying combustion processes to reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and applying control devices that remove NOx from the exhaust gases of power plants, industrial sources and vehicles. For portions of the U.S., these traditional controls may not be sufficient to achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. We apply the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model in a sensitivity analysis to explore whether additional NOx reductions can be achieved through extensive electrification of passenger vehicles, adoption of energy efficiency and conservation measures within buildings, and deployment of wind and solar power in the electric sector. Nationally and for each region of the country, we estimate the NOx implications of these measures. Energy efficiency and renewable electricity are shown to reduce NOx beyond traditional controls. Wide-spread light duty vehicle electrification produces varied results, with NOx increasing in some regions and decreasing in others. However, combining vehicle electrification with renewable electricity reduces NOx in all regions. State governments are charged with developing plans that demonstrate how air quality standards will be met and maintained. The results presented here provide an indication of the national and regional NOx reductions available beyond traditional controls via extensive adoption of energy efficiency, renewable electricity, and vehicle electrification.

  7. Choosing among alternative recycling systems: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stedge, G.D. . Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics); Halstead, J.M. . Dept. of Resource Economics and Development)

    1994-03-01

    Due to the increasing concern over the disposal of municipal solid waste, municipalities have begun searching for ways to recycle a larger percentage to their waste stream at a reasonable cost. This report examines bag-based recycling. This system, due to its efficient collection and separation method, and its convenience, should be able to capture a larger share of the waste stream at a lower cost per metric ton than conventional recycling programs. Using a case study approach, a bag-based program is compared with a curbside-sort program and a drop-off program. Using time/motion analysis, a garbage composition study, a household survey, and the recording of set-out rates of a sample of dwelling units, the efficiency of the three programs was defined and estimated. The efficiency of the bag-based system was also estimated for three areas with distinct household densities. Although the curbside-sort program was found to divert a larger percentage of the residential waste stream than the bag-based system, the cost per metric ton of the bag-based system is so much lower that it clearly is the most efficient of the three programs. The drop-off program had a very low cost per metric ton; however, if failed to divert the minimum acceptable level of the waste stream. The bag-based system proved to be more efficient in areas with higher household densities.

  8. Rapid Execution of an Analysis of Alternatives for NATO Special Operations HQ: A Smart Defence Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    assistance from the Cargo Helicopters Project Office and Utility Helicopters Project Office. Their dedication to the mission of flying and fixing some...26 A. ALTERNATIVE NAVY SH-60F SH-60F Multi- Mission Naval Helicopters. These helicopters are being offered as EDA at no cost under Section 516 of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Rapid Execution of An Analysis of Alternatives for NATO

  9. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  10. Analysis of Instructional Consultants' Questions and Alternatives to Questions during the Problem Identification Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, A. Efrat; Jones, Grace W.; Rosenfield, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relation between Instructional Consultants' communication skills and competence using videotapes of simulated Problem Identification interviews. A quantitative analysis identified the frequencies of questions and alternatives to questions used, and the qualitative analysis examined the content of the…

  11. A framework of analysis for field experiments with alternative materials in road construction.

    PubMed

    François, D; Jullien, A

    2009-01-01

    In France, a wide variety of alternative materials is produced or exists in the form of stockpiles built up over time. Such materials are distributed over various regions of the territory depending on local industrial development and urbanisation trends. The use of alternative materials at a national scale implies sharing local knowledge and experience. Building a national database on alternative materials for road construction is useful in gathering and sharing information. An analysis of feedback from onsite experiences (back analysis) is essential to improve knowledge on alternative material use in road construction. Back analysis of field studies has to be conducted in accordance with a single common framework. This could enable drawing comparisons between alternative materials and between road applications. A framework for the identification and classification of data used in back analyses is proposed. Since the road structure is an open system, this framework has been based on a stress-response approach at both the material and structural levels and includes a description of external factors applying during the road service life. The proposal has been shaped from a review of the essential characteristics of road materials and structures, as well as from the state of knowledge specific to alternative material characterisation.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of SRSF10-regulated alternative splicing by deep sequencing of chicken transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuexia; Wu, Wenwu; Wei, Ning; Cheng, Yuanming; Xie, Zhiqin; Feng, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Splicing factor SRSF10 is known to function as a sequence-specific splicing activator that is capable of regulating alternative splicing both in vitro and in vivo. We recently used an RNA-seq approach coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify the extensive splicing network regulated by SRSF10 in chicken cells. We found that SRSF10 promoted both exon inclusion and exclusion. Functionally, many of the SRSF10-verified alternative exons are linked to pathways of response to external stimulus. Here we describe in detail the experimental design, bioinformatics analysis and GO/pathway enrichment analysis of SRSF10-regulated genes to correspond with our data in the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE53354. Our data thus provide a resource for studying regulation of alternative splicing in vivo that underlines biological functions of splicing regulatory proteins in cells.

  13. A bioinformatics analysis of alternative exon usage in human genes coding for extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Sakabe, Noboru Jo; Vibranovski, Maria Dulcetti; de Souza, Sandro José

    2004-12-30

    Alternative splicing increases protein diversity through the generation of different mRNA molecules from the same gene. Although alternative splicing seems to be a widespread phenomenon in the human transcriptome, it is possible that different subgroups of genes present different patterns, related to their biological roles. Analysis of a subgroup may enhance common features of its members that would otherwise disappear amidst a heterogeneous population. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a good set for such analyses since they are structurally and functionally related. This family of proteins is involved in a large variety of functions, probably achieved by the combinatorial use of protein domains through exon shuffling events. To determine if ECM genes have a different pattern of alternative splicing, we compared clusters of expressed sequences of ECM to all other genes regarding features related to the most frequent type of alternative splicing, alternative exon usage (AEU), such as: the number of alternative exon-intron structures per cluster, the number of AEU events per exon-intron structure, the number of exons per event, among others. Although we did not find many differences between the two sets, we observed a higher frequency of AEU events involving entire protein domains in the ECM set, a feature that could be associated with their multi-domain nature. As other subgroups or even the ECM set in different tissues could present distinct patterns of AEU, it may be premature to conclude that alternative splicing is homogeneous among groups of related genes.

  14. A brief functional analysis of aggressive and alternative behavior in an outclinic setting.

    PubMed Central

    Northup, J; Wacker, D; Sasso, G; Steege, M; Cigrand, K; Cook, J; DeRaad, A

    1991-01-01

    We conducted a brief functional analysis to identify maintaining variable for aggressive behavior and an alternative replacement response during a 90-min outpatient evaluation of 3 individuals with severe handicaps. During the initial analogue assessment, which focused on identifying maintaining contingencies for aggressive behavior, each participant displayed a substantially greater frequency of aggressive behavior during one condition than during any other. The contingency that produced the highest percentage of aggressive behavior was then presented for the occurrence of a specific alternative behavior (a mand). During this contingency reversal phase, each participant displayed a substantial reduction in aggressive behavior and a substantial increase in alternative behavior, thus providing a direct analysis of the equivalency of the contingency for maintaining either behavior. PMID:1752840

  15. Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms

    DOEpatents

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-12-30

    Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

  16. Integrative analysis of tissue-specific methylation and alternative splicing identifies conserved transcription factor binding motifs

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jun; Oliver, Verity F.; Zhu, Heng; Zack, Donald J.; Qian, Jiang; Merbs, Shannath L.

    2013-01-01

    The exact role of intragenic DNA methylation in regulating tissue-specific gene regulation is unclear. Recently, the DNA-binding protein CTCF has been shown to participate in the regulation of alternative splicing in a DNA methylation-dependent manner. To globally evaluate the relationship between DNA methylation and tissue-specific alternative splicing, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse retina and brain. In protein-coding genes, tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) were preferentially located in exons and introns. Gene ontology and evolutionary conservation analysis suggest that these T-DMRs are likely to be biologically relevant. More than 14% of alternatively spliced genes were associated with a T-DMR. T-DMR-associated genes were enriched for developmental genes, suggesting that a specific set of alternatively spliced genes may be regulated through DNA methylation. Novel DNA sequences motifs overrepresented in T-DMRs were identified as being associated with positive and/or negative regulation of alternative splicing in a position-dependent context. The majority of these evolutionarily conserved motifs contain a CpG dinucleotide. Some transcription factors, which recognize these motifs, are known to be involved in splicing. Our results suggest that DNA methylation-dependent alternative splicing is widespread and lay the foundation for further mechanistic studies of the role of DNA methylation in tissue-specific splicing regulation. PMID:23887936

  17. Cloning and Analysis of the Alternative Oxidase Gene of Neurospora Crassa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q.; Ritzel, R. G.; McLean, LLT.; McIntosh, L.; Ko, T.; Bertrand, H.; Nargang, F. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mitochondria of Neurospora crassa contain a cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway in addition to the cytochrome pathway. The alternative oxidase is present only when electron flow through the cytochrome chain is restricted. Both genomic and cDNA copies for the alternative oxidase gene have been isolated and analyzed. The sequence of the predicted protein is homologous to that of other species. The mRNA for the alternative oxidase is scarce in wild-type cultures grown under normal conditions, but it is abundant in cultures grown in the presence of chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, or in mutants deficient in mitochondrial cytochromes. Thus, induction of alternative oxidase appears to be at the transcriptional level. Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping of the isolated gene demonstrated that it is located in a position corresponding to the aod-1 locus. Sequence analysis of mutant aod-1 alleles reveals mutations affecting the coding sequence of the alternative oxidase. The level of aod-1 mRNA in an aod-2 mutant strain that had been grown in the presence of chloramphenicol was reduced several fold relative to wild-type, supporting the hypothesis that the product of aod-2 is required for optimal expression of aod-1. PMID:8770590

  18. Comparing Child Outcomes of Physical Punishment and Alternative Disciplinary Tactics: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Kuhn, Brett R.

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates differences between the effect sizes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics for child outcomes in 26 qualifying studies. Analyzing differences in effect sizes reduces systematic biases and emphasizes direct comparisons between the disciplinary tactics that parents have to select among. The…

  19. Comparing Child Outcomes of Physical Punishment and Alternative Disciplinary Tactics: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Kuhn, Brett R.

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates differences between the effect sizes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics for child outcomes in 26 qualifying studies. Analyzing differences in effect sizes reduces systematic biases and emphasizes direct comparisons between the disciplinary tactics that parents have to select among. The…

  20. 14 CFR 161.205 - Required analysis of proposed restriction and alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required analysis of proposed restriction and alternatives. 161.205 Section 161.205 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... airport noise study area as specified in §§ 161.9 and 161.11, respectively; shall use currently...

  1. 77 FR 14587 - FY 2012 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity: Alternatives Analysis Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... infrastructure investments that enhance the use of transit and other transportation options for the community. On... development, and improving our Nation's environment through investments in clean energy resources, have been... transportation, environmental protection, and housing investments. The Alternatives Analysis program will...

  2. An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

  3. Alternative health care consultations in Ontario, Canada: A geographic and socio-demographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allison M; Kitchen, Peter; Eby, Jeanette

    2011-06-22

    An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005) for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598) who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1) all consultations (2) massage therapy (3) acupuncture, and (4) homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to alternative care use. The paper concludes that there is a need for

  4. Optimization of oligonucleotide arrays and RNA amplification protocols for analysis of transcript structure and alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Castle, John; Garrett-Engele, Phil; Armour, Christopher D; Duenwald, Sven J; Loerch, Patrick M; Meyer, Michael R; Schadt, Eric E; Stoughton, Roland; Parrish, Mark L; Shoemaker, Daniel D; Johnson, Jason M

    2003-01-01

    Microarrays offer a high-resolution means for monitoring pre-mRNA splicing on a genomic scale. We have developed a novel, unbiased amplification protocol that permits labeling of entire transcripts. Also, hybridization conditions, probe characteristics, and analysis algorithms were optimized for detection of exons, exon-intron edges, and exon junctions. These optimized protocols can be used to detect small variations and isoform mixtures, map the tissue specificity of known human alternative isoforms, and provide a robust, scalable platform for high-throughput discovery of alternative splicing. PMID:14519201

  5. ALARA Analysis of Radiological Control Criteria Associated with Alternatives for Disposal of Hazardous Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Bilyard, Gordon R.; Branch, Kristi M.; Lavender, Jay C.; Miller, Peter L.

    2002-05-15

    This ALARA analysis of Radiological Control Criteria (RCC) considers alternatives to continued storage of certain DOE mixed wastes. It also considers the option of treating hazardous wastes generated by DOE facilities, which have a very low concentration of radionuclide contaminants, as purely hazardous waste. Alternative allowable contaminant levels examined correspond to doses to an individual ranging from 0.01 mrem/yr to 10 to 20 mrem/yr. Generic waste inventory data and radionuclide source terms are used in the assessment. Economic issues, potential health and safety issues, and qualitative factors relating to the use of RCCs are considered.

  6. Democracy and sustainable development--what is the alternative to cost-benefit analysis?

    PubMed

    Söderbaum, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is part of neoclassical economics, a specific paradigm, or theoretical perspective. In searching for alternatives to CBA, competing theoretical frameworks in economics appear to be a natural starting point. Positional analysis (PA) as an alternative to CBA is built on institutional theory and a different set of assumptions about human beings, organizations, markets, etc. Sustainable development (SD) is a multidimensional concept that includes social and ecological dimensions in addition to monetary aspects. If the political commitment to SD in the European Union and elsewhere is taken seriously, then approaches to decision making should be chosen that 1st open the door for multidimensional analysis rather than close it. Sustainable development suggests a direction for development in a broad sense but is still open to different interpretations. Each such interpretation is political in kind, and a 2nd criterion for judging different approaches is whether they are ideologically open rather than closed. Although methods for decision making have traditionally been connected with mathematical objective functions and optimization, the purpose of PA is to illuminate a decision situation in a many-sided way with respect to possibly relevant ideological orientations, alternatives, and consequences. Decisions are understood in terms of matching the ideological orientation of each decision maker with the expected effects profile of each alternative considered. Appropriateness and pattern recognition are other concepts in understanding this process.

  7. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  8. Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing

    2004-08-09

    On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.

  9. Alternate polyadenylation in human mRNAs: a large-scale analysis by EST clustering.

    PubMed

    Gautheret, D; Poirot, O; Lopez, F; Audic, S; Claverie, J M

    1998-05-01

    Alternate polyadenylation is an important post-transcriptional regulatory process now open to large-scale analysis by use of cDNA databases. We clustered 164,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) into approximately 15,000 groups and aligned each group to a putative mRNA 3' end. By use of stringent criteria to discard artifactual mRNA extremities, clear evidence for alternate polyadenylation was obtained in 189 of the 1000 EST clusters studied. A number of previously unreported polyadenylation sites were identified, together with possible instances of tissue-specific differential polyadenylation. This study demonstrates that, besides quantitative aspects of gene expression, the distribution of alternate mRNA forms can be analyzed through EST sampling.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of Alternative Splicing during Development and Drought Stress in Maize.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Shawn R; Danilevskaya, Olga N; Meng, Xin; Beatty, Mary; Zastrow-Hayes, Gina; Harris, Charlotte; Van Allen, Brandon; Habben, Jeffrey; Li, Bailin

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a crucial role in plant development as well as stress responses. Although alternative splicing has been studied during development and in response to stress, the interplay between these two factors remains an open question. To assess the effects of drought stress on developmentally regulated splicing in maize (Zea mays), 94 RNA-seq libraries from ear, tassel, and leaf of the B73 public inbred line were constructed at four developmental stages under both well-watered and drought conditions. This analysis was supplemented with a publicly available series of 53 libraries from developing seed, embryo, and endosperm. More than 48,000 novel isoforms, often with stage- or condition-specific expression, were uncovered, suggesting that developmentally regulated alternative splicing occurs in thousands of genes. Drought induced large developmental splicing changes in leaf and ear but relatively few in tassel. Most developmental stage-specific splicing changes affected by drought were tissue dependent, whereas stage-independent changes frequently overlapped between leaf and ear. A linear relationship was found between gene expression changes in splicing factors and alternative spicing of other genes during development. Collectively, these results demonstrate that alternative splicing is strongly associated with tissue type, developmental stage, and stress condition. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of Alternative Splicing during Development and Drought Stress in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Shawn R.; Meng, Xin; Beatty, Mary; Zastrow-Hayes, Gina; Harris, Charlotte; Habben, Jeffrey; Li, Bailin

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a crucial role in plant development as well as stress responses. Although alternative splicing has been studied during development and in response to stress, the interplay between these two factors remains an open question. To assess the effects of drought stress on developmentally regulated splicing in maize (Zea mays), 94 RNA-seq libraries from ear, tassel, and leaf of the B73 public inbred line were constructed at four developmental stages under both well-watered and drought conditions. This analysis was supplemented with a publicly available series of 53 libraries from developing seed, embryo, and endosperm. More than 48,000 novel isoforms, often with stage- or condition-specific expression, were uncovered, suggesting that developmentally regulated alternative splicing occurs in thousands of genes. Drought induced large developmental splicing changes in leaf and ear but relatively few in tassel. Most developmental stage-specific splicing changes affected by drought were tissue dependent, whereas stage-independent changes frequently overlapped between leaf and ear. A linear relationship was found between gene expression changes in splicing factors and alternative spicing of other genes during development. Collectively, these results demonstrate that alternative splicing is strongly associated with tissue type, developmental stage, and stress condition. PMID:26582726

  12. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. A high quality Arabidopsis transcriptome for accurate transcript-level analysis of alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Runxuan; Calixto, Cristiane P. G.; Marquez, Yamile; Venhuizen, Peter; Tzioutziou, Nikoleta A.; Guo, Wenbin; Spensley, Mark; Entizne, Juan Carlos; Lewandowska, Dominika; ten Have, Sara; Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; James, Allan B.; Nimmo, Hugh G.; Barta, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript and protein isoforms from the same gene and thus is important in gene expression regulation. To date, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is the standard method for quantifying changes in alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale. Understanding the current limitations of RNA-seq is crucial for reliable analysis and the lack of high quality, comprehensive transcriptomes for most species, including model organisms such as Arabidopsis, is a major constraint in accurate quantification of transcript isoforms. To address this, we designed a novel pipeline with stringent filters and assembled a comprehensive Reference Transcript Dataset for Arabidopsis (AtRTD2) containing 82,190 non-redundant transcripts from 34 212 genes. Extensive experimental validation showed that AtRTD2 and its modified version, AtRTD2-QUASI, for use in Quantification of Alternatively Spliced Isoforms, outperform other available transcriptomes in RNA-seq analysis. This strategy can be implemented in other species to build a pipeline for transcript-level expression and alternative splicing analyses. PMID:28402429

  14. Full-scale experimentations on alternative materials in roads: analysis of study practices.

    PubMed

    François, D; Jullien, A; Kerzreho, J P; Chateau, L

    2009-03-01

    In France beginning in the 1990s, the topic of road construction using various alternative materials has given rise to several studies aimed at clarifying the technical and environmental feasibility of such an option. Although crucial to understanding and forecasting their behaviour in the field, an analysis of feedback from onsite experiences (back analysis) of roads built with alternative materials has not yet been carried out. The aim of the CAREX project (2003-2005) has been to fill this gap at the national scale. Based on a stress-response approach applied to both the alternative material and the road structure and including the description of external factors, a dedicated standardised framework for field data classification and analysis was adopted. To carry out this analysis, a set of 17 documented field experiments was identified through a specific national survey. It appears that a great heterogeneity exists in data processing procedures among studies. The description of material is acceptable while it is generally poor regarding external factors and structure responses. Structure monitoring is usually brief and mechanical loads too weak, which limits the significance of field testing. For future full-scale experiments, strengthening the realism within the testing conditions would be appropriate.

  15. Functional communication training with and without alternative reinforcement and punishment: an analysis of 58 applications.

    PubMed

    Rooker, Griffin W; Jessel, Joshua; Kurtz, Patricia F; Hagopian, Louis P

    2013-12-01

    Functional communication training (FCT) is an empirically supported treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Hagopian, Fisher, Sullivan, Acquisto, and LeBlanc (1998) analyzed 25 applications of FCT and showed that extinction was a necessary component of FCT, but sometimes punishment was needed to maintain low levels of problem behavior. The current consecutive case series summarized data from 58 applications of FCT in more recent cases. This analysis extended and updated Hagopian et al. by examining FCT when used in combination with alternative reinforcement (noncontingent and differential reinforcement) and multiple schedules during schedule thinning. Although it is difficult to make direct comparisons with the 1998 study, the results of the current case series analysis suggest that FCT can be enhanced when used in combination with alternative reinforcement and when multiple schedules are used during schedule thinning.

  16. Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

  17. Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Jeffrey C.

    1995-12-01

    A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

  18. Global genome splicing analysis reveals an increased number of alternatively spliced genes with aging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sofía A; Grochová, Diana; McKenna, Tomás; Borate, Bhavesh; Trivedi, Niraj S; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism for the development of different tissues; however, not much is known about changes to alternative splicing during aging. Splicing events may become more frequent and widespread genome-wide as tissues age and the splicing machinery stringency decreases. Using skin, skeletal muscle, bone, thymus, and white adipose tissue from wild-type C57BL6/J male mice (4 and 18 months old), we examined the effect of age on splicing by AS analysis of the differential exon usage of the genome. The results identified a considerable number of AS genes in skeletal muscle, thymus, bone, and white adipose tissue between the different age groups (ranging from 27 to 246 AS genes corresponding to 0.3-3.2% of the total number of genes analyzed). For skin, skeletal muscle, and bone, we included a later age group (28 months old) that showed that the number of alternatively spliced genes increased with age in all three tissues (P < 0.01). Analysis of alternatively spliced genes across all tissues by gene ontology and pathway analysis identified 158 genes involved in RNA processing. Additional analysis of AS in a mouse model for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome was performed. The results show that expression of the mutant protein, progerin, is associated with an impaired developmental splicing. As progerin accumulates, the number of genes with AS increases compared to in wild-type skin. Our results indicate the existence of a mechanism for increased AS during aging in several tissues, emphasizing that AS has a more important role in the aging process than previously known.

  19. Applying the least restrictive alternative principle to treatment decisions: A legal and behavioral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. M.; Sherman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The least restrictive alternative concept is widely used in mental health law. This paper addresses how the concept has been applied to treatment decisions. The paper offers both a legal and a behavioral analysis to some problems that have emerged in recent years concerning the selection of behavioral procedures used to change client behavior. The paper also offers ways of improving the application of the concept, which involve developing a more behaviorally functional perspective toward restrictiveness. PMID:22478138

  20. Decision Models for Conducting an Economic Analysis of Alternative Fuels for the Ice Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    UdWieitf bV block aRmft&) Alternative Fuels Compressed Natural Gas Transportation Alcohol Motor Vehicles Electric Vehicles Economic Analysis s. A20:0 CT...alcohol, and electric vehicles (EV’s) as possible replacements for gasoline-powered vehicles . Advantages and disadvantages of vehicles powered by the...program is used to determine the mix of gasoline, CNG, and electric vehicles that satisfy mission requirements for the least total fleet life cycle cost and

  1. Executive Summary of Systems Analysis to Develop Future Civil Aircraft Noise Reduction Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD-AIIB 4 PEER CONSULTANTS INC ROCKVILLE NO F/6 1/3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TO DEVELOP FUTURE CIVIL A-ETC(U) MAY B2 L A ROBINSON DTFAOI...Energy Washington, D.C. 20591 Develop Future Civil Aircraft Noise Reduction Alternatives Lilia Abron Robinson, Ph. D. PEER Consultants, Inc. 1160...ORGANIZATION CODE 7. AUTHOR(S) B. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. PEER Consultants, Inc. 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM

  2. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Luis P; Ramírez, Mario; Barbazuk, William B; Hernández, Georgina

    2017-08-22

    The vast diversification of proteins in eukaryotic cells has been related with multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene that result in alternative splicing (AS) of primary transcripts. Analysis of RNA sequencing data from expressed sequence tags and next generation RNA sequencing has been crucial for AS identification and genome-wide AS studies. For the identification of AS events from the related legume species Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, 157 and 88 publicly available RNA-seq libraries, respectively, were analyzed. We identified 85,570 AS events from P. vulgaris in 72% of expressed genes and 134,316 AS events in 70% of expressed genes from G. max. These were categorized in seven AS event types with intron retention being the most abundant followed by alternative acceptor and alternative donor, representing ~75% of all AS events in both plants. Conservation of AS events in homologous genes between the two species was analyzed where an overrepresentation of AS affecting 5'UTR regions was observed for certain types of AS events. The conservation of AS events was experimentally validated for 8 selected genes, through RT-PCR analysis. The different types of AS events also varied by relative position in the genes. The results were consistent in both species. The identification and analysis of AS events are first steps to understand their biological relevance. The results presented here from two related legume species reveal high conservation, over ~15-20 MY of divergence, and may point to the biological relevance of AS.

  3. Analysis of circadian pattern reveals tissue-specific alternative transcription in leptin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been previously reported that most mammalian genes display a circadian oscillation in their baseline expression. Consequently, the phase and amplitude of each component of a signal transduction cascade has downstream consequences. Results Here, we report our analysis of alternative transcripts in the leptin signaling pathway which is responsible for the systemic regulation of macronutrient storage and energy balance. We focused on the circadian expression pattern of a critical component of the leptin signaling system, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). On an Affymetrix GeneChip 430A2 microarray, this gene is represented by three probe sets targeting different regions within the 3' end of the last exon. We demonstrate that in murine brown adipose tissue two downstream 3' probe sets experience circadian baseline oscillation in counter-phase to the upstream probe set. Such differences in expression patterns are a telltale sign of alternative splicing within the last exon of SOCS3. In contrast, all three probe sets oscillated in a common phase in murine liver and white adipose tissue. This suggests that the regulation of SOCS3 expression in brown fat is tissue specific. Another component of the signaling pathway, Janus kinase (JAK), is directly regulated by SOCS and has alternative transcript probe sets oscillating in counter-phase in a white adipose tissue specific manner. Conclusion We hypothesize that differential oscillation of alternative transcripts may provide a mechanism to maintain steady levels of expression in spite of circadian baseline variation. PMID:18047714

  4. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events conserved in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gene W.; Van Nostrand, Eric; Holste, Dirk; Poggio, Tomaso; Burge, Christopher B.

    2005-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing affects a majority of human genes and plays important roles in development and disease. Alternative splicing (AS) events conserved since the divergence of human and mouse are likely of primary biological importance, but relatively few of such events are known. Here we describe sequence features that distinguish exons subject to evolutionarily conserved AS, which we call alternative conserved exons (ACEs), from other orthologous human/mouse exons and integrate these features into an exon classification algorithm, acescan. Genome-wide analysis of annotated orthologous human–mouse exon pairs identified ≈2,000 predicted ACEs. Alternative splicing was verified in both human and mouse tissues by using an RT-PCR-sequencing protocol for 21 of 30 (70%) predicted ACEs tested, supporting the validity of a majority of acescan predictions. By contrast, AS was observed in mouse tissues for only 2 of 15 (13%) tested exons that had EST or cDNA evidence of AS in human but were not predicted ACEs, and AS was never observed for 11 negative control exons in human or mouse tissues. Predicted ACEs were much more likely to preserve the reading frame and less likely to disrupt protein domains than other AS events and were enriched in genes expressed in the brain and in genes involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, and development. Our results also imply that the vast majority of AS events represented in the human EST database are not conserved in mouse. PMID:15708978

  5. Convergence analysis of the alternating RGLS algorithm for the identification of the reduced complexity Volterra model.

    PubMed

    Laamiri, Imen; Khouaja, Anis; Messaoud, Hassani

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we provide a convergence analysis of the alternating RGLS (Recursive Generalized Least Square) algorithm used for the identification of the reduced complexity Volterra model describing stochastic non-linear systems. The reduced Volterra model used is the 3rd order SVD-PARAFC-Volterra model provided using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and the Parallel Factor (PARAFAC) tensor decomposition of the quadratic and the cubic kernels respectively of the classical Volterra model. The Alternating RGLS (ARGLS) algorithm consists on the execution of the classical RGLS algorithm in alternating way. The ARGLS convergence was proved using the Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) method. It is noted that the algorithm convergence canno׳t be ensured when the disturbance acting on the system to be identified has specific features. The ARGLS algorithm is tested in simulations on a numerical example by satisfying the determined convergence conditions. To raise the elegies of the proposed algorithm, we proceed to its comparison with the classical Alternating Recursive Least Squares (ARLS) presented in the literature. The comparison has been built on a non-linear satellite channel and a benchmark system CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor). Moreover the efficiency of the proposed identification approach is proved on an experimental Communicating Two Tank system (CTTS). Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts. Volume 2, Part 2: Concept Analysis and Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final report of a Phase A Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts by the Lockheed Missiles & Space Company (LMSC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The eleven-month study, which began on 30 June 1970, is to examine the stage-and-one-half and other Space Shuttle configurations and to establish feasibility, performance, cost, and schedules for the selected concepts. This final report consists of four volumes as follows: Volume I - Executive Summary, Volume II - Concept Analysis and Definition, Volume III - Program Planning, and Volume IV - Data Cost Data. This document is Volume II, Concept Analysis and Definition.

  7. Life-cycle cost analysis for radioactive waste remediation alternatives. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.P.; Toland, R.J.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    This research has two primary objectives. The first is to develop a generic, interactive, spreadsheet-based life-cycle cost model that uses net present value and risk analysis techniques for cost comparison. The second is to apply the model specifically to the vitrification and cementation methods of waste remediation. By using spreadsheet analysis and graphics capabilities, the model will provide direct and objective comparisons of remediation alternatives. Since vitrification is a new technology, the plant design and operations are conceptual. Therefore, computer simulation and engineering judgement are integral to the vitrification LCC estimate. (AN) (Abstract from report page 2, scope and objectives).

  8. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annett, Larry D.

    A model is presented for the categorizing of alternative schools, then the nature of the free school, which represents the essence of the alternative school movement, is examined. Strengths and weaknesses of court, legislative, and administrative approaches to resolve governance issues are set forth. This is followed by an analysis of three…

  9. Analysis of potential impacts to resident fish from Columbia River System Operation alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, David R.; Vail, Lance W.; Epstein, Daniel J.

    1996-03-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers, the US Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration initiated the Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) in 1990. The SOR will assist agencies in comparing the benefits and risks to Columbia River uses and natural resources from alternative strategies for using Columbia River water. Focusing on 14 federal dams within the basin, the agencies are attempting to improve on the efficient and coordinated use of the Columbia River system. An initial screening of all potential strategies of reservoir operation was necessary to reduce the number of possibilities to a limited set for detailed analysis. To that end, the Resident Fish Work Group of the SOR developed spreadsheet models capable of assessing the impacts of different management strategies on resident fish at six storage reservoirs. The models include biological, physical, and hydrological relationships important to resident fish specific to each reservoir. Alternatives that kept the reservoirs near full pool and held stable during the growing season resulted in positive benefits to resident fish at all locations modeled. Conversely, alternatives designed to improve anadromous fish survival with increased instream flow generally had a negative impact on the resident fish in the reservoirs modeled. The models developed for resident fish in the screening analysis phase of the SOR were useful in assessing the relative impact to resident fish from a large number of alternatives. The screening analysis demonstrated that future analytical efforts must consider trade-offs among river uses/resource groups, among reservoirs throughout the basin, and among resident fish species within a reservoir.

  10. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Analysis Technique Developed for Evaluating Stirling Convertor Linear Alternators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, the Stirling Technology Company (STC), and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing Stirling convertors for Stirling radioisotope generators to provide electrical power for future NASA deep space missions. STC is developing the 55-We technology demonstration convertor (TDC) under contract to the Department of Energy. The Department of Energy recently named Lockheed Martin as the system integration contractor for the Stirling radioisotope generator development project. Lockheed Martin will develop the Stirling radioisotope generator engineering unit and has contract options to develop the qualification unit and the first flight unit. Glenn s role includes an in-house project to provide convertor, component, and materials testing and evaluation in support of the overall power system development. As a part of this work, Glenn has established an in-house Stirling research laboratory for testing, analyzing, and evaluating Stirling machines. STC has built four 55-We convertors for NASA, and these are being tested at Glenn. A cross-sectional view of the 55-We TDC is shown in the figure. Of critical importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor for space power applications is the development of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. In support, Glenn has been developing finite element analysis and finite element method tools for performing various linear alternator thermal and electromagnetic analyses and evaluating design configurations. A three-dimensional magnetostatic finite element model of STC's 55-We TDC linear alternator was developed to evaluate the demagnetization fields affecting the alternator magnets. Since the actual linear alternator hardware is symmetric to the quarter section about the axis of motion, only a quarter section of the alternator was modeled. The components modeled included the mover laminations, the neodymium-iron-boron magnets, the stator laminations, and the copper coils. The

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of Gene Structure and Alternative Splicing in α-Actinins

    PubMed Central

    Lek, Monkol; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Yang, Nan; North, Kathryn N.

    2010-01-01

    The α-actinins are an important family of actin-binding proteins with the ability to cross-link actin filaments when in dimer form. Members of the α-actinin family share a domain topology composed of highly conserved actin-binding and EF-hand domains separated by a rod domain composed of spectrin-like repeats. Functional diversity within this family has arisen through exon duplication and the formation of alternate splice isoforms as well as gene duplications during the evolution of vertebrates. In addition to the known functional domains, α-actinins also contain a consensus PDZ-binding site. The completed genome sequence of over 32 invertebrate species has allowed the analysis of gene structure and exon–gene duplication over a diverse range of phyla. Our analysis shows that relative to early branching metazoans, there has been considerable intron loss especially in arthropods with few cases of intron gains. The C-terminal PDZ-binding site is conserved in nearly all invertebrates but is missing in some nematodes and platyhelminths. Alternative splicing in the actin-binding domain is conserved in chordates, arthropods, and some nematodes and platyhelminths. In contrast, alternative splicing of the EF-hand domain is only observed in chordates. Finally, given the prevalence of exon duplications seen in the actin-binding domain, this may act as a significant mechanism in the modification of actin-binding properties. PMID:19897525

  12. Gene set analysis for self-contained tests: complex null and specific alternative hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatallah, Y.; Glazko, G.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The analysis of differentially expressed gene sets became a routine in the analyses of gene expression data. There is a multitude of tests available, ranging from aggregation tests that summarize gene-level statistics for a gene set to true multivariate tests, accounting for intergene correlations. Most of them detect complex departures from the null hypothesis but when the null hypothesis is rejected, the specific alternative leading to the rejection is not easily identifiable. Results: In this article we compare the power and Type I error rates of minimum-spanning tree (MST)-based non-parametric multivariate tests with several multivariate and aggregation tests, which are frequently used for pathway analyses. In our simulation study, we demonstrate that MST-based tests have power that is for many settings comparable with the power of conventional approaches, but outperform them in specific regions of the parameter space corresponding to biologically relevant configurations. Further, we find for simulated and for gene expression data that MST-based tests discriminate well against shift and scale alternatives. As a general result, we suggest a two-step practical analysis strategy that may increase the interpretability of experimental data: first, apply the most powerful multivariate test to find the subset of pathways for which the null hypothesis is rejected and second, apply MST-based tests to these pathways to select those that support specific alternative hypotheses. Contact: gvglazko@uams.edu or yrahmatallah@uams.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23044539

  13. Functional and organic eggs as an alternative to conventional production: a conjoint analysis of consumers' preferences.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula

    2011-02-01

    In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A 3-D Magnetic Analysis of a Linear Alternator For a Stirling Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing advanced radioisotope Stirling convertors, under contract with Stirling Technology Company (STC), for space applications. Of critical importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor for space power applications is the development of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. This paper presents a 3-D finite element method (FEM) approach for evaluating Stirling convertor linear alternators. Preliminary correlations with open-circuit voltage measurements provide an encouraging level of confidence in the model. Spatial plots of magnetic field strength (H) are presented in the region of the exciting permanent magnets. These plots identify regions of high H, where at elevated temperature and under electrical load, the potential to alter the magnetic moment of the magnets exists. This implies the need for further testing and analysis.

  15. Natural bond orbital analysis: a critical overview of relationships to alternative bonding perspectives.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Frank

    2012-11-15

    We sketch the basic principles of natural bond orbital (NBO) theory, including critical discussion of its relationship to alternative bonding concepts and selected illustrations of its application to a broad spectrum of chemical bonding motifs. Particular emphasis is placed on the close NBO connections to prequantal bonding, and electromerism concepts, as well as the deep roots in quantal eigenvalue, superposition, and Pauli exclusion concepts that are manifested in many aspects of NBO donor-acceptor analysis. With respect to leading alternative perspectives, we identify similarities and differences that distinguish NBO theory from the corresponding precepts of valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory, and Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules, with critical discussion of the assumptions underlying characteristic differences in each case.

