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Sample records for alters secondary active

  1. Plant secondary metabolism in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lindsey K; Levine, Lanfang H; Musgrave, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Plans by the space program to use plants for food supply and environmental regeneration have led to an examination of how plants grow in microgravity. Because secondary metabolic compounds are so important in determining the nutritional and flavor characteristics of plants-as well as making plants more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses-their responses to altered gravity are now being studied. These experiments are technically challenging because temperature, humidity, atmospheric composition, light, and water status must be maintained around the plant while simultaneously altering the g-load, either in the free-fall of orbital spacecraft or on a centrifuge rotor. In general, plants have shown increased accumulation of small secondary metabolites in microgravity (<10(-3) g), while these have decreased in hypergravity (>1-g). Gravity-related changes in the plant environment as well as mechanical loading effects account for these responses.

  2. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  3. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  4. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    mice and mice transfused with Syk inhibitor-treated platelets . Platelet lodging was remarkably decreased in lungs of mice transfused with Syk...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet ...30September2012–29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  5. Alteration of Tephra Conductivity Resulting From Secondary Pyroclast Disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genareau, K. D.; Farley, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to influencing the electrical conductivity of volcanic ash, leachates bound to ash grain surfaces may pose significant hazards to water quality through the contribution of sulfates, fluoride, metals, and acidic compounds to local water supplies by either direct ash fallout or incorporation into precipitation runoff. In regions of active volcanism, remobilization of pyroclastic units may be a regular occurrence due to landslides or lahars, but the resultant effects of secondary disaggregation of pyroclasts have not been examined. Laboratory analyses of tephras from several eruptive centers have revealed variations in the pH, conductivity, and total dissolved solid (TDS) concentration of water-soluble compounds as a result of pyroclast disaggregation. Analyses were conducted using the standardized protocols for ash leachate analysis. TDS, conductivity, and pH were then measured and the tephra samples were allowed to air dry before being retested using identical methods. When pyroclast disaggregation was not performed, results show a progressive decrease in water conductivity, acidity, and TDS concentration following each stage of sonication. However, when an additional step of clast disaggregation (through crushing and grinding of samples) preceded the sonication step, water samples showed increases in measured properties. Mass spectroscopic analyses of water samples are in progress and results will be presented. These results indicate that secondary comminution of pyroclastic deposits will release water-soluble components from the pyroclast interior that may result in a renewed series of environmental hazards many years after the initial eruptive event. Break up of pyroclasts during transport in landslides or lahars (or even during cleanup efforts) will not only alter the size distribution of the deposit, but will also release metals, sulfates, and fluoride from the tephra interiors, altering the chemical and electrical properties of the tephra. This

  6. Short Term, Low Dose Simvastatin Pretreatment Alters Memory Immune Function Following Secondary Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Smelser, Lisa K; Walker, Callum; Burns, Erin M; Curry, Michael; Black, Nathanael; Metzler, Jennifer A; McDowell, Susan A; Bruns, Heather A

    Statins are potent modulators of immune responses, resulting in their ability to enhance host survival from primary bacterial infections. Alterations in primary immune responses that may be beneficial for survival following infection may also result in alterations in the generation of the immunologic memory response and subsequently affect immune responses mounted during secondary bacterial infection. In this study, we report that levels of total serum IgG2c, following primary infection, were decreased in simvastatin pretreated mice, and investigate the effect of simvastatin treatment, prior to primary infection, on immune responses activated during secondary S. aureus infection. A secondary infection model was implemented whereby simvastatin pretreated and control mice were reinfected with S. aureus 14 days after primary infection, with no additional simvastatin treatment, and assessed for survival and alterations in immune function. While survivability to secondary S. aureus infection was not different between simvastatin pretreated and control mice, memory B and T lymphocyte functions were altered. Memory B cells, isolated 14 days after secondary infection, from simvastatin pretreated mice and stimulated ex vivo produced increased levels of IgG1 compared to memory B cells isolated from control mice, while levels of IgM and IgG2c remained similar. Furthermore, memory B and T lymphocytes from simvastatin pretreated mice exhibited a decreased proliferative response when stimulated ex vivo compared to memory cells isolated from control mice. These findings demonstrate the ability of a short term, low dose simvastatin treatment to modulate memory immune function.

  7. Consequential secondary structure alterations and aggregation during prolonged casein glycation.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Supriya; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2013-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) of casein is a process used not just to ameliorate the quality of dairy products but also to increase the shelf life of canned foods, including baby milk supplements. Incubation of κ-casein with reducing sugars for 15 days at physiological temperature showed the formation of a molten globule state at day 9 and 12 during fructation and glucation respectively. This state exhibits substantial secondary structure and maximum ANS binding. Later on, glycation resulted in the formation of aggregates at day 12 in presence of fructose and day 15 in presence of glucose. Aggregates possess extensive β-sheet structure as revealed by far-UV CD and FTIR. These aggregates showed altered tryptophan environment, decrease ANS binding relative to molten globule state and increase in Thioflavin T fluorescence. Aggregates were also accompanied by the accumulation of AGEs, indicative of structural damage to the protein and formation of potentially harmful species at the physiological level. Fructose was more reactive than glucose and thus caused early and significant changes in the protein. From our studies, we conclude that controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction in the food industry is essential to counter its negative effects and expand its safety spectrum.

  8. Acid sulfate alteration of fluorapatite, basaltic glass and olivine by hydrothermal vapors and fluids: Implications for fumarolic activity and secondary phosphate phases in sulfate-rich Paso Robles soil at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate-rich rocks and a nearby phosphate-rich soil, Paso Robles, were analyzed in Gusev Crater, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and interpreted to be highly altered, possibly by hydrothermal or fumarolic alteration of primary, phosphate-rich material. To test mineral phases resulting from such alteration, we performed hydrothermal acid-vapor and acid-fluid experiments on olivine (Ol), fluorapatite (Ap), and basaltic glass (Gl) as single phases and a mixture of phases. Minerals formed include Ca-, Al-, Fe- and Mg-sulfates with different hydration states (anhydrite, bassanite, gypsum; alunogen; hexahydrite, and pentahydrite). Phosphate-bearing minerals formed included monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCP) (acid-vapor and acid-fluid alteration of fluorapatite only) and ferrian giniite (acid-fluid alteration of the Ol + Gl + Ap mixture). MCP is likely present in Paso Robles if primary Ca-phosphate minerals reacted with sulfuric acid with little transport of phosphate. Under fluid:rock ratios allowing transport of phosphate, a ferric phosphate phase such as ferrian giniite might form instead. Mössbauer measurements of ferrian giniite-bearing alteration products and synthetic ferrian giniite are consistent with Spirit's Mössbauer measurements of the ferric-bearing phase in Paso Robes soil, but are also consistent with ferric sulfate phases in the low-P soil Arad_Samra. Therefore, Mössbauer data alone do not constrain the fluid:rock ratio. However, the excess iron (hematite) in Paso Robles soil, which implies aqueous transport, combined with our laboratory experiments, suggest acid-sulfate alteration in a hydrothermal (fumarolic) environment at fluid:rock ratios sufficient to allow dissolution, transport, and precipitation of secondary chemical components including a ferric phosphate such as ferrian giniite.

  9. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  10. Bisphosphonates do not alter the rate of secondary mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs R. K.; Miller L.; Faillace M.E.; Allen M.R.; Phipps R.J. and Burr D.B.

    2011-05-18

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), ALN (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n = 12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur

  11. Bisphosphonates do not Alter the Rate of Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    R Fuchs; M Faillace; M Allen; R Phipps; L Miller; D Burr

    2011-12-31

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), ALN (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n=12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period

  12. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and…

  13. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and…

  14. Mount St. Helens Classroom Activities: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Educational Service District 112, Vancouver.

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide secondary teachers with an assortment of classroom activities dealing with the Mt. St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, in the areas of science, social studies, math, language arts and school newspaper activities. Copy masters and teacher versions of all activities are contained within this guide,…

  15. Cocurricular Activity Programs in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Ronald E.; Buser, Robert L.

    This booklet provides a history of the role played by extracurricular activities in American secondary education, summarizing their objectives, principles, and problems, and classifying their types. The student-activity concept is traced through four stages of historical development in the United States. Noting that the objectives of cocurricular…

  16. Instructional Activities Series. Elementary and Secondary Sections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    Twenty teacher-developed elementary and secondary instructional activities on geography-related topics are available in a single activity, loose-leaf format as an on-going series. Simulations, role playing, mapping, group discussion, experiential learning, and field excursions are some of the instructional approaches. Materials include case…

  17. Instructional Activities Series. Elementary and Secondary Sections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    Twenty teacher-developed elementary and secondary instructional activities on geography-related topics are available in a single activity, loose-leaf format as an on-going series. Simulations, role playing, mapping, group discussion, experiential learning, and field excursions are some of the instructional approaches. Materials include case…

  18. [Incidents of cutaneous alteration secondary to external electrical cardioversion].

    PubMed

    Alconero Camarero, Ana Rosa; Casaus Pérez, María; Gutiérrez Caloca, Nieves

    2006-01-01

    External electrical cardioversion is a technique basically used as treatment of choice in supraventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation standing out for its frequency. This procedure consists in the application of one or several synchronized electrical discharges through the patient's chest to revert cardiac rhythm to sinus rhythm. One of the complications is generally the appearance of the skin alterations, pain or intense local heat. The objectives of this study were to describe the skin lesions that appeared after an external electrical cardioversion procedure and to evaluate the information received by the patients on discharge. A descriptive study was conducted, using a sample of 68 patients who underwent cardioversion between January 1 and December 30 1, 2004. Mean age was 62.71 years, of which 76.5% were males diagnosed of atrial fibrillation in 82.4% of the cases. Erythema appeared in more than 80% of the cases, with the mean duration of 4.76 days. A total of 13.2% developed second-degree burn. Although 92.5% considered written information on the care after the procedure necessary, less than 11% had received it. It is concluded that the prevalence of the skin alterations after cardioversion is elevated, one of the causal factors being lack of information. There is a significant deficiency of knowledge on skin care after the procedure.

  19. Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of marine actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    Marine actinobacteria are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinobacteria from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, for many important antibiotics, anticancer, antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. However, frequent rediscovery of the same compounds from the terrestrial actinobacteria has made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinobacteria isolated from the marine environment have currently received considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. They are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, cytotoxic, cytostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anti-malaria, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, etc. In this review, an evaluation is made on the current status of research on marine actinobacteria yielding pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Bioactive compounds from marine actinobacteria possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogens. With the increasing advancement in science and technology, there would be a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by actinobacteria from various marine sources in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi.

    PubMed

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2016-11-01

    Many Fungi have a well-developed secondary metabolism. The diversity of fungal species and the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters underscores a nearly limitless potential for metabolic variation and an untapped resource for drug discovery and synthetic biology. Much of the ecological success of the filamentous fungi in colonizing the planet is owed to their ability to deploy their secondary metabolites in concert with their penetrative and absorptive mode of life. Fungal secondary metabolites exhibit biological activities that have been developed into life-saving medicines and agrochemicals. Toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins, contaminate human and livestock food and indoor environments. Secondary metabolites are determinants of fungal diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Secondary metabolites exhibit a staggering variation in chemical structures and biological activities, yet their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. The genes encoding cooperative steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located contiguously on the chromosome in coregulated gene clusters. Advances in genome sequencing, computational tools, and analytical chemistry are enabling the rapid connection of gene clusters with their metabolic products. At least three fungal drug precursors, penicillin K and V, mycophenolic acid, and pleuromutilin, have been produced by synthetic reconstruction and expression of respective gene clusters in heterologous hosts. This review summarizes general aspects of fungal secondary metabolism and recent developments in our understanding of how and why fungi make secondary metabolites, how these molecules are produced, and how their biosynthetic genes are distributed across the Fungi. The breadth of fungal secondary metabolite diversity is highlighted by recent information on the biosynthesis of important fungus-derived metabolites that have contributed to human health and agriculture and that have negatively impacted crops

  1. Hydrothermal Alteration in the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry, OPD Leg 193

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackschewitz, K. S.; Kummetz, M.; Kummetz, M.; Ackermand, D.; Botz, R.; Devey, C. W.; Singer, A.; Stoffers, P.

    2001-12-01

    Leg 193 of the Ocean Drilling Program investigated the subsurface nature of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field in the Manus backarc basin near Papua New Guinea. Drilling in different areas on the felsic neovolcanic Pual Ridge, including the high-temperature black smoker complex of Roman Ruins and the low-temperature Snowcap site with diffusive discharge yielded a complex alteration history with a regional primary alteration being overprinted by a secondary mineralogy. The intense hydrothermal alteration at both sites shows significant differences in the secondary mineralogy. At Roman Ruins, the upper 25 m of hydrothermally altered rocks are characterized by a rapid change from secondary cristobalite to quartz, implying a high temperature gradient. From 10 to 120 mbsf the clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and chlorite. The chlorite formation temperature calculated from oxygen isotope data lies at 250° C in 116 mbsf which is similar to the present fluid outflow temperatures of 240-250° C (Douville et al., 1999, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 627-643). Drilling in the Snowcap field recovered evidence for several stages of hydrothermal alteration. Between 50 and 150 mbsf, cristobalite and chlorite are the most abundant alteration minerals while hydrothermal pyrophyllite becomes abundant in some places At 67 mbsf, the isotopic composition of pyrophyllite gives a temperature for ist formation at 260° C whereas at 77 and 116 mbsf the pyrophyllite displays the highest temperatures of formation (>300° C). These temperatures are close to the maximum measured borehole temperatures of 313° C. The appearance of assemblages of chlorite, chlorite-vermiculite, chlorite-vermiculite-smectite and illite-smectite as well as the local development of corrensite below 150 mbsf suggests that the alteration at Snowcap may be more complex than that beneath Roman Ruins. Detailed geochemical studies of the authigenic clay mineral phases will provide further insights into the

  2. Alterations of brain activity in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Sawaddiruk, Passakorn; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients.

  3. Secondary Social Studies Curriculum, Activities, and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, James L.

    Tested in secondary schools and college classrooms, these social studies activities illustrate an integrated social studies curriculum as advocated by "The Social Studies Curriculum Guidelines" of the National Council for the Social Studies. There are four major chapters dealing with (1) civics and U.S. government, (2) global and international…

  4. Alterations in lipid signaling underlie lipodystrophy secondary to AGPAT2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Subauste, Angela R; Das, Arun K; Li, Xiangquan; Elliott, Brandon G; Elliot, Brandon; Evans, Charles; El Azzouny, Mahmoud; Treutelaar, Mary; Oral, Elif; Leff, Todd; Burant, Charles F

    2012-11-01

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), secondary to AGPAT2 mutation is characterized by the absence of adipocytes and development of severe insulin resistance. In the current study, we investigated the adipogenic defect associated with AGPAT2 mutations. Adipogenesis was studied in muscle-derived multipotent cells (MDMCs) isolated from vastus lateralis biopsies obtained from controls and subjects harboring AGPAT2 mutations and in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes after knockdown or overexpression of AGPAT2. We demonstrate an adipogenic defect using MDMCs from control and CGL human subjects with mutated AGPAT2. This defect was rescued in CGL MDMCs with a retrovirus expressing AGPAT2. Both CGL-derived MDMCs and 3T3-L1 cells with knockdown of AGPAT2 demonstrated an increase in cell death after induction of adipogenesis. Lack of AGPAT2 activity reduces Akt activation, and overexpression of constitutively active Akt can partially restore lipogenesis. AGPAT2 modulated the levels of phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol species, as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) inhibitor cyclic phosphatidic acid. The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone partially rescued the adipogenic defect in CGL cells. We conclude that AGPAT2 regulates adipogenesis through the modulation of the lipome, altering normal activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and PPARγ pathways in the early stages of adipogenesis.

  5. Secondary structure alterations in insulin and growth hormone water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Lene; Vermehren, Charlotte; Bjerregaard, Simon; Froekjaer, Sven

    2003-03-18

    Water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions have shown a promising release profile of small drug molecules and proteins. However, the major concerns are the structural stability, the retention of the activity and to avoid unwanted immunological reactions caused by the changes in protein structure. In the present study, the secondary structure of insulin and growth hormone is investigated after manufacture of w/o emulsions, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Initial investigations indicate an altered distribution in the secondary structure elements, e.g. alpha-helix and beta-sheet, measured by area overlap calculations. The changes are more pronounced for growth hormone than for insulin. The overlapping area is 0.93 +/- 0.01 for the emulsion containing insulin manufactured at 0 degrees C and homogenised for 3 min, the corresponding value for growth hormone is 0.83 +/- 0.01. The droplet size changes from 0.27 +/- 0.04 microm in the blank w/o emulsion to 0.79 +/- 0.13 and 0.66 +/- 0.21 microm when insulin or growth hormone is incorporated into the w/o emulsions, respectively. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Genomic copy number alterations of primary and secondary metastasizing pleomorphic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Gondak, Rogério de Oliveira; Martins, Antonio Santos; Coletta, Ricardo Della; Paes de Almeida, Oslei; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Krepischi, Ana Cristina Victorino; Altemani, Albina

    2015-09-01

    Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (MPA) is a rare tumour, and its mechanism of metastasis still is unknown. To date, there has been no study on MPA genomics. We analysed primary and secondary MPAs with array comparative genomic hybridization to identify somatic copy number alterations and affected genes. Tumour DNA samples from primary (parotid salivary gland) and secondary (scalp skin) MPAs were subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization investigation, and the data were analysed with NEXUS COPY NUMBER DISCOVERY. The primary MPA showed copy number losses affecting 3p22.2p14.3 and 19p13.3p123, and a complex pattern of four different deletions at chromosome 6. The 3p deletion encompassed several genes: CTNNB1, SETD2, BAP1, and PBRM1, among others. The secondary MPA showed a genomic profile similar to that of the primary MPA, with acquisition of additional copy number changes affecting 9p24.3p13.1 (loss), 19q11q13.43 (gain), and 22q11.1q13.33 (gain). Our findings indicated a clonal origin of the secondary MPA, as both tumours shared a common profile of genomic copy number alterations. Furthermore, we were able to detect in the primary tumour a specific pattern of copy number alterations that could explain the metastasizing characteristic, whereas the secondary MPA showed a more unbalanced genome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  8. Growth under elevated air temperature alters secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y H; Jia, X; Wang, W K; Liu, T; Huang, S P; Yang, M Y

    2016-09-15

    Plant secondary metabolites play a pivotal role in growth regulation, antioxidant activity, pigment development, and other processes. As the global climate changes, increasing atmospheric temperatures and contamination of soil by heavy metals co-occur in natural ecosystems, which alters the pH of rhizosphere soil and influences the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Elevated temperatures in combination with heavy metals are expected to affect plant secondary metabolites, but this issue has not been extensively examined. Here, we investigated secondary metabolites in Robiniapseudoacacia seedlings exposed to elevated temperatures using a passive warming device in combination with Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Heavy metals significantly stimulated the accumulation of saponins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in leaves and stems; alkaloid compounds increased in leaves and decreased in stems, and condensed tannins fluctuated. Elevated temperatures, alone and in combination with Cd and Pb, caused increases in secondary metabolites in the plant tissues. Phenolic compounds showed the greatest changes among the secondary metabolites and significant interactive effects of temperature and metals were observed. These results suggest that slightly elevated temperature could enhance protective and defense mechanisms of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by stimulating the production of secondary metabolites.

  9. Altered muscle activation following hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Sole, Gisela; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Nicholson, Helen; Sullivan, S John

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of gluteal and thigh muscles of sportspeople with a recent hamstring injury with uninjured controls during a weight-bearing task. Cross-sectional. University laboratory. 16 participants with a hamstring injury (hamstring-injured group, HG) and 18 control participants (control group (CG)) participated in the study. The EMG activity of gluteal, quadriceps and hamstring muscles was recorded during a movement from double- to single-leg movement using surface electrodes. The EMG onsets of biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were significantly earlier for the HG injured and the uninjured sides in preparation for single-leg standing when compared with the CG average. There were no differences in onsets for the gluteal and quadriceps muscles when comparing the injured or uninjured legs of the HG to the bilateral average of the CG. The earlier onset of the injured and the uninjured hamstrings in preparation for single leg stance of the HG in comparison with the CG suggests an alteration in the motor control of these muscles. Altered neuromuscular control following a hamstring injury may be a factor to be considered in the rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.

  10. Alteration Products and Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    The martian meteorites contain alteration products and secondary minerals that are a critical part of understanding their near-surface histories on both Mars and Earth. In some martian meteorites, suspected martian preterrestrial alteration products can be distinguished from terrestrial weathering effects Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), we are studying natural fracture surfaces of ALH 84001 chips, including samples from both the interior and the exterior of the meteorite. Exterior samples include fusion crust surfaces, which are important in determining the extent of terrestrial weathering of meteorites. The focus of this study is weathering features and secondary minerals other than the distinctive carbonate globules that continue to be studied by many researchers.

  11. Cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD): focus on hypoxemia, secondary erythrocytosis, and coagulation alterations.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Luis M; Guzzetta, Nina A

    2015-10-01

    Children with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) have complex alterations in their whole blood composition and coagulation profile due to long-standing hypoxemia. Secondary erythrocytosis is an associated physiological response intended to increase circulating red blood cells and oxygen carrying capacity. However, this response is frequently offset by an increase in whole blood viscosity that paradoxically reduces blood flow and tissue perfusion. In addition, the accompanying reduction in plasma volume leads to significant deficiencies in multiple coagulation proteins including platelets, fibrinogen and other clotting factors. On the one hand, these patients may suffer from severe hyperviscosity and subclinical 'sludging' in the peripheral vasculature with an increased risk of thrombosis. On the other hand, they are at an increased risk for postoperative hemorrhage due to a complex derangement in their hemostatic profile. Anesthesiologists caring for children with CCHD and secondary erythrocytosis need to understand the pathophysiology of these alterations and be aware of available strategies that lessen the risk of bleeding and/or thrombosis. The aim of this review is to provide an updated analysis of the systemic effects of long-standing hypoxemia in children with primary congenital heart disease with a specific focus on secondary erythrocytosis and hemostasis.

  12. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Joshua L; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D F; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-05

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state.

  13. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Joshua L.; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D. F.; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M.; Wright, Ernest M.; Grabe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state. PMID:27325773

  14. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in sorghum bicolor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target to alter the abundance and composition of lignin. The major regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism are myb transcription factors, which have been shown to modulate secondary cell wall compositi...

  15. Spuriously shallow NRM inclinations of hydrothermally altered Juan de Fuca Ridge sediment - secondary magnetization or disruption of the sediment fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbat, M.; Brandau, A.

    2003-04-01

    The marine sediment of the active Dead Dog Vent Field in Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (ODP Holes 1036A-C), is strongly altered due to focused hydrothermal fluid circulation. A detailed paleo- and rockmagnetic study of the sediment indicates that the magnetic signal (iron oxides and secondary iron sulfides) sensitively reflects both thermally accelerated rates of diagenesis and direct reaction with the fluids. The explanation of NRM directions, however, in some of the lithologically homogeneous intervals is not straightforward. In these hydrothermally altered intervals the paleomagnetic record displays spuriously shallow or even negative inclinations, and a detailed analysis of the AF-demagnetization behavior does not indicate a true recording of the Earth magnetic field. We explore several potential causes for the NRM directions including authigenic precipitation of new magnetic minerals or the disruption of the sedimentary fabric and concomitant distortion of the NRM record. Spuriously shallow inclinations in all three holes correspond to inclinations of the minimum axes of the AMS ellipsoid that significantly deviates from vertical (i.e. 90° as would be expected for an undisturbed marine sedimentary fabric). We discuss, whether the secondary precipitation of (non-) magnetic minerals can explain the NRM behavior, if the volume of the original minerals is changed.

  16. A MYLK variant regulates asthmatic inflammation via alterations in mRNA secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Saadat, Laleh; Garcia, Joe GN

    2015-01-01

    Myosin light-chain kinase (MYLK) is a gene known to be significantly associated with severe asthma in African Americans. Here we further examine the molecular function of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), located in the non-muscle myosin light-chain kinase isoform (nmMLCK), in asthma susceptibility and pathobiology. We identified nmMLCK variant (reference SNP: rs9840993, NM_053025: 721C>T, c.439C>T) with a distinct mRNA secondary structure from the other variants. The nmMLCK variant (721C) secondary structure exhibits increased stability with an elongated half-life in the human endothelial cell, and greater efficiency in protein translation initiation owing to an increased accessibility to translation start site. Finally, nmMLCK expression of 721C- and 721T-containing MYLK transgenes were compared in nmMLCK−/− mice and confirmed deleterious effects of nmMLCK expression on asthmatic indices and implicated the augmented influence of MYLK 721C>T (c.439C>T) SNP on asthma severity. The confirmation of the novel mechanism of the regulation of asthmatic inflammation by a MYLK advances knowledge of the genetic basis for asthma disparities, and further suggests the potential of nmMLCK as a therapeutic target. Our study suggests that in addition to altering protein structure and function, non-synonymous SNPs may also lead to phenotypic disparity by altering protein expression. PMID:25271083

  17. The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim

    2013-11-01

    We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens.

  18. Nectar microbes can reduce secondary metabolites in nectar and alter effects on nectar consumption by pollinators.

    PubMed

    Vannette, Rachel L; Fukami, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Secondary metabolites that are present in floral nectar have been hypothesized to enhance specificity in plant-pollinator mutualism by reducing larceny by non-pollinators, including microorganisms that colonize nectar. However, few studies have tested this hypothesis. Using synthetic nectar, we conducted laboratory and field experiments to examine the effects of five chemical compounds found in nectar on the growth and metabolism of nectar-colonizing yeasts and bacteria, and the interactive effects of these compounds and nectar microbes on the consumption of nectar by pollinators. In most cases, focal compounds inhibited microbial growth, but the extent of these effects depended on compound identity, concentration, and microbial species. Moreover, most compounds did not substantially decrease sugar metabolism by microbes, and microbes reduced the concentration of some compounds in nectar. Using artificial flowers in the field, we also found that the common nectar yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii altered nectar consumption by small floral visitors, but only in nectar containing catalpol. This effect was likely mediated by a mechanism independent of catalpol metabolism. Despite strong compound-specific effects on microbial growth, our results suggest that the secondary metabolites tested here are unlikely to be an effective general defense mechanism for preserving nectar sugars for pollinators. Instead, our results indicate that microbial colonization of nectar could reduce the concentration of secondary compounds in nectar and, in some cases, reduce deterrence to pollinators.

  19. Disruption of secondary wall cellulose biosynthesis alters cadmium translocation and tolerance in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Qin; Liu, Li-Feng; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Bao-Cai; Gao, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Ling; Lin, Qing-Shan; Ling, Hong-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Tricheary elements (TEs), wrapped by secondary cell wall, play essential roles in water, mineral, and nutrient transduction. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that is absorbed by roots and transported to shoot, leaves, and grains through vascular systems in plants. As rice is a major source of Cd intake, many efforts have been made to establish 'low-Cd rice'. However, no links have been found between cellulose biosynthesis and cadmium accumulation. We report here a rice brittle culm13 mutant, resulting from a novel missense mutation (E101K) [corrected] in the N-terminus of cellulose synthase subunit 9 (CESA9). Except for the abnormal mechanical strength, the mutant plants are morphologically indistinguishable from the wild-type plants. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and chemical analyses showed a slight reduction in secondary wall thickness and 22% decrease in cellulose content in bc13 plants. Moreover, this mutation unexpectedly confers the mutant plants Cd tolerance due to less Cd accumulation in leaves. Expression analysis of the genes required for Cd uptake and transport revealed complicated alterations after applying Cd to wild-type and bc13. The mutants were further found to have altered vascular structure. More importantly, Cd concentration in the xylem saps from the bc13 plants was significantly lower than that from the wild-type. Combining the analyses of CESA9 gene expression and Cd content retention in the cell-wall residues, we conclude that CESA9(E101K) [corrected] mutation alters cell-wall properties in the conducting tissues, which consequently affects Cd translocation efficiency that largely contributes to the low Cd accumulation in the mutant plants.

  20. Activating secondary metabolism with stress and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Vanessa; Nodwell, Justin R

    2014-02-01

    The available literature on the secondary or nonessential metabolites of the streptomycetes bacteria suggests that there may be poorly expressed or "cryptic" compounds that have yet to be identified and that may have significant medical utility. In addition, it is clear that there is a large and complex regulatory network that controls the production of these molecules in the laboratory and in nature. Two approaches that have been taken to manipulating the yields of secondary metabolites are the use of various stress responses and, more recently, the use of precision chemical probes. Here, we review the status of this work and outline the challenges and opportunities afforded by each of them.

  1. The Infusion of Environmental Activities into a Secondary Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Helen M.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed are "adventure-type" environmental education activities incorporated into a secondary level biology course. Student wilderness experiences included 24 weekend activities of hiking, bird watching, camping, and cross-country skiing. (SL)

  2. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  3. Essential Laboratory Activities Guide. Secondary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…

  4. Essential Laboratory Activities Guide. Secondary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…

  5. Alteration of the content of primary and secondary metabolites in strawberry fruit by Colletotrichum nymphaeae infection.

    PubMed

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Schmitzer, Valentina; Slatnar, Ana; Weber, Nika; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Munda, Alenka; Koron, Darinka

    2013-06-26

    The effects of infection with Colletotrichum nymphaeae , the causative agent of strawberry black spot, were studied on two strawberry cultivars: susceptible 'Elsanta' and tolerant 'Honeoye' cultivars. Four treatments were established: (1) artificial inoculation; (2) spray application of pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Signum); (3) foliar spraying with calcium (Stopit); and (4) control (spraying with water). Primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids) and secondary metabolites (phenolic compounds) were determined in strawberry fruit with the use of HPLC-MS(n). Infected fruit accumulated large amounts of total sugars and low levels of organic acids. The sugar/acid ratio was higher in the infected and in Ca-treated strawberries. The contents of ellagic acid derivatives, flavonols, oligomeric procyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and total phenolics were highest in inoculated strawberry fruit. Results indicated that fungicide and calcium sprayings did not alter polyphenolic levels in plant tissue.

  6. Metabolic profiling reveals altered sugar and secondary metabolism in response to UGPase overexpression in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Payyavula, Raja S.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Jawdy, Sara; Sykes, Robert; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Kalluri, Udaya C.

    2014-10-07

    Background: UDP-glucose pyrophopharylase (UGPase) is a sugar metabolizing enzyme (E.C. 2.7.7.9) that catalyzes a reversible reaction of UDP-glucose and pyrophosphate from glucose-1-phosphate and uridine triphosphate glucose. UDP-glucose is a key intermediate sugar that is channeled to multiple metabolic pathways. The functional role of UGPase in woody plants such as Populus is poorly understood. Results: We characterized the functional role of UGPase in Populus deltoides by overexpressing a native gene. Overexpression of the native gene resulted in increased leaf area and leaf-to-shoot biomass ratio but decreased shoot and root growth. Metabolomic analyses showed that manipulation of UGPase results in perturbations in primary as well as secondary metabolism resulting in reduced sugar and starch levels and increased phenolics such as caffeoyl- and feruloyl conjugates. While cellulose and lignin levels in the cell walls were not significantly altered, the syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio was significantly reduced. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that UGPase plays a key role in the tightly coupled primary and secondary metabolic pathways and perturbation in its function results in pronounced effects on growth and metabolism outside of cell wall biosynthesis of Populus.

  7. Metabolic profiling reveals altered sugar and secondary metabolism in response to UGPase overexpression in Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Payyavula, Raja S.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Jawdy, Sara; ...

    2014-10-07

    Background: UDP-glucose pyrophopharylase (UGPase) is a sugar metabolizing enzyme (E.C. 2.7.7.9) that catalyzes a reversible reaction of UDP-glucose and pyrophosphate from glucose-1-phosphate and uridine triphosphate glucose. UDP-glucose is a key intermediate sugar that is channeled to multiple metabolic pathways. The functional role of UGPase in woody plants such as Populus is poorly understood. Results: We characterized the functional role of UGPase in Populus deltoides by overexpressing a native gene. Overexpression of the native gene resulted in increased leaf area and leaf-to-shoot biomass ratio but decreased shoot and root growth. Metabolomic analyses showed that manipulation of UGPase results in perturbations inmore » primary as well as secondary metabolism resulting in reduced sugar and starch levels and increased phenolics such as caffeoyl- and feruloyl conjugates. While cellulose and lignin levels in the cell walls were not significantly altered, the syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio was significantly reduced. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that UGPase plays a key role in the tightly coupled primary and secondary metabolic pathways and perturbation in its function results in pronounced effects on growth and metabolism outside of cell wall biosynthesis of Populus.« less

  8. Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimbelman, D.R.; Rye, R.O.; Breit, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlalte??petl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified are: (1) alunite group, (2) jarosite group, (3) readily soluble Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates, and (4) simple alkaline-earth sulfates such as anhydrite, gypsum, and barite. Generalized assemblages of spatially associated secondary minerals were recognized: (1) alunite+silica??pyrite??kaolinite?? gypsum??sulfur, (2) jarosite+alunite+silica; (3) jarosite+smectite+silica??pyrite, (4) Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates+silica, and (5) simple sulfates+silica??Al-hydroxysulfates??alunite. Isotopic data verify that all sulfate and sulfide minerals and their associated alteration assemblages result largely from the introduction of sulfur-bearing magmatic gases into meteoric water in the upper levels of the volcanoes. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic data for all minerals indicate the general mixing of aqueous sulfate derived from deep (largely disproportionation of SO2 in magmatic vapor) and shallow (oxidation of pyrite or H2S) sources. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of alunite indicate the mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Some alunite-group minerals, along with kaolinite, formed from sulfuric acid created by the disproportionation of SO2 in a condensing magmatic vapor. Such alunite, observed only in those volcanoes whose interiors are exposed by erosion or edifice collapse, may have ??34S values that reflect equilibrium (350??50 ??C) between aqueous sulfate and H2S. Alunite with ??34S values indicating disequilibrium between parent aqueous sulfate and H2S may form from aqueous sulfate created in higher level low

  9. Automated discovery of active motifs in multiple RNA secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.T.L.; Chang, Chia-Yo; Shapiro, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a method for discovering approximately common motifs (also known as active motifs) in multiple RNA secondary structures. The secondary structures can be represented as ordered trees (i.e., the order among siblings matters). Motifs in these trees are connected subgraphs that can differ in both substitutions and deletions/insertions. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1) find candidate motifs in a small sample of the secondary structures; (2) search all of the secondary structures to determine how frequently these motifs occur (within the allowed approximation) in the secondary structures. To reduce the running time, we develop two optimization heuristics based on sampling and pattern matching techniques. Experimental results obtained by running these algorithms on both generated data and RNA secondary structures show the good performance of the algorithms. To demonstrate the utility of our algorithms, we discuss their applications to conducting the phylogenetic study of RNA sequences obtained from GenBank.

  10. Active ultramicrobacterial alteration of iron in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. Ann; Sherriff, Barbara L.

    1997-07-01

    Microorganisms are able to exist in extreme environments, where they often form biofilms. We are investigating an iron metabolizing biofilm consortium derived from groundwater draining the Canadian Shield. This was first discovered in the Underground Research Laboratory of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., where its influence on the management of nuclear fuel waste was examined. Incubations have shown that the microbial consortium contains different morphological forms. Ultramicrobacteria, 0.3 micrometers diameter cocci, are dominant on magnetite surfaces, which they are able to transform rapidly to hematite. Larger rods, 1.0 micrometers long, aggregate on silicon minerals containing little iron. Carbon is limited in these natural groundwaters so that iron is utilized as an alternative energy source. The cell surface of the organisms and the extracellular polymers of the biofilm are both negatively-charged allowing metal cations to be quickly bound by physicochemical sorption, thus providing nucleation sites for mineralization within the boundaries. The biofilm consortium is able to mediate a wide range of iron reactions. Aerobically a ferric gel is precipitated throughout the biofilm slime, which alters first to ferrihydrite and later to hematite. When anaerobic fermentation produces a reducing environment the iron is converted to the ferrous state which may then be precipitated as ferrous hydroxide, vivianite or siderite. Since iron is widespread in the natural environment, these reactions could have important geochemical implications.

  11. Biologically active secondary metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpus.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Ma, Guoyi; El-Hela, Atef A; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I; Kottob, Saeid; El-Ghaly, Sayed; Cutler, Stephen J; Ross, Samir A

    2013-08-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm.et Vivi (Asphodelaceae) resulted in the isolation of one new metabolite, 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2-naphthoic acid (1) as well as nine known compounds: asphodelin (2), chrysophanol (3), 8-methoxychrysophanol (4), emodin (5), 2-acetyl-1,8-dimethoxy-3-methylnaphthalene (6), 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-hydroxychrysophanol-9-anthrone (7), aloesaponol-III-8-methyl ether (8), ramosin (9) and aestivin (10). The compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Compounds 3, 6 and 10 were isolated for the first time from this species. Compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate to weak antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 14.3 and 35.1 microg/mL, respectively. Compound 4 exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 15.0 microg/mL, while compounds 5, 7 and 10 showed good to potent activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values of 6.6, 9.4 microg/mL and 1.4 microg/mL respectively. Compounds 5, 8 and 9 displayed good activity against S. aureus with IC50 values of 3.2, 7.3 and 8.5 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 7 and 9 exhibited a potent cytotoxic activity against leukemia LH60 and K562 cell lines. Compound 10 showed potent antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values in the range of 0.8-0.7 microg/mL without showing any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells.

  12. Secondary Activity Category | STORET Legacy Data Center ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  13. Antibiotic-Induced Alterations of the Gut Microbiota Alter Secondary Bile Acid Production and Allow for Clostridium difficile Spore Germination and Outgrowth in the Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Alison A.; Young, Vincent B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is hypothesized that the depletion of microbial members responsible for converting primary bile acids into secondary bile acids reduces resistance to Clostridium difficile colonization. To date, inhibition of C. difficile growth by secondary bile acids has only been shown in vitro. Using targeted bile acid metabolomics, we sought to define the physiologically relevant concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids present in the murine small and large intestinal tracts and how these impact C. difficile dynamics. We treated mice with a variety of antibiotics to create distinct microbial and metabolic (bile acid) environments and directly tested their ability to support or inhibit C. difficile spore germination and outgrowth ex vivo. Susceptibility to C. difficile in the large intestine was observed only after specific broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment (cefoperazone, clindamycin, and vancomycin) and was accompanied by a significant loss of secondary bile acids (deoxycholate, lithocholate, ursodeoxycholate, hyodeoxycholate, and ω-muricholate). These changes were correlated to the loss of specific microbiota community members, the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. Additionally, physiological concentrations of secondary bile acids present during C. difficile resistance were able to inhibit spore germination and outgrowth in vitro. Interestingly, we observed that C. difficile spore germination and outgrowth were supported constantly in murine small intestinal content regardless of antibiotic perturbation, suggesting that targeting growth of C. difficile will prove most important for future therapeutics and that antibiotic-related changes are organ specific. Understanding how the gut microbiota regulates bile acids throughout the intestine will aid the development of future therapies for C. difficile infection and other metabolically relevant disorders such as obesity and diabetes. IMPORTANCE Antibiotics alter the gastrointestinal

  14. Antibiotic-Induced Alterations of the Gut Microbiota Alter Secondary Bile Acid Production and Allow for Clostridium difficile Spore Germination and Outgrowth in the Large Intestine.

    PubMed

    Theriot, Casey M; Bowman, Alison A; Young, Vincent B

    2016-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the depletion of microbial members responsible for converting primary bile acids into secondary bile acids reduces resistance to Clostridium difficile colonization. To date, inhibition of C. difficile growth by secondary bile acids has only been shown in vitro. Using targeted bile acid metabolomics, we sought to define the physiologically relevant concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids present in the murine small and large intestinal tracts and how these impact C. difficile dynamics. We treated mice with a variety of antibiotics to create distinct microbial and metabolic (bile acid) environments and directly tested their ability to support or inhibit C. difficile spore germination and outgrowth ex vivo. Susceptibility to C. difficile in the large intestine was observed only after specific broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment (cefoperazone, clindamycin, and vancomycin) and was accompanied by a significant loss of secondary bile acids (deoxycholate, lithocholate, ursodeoxycholate, hyodeoxycholate, and ω-muricholate). These changes were correlated to the loss of specific microbiota community members, the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. Additionally, physiological concentrations of secondary bile acids present during C. difficile resistance were able to inhibit spore germination and outgrowth in vitro. Interestingly, we observed that C. difficile spore germination and outgrowth were supported constantly in murine small intestinal content regardless of antibiotic perturbation, suggesting that targeting growth of C. difficile will prove most important for future therapeutics and that antibiotic-related changes are organ specific. Understanding how the gut microbiota regulates bile acids throughout the intestine will aid the development of future therapies for C. difficile infection and other metabolically relevant disorders such as obesity and diabetes. IMPORTANCE Antibiotics alter the gastrointestinal microbiota

  15. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  16. Potassium deficiency alters growth, photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolites content, and related antioxidant capacity in Sulla carnosa grown under moderate salinity.

    PubMed

    Hafsi, Chokri; Falleh, Hanen; Saada, Mariem; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly

    2017-09-01

    Salinity and K(+) deficiency are two environmental constraints that generally occur simultaneously under field conditions, resulting in severe limitation of plant growth and productivity. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of salinity, either separately applied or in combination with K(+) deficiency, on growth, photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolites content, and related antioxidant capacity in Sulla carnosa. Seedlings were grown hydroponically under sufficient (6000 μM) or low (60 μM) K(+) supply with 100 mM NaCl (C + S and D + S treatments, respectively). Either alone or combined with K(+) deficiency, salinity significantly restricted the plant growth. K(+) deficiency further increased salt impact on the photosynthetic activity of S. carnosa, but this species displayed mechanisms that play a role in protecting photosynthetic machinery (including non photochemical quenching and antioxidant activity). In contrast to plants subjected to salt stress alone, higher accumulation of phenolic compounds was likely related to antioxidative defence mechanism in plants grown under combined effects of two stresses. As a whole, these data suggest that K(+) deficiency increases the deleterious effects of salt stress. The quantitative and qualitative alteration of phenolic composition and the enhancement of related antioxidant capacity may be of crucial significance for S. carnosa plants growing under salinity and K(+) deficient conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Sarath, Gautam; Palmer, Nathan A; Baird, Lisa; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Dien, Bruce S; Boateng, Akwasi A; Ge, Zhengxiang; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Twigg, Paul; Clemente, Thomas E; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. The global regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism may include MYB transcription factors, whose expression levels have been correlated with changes in secondary cell wall composition and the levels of several other aromatic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonoids. While transcription factors correlated with downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway have been identified in several grass species, few transcription factors linked to activation of this pathway have been identified in C4 grasses, some of which are being developed as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks. In this study we investigated the role of SbMyb60 in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which is a drought-tolerant, high-yielding biomass crop. Ectopic expression of this transcription factor in sorghum was associated with higher expression levels of genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and led to higher abundances of syringyl lignin, significant compositional changes to the lignin polymer and increased lignin concentration in biomass. Moreover, transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing SbMyb60 also displayed ectopic lignification in leaf midribs and elevated concentrations of soluble phenolic compounds in biomass. Results indicate that overexpression of SbMyb60 is associated with activation of monolignol biosynthesis in sorghum. SbMyb60 represents a target for modification of plant cell wall composition, with the potential to improve biomass for renewable uses.

  18. Sexual activity among junior secondary school girls in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Pillai, V K; Barton, T; Benefo, K

    1997-07-01

    This paper proposes a causal model of sexual activity among a randomly selected sample of 305 Junio secondary school girls in Zambia. The results indicate that liberal sexual attitudes influence romantic involvement with boys. Emotional involvement is likely to result in sexual activity. Traditional courtship forms are slowly being replaced by modern patterns of courtship behaviour. Policy and programme implications are discussed.

  19. Above and Beyond: Secondary Activities for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Judy; And Others

    This manual focuses on what prompts Peace Corps volunteers to get involved, activities that volunteers have tried while on assignment, and a series of guidelines volunteers can apply to secondary activity, which is organized during school recesses or at times when the Volunteer is otherwise unoccupied. The book is divided into three sections. Part…

  20. Microdistributions of Rb and Sr in ALH84001 carbonates: Chronological implications for secondary alteration on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wadhwa, M.; Sutton, S.R.; Flynn, G.J.

    2005-04-22

    Concentrations of Rb and Sr were analyzed on the micron-scale in various compositional zones of the ALH84001 carbonates. Implications of the measured Rb/Sr ratios for the chronology of these carbonates are discussed. ALH84001 is unique among the Martian meteorites in that it has an ancient crystallization age of {approx}4.5 Ga defined by Sm-Nd isotope systematics. Another aspect that differentiates this Martian meteorite from the others is the presence of Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates (modal abundance {approx}1%) that are thought to have been precipitated during alteration in a near-surface environment. Precise age dating of these carbonates is important since it could provide constraints on the timing of surficial secondary alteration processes on Mars. However, this has been a challenging problem owing to the relatively small abundance of the carbonates in ALH84001 and because these carbonates are difficult to separate from the other minerals in the rock by physical and chemical means. Previous investigations have attempted to separate the carbonates by leaching of carbonate-rich mineral fractions. The single 'bulk carbonate' fraction analyzed by Wadhwa and Lugmair was characterized by a low {sup 87}Rb/{sup 86}Sr ratio of {approx}0.05, the lowest of any mineral in ALH84001, and the corresponding Rb-Sr age estimate ({approx}1.39 Ga) was dependent on the assumption of isotopic equilibrium between the carbonates and plagioclase. As pointed out by Borg et al., such an assumption may not be assured and, therefore, they obtained multiple carbonate-rich leachates with a range of {sup 87}Rb/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.12-2.62) from which they estimated an age of {approx}3.9 Ga. Although these authors performed painstaking chemical characterization to determine contributions in the leachates from minerals such as phosphates and silicates, it is nevertheless difficult to positively rule out contributions from other as yet unidentified phases. Therefore, the goal of the present

  1. Northwest Africa 5738: Multistage fluid-driven secondary alteration in an extraordinarily evolved eucrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Rubin, Alan E.; Isa, Junko; Gessler, Nicholas; Ahn, Insu; Choi, Byeon-Gak

    2014-09-01

    The Northwest Africa 5738 eucrite contains a record of unprecedented geochemical complexity for a sample from the HED asteroid. It originated with a uniquely evolved (Stannern Trend) primary igneous composition, combining ultra-high bulk incompatible element and Na2O concentrations with a relatively low mg. Its bulk oxygen-isotopic composition (Δ‧17O = -0.27‰), as well as its trace element composition (e.g., Ga/Al), confirm other evidence for classification as a eucrite. Pyroxene mg equilibration, exsolution and “cloudy” inclusions, all reflect a typical eucritic degree of thermal metamorphism. The rock contains an unprecedented array of microscopic fluid-metasomatic vein deposits. Most common are curvy microveins within pyroxene, which consist dominantly of Ca-plagioclase (typically An95, in stark contrast with the rock’s An68-78 primary-igneous plagioclase), with Fe-olivine (Fo14) and Cr-spinel as additional major constituents. Likely related to these microveins are small masses of intergrown Ca-plagioclase (again roughly An95) and silica (or high-Si glass). Analyses of the microvein Cr-spinels show stoichiometry implying a significant Fe3+ content (Fe2O3 0.7-2.3 wt.%), and fO2 up to roughly IW+3; clearly elevated in comparison to the normal HED fO2 of about IW-1. The fO2 results show an anticorrelation with equilibration T (and with Mg/Fe), which suggests the parent fluid system became more oxidizing as it cooled. NWA 5738 also contains apparent secondary iron metal. The Fe-metals are very pure, with Ni consistently below an EPMA detection limit of ∼0.01 wt.%. The vein-like shapes of roughly 1/3 of the largest Fe-metals suggest origin by deposition from a fluid. The role of pyroxene exsolution as template for a denticular (sawtooth) Fe-metal edge shape, and the survival of Fo14 olivine in a rock with abundant silica and a far higher bulk mg, suggest that the most intense thermal metamorphism occurred no later than the secondary alteration. Near

  2. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Patakova, Petra

    2013-02-01

    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M. pilosus, are often used for rice fermentation to produce red yeast rice, a special product used either for food coloring or as a food supplement with positive effects on human health. The colored appearance (red, orange or yellow) of Monascus-fermented substrates is produced by a mixture of oligoketide pigments that are synthesized by a combination of polyketide and fatty acid synthases. The major pigments consist of pairs of yellow (ankaflavin and monascin), orange (rubropunctatin and monascorubrin) and red (rubropunctamine and monascorubramine) compounds; however, more than 20 other colored products have recently been isolated from fermented rice or culture media. In addition to pigments, a group of monacolin substances and the mycotoxin citrinin can be produced by Monascus. Various non-specific biological activities (antimicrobial, antitumor, immunomodulative and others) of these pigmented compounds are, at least partly, ascribed to their reaction with amino group-containing compounds, i.e. amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Monacolins, in the form of β-hydroxy acids, inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis in animals and humans.

  3. MEG auditory evoked fields suggest altered structural/functional asymmetry in primary but not secondary auditory cortex in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reite, Martin; Teale, Peter; Rojas, Donald C; Reite, Erik; Asherin, Ryan; Hernandez, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Objective physiological indices independently characterizing affective and schizophreniform psychoses would contribute to our understanding of the nature of their relationships. Magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based metrics of altered structural/functional asymmetry in the superior temporal gyrus have previously been found to characterize schizophrenia at the level of both the primary auditory (AI) and the secondary auditory (AII) cortex. This study examines these markers in patients with bipolar disorder, with the goal of improved understanding of the patterns of brain asymmetry that may independently characterize affective and schizophreniform psychosis. Methods We studied 17 euthymic bipolar subjects and 17 matched controls. Auditory evoked fields were generated by both 40 Hz auditory stimuli eliciting steady state gamma band (SSR), activating the AI cortex, and discrete 1 kHz tone pips, activating the AII cortex. MEG was recorded from the hemisphere contralateral to the ear stimulated using a 37-channel MEG system. Source location estimates were calculated in both left and right hemispheres. Neuroanatomical location estimates for medial Heschl’s gyri were determined from magnetic resonance images for correlation with MEG source locations. Results Bipolar subjects failed to demonstrate normal laterality of SSR AI responses, indicating altered patterns of asymmetry at the level of AI cortex, but demonstrated normal asymmetry of AII responses (right anterior to left). Medial Heschl’s gyri centroids were similarly lateralized in both groups, however (right anterior to left), dissociating function from structure in the AI cortex in the bipolar group. Conclusions The findings are compatible with altered functional/structural relationships, including diminished left-right hemisphere asymmetry of the AI, but not the AII cortex in bipolar disorder. In schizophrenia, both the AI and AII cortices exhibit such derangements; thus, the findings support both

  4. MEG auditory evoked fields suggest altered structural/functional asymmetry in primary but not secondary auditory cortex in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Reite, Martin; Teale, Peter; Rojas, Donald C; Reite, Erik; Asherin, Ryan; Hernandez, Olivia

    2009-06-01

    Objective physiological indices independently characterizing affective and schizophreniform psychoses would contribute to our understanding of the nature of their relationships. Magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based metrics of altered structural/functional asymmetry in the superior temporal gyrus have previously been found to characterize schizophrenia at the level of both the primary auditory (AI) and the secondary auditory (AII) cortex. This study examines these markers in patients with bipolar disorder, with the goal of improved understanding of the patterns of brain asymmetry that may independently characterize affective and schizophreniform psychosis. We studied 17 euthymic bipolar subjects and 17 matched controls. Auditory evoked fields were generated by both 40 Hz auditory stimuli eliciting steady state gamma band (SSR), activating the AI cortex, and discrete 1 kHz tone pips, activating the AII cortex. MEG was recorded from the hemisphere contralateral to the ear stimulated using a 37-channel MEG system. Source location estimates were calculated in both left and right hemispheres. Neuroanatomical location estimates for medial Heschl's gyri were determined from magnetic resonance images for correlation with MEG source locations. Bipolar subjects failed to demonstrate normal laterality of SSR AI responses, indicating altered patterns of asymmetry at the level of AI cortex, but demonstrated normal asymmetry of AII responses (right anterior to left). Medial Heschl's gyri centroids were similarly lateralized in both groups, however (right anterior to left), dissociating function from structure in the AI cortex in the bipolar group. The findings are compatible with altered functional/structural relationships, including diminished left-right hemisphere asymmetry of the AI, but not the AII cortex in bipolar disorder. In schizophrenia, both the AI and AII cortices exhibit such derangements; thus, the findings support both shared and nonshared features of auditory

  5. Different Narrow-Band Light Ranges Alter Plant Secondary Metabolism and Plant Defense Response to Aphids.

    PubMed

    Rechner, Ole; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Light of different wavelengths affects various physiological processes in plants. Short-wavelength radiation (like UV) can activate defense pathways in plants and enhance the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (such as flavonoids and glucosinolates) responsible for resistance against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown for 4 weeks in a climate chamber under conventional fluorescent tubes and were additionally treated with UV-B (310 nm), UV-A (365 or 385 nm), or violet (420 nm) light generated with UV-B tubes or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The objective was to determine the influence of narrow bandwidths of light (from UV-B to violet) on plant secondary metabolism and on the performance of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (a specialist) and the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (a generalist). Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides increased markedly under UV-B, while among glucosinolates only 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl showed a 2-fold increase in plants exposed to UV-B and UV-A. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in broccoli plants increased with UV-B treatment. Brevicoryne brassicae adult weights and fecundity were lower on UV-B treated plants compared to UV-A or violet light-treated plants. Adult weights and fecundity of M. persicae were increased under UV-B and UV-A treatments. When specific light wavelengths are used to induce metabolic changes in plants, the specificity of the induced effects on herbivores should be considered.