  16. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  17. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG&G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  18. Learning Bayesian networks from big meteorological spatial datasets. An alternative to complex network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; San Martín, Daniel; Herrera, Sixto; Santiago Cofiño, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The growing availability of spatial datasets (observations, reanalysis, and regional and global climate models) demands efficient multivariate spatial modeling techniques for many problems of interest (e.g. teleconnection analysis, multi-site downscaling, etc.). Complex networks have been recently applied in this context using graphs built from pairwise correlations between the different stations (or grid boxes) forming the dataset. However, this analysis does not take into account the full dependence structure underlying the data, gien by all possible marginal and conditional dependencies among the stations, and does not allow a probabilistic analysis of the dataset. In this talk we introduce Bayesian networks as an alternative multivariate analysis and modeling data-driven technique which allows building a joint probability distribution of the stations including all relevant dependencies in the dataset. Bayesian networks is a sound machine learning technique using a graph to 1) encode the main dependencies among the variables and 2) to obtain a factorization of the joint probability distribution of the stations given by a reduced number of parameters. For a particular problem, the resulting graph provides a qualitative analysis of the spatial relationships in the dataset (alternative to complex network analysis), and the resulting model allows for a probabilistic analysis of the dataset. Bayesian networks have been widely applied in many fields, but their use in climate problems is hampered by the large number of variables (stations) involved in this field, since the complexity of the existing algorithms to learn from data the graphical structure grows nonlinearly with the number of variables. In this contribution we present a modified local learning algorithm for Bayesian networks adapted to this problem, which allows inferring the graphical structure for thousands of stations (from observations) and/or gridboxes (from model simulations) thus providing new

  19. Functional analysis of alternative splicing of the FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologous gene in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yachao; Sun, Jing; Cao, Peipei; Zhang, Rong; Fu, Qike; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called ‘florigen’ plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar ‘Jimba’. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower. The functional complement experiment using an Arabidopsis mutant ft-10 revealed that the archetypal and AS forms of CmFTL1 had the function of complementing late flower phenotype in different levels. In addition, transgenic confirmation at transcript level showed CmFTL1 and CmFTL1ast coexist in the same tissue type at the same developmental stage, indicating a post-transcriptional modification of CmFTL1 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, ectopic expression of different AS forms in chrysanthemum resulted in the development of multiple altered phenotypes, varying degrees of early flowering. We found that an alternative splicing form (CmFTL1-astE134) without the exon 2 lacked the ability causing the earlier flower phenotype. The evidence in this study indicates that complex alternative processing of CmFTL1 transcripts in C. morifolium may be associated with flowering regulation and hold some potential for biotechnical engineering to create early-flowering phenotypes in ornamental cultivars. PMID:27917290

  20. Analysis of alternative splicing events for cancer diagnosis using a multiplexing nanophotonic biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, César S.; Domínguez-Zotes, Santos; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a promising tool not only for prevention, screening and development of more efficient treatment strategies, but also for diminishing the side effects caused by current therapies. Deciphering gene regulation pathways provides a reliable prognostic analysis to elucidate the origin of grave diseases and facilitate the selection of the most adequate treatment for each individual. Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors is one of these gene regulation pathways and enables cells to generate different protein outputs from the same gene depending on their developmental or homeostatic status. Its deregulation is strongly linked to disease onset and progression constituting a relevant and innovative class of biomarker. Herein we report a highly selective and sensitive nanophotonic biosensor based on the direct monitoring of the aberrant alternative splicing of Fas gene. Unlike conventional methods, the nanobiosensor performs a real-time detection of the specific isoforms in the fM-pM range without any cDNA synthesis or PCR amplification requirements. The nanobiosensor has been proven isoform-specific with no crosshybridization, greatly minimizing detection biases. The demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity make our nanobiosensor ideal for examining significant tumor-associated expression shifts of alternatively spliced isoforms for the early and accurate theranostics of cancer. PMID:28120920

  1. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA, adopting a stepwise process to employing predictive toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern, leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting transdisciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:915-925. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. A 3-D Magnetic Analysis of a Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator Under Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Regan, Timothy F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Stirling Technology Company (STC) are developing Stirling convertors for Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (SRPS) to provide electrical power for future NASA deep space missions. STC is developing the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under contract to DOE. Of critical importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor for space power applications is the development of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. This paper presents a 3-dimensional finite element method (FEM) approach for evaluating Stirling convertor linear alternators. The model extends a magnetostatic analysis previously reported at the 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC) to include the effects of the load current. STC's 55-We linear alternator design was selected to validate the model. Spatial plots of magnetic field strength (H) are presented in the region of the exciting permanent magnets. The margin for permanent magnet demagnetization is calculated at the expected magnet operating temperature for the near earth environment and for various average magnet temperatures. These thermal conditions were selected to represent a worst-case condition for the planned deep space missions. This paper presents plots that identify regions of high H where the potential to alter the magnetic moment of the magnets exists.

  3. Using Multi Criteria Decision Making in Analysis of Alternatives for Selection of Enabling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, Daniel

    Prior to Milestone A, the Department of Defense (DoD) requires that service sponsors conduct an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA), an analytical comparison of multiple alternatives, to be completed prior to committing and investing costly resources to one project or decision. Despite this requirement, sponsors will circumvent or dilute the process in an effort to save money or schedule, and specific requirements are proposed that can effectively eliminate all but the preselected alternatives. This research focuses on identifying decision aiding methods which can lead to the selection of specific criteria that are key performance drivers thus enabling an informed selection of the enabling technology. This work defines the enabling technology as the sub-system which presents the most risk within the system design. After a thorough literature review of available Multi Criteria Decision Making methods, a case study example is presented demonstrating the selection of the enabling technology of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. Using subjective criteria in the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is shown to successfully account for tacit knowledge of expert practitioners.

  4. QCD analysis of DIS and SIDIS data with two alternative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Akhunzyanov, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The global fit analysis of all published data on DIS and semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS) asymmetries is performed in the next to leading (NLO) QCD order. The respective parameterization on polarized PDFs is constructed. The especial attention is paid to the impact of novel SIDIS data on the polarized distributions of light sea and strange quarks as well as on the polarized gluon distributions. The first moments of these distributions entering the nucleon spin are found to be surprisingly small quantities. The alternative direct (free of any fitting procedure) method of NLO QCD analysis is elaborated. Method is especially important for analysis of SIDIS data because it allows to avoid the problems arising in the conventional fitting procedure: functional arbitrariness at initial scale and ambiguities in the error band calculation. Within the alternative method the central values and uncertainties of the measured asymmetries directly propagate to the central values and uncertainties of the polarized PDFs we are interested in. The method is applied to all existing SIDIS data on pion production for an estimation in NLO QCD of the valence and sea quark contributions to the proton spin. As a result one arrives at the conclusion that, contrary to the valence contributions, the sea contributions to the proton spin are compatible with zero within the errors.

  5. Advancing complementary and alternative medicine through social network analysis and agent-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Terrill L

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the contemporary perspectives and techniques of social network analysis (SNA) and agent-based modeling (ABM) and advocates applying them to advance various aspects of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). SNA and ABM are invaluable methods for representing, analyzing and projecting complex, relational, social phenomena; they provide both an insightful vantage point and a set of analytic tools that can be useful in a wide range of contexts. Applying these methods in the CAM context can aid the ongoing advances in the CAM field, in both its scientific aspects and in developing broader acceptance in associated stakeholder communities.

  6. Ball Memorial Hospital: Section 2 Sherman Act analysis in the alternative health care delivery market.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, T

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals in Ball Memorial Hospital v. Mutual Hospital Insurance denied an injunction sought under the antitrust laws by the plaintiffs, eighty acute care hospitals, which would have precluded Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Indiana from implementing a Preferred Provider Organization. The Ball court used a conservative economic analysis to deny the injunction and failed to consider many industry-specific factors. This Note examines these factors and challenges the Ball court's position by arguing that antitrust scrutiny of alternative health care delivery markets must go beyond the court's narrow approach.

  7. Radiological impacts of Jackpile-Paguate uranium mines: an analysis of alternatives of decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Momeni, M.H.; Tsai, S.Y.H.; Yang, J.Y.; Gureghian, A.B.; Dungey, C.E.

    1983-03-01

    Potential pathways of radiation exposure and radiation-induced genetic and somatic effects from materials at the mine complex under five alternatives of decommissioning were analyzed using UDAD and PRIM computer codes. The principal pathways of exposure included in the analysis were inhalation of airborne radionuclides, ingestion of food and water containing radionuclides, and extended exposure to gamma and beta radiation from either airborne or ground-deposited radionuclides. The alternatives of decommissioning include (A) No Action (site will be fenced, otherwise left as it is), (B) No Future Use (site will be fenced and all disturbed area will be covered with 30 cm of soil, no grazing on the site); (C1) Grazing Land Use as developed by Anaconda Company (protore, waste piles, and open pits covered with 120 cm of soil, the remainder of the disturbed areas covered with 30 cm of soil, pits backfilled 90 cm above the equilibrium groundwater recovery level, no human habitation or farming allowed on the mine site, but grazing would be allowed); (C2) Grazing Land Use as developed by US Department of the Interior (similar to Alternative C1, but the pits covered with 300 cm of soil above the groundwater recovery level); and (D) Maximum Future Use (similar to Alternative C2, except construction of commercial and industrial facilities, storage, recreation, and further mining would be allowed). Radiation doses from atmospheric transport and ingestion of radionuclides were calculated, and somatic and genetic effects in individuals living within 80 km from the mine complex were predicted. Hydrological flow patterns in the mine area were analyzed to determine the potential for future contamination of surface water and groundwater and to determine the groundwater recovery level after reclamation, thus permitting incorporation of corrective actions into the reclamation procedures.

  8. Memorandum: Appropriate Level of Analysis Required for Evaluating Compliance with the Section 404(b)(1) Guidelines Alternatives Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memorandum to clarify the appropriate level of analysis required for evaluating compliance with the Clean Water Act Section 404(b)(1) Guidelines' requirements for consideration of alternatives. 40 CFR 230.10(a)

  9. Transcriptome analysis of alternative splicing events regulated by SRSF10 reveals position-dependent splicing modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuexia; Wu, Wenwu; Li, Huang; Cheng, Yuanming; Wei, Ning; Zong, Jie; Feng, Xiaoyan; Xie, Zhiqin; Chen, Dai; Manley, James L; Wang, Hui; Feng, Ying

    2014-04-01

    Splicing factor SRSF10 is known to function as a sequence-specific splicing activator. Here, we used RNA-seq coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify the extensive splicing network regulated by SRSF10 in chicken cells. We found that SRSF10 promoted both exon inclusion and exclusion. Motif analysis revealed that SRSF10 binding to cassette exons was associated with exon inclusion, whereas the binding of SRSF10 within downstream constitutive exons was associated with exon exclusion. This positional effect was further demonstrated by the mutagenesis of potential SRSF10 binding motifs in two minigene constructs. Functionally, many of SRSF10-verified alternative exons are linked to pathways of stress and apoptosis. Consistent with this observation, cells depleted of SRSF10 expression were far more susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis than control cells. Importantly, reconstituted SRSF10 in knockout cells recovered wild-type splicing patterns and considerably rescued the stress-related defects. Together, our results provide mechanistic insight into SRSF10-regulated alternative splicing events in vivo and demonstrate that SRSF10 plays a crucial role in cell survival under stress conditions.

  10. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

  11. Meta-analysis of alternate autologous vein bypass grafts to infrapopliteal arteries.

    PubMed

    Albers, Maximiano; Romiti, Marcello; Brochado-Neto, Francisco Cardoso; Pereira, Carlos Alberto Bragança

    2005-09-01

    Several studies have described acceptable results for infrapopliteal bypass surgery that uses an autogenous vein other than the greater saphenous vein but is still no reliable prediction of outcomes. The objective of this study was to use meta-analysis to assess the long-term outcomes after infrapopliteal bypass grafting done with alternate autologous veins. Studies published from 1982 through 2004 were identified from electronic databases and pertinent original articles. Thirty-two series were selected, all of which had used survival analysis and had reported a 1-year graft patency rate, with at least 15 bypasses. An interval success rate was calculated for each month in each series of grafts by using data from life tables, survival curves, and texts. Monthly success rates were combined across series to obtain a pooled estimate of success for each month. Pooled survival curves were then constructed for graft patency and foot preservation. The 5-year pooled estimates were 46.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 35.5%-58.3%) for primary patency, 66.5% (95% CI = 54.9%-78.2%) for secondary patency, and 76.4% (95% CI = 68.0%-84.8%) for foot preservation. These results were far superior to those reported for nonautologous grafts. Intensive duplex surveillance had a favorable impact on graft patency and foot preservation. No publication bias was detected. When the greater saphenous vein is unavailable, alternate autologous veins are preferable to other graft materials in bypass surgery to infrapopliteal arteries.

  12. Strategies for cost-effective carbon reductions: A sensitivity analysis of alternative scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Gumerman, Etan; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Brown, Marilyn

    2001-07-11

    Analyses of alternative futures often present results for a limited set of scenarios, with little if any sensitivity analysis to identify the factors affecting the scenario results. This approach creates an artificial impression of certainty associated with the scenarios considered, and inhibits understanding of the underlying forces. This paper summarizes the economic and carbon savings sensitivity analysis completed for the Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future study (IWG, 2000). Its 19 sensitivity cases provide insight into the costs and carbon-reduction impacts of a carbon permit trading system, demand-side efficiency programs, and supply-side policies. Impacts under different natural gas and oil price trajectories are also examined. The results provide compelling evidence that policy opportunities exist to reduce carbon emissions and save society money.

  13. An Alternative Approach for Sample Preparation with Low Cell Number for TEM Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Filippi, Marie-Dominique

    2016-10-12

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides details of the cellular organization and ultrastructure. However, TEM analysis of rare cell populations, especially cells in suspension such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), remains limited due to the requirement of a high cell number during sample preparation. There are a few cytospin or monolayer approaches for TEM analysis from scarce samples, but these approaches fail to get significant quantitative data from the limited number of cells. Here, an alternative and novel approach for sample preparation in TEM studies is described for rare cell populations that enables quantitative analysis. A relatively low cell number, i.e., 10,000 HSCs, was successfully used for TEM analysis compared to the millions of cells typically used for TEM studies. In particular, Evans blue staining was performed after paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde (PFA-GA) fixation to visualize the tiny cell pellet, which facilitated embedding in agarose. Clusters of numerous cells were observed in ultra-thin sections. The cells had a well preserved morphology, and the ultra-structural details of the Golgi complex and several mitochondria were visible. This efficient, easy and reproducible protocol allows sample preparation from a low cell number and can be used for qualitative and quantitative TEM analysis on rare cell populations from limited biological samples.

  14. Cost-benefit analysis as a part of sustainability assessment of remediation alternatives for contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Tore; Brinkhoff, Petra; Norberg, Tommy; Rosén, Lars; Back, Pär-Erik; Norrman, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    There is an increasing demand amongst decision-makers and stakeholders for identifying sustainable remediation alternatives at contaminated sites, taking into account that remediation typically results in both positive and negative consequences. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is increasingly used for sustainability appraisal, and the Excel-based MCA tool Sustainable Choice Of REmediation (SCORE) has been developed to provide a relevant and transparent assessment of the sustainability of remediation alternatives relative to a reference alternative, considering key criteria in the economic, environmental and social sustainability domains, and taking uncertainty into explicit account through simulation. The focus of this paper is the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a part of SCORE for assessing the economic sustainability of remediation alternatives. An economic model is used for deriving a cost-benefit rule, which in turn motivates cost and benefit items in a CBA of remediation alternatives. The empirical part of the paper is a CBA application on remediation alternatives for the Hexion site, a former chemical industry area close to the city of Göteborg in SW Sweden. The impact of uncertainties in and correlations across benefit and cost items on CBA results is illustrated. For the Hexion site, the traditional excavation-and-disposal remediation alternative had the lowest expected net present value, which illustrates the importance of also considering other alternatives before deciding upon how a remediation should be carried out.

  15. Analysis of a Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon Observed During Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2010-01-01

    A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition from separated to attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction with increasing Mach number. For locally transonic conditions at this junction, the flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between a subsonic separated flow and a supersonic attached flow. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories which, upon integration result in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a wind-tunnel-test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load

  16. Alternative splicing in teleost fish genomes: same-species and cross-species analysis and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Qing; Abernathy, Jason; Wang, Shaolin; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-06-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a mechanism by which the coding diversity of the genome can be greatly increased. Rates of AS are known to vary according to the complexity of eukaryotic species potentially explaining the tremendous phenotypic diversity among species with similar numbers of coding genes. Little is known, however, about the nature or rate of AS in teleost fish. Here, we report the characteristics of AS in teleost fish and classification and frequency of five canonical AS types. We conducted both same-species and cross-species analysis utilizing the Genome Mapping and Alignment Program (GMAP) and an AS pipeline (ASpipe) to study AS in four genome-enabled species (Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and Takifugu rubripes) and one species lacking a complete genome sequence, Ictalurus punctatus. AS frequency was lowest in the highly duplicated genome of zebrafish (17% of mapped genes). The compact genome of the pufferfish showed the highest occurrence of AS (approximately 43% of mapped genes). An inverse correlation between AS frequency and genome size was consistent across all analyzed species. Cross-species comparisons utilizing zebrafish as the reference genome allowed the identification of additional putative AS genes not revealed by zebrafish transcripts. Approximately, 50% of AS genes identified by same-species comparisons were shared among two or more species. A searchable website, the Teleost Alternative Splicing Database, was created to allow easy identification and visualization of AS transcripts in the studied teleost genomes. Our results and associated database should further our understanding of alternative splicing as an important functional and evolutionary mechanism in the genomes of teleost fish.

  17. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  18. Alternative model for administration and analysis of research-based assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hobbs, Robert D.; Aiken, John M.; Welch, Nathan M.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    Research-based assessments represent a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers interested in improving undergraduate physics education. However, the historical model for disseminating and propagating conceptual and attitudinal assessments developed by the physics education research (PER) community has not resulted in widespread adoption of these assessments within the broader community of physics instructors. Within this historical model, assessment developers create high quality, validated assessments, make them available for a wide range of instructors to use, and provide minimal (if any) support to assist with administration or analysis of the results. Here, we present and discuss an alternative model for assessment dissemination, which is characterized by centralized data collection and analysis. This model provides a greater degree of support for both researchers and instructors in order to more explicitly support adoption of research-based assessments. Specifically, we describe our experiences developing a centralized, automated system for an attitudinal assessment we previously created to examine students' epistemologies and expectations about experimental physics. This system provides a proof of concept that we use to discuss the advantages associated with centralized administration and data collection for research-based assessments in PER. We also discuss the challenges that we encountered while developing, maintaining, and automating this system. Ultimately, we argue that centralized administration and data collection for standardized assessments is a viable and potentially advantageous alternative to the default model characterized by decentralized administration and analysis. Moreover, with the help of online administration and automation, this model can support the long-term sustainability of centralized assessment systems.

  19. Secondary Analysis of Large-Scale Assessment Data: An Alternative to Variable-Centred Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Kui Foon; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    International large-scale assessments are now part of the educational landscape in many countries and often feed into major policy decisions. Yet, such assessments also provide data sets for secondary analysis that can address key issues of concern to educators and policymakers alike. Traditionally, such secondary analyses have been based on a…

  20. Secondary Analysis of Large-Scale Assessment Data: An Alternative to Variable-Centred Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Kui Foon; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    International large-scale assessments are now part of the educational landscape in many countries and often feed into major policy decisions. Yet, such assessments also provide data sets for secondary analysis that can address key issues of concern to educators and policymakers alike. Traditionally, such secondary analyses have been based on a…

  1. Bayesian Factor Analysis as a Variable-Selection Problem: Alternative Priors and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhao-Hua; Chow, Sy-Miin; Loken, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Factor analysis is a popular statistical technique for multivariate data analysis. Developments in the structural equation modeling framework have enabled the use of hybrid confirmatory/exploratory approaches in which factor-loading structures can be explored relatively flexibly within a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) framework. Recently, Muthén & Asparouhov proposed a Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) approach to explore the presence of cross loadings in CFA models. We show that the issue of determining factor-loading patterns may be formulated as a Bayesian variable selection problem in which Muthén and Asparouhov's approach can be regarded as a BSEM approach with ridge regression prior (BSEM-RP). We propose another Bayesian approach, denoted herein as the Bayesian structural equation modeling with spike-and-slab prior (BSEM-SSP), which serves as a one-stage alternative to the BSEM-RP. We review the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and compare their empirical performance relative to two modification indices-based approaches and exploratory factor analysis with target rotation. A teacher stress scale data set is used to demonstrate our approach.

  2. An alternative to Rasch analysis using triadic comparisons and multi-dimensional scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, C.; Massof, R. W.

    2016-11-01

    Rasch analysis is a principled approach for estimating the magnitude of some shared property of a set of items when a group of people assign ordinal ratings to them. In the general case, Rasch analysis not only estimates person and item measures on the same invariant scale, but also estimates the average thresholds used by the population to define rating categories. However, Rasch analysis fails when there is insufficient variance in the observed responses because it assumes a probabilistic relationship between person measures, item measures and the rating assigned by a person to an item. When only a single person is rating all items, there may be cases where the person assigns the same rating to many items no matter how many times he rates them. We introduce an alternative to Rasch analysis for precisely these situations. Our approach leverages multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and requires only rank orderings of items and rank orderings of pairs of distances between items to work. Simulations show one variant of this approach - triadic comparisons with non-metric MDS - provides highly accurate estimates of item measures in realistic situations.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing during human heart development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Chen, Yanmei; Li, Xinzhong; Chen, Guojun; Zhong, Lintao; Chen, Gangbing; Liao, Yulin; Liao, Wangjun; Bin, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) drives determinative changes during mouse heart development. Recent high-throughput technological advancements have facilitated genome-wide AS, while its analysis in human foetal heart transition to the adult stage has not been reported. Here, we present a high-resolution global analysis of AS transitions between human foetal and adult hearts. RNA-sequencing data showed extensive AS transitions occurred between human foetal and adult hearts, and AS events occurred more frequently in protein-coding genes than in long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). A significant difference of AS patterns was found between foetal and adult hearts. The predicted difference in AS events was further confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of human heart samples. Functional foetal-specific AS event analysis showed enrichment associated with cell proliferation-related pathways including cell cycle, whereas adult-specific AS events were associated with protein synthesis. Furthermore, 42.6% of foetal-specific AS events showed significant changes in gene expression levels between foetal and adult hearts. Genes exhibiting both foetal-specific AS and differential expression were highly enriched in cell cycle-associated functions. In conclusion, we provided a genome-wide profiling of AS transitions between foetal and adult hearts and proposed that AS transitions and deferential gene expression may play determinative roles in human heart development.

  4. Using soil function evaluation in multi-criteria decision analysis for sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Volchko, Yevheniya; Norrman, Jenny; Rosén, Lars; Bergknut, Magnus; Josefsson, Sarah; Söderqvist, Tore; Norberg, Tommy; Wiberg, Karin; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-07-01

    Soil contamination is one of the major threats constraining proper functioning of the soil and thus provision of ecosystem services. Remedial actions typically only address the chemical soil quality by reducing total contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels guided by land use. However, emerging regulatory requirements on soil protection demand a holistic view on soil assessment in remediation projects thus accounting for a variety of soil functions. Such a view would require not only that the contamination concentrations are assessed and attended to, but also that other aspects are taking into account, thus addressing also physical and biological as well as other chemical soil quality indicators (SQIs). This study outlines how soil function assessment can be a part of a holistic sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The paper presents a method for practitioners for evaluating the effects of remediation alternatives on selected ecological soil functions using a suggested minimum data set (MDS) containing physical, biological and chemical SQIs. The measured SQIs are transformed into sub-scores by the use of scoring curves, which allows interpretation and the integration of soil quality data into the MCDA framework. The method is demonstrated at a study site (Marieberg, Sweden) and the results give an example of how soil analyses using the suggested MDS can be used for soil function assessment and subsequent input to the MCDA framework.

  5. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  6. Studying Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Hearing and Auditory Scene Analysis.

    PubMed

    Riecke, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that perceptual detection of near-threshold auditory events may depend on the relative timing of the event and ongoing brain oscillations. Furthermore, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a non-invasive and silent brain stimulation technique, can entrain cortical alpha oscillations and thereby provide some experimental control over their timing. The present research investigates the potential of delta/theta-tACS to modulate hearing and auditory scene analysis. Detection of near-threshold auditory stimuli, which are modulated at 4 Hz and presented at various moments (phase lags) during ongoing tACS (two synchronous 4-Hz alternating currents applied transcranially to the two cerebral hemispheres), is measured in silence or in a masker. Results indicate that performance fluctuates as a function of phase lag and these fluctuations can be explained best by a sinusoid at the tACS frequency. This suggests that tACS may amplify/attenuate sounds that are temporally coherent/anticoherent with tACS-entrained cortical oscillations.

  7. An alternative transformation in ranking using l_1-norm in data envelopment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziari, S.

    2016-05-01

    Jahanshahloo et al. (Appl Math Comput 153:215-224, 2004) propose a method for ranking extremely efficient decision making units (DMUs) in data envelopment analysis (DEA) using super-efficiency technique and l1-norm and they show that the presented method is able to eliminate the existing difficulties in some methods. This paper suggests an alternative transformation to convert the nonlinear model proposed by Jahanshahloo et al. (Appl Math Comput 153:215-224, 2004) into a linear programming form. The present paper shows that model with this transformation is equivalent to the above-mentioned nonlinear model. The motivation of this work is to linearize the proposed nonlinear model by Jahanshahloo et al. (Appl Math Comput 153:215-224, 2004) which has the higher order of complexity.

  8. Pathway analysis from lists of microRNAs: common pitfalls and alternative strategy

    PubMed Central

    Godard, Patrice; van Eyll, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. As such, monitoring miRNA expression has been increasingly used to assess their role in regulatory mechanisms of biological processes. In large scale studies, once miRNAs of interest have been identified, the target genes they regulate are often inferred using algorithms or databases. A pathway analysis is then often performed in order to generate hypotheses about the relevant biological functions controlled by the miRNA signature. Here we show that the method widely used in scientific literature to identify these pathways is biased and leads to inaccurate results. In addition to describing the bias and its origin we present an alternative strategy to identify potential biological functions specifically impacted by a miRNA signature. More generally, our study exemplifies the crucial need of relevant negative controls when developing, and using, bioinformatics methods. PMID:25800743

  9. Properties of Fixed-Fixed Models and Alternatives in Presence-Absence Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the significance of patterns in presence-absence data is an important question in ecological data analysis, e.g., when studying nestedness. Significance testing can be performed with the commonly used fixed-fixed models, which preserve the row and column sums while permuting the data. The manuscript considers the properties of fixed-fixed models and points out how their strict constraints can lead to limited randomizability. The manuscript considers the question of relaxing row and column sun constraints of the fixed-fixed models. The Rasch models are presented as an alternative with relaxed constraints and sound statistical properties. Models are compared on presence-absence data and surprisingly the fixed-fixed models are observed to produce unreasonably optimistic measures of statistical significance, giving interesting insight into practical effects of limited randomizability. PMID:27812126

  10. Pathway analysis from lists of microRNAs: common pitfalls and alternative strategy.

    PubMed

    Godard, Patrice; van Eyll, Jonathan

    2015-04-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. As such, monitoring miRNA expression has been increasingly used to assess their role in regulatory mechanisms of biological processes. In large scale studies, once miRNAs of interest have been identified, the target genes they regulate are often inferred using algorithms or databases. A pathway analysis is then often performed in order to generate hypotheses about the relevant biological functions controlled by the miRNA signature. Here we show that the method widely used in scientific literature to identify these pathways is biased and leads to inaccurate results. In addition to describing the bias and its origin we present an alternative strategy to identify potential biological functions specifically impacted by a miRNA signature. More generally, our study exemplifies the crucial need of relevant negative controls when developing, and using, bioinformatics methods.

  11. Properties of Fixed-Fixed Models and Alternatives in Presence-Absence Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the significance of patterns in presence-absence data is an important question in ecological data analysis, e.g., when studying nestedness. Significance testing can be performed with the commonly used fixed-fixed models, which preserve the row and column sums while permuting the data. The manuscript considers the properties of fixed-fixed models and points out how their strict constraints can lead to limited randomizability. The manuscript considers the question of relaxing row and column sun constraints of the fixed-fixed models. The Rasch models are presented as an alternative with relaxed constraints and sound statistical properties. Models are compared on presence-absence data and surprisingly the fixed-fixed models are observed to produce unreasonably optimistic measures of statistical significance, giving interesting insight into practical effects of limited randomizability.

  12. Application of sensitivity analysis for assessment of de-desertification alternatives in the central Iran by using Triantaphyllou method.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi Ravesh, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmadi, Hassan; Zehtabian, Gholamreza

    2011-08-01

    Desertification, land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, is a global environmental problem. With respect to increasing importance of desertification and its complexity, the necessity of attention to the optimal de-desertification alternatives is essential. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select the optimal de-desertification alternatives based on the results of interviews with experts in Khezr Abad region, central Iran as the case study. This model was used in Yazd Khezr Abad region to evaluate the efficiency in presentation of better alternatives related to personal and environmental situations. Obtained results indicate that the criterion "proportion and adaptation to the environment" with the weighted average of 33.6% is the most important criterion from experts viewpoints. While prevention alternatives of land usage unsuitable of reveres and conversion with 22.88% mean weight and vegetation cover development and reclamation with 21.9% mean weight are recognized ordinarily as the most important de-desertification alternatives in region. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed in detail by varying the objective factor decision weight, the priority weight of subjective factors, and the gain factors. After the fulfillment of sensitivity analysis and determination of the most sensitive criteria and alternatives, the former classification and ranking of alternatives does not change so much, and it was observed that unsuitable land use alternative with the preference degree of 22.7% was still in the first order of priority. The final priority of livestock grazing control alternative was replaced with the alternative of modification of ground water harvesting.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of shoot growth-associated alternative splicing in moso bamboo.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Hu, Tao; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Gao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity and is differentially regulated in a wide variety of physiological processes in plants, including shoot growth. Presently, the functional implications and conservation of AS occurrences are not well understood in the moso bamboo genome. To analyze the global changes in AS during moso bamboo shoot growth, fast-growing shoots collected at seven different heights and culms after leaf expansion were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. It was found that approximately 60.74 % of all genes were alternatively spliced, with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS event (27.43 %). Statistical analysis demonstrated that variations of AS frequency and AS types were significantly correlated with changes in gene features and gene transcriptional level. According to the phylogenetic analysis of isoform expression data and AS frequency, the bamboo shoot growth could be divided into four different growth periods, including winter bamboo shoot (S1), early growth period (S2-S5), late growth period (S6 and S7), and mature period (CK). In addition, our data also showed that the winter bamboo shoot had the highest number of AS events. Twenty-six putative Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins were identified, producing a total of 109 transcripts. AS events were frequently and specifically regulated by SR splicing factors throughout shoot growth, resulting in changes to the original open reading frame (ORF) and subsequently changes to conserved domains. The AS product-isoforms showed regular expression change during the whole shoot growth period, thus influencing shoot growth. All together, these data indicate that AS events are adjusted to different growth stages, providing briefness and efficient means of gene regulation. This study will provide a very useful clue for future functional analyses.

  14. Complex Retrieval of Embedded IVC Filters: Alternative Techniques and Histologic Tissue Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, William T.; Cupp, John S.; Louie, John D.; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Hovsepian, David M.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods to retrieve embedded optional and permanent filters in order to manage or reduce risk of long-term complications from implantation. Histologic tissue analysis was performed to elucidate the pathologic effects of chronic filter implantation. Methods: We studied the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods for removing embedded inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in 10 consecutive patients over 12 months. Indications for retrieval were symptomatic chronic IVC occlusion, caval and aortic perforation, and/or acute PE (pulmonary embolism) from filter-related thrombus. Retrieval was also performed to reduce risk of complications from long-term filter implantation and to eliminate the need for lifelong anticoagulation. All retrieved specimens were sent for histologic analysis. Results: Retrieval was successful in all 10 patients. Filter types and implantation times were as follows: one Venatech (1,495 days), one Simon-Nitinol (1,485 days), one Optease (300 days), one G2 (416 days), five Guenther-Tulip (GTF; mean 606 days, range 154-1,010 days), and one Celect (124 days). There were no procedural complications or adverse events at a mean follow-up of 304 days after removal (range 196-529 days). Histology revealed scant native intima surrounded by a predominance of neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis in all specimens. Histologic evidence of photothermal tissue ablation was confirmed in three laser-treated specimens. Conclusion: Complex retrieval methods can now be used in select patients to safely remove embedded optional and permanent IVC filters previously considered irretrievable. Neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis are the major components that must be separated to achieve successful retrieval of chronic filter implants.

  15. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  16. Morphological analysis of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum using flow cytometry-the fast alternative to microscopic image analysis.

    PubMed

    Ehgartner, Daniela; Herwig, Christoph; Fricke, Jens

    2017-09-14

    An important parameter in filamentous bioreactor cultivations is the morphology of the fungi, due to its interlink to productivity and its dependency on process conditions. Filamentous fungi show a large variety of morphological forms in submerged cultures. These range from dispersed hyphae, to interwoven mycelial aggregates, to denser hyphal aggregates, the so-called pellets. Depending on the objective function of the bioprocess, different characteristics of the morphology are favorable and need to be quantified accurately. The most common method to quantitatively characterize morphology is image analysis based on microscopy. This method is work intensive and time consuming. Therefore, we developed a faster, at-line applicable, alternative method based on flow cytometry. Within this contribution, this novel method is compared to microscopy for a penicillin production process. Both methods yielded in comparable distinction of morphological sub-populations and described their morphology in more detail. In addition to the appropriate quantification of size parameters and the description of the hyphal region around pellets, the flow cytometry method even revealed a novel compactness parameter for fungal pellets which is not accessible via light microscopy. Hence, the here presented flow cytometry method for morphological analysis is a fast and reliable alternative to common tools with some new insights in the pellet morphology, enabling at-line use in production environments.

  17. Calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as an alternative method for found meteorite fragments analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horňáčková, Michaela; Plavčan, Jozef; Rakovský, Jozef; Porubčan, Vladimír; Ozdín, Daniel; Veis, Pavel

    2014-04-01

    Calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) was used for the determination of elemental composition and quantitative analysis of the Košice meteorite by means of time resolved and broadband emission spectroscopy (200-1000 nm). The electron temperature was determined using the Saha-Boltzmann plot method and the electron density from Stark broadening of the hydrogen Hα line (656 nm). Apart from magnesium, silicon and iron, which are the main elemental constituents of examined meteorite fragments, elements such as aluminum, nickel, potassium, sodium, chromium, calcium and manganese were also identified in the obtained LIBS spectra. Concentrations of Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni and Si were calculated using the calibration free approach and results were compared with ones obtained from the ICP-MS analyses. For the increase of the CF-LIBS accuracy, a selection of spectral lines was performed. Considering the transition probability, the population of absorbing level, the degree of ionization and predicted elemental concentration we calculated the probability of self-absorption and, consequently, spectral lines with highest self-absorption probability were rejected. CF-LIBS can be used as an alternative method for the meteorite fragments analysis (including the inner part and crust), because this method is quasi non-destructive and therefore analysis of all found fragments with minimal destruction is possible.

  18. Decision analysis: a tool to guide the R and D selection of alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, T.

    1980-05-01

    The array of alternative energy sources which are vying for the federal government's R and D dollar is formidable when compared to the politically acceptable amount which can be used to fund the research. To guide how these funds should be dispersed, a rational, defensible procedure is needed which can repeatedly be applied as new technologies and new information become available. The procedure advanced in this paper is a decision analysis technique known as multi attribute decision analysis (MADA) and its use is illustrated in an evaluation and ranking of solar thermal electric power generating systems. Since the ultimate purchase decision is made in the market place, the preferences of potential users have been sampled and brought to bear on the ranking. The focus of this description is on the formulation of the problem structure and the decision model, the treatment of uncertainty, and how the results relate to the questions asked by and of the Department of Energy, which funded the study. A final note proposes how decision analysis can be used to address the broader questions of choice among competing technologies with cautions concerning misuse of the procedure.

  19. Toxicological Analysis of Opiates from Alternative Matrices Collected from an Exhumed Body.

    PubMed

    Cippitelli, Marta; Mirtella, Dora; Ottaviani, Giovanni; Tassoni, Giovanna; Froldi, Rino; Cingolani, Mariano

    2017-05-18

    In this case study, the body of a 45-year-old man was exhumed after 1 year at the request of the public prosecutor to assess whether the death was caused by drug consumption. Toxicological analyses were performed on several matrices, including liver, kidney, and the alternative matrices hair and teeth. The systematic toxicological analysis (STA), which consisted of basic and acid liquid/liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, showed the presence of opiates in each of the matrices analyzed. Subsequently, to confirm and quantify the presence of opioids, samples of each of the matrices were subjected to solid-phase extraction and specific GC-MS analysis. The case presented demonstrates the possibility of drug detection in an exhumed body that has been buried for 1 year, despite the problems of quantitative interpretation of the data, and that toxicological results could be useful along with other forensic evidence. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Analysis of variance is easily misapplied in the analysis of randomized trials: a critique and discussion of alternative statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method that is widely used in the psychosomatic literature to analyze the results of randomized trials, yet ANOVA does not provide an estimate for the difference between groups, the key variable of interest in a randomized trial. Although the use of ANOVA is frequently justified on the grounds that a trial incorporates more than two groups, the hypothesis tested by ANOVA for these trials--"Are all groups equivalent?"--is often scientifically uninteresting. Regression methods are not only applicable to trials with many groups, but can be designed to address specific questions arising from the study design. ANOVA is also frequently used for trials with repeated measures, but the consequent reporting of "group effects," "time effects," and "time-by-group interactions" is a distraction from statistics of clinical and scientific value. Given that ANOVA is easily misapplied in the analysis of randomized trials, alternative approaches such as regression methods should be considered in preference.

  1. Analysis of Alternatives for Dismantling of the Equipment in Building 117/1 at Ignalina NPP - 13278

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, Povilas; Simonis, Audrius; Poskas, Gintautas

    2013-07-01

    Ignalina NPP was operating two RBMK-1500 reactors which are under decommissioning now. In this paper dismantling alternatives of the equipment in Building 117/1 are analyzed. After situation analysis and collection of the primary information related to components' physical and radiological characteristics, location and other data, two different alternatives for dismantling of the equipment are formulated - the first (A1), when major components (vessels and pipes of Emergency Core Cooling System - ECCS) are segmented/halved in situ using flame cutting (oxy-acetylene) and the second one (A2), when these components are segmented/halved at the workshop using CAMC (Contact Arc Metal Cutting) technique. To select the preferable alternative MCDA method - AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is applied. Hierarchical list of decision criteria, necessary for assessment of alternatives performance, are formulated. Quantitative decision criteria values for these alternatives are calculated using software DECRAD, which was developed by Lithuanian Energy Institute Nuclear engineering laboratory. While qualitative decision criteria are evaluated using expert judgment. Analysis results show that alternative A1 is better than alternative A2. (authors)

  2. Transient analysis of unbalanced short circuits of the ERDA-NASA 100 kW wind turbine alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Gilbert, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Unbalanced short-circuit faults on the alternator of the ERDA-NASA Mod-O100-kW experimental wind turbine are studied. For each case, complete solutions for armature, field, and damper-circuit currents; short-circuit torque; and open-phase voltage are derived directly by a mathematical analysis. Formulated results are tabulated. For the Mod-O wind turbine alternator, numerical calculations are given, and results are presented by graphs. Comparisons for significant points among the more important cases are summarized. For these cases the transients are found to be potentially severe. The effect of the alternator neutral-to-ground impedance is evaluated.

  3. Integrating System Dynamics Modeling and Knowledge Value Added for Improved Analysis of Alternatives: A Proof of Concept Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Alternative diversity, difficulties in selecting metrics and measuring performance, and other factors make the Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) difficult...particularly difficult because of the intangible nature of many important benefits. The current work addresses the need to improve the use of benefits in AoA...research focuses on the use of KVA and “Real Options” models in identifying, valuing, maintaining, and exercising options in military decision -making

  4. The Inequity in Illinois School Finance. An Analysis of: The Current Situation, the Historical Record, and Alternative Solutions. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, G. Alfred, Jr.; And Others

    This report provides an analysis of current inequities in school finance in Illinois, the historical roots of those inequities, and an analysis of alternative options for funding primary and secondary education. An introduction briefly describes the basis for the constitutional challenge to the current funding system. The next section describes…

  5. An Introduction to Benefit-Cost Analysis for Evaluating Public Expenditure Alternatives. Learning Packages in the Policy Sciences, PS-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlante, Josephine M.; Durham, Taylor R.

    A revised edition of PS-14, "An Introduction to Benefit-Cost Analysis for Evaluating Public Programs," presents concepts and techniques of benefit-cost analysis as tools that can be used to assist in deciding between alternatives. The goals of the new edition include teaching students to think about the possible benefits and costs of each…

  6. Early mastitis diagnosis through topological analysis of biosignals from low-voltage alternate current electrokinetics.

    PubMed

    Zhifei Zhang; Yang Song; Haochen Cui; Wu, Jayne; Schwartz, Fernando; Hairong Qi

    2015-08-01

    Mastitis is the most economically important disease of dairy cows worldwide, and it constantly plagues the dairy industry. A reliable biosensing method is thus imperative to detect this disease at its early stage and accurately identify the pathogen concentration level in order to better control the disease and consequently improve the quality of milk. Recent research indicates that shorter assay time and/or higher sensitivity can be achieved by integrating alternate current electrokinetics (ACEK) with biosensing. However, most existing ACEK devices use voltage levels around 10V at the risk of electrochemical reactions because a lower voltage may not effectively trigger the ACEK effect. Currently, there are no related works that can efficiently tackle the dilemma between avoiding electrochemical reaction and accelerating assay process. This paper adopts low-voltage (40~135mV) ACEK, which is safe but yields ambiguous biosignals within a short assay time, presenting great challenge to high-fidelity identification of pathogen concentration levels. This paper makes two distinctive contributions to the field of biosignal analysis. First, moving away from the traditional signal analysis in the time or spectral domain, we exploit the possibility of representing the biosignal through topological analysis that would reveal the intrinsic topological structure of point clouds generated from the biosignal. Second, in order to tackle another common challenge of biosignal analysis, i.e., limited sample size, we propose a so-called Gaussian-based decision tree (GDT), which can efficiently classify the biosignals even when the sample size is extremely small. Experimental results on the classification of five pathogen concentration levels using only 10 samples taken under various voltage levels demonstrate the robustness of the topological features as well as the advantage of GDT over some other conventional classifiers in handling small dataset. Our method reduces the voltage of

  7. Genome-wide cataloging and analysis of alternatively spliced genes in cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Min, Xiang Jia; Powell, Brian; Braessler, Jonathan; Meinken, John; Yu, Feng; Sablok, Gaurav

    2015-09-21

    Protein functional diversity at the post-transcriptional level is regulated through spliceosome mediated pre-mRNA alternative splicing (AS) events and that has been widely demonstrated to be a key player in regulating the functional diversity in plants. Identification and analysis of AS genes in cereal crop plants are critical for crop improvement and understanding regulatory mechanisms. We carried out the comparative analyses of the functional landscapes of the AS using the consensus assembly of expressed sequence tags and available mRNA sequences in four cereal plants. We identified a total of 8,734 in Oryza sativa subspecies (ssp) japonica, 2,657 in O. sativa ssp indica, 3,971 in Sorghum bicolor, and 10,687 in Zea mays AS genes. Among the identified AS events, intron retention remains to be the dominant type accounting for 23.5 % in S. bicolor, and up to 55.8 % in O. sativa ssp indica. We identified a total of 887 AS genes that were conserved among Z. mays, S. bicolor, and O. sativa ssp japonica; and 248 AS genes were found to be conserved among all four studied species or ssp. Furthermore, we identified 53 AS genes conserved with Brachypodium distachyon. Gene Ontology classification of AS genes revealed functional assignment of these genes in many biological processes with diverse molecular functions. AS is common in cereal plants. The AS genes identified in four cereal crops in this work provide the foundation for further studying the roles of AS in regulation of cereal plant growth and development. The data can be accessed at Plant Alternative Splicing Database (http://proteomics.ysu.edu/altsplice/).

  8. An Analysis of News Media Coverage of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bonevski, Billie; Wilson, Amanda; Henry, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background To examine the accuracy and adequacy of lay media news stories about complementary and alternative medicines and therapies. Methodology/Principal Findings A descriptive analysis of news stories about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the Australian media using a national medical news monitoring website, mediadoctor.org.au. Each story was rated against 10 criteria by two individuals. Consensus scores of 222 news articles reporting therapeutic claims about complementary medicines posted on mediadoctor.org.au between 1 January 2004 and 1 September 2007 were calculated. The overall rating score for 222 CAM articles was 50% (95% CI 47% to 53%). There was a statistically significant (F = 3.68, p = 0.006) difference in cumulative mean scores according to type of therapy: biologically based practices (54%, 95% CI 50% to 58%); manipulative body based practices (46%, 95% CI 39% to 54%), whole medical systems (45%, 95% CI 32% to 58%), mind body medicine (41%, 95% CI 31% to 50%) and energy medicine (33%, 95% CI 11% to 55%). There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative mean scores (F = 3.72, p = 0.0001) according to the clinical outcome of interest with stories about cancer treatments (62%, 95% CI 54% to 70%) scoring highest and stories about treatments for children's behavioural and mental health concerns scoring lowest (31%, 95% CI 19% to 43%). Significant differences were also found in scores between media outlets. Conclusions/Significance There is substantial variability in news reporting practices about CAM. Overall, although they may be improving, the scores remain generally low. It appears that much of the information the public receives about CAM is inaccurate or incomplete. PMID:18545688

  9. Bisphenol A and alternatives in thermal paper receipts - a German market analysis from 2015 to 2017.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Martin; Simat, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) was commonly used as color developer for thermal paper such as cash register receipts, labels or tickets. Therefore, thermal paper was considered by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as the main source of human exposure to BPA beside epoxy based food contact materials. In this study, a German market analysis on the use of BPA and alternative color developers in thermal paper receipts is provided for the years 2015, 2016 and 2017.114 (2015), 98 (2016) and 99 (2017) samples were randomly collected and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. In summary, BPA was still the most frequently found color developer (48.2% in 2015, 46.9% in 2016 and 52.5% in 2017). The most commonly used alternative was the phenol-free substance Pergafast(®) 201 (34.2%, 33.7%, 40.4%). The bisphenol analogs bisphenol S (BPS; 11.4%, 9.2%, 6.1%) and D8 (6.1%, 7.1%, 1.0%) were less common. Another phenol-free substituent, a urea urethane compound (UU), was also detected (3.1% in 2016). Concentrations of color developers in thermal paper ranged from 1.4 to 32.4 mg/g (median values between 2.5 and 15.9 mg/g). Concentrations of BPA were found to be highest followed by BPS, UU, Pergafast(®) 201 and D8. In addition, two pharmacologically active substances, dapsone (6.0 mg/g) and tolbutamide (5.5 mg/g), were detected in a non-marketed thermal paper, that was supposed to use ascorbic acid as initial color developer. Different release experiments of the detected color developers were performed. Sensitizers 1,2-diphenoxy-ethane, 1-phenylmethoxy-naphthalene and diphenylsulfone, used frequently in the thermal paper processes, were quantified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conditional Poisson models: a flexible alternative to conditional logistic case cross-over analysis.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ben G; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tobias, Aurelio

    2014-11-24

    The time stratified case cross-over approach is a popular alternative to conventional time series regression for analysing associations between time series of environmental exposures (air pollution, weather) and counts of health outcomes. These are almost always analyzed using conditional logistic regression on data expanded to case-control (case crossover) format, but this has some limitations. In particular adjusting for overdispersion and auto-correlation in the counts is not possible. It has been established that a Poisson model for counts with stratum indicators gives identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression and does not have these limitations, but it is little used, probably because of the overheads in estimating many stratum parameters. The conditional Poisson model avoids estimating stratum parameters by conditioning on the total event count in each stratum, thus simplifying the computing and increasing the number of strata for which fitting is feasible compared with the standard unconditional Poisson model. Unlike the conditional logistic model, the conditional Poisson model does not require expanding the data, and can adjust for overdispersion and auto-correlation. It is available in Stata, R, and other packages. By applying to some real data and using simulations, we demonstrate that conditional Poisson models were simpler to code and shorter to run than are conditional logistic analyses and can be fitted to larger data sets than possible with standard Poisson models. Allowing for overdispersion or autocorrelation was possible with the conditional Poisson model but when not required this model gave identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression. Conditional Poisson regression models provide an alternative to case crossover analysis of stratified time series data with some advantages. The conditional Poisson model can also be used in other contexts in which primary control for confounding is by fine

  11. Comparing five alternative methods of breast reconstruction surgery: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Grover, Ritwik; Padula, William V; Van Vliet, Michael; Ridgway, Emily B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of five standardized procedures for breast reconstruction to delineate the best reconstructive approach in postmastectomy patients in the settings of nonirradiated and irradiated chest walls. A decision tree was used to model five breast reconstruction procedures from the provider perspective to evaluate cost-effectiveness. Procedures included autologous flaps with pedicled tissue, autologous flaps with free tissue, latissimus dorsi flaps with breast implants, expanders with implant exchange, and immediate implant placement. All methods were compared with a "do-nothing" alternative. Data for model parameters were collected through a systematic review, and patient health utilities were calculated from an ad hoc survey of reconstructive surgeons. Results were measured in cost (2011 U.S. dollars) per quality-adjusted life-year. Univariate sensitivity analyses and Bayesian multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted. Pedicled autologous tissue and free autologous tissue reconstruction were cost-effective compared with the do-nothing alternative. Pedicled autologous tissue was the slightly more cost-effective of the two. The other procedures were not found to be cost-effective. The results were robust to a number of sensitivity analyses, although the margin between pedicled and free autologous tissue reconstruction is small and affected by some parameter values. Autologous pedicled tissue was slightly more cost-effective than free tissue reconstruction in irradiated and nonirradiated patients. Implant-based techniques were not cost-effective. This is in agreement with the growing trend at academic institutions to encourage autologous tissue reconstruction because of its natural recreation of the breast contour, suppleness, and resiliency in the setting of irradiated recipient beds.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative first-trimester pregnancy termination strategies in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Hu, D; Grossman, D; Levin, C; Blanchard, K; Goldie, S J

    2009-05-01

    To assess the comparative health and economic outcomes associated with three alternative first-trimester abortion techniques in Mexico City and to examine the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion modalities within a restrictive setting. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Mexico City. Reproductive-aged women with unintended pregnancy seeking first-trimester abortion. Synthesising the best available data, a computer-based model simulates induced abortion and its potential complications and is used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative safe modalities for first-trimester pregnancy termination: (1) hospital-based dilatation and curettage (D&C), (2) hospital-based manual vacuum aspiration (MVA), (3) clinic-based MVA and (4) medical abortion using vaginal misoprostol. Number of complications, lifetime costs, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy. In comparison to the magnitude of health gains associated with all safe abortion modalities, the relative differences between strategies were more pronounced in terms of their economic costs. Assuming all options were equally available, clinic-based MVA was the least costly and most effective. Medical abortion with misoprostol provided comparable benefits to D&C, but cost substantially less. Enhanced access to safe abortion was always more influential than shifting between safe abortion modalities. This study demonstrates that the provision of safe abortion is cost-effective and will result in reduced complications, decreased mortality and substantial cost savings compared with unsafe abortion. In Mexico City, shifting from a practice of hospital-based D&C to clinic-based MVA and enhancing access to medical abortion will have the best chance to minimise abortion-related morbidity and mortality.

  13. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

  14. Needs-based sewerage prioritization: alternative to conventional cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Md M; Hayes, Donald F

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an empirical approach to select and prioritize sewerage projects within set budgetary limitations. The methodology includes a model which quantifies benefits of a sewerage project as an index or dimensionless number. The index considers need and urgency of sewerage and other project goals. Benefit is defined as the difference in anticipated impact between the current condition (without the project) and the expected condition with the project. Anticipated benefits primarily include reduction in environmental pollution, reduction of human diseases and morbidity, and other tangible and intangible improvement. This approach is a powerful decision tool for sewerage prioritization and an effective alternative to conventional cost-benefit analysis. Unlike conventional analysis, this approach makes no attempt to convert project benefits and other impacts into a monetary measure. This work recognizes that the decision to provide sewerage based solely on net benefits is not practical. Instead, benefit-cost ratios (B/C) are calculated utilizing cost-effectiveness approach. Using these ratios, 16 unserviced areas of Ensenada, Mexico are ranked. The prioritization rankings produced by this method must be further scrutinized and carefully reviewed for logic, accuracy of input data, and practicality of implementation. A similar framework may also be useful for prioritizing other public works projects.

  15. Exchange factor method: An alternative basis for zonal analysis of radiating enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, M.E.; Howell, J.R.

    1985-11-01

    In zonal analysis of an enclosure containing a radiatively participating medium, the volume and bounding surface are divided into volume and area elements which are assumed to be isothermal. For a system of M elements consisting of N surfaces and GAMMA volume elements (M = N+GAMMA), M/sup 2/ relationships (direct- or total-exchange areas of conventional zonal analysis) define all possible radiant interchange between element pairs. Due to reciprocity there are at most M(M+1)/2 unique direct-exchange areas. The use of symmetry may greatly reduce the number of unique exchange areas. In the alternative form presented, exchange factors are defined such that a gray medium's gas-to-gas exchange factors describe only the redistribution of radiative source terms. Only surface-to-surface and surface-to-gas (gas-to-surface) relationships are required to wholly define the system in radiative equilibrium. That is, a system in radiative equilibrium may be characterized by as many as GAMMA(GAMMA+1)/2 fewer factors. These same exchange factors may be augmented by gas-to-gas exchange factors to analyze media not in radiative equilibrium. In an isotropically scattering, gray medium, exchange factors are functions of system geometry and total extinction only. The degree of extinction due to scattering does not affect exchange factor. Transformations between direct-exchange areas and exchange factors are developed.

  16. Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide Inhibition as an Alternative and Convenient Method for Gene Function Analysis in Pollen Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fanglei; Wang, Lu; Yang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Liyao; Peng, Xiongbo; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (A-ODN) inhibition works well in animal cells. However, there have been few successful examples to date of its application in plants, and more specifically whether the technique can be used in pollen tubes as a model of plant cell growth. NtGNL1 plays an important role in pollen tube development and was thus selected as an indicator to assess the biological effects of A-ODN. An A-ODN inhibition technique was used to down-regulate NtGNL1 expression in tobacco pollen tubes and showed that A-ODNs could quickly enter pollen tubes through the thick wall and cell membrane and effectively block NtGNL1 expression. Phenotype analysis revealed that the down-regulation of NtGNL1 by A-ODNs resulted in abnormalities in endocytosis and subsequent vesicle trafficking, similar to the phenotypes of pollen tubes treated with NtGNL1 RNAi. This investigation confirmed that A-ODNs could specifically inhibit target gene expression, and furthermore demonstrated that A-ODN functioned in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner, because A-ODNs could be degraded when incubated with pollen tubes. Thus, the A-ODN technique was successfully used for gene function analysis in pollen tubes and appears to be an alternative and convenient technique when the in vitro pollen tube is used as the study model. This technique will greatly facilitate investigations on the molecular mechanism(s) underlying pollen tube growth. PMID:23527102

  17. An Alternative Methodological Approach for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Decision Making in Genomic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fragoulakis, Vasilios; Mitropoulou, Christina; van Schaik, Ron H; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Patrinos, George P

    2016-05-01

    Genomic Medicine aims to improve therapeutic interventions and diagnostics, the quality of life of patients, but also to rationalize healthcare costs. To reach this goal, careful assessment and identification of evidence gaps for public health genomics priorities are required so that a more efficient healthcare environment is created. Here, we propose a public health genomics-driven approach to adjust the classical healthcare decision making process with an alternative methodological approach of cost-effectiveness analysis, which is particularly helpful for genomic medicine interventions. By combining classical cost-effectiveness analysis with budget constraints, social preferences, and patient ethics, we demonstrate the application of this model, the Genome Economics Model (GEM), based on a previously reported genome-guided intervention from a developing country environment. The model and the attendant rationale provide a practical guide by which all major healthcare stakeholders could ensure the sustainability of funding for genome-guided interventions, their adoption and coverage by health insurance funds, and prioritization of Genomic Medicine research, development, and innovation, given the restriction of budgets, particularly in developing countries and low-income healthcare settings in developed countries. The implications of the GEM for the policy makers interested in Genomic Medicine and new health technology and innovation assessment are also discussed.

  18. Analysis of the cost of mined geologic repositories in alternative media

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.L.; Cole, B.M.

    1982-02-01

    IN 1981, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an analysis of the costs of using salt, granite, basalt or tuff to isolate spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary cost estimates were made and the conditions affecting cost in each medium were examined parametrically. The analysis was conducted using a repository cost model named RECON, created for this project. Data for the model were gathered from recent conceptual design studies completed and under way, from the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (GEIS), and from reports on specific, related topics. These data were current through Jun 1981. The study approach was to select reference repository descriptions and costs for each of the previously mentioned media. These descriptions were used as baselines to evaluate the cost sensitivity of key repository design parameters such as package design, thermal loading limits, additional radionuclide migration barriers, repository size, and emplacement design. The sensitivity of input cost parameters such as cost of money, mining, and hole drilling was also examined. Following the sensitivity analyses, the cost model was used to explore cost-effective alternative emplacement designs for the different media.

  19. An Alternative to Performing Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Container Headspace Gas Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, L. R.; Djordjevic, S. M.; Kehrman, R. F.; Most, W. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is operating under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) for contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste. The HWFP contains limitations on allowable emissions from waste disposed in the underground. This environmental performance standard imposed on the WIPP consists of limiting volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from emplaced waste to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The standard is currently met by tracking individual waste container headspace gas concentrations, which are determined by headspace gas sampling and analysis of CH TRU waste containers. The WIPP is seeking a HWFP modification to allow the disposal of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. Because RH TRU waste is limited to approximately 5% of the waste volume and is emplaced in the disposal room walls, it is possible to bound the potential RH TRU waste contribution to VOC emissions using conservative upper bounds. These conservative upper bounds were developed as an alternative to RH TRU waste canister headspace gas sampling and analysis. The methodology used to perform the calculations used to evaluate VOC emissions from emplaced RH TRU waste canisters applied the same equations as those used to evaluate VOC emissions in the original HWFP application.

  20. Oncologists' experiences of discussing complementary and alternative treatment options with their cancer patients. A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Corina, Güthlin; Christine, Holmberg; Klein, Gudrun

    2016-09-01

    The rising use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) means oncologists are increasingly asked by patients to discuss CAM treatment options. However, no formal training or established standards are available on the subject. The aim of this paper was to investigate real-world discussions of CAM treatments. In particular, we wanted to learn about the values, norms and defining features that characterise oncologist-patient discussions on CAM. Semi-standardised interviews with 17 oncologists were analysed using interpretation pattern analysis combined with thematic analysis. Advice on CAM is seen by oncologists as an important service they provide to their patients, even though their knowledge of the subject is often limited. Many interviewees mentioned an apparent lack of scientific proof, especially when their aim was to warn patients against the use of CAM. Discussions on CAM tend to reflect the idea that CAM belongs 'to another world', and judging by the interviews with oncologists, this notion appears to be shared by patients and oncologists alike. Oncologists require reliable information on CAM and would profit from training in the communication of CAM treatment options to patients. Knowing scientific data on CAM would also lower barriers stemming from the view that CAM belongs 'to another world'. Under- and postgraduate education programmes should include training on how to respond to requests addressing possible CAM options.

  1. On the analysis of clonogenic survival data: Statistical alternatives to the linear-quadratic model.

    PubMed

    Unkel, Steffen; Belka, Claus; Lauber, Kirsten

    2016-01-28

    the extraction of scores of radioresistance, which displayed significant correlations with the estimated parameters of the regression models. Undoubtedly, LQ regression is a robust method for the analysis of clonogenic survival data. Nevertheless, alternative approaches including non-linear regression and multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis represent versatile tools for the extraction of parameters and/or scores of the cellular response towards ionizing irradiation with a more intuitive biological interpretation. The latter are highly informative for correlation analyses with other types of data, including functional genomics data that are increasingly being generated.

  2. Thermal and Electrical Analysis of MARS Rover RTG, and Performance Comparison of Alternative Design Options.

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A

    1989-09-29

    The paper describes the thermal, thermoelectric and electrical analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the MARS Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The work described was part of an RTG design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company for the U.S. Department of Energy, in support of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's MRSR Project.; A companion paper presented at this conference described a reference mission scenario, al illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, its power system requirements and environmental constraints, a design approach enabling RTG operation in the Martian atmosphere, and the design and the structural and mass analysis of a conservative baseline RTG employing safety-qualified heat source modules and reliability-proven thermoelectric converter elements.; The present paper presents a detailed description of the baseline RTG's thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. It examines the effect of different operating conditions (beginning versus end of mission, water-cooled versus radiation-cooled, summer day versus winter night) on the RTG's performance. Finally, the paper describes and analyzes a number of alternative RTG designs, to determine the effect of different power levels (250W versus 125W), different thermoelectric element designs (standard versus short unicouples versus multicouples) and different thermoelectric figures of merit (0.00058K(superscript -1) to 0.000140K (superscript -1) on the RTG's specific power.; The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost.; There is a duplicate copy and also a duplicate copy in the ESD files.

  3. Data analysis methods for testing alternative theories of gravity with LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakova, Natalia; Messenger, Chris; Pannarale, Francesco; Hewitson, Martin; Armano, Michele

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present a data analysis approach applicable to the potential saddle-point fly-by mission extension of LISA Pathfinder (LPF). At the peak of its sensitivity, LPF will sample the gravitational field in our Solar System with a precision of several fm /s2/√Hz at frequencies around 1 mHz. Such an accurate accelerometer will allow us to test alternative theories of gravity that predict deviations from Newtonian dynamics in the nonrelativistic limit. As an example, we consider the case of the Tensor-Vector-Scalar (TeVeS) theory of gravity and calculate, within the nonrelativistic limit of this theory, the signals that anomalous tidal stresses generate in LPF. We study the parameter space of these signals and divide it into two subgroups, one related to the mission parameters and the other to the theory parameters that are determined by the gravity model. We investigate how the mission parameters affect the signal detectability concluding that these parameters can be determined with the sufficient precision from the navigation of the spacecraft and fixed during our analysis. Further, we apply Bayesian parameter estimation and determine the accuracy to which the gravity theory parameters may be inferred. We evaluate the portion of parameter space that may be eliminated in case of no signal detection and estimate the detectability of signals as a function of parameter space location. We also perform a first investigation of non-Gaussian "noise glitches" that may occur in the data. The analysis we develop is universal and may be applied to anomalous tidal stress induced signals predicted by any theory of gravity.

  4. A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-12-01

    This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb

  5. Expression Microarray Analysis Reveals Alternative Splicing of LAMA3 and DST Genes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ryan; Ochs, Michael F.; Ahn, Sun Mi; Hennessey, Patrick; Tan, Marietta; Soudry, Ethan; Gaykalova, Daria A.; Uemura, Mamoru; Brait, Mariana; Shao, Chunbo; Westra, William; Bishop, Justin; Fertig, Elana J.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prior studies have demonstrated tumor-specific alternative splicing events in various solid tumor types. The role of alternative splicing in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is unclear. Our study queried exon-level expression to implicate splice variants in HNSCC tumors. Experimental Design We performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) tissue samples at an exon expression level. In our comparison we ranked genes based upon a novel score—the Maximum-Minimum Exon Score (MMES) – designed to predict the likelihood of an alternative splicing event occurring. We validated predicted alternative splicing events using quantitative RT-PCR on an independent cohort. Results After MMES scoring of 17,422 genes, the top 900 genes with the highest scores underwent additional manual inspection of expression patterns in a graphical analysis. The genes LAMA3, DST, VEGFC, SDHA, RASIP1, and TP63 were selected for further validation studies because of a high frequency of alternative splicing suggested in our graphical analysis, and literature review showing their biological relevance and known splicing patterns. We confirmed TP63 as having dominant expression of the short DeltaNp63 isoform in HNSCC tumor samples, consistent with prior reports. Two of the six genes (LAMA3 and DST) validated by quantitative RT-PCR for tumor-specific alternative splicing events (Student's t test, P<0.001). Conclusion Alternative splicing events of oncologically relevant proteins occur in HNSCC. The number of genes expressing tumor-specific splice variants needs further elucidation, as does the functional significance of selective isoform expression. PMID:24675808

  6. Postmortem tissue samples: an alternative to urine and blood for drug analysis in racehorses.

    PubMed

    Uboh, C E; Rudy, J A; Railing, F A; Enright, J M; Shoemaker, J M; Kahler, M C; Shellenberger, J M; Kemecsei, Z; Das, D N

    1995-09-01

    Although urine is the sample of choice for drug tests in racehorses, it is rarely obtained following the sudden death of a racehorse on the track while racing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the significance of postmortem tissue samples as an alternative to urine and blood samples in equine drug analysis following the sudden death of a racehorse on the track while participating in a competitive race. Postmortem tissue samples were frozen (-80 degrees C) until analyzed. A 30-40-g portion of each organ was homogenized in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), deproteinized, hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase, extracted, and screened by thin-layer chromatography and immunoassay. Samples that initially tested positive for drug(s) were then extracted using high-flow, solid-phase extraction cartridges. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The presence of butorphanol in horses HB355 and CD387, pentobarbital in horse HO940, and ergotamine in horses HO940 and CD387 was detected and confirmed. Thus, in the absence of urine and blood samples following sudden death, postmortem tissue samples are equally useful for forensic toxicological investigations of racehorses.

  7. Identification and expression analysis of alternatively spliced new transcript isoform of Bax gene in mouse.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Sarwar, Tarique; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Tabish, Mohammad

    2017-07-20

    Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family regulates apoptosis through homodimerization/heterodimerization with Bcl-2. Bax-α is the only product of the Bax gene that has been extensively studied. Bax-α exists in inactive form and several conformational changes are required during apoptosis to activate it. Here, we have identified a novel transcript variant of Bax gene in mouse which contains alternatively spliced new first exon that is different from the first exon of previously reported transcript. Conceptual translation of new transcript encodes a protein (Bax-α1), having different N-terminus. The existence of the new transcript variant was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR, semi-nested PCR using primers designed for the newly identified transcript variant. The identity of PCR product obtained after semi-nested PCR was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Relative expression of new transcript variant with respect to reported transcript was also studied with the help of real time PCR. The existence of new transcript variant was further supported by the presence of clusters of overlapping ESTs from the database. Bax-α1 possibly displays heterogeneous properties as predicted by post-translational modification analysis tools. The differences in post-translational modifications might play important roles in divergent function of the new isoform. The three dimensional structure was generated by homology modelling to visualize the differences at N termini of known and newly identified variant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ALTERNATIVES OF MACCS2 IN LANL DISPERSION ANALYSIS FOR ONSITE AND OFFSITE DOSES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, John HC

    2012-05-01

    In modeling atmospheric dispersion to determine accidental release of radiological material, one of the common statistical analysis tools used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2). MACCS2, however, has some limitations and shortfalls for both onsite and offsite applications. Alternative computer codes, which could provide more realistic calculations, are being investigated for use at LANL. In the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), the suitability of MACCS2 for the calculation of onsite worker doses was a concern; therefore, ARCON96 was chosen to replace MACCS2. YMP's use of ARCON96 provided results which clearly demonstrated the program's merit for onsite worker safety analyses in a wide range of complex configurations and scenarios. For offsite public exposures, the conservatism of MACCS2 on the treatment of turbulence phenomena at LANL is examined in this paper. The results show a factor of at least two conservatism in calculated public doses. The new EPA air quality model, AERMOD, which implements advanced meteorological turbulence calculations, is a good candidate for LANL applications to provide more confidence in the accuracy of offsite public dose projections.

  9. Alternative cerebral generators and circuitry pathways in alpha coma revealed by independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Abusleme, Isaac E; Chen, James W Y

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates the generators of alpha coma activity and the probable cerebral pathways involved in alpha coma patients. This study uses independent component analysis (ICA) and dipole fitting algorithm to locate the cerebral generators in alpha coma and normal alpha rhythms. Distinct distributions of the source generators for alpha activity were noted in alpha coma. They were localized to the anterior neocortical and subcortical regions, which includes caudate nucleus, midbrain and hypothalamus. In addition, the two patients who survive long term have five independent components identified vs. the other five patients who demised only had one or two independent components. The findings showed that alpha activity could be generated using alternative generators and pathways. This is probably due to the disinhibition of the normally inhibited pathways in coma. The presence of less independent components is probably a marker of less preserved brain tissue and predicts worse outcome. This is the first known human study using the ICA method to localize the cerebral generators in alpha coma. It might provide a new dimension of interpreting clinical EEGs in patients with alpha coma. It also might have significant application in predicting the clinical outcomes.

  10. Microarray Meta-Analysis of RNA-Binding Protein Functions in Alternative Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Yuting; Yan, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a post-transcriptional mechanism to generate diverse mRNA transcripts with different 3′UTRs from the same gene. In this study, we systematically searched for the APA events with differential expression in public mouse microarray data. Hundreds of genes with over-represented differential APA events and the corresponding experiments were identified. We further revealed that global APA differential expression occurred prevalently in tissues such as brain comparing to peripheral tissues, and biological processes such as development, differentiation and immune responses. Interestingly, we also observed widespread differential APA events in RNA-binding protein (RBP) genes such as Rbm3, Eif4e2 and Elavl1. Given the fact that RBPs are considered as the main regulators of differential APA expression, we constructed a co-expression network between APAs and RBPs using the microarray data. Further incorporation of CLIP-seq data of selected RBPs showed that Nova2 represses and Mbnl1 promotes the polyadenylation of closest poly(A) sites respectively. Altogether, our study is the first microarray meta-analysis in a mammal on the regulation of APA by RBPs that integrated massive mRNA expression data under a wide-range of biological conditions. Finally, we present our results as a comprehensive resource in an online website for the research community. PMID:24622240

  11. Accuracy analysis of mimetic finite volume operators on geodesic grids and a consistent alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Pedro S.

    2016-04-01

    Many newly developed climate, weather and ocean global models are based on quasi-uniform spherical polygonal grids, aiming for high resolution and better scalability. Thuburn et al. (2009) and Ringler et al. (2010) developed a C staggered finite volume/difference method for arbitrary polygonal spherical grids suitable for these next generation dynamical cores. This method has many desirable mimetic properties and became popular, being adopted in some recent models, in spite of being known to possess low order of accuracy. In this work, we show that, for the nonlinear shallow water equations on non-uniform grids, the method has potentially 3 main sources of inconsistencies (local truncation errors not converging to zero as the grid is refined): (i) the divergence term of the continuity equation, (ii) the perpendicular velocity and (iii) the kinetic energy terms of the vector invariant form of the momentum equations. Although some of these inconsistencies have not impacted the convergence on some standard shallow water test cases up until now, they may constitute a potential problem for high resolution 3D models. Based on our analysis, we propose modifications for the method that will make it first order accurate in the maximum norm. It preserves many of the mimetic properties, albeit having non-steady geostrophic modes on the f-sphere. Experimental results show that the resulting model is a more accurate alternative to the existing formulations and should provide means of having a consistent, computationally cheap and scalable atmospheric or ocean model on C staggered Voronoi grids.

  12. An alternate method for extracting DNA from environmentally challenged teeth for improved DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Warnke, Frauke; van Daal, Angela

    2016-01-01

    A grinding-free method to extract DNA from teeth via a direct minimal-invasive retrograde approach to the pulp cavity and dentine was compared to a standard grinding/pulverisation method. This alternate method uses endodontic dental files to access the root canals and pulp cavity for tissue and dentine harvest via the apical end of the roots and avoids mechanical damage to the crown and root morphology. In contrast, other methods require pulverisation of the whole root or tooth, transection or destruction of the occlusal surface to gain access to the DNA in the root canals and pulp chamber. This study compared two methods for preparing dentine powder from the roots of environmentally challenged teeth for forensic DNA analysis. We found that although the filing method was more laborious, and produced less dentine powder, the amount of amplifiable DNA per milligram of powder was substantially higher with the filing method compared to grinding the entire root. In addition, the number of short tandem repeat (STR) alleles detected and the peak height ratios of the STR profiles were notably higher. Although several other methods of extracting DNA-rich tissue from the pulp chamber of teeth have previously been reported, the method presented in this study is minimally invasive, thereby allowing the preservation of tooth and crown morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative future analysis for assessing the potential impact of climate change on urban landscape dynamics.

    PubMed

    He, Chunyang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qingxu; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhang, Da

    2015-11-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on urban landscape dynamics (ULD) is the foundation for adapting to climate change and maintaining urban landscape sustainability. This paper demonstrates an alternative future analysis by coupling a system dynamics (SD) and a cellular automata (CA) model. The potential impact of different climate change scenarios on ULD from 2009 to 2030 was simulated and evaluated in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan megalopolis cluster area (BTT-MCA). The results suggested that the integrated model, which combines the advantages of the SD and CA model, has the strengths of spatial quantification and flexibility. Meanwhile, the results showed that the influence of climate change would become more severe over time. In 2030, the potential urban area affected by climate change will be 343.60-1260.66 km(2) (5.55 -20.37 % of the total urban area, projected by the no-climate-change-effect scenario). Therefore, the effects of climate change should not be neglected when designing and managing urban landscape. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of partially penetrating slug tests in a stratified formation by alternating piezometer and tube methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yoshitaka; Imai, Toshikazu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Nishigaki, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    In partially penetrating slug tests, hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates might not necessarily be valid because of vertical flows in heterogeneous formations. We assess the error in hypothetical stratified formations by numerical sensitivity analysis, and propose an effective method for compensation by incorporating two types of casing configuration (piezometer and tube). The hypothetical stratified formation consists of completely horizontal layers, each 1 m thick; the permeability is different between, but not within, layers. In this study, conductivity estimates in the piezometer and tube methods are calculated by assigning various patterns of conductivity to the test, upper, and lower layers: KT, KU, and KL. The effect of vertical flow becomes significant when KT is small relative to KU or KL, and KL is more important than KU because the base of the borehole is open to the lower formation. The conductivity ratios (estimate over actual value) are treated as approximately linearly dependent on logarithms of KT/KU and KT/KL, so that conductivity estimates can be straightforwardly derived from one piezometer measurement and two tube measurements at the top and bottom of the screen. The linear relations are evaluated and constant parameters are determined under specific conditions. This study also recommends alternating piezometer and tube methods in the drilling procedure because the actual variation of K with depth is larger than that found using isolated measurements, as shown in a field study of alluvial fan gravel deposits in Sapporo, Japan.

  15. An alternative to modal analysis for material stiffness and damping identification from vibrating plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Alain; Pierron, Fabrice; Guo, Baoqiao

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an alternative to modal analysis to extract stiffness and damping parameters from thin vibrating plates. Full-field slope measurements are performed through a deflectometry technique on a plate vibrating at a given frequency. Images are recorded in phase and at π/2 lag from the excitation. From this information, deflection fields are computed by integration and curvature fields are obtained by differentiation. This information is then input into the principle of virtual work to extract both stiffness and damping parameters. This procedure, known as the Virtual Fields Method, is detailed in the paper and the notion of special optimized virtual fields is extended to the present problem. Validation on simulated data is performed before moving to experimental data. One of the main advantages of this technique is that it is completely insensitive to the damping coming from the boundary conditions. This is illustrated experimentally on two tests where a viscoelastic layer and rubber washers are added in the experimental set up.

  16. 75 FR 30100 - FY 2010 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity: Alternatives Analysis Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    .... Through various initiatives and legislative changes over the last fifteen years, FTA has allowed and.... Description of Conceptual Alternatives. Applicants should provide a conceptual definition of a broad range of strategies for improving conditions in the corridor. For each alternative, the conceptual definition...

  17. Solar power satellite: Analysis of alternatives for transporting material to geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Huang, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    A systems design study of the alternative methods and relative merits of various approaches to transporting and assembling a solar power satellite in geosynchronous orbit was conducted. State of the art alternatives for chemical and electrical interorbital propulsion were studied, and several possible scenarios for construction were proposed.

  18. Pedagogical Implications in the Thermal Analysis of Uniform Annular Fins: Alternative Analytic Solutions by Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Franklin

    1998-01-01

    Presents two alternative computational procedures for solving the modified Bessel equation of zero order: the Frobenius method, and the power series method coupled with a curve fit. Students in heat transfer courses can benefit from these alternative procedures; a course on ordinary differential equations is the only mathematical background that…

  19. FULL-GENOME ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SPLICING IN MOUSE LIVER AFTER HEPATOTOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative splicing plays a role in determining gene function and protein diversity. We have employed whole genome exon profiling using Affymetrix Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays to understand the significance of alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale in response to multiple toxic...

  20. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Alternative Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Tanriseven, Isil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Recent trends have encouraged the use of alternative assessment tools in class in line with the recommendations made by the updated curricula. It is of great importance to understand how alternative assessment affects students' academic outcomes and which techniques are most effective in which contexts. This study aims to examine the…

  1. Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

  2. FULL-GENOME ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SPLICING IN MOUSE LIVER AFTER HEPATOTOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative splicing plays a role in determining gene function and protein diversity. We have employed whole genome exon profiling using Affymetrix Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays to understand the significance of alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale in response to multiple toxic...