  6. Secondary multidrug efflux pump mutants alter Escherichia coli biofilm growth in the presence of cationic antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Bay, Denice C; Stremick, Carol A; Slipski, Carmine J; Turner, Raymond J

    2017-04-01

    Escherichia coli possesses many secondary active multidrug resistance transporters (MDTs) that confer overlapping substrate resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials via proton and/or sodium motive force. It is uncertain whether redundant MDTs uniquely alter cell survival when cultures grow planktonically or as biofilms. In this study, the planktonic and biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance of 13 E. coli K-12 single MDT gene deletion strains in minimal and rich media were determined. Antimicrobial tolerance to tetracycline, tobramycin and benzalkonium were also compared for each ΔMDT strain. Four E. coli MDT families were represented in this study: resistance nodulation and cell division members acrA, acrB, acrD, acrE, acrF and tolC; multidrug and toxin extruder mdtK; major facilitator superfamily emrA and emrB; and small multidrug resistance members emrE, sugE, mdtI and mdtJ. Deletions of multipartite efflux system genes acrB, acrE and tolC resulted in significant reductions in both planktonic and biofilm growth phenotypes and enhanced antimicrobial susceptibilities. The loss of remaining MDT genes produced similar or enhanced (acrD, acrE, emrA, emrB, mdtK, emrE and mdtJ) biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance. ΔMDT strains with enhanced antimicrobial tolerance also enhanced biofilm biomass. These findings suggest that many redundant MDTs regulate biofilm formation and drug tolerance.

  7. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Salvi, Aguisson de Oliveira; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile.

  8. Thinking Science: Classroom Activities in Secondary Science. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adey, Philip; And Others

    This teacher's guide is part of a program of activities that help secondary-level students develop the complex thinking skills needed to succeed in science. This program can be used with current curriculum materials. It is designed to help students integrate ideas and develop concepts that demonstrate higher level thinking. A rich environment of…

  9. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  10. Physical Activity Breaks and Facilities in US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on physical activity breaks and facilities (indoor and outdoor) in secondary schools is relatively limited. Methods: School administrators and students in nationally representative samples of 8th (middle school) and 10th/12th grade (high school) students were surveyed annually from 2008-2009 to 2011-2012. School administrators…

  11. Plant products and secondary metabolites with acaricide activity against ticks.

    PubMed

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Arjona-Cambranes, K; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Bolio-González, M E; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Alzina-López, A; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E J; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2017-04-30

    The present review documents the results of studies evaluating the acaricidal activity of different plant products and secondary metabolites against ticks that are resistant and susceptible to conventional acaricides. Studies published from 1998 to 2016 were included. The acaricidal activity of plant extracts, essential oils and secondary compounds from plants have been evaluated using bioassays with ticks in the larval and adult stages. There is variable effectiveness according to the species of plant and the concentrations used, with observed mortalities ranging from 5 to 100% against the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus), Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, and Argas genera. A number of plants have been reported to cause high mortalities and/or affect the reproductive capacity of ticks in the adult phase. In the majority of these trials, the main species of plants evaluated correspond to the families Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Verbenaceae, and Poaceae. Different secondary metabolites such as thymol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and n-hexanal, have been found to be primarily responsible for the acaricidal activity of different essential oils against different species of ticks, while nicotine, dibenzyldisulfide and dibenzyltrisulfide have been evaluated for plant extracts. Only thymol, carvacrol and 1,8-cineol have been evaluated for acaricidal activity under in vivo conditions. The information in the present review allows the conclusion that the secondary metabolites contained in plant products could be used as an alternative for the control of ticks that are susceptible or resistant to commercial acaricides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical Activity Breaks and Facilities in US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on physical activity breaks and facilities (indoor and outdoor) in secondary schools is relatively limited. Methods: School administrators and students in nationally representative samples of 8th (middle school) and 10th/12th grade (high school) students were surveyed annually from 2008-2009 to 2011-2012. School administrators…

  13. Understanding Militant Teacher Union Members' Activities in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlangu, Vimbi P.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the activities of teacher unions in some Gauteng secondary schools in South Africa. The methods used in collecting data were questionnaires, interviews and a literature study of appropriate educational and labour law journals, books and newspapers. An interpretive paradigm was used in analysing the data. In this article,…

  14. Understanding Militant Teacher Union Members' Activities in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlangu, Vimbi P.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the activities of teacher unions in some Gauteng secondary schools in South Africa. The methods used in collecting data were questionnaires, interviews and a literature study of appropriate educational and labour law journals, books and newspapers. An interpretive paradigm was used in analysing the data. In this article,…

  15. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  16. Altered combustion characteristics of metallized energetics due to stable secondary material inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Brandon C.

    Though metals and metalloids have been widely considered as reactive fuels, the ability to tune their ignition and combustion characteristics remains challenging. One means to accomplish this may be through low-level inclusion of secondary materials into the metallized fuel. While there are several potential methods to stably introduce secondary inclusion materials, this work focuses on the use of mechanical activation (MA) and metal alloys. Recent work has shown that low-level inclusion of fluoropolymers into aluminum particles can have a substantial effect on their combustion characteristics. The reflected shock ignition of mechanically activated aluminum/polytetrafluoroethylene (MA Al/PTFE) is compared to a physical mixture (PM) of Al/PTFE, neat spherical aluminum, and flake aluminum. It was found that the powders with higher specific surface areas ignited faster than the spherical particles of the same size, and had ignition delay times comparable to agglomerates of aluminum particles that were two orders of magnitude smaller in size. Flake aluminum powder had the same ignition delay as MA Al/PTFE, indicating that any initial aluminum/fluoropolymer reactions did not yield an earlier onset of aluminum oxidation. However, MA Al/PTFE did have a shorter total burn time. The PM of Al/PTFE powder had a shorter ignition delay than neat spherical aluminum due to the rapid decomposition of PTFE into reactive fluorocarbon compounds, but the subsequent fluorocarbon reactions also created a secondary luminosity profile that significantly increased the total burn time of the system. The explosive shock ignition of aluminum and aluminum-silicon eutectic alloy compacts was evaluated with and without polymer inclusions. A statistical analysis was completed, investigating the effects of: detonation train orientation (into or not into a hard surface); the high explosive driver; whether the metal/polymer system is mechanically activated; particle size; particle morphology

  17. Response-restriction analysis: II. Alteration of activity preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Gregory P; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Thompson, Rachel H; Lindberg, Jana S

    2003-01-01

    We used response-restriction (RR) assessments to identify the preferences of 7 individuals with mental retardation for a variety of vocational and leisure activities. We subsequently increased their engagement in nonpreferred activities using several procedures: response restriction per se versus a Premack-type contingency (Study 1), supplemental reinforcement for engagement in target activities (Study 2), and noncontingent pairing of reinforcers with nonpreferred activities (Study 3). Results indicated that preferences are not immutable and can be altered through a variety of relatively benign interventions and that the results of RR assessments may be helpful in determining which types of procedures may be most effective on an individual basis. PMID:12723867

  18. Activated oxygen alters cerebral microvascular responses in newborn pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Leffler, C.W.; Busiia, D.W.; Armstead, W.M.; Mirro, R.; Thelin, O. )

    1990-02-26

    In piglets, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion blocks prostanoid dependent cerebral vasodilation to hypercapnia (CO{sub 2}) and hypotension but not prostanoid independent dilation to isoproterenol (Isu) or constriction to norepinephrine (NE). Ischemia/reperfusion increases activated-O{sub 2} production by piglet brains. Using cranial windows in piglets, the authors investigated the hypothesis that activated oxygen can block prostanoid dependent cerebral vasodilator responses to CO{sub 2} and hypotension without altering responses to Isu and NE. Exposure to an activated oxygen generating system of xanthine oxidase, hypoxanthine, and Fe that made about 3 times the activated-O{sub 2} on the brain surface as ischemia/reperfusion caused reversible pial arteriolar dilation. After exposure, pial arteriolar dilation was reduced to CO{sub 2} and hypotension but not to Isu. NE constrictor responses were also unaltered. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Fe caused constriction followed by reversible dilation. After exposure, pial arteriolar dilation in response to CO{sub 2} and hypotension was not altered. However, addition of xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe totally eliminated pial arteriolar dilator responses to CO{sub 2} and hypotension but did not decrease dilation caused by Isu or constriction caused by NE. The authors conclude that activated oxygen could produce the altered prostanoid dependent pial arteriolar responses observed following ischemia in piglets.

  19. Human activities change marine ecosystems by altering predation risk.

    PubMed

    Madin, Elizabeth M P; Dill, Lawrence M; Ridlon, April D; Heithaus, Michael R; Warner, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    In ocean ecosystems, many of the changes in predation risk - both increases and decreases - are human-induced. These changes are occurring at scales ranging from global to local and across variable temporal scales. Indirect, risk-based effects of human activity are known to be important in structuring some terrestrial ecosystems, but these impacts have largely been neglected in oceans. Here, we synthesize existing literature and data to explore multiple lines of evidence that collectively suggest diverse human activities are changing marine ecosystems, including carbon storage capacity, in myriad ways by altering predation risk. We provide novel, compelling evidence that at least one key human activity, overfishing, can lead to distinct, cascading risk effects in natural ecosystems whose magnitude exceeds that of presumed lethal effects and may account for previously unexplained findings. We further discuss the conservation implications of human-caused indirect risk effects. Finally, we provide a predictive framework for when human alterations of risk in oceans should lead to cascading effects and outline a prospectus for future research. Given the speed and extent with which human activities are altering marine risk landscapes, it is crucial that conservation and management policy considers the indirect effects of these activities in order to increase the likelihood of success and avoid unfortunate surprises.

  20. Secondary Minerals in Nakhla: A 3D Reconstruction of Alteration Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzesinska, A. M.; Michalski, J. R.; Smith, C. L.; Schofield, P. F.

    2016-08-01

    Realtionship of secondary to primary minerals and fractures in Nakhla helps to gain insight into their formation and replacement history, and subsequently nature of aqueous events in the martian subsurface, and their implications for habitability.

  1. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D. N.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g., hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The ratio of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3) contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. As relative humidity (RH) increases, inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. The humid BA + N2O5 aerosol products were found to be very sensitive to the temperature at which the measurements were made within the streamwise continuous-flow thermal gradient CCN counter; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The variance of the measured aerosol κ values indicates that simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems' κ ranges within 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that aerosols formed via nighttime reactions with amines are likely to produce hygroscopic and volatile aerosol, whereas photochemical reactions with OH produce secondary organic aerosol of lower CCN activity. The contributions of semivolatile secondary organic and inorganic material from aliphatic amines must be considered for accurate hygroscopicity and CCN predictions from aliphatic amine systems.

  2. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na(+)-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  3. Common folds and transport mechanisms of secondary active transporters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yigong

    2013-01-01

    Secondary active transporters exploit the electrochemical potential of solutes to shuttle specific substrate molecules across biological membranes, usually against their concentration gradient. Transporters of different functional families with little sequence similarity have repeatedly been found to exhibit similar folds, exemplified by the MFS, LeuT, and NhaA folds. Observations of multiple conformational states of the same transporter, represented by the LeuT superfamily members Mhp1, AdiC, vSGLT, and LeuT, led to proposals that structural changes are associated with substrate binding and transport. Despite recent biochemical and structural advances, our understanding of substrate recognition and energy coupling is rather preliminary. This review focuses on the common folds and shared transport mechanisms of secondary active transporters. Available structural information generally supports the alternating access model for substrate transport, with variations and extensions made by emerging structural, biochemical, and computational evidence.

  4. Problems Encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and Other Secondary School Students in Physical Education and Sports Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…

  5. Active optics control of VST telescope secondary mirror.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In telescopes based on active optics, defocus and coma are usually compensated for by secondary mirror movements. They are performed at the Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) with a hexapod--a parallel robot with six degrees of freedom positioning capability. We describe the application of the two-mirror telescope theory to the VST case and the solutions adopted for the hexapod control. We present the results of performance and reliability tests performed both in the laboratory and at the telescope.

  6. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Betel Quid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Li, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-yan; Yang, Guo-shuai; Pan, Meng-jie; Li, Chang-qing; Pan, Su-yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been suggested by the first voxel-based morphometry investigation that betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals are presented with brain structural changes in previous reports, and there may be a neurobiological basis for BQD individuals related to an increased risk of executive dysfunction and disinhibition, subjected to the reward system, cognitive system, and emotion system. However, the effects of BQD on neural activity remain largely unknown. Individuals with impaired cognitive control of behavior often reveal altered spontaneous cerebral activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and those changes are usually earlier than structural alteration. Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control participants (n = 32) in an resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe brain function alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were both evaluated to stand for spontaneous cerebral activity. Gray matter volumes of these participants were also calculated for covariate. In comparison with healthy controls, BQD individuals demonstrated dramatically decreased ALFF and ReHo values in the prefrontal gurus along with left fusiform, and increased ALFF and ReHo values in the primary motor cortex area, temporal lobe as well as some regions of occipital lobe. The betel quid dependence scores (BQDS) were negatively related to decreased activity in the right anterior cingulate. The abnormal spontaneous cerebral activity revealed by ALFF and ReHo calculation excluding the structural differences in patients with BQD may help us probe into the neurological pathophysiology underlying BQD-related executive dysfunction and disinhibition. Diminished spontaneous brain activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex may, therefore, represent a biomarker of BQD individuals. PMID

  7. Nylon wool purification alters the activation of T cells.

    PubMed

    Wohler, Jillian E; Barnum, Scott R

    2009-02-01

    Purification of lymphocytes, particularly T cells, is commonly performed using nylon wool. This enrichment method selectively retains B cells and some myeloid cells allowing a significantly more pure T cell population to flow through a nylon wool column. T cells purified in this fashion are assumed to be unaltered and functionally naïve, however some studies have suggested aberrant in vitro T cell responses after nylon wool treatment. We found that nylon wool purification significantly altered T cell proliferation, expression of activation markers and production of cytokines. Our results suggest that nylon wool treatment modifies T cell activation responses and that caution should be used when choosing this purification method.

  8. Alteration of Electro-Cortical Activity in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Stefan; Brummer, Vera; Carnahan, Heather; Askew, Christopher D.; Guardiera, Simon; Struder, Heiko K.

    2008-06-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of weightlessness on central nervous system (CNS) activity. Due to technical and logistical limitations it presently seems impossible to apply imaging techniques as fMRI or PET in weightless environments e.g. on ISS or during parabolic flights. Within this study we evaluated changes in brain cortical activity using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) during parabolic flights. Results showed a distinct inhibition of right frontal area activity >12Hz during phases of microgravity compared to normal gravity. We conclude that the inhibition of high frequency frontal activity during microgravity may serve as a marker of emotional anxiety and/or indisposition associated with weightlessness. This puts a new light on the debate as to whether cognitive and sensorimotor impairments are attributable to primary physiological effects or secondary psychological effects of a weightless environment.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF SECONDARY ALTERATION IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASALT BY BACKSCATTERED ELECTRON IMAGING AND ENERGY-DISPERSIVE X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Brown, Z.A.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The thick sequences of flood basalts which underlie the Columbia River basin are important aquifiers, providing water for both agricultural and domestic use. Secondary alteration in these rocks occurs primarily as coatings or fillings in fractures and vesicles; alteration is generally believed to have occurred at low temperatures ( less than 100 C) by reaction with meteroic waters. The distribution and compositional variation of secondary minerals are therefore of major interest. This paper focuses on the compositional variation of the major alteration products and on present formulas based on the mean composition of these phases, and suggests possible reactions for the observed sequence of alteration.

  10. Altered Amphibian Secondary Sex Characteristics following Exposure to Model Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of the secondary sex characteristics, oviducts and nuptial pads, are under the control of steroid hormones in frogs and as such are potential targets for endocrine-disrupting compounds. Oviducts are large, convoluted tubules derived from the Mullerian ducts in whic...

  11. Altered Amphibian Secondary Sex Characteristics following Exposure to Model Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of the secondary sex characteristics, oviducts and nuptial pads, are under the control of steroid hormones in frogs and as such are potential targets for endocrine-disrupting compounds. Oviducts are large, convoluted tubules derived from the Mullerian ducts in whic...

  12. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  13. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  14. Seasonal Variation in Seed Dispersal by Tamarins Alters Seed Rain in a Secondary Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Lazo, Fernando Julio João; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Poncin, Pascal; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced dispersal of large seeds into degraded areas is one of the major factors limiting rain forest regeneration, as many seed dispersers capable of transporting large seeds avoid these sites with a limited forest cover. However, the small size of tamarins allows them to use small trees, and hence to disperse seeds into young secondary forests. Seasonal variations in diet and home range use might modify their contribution to forest regeneration through an impact on the seed rain. For a 2-yr period, we followed a mixed-species group of tamarins in Peru to determine how their role as seed dispersers in a 9-yr-old secondary-growth forest varied across seasons. These tamarins dispersed small to large seeds of 166 tree species, 63 of which were into a degraded area. Tamarins’ efficiency in dispersing seeds from primary to secondary forest varied across seasons. During the late wet season, high dietary diversity and long forays in secondary forest allowed them to disperse large seeds involved in later stages of regeneration. This occurred precisely when tamarins spent a more equal amount of time eating a high diversity of fruit species in primary forest and pioneer species in secondary forest. We hypothesized that well-balanced fruit availability induced the movement of seed dispersers between these 2 habitats. The noteworthy number of large-seeded plant species dispersed by such small primates suggests that tamarins play an important, but previously neglected, role in the regeneration and maintenance of forest structure. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9413-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20651905

  15. The structural basis of secondary active transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lucy R; Krämer, Reinhard; Ziegler, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Secondary active transporters couple the free energy of the electrochemical potential of one solute to the transmembrane movement of another. As a basic mechanistic explanation for their transport function the model of alternating access was put forward more than 40 years ago, and has been supported by numerous kinetic, biochemical and biophysical studies. According to this model, the transporter exposes its substrate binding site(s) to one side of the membrane or the other during transport catalysis, requiring a substantial conformational change of the carrier protein. In the light of recent structural data for a number of secondary transport proteins, we analyze the model of alternating access in more detail, and correlate it with specific structural and chemical properties of the transporters, such as their assignment to different functional states in the catalytic cycle of the respective transporter, the definition of substrate binding sites, the type of movement of the central part of the carrier harboring the substrate binding site, as well as the impact of symmetry on fold-specific conformational changes. Besides mediating the transmembrane movement of solutes, the mechanism of secondary carriers inherently involves a mechanistic coupling of substrate flux to the electrochemical potential of co-substrate ions or solutes. Mainly because of limitations in resolution of available transporter structures, this important aspect of secondary transport cannot yet be substantiated by structural data to the same extent as the conformational change aspect. We summarize the concepts of coupling in secondary transport and discuss them in the context of the available evidence for ion binding to specific sites and the impact of the ions on the conformational state of the carrier protein, which together lead to mechanistic models for coupling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Placebo treatment can alter primary visual cortex activity and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Schienle, A; Übel, S; Scharmüller, W

    2014-03-28

    Placebo treatment can alter brain activation in regions implicated in affective processing and cognitive control of emotions. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether a placebo can additionally modulate visual cortex activity and connectivity during affective picture perception. The participants underwent a retest design where they were presented with disgusting, fear-eliciting and neutral pictures both with, and without a placebo (inert pill presented with the suggestion that it can reduce disgust symptoms). The placebo provoked a strong decrease in experienced disgust. This was accompanied by a reduced activation of the primary visual cortex, which showed reduced interaction with the amygdala and the insula. Accordingly, placebos are able to affect basic perceptive processes. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

    2014-06-13

    The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity.

  18. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  19. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  20. Gut passage and secondary metabolites alter the source of post-dispersal predation for bird-dispersed chili seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Haak, David C; Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2016-07-01

    Plants can influence the source and severity of seed predation through various mechanisms; the use of secondary metabolites for chemical defense, for example, is well documented. Gut passage by frugivores can also reduce mortality of animal-dispersed seeds, although this mechanism has gained far less attention than secondary metabolites. Apart from influencing the severity of seed predation, gut passage may also influence the source of seed predation. In Bolivia, we compared impacts of these two mechanisms, gut passage and secondary metabolites, on the source of seed predation in Capsicum chacoense, a wild chili species that is polymorphic for pungency (individual plants either produce fruits and seeds containing or lacking capsaicinoids). Using physical exclosures, we isolated seed removal by insects, mammals, and birds; seeds in the trials were from either pungent or non-pungent fruits and were either passed or not passed by seed-dispersing birds. Pungency had little influence on total short-term seed removal by animals, although prior work on this species indicates that capsaicin reduces mortality caused by fungi at longer time scales. Gut passage strongly reduced removal by insects, altering the relative impact of the three predator types. The weak impact of pungency on short-term predation contrasts with previous studies, highlighting the context dependence of secondary metabolites. The strong impact of gut passage demonstrates that this mechanism alone can influence which seed predators consume seeds, and that impacts of gut passage can be larger than those of secondary metabolites, which are more commonly acknowledged as a defense mechanism.

  1. Thalidomide combined with irradiation alters the activity of two proteases.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra; Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Fişkın, Kayahan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of thalidomide, a drug known for its anti‑angiogenic and antitumor properties, at its cytotoxic dose previously determined as 40 µg/ml (according to four cytotoxic test results). The effect of the drug alone and in combination with radiotherapy using Cobalt 60 (60Co) at 45 Gy on the enzymatic activity of substance‑P degrading A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10 and neprilysin (NEP) was investigated in the mouse breast cancer cell lines 4T1 and 4T1 heart metastases post‑capsaicin (4THMpc). Thalidomide (40 µg/ml) exerted differing effects on the activities of ADAM10 and NEP enzymes. In 4T1 cells, 40 µg/ml thalidomide alone did not alter ADAM10 enzyme activity. 60Co irradiation at 45 Gy alone caused a 42% inhibition in ADAM10 activity, however, the inhibition increased to 89% when combined therapy was used. By contrast, in the 4THMpc cell line, 40 µg/ml thalidomide alone induced a 66.6% increase in ADAM10 enzyme activity. Radiotherapy alone and thalidomide with 60Co combined therapy caused a 33.3 and 40% inhibition of ADAM10 activity, respectively. In 4T1 cells, thalidomide alone caused a 40.9% increase in NEP activity. Radiation therapy alone or in combination with the drug caused a 40.7% increase in NEP activity. In more aggressive 4THMpc cells, thalidomide alone caused a 26.6% increase in NEP activity. Radiotherapy alone and combined therapy caused a 33.3 and 37% increase in enzyme activity, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that thalidomide alone or in combination with radiotherapy exhibits significant cytotoxic effects on 4T1 and 4THMpc mouse breast cancer cell lines indicating that this drug affects the enzymatic activity of ADAM10 and NEP in vitro.

  2. Ontogenetic noradrenergic lesion alters histaminergic activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemyslaw; Jochem, Jerzy; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Josko, Jadwiga; Noras, Lukasz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether noradrenergic nerves might have a modulatory role on the sensitivity or reactivity of histaminergic receptor systems in brain, behavioral effects of the respective histamine H1, H2 and H3 antagonists S(+)chlorpheniramine, cimetidine and thioperimide in control adult rats were compared to the effects in adult rats that had been lesioned as neonates with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4. On the 1st and 3rd days after birth rat pups were treated with either saline or DSP-4 (50 mg/kg sc), then returned to their home cages with the dam. At 8 weeks when rats were tested, S(+)chlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg ip) was found to increase locomotor activity in intact and DSP-4 lesioned rats, while cimetidine (5 mg/kg, ip) and thioperimide (5 mg/kg, ip) increased activity several-fold solely in the DSP-4 group. Exploratory activity, nociceptive activity, and irritability were little altered by the histamine antagonists, although oral activity was increased by thioperimide in intact and lesioned rats, and by cimetidine or S(+)chlorpheniramine in DSP-4 rats. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to determine that DSP-4 produced a 90% reduction in frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus, with a 90% elevation of NE in cerebellum--reflecting reactive sprouting of noradrenergic fibers consequent to lesion of noradrenergic tracts projecting to proximal brain regions. These findings indicate that perinatal noradrenergic fiber lesioning in rat brain is associated with an altered behavioral spectrum by histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, thereby implicating histaminergic systems as modulators of noradrenergic systems in brain.

  3. Potential anticancer activity of lichen secondary metabolite physodic acid.

    PubMed

    Cardile, V; Graziano, A C E; Avola, R; Piovano, M; Russo, A

    2017-02-01

    Secondary metabolites present in lichens, which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic and terpenic compounds, are unique with respect to those of higher plants and show interesting biological and pharmacological activities. However, only a few of these compounds, have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro cancer models. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of three lichen secondary metabolites (atranorin, gyrophoric acid and physodic acid) on A375 melanoma cancer cell line. The tested compounds arise from different lichen species collected in different areas of Continental and Antarctic Chile. The obtained results confirm the major efficiency of depsidones. In fact, depsides atranorin and gyrophoric acid, showed a lower activity inhibiting the melanoma cancer cells only at more high concentrations. Whereas the depsidone physodic acid, showed a dose-response relationship in the range of 6.25-50 μM concentrations in A375 cells, activating an apoptotic process, that probably involves the reduction of Hsp70 expression. Although the molecular mechanism, by which apoptosis is induced by physodic acid remains unclear, and of course further studies are needed, the results here reported confirm the promising biological properties of depsidone compounds, and may offer a further impulse to the development of analogues with more powerful efficiency against melanoma cells.

  4. Biological activity of secondary metabolites from Peltostigma guatemalense.

    PubMed

    Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique; Pattarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Lozano, Jose Manuel; Delle Monache, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Leaves and wood of Peltostigma guatemalense, a novel species of the family Rutaceae, yielded a total of 14 secondary metabolites, i.e. methyl p-hydroxy benzoate, phenylacetic acid, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, syringaresinol, scopoletin, gardenin B (1), and seven alkaloids: gamma-fagarine (2), skimmianine (3), kokusaginine (4), 7-O-isopentenyl-gamma-fagarine (5), anhydro-evoxine (6), evoxine (7) and 4-methoxy-1-methyl-quinolin-2-one (8). The compounds have been identified by spectroscopic methods. Antibacterial and antimalarial in vitro activity of the isolated compounds were also determined. Methyl p-hydroxy benzoate and quinolone (8) were the most effective on Plasmodium falciparium strains.

  5. Nylon Wool Purification Alters the Activation of T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wohler, Jillian E.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Purification of lymphocytes, particularly T cells, is commonly performed using nylon wool. This enrichment method selectively retains B cells and some myeloid cells allowing a significantly more pure T cell population to flow through a nylon wool column. T cells purified in this fashion are assumed to be unaltered and functionally naïve, however some studies have suggested aberrant in vitro T cell responses after nylon wool treatment. We found that nylon wool purification significantly altered T cell proliferation, expression of activation markers and production of cytokines. Our results suggest that nylon wool treatment modifies T cell activation responses and that caution should be used when choosing this purification method. PMID:18952296

  6. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein’s ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter’s mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na+-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21016.001 PMID:28121290

  7. Mutagenic activity of austocystins - secondary metabolites of Aspergillus ustus

    SciTech Connect

    Kfir, R.; Johannsen, E.; Vleggaar, R.

    1986-11-01

    Mycotoxins constitute a group of toxic secondary fungal metabolites. Fungi that produce these toxins frequently contaminate food and feed, creating a potential threat to human and animal health. Biological activities of mycotoxins include, amongst others: toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, which can be expressed with or without metabolic activation. Austocystins are similar in structure to aflatoxin B/sup 1/ and are probably synthesized in a similar manner. The Ames Salmonella test, a widely accepted method employed for the detection of mutagenic activity of various chemical compounds was used for testing the mutagenic activity of different mycotoxins. As aflatoxin B/sup 1/ was found by the Ames test to be highly mutagenic, the same test was applied for the study of possible mutagenicity of the austocystins. The mutagenic activity of these compounds was studied with and without metabolic activation using two tester strains of S. typhimurium, one capable of detecting frame shift mutation (strain TA98) and the other capable of detecting base pair substitution (strain TA100).

  8. Altered AMP deaminase activity may extend postmortem glycolysis.

    PubMed

    England, E M; Matarneh, S K; Scheffler, T L; Wachet, C; Gerrard, D E

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem energy metabolism drives hydrogen accumulation in muscle and results in a fairly constant ultimate pH. Extended glycolysis results in adverse pork quality and may be possible with greater adenonucleotide availability postmortem. We hypothesized that slowing adenonucleotide removal by reducing AMP deaminase activity would extend glycolysis and lower the ultimate pH of muscle. Longissimus muscle samples were incorporated into an in vitro system that mimics postmortem glycolysis with or without pentostatin, an AMP deaminase inhibitor. Pentostatin lowered ultimate pH and increased lactate and glucose 6-phosphate with time. Based on these results and that AMPK γ3(R200Q) mutated pigs (RN⁻) produce low ultimate pH pork, we hypothesized AMP deaminase abundance and activity would be lower in RN⁻ muscle than wild-type. RN⁻ muscle contained lower AMP deaminase abundance and activity. These data show that altering adenonucleotide availability postmortem can extend postmortem pH decline and suggest that AMP deaminase activity may, in part, contribute to the low ultimate pH observed in RN⁻ pork.

  9. Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain activation during semantic processing

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Tristan J.; Raj, Vidya; Lee, Junghee; Dietrich, Mary S.; Cao, Aize; Blackford, Jennifer U.; Salomon, Ronald M.; Park, Sohee; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Di Iorio, Christina R.; Cowan, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have verbal memory performance that is statistically significantly lower than comparison control subjects. Studies have correlated long-term MDMA use with altered brain activation in regions that play a role in verbal memory. Objectives The aim of our study was to examine the association of lifetime ecstasy use with semantic memory performance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. Methods 23 abstinent ecstasy polydrug users (age=24.57) and 11 controls (age=22.36) performed a two-part fMRI semantic encoding and recognition task. To isolate brain regions activated during each semantic task, we created statistical activation maps in which brain activation was greater for word stimuli than for non-word stimuli (corrected p<0.05). Results During the encoding phase, ecstasy polydrug users had greater activation during semantic encoding bilaterally in language processing regions, including Brodmann Areas 7, 39, and 40. Of this bilateral activation, signal intensity with a peak T in the right superior parietal lobe was correlated with lifetime ecstasy use (rs=0.43, p=0.042). Behavioral performance did not differ between groups. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that ecstasy polydrug users have increased brain activation during semantic processing. This increase in brain activation in the absence of behavioral deficits suggests that ecstasy polydrug users have reduced cortical efficiency during semantic encoding, possibly secondary to MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Although pre-existing differences cannot be ruled out, this suggests the possibility of a compensatory mechanism allowing ecstasy polydrug users to perform equivalently to controls, providing additional support for an association of altered cerebral neurophysiology with MDMA exposure. PMID:23241648

  10. Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain activation during semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Tristan J; Raj, Vidya; Lee, Junghee; Dietrich, Mary S; Cao, Aize; Blackford, Jennifer U; Salomon, Ronald M; Park, Sohee; Benningfield, Margaret M; Di Iorio, Christina R; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-05-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) polydrug users have verbal memory performance that is statistically significantly lower than that of control subjects. Studies have correlated long-term MDMA use with altered brain activation in regions that play a role in verbal memory. The aim of our study was to examine the association of lifetime ecstasy use with semantic memory performance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. A total of 23 abstinent ecstasy polydrug users (age = 24.57 years) and 11 controls (age = 22.36 years) performed a two-part functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) semantic encoding and recognition task. To isolate brain regions activated during each semantic task, we created statistical activation maps in which brain activation was greater for word stimuli than for non-word stimuli (corrected p < 0.05). During the encoding phase, ecstasy polydrug users had greater activation during semantic encoding bilaterally in language processing regions, including Brodmann areas 7, 39, and 40. Of this bilateral activation, signal intensity with a peak T in the right superior parietal lobe was correlated with lifetime ecstasy use (r s = 0.43, p = 0.042). Behavioral performance did not differ between groups. These findings demonstrate that ecstasy polydrug users have increased brain activation during semantic processing. This increase in brain activation in the absence of behavioral deficits suggests that ecstasy polydrug users have reduced cortical efficiency during semantic encoding, possibly secondary to MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Although pre-existing differences cannot be ruled out, this suggests the possibility of a compensatory mechanism allowing ecstasy polydrug users to perform equivalently to controls, providing additional support for an association of altered cerebral neurophysiology with MDMA exposure.

  11. Ensemble spontaneous activity alterations detected by CISA approach.

    PubMed

    Boudaoud, Sofiane; Rix, Hervé; Meste, Olivier; Cazals, Yves

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for detecting alterations in the Ensemble Spontaneous Activity (ESA), a random signal representing the composite spontaneous contribution of the auditory nerve recorded on the round window. The proposed method is based on shape analysis of the ESA amplitude histogram. For this task, we use a recent approach, the Corrected Integral Shape Averaging (CISA). Using this approach, a shape clustering algorithm is proposed to classify healthy and pathological ESA signals generated by a recent ESA model. This model allows a precise simulation of neural mechanisms occurring in the auditory nerve. The obtained results demonstrate that this shape analysis is very sensitive for detecting a small number of fibers with correlated firing, supposed to occur during a particular type of tinnitus. In comparison, the classical spectral index fails in this detection.

  12. Pharmacological activity of metal binding agents that alter copper bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Helsel, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    Iron, copper and zinc are required nutrients for many organisms but also potent toxins if misappropriated. An overload of any of these metals can be cytotoxic and ultimately lead to organ failure, whereas deficiencies can result in anemia, weakened immune system function, and other medical conditions. Cellular metal imbalances have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and infection. It is therefore critical for living organisms to maintain careful control of both the total levels and subcellular distributions of these metals to maintain healthy function. This perspective explores several strategies envisioned to alter the bioavailability of metal ions by using synthetic metal-binding agents targeted for diseases where misappropriated metal ions are suspected of exacerbating cellular damage. Specifically, we discuss chemical properties that influence the pharmacological outcome of a subset of metal-binding agents known as ionophores, and review several examples that have shown multiple pharmacological activities in metal-related diseases, with a specific focus on copper. PMID:25797044

  13. Conditions of Formation of Secondary Quartz in Hydrothermally Altered, Subsurface Dacite beneath the Deep-Sea PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanko, D. A.; Wicker, S. G.; Binns, R. A.

    2006-05-01

    New fluid inclusion (FI) data from secondary quartz within the altered felsic rocks underlying the PACMANUS hydrothermal field provide additional constraints on the thermal conditions and fluid salinities accompanying hydrothermal alteration. PACMANUS, at a water depth of about 1650 to 1700 m on the summit of the neovolcanic Pual Ridge in the eastern part of the Manus backarc basin, is an active seafloor system situated in a felsic volcanic setting at a convergent plate boundary. Two sites of active venting - Roman Ruins, with high-temperature (220-276° C) sulfide chimneys, and Snowcap, which is an area of lower-temperature (6- 65° C) diffuse flow - were cored during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. Drilling reached sub-seafloor depths of 387 m at Snowcap and 206 m at Roman Ruins. At both Snowcap and Roman Ruins, fresh dacite/rhyodacite is underlain by highly to completely altered rocks with clays (illite, illite-smectite, chlorite, and mixed layer clays), disseminated pyrite, silica and late stage anhydrite. At shallow depths the silica is mostly cristobalite, whereas quartz is the polymorph at depth. Secondary quartz occurs in amygdules, alone or with accessory anhydrite and pyrite; in cm-scale granular nodules; and as tiny grains forming an open mosaic with interstitial clays and pore space. Scarce FI in secondary quartz are small (10-20μ), irregular, and contain liquid (L) plus vapor. Only a few are arrayed along healed fractures, and most are interpreted as primary. FI from Snowcap homogenize to L between 290° C and 390° C. Ice melting temperatures vary between about -10° C and -0.4° C, with most ice melting near -2.0° C. Thus, while most FI have near-seawater salinities, a significant number are much more saline, while others are much less saline, approaching fresh water. FI from Roman Ruins homogenize between 257° C and 370° C, and ice melting temperatures vary from about -14° C to -1.2° C. These data are best explained if the hydrothermal

  14. The plant secondary metabolite citral alters water status and prevents seed formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Graña, E; Díaz-Tielas, C; López-González, D; Martínez-Peñalver, A; Reigosa, M J; Sánchez-Moreiras, A M

    2016-05-01

    Based on previous results, which showed that the secondary metabolite citral causes disturbances to plant water status, the present study is focused on demonstrating and detailing these effects on the water-related parameters of Arabidopsis thaliana adult plants, and their impact on plant fitness. Clear evidence of effects on water status and fitness were observed: plants treated with 1200 and 2400 μm citral showed decreased RWC, reduced Ψs , increased Ψw and reduced stomatal opening, even 7 days after the beginning of the experiment. Plant protection signals, such as leaf rolling or increased anthocyanin content, were also detected in these plants. In contrast, 14 days after beginning the treatment, treated plants showed signs of citral-related damage. Moreover, the reproductive success of treated plants was critically compromised, with prematurely withered flowers and no silique or seed development. This effect of citral on fitness of adult plants suggests a promising application of this natural compound in weed management by reducing the weed seed bank in the soil.

  15. Altered Resting-State Brain Activity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Li, Qiong; Chen, Baoyuan; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Structural and functional brain changes may contribute to neural dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the effect of OSA on resting-state brain activity has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the common brain networks in patients with OSA and their relationships with changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the corresponding brain regions. Designs: Resting-state functional and structural MRI data were acquired from patients with OSA and healthy controls. Seven brain networks were identified by independent component analysis. The rsFC in each network was compared between groups and the GMV of brain regions with significant differences in rsFC was also compared. Setting: University hospital. Patients and Participants: Twenty-four male patients with untreated OSA and 21 matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: OSA specifically affected the cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks but not the visual and auditory networks. The medial prefrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed decreased rsFC and GMV in patients with OSA, suggesting structural and functional deficits. The right DLPFC and left precentral gyrus showed decreased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting a functional deficit. The right posterior cingulate cortex demonstrated increased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting functional compensation. In patients with OSA, the rsFC of the right DLPFC was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: OSA specifically affects resting-state functional connectivity in cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks, which may be related to the impaired cognitive and motor functions in these patients. Citation: Zhang Q; Wang D; Qin W; Li Q; Chen B; Zhang Y; Yu C. Altered resting-state brain activity in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013

  16. Altered resting-state activity in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Nissilä, Juuso; Liettu, Anu; Remes, Jukka; Jokelainen, Jari; Takala, Timo; Aunio, Antti; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Koponen, Hannu; Zang, Yu-Feng; Tervonen, Osmo; Timonen, Markku; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    At present, our knowledge about seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is based mainly up on clinical symptoms, epidemiology, behavioral characteristics and light therapy. Recently developed measures of resting-state functional brain activity might provide neurobiological markers of brain disorders. Studying functional brain activity in SAD could enhance our understanding of its nature and possible treatment strategies. Functional network connectivity (measured using ICA-dual regression), and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were measured in 45 antidepressant-free patients (39.78 ± 10.64, 30 ♀, 15 ♂) diagnosed with SAD and compared with age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls (HCs) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. After correcting for Type 1 error at high model orders (inter-RSN correction), SAD patients showed significantly increased functional connectivity in 11 of the 47 identified RSNs. Increased functional connectivity involved RSNs such as visual, sensorimotor, and attentional networks. Moreover, our results revealed that SAD patients compared with HCs showed significant higher ALFF in the visual and right sensorimotor cortex. Abnormally altered functional activity detected in SAD supports previously reported attentional and psychomotor symptoms in patients suffering from SAD. Further studies, particularly under task conditions, are needed in order to specifically investigate cognitive deficits in SAD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Exposure to mercury alters early activation events in fish leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougal, K C; Johnson, M D; Burnett, K G

    1996-01-01

    Although fish in natural populations may carry high body burdens of both organic and inorganic mercury, the effects of this divalent metal on such lower vertebrates is poorly understood. In this report, inorganic mercury in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is shown to produce both high-dose inhibition and low-dose activation of leukocytes in a marine teleost fish, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of inorganic mercury > or = 10 microM suppressed DNA synthesis and induced rapid influx of radiolabeled calcium, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous cellular proteins. Lower concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of HgCl2 that activated cell growth also induced a slow sustained rise in intracellular calcium in cells loaded with the calcium indicator dye fura-2, but did not produce detectable tyrosine phosphorylation of leukocyte proteins. These studies support the possibility that subtoxic doses of HgCl2 may inappropriately activate teleost leukocytes, potentially altering the processes that regulate the magnitude and specificity of the fish immune response to environmental pathogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8930553

  18. Antifouling activity of secondary metabolites isolated from chinese marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Xin; Wu, Hui-Xian; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml(-1). Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml(-1) and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity.

  19. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of isoprene secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Moore, Richard H.; Nenes, Athanasios; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA), likely a significant source of global organic particulate matter and CCN, produced from the oxidation with OH from HONO/HOOH photolysis in a temperature-controlled SOA chamber. CCN concentrations, activation diameter, and droplet growth kinetic information were monitored as a function of supersaturation (from 0.3% to 1.5%) for several hours using a cylindrical continuous-flow streamwise thermal gradient CCN counter connected to a scanning mobility particle sizer. The initial SOA concentrations ranged from 2 to 30 μg m-3 and presented CCN activity similar to monoterpene SOA with an activation diameter of 35 nm for 1.5% supersaturation and 72 nm for 0.6% supersaturation. The CCN activity improved slightly in some experiments as the SOA aged chemically and did not depend significantly on the level of NOx during the SOA production. The measured activation diameters correspond to a hygroscopicity parameter κ value of 0.12, similar to κ values of 0.1 ± 0.04 reported for monoterpene SOA. Analysis of the water-soluble carbon extracted from filter samples of the SOA suggest that it has a κ of 0.2-0.3 implying an average molar mass between 90 and 150 g mol-1 (assuming a zero and 5% surface tension reduction with respect to water, respectively). These findings are consistent with known oxidation products of isoprene. Using threshold droplet growth analysis, the CCN activation kinetics of isoprene SOA was determined to be similar to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol.

  20. Small chemical chromatin effectors alter secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed

    Zutz, Christoph; Gacek, Agnieszka; Sulyok, Michael; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2013-10-07

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SM) such as patulin, pseurotin A, and cytochalasin E. In fungi, the production of most SM is strongly influenced by environmental factors and nutrients. Furthermore, it has been shown that the regulation of SM gene clusters is largely based on modulation of a chromatin structure. Communication between fungi and bacteria also triggers chromatin-based induction of silent SM gene clusters. Consequently, chemical chromatin effectors known to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs) influence the SM profile of several fungi. In this study, we tested the effect of five different chemicals, which are known to affect chromatin structure, on SM production in A. clavatus using two growth media with a different organic nitrogen source. We found that production of patulin was completely inhibited and cytochalasin E levels strongly reduced, whereas growing A. clavatus in media containing soya-derived peptone led to substantially higher pseurotin A levels. The HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, trichostatin A and butyrate, as well as the DNMT inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AZA) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, which was used as a proxy for bacterial fungal co-cultivation, had profound influence on SM accumulation and transcription of the corresponding biosynthetic genes. However, the repressing effect of the soya-based nitrogen source on patulin production could not be bypassed by any of the small chemical chromatin effectors. Interestingly, AZA influenced some SM cluster genes and SM production although no Aspergillus species has yet been shown to carry detectable DNA methylation.

  1. Stimulation in primary and secondary metabolism by elevated carbon dioxide alters green tea quality in Camellia sinensis L.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Lan; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2017-08-11

    Rising CO2 concentration, a driving force of climate change, is impacting global food security by affecting plant physiology. Nevertheless, the effects of elevated CO2 on primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) still remain largely unknown. Here we showed that exposure of tea plants to elevated CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1) for 24 d) remarkably improved both photosynthesis and respiration in tea leaves. Furthermore, elevated CO2 increased the concentrations of soluble sugar, starch and total carbon, but decreased the total nitrogen concentration, resulting in an increased carbon to nitrogen ratio in tea leaves. Among the tea quality parameters, tea polyphenol, free amino acid and theanine concentrations increased, while the caffeine concentration decreased after CO2 enrichment. The concentrations of individual catechins were altered differentially resulting in an increased total catechins concentration under elevated CO2 condition. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of catechins and theanine biosynthetic genes were up-regulated, while that of caffeine synthetic genes were down-regulated in tea leaves when grown under elevated CO2 condition. These results unveiled profound effects of CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis and respiration in tea plants, which eventually modulated the biosynthesis of key secondary metabolites towards production of a quality green tea.

  2. Biological activity of secondary metabolites from Bupleurum salicifolium (Umbelliferae).

    PubMed

    González, J A; Estévez-Braun, A; Estévez-Reyes, R; Bazzocchi, I L; Moujir, L; Jimenez, I A; Ravelo, A G; González, A G

    1995-01-15

    Secondary metabolites from Bupleurum salicifolium were tested against viruses, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the yeast Candida albicans, the nematodes Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis, the insect Spodoptera littoralis and the crustacean Artemia salina. These compounds were also tested against tumoral and non-tumoral cell lines. The polyacetylene 8S-heptadeca-2(Z)-9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-1,8-diol exhibited toxicity for A. salina and specific antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Nine of the lignans and one coumarin showed toxicity for A. salina, and the lignans bursehernin and matairesinol inhibited the hatching of the two nematode species. These are the first lignans that have been reported as affecting phytoparasitic nematodes, and the first natural products known to have an effect on the hatching of G. pallida. Lignans may play a role in the defence mechanisms of potato plants, as allelopathic substances acting against cyst-forming nematodes.

  3. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  4. Disruption of secondary structure by oxidative stress alters the cross-linking pattern of myosin by microbial transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunqiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-10-01

    Porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) was oxidatively stressed in an iron-H2O2 radical-producing system then subjected to microbial transglutaminase (TGase, E:S=1:20) at 4°C. Changes in the MP secondary structure and cross-linking site on myosin (subfragments S1, S2, rod, light meromyosin, and heavy meromyosin) after TGase treatment were investigated. Circular dichroism and FTIR recorded unraveling of helixes caused by both oxidation and TGase. The loss of α-helix due to TGase treatment was oxidation-dependent, namely, mild oxidation (0.1-1mM H2O2)>non-oxidation>moderate oxidation (5-20mM H2O2). Moreover, oxidation altered the myosin cross-linking pattern: TGase-initiated S1 cross-linking (which dominated non-oxidized MP) partially shifted to the rod under 0.1-0.5mM H2O2 and extensively to the S2 site with 20mM H2O2. Unraveling of the helical structure and formation of disulfide bonds due to oxidation were implicated in the altered myosin cross-linking pattern during subsequent TGase reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered brain activity during emotional empathy in somatoform disorder.

    PubMed

    de Greck, Moritz; Scheidt, Lisa; Bölter, Annette F; Frommer, Jörg; Ulrich, Cornelia; Stockum, Eva; Enzi, Björn; Tempelmann, Claus; Hoffmann, Thilo; Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Somatoform disorder patients suffer from impaired emotion recognition and other emotional deficits. Emotional empathy refers to the understanding and sharing of emotions of others in social contexts. It is likely that the emotional deficits of somatoform disorder patients are linked to disturbed empathic abilities; however, little is known so far about empathic deficits of somatoform patients and the underlying neural mechanisms. We used fMRI and an empathy paradigm to investigate 20 somatoform disorder patients and 20 healthy controls. The empathy paradigm contained facial pictures expressing anger, joy, disgust, and a neutral emotional state; a control condition contained unrecognizable stimuli. In addition, questionnaires testing for somatization, alexithymia, depression, empathy, and emotion recognition were applied. Behavioral results confirmed impaired emotion recognition in somatoform disorder and indicated a rather distinct pattern of empathic deficits of somatoform patients with specific difficulties in "empathic distress." In addition, somatoform patients revealed brain areas with diminished activity in the contrasts "all emotions"-"control," "anger"-"control," and "joy"-"control," whereas we did not find brain areas with altered activity in the contrasts "disgust"-"control" and "neutral"-"control." Significant clusters with less activity in somatoform patients included the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the left amygdala, the left postcentral gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus, the left posterior insula, and the bilateral cerebellum. These findings indicate that disturbed emotional empathy of somatoform disorder patients is linked to impaired emotion recognition and abnormal activity of brain regions responsible for emotional evaluation, emotional memory, and emotion generation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively.

  7. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Ji; Yu, Qian; Fan, Cunxiu; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in a decrease in oxygen transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity induced by hypoxia in patients with COPD. Twenty-five stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers were investigated. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal at resting state in the brain was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant decreases in ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus of patients with COPD. After controlling for SaO2, patients with COPD only showed an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus. Region of interest analysis showed a decrease in ALFF in the left precentral gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left caudate nucleus of patients with COPD. In all subjects, ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus showed positive correlations with visual reproduction. We demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activity of patients with COPD, which may have a pathophysiologic meaning.

  8. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Ji; Yu, Qian; Fan, Cunxiu; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in a decrease in oxygen transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity induced by hypoxia in patients with COPD. Patients and methods Twenty-five stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers were investigated. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal at resting state in the brain was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Whole-brain analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant decreases in ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus of patients with COPD. After controlling for SaO2, patients with COPD only showed an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus. Region of interest analysis showed a decrease in ALFF in the left precentral gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left caudate nucleus of patients with COPD. In all subjects, ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus showed positive correlations with visual reproduction. Conclusion We demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activity of patients with COPD, which may have a pathophysiologic meaning. PMID:27555761

  9. 53Mn-53Cr radiometric dating of secondary carbonates in CR chondrites: Timescales for parent body aqueous alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilly-Rehak, Christine E.; Huss, Gary R.; Nagashima, Kazuhide

    2017-03-01

    We present 53Mn-53Cr ages of secondary carbonates in Renazzo-like (CR) chondrites, determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The timing of aqueous alteration in CR chondrites has been unconstrained in the literature. We measured 53Mn-53Cr isotope systematics in carbonates from three different CR-chondrite lithologies. Calcite in the interchondrule matrix of Renazzo, calcite in the matrix of GRO 95577, and dolomite in a dark inclusion of Renazzo all show excesses in 53Cr, interpreted as the daughter product from the decay of 53Mn. The Renazzo calcite yields an initial ratio of (53Mn/55Mn)0 = (3.6 ± 2.7) × 10-6, and the Renazzo dark inclusion dolomite ranges from (53Mn/55Mn)0 = (3.1 ± 1.4) × 10-6 (corrected to the RSF of a calcite standard) to (3.7 ± 1.7) × 10-6 (corrected to an inferred dolomite RSF). When anchored to the D'Orbigny angrite, the Renazzo carbonates yield ages between 4563.6 and 4562.6 Ma, or ∼4.3-5.3 Myr after the formation of CV CAIs. Calcite measured in the heavily altered specimen GRO 95577 yields a shallower slope of (53Mn/55Mn)0 = (7.9 ± 2.8) × 10-7, corresponding to a much younger age of 4555.4 Ma, or ∼12.6 Myr after CAI formation. The two Renazzo ages are contemporaneous with Mn-Cr ages of carbonates in Tagish Lake, CI, and CM chondrites, but the GRO 95577 age is uniquely young. These findings suggest that early aqueous alteration on chondritic parent bodies was a common occurrence, likely driven by internal heating from 26Al decay after accretion. The young carbonate ages of GRO 95577 suggest that either the CR parent body was sufficiently large to sustain heating from 26Al for ∼8 Myr, or that late-stage impact events supplied heat to the region where GRO 95577 originated.