  3. Pedagogical Implications in the Thermal Analysis of Uniform Annular Fins: Alternative Analytic Solutions by Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Franklin

    1998-01-01

    Presents two alternative computational procedures for solving the modified Bessel equation of zero order: the Frobenius method, and the power series method coupled with a curve fit. Students in heat transfer courses can benefit from these alternative procedures; a course on ordinary differential equations is the only mathematical background that…

  4. The no-project alternative analysis: An early product of the Tahoe Decision Support System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsing, David L.; Hessenflow, Mark L.; Wein, Anne

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a No-project alternative analysis (NPAA) or “business as usual” scenario with respect to a 20-year projection of 21 indicators of environmental and socioeconomic conditions in the Lake Tahoe Basin for the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA). Our effort was inspired by earlier work that investigated the tradeoffs between an environmental and an economic objective. The NPAA study has implications for a longer term goal of building a Tahoe Decision Support System (TDSS) to assist the TRPA and other Basin agencies in assessing the outcomes of management strategies. The NPAA assumes no major deviations from current management practices or from recent environmental or societal trends and planned Environmental Improvement Program (EIP) projects. Quantitative “scenario generation” tools were constructed to simulate site-specific land uses, various population categories, and associated vehicle miles traveled. Projections of each indicator’s attainment status were made by building visual conceptual models of the relevant natural and social processes, extrapolating trends, and using available models, research, and expert opinion. We present results of the NPAA, projected indicator status, key factors affecting the indicators, indicator functionality, and knowledge gaps. One important result is that current management practices may slow the loss or degradation of environmental qualities but not halt or reverse it. Our analysis also predicts an increase in recreation and commuting into and within the basin, primarily in private vehicles. Private vehicles, which are a critical mechanism by which the Basin population affects the surrounding environment, are a key determinant of air-quality indicators, a source of particulate matter affecting Secchi depth, a source of noise, and a factor in recreational and scenic quality, largely owing to congestion. Key uncertainties in the NPAA include climate change, EIP project effectiveness, and

  5. The OMPS Limb Profiler Instrument: An Alternative Data Analysis and Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, Didier F.; Lumpe, Jerry; Eden, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The upcoming Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS), which will be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2011, will continue monitoring the global distribution of the Earth's middle atmosphere ozone and aerosol. OMPS is composed of three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The ultimate goal of the mission is to better understand and quantify the rate of stratospheric ozone recovery. The focus of the paper will be on the Limb Profiler (LP) instrument. The LP instrument will measure the Earth fs limb radiance (which is due to the scattering of solar photons by air molecules, aerosol and Earth surface) in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and near infrared, from 285 to 1000 nm. The LP simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km and each horizontally spaced by 250 km in the cross-track direction. The focal plane of the LP spectrometer is a two ]dimensional CCD array comprised of 340 x 740 pixels. Several data analysis tools are presently being constructed and tested to retrieve ozone and aerosol vertical distribution from limb radiance measurements. The primary NASA algorithm is based on earlier algorithms developed for the SOLSE/LORE and SAGE III limb scatter missions. The paper will describe an alternative algorithm which will retrieve ozone density and aerosol extinction directly from radiance data collected on individual CCD pixels. This alternative method uses an optimal estimation approach to retrieve ozone and aerosol in the 10-60 km range from the information contained within an ensemble of about 50000 down-linked pixels. Tangent height registration is performed using the Rayleigh Scattering Attitude Sensor (RSAS) technique applied to columns of pixels in the 340-360 nm range. Cloud

  6. The OMPS Limb Profiler Instrument: An Alternative Data Analysis and Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, Didier F.; Lumpe, Jerry; Eden, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The upcoming Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS), which will be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2011, will continue monitoring the global distribution of the Earth's middle atmosphere ozone and aerosol. OMPS is composed of three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The ultimate goal of the mission is to better understand and quantify the rate of stratospheric ozone recovery. The focus of the paper will be on the Limb Profiler (LP) instrument. The LP instrument will measure the Earth fs limb radiance (which is due to the scattering of solar photons by air molecules, aerosol and Earth surface) in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and near infrared, from 285 to 1000 nm. The LP simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km and each horizontally spaced by 250 km in the cross-track direction. The focal plane of the LP spectrometer is a two ]dimensional CCD array comprised of 340 x 740 pixels. Several data analysis tools are presently being constructed and tested to retrieve ozone and aerosol vertical distribution from limb radiance measurements. The primary NASA algorithm is based on earlier algorithms developed for the SOLSE/LORE and SAGE III limb scatter missions. The paper will describe an alternative algorithm which will retrieve ozone density and aerosol extinction directly from radiance data collected on individual CCD pixels. This alternative method uses an optimal estimation approach to retrieve ozone and aerosol in the 10-60 km range from the information contained within an ensemble of about 50000 down-linked pixels. Tangent height registration is performed using the Rayleigh Scattering Attitude Sensor (RSAS) technique applied to columns of pixels in the 340-360 nm range. Cloud

  7. Genome-wide assembly and analysis of alternative transcripts in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2005-01-01

    To build a mouse gene index with the most comprehensive coverage of alternative transcription/splicing (ATS), we developed an algorithm and a fully automated computational pipeline for transcript assembly from expressed sequences aligned to the genome. We identified 191,946 genomic loci, which included 27,497 protein-coding genes and 11,906 additional gene candidates (e.g., nonprotein-coding, but multiexon). Comparison of the resulting gene index with TIGR, UniGene, DoTS, and ESTGenes databases revealed that it had a greater number of transcripts, a greater average number of exons and introns with proper splicing sites per gene, and longer ORFs. The 27,497 protein-coding genes had 77,138 transcripts, i.e., 2.8 transcripts per gene on average. Close examination of transcripts led to a combinatorial table of 23 types of ATS units, only nine of which were previously described, i.e., 14 types of alternative splicing, seven types of alternative starts, and two types of alternative termination. The 47%, 18%, and 14% of 20,323 multiexon protein-coding genes with proper splice sites had alternative splicings, alternative starts, and alternative terminations, respectively. The gene index with the comprehensive ATS will provide a useful platform for analyzing the nature and mechanism of ATS, as well as for designing the accurate exon-based DNA microarrays. PMID:15867436

  8. Teacher Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Susan D.; Lo, Ya-yu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package on three middle school special education teachers' accurate implementation of trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) with their students with autism spectrum disorders or emotional and behavioral disorders in the…

  9. Teacher Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Susan D.; Lo, Ya-yu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package on three middle school special education teachers' accurate implementation of trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) with their students with autism spectrum disorders or emotional and behavioral disorders in the…

  10. Analysis of U.S. School Bus Populations and Alternative Fuel Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.

    2004-04-01

    This Clean Cities final report provides information concerning different school bus types, school bus populations, school bus miles and fuel use, school bus emissions, alternative fuel school buses, and potential for alternative fuel school bus use through 2010. It is intended to provide general information concerning the size of the school bus market in the U.S., as well as to provide some quantification of the potential for alternative fuel use in school buses in the U.S., and what that might mean for petroleum displacement and emissions reductions.

  11. Comparative analysis of alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation and the expression of the two KIN genes from cytoplasmic male sterility cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Tao, Peng; Huang, Xiaoyun; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Zhong, Xinmin

    2014-06-01

    The KIN genes are crucial members of the cold-regulated gene family. They play exclusive roles during the developmental processes of many organs and respond to various abiotic stresses in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of KIN gene expression in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). We carried out a genome-wide analysis to identify the KIN genes in the CMS cabbage. Two non-redundant KIN genes, named BoKIN1 (Bol021262) and BoKIN2 (Bol030498), were identified. Reverse transcriptase PCR detected alternative splicing (AS) products of BoKIN1 (four AS products) and BoKIN2 (three AS products). In addition, alternative polyadenylation (APA) was observed for BoKIN1 and BoKIN2 in the CMS cabbage, resulting in variable 3'UTRs in their transcripts. Furthermore, the transcription levels of BoKIN1-0 and BoKIN2-0, the introns of which were spliced completely, were analyzed in various organs and young leaves treated by abiotic stresses. Our data indicated that BoKIN1-0 is highly expressed in various organs, whereas BoKIN2-0 is expressed exclusively in the stamen. Our study also suggested that BoKIN1-0 was upregulated significantly in young leaves of plants exposed to abscisic acid treatment, and cold and heat stress. BoKIN1 and BoKIN2 had differential AS and APA patterns in pre-mRNA processing, and showed differences in their expression patterns and transcript levels. BoKIN1 participates widely in organ development and responds to diverse abiotic stresses, whereas BoKIN2 plays a main role in stamen development in the CMS cabbage.

  12. Multi-level multi-criteria analysis of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maimoun, Mousa; Madani, Kaveh; Reinhart, Debra

    2016-04-15

    Historically, the U.S. waste collection fleet was dominated by diesel-fueled waste collection vehicles (WCVs); the growing need for sustainable waste collection has urged decision makers to incorporate economically efficient alternative fuels, while mitigating environmental impacts. The pros and cons of alternative fuels complicate the decisions making process, calling for a comprehensive study that assesses the multiple factors involved. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods allow decision makers to select the best alternatives with respect to selection criteria. In this study, two MCDA methods, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), were used to rank fuel alternatives for the U.S. waste collection industry with respect to a multi-level environmental and financial decision matrix. The environmental criteria consisted of life-cycle emissions, tail-pipe emissions, water footprint (WFP), and power density, while the financial criteria comprised of vehicle cost, fuel price, fuel price stability, and fueling station availability. The overall analysis showed that conventional diesel is still the best option, followed by hydraulic-hybrid WCVs, landfill gas (LFG) sourced natural gas, fossil natural gas, and biodiesel. The elimination of the WFP and power density criteria from the environmental criteria ranked biodiesel 100 (BD100) as an environmentally better alternative compared to other fossil fuels (diesel and natural gas). This result showed that considering the WFP and power density as environmental criteria can make a difference in the decision process. The elimination of the fueling station and fuel price stability criteria from the decision matrix ranked fossil natural gas second after LFG-sourced natural gas. This scenario was found to represent the status quo of the waste collection industry. A sensitivity analysis for the status quo scenario showed the overall ranking of diesel and

  13. Portfolio theory and the alternative decision rule of cost-effectiveness analysis: theoretical and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Sendi, Pedram; Al, Maiwenn J; Gafni, Amiram; Birch, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    Bridges and Terris (Soc. Sci. Med. (2004)) critique our paper on the alternative decision rule of economic evaluation in the presence of uncertainty and constrained resources within the context of a portfolio of health care programs (Sendi et al. Soc. Sci. Med. 57 (2003) 2207). They argue that by not adopting a formal portfolio theory approach we overlook the optimal solution. We show that these arguments stem from a fundamental misunderstanding of the alternative decision rule of economic evaluation. In particular, the portfolio theory approach advocated by Bridges and Terris is based on the same theoretical assumptions that the alternative decision rule set out to relax. Moreover, Bridges and Terris acknowledge that the proposed portfolio theory approach may not identify the optimal solution to resource allocation problems. Hence, it provides neither theoretical nor practical improvements to the proposed alternative decision rule.

  14. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Duncan

    2009-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  15. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  16. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  17. An Alternative Avenue to Teacher Certification: A Cost Analysis of the Pathways to Teaching Careers Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King; Brent, Brian O.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes cost effectiveness of the Pathways to Teaching Careers, a program that supports an alternative route to university-based teacher certification primarily for noncertified teachers, paraprofessionals, and Peace Corps volunteers. (PKP)

  18. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  19. Alternating current impedance spectroscopic analysis of biofunctionalized vertically-aligned silica nanospring surface for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timalsina, Yukta P.; Branen, Joshua; Aston, D. Eric; Noren, Kenneth; Corti, Giancarlo; Schumacher, Randi; McIlroy, David N.

    2011-07-01

    In this study, alternating current impedance spectroscopic analysis of the biofunctionalization process of a vertically-aligned (silica) nanosprings (VANS) surface is presented. The VANS surface is functionalized with a biotinylated immunoglobulin G (B-IgG) layer formed by physisorption of B-IgG from the solution phase. Bovine serum albumin passivation of the B-IgG layer reduces additional surface adsorption by blocking the potential sites of weak bond formation via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. As avidin acts as a receptor of biotinylated compounds, avidin conjugated glucose oxidase (Av-GOx) binds to the B-IgG layer via biotin. This avidin-biotin bond is a stable bond with high association affinity (Ka = 1015 M-1) that withstands wide variations in chemistry and pH. An IgG layer without biotin shows no binding to the Av-GOx, indicating that bonding is through the avidin-biotin interaction. Finally, fluoroscein iso-thiocyanate (FITC) labeled biotinylated bovine serum albumin (B-BSA) added to the Av-GOx surface is used to fluorescently label Av-GOx for fluorescent measurements that allow for the correlation of surface binding with impedance measurements. Modeling of impedance spectra measured after the addition of each biological solution indicates that the bimolecular layers behave as insulating layers. The impedance spectra for the VANS-based sensor are compared to simple parallel capacitor sensors, sans VANS, and serve as controls. VANS-based sensors exhibit a greater magnitude of change between successive bio-layers relative to the controls below 10 kHz. Changes in the magnitudes of the components of the VANS equivalent circuit indicate that the addition of biological layers changes the effective dielectric response of the VANS via the impediment of ionic motion and biomolecule polarization.

  20. Analysis of storage lipid accumulation in Alcanivorax borkumensis: Evidence for alternative triacylglycerol biosynthesis routes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Golyshin, Peter N; Sabirova, Julia S; Ferrer, Manuel; Timmis, Kenneth N; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2007-02-01

    Marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, like Alcanivorax borkumensis, play a globally important role in bioremediation of petroleum oil contamination in marine ecosystems. Accumulation of storage lipids, serving as endogenous carbon and energy sources during starvation periods, might be a potential adaptation mechanism for coping with nutrient limitation, which is a frequent stress factor challenging those bacteria in their natural marine habitats. Here we report on the analysis of storage lipid biosynthesis in A. borkumensis strain SK2. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs), but not poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids), are the principal storage lipids present in this and other hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species. Although so far assumed to be a characteristic restricted to gram-positive actinomycetes, substantial accumulation of TAGs corresponding to a fatty acid content of more than 23% of the cellular dry weight is the first characteristic of large-scale de novo TAG biosynthesis in a gram-negative bacterium. The acyltransferase AtfA1 (ABO_2742) exhibiting wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) activity plays a key role in both TAG and WE biosynthesis, whereas AtfA2 (ABO_1804) was dispensable for storage lipid formation. However, reduced but still substantial residual TAG levels in atfA1 and atfA2 knockout mutants compellingly indicate the existence of a yet unknown WS/DGAT-independent alternative TAG biosynthesis route. Storage lipids of A. borkumensis were enriched in saturated fatty acids and accumulated as insoluble intracytoplasmic inclusions exhibiting great structural variety. Storage lipid accumulation provided only a slight growth advantage during short-term starvation periods but was not required for maintaining viability and long-term persistence during extended starvation phases.

  1. Clinical and genetic analysis in alternating hemiplegia of childhood: ten new patients from Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Vila-Pueyo, Marta; Pons, Roser; Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Marcé-Grau, Anna; Carreño, Oriel; Sintas, Cèlia; Cormand, Bru; Pineda-Marfà, Mercè; Macaya, Alfons

    2014-09-15

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder featuring attacks of hemiplegia and other paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal manifestations leading to progressive neurological impairment. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 have been identified in up to 80% of patients. AHC is also associated with rare mutations in other genes involved in episodic neurological disorders. We sought to find mutations in ATP1A3, CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A and SLC2A1 in a cohort of ten unrelated patients from Spain and Greece. All patients fulfilled AHC diagnostic criteria. All five genes were amplified by PCR and Sanger sequenced. Copy number variation (CNV) analysis of SLC2A1 and CACNA1A was performed using two different approaches. We identified three previously described heterozygous missense ATP1A3 mutations (p.Asp801Asn, p.Glu815Lys and p.Gly947Arg) in five patients. No disease-causing mutations were found in the remaining genes. All mutations occurred de novo; carriers presented on average earlier than non-carriers. Intellectual disability was more severe with the p.Glu815Lys variant. A p.Gly947Arg carrier harbored a maternally-inherited CACNA1A p.Ala454Thr variant. Of note, three of our patients exhibited remarkable clinical responses to the ketogenic diet. We confirmed ATP1A3 mutations in half of our patients. Further AHC genetic studies will need to investigate large rearrangements in ATP1A3 or consider greater genetic heterogeneity than previously suspected.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of alternative reproductive phenotypes in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Cardoen, Dries; Wenseleers, Tom; Ernst, Ulrich R; Danneels, Ellen L; Laget, Dries; DE Graaf, Dirk C; Schoofs, Liliane; Verleyen, Peter

    2011-10-01

    A defining feature of social insects is the reproductive division of labour, in which workers usually forego all reproduction to help their mother queen to reproduce. However, little is known about the molecular basis of this spectacular form of altruism. Here, we compared gene expression patterns between nonreproductive, altruistic workers and reproductive, non-altruistic workers in queenless honeybee colonies using a whole-genome microarray analysis. Our results demonstrate massive differences in gene expression patterns between these two sets of workers, with a total of 1292 genes being differentially expressed. In nonreproductive workers, genes associated with energy metabolism and respiration, flight and foraging behaviour, detection of visible light, flight and heart muscle contraction and synaptic transmission were overexpressed relative to reproductive workers. This implies they probably had a higher whole-body energy metabolism and activity rate and were most likely actively foraging, whereas same-aged reproductive workers were not. This pattern is predicted from evolutionary theory, given that reproductive workers should be less willing to compromise their reproductive futures by carrying out high-risk tasks such as foraging or other energetically expensive tasks. By contrast, reproductive workers mainly overexpressed oogenesis-related genes compared to nonreproductive ones. With respect to key switches for ovary activation, several genes involved in steroid biosynthesis were upregulated in reproductive workers, as well as genes known to respond to queen and brood pheromones, genes involved in TOR and insulin signalling pathways and genes located within quantitative trait loci associated with reproductive capacity in honeybees. Overall, our results provide unique insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying alternative reproductive phenotypes in honeybee workers.

  3. Screening for common mental disorders using the SRQ-20 in Brazil: what are the alternative strategies for analysis?

    PubMed

    Barreto do Carmo, Maria B; Santos, Leticia M Dos; Feitosa, Caroline A; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Silva, Nívea B da; Santos, Darci N Dos; Barreto, Maurício L; Amorim, Leila D

    2017-08-30

    To analyze the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) assessed with the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), using the established cutoff point, and comparing it with the results of a joint correspondence factor analysis (CFA) and cluster analysis and of a latent class analysis (LCA). A cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban sample of 1,095 women aged 19 to 55 years. Joint CFA-cluster analysis and LCA were used. We found a high prevalence of CMD, regardless of classification method (37.6% when using the cutoff point; 44.4% and 52% for LCA and joint CFA-cluster, respectively). The alternative analysis strategies describe the cases more efficiently when compared to the traditional cutoff method, especially regarding more severe symptoms. Both alternative strategies also provide a description of the SRQ-20 dimensions in their particularities, which may be useful for the planning and implementation of specific actions in a given population. The SRQ-20 cutoff point seems to underestimate the magnitude of CMD among women. The alternative methods of analysis presented herein highlight the different possibilities of using this important instrument of screening for mental health.

  4. Detailed Analysis of Alternatives Report. Version 2.0. Technology Descriptions. Volume 7.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    Agricultural Practice) .. ............................... 4-25 4.5.8 Alternative B10 : Caps/Covers (Clay/Soil Cap) with Consolidation; In Situ Biological...7-7 7.2.5 Alternative B10 : Caps/Covers with Consolidation; In Situ Biological Treatment ....................... 7-8 7.3 SELECTION OF... B10 : Caps/Covers (Clay/Soil Cap) with Consolidation; In Situ Biological Treatment (Aerobic Biodegradation) for the Lake Sediments Medium Group 8.0-1

  5. rMAPS: RNA map analysis and plotting server for alternative exon regulation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juw Won; Jung, Sungbo; Rouchka, Eric C.; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Xing, Yi

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a critical role in the regulation of alternative splicing (AS), a prevalent mechanism for generating transcriptomic and proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells. Studies have shown that AS can be regulated by RBPs in a binding-site-position dependent manner. Depending on where RBPs bind, splicing of an alternative exon can be enhanced or suppressed. Therefore, spatial analyses of RBP motifs and binding sites around alternative exons will help elucidate splicing regulation by RBPs. The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has allowed transcriptome-wide analyses of AS and RBP–RNA interactions. Given a set of differentially regulated alternative exons obtained from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments, the rMAPS web server (http://rmaps.cecsresearch.org) performs motif analyses of RBPs in the vicinity of alternatively spliced exons and creates RNA maps that depict the spatial patterns of RBP motifs. Similarly, rMAPS can also perform spatial analyses of RBP–RNA binding sites identified by cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq) experiments. We anticipate rMAPS will be a useful tool for elucidating RBP regulation of alternative exon splicing using high-throughput sequencing data. PMID:27174931

  6. Analysis of A-phase transitions during the cyclic alternating pattern under normal sleep.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Alba, Alfonso; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Grassi, Andrea; Arce-Santana, Edgar; Milioli, Guilia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Parrino, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the EEG signal during the B-phase and A-phases transitions of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) during sleep is presented. CAP is a sleep phenomenon composed by consecutive sequences of A-phases (each A-phase could belong to a possible group A1, A2 or A3) observed during the non-REM sleep. Each A-phase is separated by a B-phase which has the basal frequency of the EEG during a specific sleep stage. The patterns formed by these sequences reflect the sleep instability and consequently help to understand the sleep process. Ten recordings from healthy good sleepers were included in this study. The current study investigates complexity, statistical and frequency signal properties of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings at the transitions: B-phase--A-phase. In addition, classification between the onset-offset of the A-phases and B-phase was carried out with a kNN classifier. The results showed that EEG signal presents significant differences (p < 0.05) between A-phases and B-phase for the standard deviation, energy, sample entropy, Tsallis entropy and frequency band indices. The A-phase onset showed values of energy three times higher than B-phase at all the sleep stages. The statistical analysis of variance shows that more than 80% of the A-phase onset and offset is significantly different from the B-phase. The classification performance between onset or offset of A-phases and background showed classification values over 80% for specificity and accuracy and 70% for sensitivity. Only during the A3-phase, the classification was lower. The results suggest that neural assembles that generate the basal EEG oscillations during sleep present an over-imposed coordination for a few seconds due to the A-phases. The main characteristics for automatic separation between the onset-offset A-phase and the B-phase are the energy at the different frequency bands.

  7. RNA-Seq analysis reveals new gene models and alternative splicing in the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhao; Waalwijk, Cees; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Tang, Dingzhong; van der Lee, Theo

    2013-01-16

    The genome of Fusarium graminearum has been sequenced and annotated previously, but correct gene annotation remains a challenge. In addition, posttranscriptional regulations, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, are poorly understood in F. graminearum. Here we took advantage of RNA-Seq to improve gene annotations and to identify alternative splicing and RNA editing in F. graminearum. We identified and revised 655 incorrectly predicted gene models, including revisions of intron predictions, intron splice sites and prediction of novel introns. 231 genes were identified with two or more alternative splice variants, mostly due to intron retention. Interestingly, the expression ratios between different transcript isoforms appeared to be developmentally regulated. Surprisingly, no RNA editing was identified in F. graminearum. Moreover, 2459 novel transcriptionally active regions (nTARs) were identified and our analysis indicates that many of these could be missed genes. Finally, we identified the 5' UTR and/or 3' UTR sequences of 7666 genes. A number of representative novel gene models and alternatively spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the generated amplicons. We have developed novel and efficient strategies to identify alternatively spliced genes and incorrect gene models based on RNA-Seq data. Our study identified hundreds of alternatively spliced genes in F. graminearum and for the first time indicated that alternative splicing is developmentally regulated in filamentous fungi. In addition, hundreds of incorrect predicted gene models were identified and revised and thousands of nTARs were discovered in our study, which will be helpful for the future genomic and transcriptomic studies in F. graminearum.

  8. Comparative analysis of volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco using GC-MS and alternative moving window factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lianfang; Li, Xiaoru; Liu, Shaoyin; Xu, Guangwei; Liang, Yizeng

    2009-10-01

    The similarities and differences of essential oil components in Album Citri reticulatae (ACR), Cylindricae Citri reticulatae (CCR), folium Citri reticulatae (FCR), exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG), pericarpium Citri reticulatae Viride (PCRV) and pericarpium Citri reticulatae (PCR) were investigated by GC-MS combined with a chemometric method named alternative moving window factor analysis (AMWFA). And temperature-programmed retention indices (PTRIs) were used together with mass spectra for identification of the essential oil components. In essential oils of ACR, CCR, FCR, ECG, PCRV and PCR, 28, 26, 61, 62, 52 and 48 components were determined representing 93.13, 94.44, 93.53, 87.67, 99.03 and 98.03% of the total relative content, respectively. Also, the essential oils significantly differed both qualitatively and quantitatively. There were 14 common components among ACR, CCR, FCR, ECG, PCRV and PCR, their abundance varied in the ranges from 32.39% in FCR to 94.66% in PCRV. The results obtained may be helpful to the further study of pharmacological activity for their potential utilization as therapeutical agents.

  9. Electrical signature analysis applications for non-intrusive automotive alternator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    Automotive alternators are designed to supply power for automobile engine ignition systems as well as charge the storage battery. This product is used in a large market where consumers are concerned with acoustic noise and vibration that comes from the unit. as well as overall quality and dependability. Alternators and generators in general are used in industries other than automotive, such as transportation and airline industries and in military applications. Their manufacturers are interested in pursuing state-of-the-art methods to achieve higher quality and reduced costs. Preliminary investigations of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques utilizing the inherent voltage signals of alternators have been performed with promising results. These techniques are based on time and frequency domain analyses of specially conditioned signals taken from several alternators under various test conditions. This paper discusses investigations that show correlations of the alternator output voltage to airborne noise production. In addition these signals provide insight into internal magnetic characteristics that relate to design and/or assembly problems.

  10. Analysis of genetic interaction networks shows that alternatively spliced genes are highly versatile.

    PubMed

    Talavera, David; Sheoran, Ritika; Lovell, Simon C

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing has the potential to increase the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Where more than one transcript arises from a gene they are often so different that they are quite unlikely to have the same function. However, it remains unclear if alternative splicing generally leads to a gene being involved in multiple biological processes or whether it alters the function within a single process. Knowing that genetic interactions occur between functionally related genes, we have used them as a proxy for functional versatility, and have analysed the sets of genes of two well-characterised model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Using network analyses we find that few genes are functionally homogenous (only involved in a few functionally-related biological processes). Moreover, there are differences between alternatively spliced genes and genes with a single transcript; specifically, genes with alternatively splicing are, on average, involved in more biological processes. Finally, we suggest that factors other than specific functional classes determine whether a gene is alternatively spliced.

  11. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Darr, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  12. Integrative Analysis of Many RNA-Seq Datasets to Study Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyuan; Dai, Chao; Kang, Shuli; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important gene regulatory mechanism that dramatically increases the complexity of the proteome. However, how alternative splicing is regulated and how transcription and splicing are coordinated are still poorly understood, and functions of transcript isoforms have been studied only in a few limited cases. Nowadays, RNA-seq technology provides an exceptional opportunity to study alternative splicing on genome-wide scales and in an unbiased manner. With the rapid accumulation of data in public repositories, new challenges arise from the urgent need to effectively integrate many different RNA-seq datasets for study alterative splicing. This paper discusses a set of advanced computational methods that can integrate and analyze many RNA-seq datasets to systematically identify splicing modules, unravel the coupling of transcription and splicing, and predict the functions of splicing isoforms on a genome-wide scale. PMID:24583115

  13. Integrative analysis of many RNA-seq datasets to study alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyuan; Dai, Chao; Kang, Shuli; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    2014-06-01

    Alternative splicing is an important gene regulatory mechanism that dramatically increases the complexity of the proteome. However, how alternative splicing is regulated and how transcription and splicing are coordinated are still poorly understood, and functions of transcript isoforms have been studied only in a few limited cases. Nowadays, RNA-seq technology provides an exceptional opportunity to study alternative splicing on genome-wide scales and in an unbiased manner. With the rapid accumulation of data in public repositories, new challenges arise from the urgent need to effectively integrate many different RNA-seq datasets for study alterative splicing. This paper discusses a set of advanced computational methods that can integrate and analyze many RNA-seq datasets to systematically identify splicing modules, unravel the coupling of transcription and splicing, and predict the functions of splicing isoforms on a genome-wide scale.

  14. How robust is a robust policy? A comparative analysis of alternative robustness metrics for supporting robust decision analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2015-04-01

    In response to climate and socio-economic change, in various policy domains there is increasingly a call for robust plans or policies. That is, plans or policies that performs well in a very large range of plausible futures. In the literature, a wide range of alternative robustness metrics can be found. The relative merit of these alternative conceptualizations of robustness has, however, received less attention. Evidently, different robustness metrics can result in different plans or policies being adopted. This paper investigates the consequences of several robustness metrics on decision making, illustrated here by the design of a flood risk management plan. A fictitious case, inspired by a river reach in the Netherlands is used. The performance of this system in terms of casualties, damages, and costs for flood and damage mitigation actions is explored using a time horizon of 100 years, and accounting for uncertainties pertaining to climate change and land use change. A set of candidate policy options is specified up front. This set of options includes dike raising, dike strengthening, creating more space for the river, and flood proof building and evacuation options. The overarching aim is to design an effective flood risk mitigation strategy that is designed from the outset to be adapted over time in response to how the future actually unfolds. To this end, the plan will be based on the dynamic adaptive policy pathway approach (Haasnoot, Kwakkel et al. 2013) being used in the Dutch Delta Program. The policy problem is formulated as a multi-objective robust optimization problem (Kwakkel, Haasnoot et al. 2014). We solve the multi-objective robust optimization problem using several alternative robustness metrics, including both satisficing robustness metrics and regret based robustness metrics. Satisficing robustness metrics focus on the performance of candidate plans across a large ensemble of plausible futures. Regret based robustness metrics compare the

  15. Carbonate apron models: Alternatives to the submarine fan model for paleoenvironmental analysis and hydrocarbon exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullins, H.T.; Cook, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    carbonate apron models presented here offer alternatives to the submarine-fan model for paleoenvironmental analysis and hydrocarbon exploration for mass-transported carbonate facies. ?? 1986.

  16. Digital-computer program for design analysis of salient, wound pole alternators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    A digital computer program for analyzing the electromagnetic design of salient, wound pole alternators is presented. The program, which is written in FORTRAN 4, calculates the open-circuit saturation curve, the field-current requirements at rated voltage for various loads and losses, efficiency, reactances, time constants, and weights. The methods used to calculate some of these items are presented or appropriate references are cited. Instructions for using the program and typical program input and output for an alternator design are given, and an alphabetical list of most FORTRAN symbols and the complete program listing with flow charts are included.

  17. Alternative Methods for the Analysis of Lease/Purchase Options in Naval Auxiliary Ship Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    STMOUTION SWATININ? (at On1@ , abe~m Ne ta Sls . it 40uW .. t. MS SUPPIGOITAMY NOT=S The purpose of this study is to explore alternative methods of...earlier versions of0 iiiI our paper needed to be expanded. In addition, we saw the need to explore other Government cost methodologies which might be...achieved. * SMT PURPOSE1 The purpose of this study is to explore alternative methods of financing the acquisition of naval ships and to determine costs

  18. Analysis of alternative modifications for reducing backwater at the Interstate Highway 10 crossing of the Pearl River near Slidell, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Gilbert, J.J.; Froehlich, David C.; Lee, Jonathan K.

    1988-01-01

    In April 1979 and April 1980, major flooding along the lower Pearl River caused extensive damage to homes located on the flood plain in the Slidell, Louisiana, area. In response to questions about causes of these floods and means of mitigating future floods, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Office of Highways, and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, used a two-dimensional finite-element surface-water flow-modeling system to study the effect of four alternative modifications for improving the hydraulic characteristics of the Interstate Highway 10 crossing of the flood plain near Slidell. The analysis used the model's capability to simulate changes in flood-plain topography, flood-plain vegetative cover, and highway-embankment geometry. Compared with the existing highway crossing, the four alternative modifications reduce backwater and average velocities through bridge openings for a flood of the magnitude of the 1980 flood. The four alternatives also eliminate roadway overtopping during such a flood. For the four modifications, maximum backwater on the west side of the flood plain ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 feet and on the east side from 0.3 to 0.7 foot. Results of the alternative-model simulations show that backwater is greater on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side, but upstream from Interstate Highway 10 backwater decreases more rapidly in the upstream direction on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side. Downstream from Interstate Highway 10, modeling of the four alternatives indicates that backwater and drawdown still occur on the east and west sides of the flood plain, respectively, but are less than the values computed for the April 1980 flood with Interstate Highway 10 in place. In addition to other highway-crossing modifications, alternatives 2 and 3 include simulation of a new 2,000-foot bridge opening, and

  19. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  20. Towards a Lakatosian Analysis of the Piagetian and Alternative Conceptions Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John K.; Swift, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Lakatos's methodology of scientific research programs is summarized and discussed for Piagetian schools and alternative conceptions movement. Commonalities/differences between these two rival programs are presented along with fundamental assumptions, auxiliary hypotheses, and research policy. Suggests that research findings should not be merely…

  1. Cost Differentials and the Treatment of Equipment Assets: An Analysis of Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohreich, Lloyd E.

    This paper is a discussion of alternative state approaches to aiding and costing capital outlay programs, particularly equipment purchases for vocational programs. Equipment costs for vocational programs tend to be a larger proportion of the total costs than in other programs. The paper includes a discussion of such topics as the magnitude of…

  2. Production and Reception Formats: An Alternative Participation Framework for Analysis of Classroom Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to offer an alternative to traditional participation frameworks used to analyse teacher/pupil talk in the classroom. Within curricular areas where learners are encouraged to articulate their own meaning and be creative in their use of language, a traditional participation framework, such as Initiation, Response, Follow-up, may…

  3. Analysis of the Alternative Conceptions of Preservice Teachers and High School Students Concerning Atomic Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eymur, Guluzar; Çetin, Pinar; Geban, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the alternative conceptions of high school students and preservice teachers on the concept of atomic size. The Atomic Size Diagnostic Instrument was developed; it is composed of eight, two-tier multiple-choice items. The results of the study showed that as a whole 56.2% of preservice teachers…

  4. An Analysis of Six School Evaluations: The Effectiveness of Alternative Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Six alternative school programs are evaluated to provide additional insight into their effectiveness in (1) promoting cognitive achievement, (2) developing positive student attitudes and self-concepts, (3) developing positive behavior change, and (4) providing long-term benefits to the students. (MJB)

  5. Critical Analysis of Accountability Policy in Alternative Schools: Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Lynn M.; Madsen, Jean; Torres, Mario S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The expansion of alternative education, globally, has coincided with a shift towards greater accountability for ensuring educational access and opportunity, high academic standards and increased graduation rates. While studies suggest the pervasive influence of accountability may be redefining how school leaders provide meaningful…

  6. Analysis of the Alternative Conceptions of Preservice Teachers and High School Students Concerning Atomic Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eymur, Guluzar; Çetin, Pinar; Geban, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the alternative conceptions of high school students and preservice teachers on the concept of atomic size. The Atomic Size Diagnostic Instrument was developed; it is composed of eight, two-tier multiple-choice items. The results of the study showed that as a whole 56.2% of preservice teachers…

  7. An Empirical Analysis of an Alternative Configuration of the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth J.; Davy, Jeanette A.; Rosenberg, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an alternative configuration of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), a psychometric instrument used as a measure of academic motivation in various academic environments. The analyses utilised data from a convenience sample of 2354 business students, broken into two random subsamples of 1177 cases.…

  8. 14 CFR 161.205 - Required analysis of proposed restriction and alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS... and alternatives. (a) Each airport operator proposing a noise or access restriction on Stage 2... required by this section, the airport operator shall use the noise measurement systems and identify...

  9. 14 CFR 161.205 - Required analysis of proposed restriction and alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS... and alternatives. (a) Each airport operator proposing a noise or access restriction on Stage 2... required by this section, the airport operator shall use the noise measurement systems and identify...

  10. An Empirical Analysis of an Alternative Configuration of the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth J.; Davy, Jeanette A.; Rosenberg, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an alternative configuration of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), a psychometric instrument used as a measure of academic motivation in various academic environments. The analyses utilised data from a convenience sample of 2354 business students, broken into two random subsamples of 1177 cases.…

  11. Miami Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime Project: A Review and Analysis of Performance, Accomplishment and Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Dept. of Drug Programs, Miami, FL.

    This report, submitted as an appeal for continuation of funds, summarizes the achievements of the Miami Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC) project. The project is designed to identify drug-abusing arrestees and divert them to either jail treatment or one of the Miami community's drug treatment programs. Included in this report are cost…

  12. Alternatives generation and analysis report for immobilized low-level waste interim storage architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    The Immobilized Low-Level Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-level waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This report describes alternative Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architectures, evaluation criteria, and evaluation results to support the Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architecture selection decision process.

  13. Identification of Alternate Polyadenylation Sites and Analysis of their Tissue Distribution Using EST Data

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Gautheret, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Alternate polyadenylation affects a large fraction of higher eucaryote mRNAs, producing mature transcripts with 3′ ends of variable length. This variation is poorly represented in the current transcript catalogs derived from whole genome sequences, mostly because such posttranscriptional events are not detectable directly at the DNA level. Alternate polydenylation of an mRNA is better understood by comparision to EST databases. Comparing ESTs to mRNAs, however, is a difficult task subjected to the pitfalls of internal priming, presence of intron sequences, repeated elements, chimerical ESTs or matches with EST from paralogous genes. We present here a computer program that addresses these problems and displays ESTs matches to a query mRNA sequence to predict alternate polyadenylation and to suggest library-specific forms. The output highlights effective polyadenylation signals, possible sources of artifacts such as A-rich stretches in the mRNA sequences, and allows for a direct visualization of EST libraries using color codes. Statistical biases in the distribution of alternative mRNA forms among EST libraries were systematically sought. About 1450 human and 200 mouse mRNAs displayed such biases, suggesting in each case a tissue- or disease-specific regulation of polyadenylation. PMID:11544195

  14. Identification of alternate polyadenylation sites and analysis of their tissue distribution using EST data.

    PubMed

    Beaudoing, E; Gautheret, D

    2001-09-01

    Alternate polyadenylation affects a large fraction of higher eucaryote mRNAs, producing mature transcripts with 3' ends of variable length. This variation is poorly represented in the current transcript catalogs derived from whole genome sequences, mostly because such posttranscriptional events are not detectable directly at the DNA level. Alternate polyadenylation of an mRNA is better understood by comparison to EST databases. Comparing ESTs to mRNAs, however, is a difficult task subjected to the pitfalls of internal priming, presence of intron sequences, repeated elements, chimerical ESTs or matches with EST from paralogous genes. We present here a computer program that addresses these problems and displays ESTs matches to a query mRNA sequence to predict alternate polyadenylation and to suggest library-specific forms. The output highlights effective polyadenylation signals, possible sources of artifacts such as A-rich stretches in the mRNA sequences, and allows for a direct visualization of EST libraries using color codes. Statistical biases in the distribution of alternative mRNA forms among EST libraries were systematically sought. About 1450 human and 200 mouse mRNAs displayed such biases, suggesting in each case a tissue- or disease-specific regulation of polyadenylation.