  10. Cloud condensation nucleus activation properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanreken, Timothy M.; Ng, Nga L.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2005-04-01

    Organic aerosols in general and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in particular are known to contribute significantly to the atmospheric population of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). However, current knowledge is limited with respect to the nature of this contribution. This study presents a series of experiments wherein the potential for biogenically derived SOA to act as CCN is explored. Five compounds were studied: four monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, and Δ3-carene) and one terpenoid alcohol (terpinene-4-ol). In each case the aerosol formation was driven by the reaction of ozone with the biogenic precursor. The SOA produced in each experiment was allowed to age for several hours, during which CCN concentrations were periodically measured at four supersaturations: S = 0.27%, 0.32%, 0.54%, and 0.80%. The calculated relationships between particle dry diameter and critical supersaturation were found to fall in the range of previously reported data for single-component organic aerosols; of the systems studied, α-pinene SOA was the least CCN active, while limonene SOA exhibited the strongest CCN activity. Interestingly, the inferred critical supersaturation of the SOA products was considerably more sensitive to particle diameter than was found in previous studies. Furthermore, the relationships between particle size and critical supersaturation for the monoterpene SOA shifted considerably over the course of the experiments, with the aerosol becoming less hygroscopic over time. These results are consistent with the progressive oligomerization of the SOA.

  11. Secondary Metabolites from Three Florida Sponges with Antidepressant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kochanowska, Anna J.; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Childress, Suzanne; El-Alfy, Abir; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Kelly, Michelle; Stewart, Gina S.; Sufka, Kenneth J.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well as sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones, were identified from both V. rigida and S. aurea despite their apparent taxonomic differences at the ordinal level. Similar metabolites found in these distinct sponge species of two different genera provide evidence for a microbial origin of the metabolites. Isolated compounds were evaluated in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) and the chick anxiety–depression continuum model. Among the isolated compounds, 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (1) exhibited significant antidepressant-like action in the rodent FST model, while 5-bromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (2) caused significant reduction of locomotor activity indicative of a potential sedative action. The current study provides ample evidence that marine natural products with the diversity of brominated marine alkaloids will provide potential leads for antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. PMID:18217716

  12. Secondary metabolites from three Florida sponges with antidepressant activity.

    PubMed

    Kochanowska, Anna J; Rao, Karumanchi V; Childress, Suzanne; El-Alfy, Abir; Matsumoto, Rae R; Kelly, Michelle; Stewart, Gina S; Sufka, Kenneth J; Hamann, Mark T

    2008-02-01

    Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well as sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones, were identified from both V. rigida and S. aurea despite their apparent taxonomic differences at the ordinal level. Similar metabolites found in these distinct sponge species of two different genera provide evidence for a microbial origin of the metabolites. Isolated compounds were evaluated in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) and the chick anxiety-depression continuum model. Among the isolated compounds, 5,6-dibromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 1) exhibited significant antidepressant-like action in the rodent FST model, while 5-bromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 2) caused significant reduction of locomotor activity indicative of a potential sedative action. The current study provides ample evidence that marine natural products with the diversity of brominated marine alkaloids will provide potential leads for antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs.

  13. Maternal Immune Activation Alters Fetal Brain Development through Interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen E. P.; Li, Jennifer; Garbett, Krassimira; Mirnics, Karoly; Patterson, Paul H.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are thought to result from the interaction between a susceptibility genotype and environmental risk factors. The offspring of women who experience infection while pregnant have an increased risk for these disorders. Maternal immune activation (MIA) in pregnant rodents produces offspring with abnormalities in behavior, histology, and gene expression that are reminiscent of schizophrenia and autism, making MIA a useful model of the disorders. However, the mechanism by which MIA causes long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring is unknown. Here we show that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for mediating the behavioral and transcriptional changes in the offspring. A single maternal injection of IL-6 on day 12.5 of mouse pregnancy causes prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) deficits in the adult offspring. Moreover, coadministration of an anti-IL-6 antibody in the poly(I:C) model of MIA prevents the PPI, LI, and exploratory and social deficits caused by poly(I:C) and normalizes the associated changes in gene expression in the brains of adult offspring. Finally, MIA in IL-6 knock-out mice does not result in several of the behavioral changes seen in the offspring of wild-type mice after MIA. The identification of IL-6 as a key intermediary should aid in the molecular dissection of the pathways whereby MIA alters fetal brain development, which can shed new light on the pathophysiological mechanisms that predispose to schizophrenia and autism. PMID:17913903

  14. Can human activities alter the drowning fate of barrier islands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, J.; Ashton, A. D.; Jin, D.; Hoagland, P.; Kite-Powell, H.

    2012-12-01

    during landward migration. The model also demonstrates the potential for discontinuous shoreline retreat, with alternating periods of barrier stability and rapid migration, even for constant rates of sea-level rise. Anthropic activities can strongly interact with these behaviors. In particular, considering only cross-shore processes, beach nourishment activities widen the beach and can affect shoreface fluxes, and dune building, which curtails the overwash process, can potentially enhance barrier drowning by reducing overwash fluxes. Furthermore, coastal protection activities of adjacent communities or even individual property holders can be uncoordinated or coordinated, with their effects coupled along the coast through coastal reorientation and gradients in alongshore sediment transport. In the coordinated framework, owners act in concert to alter the barrier based upon community benefits, whereas in the non-coordinated framework owners alter only their own property. Another important role in management is the perception of future sea-level-rise-associated losses—communities manage their coast differently depending on their adopted forecast for sea-level rise. We find that coordinated behavior coupled with natural processes can substantially affect the drowning scenarios from the individual decision-making process.

  15. Ontogenetic serotoninergic lesioning alters histaminergic activity in rats in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jośko, Jadwiga; Drab, Jacek; Jochem, Jerzy; Nowak, Przemysław; Szkilnik, Ryszard; Korossy-Mruk, Eva; Boroń, Dariusz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Halina; Brus, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine histamine content in the brain and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists on behavior of adult rats lesioned as neonates with the serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT). At 3 days after birth Wistar rats were pretreated with desipramine (20 mg/kg ip) before bilateral icv administration of 5,7-DHT (37.5 μg base on each side) or saline-ascorbic (0.1%) vehicle (control). At 10 week levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus by an HPLC/ED technique. In the hypothalamus, frontal cortex, hippocampus and medulla oblongata, the level of histamine was analyzed by an immunoenzymatic method. Behavioral observations (locomotion, exploratory-, oral-, and stereotyped activity) were performed, and effects of DA receptor agonists (SKF 38393, apomorphine) and histamine receptor antagonists S(+)chlorpheniramine (H(1)), cimetidine (H(2)), and thioperamide (H(3)) were determined. We confirmed that 5,7-DHT profoundly reduced contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the brain in adulthood. Histamine content was also reduced in all examined brain regions. Moreover, in 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats the locomotor and oral activity responses to thioperamide were altered, and apomorphine-induced stereotype was intensified. From the above, we conclude that an intact central serotoninergic system modulates histamine H(3) receptor antagonist effects on the dopaminergic neurons in rats.

  16. Nitrogen fertilizer application affects lodging resistance by altering secondary cell wall synthesis in japonica rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wujun; Wu, Longmei; Ding, Yanfeng; Yao, Xiong; Wu, Xiaoran; Weng, Fei; Li, Ganghua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-09-01

    Stem mechanical strength is an important agricultural quantitative trait that is closely related to lodging resistance in rice, which is known to be reduced by fertilizer with higher levels of nitrogen. To understand the mechanism that regulates stem mechanical strength in response to nitrogen, we analysed stem morphology, anatomy, mechanical properties, cell wall components, and expression of cell wall-related genes, in two varieties of japonica rice, namely, Wuyunjing23 (lodging-resistant variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety). The results showed that higher nitrogen fertilizer increased the lodging index in both varieties due to a reduction in breaking strength and bending stress, and these changes were larger in W3668. Cellulose content decreased slightly under higher nitrogen fertilizer, whereas lignin content reduced remarkably. Histochemical staining revealed that high nitrogen application decreased lignin deposition in the secondary cell wall of the sclerenchyma cells and vascular bundle cells compared with the low nitrogen treatments, while it did not alter the pattern of cellulose deposition in these cells in both Wuyunjing23 and W3668. In addition, the expression of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, OsPAL, OsCoMT, Os4CL3, OsCCR, OsCAD2, OsCAD7, OsCesA4, and OsCesA7, were also down-regulated under higher nitrogen conditions at the early stage of culm growth. These results suggest that the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis are down-regulated by higher nitrogen fertilizer, which causes lignin deficiency in the secondary cell walls and the weakening of mechanical tissue structure. Subsequently, this results in these internodes with reduced mechanical strength and poor lodging resistance.

  17. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  18. School Sports Opportunities Influence Physical Activity in Secondary School and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Daniel; Sabiston, Catherine; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the availability of intramural or extramural sports in secondary schools is associated with physical activity levels in youth throughout secondary school and at age 20. Methods: Eight hundred and eight adolescents from 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, provided physical…

  19. School Sports Opportunities Influence Physical Activity in Secondary School and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Daniel; Sabiston, Catherine; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the availability of intramural or extramural sports in secondary schools is associated with physical activity levels in youth throughout secondary school and at age 20. Methods: Eight hundred and eight adolescents from 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, provided physical…

  20. Extracurricular Physical Activity Programs in California Private Secondary Schools.

    PubMed

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-09-20

    Interscholastic, intramural, and club physical activity (PA) programs can be important contributors to student PA accrual at schools. Few studies have assessed factors related to the provision of these extracurricular PA programs, especially in private schools. We used a 16-item questionnaire to assess the associations and influences of selected factors relative to extracurricular PA program policies and practices in 450 private California secondary schools. Associations were evaluated using contingency table analyses (i.e., chi-squared, effect size, and post-hoc analyses). Six factors were associated with schools providing extracurricular PA programs: school location, level, enrollment, and religious classification and whether the physical education (PE) program met state PE time standards and was taught by PE specialists. Both static factors (e.g., school location, level, enrollment, and religious affiliation) and modifiable factors (e.g., meeting PE standards and employing specialists) affect the provision of extracurricular PA programs. As education is state-mandated, additional study is recommended to assess the generalizability of these findings to other states and to public schools.

  1. Regulation of Prolactin in Mice with Altered Hypothalamic Melanocortin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dutia, Roxanne; Kim, Andrea J.; Mosharov, Eugene; Savontaus, Eriika; Chua, Streamson C.; Wardlaw, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used two mouse models with genetic manipulation of the melanocortin system to investigate prolactin regulation. Mice with overexpression of the melanocortin receptor (MC-R) agonist, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (Tg-MSH) or deletion of the MC-R antagonist agouti-related protein (AgRP KO) were studied. Male Tg-MSH mice had lower blood prolactin levels at baseline (2.9±0.3 vs 4.7±0.7 ng/ml) and after restraint stress(68 ±6.5 vs 117±22 ng/ml) versus WT (p<0.05); however, pituitary prolactin content was not different. Blood prolactin was also decreased in male AgRP KO mice at baseline (4.2±0.5 vs 7.6±1.3 ng/ml) and after stress (60±4.5 vs 86.1±5.7 ng/ml) vs WT (p <0.001). Pituitary prolactin content was lower in male AgRP KO mice (4.3±0.3 vs 6.7±0.5 μg/pituitary, p <0.001) versus WT. No differences in blood or pituitary prolactin levels were observed in female AgRP KO mice versus WT. Hypothalamic dopamine activity was assessed as the potential mechanism responsible for changes in prolactin levels. Hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA was measured in both genetic models versus WT mice and hypothalamic dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content were measured in male AgRP KO and WT mice but neither were significantly different. However, these results do not preclude changes in dopamine activity as dopamine turnover was not directly investigated. This is the first study to show that baseline and stress-induced prolactin release and pituitary prolactin content are reduced in mice with genetic alterations of the melanocortin system and suggests that changes in hypothalamic melanocortin activity may be reflected in measurements of serum prolactin levels. PMID:22800691

  2. Characterization of the conformational alterations, reduced anticoagulant activity, and enhanced antiangiogenic activity of prelatent antithrombin.

    PubMed

    Richard, Benjamin; Swanson, Richard; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Ramirez, Ben; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Gettins, Peter G W; Olson, Steven T

    2008-05-23

    A conformationally altered prelatent form of antithrombin that possesses both anticoagulant and antiangiogenic activities is produced during the conversion of native to latent antithrombin (Larsson, H., Akerud, P., Nordling, K., Raub-Segall, E., Claesson-Welsh, L., and Björk, I. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11996-12002). Here, we show that the previously characterized prelatent antithrombin is a mixture of native antithrombin and a modified, true prelatent antithrombin that are resolvable by heparin-agarose chromatography. Kinetic analyses revealed that prelatent antithrombin is an intermediate in the conversion of native to latent antithrombin whose formation is favored by stabilizing anions of the Hofmeister series. Purified prelatent antithrombin had reduced anticoagulant function compared with native antithrombin, due to a reduced heparin affinity and consequent impaired ability of heparin to either bridge prelatent antithrombin and coagulation proteases in a ternary complex or to induce full conformational activation of the serpin. Significantly, prelatent antithrombin possessed an antiangiogenic activity more potent than that of latent antithrombin, based on the relative abilities of the two forms to inhibit endothelial cell growth. The prelatent form was conformationally altered from native antithrombin as judged from an attenuation of tryptophan fluorescence changes following heparin activation and a reduced thermal stability. The alterations are consistent with the limited structural changes involving strand 1C observed in a prelatent form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Dupont, D. M., Blouse, G. E., Hansen, M., Mathiasen, L., Kjelgaard, S., Jensen, J. K., Christensen, A., Gils, A., Declerck, P. J., Andreasen, P. A., and Wind, T. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36071-36081), since the (1)H NMR spectrum, electrophoretic mobility, and proteolytic susceptibility of prelatent antithrombin most resemble those of native rather than those of latent antithrombin

  3. Chemical epigenetics alters the secondary metabolite composition of guttate excreted by an atlantic-forest-soil-derived Penicillium citreonigrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoru; Sena Filho, José G; Hoover, Ashley R; King, Jarrod B; Ellis, Trevor K; Powell, Douglas R; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2010-05-28

    Chemical epigenetic manipulation of Penicillium citreonigrum led to profound changes in the secondary metabolite profile of its guttate. While guttate from control cultures exhibited a relatively simple assemblage of secondary metabolites, the guttate collected from cultures treated with 50 muM 5-azacytidine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) was highly enriched in compounds representing at least three distinct biosynthetic families. The metabolites obtained from the fungus included six azaphilones (sclerotiorin (1), sclerotioramine (6), ochrephilone (2), dechloroisochromophilone III (3), dechloroisochromophilone IV (4), and 6-((3E,5E)-5,7-dimethyl-2-methylenenona-3,5-dienyl)-2,4-dihydroxy-3-methylbenzaldehyde (5)), pencolide (7), and two new meroterpenes (atlantinones A and B (9 and 10, respectively)). While pencolide was detected in the exudates of both control and 5-azacytidine-treated cultures, all of the other natural products were found exclusively in the guttates of the epigenetically modified fungus. All of the metabolites from the P. citreonigrum guttate were tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay. Both sclerotiorin and sclerotioramine caused modest inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth; however, only sclerotioramine was active against a panel of Candida strains.

  4. Chemical Epigenetics Alters the Secondary Metabolite Composition of Guttate Excreted by an Atlantic-Forest-Soil-Derived Penicillium citreonigrum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoru; Filho, José G. Sena; Hoover, Ashley R.; King, Jarrod B.; Ellis, Trevor K.; Powell, Douglas R.; Cichewicz, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical epigenetic manipulation of Penicillium citreonigrum led to profound changes in the secondary metabolite profile of its guttate. While guttate from control cultures exhibited a relatively simple assemblage of secondary metabolites, the guttate collected from cultures treated with 50 μM 5-azacytidine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) were highly enriched in compounds representing at least three distinct biosynthetic families. The metabolites obtained from the fungus included six azaphilones (sclerotiorin (1), sclerotioramine (6), ochrephilone (2), dechloroisochromophilone III (3), dechloroisochromophilone IV (4), and 6-((3E,5E)-5,7-dimethyl-2-methylenenona-3,5-dienyl)-2,4-dihydroxy-3-methylbenzaldehyde (5)), pencolide (7), and two new meroterpenes (atlantinones A and B (9 and 10, respectively)). While pencolide was detected in the exudates of both control and 5-azacytidine-treated cultures, all of the other natural products were found exclusively in the guttates of the epigenetically modified fungus. All of the metabolites from the P. citreonigrum guttate were tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay. Both sclerotiorin and sclerotioramine caused modest inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth; however, only sclerotioramine was active against a panel of Candida strains. PMID:20450206

  5. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  6. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  7. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia—an activation likelihood estimation meta‐analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Damian M.; Haagensen, Brian N.; Lorentzen, Anne K.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Functional neuroimaging studies have yielded abnormal task‐related sensorimotor activation in dystonia, but the results appear to be rather variable across studies. Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta‐analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia‐related alterations in task‐related activity across studies. Activation likelihood estimates were based on previously reported regional maxima of task‐related increases or decreases in dystonia patients compared to healthy controls. The meta‐analyses encompassed data from 179 patients with dystonia reported in 18 functional neuroimaging studies using a range of sensorimotor tasks. Patients with dystonia showed bilateral increases in task‐related activation in the parietal operculum and ventral postcentral gyrus as well as right middle temporal gyrus. Decreases in task‐related activation converged in left supplementary motor area and left postcentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and dorsal midbrain. Apart from the midbrain cluster, all between‐group differences in task‐related activity were retrieved in a sub‐analysis including only the 14 studies on patients with focal dystonia. For focal dystonia, an additional cluster of increased sensorimotor activation emerged in the caudal cingulate motor zone. The results show that dystonia is consistently associated with abnormal somatosensory processing in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex along with abnormal sensorimotor activation of mesial premotor and right lateral temporal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 37:547–557, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26549606

  8. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian N; Lorentzen, Anne K; Eickhoff, Simon B; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-02-01

    Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Functional neuroimaging studies have yielded abnormal task-related sensorimotor activation in dystonia, but the results appear to be rather variable across studies. Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity across studies. Activation likelihood estimates were based on previously reported regional maxima of task-related increases or decreases in dystonia patients compared to healthy controls. The meta-analyses encompassed data from 179 patients with dystonia reported in 18 functional neuroimaging studies using a range of sensorimotor tasks. Patients with dystonia showed bilateral increases in task-related activation in the parietal operculum and ventral postcentral gyrus as well as right middle temporal gyrus. Decreases in task-related activation converged in left supplementary motor area and left postcentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and dorsal midbrain. Apart from the midbrain cluster, all between-group differences in task-related activity were retrieved in a sub-analysis including only the 14 studies on patients with focal dystonia. For focal dystonia, an additional cluster of increased sensorimotor activation emerged in the caudal cingulate motor zone. The results show that dystonia is consistently associated with abnormal somatosensory processing in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex along with abnormal sensorimotor activation of mesial premotor and right lateral temporal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 37:547-557, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cross-reactive memory CD8(+) T cells alter the immune response to heterologous secondary dengue virus infections in mice in a sequence-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Mathew, Anuja; Bashyam, Hema S; Rothman, Alan L

    2008-02-15

    Dengue virus is the causative agent of dengue fever and the more-severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Human studies suggest that the increased risk of DHF during secondary infection is due to immunopathology partially mediated by cross-reactive memory T cells from the primary infection. To model T cell responses to sequential infections, we immunized mice with different sequences of dengue virus serotypes and measured the frequency of peptide-specific T cells after infection. The acute response after heterologous secondary infections was enhanced compared with the acute or memory response after primary infection. Also, the hierarchy of epitope-specific responses was influenced by the specific sequence of infection. Adoptive-transfer experiments showed that memory T cells responded preferentially to the secondary infection. These findings demonstrate that cross-reactive T cells from a primary infection alter the immune response during a heterologous secondary infection.

  10. Altered activation patterns by triceps surae stretch reflex pathways in acute and chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Frigon, Alain; Johnson, Michael D; Heckman, C J

    2011-10-01

    Spinal reflexes are modified by spinal cord injury (SCI) due the loss of excitatory inputs from supraspinal structures and changes within the spinal cord. The stretch reflex is one of the simplest pathways of the central nervous system and was used presently to evaluate how inputs from primary and secondary muscle spindles interact with spinal circuits before and after spinal transection (i.e., spinalization) in 12 adult decerebrate cats. Seven cats were spinalized and allowed to recover for 1 mo (i.e., chronic spinal state), whereas 5 cats were evaluated before (i.e., intact state) and after acute spinalization (i.e., acute spinal state). Stretch reflexes were evoked by stretching the left triceps surae (TS) muscles. The force evoked by TS muscles was recorded along with the activity of several hindlimb muscles. Stretch reflexes were abolished in the acute spinal state due to an inability to activate TS muscles, such as soleus (Sol) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). In chronic spinal cats, reflex force had partly recovered but Sol and LG activity remained considerably depressed, despite the fact that injecting clonidine could recruit these muscles during locomotor-like activity. In contrast, other muscles not recruited in the intact state, most notably semitendinosus and sartorius, were strongly activated by stretching TS muscles in chronic spinal cats. Therefore, stretch reflex pathways from TS muscles to multiple hindlimb muscles undergo functional reorganization following spinalization, both acute and chronic. Altered activation patterns by stretch reflex pathways could explain some sensorimotor deficits observed during locomotion and postural corrections after SCI.

  11. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have been raised concerning the extent to which international banking facilities may purchase (or sell) IBF...

  12. 16 CFR 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inherent force activated secondary door... § 1211.13 Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) A force... when the door applies a 15 pound (66.7 N) or less force in the down or closing direction and when the...

  13. 16 CFR § 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inherent force activated secondary door... Standard § 1211.13 Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) A force... when the door applies a 15 pound (66.7 N) or less force in the down or closing direction and when the...

  14. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have been raised concerning the extent to which international banking facilities may purchase (or sell) IBF...

  15. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  16. Mixing relationships and the effects of secondary alteration in the Wishstone and Watchtower Classes of Husband Hill, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, Joel A.; McLennan, Scott M.; McSween, Harry Y.; DeSouza, Paulo A.; Klingelhöfer, Göstar

    2006-12-01

    The Wishstone and Watchtower Class rocks on Husband Hill preserve evidence for a geochemical relationship consistent with two-component mixing between a high Al2O3, TiO2, CaO, Na2O, P2O5 end-member and a second end-member enriched in the elements MgO, Zn, S, Br, and Cl. The first end-member appears to be reasonably well represented by rocks of the Wishstone Class, while the second end-member is consistent with a chemical component, not represented by any lithology encountered by Spirit. The Watchtower Class appears to be an intermediate in the mixture. The concentration of the redox sensitive elements Fe and Mn display no systematic variation between rock classes, and the Fe-redox state of the Watchtower Class is elevated relative to the Wishstone Class. Combined with evidence for two-component mixing, these observations suggest that the mixture was generated by interaction between an initially Wishstone-like deposit and a fluid phase enriched in the elements MgO, Zn, S, Br, and Cl. The fluid phase may have been weakly acidic (pH > 4) to basic (pH >= 9), resulting in oxidation and immobilization of Fe and Mn. A number of secondary rock surface alteration processes which obscure the mixing relationship are also identified. These include (1) removal of CaO and P2O5 from rock surfaces by dissolution of Ca-phosphate minerals under acidic, low water-to-rock ratio conditions, (2) addition of SO3 to rock surfaces via aeolian deposition of high SO3 soil and/or precipitation of sulfate salts from solution, and (3) homogenization of rock surface chemistry by soil contamination.

  17. Secondary Structure Alterations of Histones H2A and H2B in X-Irradiated Human Cancer Cells: Altered Histones Persist in Cells for at Least 24 Hours.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yudai; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari

    2015-11-01

    We measured and compared the circular dichroism (CD) spectra and secondary structures of histone proteins H2A, H2B and their variants extracted from X-irradiated and unirradiated human HeLa cells. Compared to unirradiated cells, a relative increase in α-helix structure and decrease in other secondary structures was observed in X-irradiated cells. These structural alterations persisted for at least 24 h, which is substantially longer than the 2 h generally known to be required for DNA double-strand break repair.

  18. TP53 alterations in primary and secondary Sézary syndrome: A diagnostic tool for the assessment of malignancy in patients with erythroderma

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Audrey; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Pham-Ledard, Anne; Bandres, Thomas; Poglio, Sandrine; Berhouet, Sabine; Vergier, Béatrice; Vial, Jean-Philippe; Chevret, Edith; Beylot-Barry, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Recent massive parallel sequencing data have evidenced the genetic diversity and complexity of Sézary syndrome mutational landscape with TP53 alterations being the most prevalent genetic abnormality. We analyzed a cohort of 35 patients with SS and a control group of 8 patients with chronic inflammatory dermatoses. TP53 status was analyzed at different clinical stages especially in 9 patients with a past-history of mycosis fungoides (MF), coined secondary SS. TP53 mutations were only detected in 10 patients with either primary or secondary SS (29%) corresponding to point mutations, small insertions and deletions which were unique in each case. Interestingly, TP53 mutations were both detected in sequential unselected blood mononuclear cells and in skin specimens. Cytogenetic analysis of blood specimens of 32 patients with SS showed a TP53 deletion in 27 cases (84%). Altogether 29 out of 35 cases exhibited TP53 mutation and/or deletion (83%). No difference in prognosis was observed according to TP53 status while patients with secondary SS had a worse prognosis than patients with primary SS. Interestingly, patients with TP53 alterations displayed a younger age and the presence of TP53 alteration at initial diagnosis stage supports a pivotal oncogenic role for TP53 mutation in SS as well as in erythrodermic MF making TP53 assessment an ancillary method for the diagnosis of patients with erythroderma as patients with inflammatory dermatoses did not display TP53 alteration. PMID:28301507

  19. TP53 alterations in primary and secondary Sézary syndrome: A diagnostic tool for the assessment of malignancy in patients with erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Gros, Audrey; Laharanne, Elodie; Vergier, Marie; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Pham-Ledard, Anne; Bandres, Thomas; Poglio, Sandrine; Berhouet, Sabine; Vergier, Béatrice; Vial, Jean-Philippe; Chevret, Edith; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Merlio, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Recent massive parallel sequencing data have evidenced the genetic diversity and complexity of Sézary syndrome mutational landscape with TP53 alterations being the most prevalent genetic abnormality. We analyzed a cohort of 35 patients with SS and a control group of 8 patients with chronic inflammatory dermatoses. TP53 status was analyzed at different clinical stages especially in 9 patients with a past-history of mycosis fungoides (MF), coined secondary SS. TP53 mutations were only detected in 10 patients with either primary or secondary SS (29%) corresponding to point mutations, small insertions and deletions which were unique in each case. Interestingly, TP53 mutations were both detected in sequential unselected blood mononuclear cells and in skin specimens. Cytogenetic analysis of blood specimens of 32 patients with SS showed a TP53 deletion in 27 cases (84%). Altogether 29 out of 35 cases exhibited TP53 mutation and/or deletion (83%). No difference in prognosis was observed according to TP53 status while patients with secondary SS had a worse prognosis than patients with primary SS. Interestingly, patients with TP53 alterations displayed a younger age and the presence of TP53 alteration at initial diagnosis stage supports a pivotal oncogenic role for TP53 mutation in SS as well as in erythrodermic MF making TP53 assessment an ancillary method for the diagnosis of patients with erythroderma as patients with inflammatory dermatoses did not display TP53 alteration.

  20. Improving crosswind stability of fast rail vehicles using active secondary suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Dirk; Berg, Mats; Persson, Rickard; Stichel, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Rail vehicles are today increasingly equipped with active suspension systems for ride comfort purposes. In this paper, it is studied whether these often powerful systems also can be used to improve crosswind stability. A fast rail vehicle equipped with active secondary suspension for ride comfort purposes is exposed to crosswind loads during curve negotiation. For high crosswind loads, the active secondary suspension is used to reduce the impact of crosswind on the vehicle. The control input is taken from the primary vertical suspension deflection. Three different control cases are studied and compared with the only comfort-oriented active secondary suspension and a passive secondary suspension. The application of active secondary suspension resulted in significantly improved crosswind stability.

  1. Investment activities in the U.S. secondary woodworking industry

    Treesearch

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. secondary woodworking industry has shown signs of improvement after the steep losses in sales volume associated with the housing crisis that began in 2007. Employment in several sectors has begun to increase, suggesting that companies that survived the downturn are positioning to increase sales growth. It is likely that investment plans to improve firm-level...

  2. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  3. Elections: Secondary Teaching Activities in the Participation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, John; Taft-Morales, Hugh

    One of a series of teacher-developed curriculum guides designed to encourage student participation and involvement in important social issues, this secondary level guide helps 7th through 12th grade English and social studies educators teach about the election process. An introductory section suggests practical considerations, means of enlisting…

  4. Altered calcium pump and secondary deficiency of γ-sarcoglycan and microspan in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from δ-sarcoglycan knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Álvarez, Rocío; Crosbie, Rachelle H.; Vega-Moreno, Jesús; Medina-Monares, Joel; Estrada, Francisco J.; Ortega, Alicia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoglycans (SGs) and sarcospan (SSPN) are transmembrane proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mutations in the genes encoding SGs cause many inherited forms of muscular dystrophy. In this study, using purified membranes of wild-type (WT) and δ-SG knockout (KO) mice, we found the specific localization of the SG-SSPN isoforms in transverse tubules (TT) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Immunoblotting revealed that the absence of δ-SG isoforms in TT and SR results in a secondary deficiency of γ-SG and µSPN. Our results showed augmented ATP hydrolytic activity, ATP-dependent calcium uptake and passive calcium efflux, probably through SERCA1 in KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we found a conformational change in SERCA1 isolated from KO muscle as demonstrated by calorimetric analysis. Following these alterations with mechanical properties, we found an increase in force in KO muscle with the same rate of fatigue but with a decreased fatigue recovery compared to WT. Together our observations suggest, for the first time, that the δ-SG isoforms may stabilize the expression of γ-SG and µSPN in the TT and SR membranes and that this possible complex may play a role in the maintenance of a stable level of resting cytosolic calcium concentration in skeletal muscle. PMID:20638123

  5. Altered calcium pump and secondary deficiency of gamma-sarcoglycan and microspan in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from delta-sarcoglycan knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Alvarez, Rocío; Crosbie, Rachelle H; Vega-Moreno, Jesús; Medina-Monares, Joel; Estrada, Francisco J; Ortega, Alicia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón

    2010-07-01

    Sarcoglycans (SGs) and sarcospan (SSPN) are transmembrane proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mutations in the genes encoding SGs cause many inherited forms of muscular dystrophy. In this study, using purified membranes of wild-type (WT) and delta-SG knockout (KO) mice, we found the specific localization of the SG-SSPN isoforms in transverse tubules (TT) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Immunoblotting revealed that the absence of delta-SG isoforms in TT and SR results in a secondary deficiency of gamma-SG and microSPN. Our results showed augmented ATP hydrolytic activity, ATP-dependent calcium uptake and passive calcium efflux, probably through SERCA1 in KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we found a conformational change in SERCA1 isolated from KO muscle as demonstrated by calorimetric analysis. Following these alterations with mechanical properties, we found an increase in force in KO muscle with the same rate of fatigue but with a decreased fatigue recovery compared to WT. Together our observations suggest, for the first time, that the delta-SG isoforms may stabilize the expression of gamma-SG and microSPN in the TT and SR membranes and that this possible complex may play a role in the maintenance of a stable level of resting cytosolic calcium concentration in skeletal muscle. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low molecular weight heparin restores antithrombin III activity from hyperglycemia induced alterations.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Palazzni, E; Quatraro, A; Giugliano, D

    1990-01-01

    Alteration of antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, glycemia level dependent, exists in diabetes mellitus. In this study the ability of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (Fluxum, Alfa-Wassermann S.p.A., Bologna, Italy), as well as unfractioned héparin, to preserve ATIII activity from glucose-induced alterations, both in vitro and in vivo, is reported. The subcutaneous and intravenous LMWH and heparin administration increases basal depressed ATIII activity in diabetic patients. Heparin shows an equivalent effect on both anti-IIa and anti-Xa activity of ATIII, while LMWH is more effective in preserving the anti-Xa activity. Similarity, heparin preserves ATIII activity from hyperglycemia-induced alterations, during hyperglycemic clamp, and LMWH infusion is able to preserve a significant amount of anti-Xa activity from glucose-induced alterations. Since diabetic patients show a high incidence of thrombotic accidents, LMWH appears to be a promising innovation for the prevention of diabetic thrombophylia.

  7. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  8. Autogenic training alters cerebral activation patterns in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Schlamann, Marc; Naglatzki, Ryan; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral activation patterns during the first three auto-suggestive phases of autogenic training (AT) were investigated in relation to perceived experiences. Nineteen volunteers trained in AT and 19 controls were studied with fMRI during the first steps of autogenic training. FMRI revealed activation of the left postcentral areas during AT in those with experience in AT, which also correlated with the level of AT experience. Activation of prefrontal and insular cortex was significantly higher in the group with experience in AT while insular activation was correlated with number years of simple relaxation exercises. Specific activation in subjects experienced in AT may represent a training effect. Furthermore, the correlation of insular activation suggests that these subjects are different from untrained subjects in emotional processing or self-awareness.

  9. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-12-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC.

  10. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity

    PubMed Central

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC. PMID:26558348

  11. The Current Status of Classroom Inclusion Activities of Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerst, Caryn M.; Whittington, M. Susie

    2009-01-01

    The current status of classroom inclusion activities among agriculture teachers in comprehensive secondary agricultural education programs in Ohio is reported. The researchers describe secondary agriculture teachers' needs related to teaching learners with special needs in inclusion classes, given legislative mandates. Specifically, the…

  12. Energy Use and the Environment. Concepts & Activities for the Classroom: Secondary Social Studies Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    As part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary environmental education program for elementary and secondary education in Hawaii, this teaching guide provides a variety of energy education activities for secondary social studies. An extensive introduction outlines the total program and how it fits into the general education program. It explains how…

  13. Compendium of Interdisciplinary Activities for an Introductory Course in Communication Systems at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David J.

    This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…

  14. Science/Technology/Society: Activities and Resources for Secondary Science and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    This book contains 45 activities suitable for use in secondary science and social studies classes. Except for the first four activities, which are quick attention getters, all the activities are presented in a standard format. Each begins with an introduction, that provides a brief overview of the activity's content and the teaching strategies…

  15. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  16. An Invasive Plant Promotes Its Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Competitiveness through Its Secondary Metabolites: Indirect Evidence from Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W. H.; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1–3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts. PMID:24817325

  17. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jacquelyn; Parisi, Lynn S.

    The activities in this book focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Several of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts. The book's 18 classroom activities are organized into three sections. Section 1, "Society and Culture," contains four activities in which…

  18. Altered glutamyl-aminopeptidase activity and expression in renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lorena; Sanz, Begoña; Perez, Itxaro; Sánchez, Clara E; Cándenas, M Luz; Pinto, Francisco M; Gil, Javier; Casis, Luis; López, José I; Larrinaga, Gorka

    2014-05-30

    Advances in the knowledge of renal neoplasms have demonstrated the implication of several proteases in their genesis, growth and dissemination. Glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GAP) (EC. 3.4.11.7) is a zinc metallopeptidase with angiotensinase activity highly expressed in kidney tissues and its expression and activity have been associated wtih tumour development. In this prospective study, GAP spectrofluorometric activity and immunohistochemical expression were analysed in clear-cell (CCRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytoma (RO). Data obtained in tumour tissue were compared with those from the surrounding uninvolved kidney tissue. In CCRCC, classic pathological parameters such as grade, stage and tumour size were stratified following GAP data and analyzed for 5-year survival. GAP activity in both the membrane-bound and soluble fractions was sharply decreased and its immunohistochemical expression showed mild staining in the four histological types of renal tumours. Soluble and membrane-bound GAP activities correlated with tumour grade and size in CCRCCs. This study suggests a role for GAP in the neoplastic development of renal tumours and provides additional data for considering the activity and expression of this enzyme of interest in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal neoplasms.

  19. Altered glutamyl-aminopeptidase activity and expression in renal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the knowledge of renal neoplasms have demonstrated the implication of several proteases in their genesis, growth and dissemination. Glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GAP) (EC. 3.4.11.7) is a zinc metallopeptidase with angiotensinase activity highly expressed in kidney tissues and its expression and activity have been associated wtih tumour development. Methods In this prospective study, GAP spectrofluorometric activity and immunohistochemical expression were analysed in clear-cell (CCRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytoma (RO). Data obtained in tumour tissue were compared with those from the surrounding uninvolved kidney tissue. In CCRCC, classic pathological parameters such as grade, stage and tumour size were stratified following GAP data and analyzed for 5-year survival. Results GAP activity in both the membrane-bound and soluble fractions was sharply decreased and its immunohistochemical expression showed mild staining in the four histological types of renal tumours. Soluble and membrane-bound GAP activities correlated with tumour grade and size in CCRCCs. Conclusions This study suggests a role for GAP in the neoplastic development of renal tumours and provides additional data for considering the activity and expression of this enzyme of interest in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal neoplasms. PMID:24885240

  20. Alteration of polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity by viable Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, A E; Danley, D L

    1980-01-01

    The response of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to blastospores and pseudo-hyphae of the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans has been studied in vitro and in vivo. Of the fungicidal mechanisms elucidated thus far, the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system appears to be most effective against cells of this fungus. In our studies on the interaction between murine PMN and blastospores, we assayed the release of H2O2 by PMN incubated with viable or killed, unopsonized or opsonized blastospores by using two assay systems, lysis of murine erythrocytes and oxidation of scopoletin. Our results showed that PMN released increasing amounts of H2O2 when incubated with increasing numbers of opsonized or unopsonized killed blastospores, but released decreasing amounts of H2O2 when incubated with increasing numbers of opsonized or unopsonized viable blastospores. The oxidative metabolic burst by PMN in the presence of viable or killed blastospores was also measured by using reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium and chemiluminescence. Viable blastospores stimulated a stronger metabolic burst than killed blastospores, suggesting that PMN respond to live blastospores more vigorously than killed blastospores; however, live blastospores appear to alter or inhibit the release of H2O2 by PMN. PMID:6991429

  1. Investigations of fungal secondary metabolites with potential anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Balde, ElHadj Saidou; Andolfi, Anna; Bruyère, Céline; Cimmino, Alessio; Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Vurro, Maurizio; Damme, Marc Van; Altomare, Claudio; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-05-28

    Fourteen metabolites, isolated from phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, were evaluated for their in vitro antigrowth activity for six distinct cancer cell lines, using the MTT colorimetric assay. Bislongiquinolide (1) and dihydrotrichodimerol (5), which belong to the bisorbicillinoid structural class, displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the six cancer cell lines studied, while the remaining compounds displayed weak or no activity. The data show that 1 and 5 have similar growth inhibitory activities with respect to those cancer cell lines that display certain levels of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli or those that are sensitive to apoptosis. Quantitative videomicroscopy analysis revealed that 1 and 5 exert their antiproliferative effect through cytostatic and not cytotoxic activity. The preliminary results from the current study have stimulated further structure-activity investigations with respect to the growth inhibitory activity of compounds belonging to the bisorbicillinoid group.

  2. 78 FR 9048 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Elementary-Secondary Staff Information Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Elementary-Secondary Staff Information Report; Cancellation of Hearing AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Cancellation of hearing...

  3. Altered Activity and Expression of Cytosolic Peptidases in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Itxaro; Blanco, Lorena; Sanz, Begoña; Errarte, Peio; Ariz, Usue; Beitia, Maider; Fernández, Ainhoa; Loizate, Alberto; Candenas, M Luz; Pinto, Francisco M; Gil, Javier; López, José I.; Larrinaga, Gorka

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The role of peptidases in carcinogenic processes and their potential usefulness as tumor markers in colorectal cancer (CRC) have been classically attributed to cell-surface enzymes. The objective of the present study was to analyze the activity and mRNA expression of three cytosolic peptidases in the CRC and to correlate the obtained results with classic histopathological parameters for tumor prognosis and survival. Methods: The activity and mRNA levels of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA), aminopeptidase B (APB) and pyroglutamyl-peptidase I (PGI) were measured by fluorimetric and quantitative RT-PCR methods in colorectal mucosa and tumor tissues and plasma samples from CRC patients (n=81). Results: 1) PSA and APB activity was higher in adenomas and carcinomas than in the uninvolved mucosa. 2) mRNA levels of PSA and PGI was lower in tumors. 3) PGI activity in CRC tissue correlated negatively with histological grade, tumor size and 5-year overall suvival of CRC patients. 4) Higher plasmatic APB activity was independently associated with better 5-year overall survival. Conclusions: Data suggest that cytosolic peptidases may be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis and point to the determination of this enzymes as a valuable method in the determination of CRC prognosis. PMID:26078706

  4. Exchange of active site residues alters substrate specificity in extremely thermostable β-glycosidase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Kuo Yuan; Subramani, Boopathi; Shen, San-Tai; Lee, Yu-May

    2015-09-01

    β-Glycosidase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 is a hyperthermophilic enzyme with β-glucosidase, β-mannosidase, β-fucosidase and β-galactosidase activities. Sequence alignment with other β-glycosidases from hyperthermophilic archaea showed two unique active site residues, Gln77 and Asp206. These residues were represented by Arg and Asp in all other hyperthermophilic β-glycosidases. The two active site residues were mutated to Q77R, D206N and D206Q, to study the role of these unique active site residues in catalytic activity and to alter the substrate specificity to enhance its β-glucosidase activity. The secondary structure analysis of all the mutants showed no change in their structure and exhibited in similar conformation like wild-type as they all existed in dimer form in an SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Q77R and D206Q affected the catalytic activity of the enzyme whereas the D206N altered the catalytic turn-over rate for glucosidase and mannosidase activities with fucosidase activity remain unchanged. Gln77 is reported to interact with catalytic nucleophile and Asp206 with axial C2-hydroxyl group of substrates. Q77R might have made some changes in three dimensional structure due to its electrostatic effect and lost its catalytic activity. The extended side chains of D206Q is predicted to affect the substrate binding during catalysis. The high-catalytic turn-over rate by D206N for β-glucosidase activity makes it a useful enzyme in cellulose degradation at high temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered Error-Related Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schultz, Christoph; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Nenadic, Igor; Axer, Martina; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and executive cognitive control are core features of schizophrenia. However, findings regarding functional activation strengths are heterogeneous, partly due to differences in task demands and behavioral performance. Previous investigators proposed integrating these heterogeneous findings into a comprehensive model…

  6. Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speshock, Janice L.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Szymanski, Eric R.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2011-12-01

    Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

  7. Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro.

    PubMed

    Speshock, Janice L; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K; Szymanski, Eric R; Hussain, Saber M

    2011-12-01

    Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

  8. Acute Neuroactive Drug Exposures alter Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the development of a rapid in vivo screen for prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae by assessing the acute effects of prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. Initially,...

  9. Environmental influences on activity patterns in altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    De Weer, A-S; Da Ros, M; Berré, J; Mélot, C; Goldman, S; Peigneux, P

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in disorders of consciousness (DOC) circadian variations in motor patterns and their possible synchronization with physiologically regulated light variations and/or a social environmental factor, i.e. presence and actions of other persons. Actimetric and ambient light levels recordings were obtained during 4-9 days in two patients with traumatic brain injury (TB1 and TB2) in a minimally conscious state (MCS), one MCS (AI1) and one comatose (AI2) anoxic-ischaemic patients. Environmental changes were automatically recorded using a video system. Minute light variations correlated with motor activity in all patients. However, motor activity was significantly higher during day than nighttime and correlated with social environmental changes, in patients TB1 and TB2 only. Night-day circadian variations in motor activity patterns and influence of social stimulations were observed in traumatic MCS patients only. Nonetheless, rapid light variations may temporarily promote increased arousal, and consequently motor activity, in all DOCs. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  10. Acute Neuroactive Drug Exposures alter Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the development of a rapid in vivo screen for prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae by assessing the acute effects of prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. Initially,...

  11. Acute neuroactive drug exposures alter locomotor activity in larval zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA's prioritization of toxic chemicals, we are characterizing the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae after exposure to prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. MPTP (1-methyl-4phenyl- 1 ,2,3,6-...

  12. Acute neuroactive drug exposures alter locomotor activity in larval zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA's prioritization of toxic chemicals, we are characterizing the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae after exposure to prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. MPTP (1-methyl-4phenyl- 1 ,2,3,6-...

  13. Repression and activation by multiprotein complexes that alter chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Kingston, R E; Bunker, C A; Imbalzano, A N

    1996-04-15

    Recent studies have provided strong evidence that macromolecular complexes are used in the cell to remodel chromatin structure during activation and to create an inaccessible structure during repression, Although there is not yet any rigorous demonstration that modification of chromatin structure plays a direct, causal role in either activation or repression, there is sufficient smoke to indicate the presence of a blazing inferno nearby. It is clear that complexes that remodel chromatin are tractable in vitro; hopefully this will allow the establishment of systems that provide a direct analysis of the role that remodeling might play in activation. These studies indicate that establishment of functional systems to corroborate the elegant genetic studies on repression might also be tractable. As the mechanistic effects of these complexes are sorted out, it will become important to understand how the complexes are regulated. In many of the instances discussed above, the genes whose products make up these complexes were identified in genetic screens for effects on developmental processes. This implies a regulation of the activity of these complexes in response to developmental cues and further implies that the work to fully understand these complexes will occupy a generation of scientists.

  14. Compounds from silicones alter enzyme activity in curing barnacle glue and model enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Daniel; Orihuela, Beatriz; Harder, Tilmann; Stafslien, Shane; Chisholm, Bret; Dickinson, Gary H

    2011-02-17

    Attachment strength of fouling organisms on silicone coatings is low. We hypothesized that low attachment strength on silicones is, in part, due to the interaction of surface available components with natural glues. Components could alter curing of glues through bulk changes or specifically through altered enzyme activity. GC-MS analysis of silicone coatings showed surface-available siloxanes when the coatings were gently rubbed with a cotton swab for 15 seconds or given a 30 second rinse with methanol. Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings. The hypothesis that silicone components alter glue curing enzymes was tested with curing barnacle glue and with commercial enzymes. In our model, barnacle glue curing involves trypsin-like serine protease(s), which activate enzymes and structural proteins, and a transglutaminase which cross-links glue proteins. Transglutaminase activity was significantly altered upon exposure of curing glue from individual barnacles to silicone eluates. Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents. Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties. Altered curing of natural glues has potential in fouling management.

  15. Compounds from Silicones Alter Enzyme Activity in Curing Barnacle Glue and Model Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Daniel; Orihuela, Beatriz; Harder, Tilmann; Stafslien, Shane; Chisholm, Bret; Dickinson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Attachment strength of fouling organisms on silicone coatings is low. We hypothesized that low attachment strength on silicones is, in part, due to the interaction of surface available components with natural glues. Components could alter curing of glues through bulk changes or specifically through altered enzyme activity. Methodology/Principal Findings GC-MS analysis of silicone coatings showed surface-available siloxanes when the coatings were gently rubbed with a cotton swab for 15 seconds or given a 30 second rinse with methanol. Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings. The hypothesis that silicone components alter glue curing enzymes was tested with curing barnacle glue and with commercial enzymes. In our model, barnacle glue curing involves trypsin-like serine protease(s), which activate enzymes and structural proteins, and a transglutaminase which cross-links glue proteins. Transglutaminase activity was significantly altered upon exposure of curing glue from individual barnacles to silicone eluates. Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents. Conclusions/Significance Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties. Altered curing of natural glues has potential in fouling management. PMID:21379573

  16. Physical Activity & Sport for the Secondary School Student. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Neil J., Ed.

    This collection of papers offers a comprehensive text about contemporary physical activities and sports forms. It provides students with an overview of the various physical activities, skill technique required, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategies, equipment, and related terminology. The 26 papers are: (1) "Physical Fitness"…

  17. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  18. Physical Activity & Sport for the Secondary School Student. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Neil J., Ed.

    This collection of papers offers a comprehensive text about contemporary physical activities and sports forms. It provides students with an overview of the various physical activities, skill technique required, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategies, equipment, and related terminology. The 26 papers are: (1) "Physical Fitness"…

  19. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  20. New Aquatic Activities and Games for Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Aaron; Reimann, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide educators with usable, nontraditional aquatic activities that can be adapted for swimmers and non-swimmers alike. Educators are oriented to a variety of aquatic techniques designed to challenge both health- and skill-related fitness components. By using a series of activity cards, the authors have blended…

  1. New Aquatic Activities and Games for Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Aaron; Reimann, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide educators with usable, nontraditional aquatic activities that can be adapted for swimmers and non-swimmers alike. Educators are oriented to a variety of aquatic techniques designed to challenge both health- and skill-related fitness components. By using a series of activity cards, the authors have blended…

  2. Life Skills Activities for Secondary Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannix, Darlene

    This resource for life skills activities for adolescents with special needs covers aspects of interpersonal relationships, communication skills, academic and school skills, practical living skills, vocational skills, problem-solving skills, and lifestyle choices. Included are 190 illustrated activity sheets with related exercises, discussion…

  3. Chronic Stress Alters Neural Activity in Medial Prefrontal Cortex During Retrieval of Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Wilber, Aaron A.; Walker, Adam G.; Southwood, Christopher J.; Farrell, Mollee R.; Lin, Grant L.; Rebec, George V.; Wellman, Cara L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic restraint stress produces morphological changes in medial prefrontal cortex and disrupts a prefrontally mediated behavior, retrieval of extinction. To assess potential physiological correlates of these alterations, we compared neural activity in infralimbic and prelimbic cortex of unstressed versus stressed rats during fear conditioning and extinction. After implantation of microwire bundles into infralimbic or prelimbic cortex, rats were either unstressed or stressed via placement in a plastic restrainer (3 h/day for 1 week). Rats then underwent fear conditioning and extinction while activity of neurons in infralimbic or prelimbic cortex was recorded. Percent freezing and neural activity were assessed during all phases of training. Chronic stress enhanced freezing during acquisition of conditioned fear, and altered both prelimbic and infralimbic activity during this phase. Stress did not alter initial extinction or conditioned stimulus (CS)-related activity during this phase. However, stress impaired retrieval of extinction assessed 24 h later, and this was accompanied by alterations in neuronal activity in both prelimbic and infralimbic cortex. In prelimbic cortex, unstressed rats showed decreased activity in response to CS presentation, whereas stressed rats showed no change. In infralimbic cortex, neurons in unstressed rats exhibited increased firing in response to the CS, whereas stressed rats showed no increase in infralimbic firing during the tone. Finally, CS-related firing in infralimbic but not prelimbic cortex was correlated with extinction retrieval. Thus, the stress-induced alteration of neuronal activity in infralimbic cortex may be responsible for the stress-induced deficit in retrieval of extinction. PMID:21044660

  4. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  5. Calcium alloy as active material in secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Roche, Michael F.; Preto, Sandra K.; Martin, Allan E.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium alloys such as calcium-aluminum and calcium-silicon, are employed as active material within a rechargeable negative electrode of an electrochemical cell. Such cells can use a molten salt electrolyte including calcium ions and a positive electrode having sulfur, sulfides, or oxides as active material. The calcium alloy is selected to prevent formation of molten calcium alloys resulting from reaction with the selected molten electrolytic salt at the cell operating temperatures.

  6. Postnatal foraging demands alter adrenocortical activity and psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D M; Kim, S; Schatzberg, A F; Levine, S

    1998-05-01

    Mother squirrel monkeys stop carrying infants at earlier ages in high-demand (HD) conditions where food is difficult to find relative to low-demand (LD) conditions. To characterize these transitions in psychosocial development, from 10- to 21-weeks postpartum we collected measures of behavior, adrenocortical activity, and social transactions coded for initiator (mother or infant), goal (make-contact or break-contact), and outcome (success or failure). Make-contact attempts were most often initiated by HD infants, but mothers often opposed these attempts and less than 50% were successful. Break-contact attempts were most often initiated by LD infants, but mothers often opposed these attempts and fewer LD than HD infant break-contact attempts were successful. Plasma levels of cortisol were significantly higher in HD than LD mothers, but differences in adrenocortical activity were less consistent in their infants. HD and LD infants also spent similar amounts of time nursing on their mothers and feeding on solid foods. By rescheduling some transitions in development (carry-->self-transport), and not others (nursing-->self-feeding), mothers may have partially protected infants from the immediate impact of an otherwise stressful foraging task.

  7. Alterations in electrodermal activity and cardiac parasympathetic tone during hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Kekecs, Zoltán; Szekely, Anna; Varga, Katalin

    2016-02-01

    Exploring autonomic nervous system (ANS) changes during hypnosis is critical for understanding the nature and extent of the hypnotic phenomenon and for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of hypnosis in different medical conditions. To assess ANS changes during hypnosis, electrodermal activity and pulse rate variability (PRV) were measured in 121 young adults. Participants either received hypnotic induction (hypnosis condition) or listened to music (control condition), and both groups were exposed to test suggestions. Blocks of silence and experimental sound stimuli were presented at baseline, after induction, and after de-induction. Skin conductance level (SCL) and high frequency (HF) power of PRV measured at each phase were compared between groups. Hypnosis decreased SCL compared to the control condition; however, there were no group differences in HF power. Furthermore, hypnotic suggestibility did not moderate ANS changes in the hypnosis group. These findings indicate that hypnosis reduces tonic sympathetic nervous system activity, which might explain why hypnosis is effective in the treatment of disorders with strong sympathetic nervous system involvement, such as rheumatoid arthritis, hot flashes, hypertension, and chronic pain. Further studies with different control conditions are required to examine the specificity of the sympathetic effects of hypnosis.

  8. Microglia mechanics: immune activation alters traction forces and durotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Bollmann, Lars; Koser, David E.; Shahapure, Rajesh; Gautier, Hélène O. B.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Gather, Malte C.; Ulbricht, Elke; Franze, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells are key players in the primary immune response of the central nervous system. They are highly active and motile cells that chemically and mechanically interact with their environment. While the impact of chemical signaling on microglia function has been studied in much detail, the current understanding of mechanical signaling is very limited. When cultured on compliant substrates, primary microglial cells adapted their spread area, morphology, and actin cytoskeleton to the stiffness of their environment. Traction force microscopy revealed that forces exerted by microglia increase with substrate stiffness until reaching a plateau at a shear modulus of ~5 kPa. When cultured on substrates incorporating stiffness gradients, microglia preferentially migrated toward stiffer regions, a process termed durotaxis. Lipopolysaccharide-induced immune-activation of microglia led to changes in traction forces, increased migration velocities and an amplification of durotaxis. We finally developed a mathematical model connecting traction forces with the durotactic behavior of migrating microglial cells. Our results demonstrate that microglia are susceptible to mechanical signals, which could be important during central nervous system development and pathologies. Stiffness gradients in tissue surrounding neural implants such as electrodes, for example, could mechanically attract microglial cells, thus facilitating foreign body reactions detrimental to electrode functioning. PMID:26441534

  9. Lack of activation of human secondary somatosensory cortex in Unverricht-Lundborg type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Forss, N; Silén, T; Karjalainen, T

    2001-01-01

    Previous electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic studies have demonstrated giant early somatosensory cortical responses in patients with cortical myoclonus. We applied whole-scalp magnetoencephalography to study activation sequences of the somatosensory cortical network in 7 patients with Unverricht-Lundborg-type progressive myoclonus epilepsy diagnostically verified by DNA analysis. Responses to electric median nerve stimuli displayed 30-msec peaks at the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex that were four times stronger in patients than in control subjects. The amplitudes of 20-msec responses did not significantly differ between the groups. In contrast to control subjects, 5 patients displayed ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex activity at 48 to 61 msec in response to both left- and right-sided median nerve stimuli. Furthermore, their secondary somatosensory cortex was not significantly activated. These abnormalities indicate altered responsiveness of the entire somatosensory cortical network outside the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg-type progressive myoclonus epilepsy. The deficient activation of the secondary somatosensory cortex in Unverricht-Lundborg patients may reflect disturbed sensorimotor integration, probably related to impaired movement coordination.

  10. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Altering Pollen Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Activity.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Haque, Tamanna; Tudor, Richard L; Barron, Yoshimi; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Cotton, Nicholas P J; de Graaf, Barend H J; White, Scott A; Cooper, Helen J; Franklin, F Christopher H; Harper, Jeffery F; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2017-03-01

    Protein phosphorylation regulates numerous cellular processes. Identifying the substrates and protein kinases involved is vital to understand how these important posttranslational modifications modulate biological function in eukaryotic cells. Pyrophosphatases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate (PPi) to inorganic phosphate Pi, driving biosynthetic reactions; they are essential for low cytosolic inorganic phosphate. It was suggested recently that posttranslational regulation of Family I soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (sPPases) may affect their activity. We previously demonstrated that two pollen-expressed sPPases, Pr-p26.1a and Pr-p26.1b, from the flowering plant Papaver rhoeas were inhibited by phosphorylation. Despite the potential significance, there is a paucity of data on sPPase phosphorylation and regulation. Here, we used liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry to map phosphorylation sites to the otherwise divergent amino-terminal extensions on these pollen sPPases. Despite the absence of reports in the literature on mapping phosphorylation sites on sPPases, a database survey of various proteomes identified a number of examples, suggesting that phosphorylation may be a more widely used mechanism to regulate these enzymes. Phosphomimetic mutants of Pr-p26.1a/b significantly and differentially reduced PPase activities by up to 2.5-fold at pH 6.8 and 52% in the presence of Ca(2+) and hydrogen peroxide over unmodified proteins. This indicates that phosphoregulation of key sites can inhibit the catalytic responsiveness of these proteins in concert with key intracellular events. As sPPases are essential for many metabolic pathways in eukaryotic cells, our findings identify the phosphorylation of sPPases as a potential master regulatory mechanism that could be used to attenuate metabolism.

  11. MiR-199a Inhibits Secondary Envelopment of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Through the Downregulation of Cdc42-specific GTPase Activating Protein Localized in Golgi Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Suemasa, Fumiko; Sagara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shinya; Ino, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Kurokawa, Kazuo; Todo, Tomoki; Nakano, Akihiko; Iba, Hideo

    2017-07-27

    Because several studies have shown that exogenous miR-199a has antiviral effects against various viruses, including herpesviruses, we examined how miR-199a exerts its antiviral effects using epithelial tumour cell lines infected with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). We found that both miR-199a-5p and -3p impair the secondary envelopment of HSV-1 by suppressing their common target, ARHGAP21, a Golgi-localized GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42. We further found that the trans-cisternae of the Golgi apparatus are a potential membrane compartment for secondary envelopment. Exogenous expression of either pre-miR-199a or sh-ARHGAP21 exhibited shared phenotypes i.e. alteration of Golgi function in uninfected cells, inhibition of HSV-1 secondary envelopment, and reduction of trans-Golgi proteins upon HSV-1 infection. A constitutively active form of Cdc42 also inhibited HSV-1 secondary envelopment. Endogenous levels of miR-199a in epithelial tumour cell lines were negatively correlated with the efficiency of HSV-1 secondary envelopment within these cells. These results suggest that miR-199a is a crucial regulator of Cdc42 activity on Golgi membranes, which is important for the maintenance of Golgi function and for the secondary envelopment of HSV-1 upon its infection.

  12. Cybernated Storytelling: Revitalising Storytelling Activities for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosli, Roziana M.; Idrus, Faizah

    2017-01-01

    Storytelling is one of the most common activities used in teaching English proficiency to language students. It is widely accepted as a teaching technique by many educators because it engages students in learning. This study seeks to examine students' readiness in using technology-aided applications in telling their stories. It also investigates…

  13. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  14. Views of Turkish Teachers on Extracurricular Activities at Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Ömer Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    Extracurricular activities are educational applications for students outside the school curriculum that require specific knowledge, skills, and behaviors as well as continuity of participation. Because student experiences inside the classroom are organized according to the educator's or institution's instructional goals, which themselves are…

  15. Using Pedometers to Promote Physical Activity in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lori; Tannehill, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Some schools across the country have recently reduced the time and frequency that students spend participating in physical education. During the school day children spend considerably more time sitting and listening than they do moving and being physically active. Devoting more time to academics may be producing more knowledgeable and academically…

  16. Healthy Activity for Secondary Students. A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Brooks A.; Turman, Jo

    1996-01-01

    Describes a collaborative project designed to help high school students understand healthy exercise. The project involved preservice physical education majors who acted as fitness facilitators and motivators to the high school students who selected on and off campus, moderate intensity activities. Both groups of students tracked progress and…

  17. Setting the Stage for Physical Activity for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccomascolo, Lori; Riebe, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Despite the positive long-term physiological and psychological effects of exercise, many young adults between the ages of 12 and 21 years do not participate in regular physical activity. With the time constraints and other challenges in teaching and assessing students, physical educators need realistic strategies that will help in their efforts to…

  18. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  19. Springboards into Holocaust: Five Activities for Secondary Social Studies Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney

    2000-01-01

    Explains that in a study of the Holocaust teachers must connect the stories of the Holocaust to the lives of their students. Provides five activities about the Holocaust that focus upon teaching tolerance. Addresses the children of the Holocaust, difference versus deviance, social identity, and The Night of Broken Glass. (CMK)

  20. Exogenously applied 24-epi brassinolide reduces lignification and alters cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis in the secondary xylem of Liriodendron tulipifera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyunjung; Do, Jihye; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, Young Im; Kim, Wook; Kwon, Mi

    2014-05-01

    The roles of brassinosteroids (BRs) in vasculature development have been implicated based on an analysis of Arabidopsis BR mutants and suspension cells of Zinnia elegans. However, the effects of BRs in vascular development of a woody species have not been demonstrated. In this study, 24-epi brassinolide (BL) was applied to the vascular cambium of a vertical stem of a 2-year-old Liriodendron, and the resulting chemical and anatomical phenotypes were characterized to uncover the roles of BRs in secondary xylem formation of a woody species. The growth in xylary cells was clearly promoted when treated with BL. Statistical analysis indicated that the length of both types of xylary cells (fiber and vessel elements) increased significantly after BL application. Histochemical analysis demonstrated that BL-induced growth promotion involved the acceleration of cell division and cell elongation. Histochemical and expression analysis of several lignin biosynthetic genes indicated that most genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway were significantly down-regulated in BL-treated stems compared to that in control stems. Chemical analysis of secondary xylem demonstrated that BL treatment induced significant modification in the cell wall carbohydrates, including biosynthesis of hemicellulose and cellulose. Lignocellulose crystallinity decreased significantly, and the hemicellulose composition changed with significant increases in galactan and arabinan. Thus, BL has regulatory roles in the biosynthesis and modification of secondary cell wall components and cell wall assembly during secondary xylem development in woody plants.

  1. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  2. Evening physical activity alters wrist temperature circadian rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Sastre, Patricia; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Ordovás, José María; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Garaulet, Marta

    2014-03-01

    The adequate time to perform physical activity (PA) to maintain optimal circadian system health has not been defined. We studied the influence of morning and evening PA on circadian rhythmicity in 16 women with wrist temperature (WT). Participants performed controlled PA (45 min continuous-running) during 7 days in the morning (MPA) and evening (EPA) and results were compared with a no-exercise-week (C). EPA was characterized by a lower amplitude (evening: 0.028 ± 0.01 °C versus control: 0.038 ± 0.016 °C; p < 0.05) less pronounced second-harmonic (power) (evening: 0.41 ± 0.47 versus morning: 1.04 ± 0.59); and achrophase delay (evening: 06:35 ± 02:14 h versus morning: 04:51 ± 01:11 h; p < 0.05) as compared to MPA and C. Performing PA in the late evening might not be as beneficial as in the morning.

  3. Fast Single-Cell Patterning for Study of Drug-Induced Phenotypic Alterations of HeLa Cells Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Chen, Yin; Weng, Lu-Tao; Leung, Mark; Xing, Xiaoxing; Fan, Zhiyong; Wu, Hongkai

    2016-12-20

    A facile single-cell patterning (ScP) method was developed and integrated with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) for the study of drug-induced cellular phenotypic alterations. Micropatterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stencil film and centrifugation-assisted cell trapping were combined for the preparation of on-surface single-cell microarrays, which exhibited both high site occupancy (>90%) and single-cell resolution (>97%). TOF-SIMS is a surface-sensitive mass spectrometry and is increasingly utilized in biological studies. Here we demonstrated, for the first time, its successful application in high-throughput single-cell analysis. Drug-induced phenotypic alterations of HeLa cells in the early stage of apoptosis were investigated using TOF-SIMS. The major molecular sources of variations were analyzed by principle component analysis (PCA).

  4. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Fleißner, André

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi.

  5. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  6. Prediction of adolescents doing physical activity after completing secondary education.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Huéscar, Elisa; Cervelló, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study, based on the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) was to test the prediction power of student's responsibility, psychological mediators, intrinsic motivation and the importance attached to physical education in the intention to continue to practice some form of physical activity and/or sport, and the possible relationships that exist between these variables. We used a sample of 482 adolescent students in physical education classes, with a mean age of 14.3 years, which were measured for responsibility, psychological mediators, sports motivation, the importance of physical education and intention to be physically active. We completed an analysis of structural equations modelling. The results showed that the responsibility positively predicted psychological mediators, and this predicted intrinsic motivation, which positively predicted the importance students attach to physical education, and this, finally, positively predicted the intention of the student to continue doing sport. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of student's responsibility towards a greater commitment to the practice of physical exercise.

  7. ALTERATIONS IN CALCIUM ION ACTIVITY BY ELF AND RF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Alterations in calcium ion activity by ELF and RF electromagnetic fields

    Introduction

    Calcium ions play many important roles in biological systems. For example, calcium ion activity can be used as an indicator of second-messenger signal-transduction processe...

  8. ALTERATIONS IN CALCIUM ION ACTIVITY BY ELF AND RF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Alterations in calcium ion activity by ELF and RF electromagnetic fields

    Introduction

    Calcium ions play many important roles in biological systems. For example, calcium ion activity can be used as an indicator of second-messenger signal-transduction processe...

  9. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  10. 16 CFR 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sensors. 1211.13 Section 1211.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... § 1211.13 Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) A force activated door sensor of a door system installed according to the installation instructions shall...

  11. 16 CFR 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sensors. 1211.13 Section 1211.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... § 1211.13 Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) A force activated door sensor of a door system installed according to the installation instructions shall...

  12. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  13. The CI-TAB Secondary Program: Career Information and Training Activities for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearengen, Mary-B Mosley

    Presented is the CI-TAB (Career Information and Training Activities for the Blind) Secondary Program, a program providing career education for visually handicapped and blind high-school students to be available in braille and cassette recordings. Five general discussions (each including a list of concepts covered, suggested learning activities,…

  14. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  15. American Literature Activities Kit: Ready-To-Use Worksheets for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumayr, Sharon

    American literature is brought to life for Secondary students (grades 9-12) through this book which presents over 145 ready-to-use, interdisciplinary activities--for use with any American literature curriculum. The activities aim to improve writing skills, encourage critical thinking and literary analysis, and build vocabulary. Flexible enough for…

  16. A Potpourri of Activities--For Use in Heterogeneously Grouped Secondary School English Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullstrom, Faith Z.

    This pamphlet includes a variety of suggestions and activities to stimulate language and thereby increase students' control over their environment and their lives. Although many of these activities can be used with elementary students, the emphasis in this collection is on language stimulation among secondary school children. The first section…

  17. Perceptions of STEM-Based Outreach Learning Activities in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennix, J.; den Brok, P.; Taconis, R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated and compared the learning environment perceptions of students, teachers and guides who participated in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)-based outreach activities in secondary education. In outreach activities, schools and teachers work together with companies and other external institutions in learning…

  18. Altered activity of the serratus anterior during unilateral arm elevation in patients with cervical disorders.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, H; Kristjansson, E; Einarsson, E; Karduna, A; Jonsson, H

    2011-12-01

    Altered activity in the axioscapular muscles is considered to be an important feature in patients with neck pain. The activity of the serratus anterior (SA) and trapezius muscles during arm elevation has not been investigated in these patients. The objectives of this study was to investigate whether there is a pattern of altered activity in the SA and trapezius in patients with insidious onset neck pain (IONP) (n=22) and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) (n=27). An asymptomatic group was selected for baseline measurements (n=23). Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity of the SA as well as the upper, middle, and lower trapezius during unilateral arm elevation in the three subject groups. Both arms were tested. With no interaction, the main effect for the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity for serratus anterior was statistically significant among the groups. Post hoc comparison revealed a significantly delayed onset of muscle activation and less duration of muscle activity in the IONP group, and in the WAD group compared to the asymptomatic group. There were no group main effects or interaction effects for upper, middle and lower trapezius. This finding may have implications for scapular stability in these patients because the altered activity in the SA may reflect inconsistent or poorly coordinated muscle activation that may reduce the quality of neuromuscular performance and induce an increased load on the cervical and the thoracic spine.

  19. Stable Isotope Signatures of Middle Palaeozoic Ahermatypic Rugose Corals - Deciphering Secondary Alteration, Vital Fractionation Effects, and Palaeoecological Implications.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz, Michal; Berkowski, Blazej; López Correa, Matthias; Jarochowska, Emilia; Joachimski, Michael; Belka, Zdzislaw

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates stable isotope signatures of five species of Silurian and Devonian deep-water, ahermatypic rugose corals, providing new insights into isotopic fractionation effects exhibited by Palaeozoic rugosans, and possible role of diagenetic processes in modifying their original isotopic signals. To minimize the influence of intraskeletal cements on the observed signatures, the analysed specimens included unusual species either devoid of large intraskeletal open spaces ('button corals': Microcyclus, Palaeocyclus), or typified by particularly thick corallite walls (Calceola). The corals were collected at four localities in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland), Mader Basin (Morocco) and on Gotland (Sweden), representing distinct diagenetic histories and different styles of diagenetic alteration. To evaluate the resistance of the corallites to diagenesis, we applied various microscopic and trace element preservation tests. Distinct differences between isotopic compositions of the least-altered and most-altered skeleton portions emphasise a critical role of material selection for geochemical studies of Palaeozoic corals. The least-altered parts of the specimens show marine or near-marine stable isotope signals and lack positive correlation between δ13C and δ18O. In terms of isotopic fractionation mechanisms, Palaeozoic rugosans must have differed considerably from modern deep-water scleractinians, typified by significant depletion in both 18O and 13C, and pronounced δ13C-δ18O co-variance. The fractionation effects exhibited by rugosans seem similar rather to the minor isotopic effects typical of modern non-scleractinian corals (octocorals and hydrocorals). The results of the present study add to growing evidence for significant differences between Scleractinia and Rugosa, and agree with recent studies indicating that calcification mechanisms developed independently in these two groups of cnidarians. Consequently, particular caution is needed in using

  20. Stable Isotope Signatures of Middle Palaeozoic Ahermatypic Rugose Corals – Deciphering Secondary Alteration, Vital Fractionation Effects, and Palaeoecological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowicz, Michal; Berkowski, Blazej; López Correa, Matthias; Jarochowska, Emilia; Joachimski, Michael; Belka, Zdzislaw

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates stable isotope signatures of five species of Silurian and Devonian deep-water, ahermatypic rugose corals, providing new insights into isotopic fractionation effects exhibited by Palaeozoic rugosans, and possible role of diagenetic processes in modifying their original isotopic signals. To minimize the influence of intraskeletal cements on the observed signatures, the analysed specimens included unusual species either devoid of large intraskeletal open spaces ('button corals': Microcyclus, Palaeocyclus), or typified by particularly thick corallite walls (Calceola). The corals were collected at four localities in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland), Mader Basin (Morocco) and on Gotland (Sweden), representing distinct diagenetic histories and different styles of diagenetic alteration. To evaluate the resistance of the corallites to diagenesis, we applied various microscopic and trace element preservation tests. Distinct differences between isotopic compositions of the least-altered and most-altered skeleton portions emphasise a critical role of material selection for geochemical studies of Palaeozoic corals. The least-altered parts of the specimens show marine or near-marine stable isotope signals and lack positive correlation between δ13C and δ18O. In terms of isotopic fractionation mechanisms, Palaeozoic rugosans must have differed considerably from modern deep-water scleractinians, typified by significant depletion in both 18O and 13C, and pronounced δ13C-δ18O co-variance. The fractionation effects exhibited by rugosans seem similar rather to the minor isotopic effects typical of modern non-scleractinian corals (octocorals and hydrocorals). The results of the present study add to growing evidence for significant differences between Scleractinia and Rugosa, and agree with recent studies indicating that calcification mechanisms developed independently in these two groups of cnidarians. Consequently, particular caution is needed in using

  1. Resistance to Bt maize in Mythimna unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is mediated by alteration in Cry1Ab protein activation.

    PubMed

    González-Cabrera, Joel; García, Matías; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Farinós, Gema P; Ortego, Félix; Castañera, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    Bt maize cultivars based on the event MON810 (expressing Cry1Ab) have shown high efficacy for controlling corn borers. However, their efficiency for controlling some secondary lepidopteran pests such as Mythimna unipuncta has been questioned, raising concerns about potential outbreaks and its economic consequences. We have selected a resistant strain (MR) of M. unipuncta, which is capable of completing its life cycle on Bt maize and displays a similar performance when feeding on both Bt and non-Bt maize. The proteolytic activation of the protoxin and the binding of active toxin to brush border membrane vesicles were investigated in the resistant and a control strain. A reduction in the activity of proteolytic enzymes, which correlates with impaired capacity of midgut extracts to activate the Cry1Ab protoxin has been observed in the resistant strain. Moreover, resistance in larvae of the MR strain was reverted when treated with Cry1Ab toxin activated with midgut juice from the control strain. All these data indicate that resistance in the MR strain is mediated by alteration of toxin activation rather than to an increase in the proteolytic degradation of the protein. By contrast, binding assays performed with biotin labelled Cry1Ab suggest that binding to midgut receptors does not play a major role in the resistance to Bt maize. Our results emphasize the risk of development of resistance in field populations of M. unipuncta and the need to consider this secondary pest in ongoing resistance management programs to avoid the likely negative agronomic and environmental consequences.

  2. Metabolic alterations induced in cultured skeletal muscle by stretch-relaxation activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfaludy, Sophia; Shansky, Janet; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1989-01-01

    Muscle cells differentiated in vitro are repetitively stretched and relaxed in order to determine the presence of short- and long-term alterations occurring in glucose uptake and lactate efflux that are similar to the metabolic alterations occurring in stimulated organ-cultured muscle and in vivo skeletal muscle during the active state. It is observed that whereas mechanical stimulation increases these metabolic parameters within 4-6 h of starting activity, unstimulated basal rates in control cultures also increase during this period of time, and by 8 h, their rates have reached or exceeded the rates in continuously stimulated cells. Measurements of these parameters in media of different compositions show that activity-induced long-term alterations in the parameters occur independently of growth factors in serium and embryo extracts.

  3. Metabolic alterations induced in cultured skeletal muscle by stretch-relaxation activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfaludy, Sophia; Shansky, Janet; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1989-01-01

    Muscle cells differentiated in vitro are repetitively stretched and relaxed in order to determine the presence of short- and long-term alterations occurring in glucose uptake and lactate efflux that are similar to the metabolic alterations occurring in stimulated organ-cultured muscle and in vivo skeletal muscle during the active state. It is observed that whereas mechanical stimulation increases these metabolic parameters within 4-6 h of starting activity, unstimulated basal rates in control cultures also increase during this period of time, and by 8 h, their rates have reached or exceeded the rates in continuously stimulated cells. Measurements of these parameters in media of different compositions show that activity-induced long-term alterations in the parameters occur independently of growth factors in serium and embryo extracts.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  5. Effects of secondary loudspeaker properties on broadband feedforward active duct noise control.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi; Lam, James

    2013-07-01

    Dependence of the performance of feedforward active duct noise control on secondary loudspeaker parameters is investigated. Noise reduction performance can be improved if the force factor of the secondary loudspeaker is higher. For example, broadband noise reduction improvement up to 1.6 dB is predicted by increasing the force factor by 50%. In addition, a secondary loudspeaker with a larger force factor was found to have quicker convergence in the adaptive algorithm in experiment. In simulations, noise reduction is improved in using an adaptive algorithm by using a secondary loudspeaker with a heavier moving mass. It is predicted that an extra broadband noise reduction of more than 7 dB can be gained using an adaptive filter if the force factor, moving mass and coil inductance of a commercially available loudspeaker are doubled. Methods to increase the force factor beyond those of commercially available loudspeakers are proposed.

  6. Antifeedant Activity of Ginkgo biloba Secondary Metabolites against Hyphantria cunea Larvae: Mechanisms and Applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Ren, Lili; Chen, Fang; Feng, Yuqian; Luo, Youqing

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a typical relic plant that rarely suffers from pest hazards. This study analyzed the pattern of G. biloba pest hazards in Beijing; tested the antifeedant activity of G. biloba extracts, including ginkgo flavonoids, ginkgolide, and bilobalide, against Hyphantria cunea larvae; determined the activities of glutathione transferase (GSTs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed-functional oxidase (MFO), in larvae after feeding on these G. biloba secondary metabolites; and screened for effective botanical antifeedants in the field. In this study, no indicators of insect infestation were found for any of the examined leaves of G. biloba; all tested secondary metabolites showed significant antifeedant activity and affected the activity of the four larval detoxifying enzymes. Ginkgolide had the highest antifeedant activity and the most significant effect on the detoxifying enzymes (P<0.05). Spraying leaves with G. biloba extracts or ginkgolide both significantly repelled H. cunea larvae in the field (P<0.05), although the former is more economical and practical. This study investigated the antifeedant activity of G. biloba secondary metabolites against H. cunea larvae, and the results provide new insights into the mechanism of G. biloba pest resistance. This study also developed new applications of G. biloba secondary metabolites for effective pest control.

  7. ABCG2 regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms alter in-vivo enhancer activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Eclov, Rachel J; Kim, Mee J; Chhibber, Aparna; Smith, Robin P; Ahituv, Nadav; Kroetz, Deanna L

    2017-09-18

    The expression and activity of the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) contributes toward the pharmacokinetics of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. The effect of genetic variation on the activity of cis-regulatory elements and nuclear response elements in the ABCG2 locus and their contribution toward ABCG2 expression have not been investigated systematically. In this study, the effect of genetic variation on the in-vitro and in-vivo enhancer activity of six previously identified liver enhancers in the ABCG2 locus was examined. Reference and variant liver enhancers were tested for their ability to alter luciferase activity in vitro in HepG2 and HEK293T cell lines and in vivo using a hydrodynamic tail vein assay. Positive in-vivo single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with gene expression and for altered protein binding in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Multiple SNPs were found to alter enhancer activity in vitro. Four of these variants (rs9999111, rs12508471, ABCG2RE1*2, and rs149713212) decreased and one (rs2725263) increased enhancer activity in vivo. In addition, rs9999111 and rs12508471 were associated with ABCG2 expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines, lymphocytes, and T cells, and showed increased HepG2 nuclear protein binding. This study identifies SNPs within regulatory regions of the ABCG2 locus that alter enhancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Several of these SNPs correlate with tissue-specific ABCG2 expression and alter DNA/protein binding. These SNPs could contribute toward reported tissue-specific variability in ABCG2 expression and may influence the correlation between ABCG2 expression and disease risk or the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of breast cancer resistance protein substrates.

  8. Investigation of abiogenic stress-induced alterations in the level of secondary metabolites in poppy plants (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Szabó, Beáta; Lakatos, A; Koszegi, T; Botz, L

    2008-12-01

    We aimed to understand the effects of water stress on the alkaloid production in various developmental stages of poppy plants and the effect of stress on the alkaloids content in the capsules. Three stages of the life cycle of Papaver somniferum L. were selected in our studies: Rosette, Flowering and Lancing developmental stages. Four types of water conditions were examined: Control, Withdrawal of Water, 50% Water Supply and Inundation. The morphological monitoring, results of Relative Water Content and proline content were used as indicators of stress. The result of the measurements in poppy leaves show that the secondary metabolites dramatically respond to these stress conditions. The constant water supply was beneficial for the accumulation of alkaloids in the capsules.

  9. Maturational alterations in constitutive activity of medial prefrontal cortex kappa-opioid receptors in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil; Walker, Brendan M

    2015-11-01

    Opioid receptors can display spontaneous agonist-independent G-protein signaling (basal signaling/constitutive activity). While constitutive κ-opioid receptor (KOR) activity has been documented in vitro, it remains unknown if KORs are constitutively active in native systems. Using [(35) S] guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio] triphosphate coupling assay that measures receptor functional state, we identified the presence of medial prefrontal cortex KOR constitutive activity in young rats that declined with age. Furthermore, basal signaling showed an age-related decline and was insensitive to neutral opioid antagonist challenge. Collectively, the present data are first to demonstrate age-dependent alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex KOR constitutive activity in rats and changes in the constitutive activity of KORs can differentially impact KOR ligand efficacy. These data provide novel insights into the functional properties of the KOR system and warrant further consideration of KOR constitutive activity in normal and pathophysiological behavior. Opioid receptors exhibit agonist-independent constitutive activity; however, kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) constitutive activity has not been demonstrated in native systems. Our results confirm KOR constitutive activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that declines with age. With the ability to presynaptically inhibit multiple neurotransmitter systems in the mPFC, maturational or patho-logical alterations in constitutive activity could disrupt corticofugal glutamatergic pyramidal projection neurons mediating executive function. Regulation of KOR constitutive activity could serve as a therapeutic target to treat compromised executive function.

  10. 12 CFR 225.25 - Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters. 225.25 Section 225.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION...

  11. 12 CFR 225.25 - Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters. 225.25 Section 225.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION...

  12. 12 CFR 225.25 - Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters. 225.25 Section 225.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION...

  13. 12 CFR 225.25 - Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters. 225.25 Section 225.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION...

  14. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  15. 12 CFR 225.25 - Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Nonbanking Activities and Acquisitions by Bank Holding Companies § 225.25 Hearings, alteration of... holding company under this regulation, only if: (i) The Board's prior approval was limited geographically...

  16. Outcome of Children with Hyperventilation-Induced High-Amplitude Rhythmic Slow Activity with Altered Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Rittey, Christopher D. C.; Kandler, Rosalind H.; Mordekar, Santosh R.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperventilation-induced high-amplitude rhythmic slow activity with altered awareness (HIHARS) is increasingly being identified in children and is thought to be an age-related non-epileptic electrographic phenomenon. We retrospectively investigated the clinical outcome in 15 children (six males, nine females) with HIHARS (mean age 7y, SD 1y 11mo;…

  17. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  18. Outcome of Children with Hyperventilation-Induced High-Amplitude Rhythmic Slow Activity with Altered Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Rittey, Christopher D. C.; Kandler, Rosalind H.; Mordekar, Santosh R.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperventilation-induced high-amplitude rhythmic slow activity with altered awareness (HIHARS) is increasingly being identified in children and is thought to be an age-related non-epileptic electrographic phenomenon. We retrospectively investigated the clinical outcome in 15 children (six males, nine females) with HIHARS (mean age 7y, SD 1y 11mo;…

  19. IIR filtering based adaptive active vibration control methodology with online secondary path modeling using PZT actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boz, Utku; Basdogan, Ipek

    2015-12-01

    Structural vibrations is a major cause for noise problems, discomfort and mechanical failures in aerospace, automotive and marine systems, which are mainly composed of plate-like structures. In order to reduce structural vibrations on these structures, active vibration control (AVC) is an effective approach. Adaptive filtering methodologies are preferred in AVC due to their ability to adjust themselves for varying dynamics of the structure during the operation. The filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm is a simple adaptive filtering algorithm widely implemented in active control applications. Proper implementation of FXLMS requires availability of a reference signal to mimic the disturbance and model of the dynamics between the control actuator and the error sensor, namely the secondary path. However, the controller output could interfere with the reference signal and the secondary path dynamics may change during the operation. This interference problem can be resolved by using an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter which considers feedback of the one or more previous control signals to the controller output and the changing secondary path dynamics can be updated using an online modeling technique. In this paper, IIR filtering based filtered-U LMS (FULMS) controller is combined with online secondary path modeling algorithm to suppress the vibrations of a plate-like structure. The results are validated through numerical and experimental studies. The results show that the FULMS with online secondary path modeling approach has more vibration rejection capabilities with higher convergence rate than the FXLMS counterpart.

  20. Rapid structural alterations of the active zone lead to sustained changes in neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Matz, Jacob; Gilyan, Andrew; Kolar, Annette; McCarvill, Terrence; Krueger, Stefan R

    2010-05-11

    The likelihood with which an action potential elicits neurotransmitter release, the release probability (p(r)), is an important component of synaptic strength. Regulatory mechanisms controlling several steps of synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis may affect p(r), yet their relative importance in determining p(r) and eliciting temporal changes in neurotransmitter release at individual synapses is largely unknown. We have investigated whether the size of the active zone cytomatrix is a major determinant of p(r) and whether changes in its size lead to corresponding alterations in neurotransmitter release. We have used a fluorescent sensor of SV exocytosis, synaptophysin-pHluorin, to measure p(r) at individual synapses with high accuracy and employed a fluorescently labeled cytomatrix protein, Bassoon, to quantify the amount of active zone cytomatrix present at these synapses. We find that, for synapses made by a visually identified presynaptic neuron, p(r) is indeed strongly correlated with the amount of active zone cytomatrix present at the presynaptic specialization. Intriguingly, active zone cytomatrices are frequently subject to synapse-specific changes in size on a time scale of minutes. These spontaneous alterations in active zone size are associated with corresponding changes in neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that the size of the active zone cytomatrix has a large influence on the reliability of synaptic transmission. Furthermore, they implicate mechanisms leading to rapid structural alterations at active zones in synapse-specific forms of plasticity.

  1. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  2. Living in a Global Age. A Simulation Activity for Upper Elementary and Secondary Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    Designed to introduce concepts in international trade and global economics to upper elementary and secondary level students, this simulation activity engages students in the group task of assembling flashlights. A variety of topics can be explored, such as energy shortages, international crises, relationships between rich and poor nations, foreign…

  3. Nickel-catalyzed sonogashira reactions of non-activated secondary alkyl bromides and iodides.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun; Lu, Xi; Sun, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Bin; Liu, Lei

    2013-11-18

    A nicked reaction: The title reaction of terminal alkynes with non-activated secondary alkyl iodides and bromides was accomplished for the first time. This reaction provides a new and practical approach for the synthesis of substituted alkynes (see scheme; cod=cyclo-1,5-octadiene). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Creative Thinking Development Program for Learning Activity Management of Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukdeewut, Sutinan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Satapornwong, Pattananusorn

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program's efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development…

  5. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  6. Lipocarbazoles, secondary metabolites from Tsukamurella pseudospumae Acta 1857 with antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kathrin; Nachtigall, Jonny; Hänchen, Anne; Nicholson, Graeme; Goodfellow, Michael; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2009-10-01

    A family of new secondary metabolites with a carbazole moiety and an alkyl side chain was isolated from Tsukamurella pseudospumae strain Acta 1857. They were named lipocarbazoles in accordance with their chemical structures, which were determined by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Lipocarbazoles are free radical scavengers showing antioxidative activity.

  7. Secondary English Activities of the North Dakota Exemplary Project in Career Education. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    The secondary English activities materials developed by the North Dakota Exemplary Project represent information that will be helpful to teachers in achieving the goals of a career education program. The guide provides a flexible framework to provide experiences that will support the learning principles needed to attain the required knowledge,…

  8. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  9. The Newspaper in Secondary English and Language Arts: A Teaching Guide of Suggested Classroom Newspaper Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Phebe; And Others

    Intended for use with students in secondary school English and language arts classes, this guide provides a number of ways to use newspapers in the classroom. The guide is designed to help teachers and students with ways for starting newspaper activities; with reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking opportunities; and with…

  10. Reading Activities in Content Areas: An Ideabook for Middle and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, Dorothy

    This book suggests reading activities and teaching strategies to encourage students' success in the following middle school and secondary school content areas: business; driver education; English, speech, and journalism; art, music, and theater; foreign languages (French, Spanish, and German); health; home economics end industrial and vocational…

  11. Cell wall modifications in Arabidopsis plants with altered alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; Ranocha, Philippe; Martinez, Yves; Minic, Zoran; Jouanin, Lise; Marquis, Mélanie; Saulnier, Luc; Fulton, Lynette M; Cobbett, Christopher S; Bitton, Frédérique; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Jauneau, Alain; Goffner, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    Although cell wall remodeling is an essential feature of plant growth and development, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. This work describes the characterization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered expression of ARAF1, a bifunctional alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase/beta-D-xylosidase (At3g10740) belonging to family 51 glycosyl-hydrolases. ARAF1 was localized in several cell types in the vascular system of roots and stems, including xylem vessels and parenchyma cells surrounding the vessels, the cambium, and the phloem. araf1 T-DNA insertional mutants showed no visible phenotype, whereas transgenic plants that overexpressed ARAF1 exhibited a delay in inflorescence emergence and altered stem architecture. Although global monosaccharide analysis indicated only slight differences in cell wall composition in both mutant and overexpressing lines, immunolocalization experiments using anti-arabinan (LM6) and anti-xylan (LM10) antibodies indicated cell type-specific alterations in cell wall structure. In araf1 mutants, an increase in LM6 signal intensity was observed in the phloem, cambium, and xylem parenchyma in stems and roots, largely coinciding with ARAF1 expression sites. The ectopic overexpression of ARAF1 resulted in an increase in LM10 labeling in the secondary walls of interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. The combined ARAF1 gene expression and immunolocalization studies suggest that arabinan-containing pectins are potential in vivo substrates of ARAF1 in Arabidopsis.

  12. Cell Wall Modifications in Arabidopsis Plants with Altered α-l-Arabinofuranosidase Activity[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Montes, Ricardo A.; Ranocha, Philippe; Martinez, Yves; Minic, Zoran; Jouanin, Lise; Marquis, Mélanie; Saulnier, Luc; Fulton, Lynette M.; Cobbett, Christopher S.; Bitton, Frédérique; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Jauneau, Alain; Goffner, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Although cell wall remodeling is an essential feature of plant growth and development, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. This work describes the characterization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered expression of ARAF1, a bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/β-d-xylosidase (At3g10740) belonging to family 51 glycosyl-hydrolases. ARAF1 was localized in several cell types in the vascular system of roots and stems, including xylem vessels and parenchyma cells surrounding the vessels, the cambium, and the phloem. araf1 T-DNA insertional mutants showed no visible phenotype, whereas transgenic plants that overexpressed ARAF1 exhibited a delay in inflorescence emergence and altered stem architecture. Although global monosaccharide analysis indicated only slight differences in cell wall composition in both mutant and overexpressing lines, immunolocalization experiments using anti-arabinan (LM6) and anti-xylan (LM10) antibodies indicated cell type-specific alterations in cell wall structure. In araf1 mutants, an increase in LM6 signal intensity was observed in the phloem, cambium, and xylem parenchyma in stems and roots, largely coinciding with ARAF1 expression sites. The ectopic overexpression of ARAF1 resulted in an increase in LM10 labeling in the secondary walls of interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. The combined ARAF1 gene expression and immunolocalization studies suggest that arabinan-containing pectins are potential in vivo substrates of ARAF1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:18344421

  13. Physical activity in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Overview updated

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Alberto J; Viana, João L; Cavalcante, Suiane L; Oliveira, Nórton L; Duarte, José A; Mota, Jorge; Oliveira, José; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Although the observed progress in the cardiovascular disease treatment, the incidence of new and recurrent coronary artery disease remains elevated and constitutes the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Three-quarters of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases could be prevented with adequate changes in lifestyle, including increased daily physical activity. New evidence confirms that there is an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. However, participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity may not fully attenuate the independent effect of sedentary activities on increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity also plays an important role in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases by reducing the impact of the disease, slowing its progress and preventing recurrence. Nonetheless, most of eligible cardiovascular patients still do not benefit from secondary prevention/cardiac rehabilitation programs. The present review draws attention to the importance of physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It also addresses the mechanisms by which physical activity and regular exercise can improve cardiovascular health and reduce the burden of the disease. PMID:27847558

  14. Altered intrinsic brain activity in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia by PRRT2 mutation: altered brain activity by PRRT2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Luo, ChunYan; Chen, Yongping; Song, Wei; Chen, Qin; Gong, QiYong; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2013-11-01

    The proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene has been recently identified as a causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), with an insertion mutation c.649_650insC (p.P217fsX7) reported as the most common mutation. However, the pathogenic mechanism of the mutation of PRRT2 remains largely unknown. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a promising approach to assess cerebral function and reveals underlying functional changes. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 4 Chinese PKD patients with p.P217fsX7 mutation, 6 Chinese PKD patients without the mutation, and 10 healthy control subjects. Voxel-based analysis was used to characterize alterations in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). When compared with the healthy control subjects, both groups of PKD patients showed alterations in spontaneous brain activities within cortical-basal ganglia circuitry. Besides, the group of patients with p.P217fsX7 mutation also exhibited increased ALFF in the right postcenral gyrus and right rolandic operculum area, while the alteration of ALFF in group of patients without the mutation additionally involved the middle orbitofrontal cortex. Direct comparative analysis between these two patient groups revealed significantly increased ALFF in the right postcentral gyrus in the group with p.P217fsX7 mutation. Increased spontaneous brain activity in the cortical-basal ganglia circuitry, especially in the motor preparation areas, is a common pathophysiology in PKD. Differences in the spatial patterns of increased ALFF between patients with and those without the mutation might reflect the distinct pathological mechanism resulting from PRRT2 mutation.

  15. Mutagenesis and behavioral screening for altered circadian activity identifies the mouse mutant, Wheels.

    PubMed

    Pickard, G E; Sollars, P J; Rinchik, E M; Nolan, P M; Bucan, M

    1995-12-24

    The molecular processes underlying the generation of circadian behavior in mammals are virtually unknown. To identify genes that regulate or alter circadian activity rhythms, a mouse mutagenesis program was initiated in conjunction with behavioral screening for alterations in circadian period (tau), a fundamental property of the biological clock. Male mice of the inbred BALB/c strain, treated with the potent mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea were mated with wild-type hybrids. Wheel-running activity of approximately 300 male progeny was monitored for 6-10 weeks under constant dark (DD) conditions. The tau DD of a single mouse (#187) was longer than the population mean by more than three standard deviations (24.20 vs. 23.32 +/- 0.02 h; mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 277). In addition, mouse #187 exhibited other abnormal phenotypes, including hyperactive bi-directional circling/spinning activity and an abnormal response to light. Heterozygous progeny of the founder mouse, generated from outcrossings with wild-type C57BL/6J mice, displayed lengthened tau DD although approximately 20% of the animals showed no wheel-running activity despite being quite active. Under light:dark conditions, all animals displaying circling behavior that ran in the activity wheels exhibited robust wheel-running activity at lights-ON and these animals also showed enhanced wheel-running activity in constant light conditions. The genetic dissection of the complex behavior associated with this mutation was facilitated by the previously described genetic mapping of the mutant locus causing circling behavior, designated Wheels (Whl), to the subcentromeric portion of mouse chromosome 4. In this report, the same locus is shown to be responsible for the abnormal responses to light and presumably for the altered circadian behavior. Characterization of the gene altered in the novel Whl mutation will contribute to understanding the molecular elements involved in mammalian circadian regulation.

  16. A simple empirical model for activated sludge thickening in secondary clarifiers.

    PubMed

    Giokas, D L; Kim, Youngchul; Paraskevas, P A; Paleologos, E K; Lekkas, T D

    2002-07-01

    A simple empirical model for the thickening function of the activated sludge secondary clarifiers is presented. The proposed approach relies on the integration of previous models and it is based on the phenomenon of dilution of the incoming activated sludge in the feeding well of the settling tanks. The method provides a satisfactory description of sludge stratification within the clarifier. The only requirements are limited to parameters which are readily incorporated into the routine analysis performed in an activated sludge plant, thereby eliminating the need for additional experimental or computational effort. The method was tested in a full-scale activated sludge plant and it was found that it describes fairly well the return sludge concentration, the diluted sludge blanket concentration, the sludge blanket solids concentration and the sludge blanket height of full-scale secondary clarifiers.

  17. Alteration of secondary metabolites' profiles in potato leaves in response to weakly and highly aggressive isolates of Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Maria A; Adam, Lorne R; Daayf, Fouad

    2012-08-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight, a devastating disease in potato and tomato. Many of the mechanisms underlying P. infestans pathogenesis and defense responses in potato are still unclear. We investigated the effects of P. infestans on the changes in the accumulation of secondary metabolites in potato cultivars using whole plants. Four preformed flavonoids and one terpenoid compound produced in potato tissues were differentially affected by the P. infestans inoculation. In Russet Burbank, the accumulation of catechin and rutin was suppressed by both P. infestans isolates US-11 and US-8, while the flavanone P3 was associated with susceptibility to this pathogen. On the other hand, catechin, flavonol-glycoside P2, and an unidentified terpenoid (T1), may be involved in the defense of cultivar Defender to both tested P. infestans isolates, providing new evidence that different preformed flavonoids and terpenoids in potato may play important roles in its defense or susceptibility to P. infestans. These results add to the pool of data showing the involvement of other phenolics and terpenes in potato resistance to microbial pathogens.

  18. Alterations of ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase activities in lymphocytes of Down syndrome subjects: relation with inflammatory parameters.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Debom, Gabriela; Soares, Fabiano; Machado, Caroline; Pureza, Jéssica; Peres, William; de Lima Garcias, Gilberto; Duarte, Marta Frescura; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Stefanello, Francieli; Braganhol, Elizandra; Spanevello, Roselia

    2014-06-10

    Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders. ATP, adenosine, and acetylcholine contribute to the immune response regulation, and NTPDase, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are important enzymes in the control of the extracellular levels of these molecules. We evaluated the activities of these enzymes and the cytokine levels in samples of DS individuals. The population consisted of 23 subjects with DS and 23 healthy subjects. Twelve milliliters of blood was obtained from each subject and used for lymphocyte and serum preparation. Lymphocytes were separated on Ficoll density gradients. After isolation, NTPDase and AChE activities were determined. The NTPDase activity using ADP as substrate was increased in lymphocytes of DS patients compared to control (P<0.05); however, no alterations were observed in the ATP hydrolysis. An increase was observed in the AChE activity in lymphocytes and in ADA activity in serum of DS patients when compared to healthy subjects (P<0.05). In DS subjects, an increase in the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ and a decrease in the IL-10 levels were also observed (P<0.05). Alterations in the NTPDase, ADA and AChE activities as well changes in the cytokine levels may contribute to immunological alterations observed in DS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MULTIPLE EPISODES OF IGNEOUS ACTIVITY, MINERALIZATION, AND ALTERATION IN THE WESTERN TUSHAR MOUNTAINS, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Campbell, David L.; Naeser, Charles W.; Pitkin, James A.; Duval, Joseph S.

    1984-01-01

    The report outlines the complex history of igneous activity and associated alteration and mineralization in the western Tushar Mountains, Utah and pointss out implciations for minerals exploration. The area has been subjected to recurrent episodes of igneous intrusion, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization, and the mineral-resource potential of the different mineralized areas is directly related to local geologic history. The mineral commodities to be expected vary from one hydrothermal system to another, and from one depth to another within any given system. Uranium and molybdenum seem likely to have the greatest economic potential, although significant concentrations of gold may also exist.

  20. Secondary hyperalgesia phenotypes exhibit differences in brain activation during noxious stimulation.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Werner, Mads Utke; Mårtensson, Johan; Larsson, Henrik B W; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2015-01-01

    Noxious stimulation of the skin with either chemical, electrical or heat stimuli leads to the development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of injury, and to secondary hyperalgesia in normal skin surrounding the injury. Secondary hyperalgesia is inducible in most individuals and is attributed to central neuronal sensitization. Some individuals develop large areas of secondary hyperalgesia (high-sensitization responders), while others develop small areas (low-sensitization responders). The magnitude of each area is reproducible within individuals, and can be regarded as a phenotypic characteristic. To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47 °C, 7 min, 9 cm(2)) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary hyperalgesia areas after burn-injury. In addition, T1-weighted images were used to measure differences in gray-matter density in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. We found significant differences in neuronal activity between high- and low-sensitization responders at baseline (before application of the burn-injury) (p < 0.05). After the burn-injury, we found significant differences between responders during noxious stimulation of both primary (p < 0.01) and secondary hyperalgesia (p ≤ 0.04) skin areas. A decreased volume of the right (p = 0.001) and left caudate nucleus (p = 0.01) was detected in high-sensitization responders in comparison to low-sensitization responders. These findings suggest that brain-structure and neuronal activation to noxious

  1. Secondary Hyperalgesia Phenotypes Exhibit Differences in Brain Activation during Noxious Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mårtensson, Johan; Larsson, Henrik B. W.; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2015-01-01

    Noxious stimulation of the skin with either chemical, electrical or heat stimuli leads to the development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of injury, and to secondary hyperalgesia in normal skin surrounding the injury. Secondary hyperalgesia is inducible in most individuals and is attributed to central neuronal sensitization. Some individuals develop large areas of secondary hyperalgesia (high-sensitization responders), while others develop small areas (low-sensitization responders). The magnitude of each area is reproducible within individuals, and can be regarded as a phenotypic characteristic. To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47°C, 7 min, 9 cm2) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary hyperalgesia areas after burn-injury. In addition, T1-weighted images were used to measure differences in gray-matter density in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. We found significant differences in neuronal activity between high- and low-sensitization responders at baseline (before application of the burn-injury) (p < 0.05). After the burn-injury, we found significant differences between responders during noxious stimulation of both primary (p < 0.01) and secondary hyperalgesia (p ≤ 0.04) skin areas. A decreased volume of the right (p = 0.001) and left caudate nucleus (p = 0.01) was detected in high-sensitization responders in comparison to low-sensitization responders. These findings suggest that brain-structure and neuronal activation to noxious stimulation

  2. A Catalogue of Altered Salivary Proteins Secondary to Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: A Novel In Vivo Paradigm to Assess Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Streckfus, Charles F.; Bigler, Lenora

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to introduce a catalogue of salivary proteins that are altered secondary to carcinoma of the breast. The catalogue of salivary proteins is a compilation of twenty years of research by the authors and consists of 233 high and low abundant proteins which have been identified by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, 2D-gel analysis and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The body of research suggests that saliva is a fluid suffused with solubilized by-products of oncogenic expression and that these proteins may be useful in the study of breast cancer progress, treatment efficacy and the tailoring of individualized patient care. PMID:27477923

  3. The alteration of components in the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang and its neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Choong Je

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hwangryunhaedok-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that has sedative activity, hypotensive and anti-bacterial effects. Objective: In this study, we investigated the alteration of contents of components in Hwangryunhaedok-tang, antioxidant activity and neuroprotective activity by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI 128. Materials and Methods: Contents of three marker compounds (geniposide, berberine and palmatine) and unknown compounds in the Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HR) and the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang (FHR) were measured and compared using the established high-performance liqued chromatograph coupled with a photodiode (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant activity of HR and FHR were determined by DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay. Also, the neuroprotective activities of HR and FHR against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) were evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The contents of geniposide and palmatine were decreased but the content of berberine was increased in the FHR. And the contents of unknown compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) in the HR were altered by fermentation. Electron donating activity (EDA, %) value of FHR was higher than HR for DPPH radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity, respectively. In the MTT assay, FHR showed more potent neuroprotective activity than HR by 513.90%. Conclusion: The FHR using microorganism could convert compounds in HR and enhance the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. PMID:21969791

  4. Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced oxidative stress differentially alters proteasome composition and activities in heart and aorta.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Faouzia; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Naïmi, Dalila; Coëffier, Moïse

    2014-09-26

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is thought to induce endogenous oxidative stress and causes many cellular damages. Proteasome that degrades oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins can regulate the cellular response to oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate whether hyperhomocysteinemia induces oxidative stress and alters proteasome function and composition in heart and aorta tissues of rat. To create hyperhomocysteinemia, male Wistar rats (Pasteur Institute-Algiers) were received daily intraperitoneal injections of dl-homocysteine (0.6-1.2μM/g body weight) for 3weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were first measured by biochemical methods and tissue damages by histological sections. Proteasome activities were quantitated using fluorogenic synthetic peptides; ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome subunits expression were then evaluated by SDS PAGE and Western blot analysis. We showed increased MDA and PC but decreased SOD and CAT levels both in plasma, heart and aorta accompanied by histological changes. A significant decrease of proteasome activities was observed in heart, whereas proteasome activity was not affected in aorta. However proteasome composition was altered in both tissues, as the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. Data demonstrated an alteration of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in hyperhomocysteinemia as a result of accumulating oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins in response to oxidative stress. Further studies must be conducted to better understanding mechanisms responsible of proteasome alterations in hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteolytic activity is altered in brain tissue of rats upon chronic exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Benuck, M.; Banay-Schwartz, M.; Lajtha, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Tissue from pons medulla of rats exposed in vivo to various levels of ozone was assayed for calpain and cathepsin D activity. Chronic exposure to ozone increased calpain activity, which was 35% to 46% higher in the homogenates of animals exposed to 1.0 ppm ozone than in those of animals exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone or of controls. An increase in activity of 26% was also observed in the soluble supernatant. The increase in activity did not seem to be caused by ozone effects on calpastatin. Addition of 32 mM carnitine to the incubation mixture increased total activity 3-4 fold, making the differences in activity proportionately smaller. Cathepsin D activity was little altered. Changes in calpain activity and in the generation of free oxygen radicals have been implicated in the aging process, long-term exposure to ozone may magnify changes. Ozone exposure may cause changes in brain protein metabolism. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Haddad, Fadia

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine our current understanding of the chain of events known to be involved in the adaptive process whereby specific genes and their protein products undergo altered expression; specifically, skeletal muscle adaptation in response to altered loading states will be discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of the contractile protein, myosin heavy chain gene expression. This protein, which is both an important structural and regulatory protein comprising the contractile apparatus, can be expressed as different isoforms, thereby having an impact on the functional diversity of the muscle. Because the regulation of the myosin gene family is under the control of a complex set of processes including, but not limited to, activity, hormonal, and metabolic factors, this protein will serve as a cellular "marker" for studies of muscle plasticity in response to various mechanical perturbations in which the quantity and type of myosin isoform, along with other important cellular proteins, are altered in expression.