  15. 44 CFR 9.9 - Analysis and reevaluation of practicable alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.9...' key requirements to avoid floodplains and wetlands unless there is no practicable alternative. (2) Step 3 is a preliminary determination as to whether the floodplain is the only practicable location...

  16. An Analysis of Teacher Sorting in Secondary Special Education and Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Williams, Loretta; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides nationally representative information about the qualifications and preparation of secondary content and special education teachers in special education and alternative school settings, as compared with teachers in regular schools. Findings demonstrate that a statistically significant relationship did not exist between school…

  17. Identification and Analysis of the Alternatives for Achieving Greater Television Program Diversity in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimling, John A., Jr.; And Others

    Several alternatives to the present television industry structure are considered in this study. They are: continuation of present policies, satellite-to-home broadcasting, and cable distribution of television. Trends noted are: the growth of commercial UHF (Ultra High Frequency) stations, the introduction of all-channel sets, population growth,…

  18. An Analysis of Teacher Sorting in Secondary Special Education and Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Williams, Loretta; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides nationally representative information about the qualifications and preparation of secondary content and special education teachers in special education and alternative school settings, as compared with teachers in regular schools. Findings demonstrate that a statistically significant relationship did not exist between school…

  19. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  20. Chinese and Indian women's experience with alternative medications for menopause related symptoms: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal Singh; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Soe, Myint Myint

    2017-09-15

    To explore women's rationalization for using alternative medications, their experience and view on safety of long-term use. Two focus group discussions, involving 5 participants each for Chinese and Indian groups, were conducted separately. Participant's personal information was collected anonymously. The discussion covered 5 areas: determinants for taking medications; reason for choosing alternative medications rather than hormone replacement therapy (HRT); how these medications help them; their view on cost-effectiveness and concerns over long-term use. The discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed. Chinese participants took supplements for controlling symptoms while Indian participants used herbs as a preventive measure during menopause according to their tradition. Women of both groups mentioned that they did not take HRT because of fear of side effects. Chinese group mentioned that medications remarkably improved their symptoms whereas Indian participants appreciated their herbals more for improvement in general wellbeing than for specific symptoms. All members agreed that using alternative medication was cost-effective. Both Chinese and Indian participants were quite confident in saying that long-term use will not be associated with any side effects. However, Indian group emphasized that proper preparation of herbal compound using different types of leaves, is essential in order to avoid untoward effects. Chinese and Indian women used alternative medicine in prevention and treatment of menopause-related problems even as they were avoiding HRT because of the fear of side effects. They believed that their supplements were effective, safe and cost-beneficial even with long-term use.

  1. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  2. Production and Reception Formats: An Alternative Participation Framework for Analysis of Classroom Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to offer an alternative to traditional participation frameworks used to analyse teacher/pupil talk in the classroom. Within curricular areas where learners are encouraged to articulate their own meaning and be creative in their use of language, a traditional participation framework, such as Initiation, Response, Follow-up, may…

  3. An Alternative Approach to the Evaluation of Management Training: The Use of Protocol Analysis Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mmobuosi, Ifechukude B.

    1985-01-01

    This article suggests an alternative valuation approach and method based on "phenomenology" or "personal constructs" in the evaluation of management training. The approach is that learning and its application depend, not on the direct influence of externally located objects, but on how the learner experiences and evaluates…

  4. 44 CFR 9.9 - Analysis and reevaluation of practicable alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.9...' key requirements to avoid floodplains and wetlands unless there is no practicable alternative. (2) Step 3 is a preliminary determination as to whether the floodplain is the only practicable location for...

  5. 44 CFR 9.9 - Analysis and reevaluation of practicable alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.9...' key requirements to avoid floodplains and wetlands unless there is no practicable alternative. (2) Step 3 is a preliminary determination as to whether the floodplain is the only practicable location for...

  6. 44 CFR 9.9 - Analysis and reevaluation of practicable alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.9...' key requirements to avoid floodplains and wetlands unless there is no practicable alternative. (2) Step 3 is a preliminary determination as to whether the floodplain is the only practicable location for...

  7. 44 CFR 9.9 - Analysis and reevaluation of practicable alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.9...' key requirements to avoid floodplains and wetlands unless there is no practicable alternative. (2) Step 3 is a preliminary determination as to whether the floodplain is the only practicable location for...

  8. Critical Analysis of Accountability Policy in Alternative Schools: Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Lynn M.; Madsen, Jean; Torres, Mario S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The expansion of alternative education, globally, has coincided with a shift towards greater accountability for ensuring educational access and opportunity, high academic standards and increased graduation rates. While studies suggest the pervasive influence of accountability may be redefining how school leaders provide meaningful…

  9. Towards a Lakatosian Analysis of the Piagetian and Alternative Conceptions Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John K.; Swift, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Lakatos's methodology of scientific research programs is summarized and discussed for Piagetian schools and alternative conceptions movement. Commonalities/differences between these two rival programs are presented along with fundamental assumptions, auxiliary hypotheses, and research policy. Suggests that research findings should not be merely…

  10. Multiplex gas chromatography: an alternative concept for gas chromatographic analysis of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    -Cassini entry probe, which is being jointly planned by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), might be launched as early as 1994. As in the Pioneer mission, limited time--perhaps only 3-4 h--will be available for the completion of all analyses while the probe descends through the atmosphere. A conventional GC or GC-MS system would be able to analyze no more than two aerosol and two gas samples during the probe's descent. Conventional GC also is limited by the sensitivity of the detector and by the sample volume. For the Titan mission, the sensitivity problems will be worse because the atmospheric pressure at the time of instrument deployment is expected to be < 3 torr. Consequently, the sample volume might not be large enough to satisfy the detector sensitivity requirements. Because of such limitations, alternative GC analysis techniques have been investigated for future NASA missions. Multiplex gas chromatography has been investigated as a possible candidate for chemical analysis within a spacecraft or other restricted environment, and chemical modulators have been developed and used when needed with this technique to reduce the size and weight of the instrumentation. Also, several new multiplex techniques have been developed for use in specific applications.

  11. Web Conversations About Complementary and Alternative Medicines and Cancer: Content and Sentiment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Truccolo, Ivana; Antonini, Marialuisa; Rinaldi, Fabio; Omero, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; De Paoli, Paolo; Tasso, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among cancer patients is widespread and mostly self-administrated. Today, one of the most relevant topics is the nondisclosure of CAM use to doctors. This general lack of communication exposes patients to dangerous behaviors and to less reliable information channels, such as the Web. The Italian context scarcely differs from this trend. Today, we are able to mine and analyze systematically the unstructured information available in the Web, to get an insight of people’s opinions, beliefs, and rumors concerning health topics. Objective Our aim was to analyze Italian Web conversations about CAM, identifying the most relevant Web sources, therapies, and diseases and measure the related sentiment. Methods Data have been collected using the Web Intelligence tool ifMONITOR. The workflow consisted of 6 phases: (1) eligibility criteria definition for the ifMONITOR search profile; (2) creation of a CAM terminology database; (3) generic Web search and automatic filtering, the results have been manually revised to refine the search profile, and stored in the ifMONITOR database; (4) automatic classification using the CAM database terms; (5) selection of the final sample and manual sentiment analysis using a 1-5 score range; (6) manual indexing of the Web sources and CAM therapies type retrieved. Descriptive univariate statistics were computed for each item: absolute frequency, percentage, central tendency (mean sentiment score [MSS]), and variability (standard variation σ). Results Overall, 212 Web sources, 423 Web documents, and 868 opinions have been retrieved. The overall sentiment measured tends to a good score (3.6 of 5). Quite a high polarization in the opinions of the conversation partaking emerged from standard variation analysis (σ≥1). In total, 126 of 212 (59.4%) Web sources retrieved were nonhealth-related. Facebook (89; 21%) and Yahoo Answers (41; 9.7%) were the most relevant. In total, 94 CAM

  12. Multiplex gas chromatography: an alternative concept for gas chromatographic analysis of planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Valentin, J R

    1989-03-01

    -Cassini entry probe, which is being jointly planned by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), might be launched as early as 1994. As in the Pioneer mission, limited time--perhaps only 3-4 h--will be available for the completion of all analyses while the probe descends through the atmosphere. A conventional GC or GC-MS system would be able to analyze no more than two aerosol and two gas samples during the probe's descent. Conventional GC also is limited by the sensitivity of the detector and by the sample volume. For the Titan mission, the sensitivity problems will be worse because the atmospheric pressure at the time of instrument deployment is expected to be < 3 torr. Consequently, the sample volume might not be large enough to satisfy the detector sensitivity requirements. Because of such limitations, alternative GC analysis techniques have been investigated for future NASA missions. Multiplex gas chromatography has been investigated as a possible candidate for chemical analysis within a spacecraft or other restricted environment, and chemical modulators have been developed and used when needed with this technique to reduce the size and weight of the instrumentation. Also, several new multiplex techniques have been developed for use in specific applications.

  13. Multiplex gas chromatography: an alternative concept for gas chromatographic analysis of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    -Cassini entry probe, which is being jointly planned by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), might be launched as early as 1994. As in the Pioneer mission, limited time--perhaps only 3-4 h--will be available for the completion of all analyses while the probe descends through the atmosphere. A conventional GC or GC-MS system would be able to analyze no more than two aerosol and two gas samples during the probe's descent. Conventional GC also is limited by the sensitivity of the detector and by the sample volume. For the Titan mission, the sensitivity problems will be worse because the atmospheric pressure at the time of instrument deployment is expected to be < 3 torr. Consequently, the sample volume might not be large enough to satisfy the detector sensitivity requirements. Because of such limitations, alternative GC analysis techniques have been investigated for future NASA missions. Multiplex gas chromatography has been investigated as a possible candidate for chemical analysis within a spacecraft or other restricted environment, and chemical modulators have been developed and used when needed with this technique to reduce the size and weight of the instrumentation. Also, several new multiplex techniques have been developed for use in specific applications.

  14. Ion Chromatography as an Alternative to Standard Methods for Analysis of Macro-nutrients in Mehlich 1 Extracts of Unfertilized Forest Soils

    Treesearch

    Joseph B. Fischer; James H. Miller

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates ion chromatography (IC) as an alternative to atomic absorption (AA) and inductively-coupled plasma spectromctry (ICP) for analysis of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca), and and as an alternative to antimonylmolybdate colorimetry and ICP for analysis of phosphorus (P) macro-nutrients in Mehlich 1 extracts. Soils typical of pine forests...

  15. Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Michael P; Bates, Matthew E; Madison, Marcus; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-07

    Assessing the best options among emerging technologies (e.g., new chemicals, nanotechnologies) is complicated because of trade-offs across benefits and risks that are difficult to quantify given limited and fragmented availability of information. This study demonstrates the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to address technology alternative selection decisions. As a case study, prioritization of six lumber treatment alternatives [micronized copper quaternary (MCQ); alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); water-borne copper naphthenate (CN); oil-borne copper naphthenate (CNo); water-borne copper quinolate (CQ); and water-borne zinc naphthenate (ZN)] for military use are considered. Multiattribute value theory (MAVT) is used to derive risk and benefit scores. Risk scores are calculated using a cradle-to-gate LCA. Benefit scores are calculated by scoring of cost, durability, and corrosiveness criteria. Three weighting schemes are used, representing Environmental, Military and Balanced stakeholder perspectives. Aggregated scores from all three perspectives show CQ to be the least favorable alterative. MCQ is identified as the most favorable alternative from the Environmental stakeholder perspective. From the Military stakeholder perspective, ZN is determined to be the most favorable alternative, followed closely by MCQ. This type of scoring and ranking of multiple heterogeneous criteria in a systematic and transparent way facilitates better justification of technology selection and regulation.

  16. Assessment of acetone as an alternative to acetonitrile in peptide analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Ria; Ruth, Wolfgang; Kragl, Udo

    2009-07-01

    Acetonitrile as a solvent used in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) of peptides and proteins is a relatively toxic solvent (LD50 oral; rat; 2,460 mg/kg) compared to alternatives like methanol (LD50 oral; rat; 5,628 mg/kg) and acetone (LD50 oral; rat; 5,800 mg/kg). Strategies to minimize its consumption in LC are either to reduce the inner diameter of the column or replace acetonitrile with a suitable alternative. Methanol is often recommended to replace acetonitrile in peptide analysis. In this study however, the main focus lies on another alternative solvent for LC/MS of peptides; acetone. A number of model proteins were tryptically digested and the peptide solutions were analyzed on a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) mass spectrometer. The performances of acetonitrile, methanol and acetone were compared according to the quality of the chromatograms obtained and identification of the peptides using the BioWorks software developed by Thermo Scientific. In accordance to the elutropic series, acetone was found to significantly reduce the retention times of peptides separated by C18 column material with regard to acetonitrile while methanol led to increased retention times. Acetone was the superior solvent to methanol for most of the tested model proteins reaching similar sequence coverage and numbers of identified peptides as acetonitrile. We therefore propose acetone as an alternative to acetonitrile in LC/MS of peptides.

  17. A global analysis of alternative tillage and crop establishment practices for economically and environmentally efficient rice production.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rana, Dharamvir Singh; Jat, Mangi Lal; Gathala, Mahesh Kumar; Yadav, Sudhir; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Ramesha, Mugadoli S; Raman, Anitha

    2017-08-24

    Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options. Shifting from transplanting to direct-seeding was advantageous but the change from conventional to zero or reduced tillage reduced yields. Direct-seeded rice under wet tillage was the best alternative with yield advantages of 1.3-4.7% (p < 0.05) and higher net economic return of 13% (p < 0.05), accompanied by savings of water by 15% (p < 0.05) and a reduction in cost by 2.4-8.8%. Direct-seeding under zero tillage was another potential alternative with high savings in water input and cost of cultivation, with no yield penalty. The alternative practices reduced methane emissions but increased nitrous oxide emissions. Soil texture plays a key role in relative yield advantages, and therefore refinement of the practice to suit a specific agro-ecosystem is needed.

  18. Analysis of liquid medication dose errors made by patients and caregivers using alternative measuring devices.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Gyeong Suk; Lee, Yu Jeung

    2012-01-01

    Patients use several types of devices to measure liquid medication. Using a criterion ranging from a 10% to 40% variation from a target 5 mL for a teaspoon dose, previous studies have found that a considerable proportion of patients or caregivers make errors when dosing liquid medication with measuring devices. To determine the rate and magnitude of liquid medication dose errors that occur with patient/caregiver use of various measuring devices in a community pharmacy. Liquid medication measurements by patients or caregivers were observed in a convenience sample of community pharmacy patrons in Korea during a 2-week period in March 2011. Participants included all patients or caregivers (N = 300) who came to the pharmacy to buy over-the-counter liquid medication or to have a liquid medication prescription filled during the study period. The participants were instructed by an investigator who was also a pharmacist to select their preferred measuring devices from 6 alternatives (etched-calibration dosing cup, printed-calibration dosing cup, dosing spoon, syringe, dispensing bottle, or spoon with a bottle adapter) and measure a 5 mL dose of Coben (chlorpheniramine maleate/phenylephrine HCl, Daewoo Pharm. Co., Ltd) syrup using the device of their choice. The investigator used an ISOLAB graduated cylinder (Germany, blue grad, 10 mL) to measure the amount of syrup dispensed by the study participants. Participant characteristics were recorded including gender, age, education level, and relationship to the person for whom the medication was intended. Of the 300 participants, 257 (85.7%) were female; 286 (95.3%) had at least a high school education; and 282 (94.0%) were caregivers (parent or grandparent) for the patient. The mean (SD) measured dose was 4.949 (0.378) mL for the 300 participants. In analysis of variance of the 6 measuring devices, the greatest difference from the 5 mL target was a mean 5.552 mL for 17 subjects who used the regular (etched) dosing cup and 4

  19. Analysis of Alternative Pre-RNA Splicing in the Mouse Retina Using a Fluorescent Reporter.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Daniel; Kolandaivelu, Saravanan; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan; Stoilov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In vivo alternative splicing is controlled in a tissue and cell type specific manner. Often individual cellular components of complex tissues will express different splicing programs. Thus, when studying splicing in multicellular organisms it is critical to determine the exon inclusion levels in individual cells positioned in the context of their native tissue or organ. Here we describe how a fluorescent splicing reporter in combination with in vivo electroporation can be used to visualize alternative splicing in individual cells within mature tissues. In a test case we show how the splicing of a photoreceptor specific exon can be visualized within the mouse retina. The retina was chosen as an example of a complex tissue that is fragile and whose cells cannot be studied in culture. With minor modifications to the injection and electroporation procedure, the protocol we outline can be applied to other tissues and organs.

  20. An economic analysis of using alternative fuels in a mass burn boiler.

    PubMed

    Kaylen, Michael S

    2005-11-01

    In this study the economic feasibility of using alternative fuels in a mass burn boiler for a chemical plant in northeastern Missouri is analyzed. The key consideration is whether biomass (switchgrass and crop residues) is economically preferred to other available fuels. Research reveals an abundance of alternative fuels for which the plant would receive a tipping fee, including municipal solid waste and used tires. Since the plant would have to pay for biomass, it does not appear in the optimal solution. An economic optimization model shows the marginal cost to the plant of using biomass would increase as more biomass is used, displacing quantities of more valuable (in terms of tipping fees per BTU) waste materials.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of alternative marine fuels for marine gas turbine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gohary, Mohamed M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2016-03-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  2. Transportation Analysis Exploring Alternative Shipping of Marine Expeditionary Brigade Forces to Seabase in Contingency Response Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    fossil fuels in a deployed environment. The needs of these two independent sponsors were combined based on planning guidance from the 35th and 36th...Energy Office 2011) clearly identifies the CMC’s commitment to meeting the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce its dependence upon fossil fuels ...military sealift command ships to achieve force closure at a seabase and reduce fuel consumption. Multiple shipping alternatives supporting a Marine

  3. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  4. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-05-18

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward.

  5. Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 7: SCB alternate EPS evaluation, task 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Power levels up to 100 kWe average were baselined for the electrical power system of the space construction base, a long-duration manned facility capable of supporting manufacturing and large scale construction projects in space. Alternatives to the solar array battery systems discussed include: (1) solar concentrator/brayton; (2) solar concentrator/thermionic; (3) isotope/brayton; (4) nuclear/brayton; (5) nuclear thermoelectric; and (6) nuclear thermionic.

  6. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  7. An Analysis of Alternative Shore Activity Personnel Execution to Improve Productive Work

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Naval History and Heritage Command n.d.) 1 The Navy is also moving to align with civilian workforces, both in pay schedules and work life balance...similar to many attempts to increase job satisfaction in the civilian job marketplace. This alternative may provide all the benefits included with both...in Hotel Work.” Applied Ergonomics 42: 225–232. Moore, Carol S., and Anita U. Hattiangadi. 2002. Inside the Black Box: Assessing the Navy’s

  8. Evaluation of Alternate Category Structures for the Strain Index: An Empirical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Alysha R.; Gerr, Fredric; Fethke, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop alternative Strain Index risk classification categories. Background Strain Index scores are usually categorized into four Strain Index “risk categories.” The “original” risk categories were developed in the meat-packing industry and may not be fully applicable to other industries. Method Daily Strain Index scores were estimated among 276 manufacturing workers participating in a cohort study of occupational risk factors for hand–arm musculoskeletal symptoms. Each score was categorized using the original method and a new method based on quartiles of Strain Index score values among symptomatic participants. Models examining associations between original Strain Index risk categories and incident hand–arm symptoms were compared to models examining associations between the alternative Strain Index risk categories and incident hand–arm symptoms. Results Compared to the respective referent categories, a twofold or greater increase in the risk of incident hand–arm symptoms was observed for the highest original Strain Index risk category (HR = 2.06, 95% CI = [1.08–3.92]) and for the second highest alternate Strain Index risk exposure category (HR = 2.21, 95% CI = [1.26–3.85]). Although significant associations between Strain Index risk category and incident hand–arm symptoms were observed for both Strain Index categorization methods, model fit statistics favored the alternate approach. Conclusion Results from this study suggests that the Strain Index risk category structure may need to be tailored to specific populations. Application If verified, results from this study provide a better way to identify hazardous manufacturing jobs and target them for exposure reduction. PMID:24669548

  9. Risk-based decision analysis of atmospheric emission alternatives to reduce ground water degradation on the European scale

    SciTech Connect

    Wladis, D.; Rosen, L.; Kros, H.

    1999-12-01

    Environmental degradation due to emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrate oxides, and ammonia from diffuse sources amounts to substantial costs to society and so do the alternatives to protect and restore the environment. Damage to ground water includes acidification, aluminum leaching, elevated concentrations of nitrate, and eutrophication. Monetary risk-based decision analysis (on a national scale) is applied to compare alternative actions designed to protect ground water from further degradation. This decision analysis uses simulations of nitrate and aluminum concentrations over a 15 year period with two reduction scenarios for sulfur dioxide, nitrate oxides, and ammonia, and results in estimates of economic uncertainty. For each alternative, an objective function is estimated including the implementation costs, the economic risk associated with failure according to the selected decision criteria, and the economic benefits related to the implementation. The decision criteria are based on the European Community drinking water quality standards for nitrate and aluminum. The study aims at incorporating the hydrogeologic uncertainty resulting from the propagation of errors from data input to model out put. A range of economic values has been applied to the ground water resource to study the sensitivity of the decision analysis to valuing ground water. The results indicate that higher reduction rates of the studied pollutants reduce the economic uncertainty but also lead to larger total costs. The study also indicates that the economic uncertainty may be equal to the total cost provided by the objective function. The contamination level of nitrate is much more responsive to the reduction scenarios than the aluminum concentration. For high, but not unrealistic, ground water valuing, the economic uncertainty makes the decision between the studied alternatives unclear.

  10. A genome wide analysis of alternative splicing events during the osteogenic differentiation of human cartilage endplate-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jin; Wang, Honggang; Fan, Xin; Shangguan, Lei; Liu, Huan

    2016-08-01

    Low back pain is a prevalent disease, which leads to suffering and disabilities in a vast number of individuals. Degenerative disc diseases are usually the underlying causes of low back pain. However, the pathogenesis of degenerative disc diseases is highly complex and difficult to determine. Current therapies for degenerative disc diseases are various. In particular, cell-based therapies have proven to be effective and promising. Our research group has previously isolated and identified the cartilage endplate‑derived stem cells. In addition, alternative splicing is a sophisticated regulatory mechanism, which greatly increases cellular complexity and phenotypic diversity of eukaryotic organisms. The present study continued to investigate alternative splicing events in osteogenic differentiation of cartilage endplate‑derived stem cells. An Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 was used to detect splicing changes between the control and differentiated samples. Additionally, molecular function and pathway analysis were also performed. Following rigorous bioinformatics analysis of the data, 3,802 alternatively spliced genes were identified, and 10 of these were selected for validation by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis also revealed numerous enriched GO terms and signaling pathways. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate alternative splicing mechanisms in osteogenic differentiation of stem cells on a genome‑wide scale. The illumination of molecular mechanisms of stem cell osteogenic differentiation may assist the development novel bioengineered methods to treat degenerative disc diseases.

  11. Economic and market issues on the sustainability of egg production in the United States: analysis of alternative production systems.

    PubMed

    Sumner, D A; Gow, H; Hayes, D; Matthews, W; Norwood, B; Rosen-Molina, J T; Thurman, W

    2011-01-01

    Conventional cage housing for laying hens evolved as a cost-effective egg production system. Complying with mandated hen housing alternatives would raise marginal production costs and require sizable capital investment. California data indicate that shifts from conventional cages to barn housing would likely cause farm-level cost increases of about 40% per dozen. The US data on production costs of such alternatives as furnished cages are not readily available and European data are not applicable to the US industry structure. Economic analysis relies on key facts about production and marketing of conventional and noncage eggs. Even if mandated by government or buyers, shifts to alternative housing would likely occur with lead times of at least 5 yr. Therefore, egg producers and input suppliers would have considerable time to plan new systems and build new facilities. Relatively few US consumers now pay the high retail premiums required for nonconventional eggs from hens housed in alternative systems. However, data from consumer experiments indicate that additional consumers would also be willing to pay some premium. Nonetheless, current data do not allow easy extrapolation to understand the willingness to pay for such eggs by the vast majority of conventional egg consumers. Egg consumption in the United States tends to be relatively unresponsive to price changes, such that sustained farm price increases of 40% would likely reduce consumption by less than 10%. This combination of facts and relationships suggests that, unless low-cost imports grew rapidly, requirements for higher cost hen housing systems would raise US egg prices considerably while reducing egg consumption marginally. Eggs are a low-cost source of animal protein and low-income consumers would be hardest hit. However, because egg expenditures are a very small share of the consumer budget, real income loss for consumers would be small in percentage terms. Finally, the high egg prices imposed by

  12. The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    McClymont, Hoda; Gow, Jeff; Perry, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources.

  13. The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300

  14. Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources.

    PubMed

    You, Jing; Kelley, Rebecca A; Crouse, Curtis C; Trushenski, Jesse T; Lydy, Michael J

    2011-09-15

    A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical method was developed for PHHs including nine organochlorine insecticides (OCPs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish feeds with differing proportions of fish oils and alternative lipid sources by GC-ECD after accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and sulfuric acid cleanup. The GPC removed the majority of the neutral lipids and sulfuric acid treatment effectively destroyed the polar lipids. Thus, the combination of the two methods removed approximately 99.7% of the lipids in the extracts. The method detection limits were less than 5 ng/g dry weight (dw) for most PHHs, while recoveries were 75-118%, 67-105%, 69-92%, 63-100% and 94-144% with relative standard deviations of 0.2-39%, 0.3-20%, 0.5-12%, 1.5-18% and 1.5-15% for PHHs in five types of fish feeds made from different lipid sources. Although the source of lipid showed no impact on cleanup efficiency and the developed method worked well for all feeds, fish feeds with 100% fish oil contained background PHHs and more interference than feeds containing alternative lipids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [The trajectory towards alternative medicines: an analysis of health professionals' social representations].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M S

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on social representations of alternative medicines by a group of professors from the School of Medicine and health professionals from the public health system in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, basically physicians and nurses. The article also emphasizes personal trajectories by which these health professionals opted for a dissident theoretical and practical perspective vis-à-vis the hegemonic positivist scientific medical paradigm. The research methods were mainly ethnographic, from a phenomenological perspective. The article concludes by sustaining (in theoretical terms) the importance of these dissident perspectives for scientific development.

  16. Technology and alternative cancer therapies: an analysis of heterodoxy and constructivism.

    PubMed

    Hess, D J

    1996-12-01

    Theories of the construction of technology are reviewed from the wider interdisciplinary conversation known as science and technology studies (STS) and from the growing field of the anthropology of science and technology. These theories are used to contribute to research situated at the intersection of the anthropology of alternative medicine and of medical technologies. Cases drawn from the research tradition on microbial theories of cancer are considered to show how unorthodox medical theories become embedded in technologies through choices in microscope design and treatment technologies. In turn, the technologies contribute to the heterodox standing of the researchers, their research, and their therapies.

  17. Developing alternative ambulance response schemes: analysis of attitudes, barriers, and change

    PubMed Central

    Squires, J; Mason, S

    2004-01-01

    Methods: South Yorkshire Ambulance Service crews and control room staff were interviewed, using South Yorkshire's paramedic practitioner (PP) scheme as a model of an alternative response scheme. Results: 55 ambulance crew and 17 control staff were interviewed. Most (97%, n = 70) thought that the PP scheme was a good way of dealing with patients who call 999 but may not need urgent transport and hospital treatment. The perceived effect of the PP scheme on traditional ambulance service duties was equally divided between a third who thought there had been no effect, a third who perceived an improvement, and a third a deterioration. Recurrent difficulties with the scheme were found relating to the AMPDS methodology of ambulance dispatch, and ambulance service performance targets. Conclusions: Flexibility of AMPDS and dispatch targets will need to be reviewed to permit the successful implementation of alternative responses to 999 calls. Careful consideration needs to be given to communicating the aims and value of such schemes to all staff and ensuring a common understanding of, and commitment to, a shared vision. The effect of implementation on the remaining service function must be well planned. PMID:15496710

  18. Characterization of Citrus sinensis type 1 mitochondrial alternative oxidase and expression analysis in biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Daurelio, Lucas Damián; Checa, Susana Karina; Barrio, Jorgelina Morán; Ottado, Jorgelina; Orellano, Elena Graciela

    2009-10-09

    The higher plant mitochondrial electron transport chain contains an alternative pathway that ends with the AOX (alternative oxidase). The AOX proteins are encoded by a small gene family composed of two discrete gene subfamilies. Aox1 is present in both monocot and eudicot plants, whereas Aox2 is only present in eudicot plants. We isolated a genomic clone from Citrus sinensis containing the Aox1a gene. The orange Aox1a consists of four exons interrupted by three introns and its promoter harbours diverse putative stress-specific regulatory motifs including pathogen response elements. The role of the Aox1a gene was evaluated during the compatible interaction between C. sinensis and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and no induction of the Aox1a at the transcriptional level was observed. On the other hand, Aox1a was studied in orange plants during non-host interactions with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, which result in hypersensitive response. Both phytopathogens produced a strong induction of Aox1a, reaching a maximum at 8 h post-infiltration. Exogenous application of salicylic acid produced a slight increase in the steady-state level of Aox1a, whereas the application of fungi elicitors showed the highest induction. These results suggest that AOX1a plays a role during biotic stress in non-host plant pathogen interaction.

  19. Computational analysis of translational readthrough proteins in Drosophila and yeast reveals parallels to alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Pancsa, Rita; Macossay-Castillo, Mauricio; Kosol, Simone; Tompa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In translational readthrough (TR) the ribosome continues extending the nascent protein beyond the first in-frame termination codon. Due to the lack of dedicated analyses of eukaryotic TR cases, the associated functional-evolutionary advantages are still unclear. Here, based on a variety of computational methods, we describe the structural and functional properties of previously proposed D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae TR proteins and extensions. We found that in D. melanogaster TR affects long proteins in mainly regulatory roles. Their TR-extensions are structurally disordered and rich in binding motifs, which, together with their cell-type- and developmental stage-dependent inclusion, suggest that similarly to alternatively spliced exons they rewire cellular interaction networks in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. In contrast, yeast TR proteins are rather short and fulfil mainly housekeeping functions, like translation. Yeast extensions usually lack disorder and linear motifs, which precludes elucidating their functional relevance with sufficient confidence. Therefore we propose that by being much more restricted and by lacking clear functional hallmarks in yeast as opposed to fruit fly, TR shows remarkable parallels with alternative splicing. Additionally, the lack of conservation of TR extensions among orthologous TR proteins suggests that TR-mediated functions may be generally specific to lower taxonomic levels. PMID:27561673

  20. A numerically based analysis of the sensitivity of conventional and alternative time domain reflectometry probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, P. A.; Knight, J. H.; Rudolph, D. L.; Kachanoski, R. G.

    2000-09-01

    Conventional time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes are comprised of two or three parallel metal rods. Other probes have been designed for water content profiling [Hook et al., 1992; Ferré et al., 1998b; Redman and DeRyck, 1994], surface water content measurement [White and Zegelin, 1992; Selker et al., 1993], or measurement in electrically conductive media. We use the numerical approach of Knight et al. [1997] to predict the responses of variants of these probes when surrounded by materials with different relative dielectric permittivities. These predictions are compared with published calibration curves and analytical solutions where available. Conventional rods are shown to be most sensitive to changes in the water content of the medium. The Hook et al. [1992] probe shows the highest sensitivity of the alternative designs; both surface probes can be used to measure the water content at the soil surface nonintrusively with similar sensitivities. All of the alternative probes have sensitivities that vary with the soil water content, leading to incorrect averaging of the water content if the water content varies along the probes. However, those probes that place nonmetallic components in series with the soil have more pronounced errors than those that place these materials and the soil more nearly in parallel.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Alternative Concept of ITER Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Dell'Orco, Giovanni; Curd, Warren; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-01-01

    A RELAP5-3D model of the ITER (Latin for the way ) vacuum vessel (VV) primary heat transfer system has been developed to evaluate a proposed design change that relocates the heat exchangers (HXs) from the exterior of the tokamak building to the interior. This alternative design protects the HXs from external hazards such as wind, tornado, and aircraft crash. The proposed design integrates the VV HXs into a VV pressure suppression system (VVPSS) tank that contains water to condense vapour in case of a leak into the plasma chamber. The proposal is to also use this water as the ultimate sink when removing decay heat from the VV system. The RELAP5-3D model has been run under normal operating and abnormal (decay heat) conditions. Results indicate that this alternative design is feasible, with no effects on the VVPSS tank under normal operation and with tank temperature and pressure increasing under decay heat conditions resulting in a requirement to remove steam generated if the VVPSS tank low pressure must be maintained.

  2. Alternate assessment use with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: an exploratory mixed-methods analysis of portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level test formats.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Wurtz, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings on alternate assessments for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). Drawn from the results of the "Second National Survey of Assessments and Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing," this study investigated three alternate assessment formats: portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level testing. Analysis includes descriptive data of alternate assessment use across all three formats, qualitative analyses of teacher perspectives, and an exploratory logistic regression analysis on predictors of alternate assessment use. This exploratory analysis looks at predictors such as state policy, educational setting, grades served, language of instruction, and participant perspectives. Results indicate that predictors at the student, teacher, and system level may influence alternate assessment use for SDHH.

  3. The developing xylem transcriptome and genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing in Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) of genes is an efficient means of generating variation in protein structure and function. AS variation has been observed between tissues, cell types, and different treatments in non-woody plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. However, little is known about AS patterns in wood-forming tissues and how much AS variation exists within plant populations. Results Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze the Populus trichocarpa (P. trichocarpa) xylem transcriptome in 20 individuals from different populations across much of its range in western North America. Deep transcriptome sequencing and mapping of reads to the P. trichocarpa reference genome identified a suite of xylem-expressed genes common to all accessions. Our analysis suggests that at least 36% of the xylem-expressed genes in P. trichocarpa are alternatively spliced. Extensive AS was observed in cell-wall biosynthesis related genes such as glycosyl transferases and C2H2 transcription factors. 27902 AS events were documented and most of these events were not conserved across individuals. Differences in isoform-specific read densities indicated that 7% and 13% of AS events showed significant differences between individuals within geographically separated southern and northern populations, a level that is in general agreement with AS variation in human populations. Conclusions This genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing reveals high levels of AS in P. trichocarpa and extensive inter-individual AS variation. We provide the most comprehensive analysis of AS in P. trichocarpa to date, which will serve as a valuable resource for the plant community to study transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during wood formation. PMID:23718132

  4. Genome level analysis of rice mRNA 3′-end processing signals and alternative polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingjia; Ji, Guoli; Haas, Brian J.; Wu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianti; Reese, Greg J.; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2008-01-01

    The position of a poly(A) site of eukaryotic mRNA is determined by sequence signals in pre-mRNA and a group of polyadenylation factors. To reveal rice poly(A) signals at a genome level, we constructed a dataset of 55 742 authenticated poly(A) sites and characterized the poly(A) signals. This resulted in identifying the typical tripartite cis-elements, including FUE, NUE and CE, as previously observed in Arabidopsis. The average size of the 3′-UTR was 289 nucleotides. When mapped to the genome, however, 15% of these poly(A) sites were found to be located in the currently annotated intergenic regions. Moreover, an extensive alternative polyadenylation profile was evident where 50% of the genes analyzed had more than one unique poly(A) site (excluding microheterogeneity sites), and 13% had four or more poly(A) sites. About 4% of the analyzed genes possessed alternative poly(A) sites at their introns, 5′-UTRs, or protein coding regions. The authenticity of these alternative poly(A) sites was partially confirmed using MPSS data. Analysis of nucleotide profile and signal patterns indicated that there may be a different set of poly(A) signals for those poly(A) sites found in the coding regions. Based on the features of rice poly(A) signals, an updated algorithm termed PASS-Rice was designed to predict poly(A) sites. PMID:18411206

  5. New gene models and alternative splicing in the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola revealed by RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Schliebner, Ivo; Becher, Rayko; Hempel, Marcus; Deising, Holger B; Horbach, Ralf

    2014-10-02

    An annotated genomic sequence of the corn anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola has been published previously, but correct identification of gene models by means of automated gene annotation remains a challenge. RNA-Seq offers the potential for substantially improved gene annotations and for the identification of posttranscriptional RNA modifications, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing. Based on the nucleotide sequence information of transcripts, we identified 819 novel transcriptionally active regions (nTARs) and revised 906 incorrectly predicted gene models, including revisions of exon-intron structure, gene orientation and sequencing errors. Among the nTARs, 146 share significant similarity with proteins that have been identified in other species suggesting that they are hitherto unidentified genes in C. graminicola. Moreover, 5'- and 3'-UTR sequences of 4378 genes have been retrieved and alternatively spliced variants of 69 genes have been identified. Comparative analysis of RNA-Seq data and the genome sequence did not provide evidence for RNA editing in C. graminicola. We successfully employed deep sequencing RNA-Seq data in combination with an elaborate bioinformatics strategy in order to identify novel genes, incorrect gene models and mechanisms of transcript processing in the corn anthracnose fungus C. graminicola. Sequence data of the revised genome annotation including several hundreds of novel transcripts, improved gene models and candidate genes for alternative splicing have been made accessible in a comprehensive database. Our results significantly contribute to both routine laboratory experiments and large-scale genomics or transcriptomic studies in C. graminicola.