  7. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Haddad, Fadia

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine our current understanding of the chain of events known to be involved in the adaptive process whereby specific genes and their protein products undergo altered expression; specifically, skeletal muscle adaptation in response to altered loading states will be discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of the contractile protein, myosin heavy chain gene expression. This protein, which is both an important structural and regulatory protein comprising the contractile apparatus, can be expressed as different isoforms, thereby having an impact on the functional diversity of the muscle. Because the regulation of the myosin gene family is under the control of a complex set of processes including, but not limited to, activity, hormonal, and metabolic factors, this protein will serve as a cellular "marker" for studies of muscle plasticity in response to various mechanical perturbations in which the quantity and type of myosin isoform, along with other important cellular proteins, are altered in expression.

  8. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kenneth M; Haddad, Fadia

    2002-11-01

    The goal of this article is to examine our current understanding of the chain of events known to be involved in the adaptive process whereby specific genes and their protein products undergo altered expression; specifically, skeletal muscle adaptation in response to altered loading states will be discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of the contractile protein, myosin heavy chain gene expression. This protein, which is both an important structural and regulatory protein comprising the contractile apparatus, can be expressed as different isoforms, thereby having an impact on the functional diversity of the muscle. Because the regulation of the myosin gene family is under the control of a complex set of processes including, but not limited to, activity, hormonal, and metabolic factors, this protein will serve as a cellular "marker" for studies of muscle plasticity in response to various mechanical perturbations in which the quantity and type of myosin isoform, along with other important cellular proteins, are altered in expression.

  9. Biosolids odor reduction by solids inventory management in the secondary activated sludge treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sekyiamah, K; Kim, H

    2009-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant consists of unit processes designed to achieve specific waste reduction goals. Offensive odors associated with these treatment processes are a constant source of public complaints. The purpose of this study was to statistically determine the process parameters that influence the formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the secondary treatment system. A statistical model was developed to relate the process parameters to the formation of VSCs in this system. The model established that F/M ratio, sludge blanket depth and SSV(60) were the dominant process parameters that influenced the formation of VSCs in the secondary sedimentation basin. This model provides a useful tool for plant engineers to predict and control the VSC formation in a secondary activated sludge treatment system.

  10. Dynamics in maximal settling capacity in an activated sludge treatment plant with highly loaded secondary settlers.

    PubMed

    Wilén, B M; Lumley, D; Nordqvist, A

    2004-01-01

    Secondary settling dynamics at maximal capacity were investigated at a full scale wastewater treatment plant which utilizes a unique process solution incorporating pre-denitrification with post-nitrification in nitrifying trickling filters. Since nitrogen removal is greater when more secondary effluent is recirculated to the trickling filters, the secondary settlers generally operate at close to their maximal capacity. The settling and flocculation properties of the activated sludge are therefore a major capacity-determining factor for plant operation. Due to the short sludge age, the flocculation properties, with respect to both thickening and clarification, can change quickly. The dynamics in these changes were studied and the factors that determine the maximal settling capacity were assessed. Solids flux curves were constructed from batch settling tests and compared with the actual maximal settling capacities.

  11. A petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (O, H, C and Sr) investigation of secondary minerals in volcaniclastic rocks at Minna Bluff, Antarctica: Petrogenesis of alteration and implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antibus, J. V.; Panter, K. S.; Wilch, T. I.; Dunbar, N. W.; McIntosh, W. C.; Blusztajn, J.; Tripati, A. K.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    The alteration of volcanic deposits is a function of eruptive style, environment of deposition and post-depositional processes. In this study we use petrographic and geochemical data on secondary minerals in volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff, a 45-km-long volcanic peninsula in the southern Ross Sea active between 12 and 4 Ma, to unravel their history and study the environmental conditions responsible for their alteration. Glassy volcaniclastic deposits, including lapilli tuff, hyaloclastite breccia and volcanic sediments, have been altered to contain secondary minerals zeolite, carbonate and rare chalcedony and clay (dickite). Carbonates include calcite, Mg-calcite (MgCO3> 4 to <48 mol%), dolomite, magnesite, siderite and rhodochrosite. Zeolites include phillipsite and chabazite and have high and variable alkali contents (Na+K/Ca up to 154) relative to fresh lavas (<15). During the alteration of these deposits, phillipsite formed first followed by chabazite and/or carbonate although carbonates are still thought to be a very early diagenetic precipitate. Compositional zoning in zeolites is poorly developed while carbonates are commonly complex showing changes in Fe, Mn and Sr and Mg/Ca ratios across layers. Carbonate δ18O and δ13C values show wide variations ranging from -0.50 to 21.53‰ and -1.04 to 8.98‰, respectively. Chalcedony δ18O, measured on multiple aliquots from individual vugs and within each vug from one sample, range from 0.68 to 10.37‰ and δD values are light (-187.8 to -220.6‰), matching Antarctic meteoric water. A mean 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70327 ±0.0009 (1σ, n = 12) for carbonates is comparable to values from lavas in this region (Erebus Volcanic Province), indicating that seawater even at low elevations (<40 m asl) was not involved in the alteration of these deposits. Field relationships and laboratory results indicate that alteration and associated mineral precipitation was a result of isolated, ephemeral events involving the

  12. Activation of Secondary Metabolism in Citrus Plants Is Associated to Sensitivity to Combined Drought and High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zandalinas, Sara I.; Sales, Carlos; Beltrán, Joaquim; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Drought and heat stresses are two of the most frequent environmental factors that take place simultaneously in the field constraining global crop productivity. Metabolism reconfiguration is often behind the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to tolerate combined heat and drought conditions, showed different metabolite patterns. Increased levels of phenylpropanoid metabolites were observed in Cleopatra in response to stress, including scopolin, a metabolite involved in defense mechanisms. Tolerant Carrizo accumulated sinapic acid and sinapoyl aldehyde, direct precursors of lignins. Finally, Cleopatra showed an accumulation of flavonols and glycosylated and polymethoxylated flavones such as tangeritin. The activation of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cleopatra could be aimed to mitigate the higher oxidative damage observed in this genotype. In general, limonoids were more severely altered in Cleopatra than in Carrizo in response to stress imposition. To conclude, all metabolite changes observed in Cleopatra suggest the activation of energy metabolism along with metabolic pathways leading to the accumulation of photoprotective and antioxidant secondary metabolites, oriented to mitigate the damaging effects of stress. Conversely, the higher ability of Carrizo to retain a high photosynthetic activity and to cope with oxidative stress allowed the maintenance of the metabolic activity and prevented the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites. PMID:28119698

  13. Activation of Secondary Metabolism in Citrus Plants Is Associated to Sensitivity to Combined Drought and High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Sales, Carlos; Beltrán, Joaquim; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    Drought and heat stresses are two of the most frequent environmental factors that take place simultaneously in the field constraining global crop productivity. Metabolism reconfiguration is often behind the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to tolerate combined heat and drought conditions, showed different metabolite patterns. Increased levels of phenylpropanoid metabolites were observed in Cleopatra in response to stress, including scopolin, a metabolite involved in defense mechanisms. Tolerant Carrizo accumulated sinapic acid and sinapoyl aldehyde, direct precursors of lignins. Finally, Cleopatra showed an accumulation of flavonols and glycosylated and polymethoxylated flavones such as tangeritin. The activation of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cleopatra could be aimed to mitigate the higher oxidative damage observed in this genotype. In general, limonoids were more severely altered in Cleopatra than in Carrizo in response to stress imposition. To conclude, all metabolite changes observed in Cleopatra suggest the activation of energy metabolism along with metabolic pathways leading to the accumulation of photoprotective and antioxidant secondary metabolites, oriented to mitigate the damaging effects of stress. Conversely, the higher ability of Carrizo to retain a high photosynthetic activity and to cope with oxidative stress allowed the maintenance of the metabolic activity and prevented the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites.

  14. Quantification of the effects of secondary matrix on the analysis of sandstone composition, and a petrographic-chemical technique for retrieving original framework grain modes of altered sandstones.

    PubMed

    Cox, R; Lowe, D R

    1996-05-01

    Most studies of sandstone provenance involve modal analysis of framework grains using techniques that exclude the fine-grained breakdown products of labile mineral grains and rock fragments, usually termed secondary matrix or pseudomatrix. However, the data presented here demonstrate that, when the proportion of pseudomatrix in a sandstone exceeds 10%, standard petrographic analysis can lead to incorrect provenance interpretation. Petrographic schemes for provenance analysis such as QFL and QFR should not therefore be applied to sandstones containing more than 10% secondary matrix. Pseudomatrix is commonly abundant in sandstones, and this is therefore a problem for provenance analysis. The difficulty can be alleviated by the use of whole-rock chemistry in addition to petrographic analysis. Combination of chemical and point-count data permits the construction of normative compositions that approximate original framework grain compositions. Provenance analysis is also complicated in many cases by fundamental compositional alteration during weathering and transport. Many sandstones, particularly shallow marine deposits, have undergone vigorous reworking, which may destroy unstable mineral grains and rock fragments. In such cases it may not be possible to retrieve provenance information by either petrographic or chemical means. Because of this, pseudomatrix-rich sandstones should be routinely included in chemical-petrological provenance analysis. Because of the many factors, both pre- and post-depositional, that operate to increase the compositional maturity of sandstones, petrologic studies must include a complete inventory of matrix proportions, grain size and sorting parameters, and an assessment of depositional setting.

  15. Non-enzymatic Glycation of Almond Cystatin Leads to Conformational Changes and Altered Activity.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Azad A; Sohail, Aamir; Bhat, Sheraz A; Rehman, Md T; Bano, Bilqees

    2015-01-01

    The non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and reducing sugars, known as glycation, leads to the formation of inter and intramolecular cross-links of proteins. Stable end products called as advanced Maillard products or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received tremendous attention since last decades. It was suggested that the formation of AGEs not only modify the conformation of proteins but also induces altered biological activity. In this study, cystatin purified from almond was incubated with three different sugars namely D-ribose, fructose and lactose to monitor the glycation process. Structural changes induced in cystatin on glycation were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD and FTIR techniques. Glycated cystatin was found to migrate slower on electrophoresis as compared to control cystatin. Biological activity data of glycated cystatin showed that D-ribose was most effective in inducing conformational changes with maximum altered activity.

  16. Unexpected role of activated carbon in promoting transformation of secondary amines to N-nitrosamines.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh; Wang, Pei; Karanfil, Tanju; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2010-06-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is the most common solid phase extraction material used for analysis of nitrosamines in water. It is also widely used for the removal of organics in water treatment and as a catalyst or catalyst support in some industrial applications. In this study, it was discovered that AC materials can catalyze transformation of secondary amines to yield trace levels of N-nitrosamines under ambient aerobic conditions. All 11 commercial ACs tested in the study formed nitrosamines from secondary amines. Among the different ACs, the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) yield at pH 7.5 ranged from 0.001% to 0.01% of initial amount of aqueous dimethylamine (DMA) concentration, but at 0.05-0.29% of the amount of adsorbed DMA by AC. Nitrosamine yield increased with higher pH and for higher molecular weight secondary amines, probably because of increased adsorption of amines. Presence of oxygen was a critical factor in the transformation of secondary amines, since ACs with adsorbed secondary amines dried under air for longer period of time exhibited significantly higher nitrosamine yields. The AC-catalyzed nitrosamine formation was also observed in surface water and wastewater effluent samples. Properties of AC play an important role in the nitrosamine yields. Preliminary evaluation indicated that nitrosamine formation was higher on reduced than oxidized AC surfaces. Overall, the study results show that selecting ACs and reaction conditions are important to minimize analytical errors and undesirable formation associated with nitrosamines in water samples.

  17. Altering the spectrum of immunoglobulin V gene somatic hypermutation by modifying the active site of AID

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Rada, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    High-affinity antibodies are generated by somatic hypermutation with nucleotide substitutions introduced into the IgV in a semirandom fashion, but with intrinsic mutational hotspots strategically located to optimize antibody affinity maturation. The process is dependent on activation-induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that can deaminate deoxycytidine in DNA in vitro, where its activity is sensitive to the identity of the 5′-flanking nucleotide. As a critical test of whether such DNA deamination activity underpins antibody diversification and to gain insight into the extent to which the antibody mutation spectrum is dependent on the intrinsic substrate specificity of AID, we investigated whether it is possible to change the IgV mutation spectrum by altering AID’s active site such that it prefers a pyrimidine (rather than a purine) flanking the targeted deoxycytidine. Consistent with the DNA deamination mechanism, B cells expressing the modified AID proteins yield altered IgV mutation spectra (exhibiting a purine→pyrimidine shift in flanking nucleotide preference) and altered hotspots. However, AID-catalyzed deamination of IgV targets in vitro does not yield the same degree of hotspot dominance to that observed in vivo, indicating the importance of features beyond AID’s active site and DNA local sequence environment in determining in vivo hotspot dominance. PMID:20048284

  18. Alterations in intracellular cations and cell membrane ATPase activity in patients with malignant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Touyz, R M; Milne, F J

    1995-08-01

    To determine whether cellular cation concentrations and cell membrane ATPase activity are altered in patients with malignant hypertension. Sixteen black patients with malignant hypertension were studied and compared with age- and sex-matched essential hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium concentrations and cell membrane Na,K-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities were determined in platelets and erythrocytes. Intracellular concentrations of total magnesium and calcium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and those of sodium and potassium by flame photometry. Cell membrane ATPase activity was measured by a colorimetric method. The intracellular calcium level was significantly elevated and intracellular magnesium and potassium levels and cell membrane ATPase activity significantly decreased in the hypertensive group. These changes were more marked in patients with malignant hypertension than in patients with benign essential hypertension. In the malignant hypertensive group, mean arterial pressure was negatively correlated with intracellular magnesium and positively correlated with intracellular calcium and sodium levels. Cellular cation changes in malignant hypertension may be related to altered transmembrane transport mechanisms and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. These alterations may be more pronounced in the malignant than in the benign phase of hypertension.

  19. Motivation alters response bias and neural activation patterns in a perceptual decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Reckless, G E; Bolstad, I; Nakstad, P H; Andreassen, O A; Jensen, J

    2013-05-15

    Motivation has been demonstrated to affect individuals' response strategies in economic decision-making, however, little is known about how motivation influences perceptual decision-making behavior or its related neural activity. Given the important role motivation plays in shaping our behavior, a better understanding of this relationship is needed. A block-design, continuous performance, perceptual decision-making task where participants were asked to detect a picture of an animal among distractors was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The effect of positive and negative motivation on sustained activity within regions of the brain thought to underlie decision-making was examined by altering the monetary contingency associated with the task. In addition, signal detection theory was used to investigate the effect of motivation on detection sensitivity, response bias and response time. While both positive and negative motivation resulted in increased sustained activation in the ventral striatum, fusiform gyrus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, only negative motivation resulted in the adoption of a more liberal, closer to optimal response bias. This shift toward a liberal response bias correlated with increased activation in the left DLPFC, but did not result in improved task performance. The present findings suggest that motivation alters aspects of the way perceptual decisions are made. Further, this altered response behavior is reflected in a change in left DLPFC activation, a region involved in the computation of perceptual decisions.

  20. Evidence for microbial activity at the glass-alteration interface in oceanic basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, Terje; Furnes, Harald; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Tumyr, Ole

    1998-10-01

    A detailed microbiological and geochemical study related to the alteration of basaltic glass of pillow lavas from the oceanic crust recovered from Hole 896A on the Costa Rica Rift (penetrating 290 m into the volcanic basement) has been carried out. A number of independent observations, pointing to the influence of microbes, may be summarized as follows: (1) Alteration textures are reminiscent of microbes in terms of form and shape. (2) Altered material contains appreciable amounts of C, N and K, and the N/C ratios are comparable to those of nitrogen-starved bacteria. (3) Samples stained with a dye (DAPI) that binds specifically to nucleic acids show the presence of DNA in the altered glass. Further, staining with fluorescent labeled oligonucleotide probes that hybridize specifically to 16S-ribosomal RNA of bacteria and archaea demonstrate their presence in the altered part of the glass. (4) Disseminated carbonate in the glassy margin of the majority of pillows shows δ 13C values, significantly lower than that of fresh basalt, also suggests biological activity. The majority of the samples have δ 18O values indicating temperatures of 20-100°C, which is in the range of mesophilic and thermophilic micro-organisms.

  1. Developmental Exposure to Pesticides Alters Motor Activity and Coordination in Rats: Sex Differences and Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Giménez, B; Felipo, V; Cabrera-Pastor, A; Agustí, A; Hernández-Rabaza, V; Llansola, M

    2017-10-03

    It has been proposed that developmental exposure to pesticides contributes to increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, such as attention deficit with hyperactivity (ADHD) and to alterations in coordination skills. However, the mechanisms involved in these alterations remain unclear. We analyzed the effects on spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination of developmental exposure to a representative pesticide of each one of the four main chemical families: organophosphates (chlorpyrifos), carbamates (carbaryl), organochlorines (endosulfan), and pyrethroids (cypermethrin). Pesticides were administered once a day orally, in a sweet jelly, from gestational day 7 to post natal day 21. Spontaneous motor activity was assessed by an actimeter and motor coordination using the rotarod, when rats were adults. The effects were analyzed separately in males and females. Extracellular GABA in cerebellum and NMDA receptor subunits in hippocampus were assessed as possible underlying mechanisms of motor alterations. Motor coordination was impaired by developmental exposure to endosulfan, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos in females but not in males. The effect of endosulfan and cypermethrin would be due to increased extracellular GABA in cerebellum, which remains unaltered in male rats. Chlorpyrifos increased motor activity in males and females. Cypermethrin decreased motor activity mainly in males. In male rats, but not in females, expression of the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in hippocampus correlated with motor activity. These results show sex-specific effects of different pesticides on motor activity and coordination, associated with neurotransmission alterations. These data contribute to better understand the relationship between developmental exposure to the main pesticide families and motor disorders in children.

  2. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  3. Secondary phase formation and the microstructural evolution of surface layers during vapor phase alteration of the French SON 68 nuclear waste glass at 200{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, W.L.; Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    The SON 68 inactive {open_quotes}R7T7{close_quotes} composition is the French reference glass for the LWR nuclear waste glass. Vapor phase alteration was used to accelerate the reaction progress of glass corrosion and to develop the characteristic suite of secondary, alteration phases. Extensive solid-state characterization (AEM/SEM/HRTEM) was completed on six inactive R7T7 waste glasses which were altered in the presence of saturated water vapor (200{degrees}C) for 91, 241, 908, 1000, 1013, and 1021 days. The AEM samples were examined in cross-section (lattice-fringe imaging, micro-diffraction, and quantitative thin-film EDS analysis). The glass monoliths were invariably covered with a thin altered rind. The layer became thicker with time: 0.5 {mu}m for 22 days; 4 {mu}m for 91 days; 6 {mu}m for 241 days; 10 {mu}m for 908 days; 26 {mu}m for 1013 days; and <35 {mu}m for 1021 days. The composite alteration layer of the SON 68 samples is at least four time less thick than that of the SRL 131 glass composition. Six distinctive zones, based on phase chemistry and microstructure, were distinguished within the well-developed surface layers. Numerous crystalline phases such as analcime, tobermorite, apatite, and weeksite were identified on the surfaces of the reacted glasses as precipitates. Two crystalline phases, Ag{sub 2}TeO{sub 3} and (Ca,Sr)Mo{sub 3}O{sub 9}(OH){sub 2}, were found within the inner zones of surface layers, and they must have nucleated in situ, indicating that Ag, Te, Sr, and Mo can be retained within the surface layer. The majority of the surface layer volume is composed of two morphologically and chemically different structures: one consists of well-crystallized fibrous smectite aggregates occurring along with cavities, the A-domain; and the other consists of poorly-crystallized regions containing needle-like smectite (montmorillonite) crystallites, a silica-rich amorphous matrix, and possibly ZrO{sub 2} particles, the B-domain.

  4. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  5. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A. K.; Dickschat, Jeroen S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi. PMID:25888553

  6. Altered activities of transcription factors and their related gene expression in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Y; Kashiwagi, A; Taki, H; Shinozaki, K; Maeno, Y; Kojima, H; Maegawa, H; Haneda, M; Hidaka, H; Yasuda, H; Horiike, K; Kikkawa, R

    1998-08-01

    Gene regulation in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic subjects has been reported to be altered. To examine abnormal activities in transcription factors as a possible cause of this altered gene regulation, we studied the activity of two redox-sensitive transcription factors--nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1)--and the change in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1, which is regulated by these transcription factors in the cardiac tissues of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Increased activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 but not nuclear transcription-activating factor, as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, was found in the hearts of 4-week diabetic rats. Glycemic control by a subcutaneous injection of insulin prevented these diabetes-induced changes in transcription factor activity. In accordance with these changes, the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 was increased fourfold in 4-week diabetic rats and threefold in 24-week diabetic rats as compared with control rats (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Insulin treatment also consistently prevented changes in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1. The oral administration of an antioxidant, probucol, to these diabetic rats partially prevented the elevation of the activity of both NF-kappaB and AP-1, and normalized the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 without producing any change in the plasma glucose concentration. These results suggest that elevated oxidative stress is involved in the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the cardiac tissues of diabetic rats, and that these abnormal activities of transcription factors could be associated with the altered gene regulation observed in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic rats.

  7. Genomic and Transcriptomic Alterations Associated with STAT3 Activation in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peyser, Noah D.; Pendleton, Kelsey; Gooding, William E.; Lui, Vivian W. Y.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperactivation of STAT3 via constitutive phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 (Y705) is common in most human cancers, including head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC). STAT3 is rarely mutated in cancer and the (epi)genetic alterations that lead to STAT3 activation are incompletely understood. Here we used an unbiased approach to identify genomic and epigenomic changes associated with pSTAT3(Y705) expression using data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods and Findings Mutation, mRNA expression, promoter methylation, and copy number alteration data were extracted from TCGA and examined in the context of pSTAT3(Y705) protein expression. mRNA expression levels of 1279 genes were found to be associated with pSTAT3(705) expression. Association of pSTAT3(Y705) expression with caspase-8 mRNA expression was validated by immunoblot analysis in HNSCC cells. Mutation, promoter hypermethylation, and copy number alteration of any gene were not significantly associated with increased pSTAT3(Y705) protein expression. Conclusions These cumulative results suggest that unbiased approaches may be useful in identifying the molecular underpinnings of oncogenic signaling, including STAT3 activation, in HNSCC. Larger datasets will likely be necessary to elucidate signaling consequences of infrequent alterations. PMID:27855189

  8. The hyperactive syndrome: metanalysis of genetic alterations, pharmacological treatments and brain lesions which increase locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Davide

    2008-12-01

    The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal models. To further understand the resulting data set, we have organized a second database of the alterations (genetic, pharmacological or brain lesions) that reduce locomotor activity. Using this approach, we estimated that 1.56% of the genes in the genome yield to hyperactivity and 0.75% of genes produce hypoactivity when altered. These genes have been classified into genes for neurotransmitter systems, hormonal, metabolic systems, ion channels, structural proteins, transcription factors, second messengers and growth factors. Finally, two additional classes included animals with neurodegeneration and inner ear abnormalities. The analysis of the database revealed several unexpected findings. First, the genes that, when mutated, induce hyperactive behaviour do not pertain to a single neurotransmitter system. In fact, alterations in most neurotransmitter systems can give rise to a hyperactive phenotype. In contrast, fewer changes can decrease locomotor activity. Specifically, genetic and pharmacological alterations that enhance the dopamine, orexin, histamine, cannabinoids systems or that antagonize the cholinergic system induce an increase in locomotor activity. Similarly, imbalances in the two main neurotransmitters of the nervous system, GABA and glutamate usually result in hyperactive behaviour. It is remarkable that no genetic alterations pertaining to the GABA system have been reported to reduce locomotor behaviour. Other neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, have a more complex influence. For instance, a decrease in norepinephrine

  9. Hormone withdrawal triggers a premature and sustained gene activation from delayed secondary glucocorticoid response elements.

    PubMed

    Hess, P; Payvar, F

    1992-02-15

    Glucocorticoid regulatory elements, denoted GREs and delayed secondary GREs (sGREs), bind the purified glucocorticoid receptors via distinctive sequence motifs and confer a primary and delayed secondary hormone inducibility, respectively, upon a linked reporter construct in stably transfected mammalian cells. The delayed secondary responses, but not the primary responses, are preceded by a time lag of several hours and blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors. In this report, we further characterized and distinguished these hormonal inductions. A 206-base pair DNA fragment from the hepatic rat alpha 2u-globulin (RUG) gene, containing at least two delayed sGREs, was specifically activated by glucocorticoids in a dose-dependent manner via a process which is sensitive to receptor antagonist RU486. Delayed sGRE-stimulated production of correctly initiated transcripts was preceded by a time lag of 2 h, a time when the GRE-mediated induction had reached maximal levels. A pulse of glucocorticoids sustained maximal activation of the delayed secondary response but not the primary response. In fact, hormone withdrawal triggered a premature induction of this delayed secondary response, suggesting that delayed sGREs are under both negative and positive control of the hormone receptor. Two separable elements of the 206-base pair fragment, including the 29-base pair sequence of a single receptor binding site, activated the reporter expression as effectively with transient, pulsatile exposure to hormone as with continuous exposure. Our results suggest that the information content of a hormonal pulse is retained, or "memorized," more persistently by a receptor binding site of delayed sGREs than those of the prototypical GREs.

  10. [Alterations in recruitment and activation of Rab proteins during mycobacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Castaño, Diana; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    At the phagosome level, Mycobacterium spp. alters activation and recruitment of several "Ras gene from rat brain" proteins, commonly known as Rab. Mycobacterial phagosomes have a greater and sustained expression of Rab5, Rab11, Rab14 and Rab22a, and lowered or no expression of Rab7, Rab9 and Rab6. This correlates with increased fusion of the phagosomes with early and recycling endosomes acquiring some features of early phagosomes, allowing the bacteria to gain access to nutrients and preventing the activation of anti-mycobacterial mechanisms. The expression of constitutively active mutants of Rab from the early stage endosomes prevents the maturation of phagosomes containing latex beads or heat-inactivated mycobacteria. Silencing of these mutants by interference RNA or dominant negative forms induces the maturation of mycobacterial phagosomes. The mechanisms have not been established by which mycobacteria alter the expression of these GTPases and thereby shift the phagolysosomal maturation. The problem can be explained by alterations in the recruitment of proteins that interact with Rab, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinases and early endosomal antigen 1. Identifying the mechanisms used by Mycobacterium spp. to disrupt the cycle of Rab activation will be essential to understand the pathophysiology of mycobacterial infections and usefully to potential drug targets.

  11. Assessment of environmental controls on acid-sulfate alteration at active volcanoes in Nicaragua: Applications to relic hydrothermal systems on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, Brian M.; McCollom, Thomas M.; Marcucci, Emma C.; Brugman, Kara; Rogers, Karyn L.

    2013-10-01

    A variety of secondary mineralogies has been detected on Mars from both orbiters and landers, indicating widespread aqueous alteration of the crust. Many of these locales exhibit sulfates, which in some cases imply acidic fluids. At present, there are few constraints on the paleoenvironmental conditions that existed during formation of the widespread and diverse classes of secondary minerals on Mars. We investigated hydrothermal systems at three active acidic volcanic systems in Nicaragua, including Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica. The recently erupted materials are similar in composition to the Martian crust and are undergoing extensive acid-sulfate alteration predominately in gas-dominated settings (fumaroles). We characterized the secondary mineralogy and local variables, including temperature, pH, rock and gas composition, and fluid-rock ratio. We find that these environmental parameters exhibit strong controls on the alteration mineralogy. The environments studied include pH that ranged from -1 to 6, temperatures from ambient to hundreds of degrees Celsius, and fumaroles to hot springs. The hottest and most acidic systems contained sulfur, silica, and minor gypsum, while moderately acidic and cooler fumaroles included abundant silica, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates, and phyllosilicates. A setting with a higher fluid-rock ratio but similar temperature and acidity was dominated by phyllosilicates and, to a lesser degree, sulfates. The characterization of aqueous alteration of basalts under a variety of environmental conditions provides a conceptual framework for interpretation of similar relic environments on Mars. Finally, while identification of phyllosilicates on Mars is generally thought to require neutral to alkaline fluids, we documented significant formation of these minerals in the acidic volcanic systems.

  12. Activator Protein 2α Mediates Parathyroid TGF-α Self-Induction in Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Cozzolino, Mario; Spiegel, Noah; Tokumoto, Masanori; Yang, Jing; Lu, Yan; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Dusso, Adriana S.

    2008-01-01

    In secondary hyperparathyroidism, enhanced expression of TGF-α in the parathyroid leads to its own upregulation, generating a feed-forward loop for TGF-α activation of its receptor, EGFR receptor (EGFR), which promotes parathyroid hyperplasia. These studies examined the role of activator protein 2α (AP2), an inducer of TGF-α gene transcription, in the upregulation of parathyroid TGF-α in secondary hyperparathyroidism. In rat and human secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid AP2 expression strongly correlated with TGF-α levels and with the rate of parathyroid growth, as expected. Furthermore, the increases in rat parathyroid content of AP2 and its binding to a consensus AP2 DNA sequence preceded the increase in TGF-α induced by high dietary phosphate. More significant, in A431 cells, which provide a model of enhanced TGF-α and TGF-α self-induction, mutating the core AP2 site of the human TGF-α promoter markedly impaired promoter activity induced by endogenous or exogenous TGF-α. Important for therapy, in five-sixths nephrectomized rats fed high-phosphate diets, inhibition of parathyroid TGF-α self-induction using erlotinib, a highly specific inhibitor of TGF-α/EGFR-driven signals, reduced AP2 expression dosage dependently. This suggests that the increases in parathyroid AP2 occur downstream of EGFR activation by TGF-α and are required for TGF-α self-induction. Indeed, in A431 cells, erlotinib inhibition of TGF-α self-induction caused parallel reductions in AP2 expression and nuclear localization, as well as TGF-α mRNA and protein levels. In summary, increased AP2 expression and transcriptional activity at the TGF-α promoter determine the severity of the hyperplasia driven by parathyroid TGF-α self-upregulation in secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:18579641

  13. Medical audit activity in primary and secondary care in the west of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Kinn, S R; Smith, P J

    1996-05-01

    To look at the level of activity and motivation towards audit in primary and secondary care in the West of Scotland. An anonymised postal questionnaire survey. Area covered by six Health Boards in West of Scotland. 150 GPs and 150 hospital-based clinicians randomly selected from two departmental databases. There appears to be a rule of diminishing returns in operation where half of those involved in audit have completed a project and half again have repeated a project. The current level of activity is significantly higher in secondary than primary care (chi 2 p = 0.05). There is significantly more audit activity in teaching than non-teaching hospitals (chi 2 p = 0.01) and significantly more GPs from larger practices have been involved in audit than those from smaller practices (chi 2 p = 0.05). All of those involved in audit have set standards. Levels of motivation towards audit were significantly higher amongst hospital-based clinicians than general practitioners (chi 2 p = 0.001). There has been a widespread involvement in audit in both primary and secondary care in the West of Scotland, but activity and enthusiasm or motivation are lower amongst general practitioners.

  14. Experimental and analytical study of secondary path variations in active engine mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausberg, Fabian; Scheiblegger, Christian; Pfeffer, Peter; Plöchl, Manfred; Hecker, Simon; Rupp, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Active engine mounts (AEMs) provide an effective solution to further improve the acoustic and vibrational comfort of passenger cars. Typically, adaptive feedforward control algorithms, e.g., the filtered-x-least-mean-squares (FxLMS) algorithm, are applied to cancel disturbing engine vibrations. These algorithms require an accurate estimate of the AEM active dynamic characteristics, also known as the secondary path, in order to guarantee control performance and stability. This paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical study of secondary path variations in AEMs. The impact of three major influences, namely nonlinearity, change of preload and component temperature, on the AEM active dynamic characteristics is experimentally analyzed. The obtained test results are theoretically investigated with a linear AEM model which incorporates an appropriate description for elastomeric components. A special experimental set-up extends the model validation of the active dynamic characteristics to higher frequencies up to 400 Hz. The theoretical and experimental results show that significant secondary path variations are merely observed in the frequency range of the AEM actuator's resonance frequency. These variations mainly result from the change of the component temperature. As the stability of the algorithm is primarily affected by the actuator's resonance frequency, the findings of this paper facilitate the design of AEMs with simpler adaptive feedforward algorithms. From a practical point of view it may further be concluded that algorithmic countermeasures against instability are only necessary in the frequency range of the AEM actuator's resonance frequency.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant capacity of zebrafish brain is altered by heavy metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Richetti, S K; Rosemberg, D B; Ventura-Lima, J; Monserrat, J M; Bogo, M R; Bonan, C D

    2011-01-01

    Pollution is a world problem with immeasurable consequences. Heavy metal compounds are frequently found as components of anthropogenic pollution. Here we evaluated the effects of the treatment with cadmium acetate, lead acetate, mercury chloride, and zinc chloride in acetylcholinesterase activity and gene expression pattern, as well as the effects of these treatments in antioxidant competence in the brain of an aquatic and well-established organism for toxicological analysis, zebrafish (Danio rerio, Cyprinidae). Mercury chloride and lead acetate promoted a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity whereas they did not alter the gene expression pattern. In addition, the antioxidant competence was decreased after exposure to mercury chloride. The data presented here allowed us to hypothesize a signal transmission impairment, through alterations in cholinergic transmission, and also in the antioxidant competence of zebrafish brain tissue as some of the several effects elicited by these pollutants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of CYP2C19 and its role in altered enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Uppugunduri, Chakradhara Rao S; Daali, Youssef; Desmeules, Jules; Dayer, Pierre; Krajinovic, Maja; Ansari, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is involved in the metabolism of several drugs that are currently in clinical use. The gene encoding CYP2C19 is polymorphic with the existence of different alleles resulting in altered enzyme activity. In addition, CYP2C19 activity is also dependent on its basal expression levels determined by the transcriptional regulation. Genetic variations located in the CYP2C19 promoter region may alter the interaction of promoter with transcription factors causing variable transcription. Genetic variants may also influence the induction, inhibition of CYP2C19 and may as well affect drug-drug interactions involving CYP2C19 substrates. The role of various transcription factors and genetic variants in the promoter region of CYP2C19 regulating its expression are discussed in this review. Furthermore, induction and inhibition of CYP2C19 by various drugs in clinically meaningful drug interactions are also discussed.

  17. A semisynthetic strategy leads to alteration of the backbone amidate ligand in the NiSOD active site

    SciTech Connect

    Campeciño, Julius O.; Dudycz, Lech W.; Tumelty, David; Berg, Volker; Cabelli, Diane E.; Maroney, Michael J.

    2015-07-01

    Computational investigations have implicated the amidate ligand in nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) in stabilizing Ni-centered redox catalysis and in preventing cysteine thiolate ligand oxidation. To test these predictions, we have used an experimental approach utilizing a semisynthetic scheme that employs native chemical ligation of a pentapeptide (HCDLP) to recombinant S. coelicolor NiSOD lacking these N-terminal residues, NΔ5-NiSOD. Wild-type enzyme produced in this manner exhibits the characteristic spectral properties of recombinant WT-NiSOD and is as catalytically active. The semisynthetic scheme was also employed to construct a variant where the amidate ligand was converted to a secondary amine, H1*-NiSOD, a novel strategy that retains a backbone N-donor atom. The H1*-NiSOD variant was found to have only ~1% of the catalytic activity of the recombinant wild-type enzyme, and had altered spectroscopic properties. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a four-coordinate planar site with N2S2-donor ligands, consistent with electronic absorption spectroscopic results indicating that the Ni center in H1*-NiSOD is mostly reduced in the as-isolated sample, as opposed to 50:50 Ni(II)/Ni(III) mixture that is typical for the recombinant wild-type enzyme. The EPR spectrum of as-isolated H1*-NiSOD accounts for ~11% of the Ni in the sample and is similar to WT-NiSOD, but more axial, with gz < gx,y. 14N-hyperfine is observed on gzaltered electronic properties and implications for redox catalysis are discussed in light of predictions based on synthetic and computational models.

  18. Lithium isotopes as an indicator of primary and secondary processes in unequilibrated meteorites: Chondrule cooling and aqueous alteration in CO chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharrock, J. L.; Harvey, J.; Fehr, M.; James, R. H.; Parkinson, I. J.

    2010-12-01

    Chondrites have escaped planetary scale differentiation and thus represent some of the best examples of early solar system material. However, even the most pristine chondrites have experienced some degree of aqueous alteration and/or metamorphism. Where and when these processes occurred, their nature, duration and extent remains poorly understood (e.g.[1]). During the crystallisation of chondrule phenocrysts, compositional gradients drive the more rapid diffusion of 6Li compared to 7Li, creating distinctive 7Li/6Li profiles [2,3]. This potentially makes Li isotopes a useful tool for the calculation of chondrule cooling rates. Lithium is also highly mobile during the aqueous weathering of silicate material with 7Li preferentially entering the solution, thus fractionating the two isotopes (e.g. [4]); a process already identified in the aqueous alteration of chondritic materials [5]. Lithium isotopes may therefore provide the means to quantify the effects of both primary and secondary processes in chondritic material. We will present new data for intra- and inter-chondrule δ7Li variation, determined by ion microprobe and MC ICP MS, as well as bulk data for Ornans (CO3.3) and Lancé (CO3.4) with the aim to (i) assess the preservation of primary Li isotope diffusion profiles in chondrule phenocrysts (ii) examine the extent and effects of aqueous alteration using the Li isotope systematics of bulk-rock and chondrules, in addition to intra-chondrule δ7Li variations. High Mg# (>0.99) in chondrule cores suggests that primitive geochemical compositions may have been retained. In contrast, lower rim Mg# (≤0.80) suggests diffusive exchange with matrix during cooling or subsequent secondary alteration. As variability in Mg# is also observed close to fractures in the interior of chondrule phenocrysts these variations are unlikely to be primary, suggesting that Li isotope fractionation during chondrule cooling may have been overprinted. Bulk-rock δ7Li values for Ornans (4

  19. Alteration and modulation of protein activity by varying post-translational modification

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N; Reed, David W; Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Apel, William A

    2015-03-03

    Embodiments of the invention include methods of altering the enzymatic activity or solubility of an extremophilic enzyme or post-translationally modifying a protein of interest via using isolated or partially purified glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins, extracts of cells comprising glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins, and/or in cells comprising one or more glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins.

  20. Alteration and modulation of protein activity by varying post-translational modification

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N.; Reed, David W.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Apel, William A.

    2016-07-12

    Embodiments of the invention include methods of altering the enzymatic activity or solubility of an extremophilic enzyme or post-translationally modifying a protein of interest via using isolated or partially purified glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins, extracts of cells comprising glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins, and/or in cells comprising one or more glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins.

  1. Alterations in fear conditioning and amygdalar activation following chronic wheel running in rats.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Paul R; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Wilson, Marlene A; Fadel, Jim

    2006-06-01

    Several convergent lines of evidence point to the amygdala as a key site of plasticity underlying most forms of fear conditioning. Studies have shown that chronic physical activity, such as wheel running, can alter learning in a variety of contexts, including aversive conditioning. The ability of chronic wheel running (WR) to alter both behavioral correlates of fear conditioning and indices of amygdalar activation, however, has not been simultaneously assessed. Here, rats were given constant access to either free-turning or--as a control--locked (LC) running wheels in their home cages. After 8 weeks of housing under these conditions, animals were exposed to a series of shocks in a separate testing chamber. Twenty-four hours later, the animals were returned to the shock chamber and freezing behavior was measured as an indicator of contextual fear conditioning. The animals were then sacrificed and their brains processed for immunohistochemical detection of Fos to assess patterns of putative neuronal activation. WR rats spent significantly more time freezing than their LC counterparts upon return to the shock-paired context. The enhanced conditioned freezing response was most pronounced in animals showing high levels of nightly wheel running activity. WR animals also had significantly higher levels of neuronal activation, as indicated by Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala, but less activation in the basolateral nucleus, compared to sedentary controls. These data demonstrate the ability of chronic physical activity to alter contextual fear conditioning and implicate the amygdala as a potential site of plasticity underlying this phenomenon.

  2. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  3. Alteration of intestinal dysbiosis by fecal microbiota transplantation does not induce remission in patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kump, Patrizia K; Gröchenig, Hans-Peter; Lackner, Stefan; Trajanoski, Slave; Reicht, Gerhard; Hoffmann, K Martin; Deutschmann, Andrea; Wenzl, Heimo H; Petritsch, Wolfgang; Krejs, Guenter J; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Högenauer, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), alterations of the intestinal microbiota, termed dysbiosis, have been postulated to contribute to intestinal inflammation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used as effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis also caused by dysbiosis. The aims of the present study were to investigate if patients with UC benefit from FMT and if dysbiosis can be reversed. Six patients with chronic active UC nonresponsive to standard medical therapy were treated with FMT by colonoscopic administration. Changes in the colonic microbiota were assessed by 16S rDNA-based microbial community profiling using high-throughput pyrosequencing from mucosal and stool samples. All patients experienced short-term clinical improvement within the first 2 weeks after FMT. However, none of the patients achieved clinical remission. Microbiota profiling showed differences in the modification of the intestinal microbiota between individual patients after FMT. In 3 patients, the colonic microbiota changed toward the donor microbiota; however, this did not correlate with clinical response. On phylum level, there was a significant reduction of Proteobacteria and an increase in Bacteroidetes after FMT. FMT by a single colonoscopic donor stool application is not effective in inducing remission in chronic active therapy-refractory UC. Changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota were significant and resulted in a partial improvement of UC-associated dysbiosis. The results suggest that dysbiosis in UC is at least in part a secondary phenomenon induced by inflammation and diarrhea rather than being causative for inflammation in this disease.

  4. Hemin/G-quadruplex structure and activity alteration induced by magnesium cations.

    PubMed

    Kosman, J; Juskowiak, B

    2016-04-01

    The influence of metal cations on G-quadruplex structure and peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme activity was investigated. Experiments revealed a significant role of magnesium ion, which in the presence of potassium cation influenced DNAzyme activity. This ability has been associated with alteration of G-quadruplex topology and consequently affinity to bind hemin molecule. It has been demonstrated that G-quadruplex based on PS2.M sequence under these conditions formed parallel topology, which exhibited lower activity than that observed in standard potassium-containing solution. On the other hand DNAzyme/magnesium ion system based on telomeric sequence, which did not undergo significant structural changes, exhibited higher peroxidase activity upon magnesium ion addition. In both cases, the stabilization effect of magnesium cations on G-quadruplex structure was observed. The mechanism of DNAzyme activity alteration by magnesium ion can be explained by its influence on the pKa value of DNAzyme. Magnesium ion decreased pKa for PS2.M based system but increased it for telomeric DNAzyme. Magnesium cation effect on G-quadruplex structure as well as DNAzyme activity is particularly important since this ion is one of the most common metal cations in biological samples.

  5. Redox activity of urban quasi-ultrafine particles from primary and secondary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vishal; Ning, Zhi; Cho, Arthur K.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-12-01

    To characterize the redox activity profiles of atmospheric aerosols from primary (traffic) and secondary photochemical sources, ambient quasi-ultrafine particles were collected near downtown Los Angeles in two different time periods - morning (6:00-9:00 PDT) and afternoon (11:00-14:00 PDT) in the summer of 2008. Detailed chemical analysis of the collected samples, including water-soluble elements, inorganic ions, organic species and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was conducted and redox activity of the samples was measured by two different assays: the dithiothreitol (DTT) and the macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Tracers of secondary photochemical reactions, such as sulfate and organic acids were higher (2.1 ± 0.6 times for sulfate, and up to 3 times for the organic acids) in the afternoon period. WSOC was also elevated by 2.5 ± 0.9 times in the afternoon period due to photo-oxidation of primary particles during atmospheric aging. Redox activity measured by the DTT assay was considerably higher for the samples collected during the afternoon; on the other hand, diurnal trends in the ROS-based activity were not consistent between the morning and afternoon periods. A linear regression between redox activity and various PM chemical constituents showed that the DTT assay was highly correlated with WSOC ( R2 = 0.80), while ROS activity was associated mostly with water soluble transition metals (Vanadium, Nickel and Cadmium; R2 > 0.70). The DTT and ROS assays, which are based on the generation of different oxidizing species by chemical PM constituents, provide important information for elucidating the health risks related to PM exposure from different sources. Thus, both primary and secondary particles possess high redox activity; however, photochemical transformations of primary emissions with atmospheric aging enhance the toxicological potency of primary particles in terms of generating oxidative stress and leading to subsequent damage in cells.

  6. Activity-Independent Discovery of Secondary Metabolites Using Chemical Elicitation and Cheminformatic Inference.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila M; Sørensen, Dan; Ho, Louis; Ziko, Mikaela; Bueler, Stephanie A; Lu, Stella; Tao, Joe; Moser, Arvin; Lee, Richard; Agard, David; Fairn, Greg; Rubinstein, John L; Shoichet, Brian K; Nodwell, Justin R

    2015-11-20

    Most existing antibiotics were discovered through screens of environmental microbes, particularly the streptomycetes, for the capacity to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria. This "activity-guided screening" method has been largely abandoned because it repeatedly rediscovers those compounds that are highly expressed during laboratory culture. Most of these metabolites have already been biochemically characterized. However, the sequencing of streptomycete genomes has revealed a large number of "cryptic" secondary metabolic genes that are either poorly expressed in the laboratory or that have biological activities that cannot be discovered through standard activity-guided screens. Methods that reveal these uncharacterized compounds, particularly methods that are not biased in favor of the highly expressed metabolites, would provide direct access to a large number of potentially useful biologically active small molecules. To address this need, we have devised a discovery method in which a chemical elicitor called Cl-ARC is used to elevate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic genes. We show that the resulting change in product yield permits the direct discovery of secondary metabolites without requiring knowledge of their biological activity. We used this approach to identify three rare secondary metabolites and find that two of them target eukaryotic cells and not bacterial cells. In parallel, we report the first paired use of cheminformatic inference and chemical genetic epistasis in yeast to identify the target. In this way, we demonstrate that oxohygrolidin, one of the eukaryote-active compounds we identified through activity-independent screening, targets the V1 ATPase in yeast and human cells and secondarily HSP90.

  7. Influence of flocculation and settling properties of activated sludge in relation to secondary settler performance.

    PubMed

    Wilén, B M; Onuki, M; Hermansson, M; Lumley, D; Mino, T

    2006-01-01

    Floc characteristics were studied at a full scale activated sludge treatment plant with a unique process solution incorporating pre-denitrification with post-nitrification in nitrifying trickling filters. Since greater nitrogen removal is achieved when more secondary settled wastewater is recirculated to the trickling filters, the secondary settlers are always operated close to their maximal capacity. The flocculation and settling properties are therefore crucial and have an effect on the overall plant performance. Since the plant is operated at a short sludge age, these properties change quickly, resulting in variable maximal secondary settler capacity. The dynamics in floc structure and microbial community composition were studied and correlated to the secondary settler performance. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to investigate the microbial community structure and their spatial distribution. The floc structure could to some extent be related to the flocculation and settling properties of the sludge. Even small differences had an influence suggesting that colloidal properties also play a significant role in determining the floc properties. No correlation between microbial community composition and settling properties could be established with the group-specific probes investigated.

  8. Secondary Metabolites, Glandular Trichomes and Biological Activity of Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Frezza, Claudio; Serafini, Mauro; Giacomello, Ginevra; Giuliani, Claudia; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Lupidi, Giulio; Lucarini, Domenico; Papa, Fabrizio; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Sideritis montana subsp. montana is a small annual herb occurring in countries bordering the Mediterranean and Balkan regions. The secondary metabolism of this plant has not been fully explored so far. The aim of the present study was to understand the complex mixture of secondary metabolites and the type of secretory structures. The polar constituents were isolated by column chromatography from the ethanolic extract, and their structure was elucidated by NMR and MS. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC/MS. The plant indumentum was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. To complete the work, the essential oil antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on tumor cells were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and MTT methods. Four different classes of secondary metabolites were isolated, namely flavonoids, caffeoylquinic derivatives, glycosidic hydroquinones and iridoids. The essential oil was mainly characterized by sesquiterpenene hydrocarbons. Peltate and long-capitate hairs were the main sites where terpenes and polar constituents are produced. The secondary metabolites found in S. montana subsp. montana are of chemotaxonomic interest, some of them being typical of the genus Sideritis. The trichomes types observed partially differ from those described in other members of the genus Sideritis. The essential oil showed noteworthy inhibition on tumor cells. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  9. Symplasmic networks in secondary vascular tissues: parenchyma distribution and activity supporting long-distance transport.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    Stems that develop secondary vascular tissue (i.e. xylem and phloem derived from the vascular cambium) have unique demands on transport owing to their mass and longevity. Transport of water and assimilates must occur over long distances, while the increasing physical separation of xylem and phloem requires radial transport. Developing secondary tissue is itself a strong sink positioned between xylem and phloem along the entire length of the stem, and the integrity of these transport tissues must be maintained and protected for years if not decades. Parenchyma cells form an interconnected three-dimensional lattice throughout secondary xylem and phloem and perform critical roles in all of these tasks, yet our understanding of their physiology, the nature of their symplasmic connections, and their activity at the symplast-apoplast interface is very limited. This review highlights key historical work as well as current research on the structure and function of parenchyma in secondary vascular tissue in the hopes of spurring renewed interest in this area, which has important implications for whole-plant transport processes and resource partitioning.

  10. Potential enzyme activities altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Moore, J. C.; Simpson, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic tundra is a biome affected most by global warming predicted in the future. Such warming is expected to increase nutrient availability to soil microbes which, in turn, may accelerate soil organic matter decomposition. We investigated how extra-cellular enzyme activities in soils were affected by increasing nutrient availability in an Arctic tundra ecosystem. Specifically, we measured potential activities of seven enzymes at three profiles (organic, organic/mineral interface, and mineral) of soils which had been fertilized in long- (23 years) and short-terms (six years), assayed at four temperatures. The long-term site had a high fertilization treatment (10g N m-2 year-1 and 5g P m-2 year-1) and control, and the short-term site had a low fertilization treatment (5g N m-2 year-1 and 2.5g P m-2 year-1) in addition to the high fertilization treatment and control. The fertilization treatments significantly altered most of the enzyme activities in both sites. The fertilization treatments increased activities of enzymes hydrolyzing products for C and nitrogen N sources, but decreased phosphatase activities. Such alterations were most pronounced in the organic soils. The fertilization treatments also increased ratios of total enzyme activities involved in hydrolysis for C products to those for N products. This result is consistent with an observation that long-term N and P fertilization decreased soil organic C in the same tundra ecosystem. Altered enzymatic stoichiometry with increased nutrient availability should be considered when modeling biogeochemical cycles in Arctic tundra ecosystems in response to warming predicted in the future.

  11. A natural survey of audit activity across the primary-secondary care interface.

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, M P; Deverill, M; McColl, E; Richardson, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the nature of audit activity at the primary-secondary care interface; to explore participants' experiences of undertaking such interface audit; to identify factors associated with these experiences; and to gather views on future interface audit activities. DESIGN: A three phase national survey by postal questionnaire with a cascade sampling approach. SETTING: England and Wales. RESULTS: Response rates were: 65% to the first questionnaire; 34% to the second questionnaire; and 45% to the third questionnaire. 56% of the audits covered some element of management of patients or disease; only 33% of the audits were within a single topic area. Most audits had more than one trigger: for 61% the trigger was a perceived problem; for 58% it was of mutual interest. Only 18% of audits were initiated collaboratively; doctors were the most frequent initiators (72%), and most audits (63%) involved collaborative groups convened specifically for the audit. 58% of groups had between three and eight members, 23% had 12 or more. Doctors were the most frequent group members. There was differential involvement of group members in various group tasks; the setting of guidelines was highly dominated by doctors. Of reportedly complete audits, only two fifths had implemented change and only a quarter had evaluated this change. There was widespread feeling of successful group work, with evidence of benefit in terms of the two sectors of care being able to consider issues of mutual concern. Levels of understanding of the group task and of participation were positively related to the duration of meetings. Joint initiation of audits facilitated greater understanding of the group task. Larger group sizes allowed primary and secondary carers to discuss issues of common concern; however, larger groups were more likely to experience disagreements. Having previously worked with group members increased trust and good working relations. The main lessons learnt from the experience

  12. Parental Involvement, Student Active Engagement and the "Secondary Slump" Phenomenon--Evidence from a Three-Year Study in a Barbadian Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ian A.; Jackman, Grace-Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement and a proximal student academic outcome-active engagement, for a cohort of 160 students on their transition to secondary school and at three subsequent time periods. The student-reported measures were assessed using the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (2005) instrument. Results provide…

  13. Brain Injury Alters Ectonucleotidase Activities and Adenine Nucleotide Levels in Rat Serum

    PubMed Central

    Laketa, Danijela; Savić, Jasmina; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Vasić, Vesna; Stojiljković, Mirjana; Nedeljković, Nadežda

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cortical stab injury (CSI) induces changes in the activity, expression and cellular distribution of specific ectonucleotidases at the injury site. Also, several experimentally induced neuropathologies are associated with changes in soluble ectonucleotidase activities in the plasma and serum, whilst various insults to the brain alter purine compounds levels in cerebrospinal fluid, but also in serum, indicating that insults to the brain may induce alterations in nucleotides release and rate of their hydrolysis in the vascular system. Since adenine nucleotides and adenosine regulate diverse cellular functions in the vascular system, including vascular tone, platelet aggregation and inflammatory responses of lymphocytes and macrophages, alterations of ectonucleotidase activities in the vascular system may be relevant for the clinical outcome of the primary insult. Methods We explored ectonucleotidase activities using specific enzyme assays and determined adenine nucleotides concentrations by the UPLC method in the rat serum after cortical stab injury. Results At 4-h post-injury, ATP and AMP hydrolysis increased by about 60% and 40%, respectively, while phosphodiesterase activity remained unchanged. Also, at 4-h post-injury a marked decrease in ATP concentration and more than 2-fold increase in AMP concentration were recorded. Conclusions CSI induces rapid up-regulation of nucleotide catabolizing soluble ectonucleotidases in rat serum, which leads to the observed shift in serum nucleotide levels. The results obtained imply that ectonucleotidases and adenine nucleotides participate in the communication between the brain and the vascular system in physiological and pathological conditions and thereby may be involved in the development of various human neuropathologies.

  14. Altered gene expression in T-cell receptor signalling in peripheral blood leucocytes in acute coronary syndrome predicts secondary coronary events

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shin-ichiro; Usui, Soichiro; Kurokawa, Keisuke; Kitano, Teppei; Kato, Takeshi; Murai, Hisayoshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Oda, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Michiro; Nagata, Yoshiki; Usuda, Kazuo; Kubota, Koji; Takeshita, Yumie; Sakai, Yoshio; Honda, Masao; Kaneko, Shuichi; Takamura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Comprehensive profiling of gene expression in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a prognosticator is needed. We explored the specific profile of gene expression in PBLs in ACS for long-term risk stratification. Methods 30 patients with ACS who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 15 age-matched adults who participated in medical check-ups were enrolled from three centres. Peripheral blood samples were collected to extract RNA for microarray analyses. Results During the 5-year follow-up, 36% of this cohort developed the expected non-fatal coronary events (NFEs) of target lesion revascularisation (TLR) and PCI for a de novo lesion. Class comparison analysis (p<0.005) demonstrated that 83 genes among 7785 prefiltered genes (41 upregulated vs 42 downregulated genes) were extracted to classify the patients according to the occurrence of NFE. Pathway analysis based on gene ontology revealed that the NFEs were associated with altered gene expression regarding the T-cell receptor signalling pathway in ACS. Univariate t test showed that the expression level of death-associated protein kinase1 (DAPK1), known to regulate inflammation, was the most significantly negatively regulated gene in the event group (0.61-fold, p<0.0005). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and multivariate analysis adjusted for baseline characteristics or clinical biomarkers demonstrated that lower DAPK1 expression in PBL emerged as an independent risk factor for the NFEs (HR: 8.73; CI 1.05 to 72.8, p=0.045). Conclusions Altered gene expression in T-cell receptor signalling in PBL in ACS could be a prognosticator for secondary coronary events. Trial registration number UMIN000001932; Results. PMID:27403330

  15. Liver-restricted Repin1 deficiency improves whole-body insulin sensitivity, alters lipid metabolism, and causes secondary changes in adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Kern, Matthias; Kosacka, Joanna; Hesselbarth, Nico; Brückner, Julia; Heiker, John T; Flehmig, Gesine; Klöting, Ingrid; Kovacs, Peter; Matz-Soja, Madlen; Gebhardt, Rolf; Krohn, Knut; Sales, Susanne; Abshagen, Kerstin; Shevchenko, Andrej; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2014-10-01

    Replication initiator 1 (Repin1) is a zinc finger protein highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue and maps within a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for body weight and triglyceride (TG) levels in the rat. The QTL has further been supported as a susceptibility locus for dyslipidemia and related metabolic disorders in congenic and subcongenic rat strains. Here, we elucidated the role of Repin1 in lipid metabolism in vivo. We generated a liver-specific Repin1 knockout mouse (LRep1(-/-)) and systematically characterized the consequences of Repin1 deficiency in the liver on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, liver lipid patterns, and protein/mRNA expression. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed significantly improved whole-body insulin sensitivity in LRep1(-/-) mice, which may be due to significantly lower TG content in the liver. Repin1 deficiency causes significant changes in potential downstream target molecules including Cd36, Pparγ, Glut2 protein, Akt phosphorylation, and lipocalin2, Vamp4, and Snap23 mRNA expression. Mice with hepatic deletion of Repin1 display secondary changes in adipose tissue function, which may be mediated by altered hepatic expression of lipocalin2 or chemerin. Our findings indicate that Repin1 plays a role in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism by regulating key genes of glucose and lipid metabolism. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. The impacts of altered tropical cyclone activity on climate mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; LePage, Y.; Patel, P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Clarke, L.; Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence that anthropogenic climate change may alter patterns of tropical cyclone frequency, intensity and spatial distribution, which in turn will alter the carbon balance of terrestrial systems in the large regions impacted by these storms. Recent studies project up to a doubling of major storms (Saffir-Simpson Scale 3-5) over the next century. Single large storms have been shown to be capable of causing committed carbon emissions equivalent to the annual U.S. carbon sink. These changes have the potential to affect climate mitigation strategies, most of which rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink to restrain the accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Altered patterns of disturbances and the resulting changes to the carbon balance of terrestrial systems could impact the magnitude of emissions to mitigate, the economic value of ecosystem carbon storage, and thus future land-use patterns, food prices and energy technology. Here we investigate the potential consequences of altered tropical cyclone activity on climate mitigation strategies using a fully integrated model (iED) that links advanced ecological and socio-economic models. The model combines the regional integrated assessment algorithms of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), with the climate- sensitive ecosystem and carbon modeling in the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, and the land-use mapping algorithms of the Global Land-use Model (GLM). We explore a range of scenarios of altered future tropical cyclone frequency, intensity and spatial pattern, the resulting effects on the terrestrial carbon balance, and the coupled effects on the food and energy sector under a range of future climate mitigation goals.

  17. Nicotine-induced molecular alterations are modulated by GABAB receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andres P; Pedrón, Valeria T; Aon, Amira J; Höcht, Christian; Acosta, Gabriela B; Bettler, Bernhard; Balerio, Graciela N

    2017-04-17

    It has been demonstrated that GABAB receptors modulate nicotine (NIC) reward effect; nevertheless, the mechanism implicated is not well known. In this regard, we evaluated the involvement of GABAB receptors on the behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations associated with the rewarding effects induced by NIC in mice, from a pharmacological and genetic approach. NIC-induced rewarding properties (0.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously, sc) were evaluated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. CPP has three phases: preconditioning, conditioning and postconditioning. GABAB receptor antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg; intraperitoneally, ip) or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (3 mg/kg; ip) was injected before NIC during the conditioning phase. GABAB1 knockout (GABAB1 KO) mice received NIC during the conditioning phase. Vehicle and wild-type controls were employed. Neurochemical (dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites), biochemical (nicotinic receptor α4β2, α4β2nAChRs) and molecular (c-Fos) alterations induced by NIC were analyzed after the postconditioning phase by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), receptor-ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in nucleus accumbens (Acb), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). NIC induced rewarding effects in the CPP paradigm and increased dopamine levels in Acb and PFC, α4β2nAChRs density in VTA and c-Fos expression in Acb shell (AcbSh), VTA and PFC. We showed that behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations induced by NIC were prevented by baclofen. However, in 2-hydroxysaclofen pretreated and GABAB1 KO mice, these alterations were potentiated, suggesting that GABAB receptor activity is necessary to control alterations induced by NIC-induced rewarding effects. Therefore, the present findings provided important contributions to the mechanisms implicated in NIC-induced rewarding effects. © 2017 Society for the

  18. Physical activity attenuates age-related biomarker alterations in preclinical AD.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca; Gallagher, Catherine L; Dowling, N M; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Rowley, Howard A; Christian, Brad T; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2014-11-04

    To examine whether engagement in physical activity might favorably alter the age-dependent evolution of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related brain and cognitive changes in a cohort of at-risk, late-middle-aged adults. Three hundred seventeen enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent T1 MRI; a subset also underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 186) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (n = 152) imaging. Participants' responses on a self-report measure of current physical activity were used to classify them as either physically active or physically inactive based on American Heart Association guidelines. They also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the adverse effect of age on imaging and cognitive biomarkers was modified by physical activity. There were significant age × physical activity interactions for β-amyloid burden (p = 0.014), glucose metabolism (p = 0.015), and hippocampal volume (p = 0.025) such that, with advancing age, physically active individuals exhibited a lesser degree of biomarker alterations compared with the physically inactive. Similar age × physical activity interactions were also observed on cognitive domains of Immediate Memory (p = 0.042) and Visuospatial Ability (p = 0.016). In addition, the physically active group had higher scores on Speed and Flexibility (p = 0.002) compared with the inactive group. In a middle-aged, at-risk cohort, a physically active lifestyle is associated with an attenuation of the deleterious influence of age on key biomarkers of AD pathophysiology. However, because our observational, cross-sectional design cannot establish causality, randomized controlled trials/longitudinal studies will be necessary for determining whether midlife participation in structured physical exercise forestalls the development of AD and related disorders in later life. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Neonatal phosphate nutrition alters in vivo and in vitro satellite cell activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lindsey S; Seabolt, Brynn S; Rhoads, Robert P; Stahl, Chad H

    2012-06-01

    Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO(4)) deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO(4) nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW) were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO(4) adequate (0.9% total P), supra-adequate (1.2% total P) in PO(4) requirement or deficient (0.7% total P) in PO(4) content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO(4) nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO(4) deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) sera PO(4) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO(4) improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO(4) adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05) among the PO(4) deficient pigs, and these cells had altered in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO(4) nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  20. ENHANCEMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY OF COLICINE K AND ALTERATION OF SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF COLICINE K AND ENDOTOXINS

    PubMed Central

    van Vunakis, Helen; Ruffilli, Anna; Levine, Lawrence

    1965-01-01

    Hemoglobin, its chains, and myoglobin enhance the antibiotic activity of colicine K. These proteins also interact with colicine K and other O antigens to alter their serological activity. The hemoglobin proteins did not alter the serological activities of three Pneumococcus polysaccharides or T4 bacteriophage DNA antigens but did alter the antigenic activity of fetuin. Interaction of hemoglobin and colicine K resulted in a retardation of colicine K antibiotic moiety as measured by gel filtration but did not affect the gel filtration properties of the lipopolysaccharide moiety. PMID:14264271

  1. Complete denture base assessments using holograms: dimensional alterations after different activation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dughir, Ciprian; Popovschi, Ana Maria; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; de Sabata, Aldo; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2016-03-01

    Holography is a well-developed method with a large range of applications, including dentistry. This study uses holographic methods for the study of total dental prosthesis. The issue is that the transformation of wax denture base in polymethylacrylate causes dimensional alterations and retractions in the final dental constructs. These could cause the failure of the stability of the complete denture in the oral cavity. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine and to compare using holography, total prosthesis obtained using three different manufacturing methods: pressing, injection, and polymerization. Each of the three types of dentures thus produced were recorded over the previously wax complete base holographic plates. The dimensional alterations that appear after using the different activation methods were thus determined. The most significant modification was remarked in the custom press technology, while the smallest variations were detected in the injection alternative.

  2. Maternal immune activation alters glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in the brains of adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Cassella, Sarah N.; Hemmerle, Ann M.; Lundgren, Kerstin H.; Kyser, Tara L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Bronson, Stefanie L.; Richtand, Neil M.; Seroogy, Kim B.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the maternal innate immune system, termed “maternal immune activation” (MIA), represents a common environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. Whereas evidence suggests dysregulation of GABA systems may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a role for MIA in alteration of GABAergic systems is less clear. Here, pregnant rats received either the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid or vehicle injection on gestational day 14. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) mRNA expression was examined in male offspring at postnatal day (P)14, P30 and P60. At P60, GAD67 mRNA was elevated in hippocampus and thalamus and decreased in prefrontal cortex of MIA offspring. MIA-induced alterations in GAD expression could contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:26830319

  3. The Role of the Secondary Coordination Sphere in Metal-Mediated Dioxygen Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Ryan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Werner proposed nearly 100 years ago that the secondary coordination sphere has a role in determining physical properties of transition metal complexes. We now know that the secondary coordination sphere impacts nearly all aspects of transition metal chemistry, including the reactivity and selectivity in metal-mediated processes. These features are highlighted in the binding and activation of dioxygen by transition metal complexes. There are clear connections between the control of the secondary coordination sphere and the ability of metal complexes to 1) reversibly bind dioxygen or 2) bind and activate dioxygen to form highly reactive M–oxo complexes. In this forum article, several biological and synthetic examples are presented and discussed in terms of structure-function relationships. Particular emphasis is given to systems with defined non-covalent interactions, such as intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving dioxygen-derived ligands. To further illustrate these effects, the homolytic cleavage of C–H bonds by M–oxo complexes with basic oxo ligands is described. PMID:20380466

  4. Alteration of membrane phospholipid methylation by adenosine analogs does not affect T lymphocyte activation

    SciTech Connect

    Gormand, F.; Pacheco, Y. ); Fonlupt, P. ); Revillard, J.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Membrane phospholipid methylation has been described during activation of various immune cells. Moreover recent data indicated modulation of immune cells functions by adenosine. As S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine are adenosine analogs and modulators of transmethylation reactions, the effects of SAH and SAM were investigated on membrane phospholipid methylation and lymphocyte activation. SAM was shown to induce the membrane phospholipid methylation as assessed by the {sup 3}Hmethyl-incorporation in membrane extract. This effect was inhibited by SAH. In contrast SAM and SAH did not affect the phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. SAH neither modified the early internalization of membrane CD3 antigens nor did it prevent the late expression of HLA-DR antigens on lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin. These results indicate that in vitro alteration of phospholipid methylation does not affect subsequent steps of human T lymphocyte activation and proliferation.

  5. Altered Cell Viability and Proliferation Activity of Peripheral Lymphocytes in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Se Chang; Kwon, Young-Ah; Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Seonwoo; Ahn Jo, Sangmee

    2010-01-01

    Objective We evaluated cell viability and proliferation activity of peripheral lymphocytes as potential models of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We analyzed the cell viability and proliferation activity of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated lymphocytes from 68 AD patients and 33 normal controls. The cellular measures were made at baseline (0 hr), 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, and 96 hrs after PHA stimulation. Results Cell viability in the AD patients was significantly decreased at 72 hrs and 96 hrs, compared with the normal controls. The declining ramp of the proliferation activity from 48 hrs to 72 hrs after PHA stimulation was significantly related to cell viability at 72 hrs and at 96 hrs in the AD patients. Conclusion Lymphocytes from patients with AD have altered viability and proliferation characteristics in culture following PHA stimulation. These findings suggest that lymphocytes may be used as a peripheral tissue model of cell cycle dysregulation in AD. PMID:20396436

  6. Activation of the Jasmonic Acid Plant Defence Pathway Alters the Composition of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Badri, Dayakar V.; Tyson, Gene W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling plays a central role in plant defences against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, which afflict both roots and shoots. This pathway is also activated following the interaction with beneficial microbes that may lead to induced systemic resistance. Activation of the JA signalling pathway via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alters the composition of carbon containing compounds released by roots, which are implicated as key determinants of rhizosphere microbial community structure. In this study, we investigated the influence of the JA defence signalling pathway activation in Arabidopsis thaliana on the structure of associated rhizosphere bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Application of MeJA did not directly influence bulk soil microbial communities but significant changes in rhizosphere community composition were observed upon activation of the jasmonate signalling pathway. Our results suggest that JA signalling may mediate plant-bacteria interactions in the soil upon necrotrophic pathogen and herbivorous insect attacks. PMID:23424661

  7. Heart failure alters matrix metalloproteinase gene expression and activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Dariolli, Rafael; Justulin Junior, Luis Antonio; Sugizaki, Mário Mateus; Politi Okoshi, Marina; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2006-12-01

    Heart failure is associated with a skeletal muscle myopathy with cellular and extracellular alterations. The hypothesis of this investigation is that extracellular changes may be associated with enhanced mRNA expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). We examined MMP mRNA expression and MMP activity in Soleus (SOL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and diaphragm (DIA) muscles of young Wistar rat with monocrotaline-induced heart failure. Rats injected with saline served as age-matched controls. MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA contents were determined by RT-PCR and MMP activity by electrophoresis in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels in the presence of SDS under non-reducing conditions. Heart failure increased MMP9 mRNA expression and activity in SOL, EDL and DIA and MMP2 mRNA expression in DIA. These results suggest that MMP changes may contribute to the skeletal muscle myopathy during heart failure.

  8. Filterable redox cycling activity: a comparison between diesel exhaust particles and secondary organic aerosol constituents.

    PubMed

    McWhinney, Robert D; Badali, Kaitlin; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2013-04-02

    The redox activity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) collected from a light-duty diesel passenger car engine was examined using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. DEP was highly redox-active, causing DTT to decay at a rate of 23-61 pmol min(-1) μg(-1) of particle used in the assay, which was an order of magnitude higher than ambient coarse and fine particulate matter (PM) collected from downtown Toronto. Only 2-11% of the redox activity was in the water-soluble portion, while the remainder occurred at the black carbon surface. This is in contrast to redox-active secondary organic aerosol constituents, in which upward of 90% of the activity occurs in the water-soluble fraction. The redox activity of DEP is not extractable by moderately polar (methanol) and nonpolar (dichloromethane) organic solvents, and is hypothesized to arise from redox-active moieties contiguous with the black carbon portion of the particles. These measurements illustrate that "Filterable Redox Cycling Activity" may therefore be useful to distinguish black carbon-based oxidative capacity from water-soluble organic-based activity. The difference in chemical environment leading to redox activity highlights the need to further examine the relationship between activity in the DTT assay and toxicology measurements across particles of different origins and composition.

  9. Previous physical exercise alters the hepatic profile of oxidative-inflammatory status and limits the secondary brain damage induced by severe traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Mauro Robson Torres; Ferreira, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Busanello, Guilherme Lago; da Silva, Luís Roberto Hart; da Silveira Junior, Mauro Eduardo Porto; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Arrifano, Gabriela; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Cuevas, María J; Bresciani, Guilherme; González-Gallego, Javier; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2017-09-01

    An early inflammatory response and oxidative stress are implicated in the signal transduction that alters both hepatic redox status and mitochondrial function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Peripheral oxidative/inflammatory responses contribute to neuronal dysfunction after TBI Exercise training alters the profile of oxidative-inflammatory status in liver and protects against acute hyperglycaemia and a cerebral inflammatory response after TBI. Approaches such as exercise training, which attenuates neuronal damage after TBI, may have therapeutic potential through modulation of responses by metabolic organs. The vulnerability of the body to oxidative/inflammatory in TBI is significantly enhanced in sedentary compared to physically active counterparts. Although systemic responses have been described after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known regarding potential interactions between brain and peripheral organs after neuronal injury. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate whether a peripheral oxidative/inflammatory response contributes to neuronal dysfunction after TBI, as well as the prophylactic role of exercise training. Animals were submitted to fluid percussion injury after 6 weeks of swimming training. Previous exercise training increased mRNA expression of X receptor alpha and ATP-binding cassette transporter, and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 expression per se in liver. Interestingly, exercise training protected against hepatic inflammation (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6), oxidative stress (decreases in non-protein sulfhydryl and glutathione, as well as increases in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate oxidation and protein carbonyl), which altered hepatic redox status (increases in myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as inhibition of catalase activity) mitochondrial function (decreases in methyl-tetrazolium and Δψ, as well as

  10. Altered circadian locomotor activity in APP23 mice: a model for BPSD disturbances.

    PubMed

    Vloeberghs, Ellen; Van Dam, Debby; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Nagels, Guy; Staufenbiel, Matthias; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2004-11-01

    Over the past decade, clinical Alzheimer's disease research has been challenged with an increased interest in noncognitive symptomatology, commonly referred to as behavioural and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In accordance, major attention is being paid to behavioural alterations in the phenotyping of transgenic mouse models. Besides an age-dependent decline of cognitive functions, the APP23 model was previously shown to exhibit cage activity disturbances, reminiscent of diurnal rhythm disturbances in Alzheimer patients. To further scrutinize these observations, circadian patterns of horizontal locomotor activity were assessed in 3-, 6- and 12-month-old APP23 mice and wild-type littermates in a test paradigm continuously recording cage activity over a period ranging from 1 to 3 days. At the age of 3 months, APP23 profiles resembled the wild-type pattern to a large extent, although minor differences were already noticeable. Six-month-old APP23 mice displayed an altered activity profile with a first indication of increased activity during the second half of the active phase, reminiscent of sundowning behaviour in Alzheimer patients. This bimodal overnight activity pattern became even more evident at the age of 12 months. The APP23 model was therefore shown to display an age-dependent development of cage activity disturbances and sundowning-like behaviour. A comparison is made with actigraphic recordings of human Alzheimer patients exhibiting sundowning behaviour. This first report of diurnal rhythm disturbances and sundowning-like phenomena in a transgenic mouse model greatly adds to the validity of the APP23 model.

  11. Magnetic activity of red secondaries: clues from the outburst cycle variations of dwarf novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinarova, L. L.

    Photometric variations of 6 dwarf novae stars are studied based on the photographic observations from the Odessa, Moscow and Sonneberg plate collections and published visual monitoring data from the AFOEV database (Schweitzer E.: 1993, Bull. AFOEV, 64, 14). The moments of maxima are determined by using the "running parabola" fit (Andronov I.L., 1990, Kinematika Fizika Nebesn. Tel., v.6,,N 6, 87) with automatically determined filter half-width (Andronov I.L., 1997, As.Ap. Suppl., in press). All investigated stars exhibit significant changes not only from cycle-to-cycle, but from season-to-season as well. Secondary decade-scale cycles of smooth variations (Bianchini A., 1990, AJ 99, 1941) and abrupt switchings (Andronov I.L., Shakun L.I., 1990, ASS 169, 237) were interpreted by a solar-type activity of the red dwarf secondary in a binary system and may argue for existence of two different subgroups of the dwarf novae.

  12. Participation in activities and secondary health complications among persons aging with traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lundström, U; Wahman, K; Seiger, Å; Gray, D B; Isaksson, G; Lilja, M

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectional study. To describe participation in activities and explore the relationship with secondary complications among persons aging with a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A regional SCI outpatient center in Sweden. Data were collected through a phone survey, which included 10 activities from the instrument PARTS/M-v3 (PARTicipation Survey/Mobility version-3) together with data from the participants' medical records. Cross-tabulation and χ(2) were used for data analysis. In this study, 121 persons matched the inclusion criteria and the final study sample comprised 73 participants (60% response rate): 55 men and 18 women. Mean age was 63.7±9.4 years, and mean time since injury was 36.3±9.2 years. Regardless of duration of SCI, all 73 participated in dressing, bathing and leisure activities. Women reported better health than men. Particularly for those who lived 36-55 years after injury; increasing pain, fatigue, spasticity and decreased muscle strength were negatively affecting participation in activities, especially exercise and active recreation. Additionally, a need to save strength/energy was also a reason for not participating in the activities. Perceived future support and concerns in relation to personal assistance, assistive devices and rehabilitation was also reported. Increasing secondary health complications and a need to save strength/energy influenced participation in activities. Laws and/or governmental policies regarding personal assistance and assistive devices did not always support participation in activities. Interventions should aim to create a balance among activities in everyday life.

  13. Wearing an Inflatable Vest Alters Muscle Activation and Trunk Angle While Paddling a Surfboard.

    PubMed

    Nessler, Jeff A; Hastings, Thomas; Greer, Kevin; Newcomer, Sean C

    2017-03-02

    Low back pain is a commonly reported problem among recreational surfers. Some individuals report that wearing a vest with an inflatable bladder that alters trunk angle may help to alleviate pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such a vest has an effect on muscle activation and extension of the lower back. Twelve recreational surfers completed 12 paddling trials at 1.1 m/s in a swim flume on both a shortboard and a longboard on two separate days. Three conditions of no vest, vest uninflated, and vest inflated were presented to participants in random order. Surface EMG and trunk angle were acquired via wireless sensors placed over the right erector spinae, mid-trapezius, upper trapezius, and latissimus dorsi. Wearing the inflated vest affected muscle activation: erector spinae and mid-trapezius demonstrated a significant decrease in activation relative to wearing no vest (12 and 18% respectively, p<0.05). Trunk extension was also significantly reduced when the vest was inflated (18% reduction, p<0.05). Results were similar for both the short and longboard, though this effect was greater while paddling the larger board. These results suggest that a properly inflated vest can alter trunk extension and muscle activity while paddling a surfboard in water.

  14. Effect of altering starting length and activation timing of muscle on fiber strain and muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Muscle strain injuries are some of the most frequent injuries in sports and command a great deal of attention in an effort to understand their etiology. These injuries may be the culmination of a series of subcellular events accumulated through repetitive lengthening (eccentric) contractions during exercise, and they may be influenced by a variety of variables including fiber strain magnitude, peak joint torque, and starting muscle length. To assess the influence of these variables on muscle injury magnitude in vivo, we measured fiber dynamics and joint torque production during repeated stretch-shortening cycles in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle, at short and long muscle lengths, while varying the timing of activation before muscle stretch. We found that a muscle subjected to repeated stretch-shortening cycles of constant muscle-tendon unit excursion exhibits significantly different joint torque and fiber strains when the timing of activation or starting muscle length is changed. In particular, measures of fiber strain and muscle injury were significantly increased by altering activation timing and increasing the starting length of the muscle. However, we observed differential effects on peak joint torque during the cyclic stretch-shortening exercise, as increasing the starting length of the muscle did not increase torque production. We conclude that altering activation timing and muscle length before stretch may influence muscle injury by significantly increasing fiber strain magnitude and that fiber dynamics is a more important variable than muscle-tendon unit dynamics and torque production in influencing the magnitude of muscle injury.

  15. Imidacloprid induced alterations in enzyme activities and energy reserves of the land snail, Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Radwan, M A; Mohamed, M S

    2013-09-01

    The in vivo sublethal toxic effects (0.2 and 0.6 LD50) of topically applied imidacloprid on biochemical biomarkers in the land snail, Helix aspersa was examined. Biochemical perturbations were assessed by measuring the three enzymatic (Acetylcholinesterase, AChE; catalase, CAT and glutathione-S-transferase, GST) activities and three energy reserves (protein, glycogen and lipids) in the snails. Snail samples were taken from each sublethal dose and control groups at 1, 3 and 7 days after treatment. The results revealed that there were overall decrease in AChE activity as well as depletion of lipids and glycogen contents in the imidacloprid-treated snails compared to control groups. The CAT and GST activities of treated snails with the sublethal doses of imidacloprid were significantly higher than those of untreated controls along the three times of exposure. Moreover, an increase in the level of total proteins was observed in animals treated with 0.6 LD50 imidacloprid compared to control groups. The alterations in all tested biochemical perturbations were most pronounced with the 0.6 LD50 than 0.2 LD50. This study suggests that alterations of the enzyme activities and energy reserves in this species that could be useful as biomarkers of imidacloprid exposure in the evaluation of terrestrial impacts of this insecticide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered insula activation during pain anticipation in individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa: evidence of interoceptive dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Strigo, Irina A; Matthews, Scott C; Simmons, Alan N; Oberndorfer, Tyson; Klabunde, Megan; Reinhardt, Lindsay E; Kaye, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence raises the possibility that symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) could be related to impaired interoception. Pain is an interoceptive process with well-characterized neuroanatomical pathways that may overlap to a large degree with neural systems that may be dysregulated in individuals with AN, such as the insula. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess neural substrates of pain anticipation and processing in 10 healthy control women (CW) and 12 individuals recovered from AN (REC AN) in order to avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition. Painful heat stimuli were applied while different colors signaled the intensity of the upcoming stimuli. REC AN compared with CW showed greater activation within right anterior insula (rAI), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and cingulate during pain anticipation, and greater activation within dlPFC and decreased activation within posterior insula during painful stimulation. Greater anticipatory rAI activation correlated positively with alexithymic feelings in REC AN participants. REC AN showed a mismatch between anticipation and objective responses, suggesting altered integration and, possibly, disconnection between reported and actual interoceptive state. Alexithymia assessment provided additional evidence of an altered ability to accurately perceive bodily signals in women recovered from AN. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME ACTIVATION CONTRIBUTES TO LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL ALTERATIONS IN MICE INJECTED WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, WEI; CAO, FENG-SHENG; FENG, JUN; CHEN, HUA-WENG; WAN, JIE-RU; LU, QING; WANG, JIAN

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5 mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test. We also assessed protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase-1 p10 in hippocampus by Western blotting; measured levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-10 in hippocampus; measured TNFα and IL-1β in serum by ELISA; and evaluated microglial activity in hippocampus by Iba1 immunofluorescence. We found that LPS-injected mice displayed long-term depression-like behaviors and recognition memory deficit; elevated expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 p10; increased levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and TNFα; decreased levels of IL-10; and increased microglial activation. These effects were blocked by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone. The results demonstrate proof of concept that NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice, probably through enhanced inflammation, and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition might alleviate peripheral and brain inflammation and thereby ameliorate long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice. PMID:27923741

  18. Altered Cerebellar Activity in Visceral Pain-Related Fear Conditioning in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Claassen, J; Labrenz, F; Ernst, T M; Icenhour, A; Langhorst, J; Forsting, M; Timmann, D; Elsenbruch, S

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence to support a role of the cerebellum in emotional learning processes, which are demonstrably altered in patients with chronic pain. We tested if cerebellar activation is altered during visceral pain-related fear conditioning and extinction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Cerebellar blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) data from N = 17 IBS patients and N = 21 healthy controls, collected as part of a previous fMRI study, was reanalyzed utilizing an advanced normalizing method of the cerebellum. The differential fear conditioning paradigm consisted of acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement phases. During acquisition, two visual conditioned stimuli (CS) were presented either paired (CS+) or unpaired (CS-) with painful rectal distension as unconditioned stimulus (US). In the extinction phase, the CS+ and CS- were presented without US. For reinstatement, unpaired US presentations were followed by unpaired CS+ and CS- presentations. Group differences in cerebellar activation were analyzed for the contrasts CS+ > CS- and CS- > CS+. During acquisition, IBS patients revealed significantly enhanced cerebellar BOLD responses to pain-predictive (CS+) and safety (CS-) cues compared to controls (p < 0.05, family-wise error corrected). Increased activation was found in three main clusters, including the vermis (maximum in vermal lobule VI), intermediate cerebellum (maximum in lobule VIII), and the posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere (maximum in lobule VI). Areas overlapped for the contrasts CS+ > CS- and CS- > CS+. Group differences were most prominent in the contrast CS- > CS+. During extinction and reinstatement, no significant group differences were found. During visceral pain-related fear conditioning, IBS patients showed increased activations in circumscribed areas of the medial, intermediate, and lateral cerebellum. These areas are involved in autonomic, somatosensory, and cognitive functions and likely contribute to the different

  19. C3 exoenzyme impairs cell proliferation and apoptosis by altering the activity of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    von Elsner, Leonie; Hagemann, Sandra; Just, Ingo; Rohrbeck, Astrid

    2016-09-01

    C3 exoenzyme from C. botulinum is an ADP-ribosyltransferase that inactivates selectively RhoA, B, and C by coupling an ADP-ribose moiety. Rho-GTPases are involved in various cellular processes, such as regulation of actin cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Previous studies of our group with the murine hippocampal cell line HT22 revealed a C3-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation after 48 h and a prevention of serum-starved cells from apoptosis. For both effects, alterations of various signaling pathways are already known, including also changes on the transcriptional level. Investigations on the transcriptional activity in HT22 cells treated with C3 for 48 h identified five out of 48 transcription factors namely Sp1, ATF2, E2F-1, CBF, and Stat6 with a significantly regulated activity. For validation of identified transcription factors, studies on the protein level of certain target genes were performed. Western blot analyses exhibited an enhanced abundance of Sp1 target genes p21 and COX-2 as well as an increase in phosphorylation of c-Jun. In contrast, the level of p53 and apoptosis-inducing GADD153, a target gene of ATF2, was decreased. Our results reveal that C3 regulates the transcriptional activity of Sp1 and ATF2 resulting downstream in an altered protein abundance of various target genes. As the affected proteins are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus the C3-mediated anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects are consequences of the Rho-dependent alterations of the activity of certain transcriptional factors.

  20. Nocturnal activity in the green sea turtle alters daily profiles of melatonin and corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Tim S; Limpus, Colin J; Whittier, Joan M

    2002-06-01

    In nature, green turtles (Chelonia mydas) can exhibit nocturnal activity in addition to their typically diurnal activity cycle. We examined whether nocturnal activity in captive and free-living green turtles altered daily plasma profiles of melatonin (MEL) and corticosterone (CORT). In captivity, diurnally active green turtles expressed distinct diel cycles in MEL and CORT; a nocturnal rise was observed in MEL and a diurnal rise was observed in CORT. However, when induced to perform both low- and high-intensity nocturnal activity, captive green turtles exhibited a significant decrease in MEL, compared to inactive controls. In contrast, plasma CORT increased significantly with nocturnal activity, and further, the relative increase in CORT was correlated with the intensity of the nocturnal behavior. In free-living green turtles that performed nocturnal activity including: nesting, mate searching, and feeding/swimming behaviors, plasma profiles in MEL and CORT exhibited relatively little, or no, daily fluctuation. Our findings demonstrate that nocturnal activity in green turtles is often associated with MEL and CORT profiles that resemble those measured during the day. We speculate that these conspicuous changes in MEL and CORT during nocturnal activity could either support or promote behaviors that enable acquisition of transient resources important to the survival and reproductive success of green turtles. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  1. Alterations in brain activation during cholinergic enhancement with rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, S; Barkhof, F; van Meel, C S; Scheltens, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Rivastigmine enhances cholinergic activity and has been shown in clinical trials to decrease the rate of deterioration in Alzheimer's disease. It remains unclear where in the brain it exerts its effect. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to measure changes in brain function and relate these to cognition. Objectives: To use fMRI to study brain activation with rivastigmine treatment. Methods: The effect on brain activation of a single dose of rivastigmine was tested in seven patients with mild Alzheimer's disease using fMRI during face encoding, and in five patients during a parametric working memory task. Results: During face encoding, rivastigmine increased bilateral activation in the fusiform gyrus. Brain activation was also enhanced in the prefrontal cortex in a simple working memory task. When working memory load was further increased, not only was increased activation seen, but in certain areas there was also decreased activation. Conclusions: These findings link the previously observed increase in cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease after treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor to altered brain activation. Although the results cannot be generalised to the Alzheimer's disease population at large, they provide evidence that in mild Alzheimer's disease, rivastigmine enhances brain activation in the fusiform and frontal cortices. This is compatible with the concept of cholinergic circuitry. PMID:12438467

  2. The surfactant-induced conformational and activity alterations in Rhizopus niveus lipase.

    PubMed

    Alam, Parvez; Rabbani, Gulam; Badr, Gamal; Badr, Badr Mohamed; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we have reported the effect of nonionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic detergents on the enzymatic activity and structural stability of Rhizopus niveus lipase. Secondary structural changes were monitored by Far-UV CD which shows that surfactant induces helicity in the Rhizopus niveus lipase protein which was maximum in case of CTAB followed by SDS, CHAPS, and Brij-35. Similarly, tertiary structural changes were monitored by tryptophan fluorescence. We also carried out enzyme kinetics assays which showed that activity was enhanced by 1.5- and 1.1-fold in the presence of CHAPS and Brij-35, respectively. Furthermore, there was a decline in activity by 20 and 30 % in case of SDS and CTAB, respectively. These studies may be helpful in understanding detergent-lipase interaction in greater detail as lipases are used in many industrial processes.

  3. Menopausal symptoms and physical activity in multiethnic groups of midlife women: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2013-09-01

    To explore the effect of diverse types of women's physical activity on menopausal symptoms among multiethnic groups of midlife women in the USA. Although physical activity is one of the most widely used non-pharmacological methods for managing menopausal symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical guidelines for women and healthcare providers because the relationship between physical activity and menopausal symptoms has been found inconsistent in previous studies. A secondary analysis of the data from a lager Internet survey study conducted in 2008-2010. A total of 481 midlife women among four ethnic groups were selected from the original study. The data were collected using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey and the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. Bivariate correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The household/caregiving activity index was positively associated with the prevalence scores of the psychological symptoms in both non-Hispanic Asians and non-Hispanic African Americans. The increased sports/exercise activity index was negatively associated with the severity scores of the physical symptoms in both Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. The occupational activity index and the active living activity index significantly predicted the severity scores of the psychosomatic symptoms in Hispanics and non-Hispanic African Americans, respectively. Nurses who take care of multiethnic groups of midlife women who experience menopausal symptoms should be aware of diverse types of women's physical activities within the cultural context. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Caffeine administration does not alter salivary α-amylase activity in young male daily caffeine consumers.

    PubMed

    Klein, Laura Cousino; Whetzel, Courtney A; Bennett, Jeanette M; Ritter, Frank E; Nater, Urs M; Schoelles, Michael

    2014-01-13

    To follow up on a recent report from our lab [Hum Psychopharmacol 25:359-367, 2010.] we examined the effects of caffeine on salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity in response to an engaging, non-stressful task in healthy young males (age 18-30 yrs) who consumed caffeine on a daily basis. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between-subjects design, 45 men received either placebo, 200 mg or 400 mg of caffeine (Vivarin®). Participants then rested for 20 minutes, and performed a 20-minute computerized air traffic controller-like task that was cognitively engaging but not stressful. Saliva samples (assayed for sAA and cortisol), blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before (baseline) and 15 minutes after the computerized task. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and sAA activity increased across the laboratory session (F's > 9.20, p's < 0.05); salivary cortisol levels decreased (F = 16.17, p < 0.05). There were no main effects for caffeine administration on sAA, salivary cortisol, or cardiovascular measures, and caffeine did not interact with the task to alter these measures. Laboratory administered caffeine does not alter sAA activity, even when sAA activity is stimulated by participating in a cognitively engaging task. These data demonstrate that caffeine administration does not affect sAA activity, at least in healthy young men who regularly consume caffeine. Results support recent findings that basal caffeine levels in habitual caffeine users are not associated with basal sAA activity and that daily caffeine intake and diurnal sAA activity are not related.

  5. Caffeine administration does not alter salivary α-amylase activity in young male daily caffeine consumers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To follow up on a recent report from our lab [Hum Psychopharmacol 25:359–367, 2010.] we examined the effects of caffeine on salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity in response to an engaging, non-stressful task in healthy young males (age 18–30 yrs) who consumed caffeine on a daily basis. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between-subjects design, 45 men received either placebo, 200 mg or 400 mg of caffeine (Vivarin®). Participants then rested for 20 minutes, and performed a 20-minute computerized air traffic controller-like task that was cognitively engaging but not stressful. Saliva samples (assayed for sAA and cortisol), blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before (baseline) and 15 minutes after the computerized task. Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and sAA activity increased across the laboratory session (F’s > 9.20, p’s < 0.05); salivary cortisol levels decreased (F = 16.17, p < 0.05). There were no main effects for caffeine administration on sAA, salivary cortisol, or cardiovascular measures, and caffeine did not interact with the task to alter these measures. Conclusions Laboratory administered caffeine does not alter sAA activity, even when sAA activity is stimulated by participating in a cognitively engaging task. These data demonstrate that caffeine administration does not affect sAA activity, at least in healthy young men who regularly consume caffeine. Results support recent findings that basal caffeine levels in habitual caffeine users are not associated with basal sAA activity and that daily caffeine intake and diurnal sAA activity are not related. PMID:24410993

  6. Altered Intermittent Rhythmic Delta and Theta Activity in the Electroencephalographies of High Functioning Adult Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominique; Maier, Simon; Feige, Bernd; Posielski, Nicole A.; Nickel, Kathrin; Ebert, Dieter; Riedel, Andreas; Philipsen, Alexandra; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with epilepsy. Previous studies have also shown increased rates of electroencephalographic (EEG) alteration in ASD patients without epilepsy. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA) events between high-functioning adult patients with ASD and matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Routine EEG records of 19 ASD patients and 19 matched controls were screened for IRDA/IRTA using a fully data driven analysis with fixed thresholds. IRDA/IRTA rates before and after hyperventilation (HV) as well as the HV-induced difference in IRDA/IRTA rates (HV difference) were analyzed. For inter-group measures, we used the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Significantly increased HV difference was detected in the ASD group (p = 0.0497). However, the groups showed no difference in IRDA/IRTA rates before HV (p = 0.564) and after HV (p = 0.163). Conclusions: The lack of any group differences regarding IRDA/IRTA before HV might be related to the fact that we only studied non-secondary high-functioning autism in a small sample of epilepsy-free adult patients. A significantly increased HV difference might be regarded as a marker of subtle neuronal network instability possibly causing short-term disturbances via local area network inhibition and long-term effects via epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:28265243

  7. Dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian secondary students in 2005.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Dixon, Helen; White, Victoria; Beckmann, Kerri

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a current assessment of Australian secondary students' self-reported dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. This study also examined the relationship between television viewing and students' dietary behaviour. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 18 486 secondary students in 2005 from all Australian states except Western Australia. Participants reported their usual daily consumption (number of serves) of vegetables and fruit; their weekly consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods including fast food meals, snack foods and high-energy drinks; their engagement in moderate-vigorous physical activity over the previous week; and hours spent using electronic media for entertainment and doing homework on school days. The study found that 20% of students were meeting the daily requirement of four serves of vegetables, whereas 39% were eating the recommended three daily serves of fruit. Consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods was high, with 46% of students having fast food meals at least twice a week, 51% eating snack foods four or more times per week and 44% having high-energy drinks four or more times per week. Fourteen per cent of students engaged in recommended levels of physical activity and 29% engaged in recommended levels of sedentary behaviour. Age and gender differences occurred for most measures, and there were some socio-economic status differences. Heavier television use was associated with lower consumption of fruit and higher consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods. On the basis of the results of this study, it appears that a significant proportion of Australian secondary students fall short of current, national dietary and physical activity recommendations for teenagers. Continual monitoring of these behaviours is essential to help inform research and policy and identify where future efforts should be directed.

  8. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  9. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  10. Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients.

  11. The Status of Secondary School Science Laboratory Activities for Quality Education in Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zengele, Ashebir Gogile; Alemayehu, Bereket

    2016-01-01

    A high quality science education in primary and secondary schools contributes to developing scientific literacy and would be expected to predispose students to study the enabling sciences at university. The major purpose of this study was to assess the practice and problems in science laboratory activities in the secondary school of Wolaita Zone,…

  12. Potential role of endurance training in altering renal sympathetic nerve activity in CKD?

    PubMed

    Howden, Erin J; Lawley, Justin S; Esler, Murray; Levine, Benjamin D

    2017-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function and increase in cardiovascular risk. In this review paper, we discuss the pathophysiology of increased sympathetic nerve activity in CKD patients and raise the possibility of endurance exercise being an effective countermeasure to address this problem. We specifically focus on the potential role of endurance training in altering renal sympathetic nerve activity as increased renal sympathetic nerve activity negatively impacts kidney function as well indirectly effects multiple other systems and organs. Recent technological advances in device based therapy have highlighted the detrimental effect of elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity in CKD patients, with kidney function and blood pressure being improved post renal artery nerve denervation in selected patients. These developments provide optimism for the development of alternative and/or complementary strategies to lower renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, appropriately designed studies are required to confirm preliminary observations, as the widespread use of the renal denervation approach to lower sympathetic activity presently has limited feasibility. Endurance training may be one alternative strategy to reduce renal sympathetic nerve activity. Here we review the role of endurance training as a potential alternative or adjunctive to current therapy in CKD patients. We also provide recommendations for future research to assist in establishing an evidence base for the use of endurance training to lower renal sympathetic activity in CKD patients.

  13. Practice of leisure-time physical activities and episodes of mood alteration amongst men and women.

    PubMed

    Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; da Silva Alves, Giovanna Del Grande; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and episodes of mood alteration in a population-based sample of adults, and its relation with gender. This is a cross-sectional population-based study with young adults aged between 18 and 35 years old. Sample selection was performed by clusters. The practice of physical activity was evaluated through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), whereas mood disorders were evaluated using a short structured diagnostic interview-the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV and ICD-10 psychiatric disorders. Causal inferences are limited due the study׳s design. Sample consisted of 1953 young adults. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and of depressive episodes in the total sample was 25.3% and 17.2%, respectively. The prevalence of activity amongst men was 1.18 (CI 95% 1.18-1.32) times higher than in the women׳s group, whereas depression was 1.87 (CI 95% 1.41-2.47) times more prevalent amongst women than men. The prevalence of physical activity was not different between women (p=0.287), nor between men (p=0.895) regarding the presence of mania/hypomania episode. The prevalence of physical activity and depression was different concerning gender. The prevalence of physical activity is lower amongst women, whereas the prevalence of depression is higher amongst women when compared to men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is activated by alterations of its membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Lucas, Susana Dias; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity.

  15. The Bile Acid-Sensitive Ion Channel (BASIC) Is Activated by Alterations of Its Membrane Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Dias Lucas, Susana; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity. PMID:25360526

  16. Alterations of Regional Spontaneous Brain Activity and Gray Matter Volume in the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Aili; Tian, Jing; Li, Rui; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Visual deprivation can induce alterations of regional spontaneous brain activity (RSBA). However, the effects of onset age of blindness on the RSBA and the association between the alterations of RSBA and brain structure are still unclear in the blind. In this study, we performed resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging on 50 sighted controls and 91 blind subjects (20 congenitally blind, 27 early blind, and 44 late blind individuals). Compared with the sighted control, we identified increased RSBA in the blind in primary and high-level visual areas and decreased RSBA in brain regions which are ascribed to sensorimotor and salience networks. In contrast, blind subjects exhibited significantly decreased gray matter volume (GMV) in the visual areas, while they exhibited significantly increased GMV in the sensorimotor areas. Moreover, the onset age of blindness was negatively correlated with the GMV of visual areas in blind subjects, whereas it exerted complex influences on the RSBA. Finally, significant negative correlations were shown between RSBA and GMV values. Our results demonstrated system-dependent, inverse alterations in RSBA and GMV after visual deprivation. Furthermore, the onset age of blindness has different effects on the reorganizations in RSBA and GMV. PMID:26568891

  17. Alterations in the heart rate and activity rhythms of three orbital astronauts on a space mission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhizhen; Wan, Yufeng; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yu; Lv, Ke; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Xiaoping; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors in space are dramatically different from those on Earth. The spaceflight environment has been known to influence human physiology and behavior on orbital missions. In this study, we investigated alterations in the diurnal rhythms of activity and heart rate of three Chinese astronauts on a space mission. An analysis of the heart rate data showed a significant decrease in heart rate amplitudes during flight in all three subjects. The heart rate amplitudes of all the three astronauts were significantly dampened during flight, and the minimum as well as the maximum value of heart rate increased after flight. A phase shift in heart rate was observed in one of the three astronauts after flight. These results demonstrate the influence of spaceflight on heart physiology and function. In addition, a significant decrease in body trunk activity and rhythmicity occurred during flight, demonstrating that the spaceflight environment disturbs motion adaptation and diurnal activity rhythms.

  18. Alterations in the heart rate and activity rhythms of three orbital astronauts on a space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhizhen; Wan, Yufeng; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yu; Lv, Ke; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Xiaoping; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors in space are dramatically different from those on Earth. The spaceflight environment has been known to influence human physiology and behavior on orbital missions. In this study, we investigated alterations in the diurnal rhythms of activity and heart rate of three Chinese astronauts on a space mission. An analysis of the heart rate data showed a significant decrease in heart rate amplitudes during flight in all three subjects. The heart rate amplitudes of all the three astronauts were significantly dampened during flight, and the minimum as well as the maximum value of heart rate increased after flight. A phase shift in heart rate was observed in one of the three astronauts after flight. These results demonstrate the influence of spaceflight on heart physiology and function. In addition, a significant decrease in body trunk activity and rhythmicity occurred during flight, demonstrating that the spaceflight environment disturbs motion adaptation and diurnal activity rhythms.