  6. A qualitative analysis of email interactions of children who use augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Anett; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce email as a form of interaction for a group of six children who used augmentative and alternative communication. In a 12-week exploratory study, aspects of the email messages sent were analyzed. The content of the messages was analyzed by an inductive qualitative method, and seven descriptive categories emerged. The most frequently occurring categories were Social Etiquette, Personal/Family Statistics and Personal Common Ground. The children utilized different email strategies that included use of most of the above-mentioned categories. Through the email writing practice, the children developed new social skills and increased their social participation. Email practice may be a good strategy to increase children's social networks.

  7. Combustion quality analysis of briquettes from variety of agricultural waste as source of alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Mulyana, C.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing in world population and the industrial sector led to increased demand for energy sources. To do this by utilizing the agricultural waste as a fuel source of alternative energy in the form of bio briquette. The aim at this study was to obtain data onto the characteristics of a wide variety of biomass briquettes from waste agricultural industry. The basic ingredients used are biomass waste from coconut husks, sawdust, rice husks and coffee husks. Each of these biomass residues are dried, crushed, then mixed with starch adhesives. This mixture is molded and dried using sunlight. Each type of briquettes was characterized and analyzed the physical-chemical properties, including calorific value, water content, fixed carbon content and the results were compared with charcoal and coal that was used as fuel in public. The results showed that bio briquettes from coconut husks get the highest calorific value of 4,451 cal/g.

  8. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  9. Aptamer-based analysis: a promising alternative for food safety control.

    PubMed

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Alvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-11-28

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future.

  10. Dynamic analysis of free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator-load system - Experimentally validated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. D.; Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Santiago, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of a variations in system parameters on the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator (FPSE/LA)-load system. The mathematical formulations incorporates both the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the FPSE, as well as the electrical equations of the connected load. State-space technique in the frequency domain is applied to the resulting system of equations to facilitate the evaluation of parametric impacts on the system dynamic stability. Also included is a discussion on the system transient stability as affected by sudden changes in some key operating conditions. Some representative results are correlated with experimental data to verify the model and analytic formulation accuracies. Guidelines are given for ranges of the system parameters which will ensure an overall stable operation.

  11. Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J.; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future. PMID:24287543

  12. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  13. Comparative thermal analysis of alternate Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Oneill, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) was analyzed to assess the feasibility and advisability of deleting the vapor cooled shield (VCS) from the baseline CFME insulation and pressure control system. Two alternate concepts of CFME insulation and pressure control, neither of which incorporated the VCS, were investigated. The first concept employed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to throttle the flow through an internal wall mounted heat exchanger (HX) within the pressure vessel to decrease boiloff and pressure rise rate, while the second concept utilized a TVS without an internal heat exchanger. Only the first concept was viable. Its performance was assessed for a seven day mission and found to be satisfactory. It was also concluded that VCS development costs would be greater than for an internal HX installation. Based upon the above comparisons, the HX was recommended as a replacement for the VCS.

  14. 'Backscratching' alternative to PRSI pattern recognition. [position, rotation, and scale-independent image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The Backscratching optical correlation algorithm has been proposed for four degree of freedom tracking. In an alternating Cartesian and log-polar implementation, the tracked parameters are scale, rotation, and two-dimenisonal translation. The algorithm has a finite capture radius in the four-dimensional tracking space. The capture radius is dependent on the tracked object, the correlator architecture, and the method of filter computation. Some methods of extending the capture radius are discussed. One is a modification of matched filters, another is a careful consideration of log-polar transform center, and another is an operational method. Some simulations of the filter construction method, in which a larger capture radius is gained at the expense of precision in determining the four parameters are presented.

  15. Case for northward transport of Baja and coastal southern California: Paleomagnetic data, analysis, and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.E. Jr. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reviews Cretaceous paleomagnetic evidence for Baja and coastal southern California as a whole, results from Baja and southern California require transport of 1,000 km or more, relative to interior North America. Agreement between independent results, for different rock types and experimental techniques is overwhelming. Dextral shear driven by right-oblique subduction readily accounts for the paleomagnetic results. Alternative explanations such as experimental errors, rock-magnetic effects, anomalous geomagnetic behavior, errors in dating, or local structure are inadequate, improbable, or both. Some geologists have difficulty reconciling the findings of paleomagnetism with their own results; hence, as emphasized by Gastil, a conflict and enigma exist. To resolve them will require a willingness on both sides to honestly scrutinize basic assumptions.

  16. An alternative method for noise analysis using pixel variance as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, R.; Young, K.; Lazzari, B.; Ravaglia, V.; Broeders, M.; van Engen, R.

    2009-11-01

    According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does not discriminate sufficiently between systems with and without additional noise besides quantum noise. This paper attempts to give an alternative and relatively simple method for noise analysis which can divide noise into electronic noise, structured noise and quantum noise. Quantum noise needs to be the dominant noise source in clinical images for optimal performance of a digital mammography system, and therefore the amount of electronic and structured noise should be minimal. For several digital mammography systems, the noise was separated into components based on the measured pixel value, standard deviation (SD) of the image and the detector entrance dose. The results showed that differences between systems exist. Our findings confirm that the proposed method is able to discriminate systems based on their noise performance and is able to detect possible quality problems. Therefore, we suggest to replace the current method for noise analysis as described in the European Guidelines by the alternative method described in this paper.

  17. PlantAPA: A Portal for Visualization and Analysis of Alternative Polyadenylation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yumin; Li, Qingshun Q.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is an important layer of gene regulation that produces mRNAs that have different 3′ ends and/or encode diverse protein isoforms. Up to 70% of annotated genes in plants undergo APA. Increasing numbers of poly(A) sites collected in various plant species demand new methods and tools to access and mine these data. We have created an open-access web service called PlantAPA (http://bmi.xmu.edu.cn/plantapa) to visualize and analyze genome-wide poly(A) sites in plants. PlantAPA provides various interactive and dynamic graphics and seamlessly integrates a genome browser that can profile heterogeneous cleavage sites and quantify expression patterns of poly(A) sites across different conditions. Particularly, through PlantAPA, users can analyze poly(A) sites in extended 3′ UTR regions, intergenic regions, and ambiguous regions owing to alternative transcription or RNA processing. In addition, it also provides tools for analyzing poly(A) site selections, 3′ UTR lengthening or shortening, non-canonical APA site switching, and differential gene expression between conditions, making it more powerful for the study of APA-mediated gene expression regulation. More importantly, PlantAPA offers a bioinformatics pipeline that allows users to upload their own short reads or ESTs for poly(A) site extraction, enabling users to further explore poly(A) site selection using stored PlantAPA poly(A) sites together with their own poly(A) site datasets. To date, PlantAPA hosts the largest database of APA sites in plants, including Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. As a user-friendly web service, PlantAPA will be a valuable addition to the community of biologists studying APA mechanisms and gene expression regulation in plants. PMID:27446120

  18. Analysis for remedial alternatives of unregulated municipal solid waste landfills leachate-contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Da; Jiang, Yonghai; Xi, Beidou; Ma, Zhifei; Yang, Yu; Yang, Queping; Li, Mingxiao; Zhang, Jinbao; Bai, Shunguo; Jiang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    A groundwater flow and solute transport model was developed using Visual Modflow for forecasting contaminant transport and assessing effects of remedial alternatives based on a case study of an unregulated landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater in eastern China. The results showed that arsenic plume was to reach the pumping well in the downstream farmland after eight years, and the longest lateral and longitudinal distance of arsenic plume was to reach 200 m and 260 m, respectively. But the area of high concentration region of arsenic plume was not to obviously increase from eight years to ten years and the plume was to spread to the downstream river and the farmland region after 20 years; while the landfill's ground was hardened, the plume was not to reach the downstream farmland region after eight years; when the pumping well was installed in the plume downstream and discharge rate was 200m3/d, the plume was to be effectively restrained; for leakage-proof barriers, it might effectively protect the groundwater of sensitive objects within an extent time range. But for the continuous point source, the plume was still to circle the leakage-proof barrier; when discharge rate of drainage ditches was 170.26 m3/d, the plume was effectively controlled; the comprehensive method combining ground-harden with drainage ditches could get the best effect in controlling contaminant diffusion, and the discharge rate was to be reduced to 111.43 m3/d. Therefore, the comprehensive remedial alternative combining ground-harden with drainage ditch will be recommended for preventing groundwater contamination when leachate leakage has happened in unregulated landfills.

  19. Multi-Level Process Analysis: An Alternative Technique for Modeling and Systems Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, William H.

    The purpose of this paper is to propose the combined use of distinct symbol sets to conduct multilevel process (MLP) analysis and to discuss the application of the technique through a case study example. In turn, consideration is given to the meaning of process analysis, the existent technology of representation, proposed new developments, and…

  20. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  1. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future.

  2. A multiattribute utility analysis of alternative sites for the disposal of nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Merkhofer, M W; Keeney, R L

    1987-06-01

    Five potential sites nominated for the Nation's first geologic repository for disposing of nuclear waste are evaluated using multiattribute utility analysis. The analysis was designed to aid the Department of Energy in its selection of 3 sites for characterization, a detailed data-gathering process that will involve the construction of exploratory shafts for underground testing and that may cost as much as $1 billion per site. The analysis produced insights into the relative advantages and disadvantages of the nominated sites and clarified current uncertainties regarding repository performance.

  3. Elusive Critical Elements of Transformative Risk Assessment Practice and Interpretation: Is Alternatives Analysis the Next Step?

    PubMed

    Francis, Royce A

    2015-11-01

    This article argues that "game-changing" approaches to risk analysis must focus on "democratizing" risk analysis in the same way that information technologies have democratized access to, and production of, knowledge. This argument is motivated by the author's reading of Goble and Bier's analysis, "Risk Assessment Can Be a Game-Changing Information Technology-But Too Often It Isn't" (Risk Analysis, 2013; 33: 1942-1951), in which living risk assessments are shown to be "game changing" in probabilistic risk analysis. In this author's opinion, Goble and Bier's article focuses on living risk assessment's potential for transforming risk analysis from the perspective of risk professionals-yet, the game-changing nature of information technologies has typically achieved a much broader reach. Specifically, information technologies change who has access to, and who can produce, information. From this perspective, the author argues that risk assessment is not a game-changing technology in the same way as the printing press or the Internet because transformative information technologies reduce the cost of production of, and access to, privileged knowledge bases. The author argues that risk analysis does not reduce these costs. The author applies Goble and Bier's metaphor to the chemical risk analysis context, and in doing so proposes key features that transformative risk analysis technology should possess. The author also discusses the challenges and opportunities facing risk analysis in this context. These key features include: clarity in information structure and problem representation, economical information dissemination, increased transparency to nonspecialists, democratized manufacture and transmission of knowledge, and democratic ownership, control, and interpretation of knowledge. The chemical safety decision-making context illustrates the impact of changing the way information is produced and accessed in the risk context. Ultimately, the author concludes that although

  4. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for Treatment among African-Americans: A Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Jamie C.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Brown, Carolyn M.; Richards, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is substantial among African-Americans; however, research on characteristics of African-Americans who use of CAM to treat specific conditions is scarce. Objective To determine what predisposing, enabling, need, and disease state factors are related to CAM use for treatment among a nationally representative sample of African-Americans. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed using the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). A nationwide representative sample of adult (≥ 18 years) African-Americans who used CAM in the past 12 months (n= 16,113,651 weighted; n=2,952 unweighted) were included. The Andersen Healthcare Utilization Model served the framework with CAM use for treatment as the main outcome measure. Independent variables included: predisposing (e.g., age, gender, education), enabling (e.g., income, employment, access to care); need (e.g., health status, physician visits, prescription medication use); and disease state (i.e., most prevalent conditions among African-Americans) factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to address the study objective. Results Approximately one in five (20.2%) CAM past 12 month users used CAM to treat a specific condition. Ten of the 15 CAM modalities were used primarily for treatment by African-Americans. CAM for treatment was significantly (p<0.05) associated with the following factors: graduate education, smaller family size, higher income, region (northeast, midwest, west more likely than south), depression/anxiety, more physician visits, less likely to engage in preventive care, more frequent exercise behavior, more activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and neck pain. Conclusions Twenty percent of African-Americans who used CAM in the past year were treating a specific condition. Alternative medical systems, manipulative and body-based therapies, as well as folk medicine, prayer, biofeedback, and energy/Reiki were used most often

  5. Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) for KC-135 Recapitalization. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Integrative research projects and work on modeling and simulation are conducted on a PAF-wide basis. The research reported here was prepared within the...Electric and Pratt & Whitney. The Air Force’s Aeronautical Systems Center, part of Air Force Materiel Command, proposed three new- design tankers that were...and Analysis Division (AMC/A59) made significant contributions to the AoA’s effectiveness analysis, especially in the detailed modeling of tanker

  6. Alternate Theories of Belief and the Implications for Incoherence, Reconciliation, and Sensitivity Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    R.R. Possibilistic decisions. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1979, 9, 388-342. Zadeh, L.A. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control...Lower Probabilities Belief Functions Fuzzy Probabilities Incoherence Sensitivity Analysis Z2 ABSTRACT (Conflmm art UKevm e alde it notCo ry and fdoimttfy...axioms, and define incoherence as the potential for forming incon- sistent judgments. We propose that decision analysis is a means for reducing

  7. A large-scale analysis of alternative splicing reveals a key role of QKI in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Fernando J; Pajares, María J; Martínez-Terroba, Elena; Ajona, Daniel; Morales, Xabier; Sharma, Ravi D; Pardo, Francisco J; Rouzaut, Ana; Rubio, Angel; Montuenga, Luis M; Pio, Ruben

    2016-11-01

    Increasing interest has been devoted in recent years to the understanding of alternative splicing in cancer. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify cancer-associated splice variants in non-small cell lung cancer. We discovered and validated novel differences in the splicing of genes known to be relevant to lung cancer biology, such as NFIB, ENAH or SPAG9. Gene enrichment analyses revealed an important contribution of alternative splicing to cancer-related molecular functions, especially those involved in cytoskeletal dynamics. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the altered genes found in our analysis were targets of the protein quaking (QKI), pointing to this factor as one of the most relevant regulators of alternative splicing in non-small cell lung cancer. We also found that ESYT2, one of the QKI targets, is involved in cytoskeletal organization. ESYT2-short variant inhibition in lung cancer cells resulted in a cortical distribution of actin whereas inhibition of the long variant caused an increase of endocytosis, suggesting that the cancer-associated splicing pattern of ESYT2 has a profound impact in the biology of cancer cells. Finally, we show that low nuclear QKI expression in non-small cell lung cancer is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (HR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.11-5.46, P = 0.026). In conclusion, we identified several splicing variants with functional relevance in lung cancer largely regulated by the splicing factor QKI, a tumor suppressor associated with prognosis in lung cancer.

  8. Lower head creep rupture failure analysis associated with alternative accident sequences of the Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sang Lung, Chan

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this lower head creep rupture analysis is to assess the current version of MELCOR 1.8.5-RG against SCDAP/RELAP5 MOD 3.3kz. The purpose of this assessment is to investigate the current MELCOR in-vessel core damage progression phenomena including the model for the formation of a molten pool. The model for stratified molten pool natural heat transfer will be included in the next MELCOR release. Presently, MELCOR excludes the gap heat-transfer model for the cooling associated with the narrow gap between the debris and the lower head vessel wall. All these phenomenological models are already treated in SCDAP/RELAP5 using the COUPLE code to model the heat transfer of the relocated debris with the lower head based on a two-dimensional finite-element-method. The assessment should determine if current MELCOR capabilities adequately cover core degradation phenomena appropriate for the consolidated MELCOR code. Inclusion of these features should bring MELCOR much closer to a state of parity with SCDAP/RELAP5 and is a currently underway element in the MELCOR code consolidation effort. This assessment deals with the following analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) alternative accident sequences. The TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-1 includes the continuation of the base case of the TMI-2 accident with the Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP) tripped, and the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) throttled after approximately 6000 s accident time, while in the TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-2, the reactor coolant pumps is tripped after 6000 s and the HPIS is activated after 12,012 s. The lower head temperature distributions calculated with SCDAP/RELAP5 are visualized and animated with open source visualization freeware 'OpenDX'. (author)

  9. Global Analysis of Salmonella Alternative Sigma Factor E on Protein Translation

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; ...

    2015-02-16

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. Here in this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. We analysed samples from wild type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions; nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulatedmore » by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE–mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq.« less

  10. Global Analysis of Salmonella Alternative Sigma Factor E on Protein Translation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; Johnson, Rudd C.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. In this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. Samples were analyzed from wild-type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions: nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulated by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE-mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq. PMID:25686268

  11. Global analysis of Salmonella alternative sigma factor E on protein translation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Overall, Christopher C; Johnson, Rudd C; Kidwai, Afshan S; McDermott, Jason E; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D; Adkins, Joshua N

    2015-04-03

    The alternative sigma factor E (σ(E)) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σ(E)-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σ(E) may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. In this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σ(E) in Salmonella. Samples were analyzed from wild-type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions: nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulated by σ(E) combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σ(E) affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σ(E) and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σ(E)-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σ(E)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq.

  12. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research.

  13. Analysis of Burnup and Economic Potential of Alternative Fuel Materials in Thermal Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Oggianu, Stella Maris; No, Hee Cheon; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2003-09-15

    A strategy is proposed for the assessment of nuclear fuel material economic potential use in future light water reactors (LWRs). In this methodology, both the required enrichment and the fuel performance limits are considered. In order to select the best fuel candidate, the optimal burnup that produces the lowest annual fuel cost within the burnup potential for a given fuel material and smear density ratio is determined.Several nuclear materials are presented as examples of the application of the methodology proposed in this paper. The alternative fuels considered include uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium carbide (UC), uranium nitride (UN), metallic uranium (U-Zr alloy), combined thorium and uranium oxides (ThO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2}), and combined thorium and uranium metals (U/Th). For these examples, a typical LWR lattice geometry in a zirconium-based cladding was assumed. The uncertainties in the results presented are large due to the scarcity of experimental data regarding the behavior of the considered materials at high burnups. Also, chemical compatibility issues are to be considered separately.The same methodology can be applied in the future to evaluate the economic potential of other nuclear fuel materials including different cladding designs, dispersions of ceramics into ceramics, dispersions of ceramics into metals, and also for geometries other than the traditional circular fuel pin.

  14. Economic Analysis of Alternative Strategies for Detection of ALK Rearrangements in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Shivang; Ray, David; Stein, Karen; Zhang, Jie; Koduru, Prasad; Fogt, Franz; Wellman, Axel; Wat, Ricky; Mathews, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Identification of alterations in ALK gene and development of ALK-directed therapies have increased the need for accurate and efficient detection methodologies. To date, research has focused on the concordance between the two most commonly used technologies, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). However, inter-test concordance reflects only one, albeit important, aspect of the diagnostic process; laboratories, hospitals, and payors must understand the cost and workflow of ALK rearrangement detection strategies. Through literature review combined with interviews of pathologists and laboratory directors in the U.S. and Europe, a cost-impact model was developed that compared four alternative testing strategies—IHC only, FISH only, IHC pre-screen followed by FISH confirmation, and parallel testing by both IHC and FISH. Interviews were focused on costs of reagents, consumables, equipment, and personnel. The resulting model showed that testing by IHC alone cost less ($90.07 in the U.S., $68.69 in Europe) than either independent or parallel testing by both FISH and IHC ($441.85 in the U.S. and $279.46 in Europe). The strategies differed in cost of execution, turnaround time, reimbursement, and number of positive results detected, suggesting that laboratories must weigh the costs and the clinical benefit of available ALK testing strategies. PMID:26838801

  15. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories. This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public. PMID:18726007

  16. Analysis of heat loss mechanisms for mobile tent-type refuge alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Bissert, P.T.; Yantek, D.S.; Klein, M.D.; Yan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Federal regulations require that refuge alternatives (RAs) be located within 305 m (1,000 ft) of the working face and spaced at one-hour travel distances in the outby area in underground coal mines, in the event that miners cannot escape during a disaster. The Mine Safety and Health Administration mandates that RAs provide safe shelter and livable conditions for a minimum of 96 hours while maintaining the apparent temperature below 35 °C (95 °F). The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health used a validated thermal simulation model to examine the mechanisms of heat loss from an RA to the ambient mine and the effect of mine strata composition on the final internal dry bulb temperature (DBT) for a mobile tent-type RA. The results of these studies show that 51 percent of the heat loss from the RA to the ambient mine is due to radiation and 31 percent to conduction. Three mine width and height configurations and four mine strata compositions were examined. The final DBT inside the RA after 96 hours varied by less than 1 °C (1.8 °F) for the three mine width/height configurations and by less than 2 °C (3.6 °F) for the four mine strata compositions. PMID:28736496

  17. On the Impact of Parametric Assumptions and Robust Alternatives for Longitudinal Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Naiji; Tang, Wan; He, Hua; Yu, Qin; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Zhang, Hui; Tu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Models for longitudinal data are employed in a wide range of behavioral, biomedical, psychosocial, and health-care related research. One popular model for continuous response is the linear mixed-effects model (LMM). Although simulations by recent studies show that LMM provides reliable estimates under departures from the normality assumption for complete data, the invariable occurrence of missing data in practical studies renders such robustness results less useful when applied to real study data. In this paper, we show by simulated studies that in the presence of missing data estimates of the fixed-effect of LMM are biased under departures from normality. We discuss two robust alternatives, the weighted generalized estimating equations (WGEE) and the augmented WGEE (AWGEE), and compare their performances with LMM using real as well as simulated data. Our simulation results show that both WGEE and AWGEE provide valid inference for skewed non-normal data when missing data follows the missing at random (MAR), the most popular missing data mechanism for real study data. PMID:19688758

  18. Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in Digitalis purpurea by strand-specific RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Suo, Fengmei; Lei, Wanjun; Gu, Lianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Digitalis purpurea (D. purpurea) is one of the most important medicinal plants and is well known in the treatment of heart failure because of the cardiac glycosides that are its main active compounds. However, in the absence of strand specific sequencing information, the post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation in D. purpurea thus far remains unknown. In this study, a strand-specific RNA-Seq library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq platforms to characterize the transcriptome of D. purpurea with a focus on alternative splicing (AS) events and the effect of AS on protein domains. De novo RNA-Seq assembly resulted in 48,475 genes. Based on the assembled transcripts, we reported a list of 3,265 AS genes, including 5,408 AS events in D. purpurea. Interestingly, both glycosyltransferases and monooxygenase, which were involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, are regulated by AS. A total of 2,422 AS events occurred in coding regions, and 959 AS events were located in the regions of 882 unique protein domains, which could affect protein function. This D. purpurea transcriptome study substantially increased the expressed sequence resource and presented a better understanding of post-transcriptional regulation to further facilitate the medicinal applications of D. purpurea for human health.

  19. Global Analysis of Salmonella Alternative Sigma Factor E on Protein Translation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; Johnson, Rudd C.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-02-16

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. Here in this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. We analysed samples from wild type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions; nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulated by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE–mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq.

  20. A comparative analysis of standard and alternative antidepressants in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus patients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G J; Rabkin, J G; Rabkin, R

    1996-01-01

    Our research group has conducted clinical trials of standard (imipramine, fluoxetine, and sertraline) and alternative antidepressants (dextroamphetamine and testosterone replacement therapy) in the treatment of clinical depression among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) illness. This report presents secondary analyses of data pooled from these trials with the purpose of comparing the antidepressant efficacy of these various agents. In all trials, a DSM-III-R depressive disorder was the primary criterion for study entry, and each treatment resulted in significant improvement after both 2 and 6 weeks of treatment according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Response rates for standard antidepressants ranged from 70% to 74%, with similar, high response rates found in trials of dextroamphetamine (93%) and testosterone (81%). The response rate of each active drug treatment was superior to that of placebo (33%). Each treatment was well-tolerated in terms of side effects, and there was essentially no effect of any treatment on CD4 cell count. Differences in trial design, entrance criteria, and measurements require that caution be used in interpreting these results; nonetheless, each of the five treatments studied demonstrated strong efficacy and possessed relatively unique benefits, providing health care providers with valuable treatment options in addressing individual needs of patients.

  1. Cleaning capacity of hybrid instrumentation technique using reamer with alternating cutting edges system files: Histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Emilio Carlos Sponchiado; da Fonseca, Tiago Silva; da Frota, Matheus Franco; de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the following study is to evaluate the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique using Reamer with Alternating Cutting Edges (RaCe) system files in the apical third of mesial roots of mandibular molars. Twenty teeth were selected and separated into two groups (n = 20) according to instrumentation technique as follows: BioRaCe - chemomechanical preparation with K-type files #10 and #15; and files BioRaCe BR0, BR1, BR2, BR3, and BR4; HybTec - hybrid instrumentation technique with K-type files #10 and #15 in the working length, #20 at 2 mm, #25 at 3 mm, cervical preparation with Largo burs #1 and #2; apical preparation with K-type files #15, #20, and #25 and RaCe files #25.04 and #30.04. The root canals were irrigated with 1 ml of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite at each change of instrument. The specimens were histologically processed and photographed under light optical microscope. The images were inserted onto an integration grid to count the amount of debris present in the root canal. BioRaCe presented the highest percentage of debris in the apical third, however, with no statistically significant difference for HybTec (P > 0.05). The hybrid technique presented similar cleaning capacity as the technique recommended by the manufacturer.

  2. Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins.

    PubMed

    Huelga, Stephanie C; Vu, Anthony Q; Arnold, Justin D; Liang, Tiffany Y; Liu, Patrick P; Yan, Bernice Y; Donohue, John Paul; Shiue, Lily; Hoon, Shawn; Brenner, Sydney; Ares, Manuel; Yeo, Gene W

    2012-02-23

    Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP) proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq), and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and autoregulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells.

  3. Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins

    PubMed Central

    Huelga, Stephanie C.; Vu, Anthony Q.; Arnold, Justin D.; Liang, Tiffany Y.; Liu, Patrick P.; Yan, Bernice Y.; Donohue, John Paul; Shiue, Lily; Hoon, Shawn; Brenner, Sydney; Ares, Manuel; Yeo, Gene W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP) proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing, and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins, and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and auto-regulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells. PMID:22574288

  4. Analysis of alternative lengthening of telomere markers in BRCA1 defective cells

    PubMed Central

    Kargaran, Parisa K.; Yasaei, Hemad; Anjomani‐Virmouni, Sara; Mangiapane, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are specialized structures responsible for the chromosome end protection. Previous studies have revealed that defective BRCA1 may lead to elevated telomere fusions and accelerated telomere shortening. In addition, BRCA1 associates with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies in alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALTs) positive cells. We report here elevated recombination rates at telomeres in cells from human BRCA1 mutation carriers and in mouse embryonic stem cells lacking both copies of functional Brca1. An increased recombination rate at telomeres is one of the signs of ALT. To investigate this possibility further we employed the C‐circle assay that identifies ALT unequivocally. Our results revealed elevated levels of ALT activity in Brca1 defective mouse cells. Similar results were obtained when the same cells were assayed for the presence of another ALT marker, namely the frequency of PML bodies. These results suggest that BRCA1 may act as a repressor of ALT. © 2016 The Authors Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27295426

  5. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bruce D; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories.This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public.

  6. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  7. [Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: ATP1A3 gene analysis in 16 patients].

    PubMed

    Ulate-Campos, Adriana; Fons, Carmen; Campistol, Jaume; Martorell, Loreto; Cancho-Candela, Ramón; Eiris, Jesús; López-Laso, Eduardo; Pineda, Mercedes; Sans, Anna; Velázquez, Ramón

    2014-07-07

    Alternating hemiplegia in childhood (AHC) is a disease characterized by recurrent episodes of hemiplegia, tonic or dystonic crisis and abnormal ocular movements. Recently, mutations in the ATP1A3 gene have been identified as the causal mechanism of AHC. The objective is to describe a series of 16 patients with clinical and genetic diagnosis of AHC. It is a descriptive, retrospective, multicenter study of 16 patients with clinical diagnosis of AHC in whom mutations in ATP1A3 were identified. Six heterozygous, de novo mutations were found in the ATP1A3 gene. The most frequent mutation was G2401A in 8 patients (50%) followed by G2443A in 3 patients (18.75%), G2893A in 2 patients (12.50%) and C2781G, G2893C and C2411T in one patient, respectively (6.25% each). In the studied population with AHC, de novo mutations were detected in 100% of patients. The most frequent mutations were D801N y la E815K, as reported in other series. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  9. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  10. Improved forensic DNA analysis through the use of alternative DNA polymerases and statistical modeling of DNA profiles.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Nordgaard, Anders; Rasmusson, Birgitta; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter

    2009-11-01

    DNA evidence, linking perpetrators to crime scenes, is central to many legal proceedings. However, DNA samples from crime scenes often contain PCR-inhibitory substances, which may generate blank or incomplete DNA profiles. Extensive DNA purification can be required to rid the sample of these inhibitors, although these procedures increase the risk of DNA loss. Most forensic laboratories use commercial DNA amplification kits (e.g., AmpFlSTR SGM Plus) with the DNA polymerase AmpliTaq Gold as the gold standard. Here, we show that alternative DNA polymerase-buffer systems can improve the quality of forensic DNA analysis and efficiently circumvent PCR inhibition in crime scene samples, without additional sample preparation. DNA profiles from 20 of 32 totally or partially inhibited crime scene saliva samples were significantly improved using Bio-X-Act Short, ExTaq Hot Start, or PicoMaxx High Fidelity instead of AmpliTaq Gold. A statistical model for unbiased quality control of forensic DNA profiles was developed to quantify the results. Our study demonstrates the importance of adjusting the chemistry of the PCR to enhance forensic DNA analysis and diagnostic PCR, providing an alternative to laborious sample preparation protocols.

  11. Scaling analysis of heart beat fluctuations data and its relationship with cyclic alternating pattern data during sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León-Lomelí, R.; Murguía, J. S.; Chouvarda, I.; Méndez, M. O.; González-Galván, E.; Alba, A.

    2016-01-01

    During sleep there exists a nonlinear dynamic phenomenon, which is called cyclic alternating pattern. This phenomenon is generated in the brain and is composed of a series of events of short duration known as A-phases. It has been shown that A-phases can be found in other physiological systems such as the cardiovascular. However, there is no evidence that shows the temporal influence of the A-phases with the cardiovascular system. For this purpose, we consider the scaling method known as detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The analysis was carried out in well sleepers and insomnia people, and the numerical results show an increment in the scaling parameter for the insomnia subjects compared with the normal ones. In addition, the results of the heart dynamics suggests a persistent behavior toward the 1/f-noise.

  12. Validation of Alternative Methods for the Analysis of Drinking Water and Their Application to Escherichia coli ▿

    PubMed Central

    Boubetra, Abdelkader; Le Nestour, François; Allaert, Corrie; Feinberg, Max

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, the Drinking Water Directive of the European Commission indicates which methods (most of which are CEN/ISO-standardized methods) should be used for the analysis of microbiological parameters (European Commission, Environment, Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998). According to the Directive, alternative methods “may be used, providing it can be demonstrated that the results obtained are at least as reliable as those produced by the methods specified.” The prerequisite for the routine use of any alternative method is to provide evidence that this method performs equivalently to the corresponding reference method. In this respect, the ISO 16140 standard (ISO, ISO 16140. Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs—Protocol for the Validation of Alternative Methods, 2003) represents a key issue in generating such a procedure based on an interlaboratory study. A new statistical tool, called the accuracy profile, has been developed to better interpret the data. The study presented here is based upon the enumeration of Escherichia coli bacteria in water. The reference method may require up to 72 h to provide a confirmed result. The aim of this publication is to present data for an alternative method by which results can be obtained in 18 h (Colilert-18/Quanti-Tray) based upon defined substrate technology (DST). The accuracy profile is a statistical and graphical decision-making tool and consists of simultaneously combining, in a single graphic, β expectation tolerance intervals (β-ETIs) and acceptability limits (λ). The study presents the validation criteria calculated at the three levels of contamination used in the trial for a β equal to 80% and a λ equal to ±0.3 and combines the accuracy profiles of Escherichia coli for a λ of ±0.3 log10 unit/100 ml, a λ of ±0.4 log10 unit/100 ml, and a β of 80% or 90%. Several interesting conclusions can be drawn from these data. The accuracy profile method has been applied to the validation of

  13. Tumor-specific usage of alternative transcription start sites in colorectal cancer identified by genome-wide exon array analysis.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Kasper; Schepeler, Troels; Øster, Bodil; Rasmussen, Mads H; Vang, Søren; Wang, Kai; Hansen, Kristian Q; Lamy, Philippe; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Eller, Asger; Mansilla, Francisco; Laurila, Kirsti; Wiuf, Carsten; Laurberg, Søren; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Ørntoft, Torben F; Andersen, Claus L

    2011-10-14

    Approximately half of all human genes use alternative transcription start sites (TSSs) to control mRNA levels and broaden the transcriptional output in healthy tissues. Aberrant expression patterns promoting carcinogenesis, however, may arise from alternative promoter usage. By profiling 108 colorectal samples using exon arrays, we identified nine genes (TCF12, OSBPL1A, TRAK1, ANK3, CHEK1, UGP2, LMO7, ACSL5, and SCIN) showing tumor-specific alternative TSS usage in both adenoma and cancer samples relative to normal mucosa. Analysis of independent exon array data sets corroborated these findings. Additionally, we confirmed the observed patterns for selected mRNAs using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Interestingly, for some of the genes, the tumor-specific TSS usage was not restricted to colorectal cancer. A comprehensive survey of the nine genes in lung, bladder, liver, prostate, gastric, and brain cancer revealed significantly altered mRNA isoform ratios for CHEK1, OSBPL1A, and TCF12 in a subset of these cancer types.To identify the mechanism responsible for the shift in alternative TSS usage, we antagonized the Wnt-signaling pathway in DLD1 and Ls174T colorectal cancer cell lines, which remarkably led to a shift in the preferred TSS for both OSBPL1A and TRAK1. This indicated a regulatory role of the Wnt pathway in selecting TSS, possibly also involving TP53 and SOX9, as their transcription binding sites were enriched in the promoters of the tumor preferred isoforms together with their mRNA levels being increased in tumor samples. Finally, to evaluate the prognostic impact of the altered TSS usage, immunohistochemistry was used to show deregulation of the total protein levels of both TCF12 and OSBPL1A, corresponding to the mRNA levels observed. Furthermore, the level of nuclear TCF12 had a significant correlation to progression free survival in a cohort of 248 stage II colorectal cancer samples. Alternative TSS usage in colorectal adenoma and

  14. Warranty cost analysis using alternating quasi-renewal processes with a warranty option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedida, Sarada; Unnissa Munavar, Mubashir; Ranjani, R.

    2012-03-01

    This article analyses a repairable deteriorating system with quasi-renewal operating and repair times during warranty. To establish the importance of non-negligible repair times modelled with quasi-renewal processes in warranty cost analysis, a fixed warranty model is developed and the results are compared with an existing model using expected warranty cost. Sensitivity analysis and graphical illustrations are provided to highlight the effect of various cost parameters on the expected warranty cost by means of three different distributions. In order to examine the cost implications to the customer and manufacturer, an extended warranty model in which a manufacturer offers a warranty option to the customer with two different policies, has been proposed. Based on the long-run average cost per unit time, profit analysis has been carried out for the manufacturer as it is an essential aspect of warranty management. This article emphasises the incorporation of non-negligible 'improved' repair times during warranty.

  15. Reporting of skin cancer risks in the house-building industry: alternative approaches to the analysis of categorical data.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, C; Dixon, P B

    2008-03-01

    Increasing incidence of skin cancer is of concern to public health. Working predominantly outside, construction workers are at increased risk of sunburn and certain forms of skin cancer. The objective of this paper was to explore these concerns via use of alternative approaches to categorical data analysis by considering the relationship between the size of house-building companies, use of risk assessments and the system for reporting sunburn. The survey population was speculative house-building companies. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to health and safety advisors in house-building companies. Questions related to the number of house units built, inclusion of adverse weather in the risk assessment, and the presence or absence of a system for reporting sunburn were analysed. Alternative approaches to conventional chi(2) tests were used in order to investigate a multiway data structure. A loglinear model was employed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences to explain data in three-way tables. The questionnaire achieved a response rate of 31% (n=94). A significant association identified in a two-way study of the mechanisms of reporting sunburn also appeared at the sublevels introduced by the inclusion of a third method of categorization. Finally, correspondence analysis was used to present a graphical insight into the study. In the two-way analysis, the size of house-building company had a significant impact on the presence of a system for reporting sunburn, although this was not translated into the three-way analysis. The establishment of systems within risk assessments to incorporate exposure of construction workers to ultraviolet radiation, and reporting of incidents of sunburn, is essential if this public health issue is to be addressed.

  16. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Cost/Schedule Uncertainty Analysis of the XM1/Alternative Armament Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    impact of updated information, a revised risk analysis was prepared. This report represents our current penetrator/shell metal parts risk analysis...CO a BO a a OJ O p. <o M M a a OJ VIH •3 •H M u o •iH •H •rl OJ ^ •H H H U iH •H tO at CO CL, P-, c_> CO CO CO cd hJ to Q Q H

  18. Multi-response permutation procedure as an alternative to the analysis of variance: an SPSS implementation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li

    2006-02-01

    A permutation test typically requires fewer assumptions than does a comparable parametric counterpart. The multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP) is a class of multivariate permutation tests of group difference useful for the analysis of experimental data. However, psychologists seldom make use of the MRPP in data analysis, in part because the MRPP is not implemented in popular statistical packages that psychologists use. A set of SPSS macros implementing the MRPP test is provided in this article. The use of the macros is illustrated by analyzing example data sets.