  19. Administration of memantine and imipramine alters mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase activities in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Rezin, Gislaine T; Fraga, Daiane B; Daufenbach, Juliana F; Scaini, Giselli; Benedet, Joana; Rochi, Natália; Streck, Emílio L; Quevedo, João

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have appointed for a role of glutamatergic system and/or mitochondrial function in major depression. In the present study, we evaluated the creatine kinase and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities after acute and chronic treatments with memantine (N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor antagonist) and imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant) in rats. To this aim, rats were acutely or chronically treated for 14 days once a day with saline, memantine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and imipramine (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg). After acute or chronic treatments, we evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) and creatine kinase activities in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Our results showed that both acute and chronic treatments with memantine or imipramine altered respiratory chain complexes and creatine kinase activities in rat brain; however, these alterations were different with relation to protocols (acute or chronic), complex, dose and brain area. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that the effects of imipramine and memantine could be involve mitochondrial function modulation.

  20. Altered spontaneous neural activity in the occipital face area reflects behavioral deficits in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanfang; Li, Jingguang; Liu, Xiqin; Song, Yiying; Wang, Ruosi; Yang, Zetian; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) exhibit severe difficulties in recognizing faces and to a lesser extent, also exhibit difficulties in recognizing non-face objects. We used fMRI to investigate whether these behavioral deficits could be accounted for by altered spontaneous neural activity. Two aspects of spontaneous neural activity were measured: the intensity of neural activity in a voxel indexed by the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and the connectivity of a voxel to neighboring voxels indexed by regional homogeneity (ReHo). Compared with normal adults, both the fALFF and ReHo values within the right occipital face area (rOFA) were significantly reduced in DP subjects. Follow-up studies on the normal adults revealed that these two measures indicated further functional division of labor within the rOFA. The fALFF in the rOFA was positively correlated with behavioral performance in recognition of non-face objects, whereas ReHo in the rOFA was positively correlated with processing of faces. When considered together, the altered fALFF and ReHo within the same region (rOFA) may account for the comorbid deficits in both face and object recognition in DPs, whereas the functional division of labor in these two measures helps to explain the relative independency of deficits in face recognition and object recognition in DP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transformation of anti-estrogenic-activity related dissolved organic matter in secondary effluents during ozonation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Du, Ye; Huang, Huang; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Anti-estrogenic activity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reclaimed water is gaining increasing attention. In this study, anti-estrogenic activity removal efficiency by ozonation in the tertiary treatment process of domestic wastewater was investigated. The anti-estrogenic activity in the secondary effluents used in this study ranged between 0.95 and 2.00 mg-TAM L(-1) and decreased significantly after ozonation. The removal efficiency of anti-estrogenic activity at a dose of 10 mg-O3 L(-1) was 65-87%. The removal of the anti-estrogenic activity was highly correlated with the removal of UV254, suggesting that UV254 can be used as a surrogate for anti-estrogenic activity during ozonation. The results of size exclusion chromatography of the wastewater samples during ozonation showed that the UV254 absorbance of the DOM fraction with large apparent molecular weight (MW) around 7.6 k Da dropped significantly, and the DOM fraction was suspected to be humic substances which have been previously identified as anti-estrogenic constituents in secondary effluents. The excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectra of the wastewater samples proved that humic substances existed in the DOM and indeed reacted with the ozone. With the help of two-dimensional correlation of Fourier transform infrared, it was confirmed that the aromatic structures in the DOM were largely destroyed by ozonation. Therefore, it was suggested that the destruction of the aromatic structures in the DOM was related to the removal of the anti-estrogenic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Crowded Sea: Incorporating Multiple Marine Activities in Conservation Plans Can Significantly Alter Spatial Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Tessa; Possingham, Hugh P.; Edelist, Dori; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit

    2014-01-01

    Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes). We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a) the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b) the change in opportunity cost and c) the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and economic

  3. Mild central chemoreflex activation does not alter arterial baroreflex function in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Grant H; Manson, Julie M; Halliwill, John R

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that activation of peripheral chemoreceptors with isocapnic hypoxia resets arterial baroreflex control of heart rate and sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to higher pressures, without changes in baroreflex gain. We tested the hypothesis that activation of central chemoreceptors with mild hyperoxic hypercapnia also causes resetting of the arterial baroreflex, but that this resetting would not occur with matched volume and frequency hyperpnoea. Baroreflex control of heart rate (n = 16) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography; n = 11) was assessed in healthy men and women, age 20–33 years, using the modified Oxford technique during hyperoxic eucapnia, hyperoxic hyperpnoea and hyperoxic hypercapnia (end-tidal PCO2+ 5 mmHg above eucapnia). Baroreflex trials were separated by 30 min of rest. While neither hyperpnoea nor hypercapnia changed mean arterial pressure (92.0 ± 1.8 during eucapnia versus 91.0 ± 1.2 and 90.7 ± 1.4 mmHg during hyperpnoea and hypercapnia; P = 0.427) or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (2301 ± 687 during eucapnia versus 2959 ± 987 and 2272 ± 414 total integrated units min−1 during hyperpnoea and hypercapnia; P = 0.653), heart rate was increased from 59.3 ± 2.7 during eucapnia to 63.2 ± 3.0 and 62.4 ± 2.8 beats min−1 during hyperpnoea and hypercapnia (both P < 0.017). Baroreflex gain was not altered by hyperpnoea or hypercapnia. Thus, acute activation of central chemoreceptors with mild hyperoxic hypercapnia does not affect arterial pressure, sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow, or baroreflex gain. Heart rate is elevated during hyperoxic hypercapnia, but this response is not different from the increase in heart rate produced by matched volume and frequency hyperpnoea. Therefore, mild activation of central chemoreceptors does not appear to alter arterial baroreflex function. PMID:17640930

  4. Altered Ca(2+) homeostasis induces Calpain-Cathepsin axis activation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Franc; Thüne, Katrin; Sikorska, Beata; Schmitz, Matthias; Tahir, Waqas; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Cramm, Maria; Gotzmann, Nadine; Carmona, Margarita; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Michel, Uwe; Zafar, Saima; Schuetz, Anna-Lena; Rajput, Ashish; Andréoletti, Olivier; Bonn, Stefan; Fischer, Andre; Liberski, Pawel P; Torres, Juan Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Zerr, Inga

    2017-04-27

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the most prevalent form of human prion disease and it is characterized by the presence of neuronal loss, spongiform degeneration, chronic inflammation and the accumulation of misfolded and pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)). The molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations are largely unknown, but the presence of intracellular neuronal calcium (Ca(2+)) overload, a general feature in models of prion diseases, is suggested to play a key role in prion pathogenesis.Here we describe the presence of massive regulation of Ca(2+) responsive genes in sCJD brain tissue, accompanied by two Ca(2+)-dependent processes: endoplasmic reticulum stress and the activation of the cysteine proteases Calpains 1/2. Pathogenic Calpain proteins activation in sCJD is linked to the cleavage of their cellular substrates, impaired autophagy and lysosomal damage, which is partially reversed by Calpain inhibition in a cellular prion model. Additionally, Calpain 1 treatment enhances seeding activity of PrP(Sc) in a prion conversion assay. Neuronal lysosomal impairment caused by Calpain over activation leads to the release of the lysosomal protease Cathepsin S that in sCJD mainly localises in axons, although massive Cathepsin S overexpression is detected in microglial cells. Alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis and activation of Calpain-Cathepsin axis already occur at pre-clinical stages of the disease as detected in a humanized sCJD mouse model.Altogether our work indicates that unbalanced Calpain-Cathepsin activation is a relevant contributor to the pathogenesis of sCJD at multiple molecular levels and a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  5. HIV Status, Burden of Comorbid Disease, and Biomarkers of Inflammation, Altered Coagulation, and Monocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Kaku A.; McGinnis, Kathleen; Baker, Jason; Gibert, Cynthia; Butt, Adeel A.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Goetz, Matthew; Tracy, Russell; Oursler, Krisann K.; Rimland, David; Crothers, Kristina; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Crystal, Steve; Gordon, Adam; Kraemer, Kevin; Brown, Sheldon; Gerschenson, Mariana; Leaf, David A.; Deeks, Steven G.; Rinaldo, Charles; Kuller, Lewis H; Justice, Amy; Freiberg, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background. Biomarkers of inflammation, altered coagulation, and monocyte activation are associated with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population and among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected people. We compared biomarkers for inflammation, altered coagulation, and monocyte activation between HIV-infected and uninfected people in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Methods. Biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6]), altered coagulation (d-dimer), and monocyte activation (soluble CD14 [sCD14]) were measured in blood samples from 1525 HIV-infected and 843 uninfected VACS participants. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between HIV infection and prevalence of elevated (>75th percentile) biomarkers, adjusting for confounding comorbidities. Results. HIV-infected veterans had less prevalent CVD, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hazardous drinking, and renal disease, but more dyslipidemia, hepatitis C, and current smoking than uninfected veterans. Compared to uninfected veterans, HIV-infected veterans with HIV-1 RNA ≥500 copies/mL or CD4 count <200 cells/µL had a significantly higher prevalence of elevated IL-6 (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.14–2.09; OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.60–3.16, respectively) and d-dimer (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.44–2.71, OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.22–2.32, respectively) after adjusting for comorbidities. HIV-infected veterans with a CD4 cell count <200 cells/µL had significantly higher prevalence of elevated sCD14 compared to uninfected veterans (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.64–4.14). These associations still persisted after restricting the analysis to veterans without known confounding comorbid conditions. Conclusions. These data suggest that ongoing HIV replication and immune depletion significantly contribute to increased prevalence of elevated biomarkers of inflammation, altered coagulation, and monocyte activation. This contribution is independent of

  6. Modeling and analysis of secondary sources coupling for active sound field reduction in confined spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, Allahyar; Taylor, C. James

    2017-10-01

    This article addresses the coupling of acoustic secondary sources in a confined space in a sound field reduction framework. By considering the coupling of sources in a rectangular enclosure, the set of coupled equations governing its acoustical behavior are solved. The model obtained in this way is used to analyze the behavior of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) active sound field control (ASC) systems, where the coupling of sources cannot be neglected. In particular, the article develops the analytical results to analyze the effect of coupling of an array of secondary sources on the sound pressure levels inside an enclosure, when an array of microphones is used to capture the acoustic characteristics of the enclosure. The results are supported by extensive numerical simulations showing how coupling of loudspeakers through acoustic modes of the enclosure will change the strength and hence the driving voltage signal applied to the secondary loudspeakers. The practical significance of this model is to provide a better insight on the performance of the sound reproduction/reduction systems in confined spaces when an array of loudspeakers and microphones are placed in a fraction of wavelength of the excitation signal to reduce/reproduce the sound field. This is of particular importance because the interaction of different sources affects their radiation impedance depending on the electromechanical properties of the loudspeakers.

  7. A bifunctional enzyme from Rhodococcus erythropolis exhibiting secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-catalase activities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rojas, Enriqueta; Kurt, Tutku; Schmidt, Udo; Meyer, Vera; Garbe, Leif-Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases have long been recognized as potential biocatalyst for production of chiral fine and bulk chemicals. They are relevant for industry in enantiospecific production of chiral compounds. In this study, we identified and purified a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SdcA) from Rhodococcus erythropolis oxidizing γ-lactols into γ-lactones. SdcA showed broad substrate specificity on γ-lactols; secondary aliphatic alcohols with 8 and 10 carbon atoms were also substrates and oxidized with (2S)-stereospecificity. The enzyme exhibited moderate stability with a half-life of 5 h at 40 °C and 20 days at 4 °C. Mass spectrometric identification revealed high sequence coverage of SdcA amino acid sequence to a highly conserved catalase from R. erythropolis. The corresponding encoding gene was isolated from genomic DNA and subsequently overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 cells. In addition, the recombinant SdcA was purified and characterized in order to confirm that the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase activity correspond to the same enzyme.

  8. ANABOLIC STEROIDS ALTER THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF AGGRESSION CIRCUITS IN THE LATERAL ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMUS

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Sikes, Robert W.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure. PMID:26691962

  9. Anabolic steroids alter the physiological activity of aggression circuits in the lateral anterior hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Morrison, T R; Sikes, R W; Melloni, R H

    2016-02-19

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS-treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP-responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure.

  10. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  11. Alterations in Daytime and Nighttime Activity in Piglets after Focal and Diffuse Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Olson, Emily; Badder, Carlie; Sullivan, Sarah; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen; Margulies, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    We have developed and implemented a noninvasive, objective neurofunctional assessment for evaluating the sustained effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in piglets with both diffuse and focal injury types. Derived from commercial actigraphy methods in humans, this assessment continuously monitors the day/night activity of piglets using close-fitting jackets equipped with tri-axial accelerometers to monitor movements of the thorax. Acceleration metrics were correlated (N = 7 naïve piglets) with video images to define values associated with a range of activities, from recumbancy (rest) to running. Both focal (N = 8) and diffuse brain injury (N = 9) produced alterations in activity that were significant 4 days post-TBI. Compared to shams (N = 6) who acclimated to the animal facility 4 days after an anesthesia experience by blurring the distinction between day and night activity, post-TBI time-matched animals had larger fractions of inactive periods during the daytime than nighttime, and larger fractions of active time in the night were spent in high activity (e.g., constant walking, intermittent running) than during the day. These persistent disturbances in rest and activity are similar to those observed in human adults and children post-TBI, establishing actigraphy as a translational metric, used in both humans and large animals, for assessment of injury severity, progressions, and intervention.

  12. Effect of metal ions on the secondary structure and activity of calf intestine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengjuan; Liu, Guoqi; Xu, Zhihong; Zeng, Zhengzhi

    2008-04-30

    Cobalt is an essential microelements in many biological processes involving enzymatic activity. We found that Zn2+ and Mg2+, which are in the active site of native calf intestine alkaline phosphatase (CIP), can be replaced by Co2+ directly in solution. The effect of Co2+ concentration on the substitution reaction was examined at ratios of [Co2+]/[CIP] from 0:1 to 8:1. The quantity of Zn2+ in CIP decreased progressively as the ratio was increased, but the amount of Mg2+ changed in irrregular fashion. A series of active site models of the reaction mechanism of CIP are proposed. Low pH was found to promote the replacement of Mg2+ by Co2+. To understand how the substitution affects the enzyme, we also solved the secondary structure of CIP after reaction with Co2+ in different conditions.

  13. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosols over Europe: Impact of Activity Coefficients and Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Couvidat, F.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-volatile organic species (SVOC) can condense on suspended particulate materials (PM) in the atmosphere. The modeling of condensation/evaporation of SVOC often assumes that gas-phase and particle-phase concentrations are at equilibrium. However, recent studies show that secondary organic aerosols (SOA) may not be accurately represented by an equilibrium approach between the gas and particle phases, because organic aerosols in the particle phase may be very viscous. The condensation in the viscous liquid phase is limited by the diffusion from the surface of PM to its core. Using a surrogate approach to represent SVOC, depending on the user's choice, the secondary organic aerosol processor (SOAP) may assume equilibrium or model dynamically the condensation/evaporation between the gas and particle phases to take into account the viscosity of organic aerosols. The model is implemented in the three-dimensional chemistry-transport model of POLYPHEMUS. In SOAP, activity coefficients for organic mixtures can be computed using UNIFAC for short-range interactions between molecules and AIOMFAC to also take into account the effect of inorganic species on activity coefficients. Simulations over Europe are performed and POLYPHEMUS/SOAP is compared to POLYPHEMUS/H2O, which was previously used to model SOA using the equilibrium approach with activity coefficients from UNIFAC. Impacts of the dynamic approach on modeling SOA over Europe are evaluated. The concentrations of SOA using the dynamic approach are compared with those using the equilibrium approach. The increase of computational cost is also evaluated.

  14. Biological activity of secondary metabolites produced by a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2002-01-01

    Biological activity of secondary metabolites produced by a plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens was evaluated. The strain produced antibiotics phenazine (PHE), 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL) and siderophore pyoverdin (PYO) in standard King's B and succinic acid media, respectively. After extraction, PYO was identified by comparing the UV-spectra and moss-green color development after 'diazotized sulfanilic acid' (DSA) spray in TLC. PHE and PHL were identified by comparing standard compounds on TLC and orange-color development immediately after DSA spray. In vitro antibiosis study of the metabolites revealed their antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial test organisms Corynebacterium sp., Mycobacterium phlei and M. smegmatis and test fungi Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. solani and Rhizoctonia solani. A statistically significantly higher plant growth was recorded in siderophore-amended plantlets under gnotobiotic conditions whereas PHE and PHL did not show any plant-growth-promoting activity. These results support the importance of the secondary metabolites produced by the strain P. fluorescens in enhancing plant growth and in controlling fungal and bacterial pathogens.

  15. Human secondary lymphoid organs typically contain polyclonally-activated proliferating regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jorieke H; Koenen, Hans J P M; Fasse, Esther; Tijssen, Henk J; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Schaap, Nicolaas P M; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Joosten, Irma

    2013-09-26

    Immunomodulating regulatory T-cell (Treg) therapy is a promising strategy in autoimmunity and transplantation. However, to achieve full clinical efficacy, better understanding of in vivo human Treg biology is warranted. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to blood and bone marrow Tregs, which showed a resting phenotype, the majority of CD4(pos)CD25(pos)CD127(neg)FoxP3(pos) Tregs in secondary lymphoid organs were proliferating activated CD69(pos)CD45RA(neg) cells with a hyperdemethylated FOXP3 gene and a broad T-cell receptor-Vβ repertoire, implying polyclonal activation. Activated CD69(pos) Tregs were distributed over both T-cell and B-cell areas, distant from Aire(pos) and CD11c(pos) cells. In contrast to the anergic peripheral blood Tregs, lymphoid organ Tregs had significant ex vivo proliferative capacity and produced cytokines like interleukin-2, while revealing similar suppressive potential. Also, next to Treg-expressing chemokine receptors important for a prolonged stay in lymphoid organs, a significant part of the cells expressed peripheral tissue-associated, functional homing markers. In conclusion, our data suggest that human secondary lymphoid organs aid in the maintenance and regulation of Treg function and homeostasis. This knowledge may be exploited for further optimization of Treg immunotherapy, for example, by ex vivo selection of Tregs with capacity to migrate to lymphoid organs providing an in vivo platform for further Treg expansion.

  16. A semi-active damper in vertical secondary suspension for the comfort increase in passenger trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Chiarabaglio, Andrea; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Passive oil dampers for railway vehicles present a damping and stiffness characteristics, which depend from excitation history. This behaviour is not acceptable for many high-performance applications. A mechatronic approach, able to continuously adjust the damping coefficient according to the operation requirements, represents a very attractive and smart solution. In this paper, a control strategy for semi-active dampers of train vertical secondary suspensions is presented. The controller aims at assuring the maximum available damping at low frequencies, while at high frequencies minimizes the force transmitted to the carbody that excites the bending modes.

  17. Free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of secondary metabolites from reddened cv. Annurca apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Cefarelli, Giuseppe; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Izzo, Angelina; Mastellone, Claudio; Pacifico, Severina; Piscopo, Vincenzo

    2006-02-08

    Forty-three secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized from cv. Annurca apple fruit, an apple variety cultivated in the south of Italy. This apple cultivar undergoes a typical reddening treatment after collection. All of the compounds were characterized on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The compounds were tested for their radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities by measuring their capacity to scavenge DPPH* (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), H2O2, and NO (nitric oxide) and to inhibit the formation of methyl linoleate conjugated diene hydroperoxides or TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive species).

  18. A new route to carbohydrate secondary and tertiary structure using Raman spectroscopy and Raman optical activity.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Nicola R; Almond, Andrew; Blanch, Ewan W

    2010-08-11

    The structural characterization of carbohydrate polymers is important for understanding their functions and behavior. However, mainstream structural biology tools are not applicable to many carbohydrate polymers, particularly at physiological concentrations. We report Raman and Raman optical activity spectra of hyaluronan polymer, the hyaluronan tetramer building block, and the two monosaccharide components glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine and identify marker bands corresponding to primary and secondary structure in glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, we show that the hyaluronan polymer does not adopt tertiary structure under near-physiological conditions, confirming a proposed model of hyaluronan structural organization.

  19. Altered activity of the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of an active avoidance task

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xilu; Beck, Kevin D.; Myers, Catherine E.; Servatius, Richard J.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Altered medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala function is associated with anxiety-related disorders. While the mPFC-amygdala pathway has a clear role in fear conditioning, these structures are also involved in active avoidance. Given that avoidance perseveration represents a core symptom of anxiety disorders, the neural substrate of avoidance, especially its extinction, requires better understanding. The present study was designed to investigate the activity, particularly, inhibitory neuronal activity in mPFC and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of lever-press avoidance in rats. Neural activity was examined in the mPFC, intercalated cell clusters (ITCs) lateral (LA), basal (BA) and central (CeA) amygdala, at various time points during acquisition and extinction, using induction of the immediate early gene product, c-Fos. Neural activity was greater in the mPFC, LA, BA, and ITC during the extinction phase as compared to the acquisition phase. In contrast, the CeA was the only region that was more activated during acquisition than during extinction. Our results indicate inhibitory neurons are more activated during late phase of acquisition and extinction in the mPFC and LA, suggesting the dynamic involvement of inhibitory circuits in the development and extinction of avoidance response. Together, these data start to identify the key brain regions important in active avoidance behavior, areas that could be associated with avoidance perseveration in anxiety disorders. PMID:26441578

  20. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zavala, A; Del Razo, L M; García-Vargas, G G; Aguilar, C; Borja, V H; Albores, A; Cebrián, M E

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 microg As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized.

  1. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.

  2. Maternal obesity alters feto-placental cytochrome P4501A1 activity.

    PubMed

    DuBois, B N; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Pearson, J; Friedman, J E; Thornburg, K; Cherala, G

    2012-12-01

    Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), an important drug metabolizing enzyme, is expressed in human placenta throughout gestation as well as in fetal liver. Obesity, a chronic inflammatory condition, is known to alter CYP enzyme expression in non-placental tissues. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that maternal obesity alters the distribution of CYP1A1 activity in feto-placental unit. Placentas were collected from non-obese (BMI < 30) and obese (BMI > 30) women at term. Livers were collected from gestation day 130 fetuses of non-human primates fed either control diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Cytosol and microsomes were collected using differential centrifugation, and incubated with 7-ethoxyresorufin. The CYP1A1 specific activity (pmoles of resorufin formed/min/mg of protein) was measured at excitation/emission wavelength of 530/590 nm. Placentas of obese women had significantly reduced microsomal CYP1A1 activity compared to non-obese women (0.046 vs. 0.082; p < 0.05); however no such effect was observed on cytosolic activity. Similarly, fetal liver from HFD fed mothers had significantly reduced microsomal CYP1A1 activity (0.44 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.10; p < 0.05), with no significant difference in cytosolic CYP1A1 activity (control, 1.23 ± 0.20; HFD, 0.80 ± 0.40). Interestingly, multiple linear regression analyses of placental efficiency indicate cytosolic CYP1A1 activity is a main effect (5.67 ± 2.32 (β ± SEM); p = 0.022) along with BMI (-0.57 ± 0.26; p = 0.037), fetal gender (1.07 ± 0.26; p < 0.001), and maternal age (0.07 ± 0.03; p = 0.011). In summary, while maternal obesity affects microsomal CYP1A1 activity alone, cytosolic activity along with maternal BMI is an important determinant of placental efficiency. Together, these data suggest that maternal lifestyle could have a significant impact on CYP1A1 activity, and hints at a possible role for CYP1A1 in feto-placental growth and thereby well-being of fetus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Methylmercuric Chloride Induces Activation of Neuronal Stress Circuitry and Alters Exploratory Behavior in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Joel F.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well known neurotoxicant, responsible for neurological and cognitive alterations. However, there is very little information available on the effects of MeHg administration on activation of murine neuronal pathways involved in the stress response, and whether this is altered as a function of repeated exposure to MeHg. Moreover, interactions between MeHg and other psychogenic and inflammatory stressors have yet to be fully determined. Acute intraperitoneal (IP) exposure of male C57BL/6J mice to MeHg (2−8 mg/Kg) dose-dependently attenuated exploratory behavior in the open field in the presence and absence of a novel object. In addition, increased numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells appeared in response to acute IP and ICV MeHg within thalamic (PVA/PV), hypothalamic (PVN), central amygdaloid (CeC), septal and hippocampal (dentate gyrus) nuclei, medial bed nucleus (BSTm) and the locus coeruleus (Lc). The increase in c-Fos positive cells in response to acute IP and ICV MeHg did not appear to be influenced further by open field exposure. Repeated administration of MeHg led to an attenuation of most parameters of open field behavior altered by acute MeHg. However, increased c-Fos was significant in the CeC, Dg, supracapsular bed nucleus (BSTs), and Lc. Moreover, open field exposure after repeated treatments resulted in significant c-Fos responses in similar areas. Interestingly, 3 days after the final repeated MeHg dose (2 or 4 mg/kg) c-Fos increases to an immunogenic stressor (LPS) were not affected by MeHg pretreatment. These results demonstrate that systemic exposure to acute and repeated MeHg serves to activate the brain's stress circuitry, and furthermore appears to engage normal neuronal habituation processes. PMID:17764854

  4. Epigenetic Alterations May Regulate Temporary Reversal of CD4+ T Cell Activation Caused by Trichloroethylene Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Ashley R.; Cooney, Craig A.; Reisfeld, Brad; Blossom, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that short-term (4 weeks) or chronic (32 weeks) exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) in drinking water of female MRL+/+ mice generated CD4+ T cells that secreted increased levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and expressed an activated (CD44hiCD62Llo) phenotype. In contrast, the current study of subchronic TCE exposure showed that midway in the disease process both of these parameters of CD4+ T cell activation were reversed. This phase of the disease process may represent an attempt by the body to counteract the inflammatory effects of TCE. The decrease in CD4+ T cell production of IFN-γ following subchronic TCE exposure could not be attributed to skewing toward a Th2 or Th17 phenotype or to an increase in Treg cells. Instead, the suppression corresponded to alterations in markers used to assess DNA methylation, namely increased expression of retrotransposons Iap (intracisternal A particle) and Muerv (murine endogenous retrovirus). Also observed was an increase in the expression of Dnmt1 (DNA methyltransferase-1) and decreased expression of several genes known to be downregulated by DNA methylation, namely Ifng, Il2, and Cdkn1a. CD4+ T cells from a second study in which MRL+/+ mice were treated for 17 weeks with TCE showed a similar increase in Iap and decrease in Cdkn1a. In addition, DNA collected from the CD4+ T cells in the second study showed TCE-decreased global DNA methylation. Thus, these results described the biphasic nature of TCE-induced alterations in CD4+ T cell function and suggested that these changes represented potentially reversible alterations in epigenetic processes. PMID:22407948

  5. Induced Sporicidal Activity of Chlorhexidine against Clostridium difficile Spores under Altered Physical and Chemical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial commonly used to disinfect the skin of patients to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections. Because chlorhexidine is not sporicidal, it is not anticipated that it would have an impact on skin contamination with Clostridium difficile, the most important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. However, although chlorhexidine is not sporicidal as it is used in healthcare settings, it has been reported to kill spores of Bacillus species under altered physical and chemical conditions that disrupt the spore’s protective barriers (e.g., heat, ultrasonication, alcohol, or elevated pH). Here, we tested the hypothesis that similarly altered physical and chemical conditions result in enhanced sporicidal activity of chlorhexidine against C. difficile spores. Principal Findings C. difficile spores became susceptible to heat killing at 80°C within 15 minutes in the presence of chlorhexidine, as opposed to spores suspended in water which remained viable. The extent to which the spores were reduced was directly proportional to the concentration of chlorhexidine in solution, with no viable spores recovered after 15 minutes of incubation in 0.04%–0.0004% w/v chlorhexidine solutions at 80°C. Reduction of spores exposed to 4% w/v chlorhexidine solutions at moderate temperatures (37°C and 55°C) was enhanced by the presence of 70% ethanol. However, complete elimination of spores was not achieved until 3 hours of incubation at 55°C. Elevating the pH to ≥9.5 significantly enhanced the killing of spores in either aqueous or alcoholic chlorhexidine solutions. Conclusions Physical and chemical conditions that alter the protective barriers of C. difficile spores convey sporicidal activity to chlorhexidine. Further studies are necessary to identify additional agents that may allow chlorhexidine to reach its target within the spore. PMID:25861057

  6. Simulated microgravity alters multipotential differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells in association with reduced telomerase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lianwen; Gan, Bo; Fan, Yubo; Xie, Tian; Hu, Qinghua; Zhuang, Fengyuan

    Microgravity is one of the most important characteristics in space flight. Exposure to microgravity results in extensive physiological changes in humans. Bone loss is one of the changes with serious consequences; however, the mechanism retains unclear. As the origin of osteoprogenitors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may play an important role in it. After cultured under simulated microgravity (in a rotary cell culture system, RCCS), MSCs were stained using oil red O to identify adipocytes. The mRNA level of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 was determined by RT-PCR. Otherwise, MSCs were induced to osteogenic differentiation after microgravity culture, and then the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined by PNPP and the content of osteocalcin (OC) by ELISA. Furthermore, the telomerase activity in MSCs was measured by TRAP. The results showed that simulated microgravity inhibited osteoblastic differentiation and induced adipogenic differentiation accompanied by the change of gene expression of BMP-2 and PPARγ2 in MSCs. Meanwhile, the telomerase activity decreased significantly in MSCs under simulated microgravity. The reduced bone formation in space flight may partly be due to the altered potential differentiation of MSCs associated with telomerase activity which plays a key role in regulating the lifespan of cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, telomerase activation/replacement may act as a potential countermeasure for microgravity-induced bone loss.

  7. Therapeutic effects of anti-gravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, corticospinal tract activities, and muscle stiffness in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Sh; Taghiloo, A; Irani, A; Mirbagheri, M Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to study therapeutic effects of antigravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, muscle stiffness, and corticospinal tract (CST) function in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Three children received AlterG training 3 days per week for 8 weeks as experimental group. Each session lasted 45 minutes. One child as control group received typical occupational therapy for the same amount of time. We evaluated hyper-excitability of lower limb muscles by H-reflex response. We quantified muscle stiffness by sonoelastography images of the affected muscles. We quantified CST activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We performed the evaluations before and after training for both groups. H response latency and maximum M-wave amplitude were improved in experimental group after training compared to control group. Two children of experimental group had TMS response. Major parameters of TMS (i.e. peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP), latency of MEP, cortical silent period, and intensity of pulse) improved for both of them. Three parameters of texture analysis of sonoelastography images were improved for experimental group (i.e. contrast, entropy, and shear wave velocity). These findings indicate that AlterG training can improve reflexes, muscle stiffness, and CST activity in children with spastic hemiplegic CP and can be considered as a therapeutic tool to improve neuromuscular abnormalities occurring secondary to CP.

  8. Cross-reactive memory CD4+ T cells alter the CD8+ T-cell response to heterologous secondary dengue virus infections in mice in a sequence-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Rothman, Alan L

    2009-06-01

    Secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major factor contributing to the risk for severe disease, an effect that depends upon the sequence of infection with different DENV serotypes. We previously reported sequence-dependent effects of secondary DENV infection on CD8+ T-cell responses in mice. To further evaluate the effect of infection sequence, we analyzed DENV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses and their relationship to the CD8+ T-cell response. Serotype cross-reactivity of CD4+ T-cell responses also depended upon the sequence of serotypes in this model. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of memory CD4+ T cells altered the response of memory CD8+ T cells to secondary infection. These data demonstrate the interaction of different components of the T-cell response in determining the immunological outcome of secondary DENV infection.

  9. Maternal caffeine exposure alters neuromotor development and hippocampus acetylcholinesterase activity in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Claudia; Souza, Andressa; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; De Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Da Silva, Rosane Souza; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bonan, Carla D; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal caffeine intake on the neuromotor development of rat offspring and on acetylcholine degradation and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in the hippocampus of 14-day-old infant rats. Rat dams were treated with caffeine (0.3g/L) throughout gestation and lactation until the pups were 14 days old. The pups were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) caffeine, and (3) washout caffeine. The washout group received a caffeine solution until the seventh postnatal day (P7). Righting reflex (RR) and negative geotaxis (NG) were assessed to evaluate postural parameters as an index of neuromotor reflexes. An open-field (OF) test was conducted to assess locomotor and exploratory activities as well as anxiety-like behaviors. Caffeine treatment increased both RR and NG latency times. In the OF test, the caffeine group had fewer outer crossings and reduced locomotion compared to control, while the washout group showed increased inner crossings in relation to the other groups and fewer rearings only in comparison to the control group. We found decreased AChE activity in the caffeine group compared to the other groups, with no alteration in AChE transcriptional regulation. Chronic maternal exposure to caffeine promotes important alterations in neuromotor development. These results highlight the ability of maternal caffeine intake to interfere with cholinergic neurotransmission during brain development.

  10. Altered spontaneous activity in antisocial personality disorder revealed by regional homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Liu, Wangyong; Chen, Jingang; Liao, Jian; Hu, Dewen; Wang, Wei

    2013-08-07

    There is increasing evidence that antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) stems from brain abnormalities. However, there are only a few studies investigating brain structure in ASPD. The aim of this study was to find regional coherence abnormalities in resting-state functional MRI of ASPD. Thirty-two ASPD individuals and 34 controls underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach was used to examine whether ASPD was related to alterations in resting-state neural activity. Support vector machine discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity/specificity characteristics of the ReHo index in discriminating between the ASPD individuals and controls. The results showed that, compared with controls, ASPD individuals show lower ReHo in the right cerebellum posterior lobe (Crus1) and the right middle frontal gyrus, as well as higher ReHo in the right middle occipital gyrus (BA 19), left inferior temporal gyrus (BA 37), and right inferior occipital gyrus (cuneus, BA 18). All alternation regions reported a predictive accuracy above 70%. To our knowledge, this study was the first to study the change in regional activity coherence in the resting brain of ASPD individuals. These results not only elucidated the pathological mechanism of ASPD from a resting-state functional viewpoint but also showed that these alterations in ReHo may serve as potential markers for the detection of ASPD.

  11. Multifunctional Ebselen drug functions through the activation of DNA damage response and alterations in nuclear proteins.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gajendra K; Balkrishna, Shah Jaimin; Sathish, Narayanan; Kumar, Sangit; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2012-01-15

    Several studies have demonstrated that Ebselen is an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. Contrary to this, studies have also shown a high degree of cellular toxicity associated with Ebselen usage, the underlying mechanism of which remains less understood. In this study we have attempted to identify a possible molecular mechanism behind the above by investigating the effects of Ebselen on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Significant growth arrest was documented in yeast cells exposed to Ebselen similar to that seen in presence of DNA damaging agents (including methyl methane sulfonate [MMS] and hydroxy urea [HU]). Furthermore, mutations in specific lysine residues in the histone H3 tail (H3 K56R) resulted in increased sensitivity of yeast cells to Ebselen presumably due to alterations in post-translational modifications of histone proteins towards regulating replication and DNA damage repair. Our findings suggest that Ebselen functions through activation of DNA damage response, alterations in histone modifications, activation of checkpoint kinase pathway and derepression of ribonucleotide reductases (DNA repair genes) which to the best of our knowledge is being reported for the first time. Interestingly subsequent to Ebselen exposure there were changes in global yeast protein expression and specific histone modifications, identification of which is expected to reveal a fundamental cellular mechanism underlying the action of Ebselen. Taken together these observations will help to redesign Ebselen-based therapy in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep brain stimulation during early adolescence prevents microglial alterations in a model of maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Ravit; Dong, Le; Del-Valle-Anton, Lucia; Guneykaya, Dilansu; Voget, Mareike; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Schweibold, Regina; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Goetz, Thomas; Ewing, Samuel; Kettenmann, Helmut; Wolf, Susanne A; Winter, Christine

    2016-12-07

    In recent years schizophrenia has been recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder likely involving a perinatal insult progressively affecting brain development. The poly I:C maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is considered as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Using this model we and others demonstrated the association between neuroinflammation in the form of altered microglia and a schizophrenia-like endophenotype. Therapeutic intervention using the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline affected altered microglia activation and was successful in the adult offspring. However, less is known about the effect of preventive therapeutic strategies on microglia properties. Previously we found that deep brain stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex applied pre-symptomatically to adolescence MIA rats prevented the manifestation of behavioral and structural deficits in adult rats. We here studied the effects of deep brain stimulation during adolescence on microglia properties in adulthood. We found that in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex, microglial density and soma size were increased in MIA rats. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was unchanged in all brain areas before and after implantation and stimulation. Stimulation of either the medial prefrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens normalized microglia density and soma size in main projection areas including the hippocampus and in the area around the electrode implantation. We conclude that in parallel to an alleviation of the symptoms in the rat MIA model, deep brain stimulation has the potential to prevent the neuroinflammatory component in this disease.

  13. Streptokinase variants from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates display altered plasminogen activation characteristics - implications for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cook, Simon M; Skora, Amanda; Gillen, Christine M; Walker, Mark J; McArthur, Jason D

    2012-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) secretes streptokinase, a potent plasminogen activating protein. Among GAS isolates, streptokinase gene sequences (ska) are polymorphic and can be grouped into two distinct sequence clusters (termed cluster type-1 and cluster type-2) with cluster type-2 being further divided into sub-clusters type-2a and type-2b. In this study, far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that purified streptokinase variants of each type displayed similar secondary structure. Type-2b streptokinase variants could not generate an active site in Glu-plasminogen through non-proteolytic mechanisms while all other variants had this capability. Furthermore, when compared with other streptokinase variants, type-2b variants displayed a 29- to 35-fold reduction in affinity for Glu-plasminogen. All SK variants could activate Glu-plasminogen when an activator complex was preformed with plasmin; however, type-2b and type-1 complexes were inhibited by α(2) -antiplasmin. Exchanging ska(type-2a) in the M1T1 GAS strain 5448 with ska(type-2b) caused a reduction in virulence while exchanging ska(type-2a) with ska(type-1) into 5448 produced an increase in virulence when using a mouse model of invasive disease. These findings suggest that streptokinase variants produced by GAS isolates utilize distinct plasminogen activation pathways, which directly affects the pathogenesis of this organism.

  14. Systemic mast cell activation disease: the role of molecular genetic alterations in pathogenesis, heritability and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Haenisch, Britta; Nöthen, Markus M; Molderings, Gerhard J

    2012-11-01

    Despite increasing understanding of its pathophysiology, the aetiology of systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD) remains largely unknown. Research has shown that somatic mutations in kinases are necessary for the establishment of a clonal mast cell population, in particular mutations in the tyrosine kinase Kit and in enzymes and receptors with crucial involvement in the regulation of mast cell activity. However, other, as yet undetermined, abnormalities are necessary for the manifestation of clinical disease. The present article reviews molecular genetic research into the identification of disease-associated genes and their mutational alterations. The authors also present novel data on familial systemic MCAD and review the associated literature. Finally, the importance of understanding the molecular basis of inherited mutations in terms of diagnostics and therapy is emphasized.

  15. Epigenetic alteration to activate Bmp2-Smad signaling in Raf-induced senescence

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Mai; Mano, Yasunobu; Anai, Motonobu; Yamamoto, Shogo; Fukuyo, Masaki; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate epigenomic and gene expression alterations during cellular senescence induced by oncogenic Raf. METHODS: Cellular senescence was induced into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by infecting retrovirus to express oncogenic Raf (RafV600E). RNA was collected from RafV600E cells as well as MEFs without infection and MEFs with mock infection, and a genome-wide gene expression analysis was performed using microarray. The epigenomic status for active H3K4me3 and repressive H3K27me3 histone marks was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing for RafV600E cells on day 7 and for MEFs without infection. These data for Raf-induced senescence were compared with data for Ras-induced senescence that were obtained in our previous study. Gene knockdown and overexpression were done by retrovirus infection. RESULTS: Although the expression of some genes including secreted factors was specifically altered in either Ras- or Raf-induced senescence, many genes showed similar alteration pattern in Raf- and Ras-induced senescence. A total of 841 commonly upregulated 841 genes and 573 commonly downregulated genes showed a significant enrichment of genes related to signal and secreted proteins, suggesting the importance of alterations in secreted factors. Bmp2, a secreted protein to activate Bmp2-Smad signaling, was highly upregulated with gain of H3K4me3 and loss of H3K27me3 during Raf-induced senescence, as previously detected in Ras-induced senescence, and the knockdown of Bmp2 by shRNA lead to escape from Raf-induced senescence. Bmp2-Smad inhibitor Smad6 was strongly repressed with H3K4me3 loss in Raf-induced senescence, as detected in Ras-induced senescence, and senescence was also bypassed by Smad6 induction in Raf-activated cells. Different from Ras-induced senescence, however, gain of H3K27me3 did not occur in the Smad6 promoter region during Raf-induced senescence. When comparing genome-wide alteration between Ras- and Raf-induced senescence, genes

  16. Brain-encysting trematodes and altered monoamine activity in naturally infected killifish Fundulus parvipinnis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J C; Øverli, Ø

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents novel evidence to address mechanisms by which trematode parasites effect behavioural changes in naturally infected fish hosts. California killifish Fundulus parvipinnis infected with the brain-encysting trematode Euhaplorchis californiensis display conspicuous swimming behaviours that render them 30 times more likely to be eaten by birds, the parasite's final host. Prevalence of E. californiensis reaches nearly 100% in most F. parvipinnis populations, with parasite biomass constituting almost 2% of F. parvipinnis biomass in some locations. Despite having thousands of cysts on their brains, infected fish grow and mature at rates comparable to those of uninfected populations. The lack of general pathology combined with the specificity of the altered behaviours suggests that the behavioural changes are due to parasite manipulation. The monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, which control locomotion and social behaviour in fishes and other vertebrates, were examined to explore the underlying mechanisms of this behaviour modification. Whereas previous studies were similarly conducted with experimentally infected fish, in this study, brain dopaminergic and serotonergic activity were analysed in naturally infected fish to assess how E. californiensis may alter F. parvipinnis monoamines in a naturally occurring system. A parasite density-associated decrease in serotonergic activity occurred in the hippocampus of naturally infected fish, as well as a decrease in dopaminergic activity in the raphe nuclei, suggesting that E. californiensis inhibits serotonin and dopamine signaling in naturally infected F. parvipinnis. The neurochemical profile of infected fish is consistent with the hypothesis that E. californiensis affects brain monoaminergic systems in order to induce impulse-driven, active, and aggressive behaviour in its hosts.

  17. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Chang, Tammy T.; Martinez, Emily M.; Li, Chai-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Altered immune function has been demonstrated in astronauts during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab; this could be a major barrier to long-term space exploration. We tested the hypothesis that spaceflight causes changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Human leukocytes were stimulated with mitogens on board the International Space Station using an onboard normal gravity control. Bioinformatics showed that miR-21 was significantly up-regulated 2-fold during early T-cell activation in normal gravity, and gene expression was suppressed under microgravity. This was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (n = 4). This is the first report that spaceflight regulates miRNA expression. Global microarray analysis showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression of 85 genes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity samples. EGR3, FASLG, BTG2, SPRY2, and TAGAP are biologically confirmed targets and are co-up-regulated with miR-21. These genes share common promoter regions with pre-mir-21; as the miR-21 matures and accumulates, it most likely will inhibit translation of its target genes and limit the immune response. These data suggest that gravity regulates T-cell activation not only by transcription promotion but also by blocking translation via noncoding RNA mechanisms. Moreover, this study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21.—Hughes-Fulford, M., Chang, T. T., Martinez, E. M., Li, C.-F. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation. PMID:26276131

  18. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Grosskreutz, Julian; Prell, Tino; Kaufmann, Jörn; Bodammer, Nils; Peschel, Thomas

    2014-01-07

    Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS "only" (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded.

  19. Aging process alters hippocampal and cortical secretase activities of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Karine; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Schallenberger, Bruna; Meireles, Louisiana; Basso, Carla; Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Bernardi, Lisiane; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2017-01-15

    A growing body of evidence has demonstrated amyloid plaques in aged brain; however, little attention has been given to amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing machinery during the healthy aging process. The amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways, represented respectively by β- and α-secretases (BACE and TACE), are responsible for APP cleavage. Our working hypothesis is that the normal aging process could imbalance amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways specifically BACE and TACE activities. Besides, although it has been showed that exercise can modulate secretase activities in Alzheimer Disease models the relationship between exercise effects and APP processing during healthy aging process is rarely studied. Our aim was to investigate the aging process and the exercise effects on cortical and hippocampal BACE and TACE activities and aversive memory performance. Young adult and aged Wistar rats were subjected to an exercise protocol (20min/day for 2 weeks) and to inhibitory avoidance task. Biochemical parameters were evaluated 1h and 18h after the last exercise session in order to verify transitory and delayed exercise effects. Aged rats exhibited impaired aversive memory and diminished cortical TACE activity. Moreover, an imbalance between TACE and BACE activities in favor of BACE activity was observed in aged brain. Moderate treadmill exercise was unable to alter secretase activities in any brain areas or time points evaluated. Our results suggest that aging-related aversive memory decline is partly linked to decreased cortical TACE activity. Additionally, an imbalance between secretase activities can be related to the higher vulnerability to neurodegenerative diseases induced by aging.

  20. A semisynthetic strategy leads to alteration of the backbone amidate ligand in the NiSOD active site

    DOE PAGES

    Campeciño, Julius O.; Dudycz, Lech W.; Tumelty, David; ...

    2015-07-01

    Computational investigations have implicated the amidate ligand in nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) in stabilizing Ni-centered redox catalysis and in preventing cysteine thiolate ligand oxidation. To test these predictions, we have used an experimental approach utilizing a semisynthetic scheme that employs native chemical ligation of a pentapeptide (HCDLP) to recombinant S. coelicolor NiSOD lacking these N-terminal residues, NΔ5-NiSOD. Wild-type enzyme produced in this manner exhibits the characteristic spectral properties of recombinant WT-NiSOD and is as catalytically active. The semisynthetic scheme was also employed to construct a variant where the amidate ligand was converted to a secondary amine, H1*-NiSOD, a novel strategymore » that retains a backbone N-donor atom. The H1*-NiSOD variant was found to have only ~1% of the catalytic activity of the recombinant wild-type enzyme, and had altered spectroscopic properties. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a four-coordinate planar site with N2S2-donor ligands, consistent with electronic absorption spectroscopic results indicating that the Ni center in H1*-NiSOD is mostly reduced in the as-isolated sample, as opposed to 50:50 Ni(II)/Ni(III) mixture that is typical for the recombinant wild-type enzyme. The EPR spectrum of as-isolated H1*-NiSOD accounts for ~11% of the Ni in the sample and is similar to WT-NiSOD, but more axial, with gz < gx,y. 14N-hyperfine is observed on gz« less

  1. Factors influencing physical activity level among secondary school adolescents in Petaling District, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Aniza, I; Fairuz, M R

    2009-09-01

    Physical activity is the first line approach and one of the main factors in preventing chronic diseases. Currently there is the increasing percentage of sedentary life style or lack of exercise among adolescents. The main objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of inactivity and the factors influencing physical activity in adolescents. A cross sectional study was carried out among secondary school students aged 14 and 16 in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 519 respondents participated in this study. Their physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The active group was classified as those having levels of equal or more than 600 met-min per week while less than 600 met-min per week was considered inactive. Response rate in this study was 95.4%. The prevalence of inactive in adolescents was 20.8%. Female adolescents, non-working mother, time constraint, exercise only when having ample time and stretching before exercise are predictor factors for being inactive among adolescents. Steps need to be taken to persistently ensure that the physical activity among adolescents be increased continuously.

  2. Regulation and activity of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is altered in smokers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N; Letang, Blanche D; Brighton, Luisa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Bonner, James; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-02-01

    A hallmark of cigarette smoking is a shift in the protease/antiprotease balance, in favor of protease activity. However, it has recently been shown that smokers have increased expression of a key antiprotease, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), yet the mechanisms involved in SLPI transcriptional regulation and functional activity of SLPI remain unclear. We examined SLPI mRNA and protein secretion in differentiated nasal epithelial cells (NECs) and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from nonsmokers and smokers and demonstrated that SLPI expression is increased in NECs and NLF from smokers. Transcriptional regulation of SLPI expression was confirmed using SLPI promoter reporter assays followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The role of STAT1 in regulating SLPI expression was further elucidated using WT and stat1(-/-) mice. Our data demonstrate that STAT1 regulates SLPI transcription in epithelial cells and slpi protein in the lungs of mice. Additionally, we reveal that NECs from smokers have increased STAT1 mRNA/protein expression. Finally, we demonstrate that SLPI contained in the nasal mucosa of smokers is proteolytically cleaved but retains functional activity against neutrophil elastase. These results demonstrate that smoking enhances expression of SLPI in NECs in vitro and in vivo, and that this response is regulated by STAT1. In addition, despite posttranslational cleavage of SLPI, antiprotease activity against neutrophil elastase is enhanced in smokers. Together, our findings show that SLPI regulation and activity is altered in the nasal mucosa of smokers, which could have broad implications in the context of respiratory inflammation and infection.

  3. Alterations of locomotor activity rhythm and sleep parameters in patients with advanced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lanzani, María Florencia; de Zavalía, Nuria; Fontana, Héctor; Sarmiento, María Ines Keller; Golombek, Diego; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of advanced glaucoma on locomotor activity rhythms and related sleep parameters. Nine normal subjects and nine age-matched patients with bilateral advanced primary open-angle glaucoma, >10 yrs since diagnosis, were included in this observational, prospective, case-control study. Patients were required to record the timing and duration of their sleep and daily activities, and wore an actigraph on the wrist of the nondominant arm for 20 d. Activity rhythm period, MESOR (24-h time-series mean), amplitude (one-half peak-to-trough variation), and acrophase (peak time), plus long sleep episodes during the wake state, sleep duration, efficiency, and latency, as well as mean activity score, wake minutes, and mean wake episodes during the sleep interval were assessed in controls and glaucomatous patients. Glaucomatous patients exhibited significant decrease in nighttime sleep efficiency, and significant increase in the mean activity score, wake minutes, and mean wake episode during the night. These results suggest that alterations of circadian physiology could be a risk to the quality of life of patients with glaucoma.

  4. Sustained Treatment with Insulin Detemir in Mice Alters Brain Activity and Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Tina; Hennige, Anita M; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have identified unique brain effects of insulin detemir (Levemir®). Due to its pharmacologic properties, insulin detemir may reach higher concentrations in the brain than regular insulin. This might explain the observed increased brain stimulation after acute insulin detemir application but it remained unclear whether chronic insulin detemir treatment causes alterations in brain activity as a consequence of overstimulation. In mice, we examined insulin detemir's prolonged brain exposure by continuous subcutaneous (s.c.) application using either micro-osmotic pumps or daily s.c. injections and performed continuous radiotelemetric electrocorticography and locomotion recordings. Acute intracerebroventricular injection of insulin detemir activated cortical and locomotor activity significantly more than regular insulin in equimolar doses (0.94 and 5.63 mU in total), suggesting an enhanced acute impact on brain networks. However, given continuously s.c., insulin detemir significantly reduced cortical activity (theta: 21.3±6.1% vs. 73.0±8.1%, P<0.001) and failed to maintain locomotion, while regular insulin resulted in an increase of both parameters. The data suggest that permanently-increased insulin detemir levels in the brain convert its hyperstimulatory effects and finally mediate impairments in brain activity and locomotion. This observation might be considered when human studies with insulin detemir are designed to target the brain in order to optimize treatment regimens.