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine use among older Australian women--a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Deirdre; Lui, Chi-Wai; Adams, Jon

    2012-04-04

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) among older adults is an emerging health issue, however little is known about older people's experiences of using CAM and the cultural, geographical and other determinants of CAM use in this population. This study used qualitative methods to explore older women's views of CAM and reasons for their use of CAM. Participants for the project were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) 1921-1926 birth cohort. Women who responded positively to a question about CAM use in Survey 5 (2008) of the ALSWH were invited to participate in the study. A total of 13 rural and 12 urban women aged between 83 and 88 years agreed to be interviewed. The women expressed a range of views on CAM which fell into three broad themes: "push" factors such as dissatisfaction with conventional health services, "pull" factors which emphasised the positive aspects of choice and self-care in health matters, and barriers to CAM use. Overall, the "push' factors did not play a major role in the decision to use CAM, rather this was driven by "pull" factors related to health care self-responsibility and being able to source positive information about types of CAM. A number of barriers were identified such as access difficulties associated with increased age, limited mobility and restricted transport options, as well as financial constraints. CAM use among older women was unlikely to be influenced by aspects of conventional health care ("push factors"), but rather was reflective of the personal beliefs of the women and members of their close social networks ("pull factors"). While it was also apparent that there were differences between the rural and urban women in their use of CAM, the reasons for this were mainly due to the difficulties inherent in accessing certain types of CAM in rural areas.

  20. A cost-benefit analysis of alternative device configurations for aviation-checked baggage security screening.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Karnani, Tamana; Kobza, John E; Ritchie, Lynsey

    2006-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 have resulted in dramatic changes in aviation security. As of early 2003, an estimated 1,100 explosive detection systems (EDS) and 6,000 explosive trace detection machines (ETD) have been deployed to ensure 100% checked baggage screening at all commercial airports throughout the United States. The prohibitive costs associated with deploying and operating such devices is a serious issue for the Transportation Security Administration. This article evaluates the cost effectiveness of the explosive detection technologies currently deployed to screen checked baggage as well as new technologies that could be used in the future. Both single-device and two-device systems are considered. In particular, the expected annual direct cost of using these devices for 100% checked baggage screening under various scenarios is obtained and the tradeoffs between using single- and two-device strategies are studied. The expected number of successful threats under the different checked baggage screening scenarios with 100% checked baggage screening is also obtained. Lastly, a risk-based screening strategy proposed in the literature is analyzed. The results reported suggest that for the existing security setup, with current device costs and probability parameters, single-device systems are less costly and have fewer expected number of successful threats than two-device systems due to the way the second device affects the alarm or clear decision. The risk-based approach is found to have the potential to significantly improve security. The cost model introduced provides an effective tool for the execution of cost-benefit analyses of alternative device configurations for aviation-checked baggage security screening.

  1. A Statistical Analysis of the Robustness of Alternate Genetic Coding Tables

    PubMed Central

    Kurnaz, Mehmet Levent; Bilgin, Tugce; Kurnaz, Isil Aksan

    2008-01-01

    The rules that specify how the information contained in DNA is translated into amino acid “language” during protein synthesis are called “the genetic code”, commonly called the “Standard” or “Universal” Genetic Code Table. As a matter of fact, this coding table is not at all “universal”: in addition to different genetic code tables used by different organisms, even within the same organism the nuclear and mitochondrial genes may be subject to two different coding tables. Results In an attempt to understand the advantages and disadvantages these coding tables may bring to an organism, we have decided to analyze various coding tables on genes subject to mutations, and have estimated how these genes “survive” over generations. We have used this as indicative of the “evolutionary” success of that particular coding table. We find that the “standard” genetic code is not actually the most robust of all coding tables, and interestingly, Flatworm Mitochondrial Code (FMC) appears to be the highest ranking coding table given our assumptions. Conclusions It is commonly hypothesized that the more robust a genetic code, the better suited it is for maintenance of the genome. Our study shows that, given the assumptions in our model, Standard Genetic Code is quite poor when compared to other alternate code tables in terms of robustness. This brings about the question of why Standard Code has been so widely accepted by a wider variety of organisms instead of FMC, which needs to be addressed for a thorough understanding of genetic code evolution. PMID:19325778

  2. Non-homologous isofunctional enzymes: a systematic analysis of alternative solutions in enzyme evolution.

    PubMed

    Omelchenko, Marina V; Galperin, Michael Y; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2010-04-30

    Evolutionarily unrelated proteins that catalyze the same biochemical reactions are often referred to as analogous - as opposed to homologous - enzymes. The existence of numerous alternative, non-homologous enzyme isoforms presents an interesting evolutionary problem; it also complicates genome-based reconstruction of the metabolic pathways in a variety of organisms. In 1998, a systematic search for analogous enzymes resulted in the identification of 105 Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers that included two or more proteins without detectable sequence similarity to each other, including 34 EC nodes where proteins were known (or predicted) to have distinct structural folds, indicating independent evolutionary origins. In the past 12 years, many putative non-homologous isofunctional enzymes were identified in newly sequenced genomes. In addition, efforts in structural genomics resulted in a vastly improved structural coverage of proteomes, providing for definitive assessment of (non)homologous relationships between proteins. We report the results of a comprehensive search for non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) that yielded 185 EC nodes with two or more experimentally characterized - or predicted - structurally unrelated proteins. Of these NISE sets, only 74 were from the original 1998 list. Structural assignments of the NISE show over-representation of proteins with the TIM barrel fold and the nucleotide-binding Rossmann fold. From the functional perspective, the set of NISE is enriched in hydrolases, particularly carbohydrate hydrolases, and in enzymes involved in defense against oxidative stress. These results indicate that at least some of the non-homologous isofunctional enzymes were recruited relatively recently from enzyme families that are active against related substrates and are sufficiently flexible to accommodate changes in substrate specificity.

  3. Non-homologous isofunctional enzymes: A systematic analysis of alternative solutions in enzyme evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolutionarily unrelated proteins that catalyze the same biochemical reactions are often referred to as analogous - as opposed to homologous - enzymes. The existence of numerous alternative, non-homologous enzyme isoforms presents an interesting evolutionary problem; it also complicates genome-based reconstruction of the metabolic pathways in a variety of organisms. In 1998, a systematic search for analogous enzymes resulted in the identification of 105 Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers that included two or more proteins without detectable sequence similarity to each other, including 34 EC nodes where proteins were known (or predicted) to have distinct structural folds, indicating independent evolutionary origins. In the past 12 years, many putative non-homologous isofunctional enzymes were identified in newly sequenced genomes. In addition, efforts in structural genomics resulted in a vastly improved structural coverage of proteomes, providing for definitive assessment of (non)homologous relationships between proteins. Results We report the results of a comprehensive search for non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) that yielded 185 EC nodes with two or more experimentally characterized - or predicted - structurally unrelated proteins. Of these NISE sets, only 74 were from the original 1998 list. Structural assignments of the NISE show over-representation of proteins with the TIM barrel fold and the nucleotide-binding Rossmann fold. From the functional perspective, the set of NISE is enriched in hydrolases, particularly carbohydrate hydrolases, and in enzymes involved in defense against oxidative stress. Conclusions These results indicate that at least some of the non-homologous isofunctional enzymes were recruited relatively recently from enzyme families that are active against related substrates and are sufficiently flexible to accommodate changes in substrate specificity. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Andrei Osterman, Keith F. Tipton

  4. Coreference analysis in clinical notes: a multi-pass sieve with alternate anaphora resolution modules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dingcheng; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wu, Stephen Tze-Inn; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the coreference resolution system submitted by Mayo Clinic for the 2011 i2b2/VA/Cincinnati shared task Track 1C. The goal of the task was to construct a system that links the markables corresponding to the same entity. Materials and methods The task organizers provided progress notes and discharge summaries that were annotated with the markables of treatment, problem, test, person, and pronoun. We used a multi-pass sieve algorithm that applies deterministic rules in the order of preciseness and simultaneously gathers information about the entities in the documents. Our system, MedCoref, also uses a state-of-the-art machine learning framework as an alternative to the final, rule-based pronoun resolution sieve. Results The best system that uses a multi-pass sieve has an overall score of 0.836 (average of B3, MUC, Blanc, and CEAF F score) for the training set and 0.843 for the test set. Discussion A supervised machine learning system that typically uses a single function to find coreferents cannot accommodate irregularities encountered in data especially given the insufficient number of examples. On the other hand, a completely deterministic system could lead to a decrease in recall (sensitivity) when the rules are not exhaustive. The sieve-based framework allows one to combine reliable machine learning components with rules designed by experts. Conclusion Using relatively simple rules, part-of-speech information, and semantic type properties, an effective coreference resolution system could be designed. The source code of the system described is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/ohnlp/files/MedCoref. PMID:22707745

  5. Identification and analysis of two splice variants of human G2A generated by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Ai; Obinata, Hideru; Hattori, Tomoyasu; Kishi, Mikiko; Tatei, Kazuaki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Izumi, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    G2A is a G protein-coupled receptor that can be induced by various stressors. G2A is reported to have proton-sensing activity that mediates intracellular inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation with decreasing pH. We previously showed that G2A is also activated by some oxidized free fatty acids such as 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE). In this study, we identified a novel alternative splice variant of G2A (G2A-b) that has a partially different N terminus compared with the G2A originally reported (G2A-a). The two splice variants of G2A show similar tissue distributions, but G2A-b is expressed more abundantly. There was no difference between the two variants in 9-HODE-induced cellular responses, such as intracellular calcium mobilization and GDP/GTP exchange of Galpha protein, and in proton-sensitive IP accumulation. However, G2A-b showed a higher basal activity in terms of IP accumulation. Mutagenesis study revealed that the difference in the basal activity is attributable to the K7 residue that exists only in G2A-a. We further demonstrated that an R42A mutation largely impaired both the basal and proton-sensing activities, but did not affect the 9-HODE-induced intracellular calcium increase. Taken together, we found an additional novel G2A variant (G2A-b) that is the major transcript with functional response to ligand stimulation as well as G2A-a, and succeeded in discriminating proton-sensing and oxidized fatty acid-sensing activities of G2A.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Menopause: A Qualitative Analysis of Women’s Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Jessica; Thom, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Background While almost half of women use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) during their menopause, almost no literature explores why women choose CAM for menopausal symptoms. Clinician–patient conversations about CAM can be unsatisfactory, and exploration of women’s choices may benefit communication. Objective The objective of this study was to describe women’s choices to use CAM for menopausal health issues. Design This is a qualitative study utilizing semi-structured interviews. Participants Convenience sample of 44 menopausal women ages 45 to 60 recruited in two primary care clinics. Both users and non-users of CAM were included. Approach Transcripts of semi-structured interviews were analyzed for themes that were refined through comparison of labeled text. Main results Four themes emerged in decisions to use CAM: (1) valuing CAM as “natural”, although the meaning of “natural” varied greatly, (2) perceiving menopause as marking a change in life stage, (3) seeking information about menopause generated from personal intuition and other women’s experiences, and (4) describing experiences before menopause of using CAM and allopathic medication in patterns similar to current use (patterned responses). Conclusion Women’s decisions about using CAM during menopause can be understood through their perspectives on menopause and overall health. Increased clinician awareness of these themes may promote supportive discussions about CAM during counseling for menopause. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0537-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18299942

  7. An environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative green roofing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, M.; William, R. K.; Goodwell, A. E.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Green roofs and cool roofs are alternative roofing strategies that mitigate urban heat island effects and improve building energy performance. Green roofs consist of soil and vegetation layers that provide runoff reduction, thermal insulation, and potential natural habitat, but can require regular maintenance. Cool roofs involve a reflective layer that reflects more sunlight than traditional roofing materials, but require additional insulation during winter months. This study evaluates several roofing strategies in terms of energy performance, urban heat island mitigation, water consumption, and economic cost. We use MLCan, a multi-layer canopy model, to simulate irrigated and non-irrigated green roof cases with shallow and deep soil depths during the spring and early summer of 2012, a drought period in central Illinois. Due to the dry conditions studied, periodic irrigation is implemented in the model to evaluate its effect on evapotranspiration. We simulate traditional and cool roof scenarios by altering surface albedo and omitting vegetation and soil layers. We find that both green roofs and cool roofs significantly reduce surface temperature compared to the traditional roof simulation. Cool roof temperatures always remain below air temperature and, similar to traditional roofs, require low maintenance. Green roofs remain close to air temperature and also provide thermal insulation, runoff reduction, and carbon uptake, but might require irrigation during dry periods. Due to the longer lifetime of a green roof compared to cool and traditional roofs, we find that green roofs realize the highest long term cost savings under simulated conditions. However, using longer-life traditional roof materials (which have a higher upfront cost) can help decrease this price differential, making cool roofs the most affordable option due to the higher maintenance costs associated with green roofs

  8. Comparative analysis indicates that alternative splicing in plants has a limited role in functional expansion of the proteome.

    PubMed

    Severing, Edouard I; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Stiekema, Willem J; van Ham, Roeland C H J

    2009-04-09

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread phenomenon in higher eukaryotes but the extent to which it leads to functional protein isoforms and to proteome expansion at large is still a matter of debate. In contrast to animal species, for which AS has been studied extensively at the protein and functional level, protein-centered studies of AS in plant species are scarce. Here we investigate the functional impact of AS in dicot and monocot plant species using a comparative approach. Detailed comparison of AS events in alternative spliced orthologs from the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana and the monocot Oryza sativa (rice) revealed that the vast majority of AS events in both species do not result from functional conservation. Transcript isoforms that are putative targets for the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway are as likely to contain conserved AS events as isoforms that are translated into proteins. Similar results were obtained when the same comparison was performed between the two more closely related monocot species rice and Zea mays (maize).Genome-wide computational analysis of functional protein domains encoded in alternatively and constitutively spliced genes revealed that only the RNA recognition motif (RRM) is overrepresented in alternatively spliced genes in all species analyzed. In contrast, three domain types were overrepresented in constitutively spliced genes. AS events were found to be less frequent within than outside predicted protein domains and no domain type was found to be enriched with AS introns. Analysis of AS events that result in the removal of complete protein domains revealed that only a small number of domain types is spliced-out in all species analyzed. Finally, in a substantial fraction of cases where a domain is completely removed, this domain appeared to be a unit of a tandem repeat. The results from the ortholog comparisons suggest that the ability of a gene to produce more than one functional protein through AS does not persist

  9. Alternative Methods for Calculating Intercoder Reliability in Content Analysis: Kappa, Weighted Kappa and Agreement Charts Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Namjun

    If content analysis is to satisfy the requirement of objectivity, measures and procedures must be reliable. Reliability is usually measured by the proportion of agreement of all categories identically coded by different coders. For such data to be empirically meaningful, a high degree of inter-coder reliability must be demonstrated. Researchers in…

  10. Framework for Policy Analysis of Alternative Patterns of International Education Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Lawrence D.

    Strategies for dissemination of international education materials on an international level are discussed in this paper. The analysis focuses on dissemination frameworks applicable to member countries of the Pacific Circle Consortium. These countries are Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States. Section one of the report…

  11. Alternative Methods for Calculating Intercoder Reliability in Content Analysis: Kappa, Weighted Kappa and Agreement Charts Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Namjun

    If content analysis is to satisfy the requirement of objectivity, measures and procedures must be reliable. Reliability is usually measured by the proportion of agreement of all categories identically coded by different coders. For such data to be empirically meaningful, a high degree of inter-coder reliability must be demonstrated. Researchers in…

  12. The next $120,000: a case study to illustrate analysis of alternative farm investments in fixed assets.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, N R; Shoemaker, D; Jones, L R

    2000-05-01

    Dairy scientists specializing in the area of farm management are increasingly involved in analysis of farm investments in fixed assets. There have been instances where the wrong procedures were used to assess investments in fixed assets, leading to erroneous and possibly disastrous conclusions. A detailed case study of a dairy farm facing the decision of where best to invest an unexpected $120,000 windfall is used to illustrate the various facets of financial analysis. Indicators of profitability, liquidity, solvency, repayment capacity, and financial efficiency are explained and applied to the farm case to produce a detailed analysis of the current financial position of the firm. Long-range budgets of four alternate investment options and their impact on all financial indicators are presented. The four options are: 1) to pay down debt, 2) to purchase an additional 100 cows, 3) to install automatic milk yield recording in the parlor, and 4) to build new heifer facilities. All four investments are profitable. Therefore, an analysis limited to profitability indicators would conclude that any of the four options is a good investment. However, liquidity and financial efficiency issues showed that the option of purchasing 100 cows is far superior to the three others. We conclude that a complete and thorough financial analysis is required to evaluate the impact of long-run investments in fixed assets.

  13. Alternating current impedance spectroscopic analysis of biofunctionalized vertically-aligned silica nanospring surface for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timalsina, Yukta P.

    In this dissertation, a process of vertically-aligned (silica) nanosprings (VANS) based biosensor development is presented. Alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy has been used to analyze sensor response as a function of saline phosphate (SP) buffer and biological solutions. The sensor is a parallel plate capacitor consisting of two glass substrates coated with indium tin oxide (ITO), where the VANS [or randomly-aligned nanosprings (RANS)] grown on one substrate serve as the dielectric spacer layer. The response of a VANS device as a function of ionic concentration in SP buffer was examined and an equivalent circuit model was developed. The results demonstrated that VANS sensors exhibited greater sensitivity to the changes in SP concentration relative to the ITO sensors, which serve as controls. The biofunctionalized VANS surface via physisorption and the cross-linker method demonstrates the repeatability, specificity, and selectivity of the binding. The physisorption of biotinylated immunoglobulin G (B-IgG) onto the VANS surface simplifies the whole sensing procedure for the detection of glucose oxidase, since the avidin-conjugated glucose oxidase (Av-GOx) can directly be immobilized on the B-IgG. The cross linker method involves the covalent attachment of antibodies onto the functionalized VANS surface via imine bond. The experiments revealed that the VANS sensor response is solely the result of the interaction of target molecule i.e. mouse IgG with the probe layer, i.e. goat antimouse IgG (GalphaM IgG). It was determined that VANS-based sensors exhibit a greater magnitude of change between successive bio-layers relative to the controls above 100 Hz, which indicates that the addition of biomolecules inhibits the diffusion of ions and changes the effective dielectric response of the VANS via biomolecular polarization. The study of ionic transport in nanosprings suggested that conductance follows a scaling law. It was demonstrated that a VANS-based device

  14. The use of scenario analysis in local public health departments: alternative futures for strategic planning.

    PubMed Central

    Venable, J M; Ma, Q L; Ginter, P M; Duncan, W J

    1993-01-01

    Scenario analysis is a strategic planning technique used to describe and evaluate an organization's external environment. A methodology for conducting scenario analysis using the Jefferson County Department of Health and the national, State, and county issues confronting it is outlined. Key health care and organizational issues were identified using published sources, focus groups, questionnaires, and personal interviews. The most important of these issues were selected by asking health department managers to evaluate the issues according to their probability of occurrence and likely impact on the health department. The high-probability, high-impact issues formed the basis for developing scenario logics that constitute the story line holding the scenario together. The results were a set of plausible scenarios that aided in strategic planning, encouraged strategic thinking among managers, eliminated or reduced surprise about environmental changes, and improved managerial discussion and communication. PMID:8265754

  15. Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts. Volume 2. Part 1: Concept Analysis and Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Three different space shuttle systems have been defined and analyzed. The first is a stage-and-one-half system optimized to meet program requirements. The second is a two-stage, fully reusable system also designed to meet program requirements. The third is a convertible system which operates initially as a stage-and-one-half system and is subsequently converted to a two-stage, fully reusable system by reconfiguration of the orbiter vehicle and development of a booster vehicle. The design and performance of this third system must necessarily be compromised somewhat to facilitate the conversion. For each system, the applicable requirements, ground rules, and assumptions are defined. The characteristics of each system are listed and a detailed description and analysis of the system are presented. Finally, a cost analysis for the system is given.

  16. Spacelab cost reduction alternatives study. Volume 3: Crew training task analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The on-orbit phase of flight was analyzed to identify the functions that had to be performed to meet flight objectives. The functions identified were combined into a top-level functional flow diagram (3.0 On-Orbit Operations). Each function, in turn, was analyzed to determine the major activities necessary to perform the function. The activities and activity sequences were presented in second level functional flow diagrams. Each major activity was further analyzed to define the operator tasks that are performed to accomplish that activity. Training analysis worksheets were used to document the analysis of each function down to the task level and provide training requirements data for each task. For Vol. 1, see N76-24315.

  17. Rapid architecture alternative modeling (RAAM): A framework for capability-based analysis of system of systems architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobucci, Joseph V.

    The research objective for this manuscript is to develop a Rapid Architecture Alternative Modeling (RAAM) methodology to enable traceable Pre-Milestone A decision making during the conceptual phase of design of a system of systems. Rather than following current trends that place an emphasis on adding more analysis which tends to increase the complexity of the decision making problem, RAAM improves on current methods by reducing both runtime and model creation complexity. RAAM draws upon principles from computer science, system architecting, and domain specific languages to enable the automatic generation and evaluation of architecture alternatives. For example, both mission dependent and mission independent metrics are considered. Mission dependent metrics are determined by the performance of systems accomplishing a task, such as Probability of Success. In contrast, mission independent metrics, such as acquisition cost, are solely determined and influenced by the other systems in the portfolio. RAAM also leverages advances in parallel computing to significantly reduce runtime by defining executable models that are readily amendable to parallelization. This allows the use of cloud computing infrastructures such as Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud and the PASTEC cluster operated by the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Institute (GTRI). Also, the amount of data that can be generated when fully exploring the design space can quickly exceed the typical capacity of computational resources at the analyst's disposal. To counter this, specific algorithms and techniques are employed. Streaming algorithms and recursive architecture alternative evaluation algorithms are used that reduce computer memory requirements. Lastly, a domain specific language is created to provide a reduction in the computational time of executing the system of systems models. A domain specific language is a small, usually declarative language that offers expressive power focused on a particular

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine: the challenges of ethical justification. A philosophical analysis and evaluation of ethical reasons for the offer, use and promotion of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Marcel

    2007-09-01

    With the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) increasing in western societies, questions of the ethical justification of these alternative health care approaches and practices have to be addressed. In order to evaluate philosophical reasoning on this subject, it is of paramount importance to identify and analyse possible arguments for the ethical justification of CAM considering contemporary biomedical ethics as well as more fundamental philosophical aspects. Moreover, it is vital to provide adequate analytical instruments for this task, such as separating 'CAM as belief system' and 'CAM as practice'. Findings show that beneficence and non-maleficence are central issues for an ethical justification of CAM as practice, while freedom of thought and religion are central to CAM as belief system. Many justification strategies have limitations and qualifications that have to be taken into account. Singularly descriptive premises in an argument often prove to be more problematic than universal ethical principles. Thus, non-ethical issues related to a general philosophical underpinning--e.g. epistemology, semantics, and ontology--are highly relevant for determining a justification strategy, especially when strong metaphysical assumptions are involved. Even if some values are shared with traditional biomedicine, axiological differences have to be considered as well. Further research should be done about specific CAM positions. These could be combined with applied qualitative social research methods.

  19. Development of a Cost Estimation Process for Human Systems Integration Practitioners During the Analysis of Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Canadian Defense Technology Center (DTC) (2006); Brooks, Greenley , Dyck, Salwaycott, Scipione and Shaw (2008); and Liu (2009) provide guidance for...effective operations ( Greenley & Associates, 2008). However, these costs were not used in a total cost-benefit analysis because of their multi...December 6, 2010, from http://www.hfidtc.com/ Brooks, J., Greenley , M., Salwaycott, A., & Scipione, A. (2008). The development and validation of a

  20. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  2. The Battle of Little Round Top: An Analysis of Battle Alternatives Through Commercial Wargames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    previous research conducted by Jude Fernan on the training value of commercial warganles. His research looked at three games; however, two were too...The rocks on Little Round Top provided excellent cover for Vincent’s men. hey held off the initial assault. The Confederates backed off and tried...Brigade Series Rules." Supplement to Thunder at the Crossroads Wargame byTfe ame., 1988. 16. Fernan, Capt Jude C. Gettysburg: An Analysis of the Training

  3. Strategic Mobility Alternatives for the 1980s. Volume 2. Analysis and Conclusions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    Therefore, thi Air Force Airlift Enhancement Working Group was recon- vened during May and June 1975 to review the Rand research methods, provide...scale fatigue testing. A desirable first step is the formation of a new high-level review group to develop detailed test plans, evaluate new...Data Base of Army Units and Equipment, The Rand Corporation, R-1893-PR, September 1976. 2 The Air Force Studies and Analysis airlift group has

  4. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA); a viable alternative to agarose gel electrophoresis for mouse genotyping.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Nicole; Ali, Radiya G; Ahmed, Jehangir N; Arkell, Ruth M

    2012-01-01

    Most mouse genetics laboratories maintain mouse strains that require genotyping in order to identify the genetically modified animals. The plethora of mutagenesis strategies and publicly available mouse alleles means that any one laboratory may maintain alleles with random or targeted insertions of orthologous or unrelated sequences as well as random or targeted deletions and point mutants. Many experiments require that different strains be cross bred conferring the need to genotype progeny at more than one locus. In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products. This requires a large amount of researcher time. Additionally it is susceptible to contamination of future genotyping experiments because it requires that tubes containing PCR products be opened for analysis. Progress has been made with the genotyping of mouse point mutants because a range of new high-throughput techniques have been developed for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. Some of these techniques are suitable for genotyping point mutants but do not detect insertion or deletion alleles. Ideally, mouse genetics laboratories would use a single, high-throughput platform that enables closed-tube analysis to genotype the entire range of possible insertion and deletion alleles and point mutants. Here we show that High Resolution Melt Analysis meets these criteria, it is suitable for closed-tube genotyping of all allele types and current genotyping assays can be converted to this technology with little or no effort.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of an IL-18 homologue and its alternatively spliced form in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Bird, Steve; Truckle, Jonathan; Bols, Niels; Horne, Mike; Secombes, Chris

    2004-05-01

    A homologue of interleukin 18 has been identified from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The trout IL-18 gene spans 3.7 kb and consists of six exons and five introns, sharing the same gene organization with its human counterpart. The putative translated protein is 199 amino acids in length with no predicted signal peptide. Analysis of the multiple sequence alignment reveals a conserved ICE cut site, resulting in a mature peptide of 162 amino acids. The trout IL-18 shares 41-45% similarity with known IL-18 molecules and contains an IL-1 family signature motif. It is constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues including brain, gill, gut, heart, kidney, liver, muscle, skin and spleen. Transcription is not modulated by lipopolysaccharide, poly(I:C) or trout recombinant IL-1beta in primary head kidney leucocyte cultures and RTS-11 cells, a macrophage cell line. However, expression is downregulated by lipopolysaccharide and rIL-1beta in RTG-2 cells, a fibroblast-like cell line. An alternatively spliced form of IL-18 mRNA has also been found and translates into a 182 amino acid protein with a 17 amino acid deletion in the precursor region of the authentic form. This alternatively spliced form is also widely expressed although much lower than the authentic form. Interestingly, its expression is upregulated by lipopolysaccharide and poly(I:C), but is not affected by rIL-1beta in RTG-2 cells. The present study suggests that alternative splicing may play an important role in regulating IL-18 activities in rainbow trout.

  6. Alternative strategies: a better alternative.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations.

  7. Available sustainable alternatives replace endangered animal horn based on their proteomic analysis and bio-effect evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Fei; Huang, Qiong; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Shang, Erxin; Zhu, Dong; Wen, Hongmei; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    The use of endangered animal products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and other ethno-medicines is culturally widespread across many regions of Asia. In the present study, traditional efficacies of seven types of animal horn including antipyretic, sedative and procoagulant activities were evaluated. Shotgun proteomic analysis was performed on material from horns following separation into soluble and insoluble fractions. Over 200 proteins were identified in each sample using nano LC-MS/MS, and these were classified according to their molecular function and cellular component using principal component analysis (PCA). The results indicated that seven horns showed antipyretic, sedative and procoagulant effect. Proteomic analysis showed that YH and WBH were similar to RH in terms of protein profile, and GH was similar to SAH. In addition, YH and GH were similar to RH in their cellular component classification profile. PCA based on the composition of keratin and keratin-associated proteins showed that constituents of WBH and GH were similar to RH and SAH, respectively. This is the first analysis of the protein content of animal horns used in TCM, and it is effective to substitute the horn of endangered animals with sustainable alternatives from domestic animals. PMID:27786274

  8. EDXRF as an alternative method for multielement analysis of tropical soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Zahily Herrero; Dos Santos Júnior, José Araújo; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez; da Silva, Edvane Borges; De França, Elvis Joacir; Menezes, Rômulo Simões Cezar; de Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto; do Nascimento Santos, Josineide Marques

    2017-08-10

    The quality assessment of tropical soils and sediments is still under discussion, with efforts being made on the part of governmental agencies to establish reference values. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a potential analytical technique for quantifying diverse chemical elements in geological material without chemical treatment, primarily when it is performed at an appropriate metrological level. In this work, analytical curves were obtained by means of the analysis of geological reference materials (RMs), which allowed for the researchers to draw a comparison among the sources of analytical uncertainty. After having determined the quality assurance of the analytical procedure, the EDXRF method was applied to determine chemical elements in soils from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The regression coefficients of the analytical curves used to determine Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, Ti, and Zn were higher than 0.99. The quality of the analytical procedure was demonstrated at a 95% confidence level, in which the estimated analytical uncertainties agreed with those from the RM's certificates of analysis. The analysis of diverse geological samples from Pernambuco indicated higher concentrations of Ni and Zn in sugarcane, with maximum values of 41 mg kg(- 1) and 118 mg kg(- 1), respectively, and agricultural areas (41 mg kg(- 1) and 127 mg kg(- 1), respectively). The trace element Sr was mainly enriched in urban soils with values of 400 mg kg(- 1). According to the results, the EDXRF method was successfully implemented, providing some chemical tracers for the quality assessment of tropical soils and sediments.

  9. Analysis of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for Light Trucks and Increased Alternative Fuel Use

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    Sen. Frank Murkowski, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested an analysis of selected portions of Senate Bill 1766 (S. 1766, the Energy Policy Act of 2002), House Resolution 4 (the Securing America's Future Energy Act of 2001) and Senate Bill 517 (S. 517, the Energy Policy Act of 2002). In response, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has prepared a series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

  10. Analysis of microstrip lines with alternative implementation of conductors and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, K.-S.; Lee, H.-Y.; Itoh, T.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1990-09-01

    An analysis of microstrip line structures in which either the strip or the ground plane or both are made of a high Tc superconductor is presented. The effect of implementation of a superconductor to the strip and the ground plane is explained with the calculation of a conductor loss of the structure by the Phenomenological Loss Equivalence Method (PEM). The theoretical values are compared with the experimental results from a ring resonator which is made of a gold ground plane and a high Tc superconductor, YBa2Cu3O(7-x), strip.

  11. Analysis of microstrip lines with alternative implementation of conductors and superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, K.-S.; Lee, H.-Y.; Itoh, T.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of microstrip line structures in which either the strip or the ground plane or both are made of a high Tc superconductor is presented. The effect of implementation of a superconductor to the strip and the ground plane is explained with the calculation of a conductor loss of the structure by the Phenomenological Loss Equivalence Method (PEM). The theoretical values are compared with the experimental results from a ring resonator which is made of a gold ground plane and a high Tc superconductor, YBa2Cu3O(7-x), strip.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen and chemical heat pipes were proposed as methods of transporting energy from a primary energy source (nuclear, solar) to the user. In the chemical heat pipe system, primary energy is transformed into the energy of a reversible chemical reaction; the chemical species are then transmitted or stored until the energy is required. Analysis of thermochemical hydrogen schemes and chemical heat pipe systems on a second law efficiency or available work basis show that hydrogen is superior especially if the end use of the chemical heat pipe is electrical power.

  13. Image quality assessment in digital mammography: part II. NPWE as a validated alternative for contrast detail analysis.

    PubMed

    Monnin, P; Marshall, N W; Bosmans, H; Bochud, F O; Verdun, F R

    2011-07-21

    Assessment of image quality for digital x-ray mammography systems used in European screening programs relies mainly on contrast-detail CDMAM phantom scoring and requires the acquisition and analysis of many images in order to reduce variability in threshold detectability. Part II of this study proposes an alternative method based on the detectability index (d') calculated for a non-prewhitened model observer with an eye filter (NPWE). The detectability index was calculated from the normalized noise power spectrum and image contrast, both measured from an image of a 5 cm poly(methyl methacrylate) phantom containing a 0.2 mm thick aluminium square, and the pre-sampling modulation transfer function. This was performed as a function of air kerma at the detector for 11 different digital mammography systems. These calculated d' values were compared against threshold gold thickness (T) results measured with the CDMAM test object and against derived theoretical relationships. A simple relationship was found between T and d', as a function of detector air kerma; a linear relationship was found between d' and contrast-to-noise ratio. The values of threshold thickness used to specify acceptable performance in the European Guidelines for 0.10 and 0.25 mm diameter discs were equivalent to threshold calculated detectability indices of 1.05 and 6.30, respectively. The NPWE method is a validated alternative to CDMAM scoring for use in the image quality specification, quality control and optimization of digital x-ray systems for screening mammography.

  14. The enduring effects of psychodynamic treatments vis-a-vis alternative treatments: A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivlighan, D. Martin, III

    Although evidence suggests that the benefits of psychodynamic treatments are sustained over time, presently it is unclear whether these sustained benefits are superior to non-psychodynamic treatments. Additionally, the extant literature comparing the sustained benefits of psychodynamic treatments compared to alternative treatments is limited with methodological shortcomings. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a rigorous test of the growth of the benefits of psychodynamic treatments relative to alternative treatments across distinct domains of change (i.e., all outcome measures, targeted outcome measures, non-targeted outcome measures, and personality outcome measures). To do so, the study employed strict inclusion criteria to identify randomized clinical trials that directly compared at least one bona fide psychodynamic treatment and one bona fide non-psychodynamic treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling (Raudenbush, Bryk, Cheong & Congdon, du Toit, 2011) was used to longitudinally model the impact of psychodynamic treatments compared to non-psychodynamic treatments at post-treatment and to compare the growth (i.e., slope) of effects beyond treatment completion. Findings from the present meta-analysis indicated that psychodynamic treatments and non-psychodynamic treatments were equally efficacious at post-treatment and at follow-up for combined outcomes ( k = 20), targeted outcomes (k =19), non-targeted outcomes (k =17), and personality outcomes (k =6). Clinical implications, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed.

  15. Comparative efficacy and safety of chloroquine and alternative antimalarial drugs: a meta-analysis from six African countries.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, T; Makonnen, E

    1999-06-01

    A meta-analysis study evaluating the efficacy and safety of chloroquine and alternative antimalarial drugs used in six African countries including Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Cote D'Ivoire, Gambia and Nigeria is presented. Findings from the six countries showed a higher efficacy of amodiaquine and quinine (over 90%) in malaria treatment compared to chloroquine, which was found to be 70% or more effective. The efficacy of amodiaquine can also be compared to other antimalarial drugs such as mefloquine and halofantrine. Data showed that fever clearance time of these drugs was less than 2 days, but parasite clearance time ranged from 2.5 days to 1 week. Recrudescence rate also varied among the different drugs. This is a very important indicator in determining which drug can be used for prophylactic or suppressive treatment of malaria. Pharmacokinetic profile demonstrates that all these drugs have similar therapeutic effects, but differ in their adverse reactions, contraindications, and half-life. A significant difference was also noted in the cost of these antimalarial drugs; chloroquine was the cheapest, while halofantrine was the most expensive among the drugs. Based on these results, the study recommends that different aspects of antimalarial drugs have to be considered before deciding which drug is the best alternative treatment.

  16. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits.

  17. Integrated analysis of differential expression and alternative splicing of non-small cell lung cancer based on RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zulei; Zhao, Kai; Tian, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Numerous diagnosis and treatment methods have been proposed, and the prognosis of NSCLC has improved to a certain extent. However, the mechanisms of NSCLC remain largely unknown, and additional studies are required. In the present study, the RNA sequencing dataset of NSCLC was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). The clean reads obtained from the raw data were mapped to the University of California Santa Cruz human genome (hg19), based on TopHat, and were assembled into transcripts via Cufflink. The differential expression (DE) and differential alternative splicing (DAS) genes were screened out through Cuffdiff and rMATS, respectively. The significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were obtained through the Database of Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Different numbers of DE and DAS genes were identified in different types of NSCLC samples, but a number of common functions and pathways were obtained, including biological processes associated with abnormal immune and cell activity. GO terms and pathways associated with substance metabolism, including the insulin signaling pathway and oxidative phosphorylation, were enriched in DAS genes rather than DE genes. Integrated analysis of differential expression and alternative splicing may be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of NSCLC, in addition to its early diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality in India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Sue J; Sweet, Steve; Carvalho, Natalie; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Hu, Delphine

    2010-04-20

    Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy (both planned and unintended) and pregnancy- and childbirth-associated complications in individual women; and considers delivery location, attendant, and facility level. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to urban and rural India using survey-based data (e.g., unmet need for birth spacing/limiting, facility births, skilled birth attendants). Model validation compared projected maternal indicators with empiric data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions that could be provided individually or packaged as integrated services, could reduce the incidence of a complication or its case fatality rate, and could include improved logistics such as reliable transport to an appropriate referral facility as well as recognition of referral need and quality of care. Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality. If over the next 5 y the unmet need for spacing and limiting births was met, more than 150,000 maternal deaths would be prevented; more than US$1 billion saved; and at least one of every two abortion-related deaths averted. Still, reductions in maternal mortality reached a threshold ( approximately 23%-35%) without including strategies that ensured reliable access to intrapartum and emergency obstetrical care (EmOC). An integrated and stepwise approach was identified that would ultimately prevent four of five

  19. Alternative Strategies to Reduce Maternal Mortality in India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldie, Sue J.; Sweet, Steve; Carvalho, Natalie; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Hu, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. Methods and Findings Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy (both planned and unintended) and pregnancy- and childbirth-associated complications in individual women; and considers delivery location, attendant, and facility level. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to urban and rural India using survey-based data (e.g., unmet need for birth spacing/limiting, facility births, skilled birth attendants). Model validation compared projected maternal indicators with empiric data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions that could be provided individually or packaged as integrated services, could reduce the incidence of a complication or its case fatality rate, and could include improved logistics such as reliable transport to an appropriate referral facility as well as recognition of referral need and quality of care. Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality. If over the next 5 y the unmet need for spacing and limiting births was met, more than 150,000 maternal deaths would be prevented; more than US$1 billion saved; and at least one of every two abortion-related deaths averted. Still, reductions in maternal mortality reached a threshold (∼23%–35%) without including strategies that ensured reliable access to intrapartum and emergency obstetrical care (EmOC). An integrated and stepwise approach was identified that would ultimately

  20. An analysis of alternative technologies for the removal of ethylene from the CELSS biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of technologies were analyzed for their potential to remove ethylene from the CELSS Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). During crop production (e.g., lettuce, wheat, soybean, potato) in the BPC ethylene can accumulate in the airspace and subsequently affect plant viability. The chief source of ethylene is the plants themselves which reside in plastic trays containing nutrient solution. The main sink for ethylene is chamber leakage. The removal technology can be employed when deleterious levels (e.g., 50 ppb for potato) of ethylene are exceeded in the BPC and perhaps to optimize the plant growth process once a better understanding is developed of the relationship between exogenous ethylene concentration and plant growth. The technologies examined were catalytic oxidation, molecular sieve, cryotrapping, permanganate absorption, and UV degradation. Upon analysis, permanganate was chosen as the most suitable method. Experimental data for ethylene removal by permanganate during potato production was analyzed in order to design a system for installation in the BPC air duct. In addition, an analysis of the impact on ethylene concentration in the BPC of integrating the Breadboard Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (BSAB) with the BPC was performed. The result indicates that this unit has no significant effect on the ethylene material balance as a source or sink.

  1. Development of an alternative eluent system for Ag+-HPLC analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Müller, André; Düsterloh, Kaja; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Steinhart, Hans

    2006-02-01

    In this study, 13 different eluent systems containing n-hexane, n-heptane and iso-octane as main solvents and ACN, propionitrile (PCN) and butyronitrile (BCN) in concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2% as modifiers were tested for their influence on retention time shifts (RTS) and resolution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) methyl esters using two ChromSpher 5 Lipids columns (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) in series. The eluent system n-hexane/PCN 0.2% showed the highest stability with an obtained RTS of 0.26 min for the cis/trans-group after 14 consecutive injections of a CLA isomer mix compared to the reference system of n-hexane/ACN 0.15% (RTS of 2.35 min). This enhanced stability is due to better solubility of PCN in n-hexane compared to ACN. The enhanced stability coincided with a negligible loss in resolution for the cis,trans/trans,cis- and the cis,cis-groups. As shown for the analysis of human aortic endothelial cells spiked with t10c12-CLA, data from CLA-analysis by Ag+-HPLC-DAD must be judged very carefully, especially at low concentrations, as coeluting matrix compounds may give false-positive results. Therefore, results should be confirmed by GC-FID and GC-MS.

  2. Space-based power conversion and power relay systems: Preliminary analysis of alternate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of nine months of technical study of non-photovoltaic options for the generation of electricity for terrestrial use by satellite power stations (SPS). A concept for the augmentation of ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors was also studied. Three SPS types having a solar energy source and two which used nuclear reactors were investigated. Data derived for each included: (1) configuration definition, including mass statement; (2) information for use in environmental impact assessment; (3) energy balance (ratio of energy produced to that required to achieve operation), and (4) development and other cost estimates. Cost estimates were dependent upon the total program (development, placement and operation of a number of satellites) which was postulated. This postulation was based upon an analysis of national power capacity trends and guidelines received from MSFC.

  3. An Empirical Evaluation of Alternative Methods of Estimation for Confirmatory Factor Analysis With Ordinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Flora, David B.; Curran, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is widely used for examining hypothesized relations among ordinal variables (e.g., Likert-type items). A theoretically appropriate method fits the CFA model to polychoric correlations using either weighted least squares (WLS) or robust WLS. Importantly, this approach assumes that a continuous, normal latent process determines each observed variable. The extent to which violations of this assumption undermine CFA estimation is not well-known. In this article, the authors empirically study this issue using a computer simulation study. The results suggest that estimation of polychoric correlations is robust to modest violations of underlying normality. Further, WLS performed adequately only at the largest sample size but led to substantial estimation difficulties with smaller samples. Finally, robust WLS performed well across all conditions. PMID:15598100

  4. The microcomputer workstation - An alternate hardware architecture for remotely sensed image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. K.; Hofman, L. B.; Donovan, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Difficulties regarding the digital image analysis of remotely sensed imagery can arise in connection with the extensive calculations required. In the past, an expensive large to medium mainframe computer system was needed for performing these calculations. For image-processing applications smaller minicomputer-based systems are now used by many organizations. The costs for such systems are still in the range from $100K to $300K. Recently, as a result of new developments, the use of low-cost microcomputers for image processing and display systems appeared to have become feasible. These developments are related to the advent of the 16-bit microprocessor and the concept of the microcomputer workstation. Earlier 8-bit microcomputer-based image processing systems are briefly examined, and a computer workstation architecture is discussed. Attention is given to a microcomputer workstation developed by Stanford University, and the design and implementation of a workstation network.

  5. Employment relations, social class and health: a review and analysis of conceptual and measurement alternatives.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan; Kim, Il Ho; Ng, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    Employment relations, as a theoretical framework for social class, represent a complementary approach to social stratification. Employment relations introduce social relations of ownership and control over productive assets to the analysis of inequalities in economic (e.g., income), power (occupational hierarchy), and cultural (e.g., education) resources. The objectives of this paper are to briefly clarify the theoretical background on socio-economic indicators used in social epidemiology and to conduct a review of empirical studies that adopt relational social class indicators in the socio-epidemiological literature. Measures of employment relations in social determinants of health research can be classified within two major conceptual frameworks: 1) "Neo-Weberian", like the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) which is widely used in the United Kingdom; and 2) "Neo-Marxian", like Erik O. Wright's social class indicators, which are being used by social epidemiologists in the Americas and Europe. Our review of empirical findings (49 articles found) reveals that the relation between employment relations and health does not necessarily imply a graded relationship. For example, small employers can exhibit worse health than highly skilled workers, and supervisors can display worse health than frontline workers. The policy implications of employment relations research are therefore different, and complement those of income or education health gradient studies. While the latter studies tend to emphasize income redistribution policy options, employment relations implicate other factors such as workplace democracy and social protection. Our analysis confirms that the current transformation of employment relations calls for new social class concepts and measures to explain social inequalities in health and to generate policies to reduce them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An alternative pseudolikelihood method for multivariate random-effects meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Hong, Chuan; Riley, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multivariate random-effects meta-analysis models have received a great deal of attention, despite its greater complexity compared to univariate meta-analyses. One of its advantages is its ability to account for the within-study and between-study correlations. However, the standard inference procedures, such as the maximum likelihood or maximum restricted likelihood inference, require the within-study correlations, which are usually unavailable. In addition, the standard inference procedures suffer from the problem of singular estimated covariance matrix. In this paper, we propose a pseudolikelihood method to overcome the aforementioned problems. The pseudolikelihood method does not require within-study correlations and is not prone to singular covariance matrix problem. In addition, it can properly estimate the covariance between pooled estimates for different outcomes, which enables valid inference on functions of pooled estimates, and can be applied to meta-analysis where some studies have outcomes missing completely at random. Simulation studies show that the pseudolikelihood method provides unbiased estimates for functions of pooled estimates, well-estimated standard errors, and confidence intervals with good coverage probability. Furthermore, the pseudolikelihood method is found to maintain high relative efficiency compared to that of the standard inferences with known within-study correlations. We illustrate the proposed method through three meta-analyses for comparison of prostate cancer treatment, for the association between paraoxonase 1 activities and coronary heart disease, and for the association between homocysteine level and coronary heart disease. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25363629

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.

    1992-06-25

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

  8. Direct-current arc and alternating-current spark emission spectrographic field methods for the semiquantitative analysis of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, D.J.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1968-01-01

    Two spectrographic methods are used in mobile field laboratories of the U. S. Geological Survey. In the direct-current arc method, the ground sample is mixed with graphite powder, packed into an electrode crater, and burned to completion. Thirty elements are determined. In the spark method, the sample, ground to pass a 150-mesh screen, is digested in hydrofluoric acid followed by evaporation to dryness and dissolution in aqua regia. The solution is fed into the spark gap by means of a rotating-disk electrode arrangement and is excited with an alternating-current spark discharge. Fourteen elements are determined. In both techniques, light is recorded on Spectrum Analysis No. 1, 35-millimeter film, and the spectra are compared visually with those of standard films.

  9. Understanding alternative fluxes/effluxes through comparative metabolic pathway analysis of phylum actinobacteria using a simplified approach.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mansi; Lal, Devi; Saxena, Anjali; Anand, Shailly; Kaur, Jasvinder; Kaur, Jaspreet; Lal, Rup

    2013-12-01

    Actinobacteria are known for their diverse metabolism and physiology. Some are dreadful human pathogens whereas some constitute the natural flora for human gut. Therefore, the understanding of metabolic pathways is a key feature for targeting the pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the symbiotic ones. A big challenge faced today is multiple drug resistance by Mycobacterium and other pathogens that utilize alternative fluxes/effluxes. With the availability of genome sequence, it is now feasible to conduct the comparative in silico analysis. Here we present a simplified approach to compare metabolic pathways so that the species specific enzyme may be traced and engineered for future therapeutics. The analyses of four key carbohydrate metabolic pathways, i.e., glycolysis, pyruvate metabolism, tri carboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway suggest the presence of alternative fluxes. It was found that the upper pathway of glycolysis was highly variable in the actinobacterial genomes whereas lower glycolytic pathway was highly conserved. Likewise, pentose phosphate pathway was well conserved in contradiction to TCA cycle, which was found to be incomplete in majority of actinobacteria. The clustering based on presence and absence of genes of these metabolic pathways clearly revealed that members of different genera shared identical pathways and, therefore, provided an easy method to identify the metabolic similarities/differences between pathogenic and symbiotic organisms. The analyses could identify isoenzymes and some key enzymes that were found to be missing in some pathogenic actinobacteria. The present work defines a simple approach to explore the effluxes in four metabolic pathways within the phylum actinobacteria. The analysis clearly reflects that actinobacteria exhibit diverse routes for metabolizing substrates. The pathway comparison can help in finding the enzymes that can be used as drug targets for pathogens without effecting symbiotic organisms

  10. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing landscapes modulated during plant-virus interactions in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Mandadi, Kranthi K; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, alternative splicing (AS) promotes transcriptome and proteome diversity. The extent of genome-wide AS changes occurring during a plant-microbe interaction is largely unknown. Here, using high-throughput, paired-end RNA sequencing, we generated an isoform-level spliceome map of Brachypodium distachyon infected with Panicum mosaic virus and its satellite virus. Overall, we detected ∼44,443 transcripts in B. distachyon, ∼30% more than those annotated in the reference genome. Expression of ∼28,900 transcripts was ≥2 fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped fragments, and ∼42% of multi-exonic genes were alternatively spliced. Comparative analysis of AS patterns in B. distachyon, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Arabidopsis thaliana, potato (Solanum tuberosum), Medicago truncatula, and poplar (Populus trichocarpa) revealed conserved ratios of the AS types between monocots and dicots. Virus infection quantitatively altered AS events in Brachypodium with little effect on the AS ratios. We discovered AS events for >100 immune-related genes encoding receptor-like kinases, NB-LRR resistance proteins, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and splicing-associated proteins. Cloning and molecular characterization of SCL33, a serine/arginine-rich splicing factor, identified multiple novel intron-retaining splice variants that are developmentally regulated and modulated during virus infection. B. distachyon SCL33 splicing patterns are also strikingly conserved compared with a distant Arabidopsis SCL33 ortholog. This analysis provides new insights into AS landscapes conserved among monocots and dicots and uncovered AS events in plant defense-related genes.

  11. Alternatives to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; France, J; Agnew, R E; Yan, T; Dhanoa, M S; Dijkstra, J; Beever, D E; Reynolds, C K

    2003-09-01

    The current energy requirements system used in the United Kingdom for lactating dairy cows utilizes key parameters such as metabolizable energy intake (MEI) at maintenance (MEm), the efficiency of utilization of MEI for 1) maintenance, 2) milk production (kl), 3) growth (kg), and the efficiency of utilization of body stores for milk production (kt). Traditionally, these have been determined using linear regression methods to analyze energy balance data from calorimetry experiments. Many studies have highlighted a number of concerns over current energy feeding systems particularly in relation to these key parameters, and the linear models used for analyzing. Therefore, a database containing 652 dairy cow observations was assembled from calorimetry studies in the United Kingdom. Five functions for analyzing energy balance data were considered: straight line, two diminishing returns functions, (the Mitscherlich and the rectangular hyperbola), and two sigmoidal functions (the logistic and the Gompertz). Meta-analysis of the data was conducted to estimate kg and kt. Values of 0.83 to 0.86 and 0.66 to 0.69 were obtained for kg and kt using all the functions (with standard errors of 0.028 and 0.027), respectively, which were considerably different from previous reports of 0.60 to 0.75 for kg and 0.82 to 0.84 for kt. Using the estimated values of kg and kt, the data were corrected to allow for body tissue changes. Based on the definition of kl as the derivative of the ratio of milk energy derived from MEI to MEI directed towards milk production, MEm and kl were determined. Meta-analysis of the pooled data showed that the average kl ranged from 0.50 to 0.58 and MEm ranged between 0.34 and 0.64 MJ/kg of BW0.75 per day. Although the constrained Mitscherlich fitted the data as good as the straight line, more observations at high energy intakes (above 2.4 MJ/kg of BW0.75 per day) are required to determine conclusively whether milk energy is related to MEI linearly or not.

  12. The social construction of communication climate: An analysis of at-risk students in alternative high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Tasha Jean

    1998-12-01

    Alternative high schools affect more potential high school dropouts than any other school or program and are designed to meet the needs of students who have had difficulty in conventional schools. This study examines the communication climate and constructions of caring in an alternative school for at-risk students by using a qualitative analysis grounded in the theoretical perspective of social constructionism. Observations and interviews were conducted over a six month time period. The first two chapters provide a review of literature and a detailed account of the methods used to conduct the study. Chapter Three describes the socially constructed nature of the school and the participants and the dialectical tensions of communication climate revealed from the analysis. The six dialectical tensions of communication climate are: (1) freedom/restraint, (2) disengagement/engagement, (3) personal communication/impersonal communication, (4) disconfirmation/confirmation, (5) equality/inequality, and (6) ambiguity/clarity. Although the school climate is comprised of each of these tensions, the data suggest that the interaction within the majority of classes created some common characteristics of the general communication climate at the school and can be characterized as one of freedom, disengagement, personal communication, disconfirmation, equality, and ambiguity. Chapter Four describes how caring was constructed and communicated. Although some students perceived some teachers as caring about students and about student learning, half of the students interviewed thought they were not learning or not learning much. Finally, Chapter Five provides a summary of the findings and a discussion of the results. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the social construction of communication climate and caring in general, and within an alternative school for at-risk students, in specific. The results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the

  13. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  14. Alternative definitions of the frozen energy in energy decomposition analysis of density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Horn, Paul R; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-02-28

    In energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of intermolecular interactions calculated via density functional theory, the initial supersystem wavefunction defines the so-called "frozen energy" including contributions such as permanent electrostatics, steric repulsions, and dispersion. This work explores the consequences of the choices that must be made to define the frozen energy. The critical choice is whether the energy should be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed density. Numerical results for Ne2, (H2O)2, BH3-NH3, and ethane dissociation show that there can be a large energy lowering associated with constant density orbital relaxation. By far the most important contribution is constant density inter-fragment relaxation, corresponding to charge transfer (CT). This is unwanted in an EDA that attempts to separate CT effects, but it may be useful in other contexts such as force field development. An algorithm is presented for minimizing single determinant energies at constant density both with and without CT by employing a penalty function that approximately enforces the density constraint.

  15. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  16. Quantification, 2DE analysis and identification of enriched glycosylated proteins from mouse muscles: Difficulties and alternatives.

    PubMed

    de Fátima MenegociEugênio, Patrícia; Assunção, Nilson Antonio; Sciandra, Francesca; Aquino, Adriano; Brancaccio, Andrea; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    One of the problems with 2DE is that proteins present in low amounts in a sample are usually not detected, since their signals are masked by the predominant proteins. The elimination of these abundant proteins is not a guaranteed solution to achieve the desired results. The main objective of this study was the comparison of common and simple methodologies employed for 2DE analysis followed by MS identification, focusing on a pre-purified sample using a wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) column. Adult male C57Black/Crj6 (C57BL/6) mice were chosen as the model animal in this study; the gastrocnemius muscles were collected and processed for the experiments. The initial fractionation with succinylated WGA was successful for the elimination of the most abundant proteins. Two quantification methods were employed for the purified samples, and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) was proven to be most reliable for the quantification of glycoproteins. The gel staining method, however, was found to be decisive for the detection of specific proteins, since their structures affect the interaction of the dye with the peptide backbone. The Coomassie Blue R-250 dye very weakly stained the gel with the WGA purified sample. When the same gel was stained with silver nitrate, however, MS could positively assign 12 new spots. The structure of the referred proteins was not found to be prone to interaction with Coomassie blue.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the production concept and efficiency of two new energy transmission and storage media intended to overcome the disadvantages of electricity as an overall energy carrier. These media are hydrogen produced by water-splitting and the chemical heat pipe. Hydrogen can be transported or stored, and burned as energy is needed, forming only water and thus obviating pollution problems. The chemical heat pipe envisions a system in which heat is stored as the heat of reaction in chemical species. The thermodynamic analysis of these two methods is discussed in terms of first-law and second-law efficiency. It is concluded that chemical heat pipes offer large advantages over thermochemical hydrogen generation schemes on a first-law efficiency basis except for the degradation of thermal energy in temperature thus providing a source of low-temperature (800 K) heat for process heat applications. On a second-law efficiency basis, hydrogen schemes are superior in that the amount of available work is greater as compared to chemical heat pipes.

  18. Effects of augmentative and alternative communication on challenging behavior: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Virginia L; Snell, Martha E

    2013-06-01

    The purposes of this review were to (a) use meta-analytic procedures to examine the effectiveness of single-case AAC intervention research on challenging behaviors exhibited by individuals with disabilities, (b) identify study characteristics that moderate intervention effects, and (c) evaluate the quality of research. The authors provided inferential and descriptive analyses of 54 studies representing 111 participants and estimated effect sizes using the Nonoverlap of All Pairs (NAP) method. Overall, AAC interventions were found to be equally effective across a broad spectrum of participants and interventions. AAC interventions were more effective with younger children than with adults. Interventions in which functional behavior assessments (FBA) were used had significantly larger effect sizes than those that did not use FBAs. Further, functional communication training interventions resulted in larger effect sizes than Picture Exchange Communication System interventions. Descriptive analysis revealed that (a) interventions often occurred in atypical environments (e.g., therapy room, experimental room) and with atypical interventionists (e.g., therapists, researchers), and (b) numerous studies did not exhibit quality characteristics of single-case research.

  19. Alternative definitions of the frozen energy in energy decomposition analysis of density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Paul R.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of intermolecular interactions calculated via density functional theory, the initial supersystem wavefunction defines the so-called "frozen energy" including contributions such as permanent electrostatics, steric repulsions, and dispersion. This work explores the consequences of the choices that must be made to define the frozen energy. The critical choice is whether the energy should be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed density. Numerical results for Ne2, (H2O)2, BH3-NH3, and ethane dissociation show that there can be a large energy lowering associated with constant density orbital relaxation. By far the most important contribution is constant density inter-fragment relaxation, corresponding to charge transfer (CT). This is unwanted in an EDA that attempts to separate CT effects, but it may be useful in other contexts such as force field development. An algorithm is presented for minimizing single determinant energies at constant density both with and without CT by employing a penalty function that approximately enforces the density constraint.

  20. A nitromethane-based HPLC system alternative to acetonitrile for carotenoid analysis of fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Acetonitrile-based HPLC systems are the most commonly used for carotenoid analysis from different plant tissues. Because of the acetonitrile shortage, an HPLC system for the separation of carotenoids on C(18) reversed-phase columns was developed in which an acetonitrile-alcohol-based mobile phase was replaced by nitromethane. This solvent comes closest to acetonitrile with respect to its elutrophic property. Our criterion was to obtain similar separation and retention times for a range of differently structured carotenoids. This was achieved by further increase in the lipophilicity with ethylacetate. For all the carotenoids which we tested, we found co-elution only of β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. By addition of 1% of water, separation of this pair of carotenoids was also achieved. The final recommended mobile phase consisted of nitromethane : 2-propanol : ethyl acetate : water (79 : 10 : 10 : 1, by volume). On Nucleosil C(18) columns and related ones like Hypersil C(18), we obtained separation of carotenes, hydroxyl, epoxy and keto derivatives, which resembles the excellent separation properties of acetonitrile-based mobile phases on C(18) reversed phase columns. We successfully applied the newly developed HPLC system to the separation of carotenoids from different vegetables and fruit.

  1. Screening analysis for chlorine-free alternative refrigerants to replace R-22 in air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.K.; Sand, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The potential health and environmental effects of the depletion of stratospheric ozone from refrigerants containing chlorine have resulted in international treaties, laws, and non-binding agreements to phase-out and eliminate many common refrigerants. R-22 is one of these compounds. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of twenty-two chlorine-free compounds in refrigerant mixtures of up to three components as substitutes for R-22. The selection or screening of blends was based on vapor compression cycle COP at the 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C) cooling condition, the volumetric cooling capacity of the blend, evaporator and condenser temperature glides, and the estimated'' flammability of the blend. Promising results were obtained for nine ternary blends containing E-125 and eleven ternary blends that exclude E-125. Recommendations are made to obtain further experimental data on E-125 since the mixtures with the best performance contain that compound. Results from this study will be used in an in-depth follow-on analysis.

  2. Screening analysis for chlorine-free alternative refrigerants to replace R-22 in air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.K.; Sand, J.R.

    1993-06-01

    The potential health and environmental effects of the depletion of stratospheric ozone from refrigerants containing chlorine have resulted in international treaties, laws, and non-binding agreements to phase-out and eliminate many common refrigerants. R-22 is one of these compounds. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of twenty-two chlorine-free compounds in refrigerant mixtures of up to three components as substitutes for R-22. The selection or screening of blends was based on vapor compression cycle COP at the 95{degrees}F (35{degrees}C) cooling condition, the volumetric cooling capacity of the blend, evaporator and condenser temperature glides, and the ``estimated`` flammability of the blend. Promising results were obtained for nine ternary blends containing E-125 and eleven ternary blends that exclude E-125. Recommendations are made to obtain further experimental data on E-125 since the mixtures with the best performance contain that compound. Results from this study will be used in an in-depth follow-on analysis.

  3. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  4. Digital model as an alternative to plaster model in assessment of space analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Anand; Phillip, Abraham; Kumar, Sathesh; Rawat, Anuradha; Priya, Sakthi; Kumaran, V

    2015-08-01

    Digital three-dimensional models are widely used for orthodontic diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to appraise the accuracy of digital models obtained from computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for tooth-width measurements and the Bolton analysis. Digital models (CAD/CAM, CBCT) and plaster model were made for each of 50 subjects. Tooth-width measurements on the digital models (CAD/CAM, CBCT) were compared with those on the corresponding plaster models. The anterior and overall Bolton ratios were calculated for each participant and for each method. The paired t-test was applied to determine the validity. Tooth-width measurements, anterior, and overall Bolton ratio of digital models of CAD/CAM and CBCT did not differ significantly from those on the plaster models. Hence, both CBCT and CAD/CAM are trustable and promising technique that can replace plaster models due to its overwhelming advantages.

  5. Digital model as an alternative to plaster model in assessment of space analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. Anand; Phillip, Abraham; Kumar, Sathesh; Rawat, Anuradha; Priya, Sakthi; Kumaran, V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Digital three-dimensional models are widely used for orthodontic diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to appraise the accuracy of digital models obtained from computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for tooth-width measurements and the Bolton analysis. Materials and Methods: Digital models (CAD/CAM, CBCT) and plaster model were made for each of 50 subjects. Tooth-width measurements on the digital models (CAD/CAM, CBCT) were compared with those on the corresponding plaster models. The anterior and overall Bolton ratios were calculated for each participant and for each method. The paired t-test was applied to determine the validity. Results: Tooth-width measurements, anterior, and overall Bolton ratio of digital models of CAD/CAM and CBCT did not differ significantly from those on the plaster models. Conclusion: Hence, both CBCT and CAD/CAM are trustable and promising technique that can replace plaster models due to its overwhelming advantages. PMID:26538899

  6. The use of alternative forms of graphical analysis to balance bias and precision in PET images

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Fowler, Joanna S

    2011-01-01

    Graphical analysis (GA) is an efficient method for estimating total tissue distribution volume (VT) from positron emission tomography (PET) uptake data. The original GA produces a negative bias in VT in the presence of noise. Estimates of VT using other GA forms have less bias but less precision. Here, we show how the bias terms are related between the GA methods and how using an instrumental variable (IV) can also reduce bias. Results are based on simulations of a two-compartment model with VT's ranging from 10.5 to 64 mL/cm3 and from PET image data with the tracer [11C]DASB ([11C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl) benzonitrile). Four estimates of VT (or distribution volume ratio (DVR) using a reference tissue) can be easily computed from different formulations of GA including the IV. As noise affects the estimates from all four differently, they generally do not provide the same estimates. By taking the median value of the four estimates, we can decrease the bias and reduce the effect of large values contributing to noisy images. The variance of the four estimates can serve as a guide to the reliability of the median estimate. This may provide a general method for the generation of parametric images with little bias and good precision. PMID:20808318

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the production concept and efficiency of two new energy transmission and storage media intended to overcome the disadvantages of electricity as an overall energy carrier. These media are hydrogen produced by water-splitting and the chemical heat pipe. Hydrogen can be transported or stored, and burned as energy is needed, forming only water and thus obviating pollution problems. The chemical heat pipe envisions a system in which heat is stored as the heat of reaction in chemical species. The thermodynamic analysis of these two methods is discussed in terms of first-law and second-law efficiency. It is concluded that chemical heat pipes offer large advantages over thermochemical hydrogen generation schemes on a first-law efficiency basis except for the degradation of thermal energy in temperature thus providing a source of low-temperature (800 K) heat for process heat applications. On a second-law efficiency basis, hydrogen schemes are superior in that the amount of available work is greater as compared to chemical heat pipes.

  8. Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, T.H.; Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D. )

    1994-09-01

    The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development during sensitive early life history stages. As the use of lipophilic organochlorines, such as DDT, in third world countries continues and with the purported global cycling and food chain accumulation of persistent organochlorines, the occurrence of these compounds in aquatic organisms is a critical global environmental issue. An understanding of the fate of organochlorines in the environmental clearly remains an extremely important subject related to water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently gained congressional approval in the United States to track nation wide trends in water quality through the establishment of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Among the goals defined by NAWQA, aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and plants, collected from major drainage basins will be analyzed for, along with other contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine insecticides, and chlorobenzenes. The purpose of this report is to present quality assurance data obtained from the development of a PCB, chlorobenzene, and organochlorine insecticide tissue analysis method in support of NAWQA and other large-scale water quality programs conducted through our laboratory. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. The use of alternative forms of graphical analysis to balance bias and precision in PET images.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Fowler, Joanna S

    2011-02-01

    Graphical analysis (GA) is an efficient method for estimating total tissue distribution volume (V(T)) from positron emission tomography (PET) uptake data. The original GA produces a negative bias in V(T) in the presence of noise. Estimates of V(T) using other GA forms have less bias but less precision. Here, we show how the bias terms are related between the GA methods and how using an instrumental variable (IV) can also reduce bias. Results are based on simulations of a two-compartment model with V(T)'s ranging from 10.5 to 64 mL/cm(3) and from PET image data with the tracer [(11)C]DASB ([(11)C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl) benzonitrile). Four estimates of V(T) (or distribution volume ratio (DVR) using a reference tissue) can be easily computed from different formulations of GA including the IV. As noise affects the estimates from all four differently, they generally do not provide the same estimates. By taking the median value of the four estimates, we can decrease the bias and reduce the effect of large values contributing to noisy images. The variance of the four estimates can serve as a guide to the reliability of the median estimate. This may provide a general method for the generation of parametric images with little bias and good precision.

  10. A single-cell pedigree analysis of alternative stochastic lymphocyte fates

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, E. D.; Markham, J. F.; McGuinness, L. P.; Hodgkin, P. D.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to most stimulated lymphocytes, B cells exposed to Toll-like receptor 9 ligands are nonself-adherent, allowing individual cells and families to be followed in vitro for up to 5 days. These B cells undergo phases typical of an adaptive response, dividing up to 6 times before losing the impetus for further growth and division and eventually dying by apoptosis. Using long-term microscopic imaging, accurate histories of individual lymphocyte fates were collected. Quantitative analysis of family relationships revealed that times to divide of siblings were strongly related but these correlations were progressively lost through consecutive divisions. A weaker, but significant, correlation was also found for death times among siblings. Division cessation is characterized by a loss of cell growth and the division in which this occurs is strongly inherited from the original founder cell and is related to the size this cell reaches before its first division. Thus, simple division-based dilution of factors synthesized during the first division may control the maximum division reached by stimulated cells. The stochastic distributions of times to divide, times to die, and divisions reached are also measured. Together, these results highlight the internal cellular mechanisms that control immune responses and provide a foundation for the development of new mathematical models that are correct at both single-cell and population levels. PMID:19633185

  11. Refinement of Stereo Image Analysis Using Photometric Shape Recovery as AN Alternative to Bundle Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumpe, A.; Schröer, C.; Kauffmann, S.; Fricke, T.; Wöhler, C.; Mall, U.

    2016-06-01

    Topographic mapping, e.g. the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEM), is of general interest to the remote sensing community and scientific research. Commonly, photogrammetric methods, e.g. stereo image analysis methods (SIAM) or bundle adjustment methods (BAM), are applied to derive 3D information based on multiple images of an area. These methods require the detection of control points, i.e. common points within multiple images, which relies on a similarity measure and usually yields a sparse map of 3D points. The full spatial DEM is then obtained by interpolation techniques or imposed restrictions, e.g. smoothness constraints. Since BAM utilizes all images of the area, it is assumed to provide a more accurate DEM than SIAM which utilizes only pairs of images. Intensity-based shape recovery, e.g. shape from shading (SfS), utilizes the reflectance behavior of the object surface and thus provides a dense map of relative height changes, which provide the possibility to refine the photogrammetric DEMs. Based on Rosetta NavCam images of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko we compare intensity-based DEM refinement methods which use DEMs obtained based on SIAM and BAM as a reference. We show that both the SIAM based DEM refinement and the BAM based DEM refinement are of similar quality. It is thus possible to derive DEMs of high lateral resolution by applying the intensity-based refinement to the less complex SIAM.

  12. Analysis of Potential Alternatives to Reduce NASA's Cost of Human Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyze NASA's potential options for significantly reducing the cost of human access to space. The opinions expressed in this report are based on Hawthorne, Krauss & Associates' ("HKA") interaction with NASA and several of its key contractors over the past nine months. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive quantitative analysis of the various options available to NASA. Instead, its purpose is to outline key decision-related issues that the agency should consider prior to making a decision as to which option to pursue. This report attempts to bring a private-sector perspective to bear on the issue of reducing the cost of human access to space. HKA believes that the key to the NASA's success in reducing those costs over the long-term is the involvement of the private-sector incentives and disciplines--which is achieved only through the assumption of risk by the private sector, not through a traditional contractor relationship--is essential to achieve significant long-term cost reductions.

  13. Alternate method for the analysis of residual strain in the arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Hayashi, K

    1996-01-01

    If an artery is cut transversely into rings, and the rings are then cut radially, they spring open into sectors. This phenomenon implies the existence of residual stresses and strains in the arterial wall in the non-loaded state. In the present paper, we propose a new method to calculate the residual strain from the measured wall dimensions and a polar angle of a specimen in the stress-free state, assuming that the wall is homogeneous and incompressible, and that a radially cut, stress-free specimen forms a circular sector. For this analysis, edge angles were measured at the edges of the opened-up specimen. Residual strains were obtained for the descending thoracic aorta, the common carotid artery, and the femoral artery in the rabbit. The results obtained indicated that the magnitude of residual strain was largest in the femoral artery and smallest in the aorta among the three arteries. The opening angle did not depend upon the length of a ring specimen if the ratio of the length to diameter was < or = 3.

  14. EDIN design study alternate space shuttle booster replacement concepts. Volume 1: Engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demakes, P. T.; Hirsch, G. N.; Stewart, W. A.; Glatt, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of a recoverable liquid rocket booster (LRB) system to replace the existing solid rocket booster (SRB) system for the shuttle was studied. Historical weight estimating relationships were developed for the LRB using Saturn technology and modified as required. Mission performance was computed using February 1975 shuttle configuration groundrules to allow reasonable comparison of the existing shuttle with the study designs. The launch trajectory was constrained to pass through both the RTLS/AOA and main engine cut off points of the shuttle reference mission 1. Performance analysis is based on a point design trajectory model which optimizes initial tilt rate and exoatmospheric pitch profile. A gravity turn was employed during the boost phase in place of the shuttle angle of attack profile. Engine throttling add/or shutdown was used to constrain dynamic pressure and/or longitudinal acceleration where necessary. Four basic configurations were investigated: a parallel burn vehicle with an F-1 engine powered LRB; a parallel burn vehicle with a high pressure engine powered LRB; a series burn vehicle with a high pressure engine powered LRB. The relative sizes of the LRB and the ET are optimized to minimize GLOW in most cases.

  15. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  16. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: A comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E.; Saad, Ziad S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, RobertW.

    2014-01-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variance–covariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within- subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT)with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (Greenhouse–Geisser and Huynh–Feldt) with MVT-WS. PMID:24954281

  17. Alternative Careers for Graduates of LIS Schools: The North American Perspective--An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weech, Terry L.; Konieczny, Alison M.

    2007-01-01

    Schools of Library and Information Science (LIS) have often promoted alternative careers as a marketing tool and some students enrol in LIS schools specifically to explore alternative careers. The literature on LIS career patterns continues to suggest that those non-traditional careers are desirable and viable alternatives. Yet the survey research…

  18. Emissions tradeoffs among alternative marine fuels: total fuel cycle analysis of residual oil, marine gas oil, and marine diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2008-04-01

    Worldwide concerns about sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions from ships are motivating the replacement of marine residual oil (RO) with cleaner, lower-sulfur fuels, such as marine gas oil (MGO) and marine diesel oil (MDO). Vessel operators can use MGO and MDO directly or blended with RO to achieve environmental and economic objectives. Although expected to be much cleaner in terms of criteria pollutants, these fuels require additional energy in the upstream stages of the fuel cycle (i.e., fuel processing and refining), and thus raise questions about the net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions (primarily carbon dioxide [CO2]) because of production and use. This paper applies the Total Energy and Environmental Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model to conduct a total fuel cycle analysis of RO, MGO, MDO, and associated blends for a typical container ship. MGO and MDO blends achieve significant (70-85%) SOx emissions reductions compared with RO across a range of fuel quality and refining efficiency assumptions. We estimate CO2 increases of less than 1% using best estimates of fuel quality and refinery efficiency parameters and demonstrate how these results vary based on parameter assumptions. Our analysis suggests that product refining efficiency influences the CO2 tradeoff more than differences in the physical and energy parameters of the alternative fuels, suggesting that modest increases in CO2 could be offset by efficiency improvements at some refineries. Our results help resolve conflicting estimates of greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with fuel switching and other emissions control policies.

  19. Flux balance analysis reveals acetate metabolism modulates cyclic electron flow and alternative glycolytic pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Stephen P.; Paget, Caroline M.; Johnson, Giles N.; Schwartz, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultured in the presence of acetate perform mixotrophic growth, involving both photosynthesis and organic carbon assimilation. Under such conditions, cells exhibit a reduced capacity for photosynthesis but a higher growth rate, compared to phototrophic cultures. Better understanding of the down regulation of photosynthesis would enable more efficient conversion of carbon into valuable products like biofuels. In this study, Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Flux Variability Analysis (FVA) have been used with a genome scale model of C. reinhardtii to examine changes in intracellular flux distribution in order to explain their changing physiology. Additionally, a reaction essentiality analysis was performed to identify which reaction subsets are essential for a given growth condition. Our results suggest that exogenous acetate feeds into a modified tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which bypasses the CO2 evolution steps, explaining increases in biomass, consistent with experimental data. In addition, reactions of the oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolysis pathways, inactive under phototrophic conditions, show substantial flux under mixotrophic conditions. Importantly, acetate addition leads to an increased flux through cyclic electron flow (CEF), but results in a repression of CO2 fixation via Rubisco, explaining the down regulation of photosynthesis. However, although CEF enhances growth on acetate, it is not essential—impairment of CEF results in alternative metabolic pathways being increased. We have demonstrated how the reactions of photosynthesis interconnect with carbon metabolism on a global scale, and how systems approaches play a viable tool in understanding complex relationships at the scale of the organism. PMID:26175742

  20. Flux balance analysis reveals acetate metabolism modulates cyclic electron flow and alternative glycolytic pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Stephen P; Paget, Caroline M; Johnson, Giles N; Schwartz, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultured in the presence of acetate perform mixotrophic growth, involving both photosynthesis and organic carbon assimilation. Under such conditions, cells exhibit a reduced capacity for photosynthesis but a higher growth rate, compared to phototrophic cultures. Better understanding of the down regulation of photosynthesis would enable more efficient conversion of carbon into valuable products like biofuels. In this study, Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Flux Variability Analysis (FVA) have been used with a genome scale model of C. reinhardtii to examine changes in intracellular flux distribution in order to explain their changing physiology. Additionally, a reaction essentiality analysis was performed to identify which reaction subsets are essential for a given growth condition. Our results suggest that exogenous acetate feeds into a modified tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which bypasses the CO2 evolution steps, explaining increases in biomass, consistent with experimental data. In addition, reactions of the oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolysis pathways, inactive under phototrophic conditions, show substantial flux under mixotrophic conditions. Importantly, acetate addition leads to an increased flux through cyclic electron flow (CEF), but results in a repression of CO2 fixation via Rubisco, explaining the down regulation of photosynthesis. However, although CEF enhances growth on acetate, it is not essential-impairment of CEF results in alternative metabolic pathways being increased. We have demonstrated how the reactions of photosynthesis interconnect with carbon metabolism on a global scale, and how systems approaches play a viable tool in understanding complex relationships at the scale of the organism.