  5. Altered resting-state functional activity in posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Junran; Zhan, Wang; Li, Lei; Wu, Min; Huang, Hua; Zhu, Hongyan; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Many functional neuroimaging studies have reported differential patterns of spontaneous brain activity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not so far been quantitatively reviewed. The present study set out to determine consistent, specific regional brain activity alterations in PTSD, using the Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping technique to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD that used either a non-trauma (NTC) or a trauma-exposed (TEC) comparison control group. Fifteen functional neuroimaging studies were included, comparing 286 PTSDs, 203 TECs and 155 NTCs. Compared with NTC, PTSD patients showed hyperactivity in the right anterior insula and bilateral cerebellum, and hypoactivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); compared with TEC, PTSD showed hyperactivity in the ventral mPFC. The pooled meta-analysis showed hypoactivity in the posterior insula, superior temporal, and Heschl’s gyrus in PTSD. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis (non-medicated subjects vs. NTC) identified abnormal activation in the prefrontal-limbic system. In meta-regression analyses, mean illness duration was positively associated with activity in the right cerebellum (PTSD vs. NTC), and illness severity was negatively associated with activity in the right lingual gyrus (PTSD vs. TEC). PMID:27251865

  6. Prenatal neuroleptic exposure alters postnatal striatal cholinergic activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Miller, J C; Friedhoff, A J

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that prenatal exposure to a neuroleptic during a critical period of gestation in the rat results in a marked deficit in the number of striatal dopamine-binding sites and in a diminution of dopamine agonist-induced stereotyped behavior. In the present studies, we examined the effect of prenatal neuroleptic exposure on biochemical parameters of cholinergic activity to determine whether the balance between striatal dopaminergic and cholinergic activity might be altered. The number of muscarinic cholinergic-binding sites and the specific activity of choline acetyltransferase were found to be significantly increased by prenatal treatment with the neuroleptics haloperidol or (+)-butaclamol. From the present studies and previous observations made in our laboratory, it is concluded that the ability of a neuroleptic to affect the number of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in postnatal life may be a result of the phenotypically undifferentiated state of the developing dopamine-binding site. Our findings of increased striatal cholinergic activity accompanied by a marked decrease in dopaminergic activity may have implications for an increased vulnerability to extrapyramidal motor disturbances during postnatal development.

  7. Menopausal symptoms and physical activity in multiethnic groups of midlife women: A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2013-01-01

    Aims To explore the effect of diverse types of women’s physical activity on menopausal symptoms among multiethnic groups of midlife women in the USA. Background Although physical activity is one of the most widely used non-pharmacological methods for managing menopausal symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical guidelines for women and healthcare providers because the relationship between physical activity and menopausal symptoms has been found inconsistent in previous studies. Design A secondary analysis of the data from a lager Internet survey study conducted in 2008 – 2010. Methods A total of 481 midlife women among four ethnic groups were selected from the original study. The data were collected using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey and the Midlife Women’s Symptom Index. Bivariate correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results/Findings The household/caregiving activity index was positively associated with the prevalence scores of the psychological symptoms in both Non-Hispanic Asians and Non-Hispanic African Americans. The increased sports/exercise activity index was negatively associated with the severity scores of the physical symptoms in both Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites. The occupational activity index and the active living activity index significantly predicted the severity scores of the psychosomatic symptoms in Hispanics and Non-Hispanic African Americans, respectively. Conclusion Nurses who take care of multiethnic groups of midlife women who experience menopausal symptoms should be aware of diverse types of women’s physical activities within the cultural context. PMID:23171423

  8. Lab-on-a-chip workshop activities for secondary school students

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Mohammad M. N.; Tarn, Mark D.; Choudhury, Tahmina A.; Hewitt, Laura C.; Mayo, Ashley J.; Rubin, Theodore A.; Waller, Mathew R.; Christensen, Martin G.; Dawson, Amy; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The ability to engage and inspire younger generations in novel areas of science is important for bringing new researchers into a burgeoning field, such as lab-on-a-chip. We recently held a lab-on-a-chip workshop for secondary school students, for which we developed a number of hands-on activities that explained various aspects of microfluidic technology, including fabrication (milling and moulding of microfluidic devices, and wax printing of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, so-called μPADs), flow regimes (gradient formation via diffusive mixing), and applications (tissue analysis and μPADs). Questionnaires completed by the students indicated that they found the workshop both interesting and informative, with all activities proving successful, while providing feedback that could be incorporated into later iterations of the event. PMID:26865902

  9. Larvicidal activity of some secondary lichen metabolites against the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Tufan-Cetin, O; Turk, A O; Tay, T; Candan, M; Yanikoglu, A; Sumbul, H

    2012-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of some lichen metabolites, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid and gyrophoric acid, against the second and third instar larvae of the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata were studied. All metabolites caused high larvicidal activities. When metabolites were compared on the basis of their LC(50) values, the order of increasing toxicity was as follows: gyrophoric acid (0.41 ppm) > (+)-usnic acid (0.48 ppm) > atranorin (0.52 ppm) > 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (0.97 ppm). However, when LC(90) values were compared, the order of toxicity was (+)-usnic acid (1.54 ppm) > gyrophoric acid (1.93 ppm) > 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (4.33 ppm) > atranorin (5.63 ppm). In conclusion, our results found that lichen secondary metabolites may have a promising role as potential larvicides.

  10. Pathophysiologic changes in IA-2/IA-2β null mice are secondary to alterations in the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tao; Notkins, Abner L

    2016-02-01

    IA-2 and IA-2β are transmembrane proteins of dense-core vesicles (DCV). The deletion of these proteins results in a reduction in the number of DCV and the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. As a result, this leads to a variety of pathophysiologic changes. The purpose of this review is to describe these changes, which are characterized by glucose intolerance, female infertility, behavior and learning abnormalities and alterations in the diurnal circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate, spontaneous physical activity and body temperature. These findings show that the deletion of IA-2 and IA-2β results in multiple pathophysiologic changes and represents a unique in vivo model for studying the effect of hormone and neurotransmitter reduction on known and still unrecognized targets.

  11. Altered functional MR imaging language activation in elderly individuals with cerebral leukoaraiosis.

    PubMed

    Welker, Kirk M; De Jesus, Reordan O; Watson, Robert E; Machulda, Mary M; Jack, Clifford R

    2012-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that leukoaraiosis alters functional activation during a semantic decision language task. With institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 18 right-handed, cognitively healthy elderly participants with an aggregate leukoaraiosis lesion volume of more than 25 cm(3) and 18 age-matched control participants with less than 5 cm(3) of leukoaraiosis underwent functional MR imaging to allow comparison of activation during semantic decisions with that during visual perceptual decisions. Brain statistical maps were derived from the general linear model. Spatially normalized group t maps were created from individual contrast images. A cluster extent threshold of 215 voxels was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Intergroup random effects analysis was performed. Language laterality indexes were calculated for each participant. In control participants, semantic decisions activated the bilateral visual cortex, left posteroinferior temporal lobe, left posterior cingulate gyrus, left frontal lobe expressive language regions, and left basal ganglia. Visual perceptual decisions activated the right parietal and posterior temporal lobes. Participants with leukoaraiosis showed reduced activation in all regions associated with semantic decisions; however, activation associated with visual perceptual decisions increased in extent. Intergroup analysis showed significant activation decreases in the left anterior occipital lobe (P=.016), right posterior temporal lobe (P=.048), and right basal ganglia (P=.009) in particpants with leukoariosis. Individual participant laterality indexes showed a strong trend (P=.059) toward greater left lateralization in the leukoaraiosis group. Moderate leukoaraiosis is associated with atypical functional activation during semantic decision tasks. Consequently, leukoaraiosis is an important confounding variable in functional MR imaging studies of elderly individuals. © RSNA, 2012.

  12. Cloud Condensation Nucleus (CCN) Activation Properties of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanreken, T. M.; Ng, N. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Organic compounds are known to comprise a significant fraction of the atmospheric aerosol population and have been found to contribute to the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Much of this organic material is secondary in nature; secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is formed when volatile organic compounds are oxidized to form less volatile products, which then condense into the aerosol phase. Many organic compounds found in the atmosphere, of both anthropogenic and biogenic origin, have been found to produce SOA. Such reactions typically result in complex mixtures of products, only a fraction of which have been identified. Thus while there have been several studies exploring the potential for organic particles to act as CCN (including some of the compounds identified in SOA products), there have been almost no direct investigation of the potential CCN activity of SOA. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments measuring directly the CCN activity of SOA produced by the ozonolysis of several common biogenic compounds. Six compounds were studied: five monoterpenes (α -pinene, β -pinene, Δ 3-carene, limonene, terpinolene) and one terpinoid alcohol (terpinen-4-ol). The chosen monoterpenes represent an estimated 87% of global monoterpene emissions, while the terpenoid alcohols make up approximately 25% of the other biogenic compounds capable of forming SOA. In each experiment, SOA was generated under controlled conditions at the Caltech indoor facility. Over several hours, CCN concentrations were measured at supersaturations ranging from 0.27% to 0.80%. These data are compared to simultaneous particle concentration and size distribution observations to determine the relationship between particle diameter and CCN activity. The analysis indicates considerable variation in CCN activity among the experiments; possible causes for such variability are explored.

  13. Progesterone Alters Kynurenine Pathway Activation in IFN-γ-Activated Macrophages – Relevance for Neuroinflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, J.; Lim, C. K.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the kynurenine pathway (KP), the major biochemical pathway for tryptophan metabolism, is dysregulated in many inflammatory disorders that are often associated with sexual dimorphisms. We aimed to identify a potential functional interaction between the KP and gonadal hormones. We have treated primary human macrophages with progesterone in the presence and absence of inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (interferon-γ) that is known to be a potent inducer of regulating the KP enzyme. We found that progesterone attenuates interferon-γ-induced KP activity, decreases the levels of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid, and increases the neuroprotective kynurenic acid levels. We also showed that progesterone was able to reduce the inflammatory marker neopterin. These results may shed light on the gender disparity in response to inflammation. PMID:27980422

  14. Magnesium impacts myosin V motor activity by altering key conformational changes in the mechanochemical cycle.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Darshan V; Muretta, Joseph M; Swenson, Anja M; Thomas, David D; Yengo, Christopher M

    2013-07-09

    We investigated how magnesium (Mg) impacts key conformational changes during the ADP binding/release steps in myosin V and how these alterations impact the actomyosin mechanochemical cycle. The conformation of the nucleotide binding pocket was examined with our established FRET system in which myosin V labeled with FlAsH in the upper 50 kDa domain participates in energy transfer with mant labeled nucleotides. We examined the maximum actin-activated ATPase activity of MV FlAsH at a range of free Mg concentrations (0.1-9 mM) and found that the highest activity occurs at low Mg (0.1-0.3 mM), while there is a 50-60% reduction in activity at high Mg (3-9 mM). The motor activity examined with the in vitro motility assay followed a similar Mg-dependence, and the trend was similar with dimeric myosin V. Transient kinetic FRET studies of mantdADP binding/release from actomyosin V FlAsH demonstrate that the transition between the weak and strong actomyosin.ADP states is coupled to movement of the upper 50 kDa domain and is dependent on Mg with the strong state stabilized by Mg. We find that the kinetics of the upper 50 kDa conformational change monitored by FRET correlates well with the ATPase and motility results over a wide range of Mg concentrations. Our results suggest the conformation of the upper 50 kDa domain is highly dynamic in the Mg free actomyosin.ADP state, which is in agreement with ADP binding being entropy driven in the absence of Mg. Overall, our results demonstrate that Mg is a key factor in coupling the nucleotide- and actin-binding regions. In addition, Mg concentrations in the physiological range can alter the structural transition that limits ADP dissociation from actomyosin V, which explains the impact of Mg on actin-activated ATPase activity and in vitro motility.

  15. Sepsis induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) alters nucleotidase activities in platelets of rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata S; Bertoncheli, Claudia M; Adefegha, Stephen A; Castilhos, Lívia G; Silveira, Karine L; Rezer, João Felipe P; Doleski, Pedro H; Abdalla, Fátima H; Santos, Karen F; Leal, Claudio A M; Santos, Roberto C V; Casali, Emerson A; Moritz, Cesar E J; Stainki, Daniel R; Leal, Daniela B R

    2017-10-01

    Sepsis is a potentially lethal condition, and it is associated with platelet alterations. The present study sought to investigate the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), E-5'-nucleotidase, and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) in the platelets of rats that were induced with sepsis. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten animals each: a negative control group (normal; NC); a group that underwent surgical procedures (sham); and a group that underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). The induction of sepsis was confirmed by bacteremia, and the causative pathogen identified was Escherichia coli. Hematological parameters showed leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia in animals in the septic group. The results also revealed that there were significant (p < 0.05) increases in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) hydrolyses, and in the deamination of adenosine in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Conversely, ADP hydrolysis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Purine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum samples from control, sham, and CLP groups. Increased concentrations of ATP, adenosine, and inosine were found in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Conversely, the concentrations of ADP and AMP in the CPL group were not significantly altered. We suggest that alterations in hematological parameters, nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets, and nucleotide concentrations in serum samples of rats with induced sepsis may be related to thromboembolic events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered visual repetition suppression in Fragile X Syndrome: New evidence from ERPs and oscillatory activity.

    PubMed

    Rigoulot, Simon; Knoth, Inga S; Lafontaine, Marc-Philippe; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Major, Philippe; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Michaud, Jacques L; Jerbi, Karim; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. In particular, neuronal habituation processes have been shown to be altered in FXS patients. Yet, while such deficits have been primarily explored using auditory stimuli, less is known in the visual modality. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of repetition suppression using faces in FXS patients compared to controls that had the same age distribution. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were acquired while participants were presented with 18 different faces, each repeated ten times successively. The repetition suppression effect was probed by comparing the brain responses to the first and second presentation, based on task-evoked event-related potentials (ERP) as well as on task-induced oscillatory activity. We found different patterns of habituation for controls and patients both in ERP and oscillatory power. While the N170 was not affected by face repetition in controls, it was altered in FXS patients. Conversely, while a repetition suppression effect was observed in the theta band (4-8Hz) over frontal and parieto-occipital areas in controls, it was not seen in FXS patients. These results provide the first evidence for diminished ERP and oscillatory habituation effects in response to face repetitions in FXS. These findings extend previous observations of impairments in learning mechanisms and may be linked to deficits in the maturation processes of synapses caused by the mutation. The present study contributes to bridging the gap between animal models of synaptic plasticity dysfunctions and human research in FXS. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal oxygen adversely affects lung function in adult mice without altering surfactant composition or activity

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Min; Chess, Patricia R.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Wang, Zhengdong; Gelein, Robert; Zhou, Rui; Dean, David A.; Notter, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its potentially adverse effects on lung development and function, supplemental oxygen is often used to treat premature infants in respiratory distress. To understand how neonatal hyperoxia can permanently disrupt lung development, we previously reported increased lung compliance, greater alveolar simplification, and disrupted epithelial development in adult mice exposed to 100% inspired oxygen fraction between postnatal days 1 and 4. Here, we investigate whether oxygen-induced changes in lung function are attributable to defects in surfactant composition and activity, structural changes in alveolar development, or both. Newborn mice were exposed to room air or 40%, 60%, 80%, or 100% oxygen between postnatal days 1 and 4 and allowed to recover in room air until 8 wk of age. Lung compliance and alveolar size increased, and airway resistance, airway elastance, tissue elastance, and tissue damping decreased, in mice exposed to 60–80% oxygen; changes were even greater in mice exposed to 100% oxygen. These alterations in lung function were not associated with changes in total protein content or surfactant phospholipid composition in bronchoalveolar lavage. Moreover, surface activity and total and hydrophobic protein content were unchanged in large surfactant aggregates centrifuged from bronchoalveolar lavage compared with control. Instead, the number of type II cells progressively declined in 60–100% oxygen, whereas levels of T1α, a protein expressed by type I cells, were comparably increased in mice exposed to 40–100% oxygen. Thickened bundles of elastin fibers were also detected in alveolar walls of mice exposed to ≥60% oxygen. These findings support the hypothesis that changes in lung development, rather than surfactant activity, are the primary causes of oxygen-altered lung function in children who were exposed to oxygen as neonates. Furthermore, the disruptive effects of oxygen on epithelial development and lung mechanics are not equivalently dose

  18. Spatiotemporal relations of primary sensorimotor and secondary motor activation patterns mapped by NIR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Chand, Pankaj; Alexandrakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Functional near infrared (fNIR) imaging was used to identify spatiotemporal relations between spatially distinct cortical regions activated during various hand and arm motion protocols. Imaging was performed over a field of view (FOV, 12 x 8.4 cm) including the secondary motor, primary sensorimotor, and the posterior parietal cortices over a single brain hemisphere. This is a more extended FOV than typically used in current fNIR studies. Three subjects performed four motor tasks that induced activation over this extended FOV. The tasks included card flipping (pronation and supination) that, to our knowledge, has not been performed in previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or fNIR studies. An earlier rise and a longer duration of the hemodynamic activation response were found in tasks requiring increased physical or mental effort. Additionally, analysis of activation images by cluster component analysis (CCA) demonstrated that cortical regions can be grouped into clusters, which can be adjacent or distant from each other, that have similar temporal activation patterns depending on whether the performed motor task is guided by visual or tactile feedback. These analyses highlight the future potential of fNIR imaging to tackle clinically relevant questions regarding the spatiotemporal relations between different sensorimotor cortex regions, e.g. ones involved in the rehabilitation response to motor impairments. PMID:22162826

  19. Alignment of Hands-on STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-12-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in activities such as an after-school robotics program. Both groups are compared and contrasted with a third group of high school students admitted at the eleventh grade to an academy of mathematics and science. All students were assessed using the same science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) dispositions instrument. Findings indicate that the after-school group whose participants self-selected STEM engagement activities, and the self-selected academy of mathematics and science group, each had highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to those of STEM professionals, while a subset of the middle school whole-classroom energy monitoring group that reported high interest in STEM as a career, also possessed highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to the STEM Professionals group. The authors conclude that several different kinds of hands-on STEM engagement activities are likely to foster or maintain positive STEM dispositions at the middle school and high school levels, and that these highly positive levels of dispositions can be viewed as a target toward which projects seeking to interest mainstream secondary students in STEM majors in college and STEM careers, can hope to aspire. Gender findings regarding STEM dispositions are also reported for these groups.

  20. hca: an Arabidopsis mutant exhibiting unusual cambial activity and altered vascular patterning.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Christophe; Freydier, Amandine; Ranocha, Philippe; Jauneau, Alain; Turner, Simon; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Tarkowski, Petr; Sandberg, Göran; Jouanin, Lise; Sundberg, Björn; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Goffner, Deborah; Pichon, Magalie

    2005-10-01

    By screening a T-DNA population of Arabidopsis mutants for alterations in inflorescence stem vasculature, we have isolated a mutant with a dramatic increase in vascular tissue development, characterized by a continuous ring of xylem/phloem. This phenotype is the consequence of premature and numerous cambial cell divisions in both the fascicular and interfascicular regions that result in the loss of the alternate vascular bundle/fiber organization typically observed in Arabidopsis stems. The mutant was therefore designated high cambial activity (hca). The hca mutation also resulted in pleiotropic effects including stunting and a delay in developmental events such as flowering and senescence. The physiological characterization of hca seedlings in vitro revealed an altered auxin and cytokinin response and, most strikingly, an enhanced sensitivity to cytokinin. These results were substantiated by comparative microarray analysis between hca and wild-type plants. The genetic analysis of hca indicated that the mutant phenotype was not tagged by the T-DNA and that the hca mutation segregated as a single recessive locus, mapping to the long arm of chromosome 4. We propose that hca is involved in mechanisms controlling the arrangement of vascular bundles throughout the plant by regulating the auxin-cytokinin sensitivity of vascular cambial cells. Thus, the hca mutant is a useful model for examining the genetic and hormonal control of cambial growth and differentiation.

  1. Environmental parameters altered by climate change affect the activity of soil microorganisms involved in bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Itziar; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2017-09-15

    Bioremediation, based on the use of microorganisms to break down pollutants, can be very effective at reducing soil pollution. But the climate change we are now experiencing is bound to have an impact on bioremediation performance, since the activity and degrading abilities of soil microorganisms are dependent on a series of environmental parameters which are themselves being altered by climate change, such as soil temperature, moisture, amount of root exudates, etc. Many climate-induced effects on soil microorganisms occur indirectly through changes in plant growth and physiology derived from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperatures, the alteration of precipitation patterns, etc., with a concomitant effect on rhizoremediation performance (i.e. the plant-assisted microbial degradation of pollutants in the rhizosphere). But these effects are extremely complex and mediated by processes such as acclimation and adaptation. Besides, soil microorganisms form complex networks of interactions with a myriad of organisms from many taxonomic groups which will also be affected by climate change, further complicating data interpretation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Alterations in cardiac sarcolemmal Ca/sup 2 +/ pump activity during diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Heyliger, C.E.; Prakash, A.; McNeill, J.

    1987-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with a primary cardiomyopathy. The mechanisms responsible for this heart disease are not clear, but an alteration in myocardial Ca/sup 2 +/ transport is believed to be involved in its development. Even though sarcolemma plays a crucial role in cellular Ca/sup 2 +/ transport, little appears to be known about its Ca/sup 2 +/ transporting capability in the diabetic myocardium. In this regard, the authors have examined the status of the cardiac sarcolemmal Ca/sup 2 +/ pump during diabetes mellitus. Purified sarcolemmal membranes were isolated from male Wistar diabetic rat hearts 8 wk after streptozotocin injection. Ca/sup 2 +/ pump activity assessed by measuring its Ca/sup 2 +/-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase and Ca/sup 2 +/-uptake ability in the absence and presence of calmodulin was significantly depressed in the diabetic myocardium relative to controls. These results did not appear to have been influenced by the minimal sarcoplasmic reticular and mitochondrial contamination of this membrane preparation. Hence, it appears that the sarcolemmal Ca/sup 2 +/ pump is defective in the diabetic myocardium and may be involved in the altered Ca/sup 2 +/ transport of the heart during diabetes mellitus.

  3. Inhibition of metalloproteinase activity in FANCA is linked to altered oxygen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Silvia; Capanni, Cristina; Tognotti, Danika; Bottega, Roberta; Columbaro, Marta; Dufour, Carlo; Cappelli, Enrico; Degan, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    Bone marrow (BM) failure, increased risk of myelodysplastic syndrome, acute leukaemia and solid tumors, endocrinopathies and congenital abnormalities are the major clinical problems in Fanconi anemia patients (FA). Chromosome instability and DNA repair defects are the cellular characteristics used for the clinical diagnosis. However, these biological defects are not sufficient to explain all the clinical phenotype of FA patients. The known defects are structural alteration in cell cytoskeleton, altered structural organization for intermediate filaments, nuclear lamina, and mitochondria. These are associated with different expression and/or maturation of the structural proteins vimentin, mitofilin, and lamin A/C suggesting the involvement of metalloproteinases (MPs). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are involved in normal physiological processes such as human skeletal tissue development, maturation, and hematopoietic reconstitution after bone marrow suppression. Current observations upon the eventual role of MPs in FA cells are largely inconclusive. We evaluated the overall MPs activity in FA complementation group A (FANCA) cells by exposing them to the antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and resveratrol (RV). This work supports the hypothesis that treatment of Fanconi patients with antioxidants may be important in FA therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  4. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acrylamide alters glycogen content and enzyme activities in the liver of juvenile rat.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Renata; Rajkovic, Vesna; Koledin, Ivana; Matavulj, Milica

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is spontaneously formed in carbohydrate-rich food during high-temperature processing. It is neurotoxic and potentially cancer causing chemical. Its harmful effects on the liver, especially in a young organism, are still to be elucidated. The study aimed to examine main liver histology, its glycogen content and enzyme activities in juvenile rats treated with 25 or 50mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Liver samples were fixed in formalin, routinely processed for paraffin embedding, sectioning and histochemical staining. Examination of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections showed an increase in the volume of hepatocytes, their nuclei and cytoplasm in both AA-treated groups compared to the control. In Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained sections in low-dose group was noticed glycogen reduction, while in high-dose group was present its accumulation compared to the control, respectively. Serum analysis showed increased activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and decreased activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in both AA-treated groups, while the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was increased in low-dose, but decreased in high-dose group compared to the control, respectively. Present results suggest a prominent hepatotoxic potential of AA which might alter the microstructural features and functional status in hepatocytes of immature liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses of Electromyogram Activity in Adductor Longus Muscle of Rats to the Altered Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Takashi; Wang, Xiao Dong; Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Higo, Yoko; Nakai, Naoya; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Gyotoku, Jyunichirou; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Ogura, Akihiko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Responses of electromyogram (EMG) activities in the rostral and caudal regions of adductor longus (AL) muscle to altered gravity levels during parabolic flight of a jet airplane, as well as hindlimb suspension, were investigated in adult rats. Tonic EMGs in both regions were noted when the rats were exposed to hyper-G, as well as 1-G. The hip joints were adducted and the sedental quadrupedal position was maintained at these G levels. However, the EMG activities in these regions decreased and became phasic, when the hip joints were abducted and extended backward in μ-G environment. Such changes of joint angles caused passive shortening of sarcomeres only in the caudal region of AL. Atrophy and shift toward fast-twitch type were noted in fibers of the caudal region after 16-day unloading. Although fiber transformation was also induced in the rostral region, no atrophy was seen in fast-twitch fibers. The data may suggest that the atrophy and shift of phenotype caused by gravitational unloading in fibers of the caudal region may be related to the decrease in the neural and mechanical activities. Fiber type transformation toward fast-twitch type may be also related to the change of muscle activity from tonic to phasic patterns, which are the typical characteristics of fast-twitch muscle. However, the responses to unloading in fibers of rostral region were not related to the reduction of mechanical load.

  7. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Cardoso, Mariane R; Jeremias, Isabela C; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Freitas, Karolina V; Antonini, Rafaela; Scaini, Giselli; Rezin, Gislaine T; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-09-01

    Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  8. Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Pineda, Marina; Cabello-Lobato, María J.; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando; Prado, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The structural organization of chromosomes is essential for their correct function and dynamics during the cell cycle. The assembly of DNA into chromatin provides the substrate for topoisomerases and condensins, which introduce the different levels of superhelical torsion required for DNA metabolism. In particular, Top2 and condensin are directly involved in both the resolution of precatenanes that form during replication and the formation of the intramolecular loop that detects tension at the centromeric chromatin during chromosome biorientation. Here we show that histone depletion activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and impairs sister chromatid decatenation, leading to chromosome mis-segregation and lethality in the absence of the SAC. We demonstrate that histone depletion impairs chromosome biorientation and activates the Aurora-dependent pathway, which detects tension problems at the kinetochore. Interestingly, SAC activation is suppressed by the absence of Top2 and Smc2, an essential component of condensin. Indeed, smc2-8 suppresses catenanes accumulation, mitotic arrest and growth defects induced by histone depletion at semi-permissive temperature. Remarkably, SAC activation by histone depletion is associated with condensin-mediated alterations of the centromeric chromatin. Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. PMID:25300489

  9. Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered frontolimbic neurobiological activity during wakefulness in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Banihashemi, Layla; Herringa, Ryan J.; Kolko, David J.; Germain, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment can disturb brain development, and subsequently lead to adverse socioemotional and mental health problems across the lifespan. The long-term association between childhood maltreatment and resting-wake brain activity during adulthood is unknown and was examined in the current study. Forty one medically stable and medication-free military veterans (M=29.31±6.01 years, 78% male) completed a battery of clinical assessments and had [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography neuroimaging scans during quiet wakefulness. After statistically adjusting for later-life trauma and mental health problems, childhood maltreatment was negatively associated with brain activity within a-priori defined regions that included the left orbital frontal cortex and left hippocampus. Childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with increased and decreased brain activity within six additional whole-brain clusters that included frontal, parietal-temporal, cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain regions. Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered neural activity in adulthood within regions that are involved in executive functioning and cognitive control, socioemotional processes, autonomic functions, and sleep/wake regulation. This study provides support for taking a lifespan developmental approach to understanding the effects of early-life maltreatment on later-life neurobiology, socioemotional functioning, and mental health. PMID:26198818

  10. Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered frontolimbic neurobiological activity during wakefulness in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Insana, Salvatore P; Banihashemi, Layla; Herringa, Ryan J; Kolko, David J; Germain, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Childhood maltreatment can disturb brain development and subsequently lead to adverse socioemotional and mental health problems across the life span. The long-term association between childhood maltreatment and resting-wake brain activity during adulthood is unknown and was examined in the current study. Forty-one medically stable and medication-free military veterans (M = 29.31 ± 6.01 years, 78% male) completed a battery of clinical assessments and had [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography neuroimaging scans during quiet wakefulness. After statistically adjusting for later-life trauma and mental health problems, childhood maltreatment was negatively associated with brain activity within a priori defined regions that included the left orbital frontal cortex and left hippocampus. Childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with increased and decreased brain activity within six additional whole-brain clusters that included the frontal, parietal-temporal, cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain regions. Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered neural activity in adulthood within regions that are involved in executive functioning and cognitive control, socioemotional processes, autonomic functions, and sleep/wake regulation. This study provides support for taking a life span developmental approach to understanding the effects of early-life maltreatment on later-life neurobiology, socioemotional functioning, and mental health.

  11. Surface Alteration of Activated Carbon for Detoxification of Copper (ii) from Industrial Effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhutto, Sadaf; Khan, M. Nasiruddin

    2013-04-01

    The low-cost modified activated carbons were prepared from Thar and Lakhra (Pakistan) coals by activation with sulfuric acid and further modified with citric, tartaric and acetic acids for the selective adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The original carbon obtained from activated Thar and Lakhra coals at pH 3.0 displayed significant adsorption capacity for lead and insignificant capacity values (0.880 and 0.830 mgṡg-1) for copper. However, after modification with citric, tartaric and acetic acid the copper adsorption capacities enhanced in the range of 5.56-21.85 and 6.05-44.61 times, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used to elucidate the observed sorption phenomena. The isotherm equilibrium data was well fitted by the Langmuir and sufficiently fitted to the Freundlich models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) inferred that the investigated adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, it was concluded that the surface alteration with citric and tartaric acid, Thar and Lakhra activated carbons had significant potential for selective removal of copper(II) from industrial wastewater.

  12. Albinism-Causing Mutations in Recombinant Human Tyrosinase Alter Intrinsic Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dolinska, Monika B.; Kovaleva, Elena; Backlund, Peter; Wingfield, Paul T.; Brooks, Brian P.; Sergeev, Yuri V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tyrosinase (TYR) catalyzes the rate-limiting, first step in melanin production and its gene (TYR) is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1), an autosomal recessive cause of childhood blindness. Patients with reduced TYR activity are classified as OCA1B; some OCA1B mutations are temperature-sensitive. Therapeutic research for OCA1 has been hampered, in part, by the absence of purified, active, recombinant wild-type and mutant human enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (residues 19–469) and two OCA1B related temperature-sensitive mutants, R422Q and R422W were expressed in insect cells and produced in T. ni larvae. The short trans-membrane fragment was deleted to avoid potential protein insolubility, while preserving all other functional features of the enzymes. Purified tyrosinase was obtained with a yield of >1 mg per 10 g of larval biomass. The protein was a monomeric glycoenzyme with maximum enzyme activity at 37°C and neutral pH. The two purified mutants when compared to the wild-type protein were less active and temperature sensitive. These differences are associated with conformational perturbations in secondary structure. Conclusions/Significance The intramelanosomal domains of recombinant wild-type and mutant human tyrosinases are soluble monomeric glycoproteins with activities which mirror their in vivo function. This advance allows for the structure – function analyses of different mutant TYR proteins and correlation with their corresponding human phenotypes; it also provides an important tool to discover drugs that may improve tyrosinase activity and treat OCA1. PMID:24392141

  13. Albinism-causing mutations in recombinant human tyrosinase alter intrinsic enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Dolinska, Monika B; Kovaleva, Elena; Backlund, Peter; Wingfield, Paul T; Brooks, Brian P; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase (TYR) catalyzes the rate-limiting, first step in melanin production and its gene (TYR) is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1), an autosomal recessive cause of childhood blindness. Patients with reduced TYR activity are classified as OCA1B; some OCA1B mutations are temperature-sensitive. Therapeutic research for OCA1 has been hampered, in part, by the absence of purified, active, recombinant wild-type and mutant human enzymes. The intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (residues 19-469) and two OCA1B related temperature-sensitive mutants, R422Q and R422W were expressed in insect cells and produced in T. ni larvae. The short trans-membrane fragment was deleted to avoid potential protein insolubility, while preserving all other functional features of the enzymes. Purified tyrosinase was obtained with a yield of >1 mg per 10 g of larval biomass. The protein was a monomeric glycoenzyme with maximum enzyme activity at 37°C and neutral pH. The two purified mutants when compared to the wild-type protein were less active and temperature sensitive. These differences are associated with conformational perturbations in secondary structure. The intramelanosomal domains of recombinant wild-type and mutant human tyrosinases are soluble monomeric glycoproteins with activities which mirror their in vivo function. This advance allows for the structure - function analyses of different mutant TYR proteins and correlation with their corresponding human phenotypes; it also provides an important tool to discover drugs that may improve tyrosinase activity and treat OCA1.

  14. Alterations of metabolic activity in human osteoarthritic osteoblasts by lipid peroxidation end product 4-hydroxynonenal

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qin; Vaillancourt, France; Côté, Véronique; Fahmi, Hassan; Lavigne, Patrick; Afif, Hassan; Di Battista, John A; Fernandes, Julio C; Benderdour, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation end product, is produced abundantly in osteoarthritic (OA) articular tissues, but its role in bone metabolism is ill-defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in OA osteoblast metabolism are attributed, in part, to increased levels of HNE. Our data showed that HNE/protein adduct levels were higher in OA osteoblasts compared to normal and when OA osteoblasts were treated with H2O2. Investigating osteoblast markers, we found that HNE increased osteocalcin and type I collagen synthesis but inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. We next examined the effects of HNE on the signaling pathways controlling cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in view of their putative role in OA pathophysiology. HNE dose-dependently decreased basal and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced IL-6 expression while inducing COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. In a similar pattern, HNE induces changes in osteoblast markers as well as PGE2 and IL-6 release in normal osteoblasts. Upon examination of signaling pathways involved in PGE2 and IL-6 production, we found that HNE-induced PGE2 release was abrogated by SB202190, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. Overexpression of p38 MAPK enhanced HNE-induced PGE2 release. In this connection, HNE markedly increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNK2, and transcription factors (CREB-1, ATF-2) with a concomitant increase in the DNA-binding activity of CRE/ATF. Transfection experiments with a human COX-2 promoter construct revealed that the CRE element (-58/-53 bp) was essential for HNE-induced COX-2 promoter activity. However, HNE inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα and subsequently the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB. Overexpression of IKKα increased TNF-α-induced IL-6 production. This induction was inhibited when TNF-α was combined with HNE. These findings suggest that HNE may exert multiple

  15. Secondary structure of amyloid beta peptide correlates with neurotoxic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Simmons, L K; May, P C; Tomaselli, K J; Rydel, R E; Fuson, K S; Brigham, E F; Wright, S; Lieberburg, I; Becker, G W; Brems, D N

    1994-03-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (A beta), the major protein constituent of senile plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is believed to facilitate the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in the latter stages of this disease. Early attempts to characterize the structure-activity relationship of A beta toxicity in vitro were compromised by the inability to reproducibly elicit A beta-dependent toxicity across different lots of chemically equivalent peptides. In this study we used CD spectroscopy to demonstrate that A beta secondary structure is an important determinant of A beta toxicity. Solubilized A beta was maximally toxic when the peptide adopted a beta-sheet conformation. Three of the four A beta lots tested had a random coil conformation and were weakly toxic or inactive, whereas the single A beta lot exhibiting toxic activity at low peptide concentrations had significant beta-sheet structure. Incubation of the weakly toxic A beta lots in aqueous stock solutions for several days before use induced a time-dependent conformational transition from random coil to beta-sheet and increased A beta toxicity in three different toxicity assays. Furthermore, the secondary structure of preincubated A beta was dependent upon peptide concentration and pH, so that beta-sheet structures were attenuated when peptide solutions were diluted or buffered at neutral and basic pH. Our data could explain some of the variable toxic activity that has been associated with A beta in the past and provide additional support for the hypothesis that A beta can have a causal role in the molecular neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  17. Cyber Dating Abuse Victimization Among Secondary School Students From a Lifestyle-Routine Activities Theory Perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2016-02-12

    Controlling one's romantic partner through digital media is a form of cyber dating abuse. To design effective educational campaigns, a deeper understanding of how some young people become victim of this type of abuse within their romantic relationships is warranted. This study is the first to adopt a lifestyle-routine activities theory perspective toward online romantic partner monitoring, by looking at whether secondary school students' risky digital lifestyle and their digital media use are linked to a higher chance of being controlled by a romantic partner, taking into account gender, age, and the length of the romantic relationship. The data of 466 secondary school students (71.0% girls, n = 331) between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.99 years; SD = 0.92) who were in a romantic relationship are analyzed. Linear regression analysis suggests that engagement in online risk behavior, the length of the romantic relationship, engagement in sexting with the romantic partner, and the amount of social networking site use were significantly linked to victimization of digital controlling behavior. The results are important to practitioners, as they indicate that messages about safe Internet use should be incorporated in prevention and educational campaigns with regard to cyber dating abuse. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. NF-Y activates genes of metabolic pathways altered in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Paolo; Chiaramonte, Maria Luisa; Lorenzo, Mariangela; Hartley, John A; Hochhauser, Daniel; Gnesutta, Nerina; Mantovani, Roberto; Imbriano, Carol; Dolfini, Diletta

    2016-01-12

    The trimeric transcription factor NF-Y binds to the CCAAT box, an element enriched in promoters of genes overexpressed in tumors. Previous studies on the NF-Y regulome identified the general term metabolism as significantly enriched. We dissect here in detail the targeting of metabolic genes by integrating analysis of NF-Y genomic binding and profilings after inactivation of NF-Y subunits in different cell types. NF-Y controls de novo biosynthetic pathways of lipids, teaming up with the master SREBPs regulators. It activates glycolytic genes, but, surprisingly, is neutral or represses mitochondrial respiratory genes. NF-Y targets the SOCG (Serine, One Carbon, Glycine) and Glutamine pathways, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and purines. Specific cancer-driving nodes are generally under NF-Y control. Altogether, these data delineate a coherent strategy to promote expression of metabolic genes fuelling anaerobic energy production and other anabolic pathways commonly altered in cancer cells.

  19. Alterations in spontaneous activity of the isolated frog spinal cord in Calcium-free environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Kudo, Y; Fukuda, H

    1978-04-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity of the isolated frog spinal cord was examined in Ca2+-free environment. Spontaneous discharges from the ventral root altered in four distinguishable steps. The first step was an immediate increase in the rate of spontaneous discharges and the second was a gradual decrease. The third was the occurrence of rhythmical bursts, and the last, the appearance of continuous firing. The rhythmical bursts could be depressed by the addition of metabolic inhibitors (ouabain or dinitrophenol in a concentration of 5 x 10(-5) M) as well as of Ca2+-chelating agents (EDTA or EGTA in a concentration of 10(-3) M). Our results suggest that the occurrence of the rhythmical bursts requires a metabolic pumping process to redistribute Na+ and K+ across the membrane and a small amount of Ca2+ for transmitter secretion.

  20. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of secondary metabolites of lichens against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pompilio, Arianna; Pomponio, Stefano; Di Vincenzo, Valentina; Crocetta, Valentina; Nicoletti, Marcello; Piovano, Marisa; Garbarino, Juan A; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Three secondary metabolites of lichens - usnic acid, atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid - were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against three strains each of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from cystic fibrosis patients. Antibacterial activity was assessed by broth microdilution, while antibiofilm activity was evaluated by spectrophotometry or viable count. Usnic acid was significantly more active than atranorin against planktonic cells, while fumarprotocetraric acid exhibited no activity. Atranorin was the most effective in counteracting adhesion to polystyrene, although usnic acid was more active against MRSA. Usnic acid and atranorin showed comparable activity against biofilm formation, although atranorin was more active against MRSA. Usnic acid was significantly more active than atranorin against preformed biofilms. Secondary metabolites of lichens may be considered to be 'lead compounds' for the development of novel molecules for the treatment of S. aureus infections in cystic fibrosis patients.

  1. Altered biologic activities of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures after microbial reductive dechlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, M A; Ganey, P E; Quensen, J F; Madhukar, B V; Chou, K; Giesy, J P; Fischer, L J; Boyd, S A

    1998-01-01

    The reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by anaerobic bacteria has recently been established as an important environmental fate of these compounds. This process removes chlorines directly from the biphenyl ring with replacement by hydrogen, resulting in a product mixture in which the average number of chlorines per biphenyl is reduced. In this study, dechlorination of commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors 1242 and 1254) by microorganisms eluted from PCB-contaminated sediments of the River Raisin (Michigan) and Silver Lake (Massachusetts) caused a depletion in the proportion of highly chlorinated PCB congeners and an accumulation of lesser-chlorinated congeners. Dechlorination occurred primarily at the meta and, to a much lesser extent, para positions of biphenyl. The concentrations of the coplanar congeners including 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, the most potent dioxinlike congener, were significantly lowered by reductive dechlorination. Microbial reductive dechlorination of commercial PCB mixtures caused a substantial reduction in biologic activities in several instances. It significantly lowered or eliminated the inhibitory effects of Aroclors on fertilization of mouse gametes in vitro. Similarly, the dechlorinated product mixtures had substantially lower ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction potencies and showed less ability to induce activating protein 1 transcription factor activity as compared to the unaltered Aroclors. In other assays the same dechlorinated product mixtures demonstrated biologic activities similar to the nondechlorinated Aroclors, including the ability of PCB mixtures to stimulate insulin secretion and cause neutrophil activation. The data presented here establish that the biologic activities of commercial PCB mixtures are altered by microbial reductive dechlorination and that an assessment of their toxic potential requires an array of tests that include the different mechanisms associated with PCBs. Images Figure 2

  2. Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (ϕ), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

  3. Altered dopaminergic profiles: implications for the regulation of voluntary physical activity.

    PubMed

    Knab, Amy M; Bowen, Robert S; Hamilton, Alicia T; Gulledge, Alyssa A; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2009-12-01

    The biological regulating factors of physical activity in animals are not well understood. This study investigated differences in the central mRNA expression of seven dopamine genes (Drd1, Drd2, Drd3, Drd4, Drd5, TH, and DAT) between high active C57/LJ (n=17) male mice and low active C3H/HeJ (n=20) male mice, and between mice with access to a running wheel and without running wheel access within strain. Mice were housed with running wheels interfaced with a computer for 21 days with distance and duration recorded every 24 h. On day 21, the striatum and nucleus accumbens were removed during the active period (approximately 9 pm) for dopaminergic analysis. On average, the C57L/J mice with wheels ran significantly farther (10.25+/-1.37 km/day vs. 0.01+/-0.09 km/day, p<0.001), longer (329.73+/-30.52 min/day vs. 7.81+/-6.32 min/day, p<0.001), and faster (31.27+/-3.13 m/min vs. 11.81+/-1.08 m/min, p<0.001) than the C3H/HeJ mice with wheels over the 21 day period. No differences in gene expression were found between mice in either strain with wheels and those without wheels suggesting that access to running wheels did not alter dopaminergic expression. In contrast, relative expression for two dopamine genes was significantly lower in the C57L/J mice compared to the C3H/HeJ mice. These results indicate that decreased dopaminergic functioning is correlated with increased activity levels in C57L/J mice and suggests that D1-like receptors as well as tyrosine hydroxylase (an indicator of dopamine production), but not D2-like receptors may be associated with the regulation of physical activity in inbred mice.

  4. Altered testicular microsomal steroidogenic enzyme activities in rats with lifetime exposure to soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    McVey, Mark J; Cooke, Gerard M; Curran, Ivan H A

    2004-12-01

    Androgen production in the testis is carried out by the Leydig cells, which convert cholesterol into androgens. Previously, isoflavones have been shown to affect serum androgen levels and steroidogenic enzyme activities. In this study, the effects of lifelong exposure to dietary soy isoflavones on testicular microsomal steroidogenic enzyme activities were examined in the rat. F1 male rats were obtained from a multi-generational study where the parental generation was fed diets containing alcohol-washed soy protein supplemented with increasing amounts of Novasoy, a commercially available isoflavone supplement. A control group was maintained on a soy-free casein protein-based diet (AIN93G). The diets were designed to approximate human consumption levels and ranged from 0 to 1046.6 mg isoflavones/kg pelleted feed, encompassing exposures representative of North American and Asian diets as well as infant fed soy-based formula. Activities of testicular 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), P450c17 (CYP17), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) were assayed on post natal day (PND) 28, 70, 120, 240 and 360 while 5alpha-reducatase was assayed on PND 28. At PND 28, 3beta-HSD activity was elevated by approximately 50% in rats receiving 1046.6 mg total isoflavones/kg feed compared to those on the casein only diet. A similar increase in activity was observed for CYP17 in rats receiving 235.6 mg total isoflavones/kg feed, a level representative of infant exposure through formula, compared to those receiving 0mg isoflavones from the casein diet. These results demonstrate that rats fed a mixture of dietary soy isoflavones showed significantly altered enzyme activity profiles during development at PND 28 as a result of early exposure to isoflavones at levels obtainable by humans.

  5. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław; Popiołek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Mika, Joanna; Wędzony, Krzysztof; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression) as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test), the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive) in 3-month-old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4) and beneficial (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)) phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1–2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like) disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats. Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood. PMID

  6. Activity-Based Anorexia Alters the Expression of BDNF Transcripts in the Mesocorticolimbic Reward Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Emily V.; Klenotich, Stephanie J.; McMurray, Matthew S.; Dulawa, Stephanie C

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetitive behavior. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm is an animal model in which rodents exposed to both running wheels and scheduled feeding develop aspects of AN including paradoxical hypophagia, dramatic weight loss, and hyperactivity, while animals exposed to only one condition maintain normal body weight. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal plasticity, is reduced in the serum of AN patients, and is a known regulator of feeding and weight maintenance. We assessed the effects of scheduled feeding, running wheel access, or both on the expression of BDNF transcripts within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. We also assessed the expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) to explore the specificity of effects on BDNF within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Scheduled feeding increased the levels of both transcripts in the hippocampus (HPC), increased NCAM1 mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and decreased BDNF mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, wheel running increased BDNF mRNA expression in the VTA. No changes in either transcript were observed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, no changes in either transcript were induced by the combined scheduled feeding and wheel access condition. These data indicate that scheduled feeding or wheel running alter BDNF and NCAM1 expression levels in specific regions of the mesocorticolimbic pathway. These findings contribute to our current knowledge of the molecular alterations induced by ABA and may help elucidate possible mechanisms of AN pathology. PMID:27861553

  7. Activity-Based Anorexia Alters the Expression of BDNF Transcripts in the Mesocorticolimbic Reward Circuit.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emily V; Klenotich, Stephanie J; McMurray, Matthew S; Dulawa, Stephanie C

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetitive behavior. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm is an animal model in which rodents exposed to both running wheels and scheduled feeding develop aspects of AN including paradoxical hypophagia, dramatic weight loss, and hyperactivity, while animals exposed to only one condition maintain normal body weight. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal plasticity, is reduced in the serum of AN patients, and is a known regulator of feeding and weight maintenance. We assessed the effects of scheduled feeding, running wheel access, or both on the expression of BDNF transcripts within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. We also assessed the expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) to explore the specificity of effects on BDNF within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Scheduled feeding increased the levels of both transcripts in the hippocampus (HPC), increased NCAM1 mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and decreased BDNF mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, wheel running increased BDNF mRNA expression in the VTA. No changes in either transcript were observed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, no changes in either transcript were induced by the combined scheduled feeding and wheel access condition. These data indicate that scheduled feeding or wheel running alter BDNF and NCAM1 expression levels in specific regions of the mesocorticolimbic pathway. These findings contribute to our current knowledge of the molecular alterations induced by ABA and may help elucidate possible mechanisms of AN pathology.

  8. Comparative evaluation of two Trichoderma harzianum strains for major secondary metabolite production and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitendra; Rana, Virendra S; Sati, Om P; Walia, S

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to identify the major secondary metabolite, produced by two Trichoderma harzianum strains (T-4 and T-5) with their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi using poison food technique. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol gradually. Chromatographic separation of ethyl acetate extract of T. harzianum (T-4) resulted in the isolation and identification of palmitic acid (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (2), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), 2(5H)-furanone (4), stigmasterol (5) and β-sitosterol (6), while T. harzianum (T-5) gave palmitic acid (1), 1-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (7), δ-decanolactone (8), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), ergosterol (9), harzianopyridone (10) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (11) as major metabolites. Among compounds screened for antifungal activity, compound 10 was found to be most active (EC50 35.9-50.2 μg mL(-1)). In conclusion, the present investigation provided significant information about antifungal activity and compounds isolated from two different strains of T. harzianum obtained from two different Himalayan locations.

  9. Cloud condensation nucleation activity of secondary organic aerosols formed from the oxidation of alkenes and diiodomethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Faulhaber, A.; Prenni, A. J.; Carrico, C. M.; Sullivan, R. C.; Demott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Recent measurements have shown that marine aerosol contains a significant fraction of organic compounds. The sources for these compounds are not yet completely understood, but are thought to be a mix of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Reactive alkenes with low carbon numbers (C5 and C6) and halogenated hydrocarbons emitted from phytoplankton are commonly suggested precursors. These compounds can contribute to new particle formation events and can lead to subsequent growth into the accumulation mode size range. We conducted measurements of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei activity of SOA that was formed from the oxidation of linear, branched, and cyclic alkenes, as well as from diiodomethane. Aerosol forming reactions were carried out in a PTFE environmental chamber, involving oxidation of the precursors mostly with O3 and, for a select number of precursors, oxidation with OH in the absence of NOx. We also performed experiments on single component aerosols generated from the atomization of aqueous solutions, targeting polyalcohols commonly associated with isoprene oxidation products. Ice nucleation experiments were performed only for the O3 reactions and ice nuclei were not observed in detectable quantities for this subset of systems. From our experiments we found that CCN activity generally decreases with the precursor carbon number. When expressed as hygroscopicity parameter (kappa), CCN activity ranged from kappa ~ 0.15 to kappa 0, spanning the range from moderately CCN active to CCN inactive at atmospherically relevant sizes and supersaturations, respectively.

  10. Antiproliferative, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Lichen Xanthoria parietina and Its Secondary Metabolite Parietin

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Loppi, Stefano; Di Santi, Annalisa; Nebbioso, Angela; Sorbo, Sergio; Conte, Barbara; Paoli, Luca; De Ruberto, Francesca; Molinari, Anna Maria; Altucci, Lucia; Bontempo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable natural resources used for centuries throughout the world as medicine, food, fodder, perfume, spices and dyes, as well as for other miscellaneous purposes. This study investigates the antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (Linnaeus) Theodor Fries and its major secondary metabolite, parietin. The extract and parietin were tested for antimicrobial activity against nine American Type Culture Collection standard and clinically isolated bacterial strains, and three fungal strains. Both showed strong antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains and matched clinical isolates, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus from standard and clinical sources. Among the fungi tested, Rhizoctonia solani was the most sensitive. The antiproliferative effects of the extract and parietin were also investigated in human breast cancer cells. The extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis, both effects being accompanied by modulation of expression of cell cycle regulating genes such as p16, p27, cyclin D1 and cyclin A. It also mediated apoptosis by activating extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways, modulating Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and inducing Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) phosphorylation. Our results indicate that Xanthoria parietina is a major potential source of antimicrobial and anticancer substances. PMID:25860944

  11. Antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the lichen Xanthoria parietina and its secondary metabolite parietin.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Loppi, Stefano; Di Santi, Annalisa; Nebbioso, Angela; Sorbo, Sergio; Conte, Barbara; Paoli, Luca; De Ruberto, Francesca; Molinari, Anna Maria; Altucci, Lucia; Bontempo, Paola

    2015-04-09

    Lichens are valuable natural resources used for centuries throughout the world as medicine, food, fodder, perfume, spices and dyes, as well as for other miscellaneous purposes. This study investigates the antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (Linnaeus) Theodor Fries and its major secondary metabolite, parietin. The extract and parietin were tested for antimicrobial activity against nine American Type Culture Collection standard and clinically isolated bacterial strains, and three fungal strains. Both showed strong antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains and matched clinical isolates, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus from standard and clinical sources. Among the fungi tested, Rhizoctonia solani was the most sensitive. The antiproliferative effects of the extract and parietin were also investigated in human breast cancer cells. The extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis, both effects being accompanied by modulation of expression of cell cycle regulating genes such as p16, p27, cyclin D1 and cyclin A. It also mediated apoptosis by activating extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways, modulating Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and inducing Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) phosphorylation. Our results indicate that Xanthoria parietina is a major potential source of antimicrobial and anticancer substances.

  12. Arginine exposure alters ectonucleotidase activities and morphology of zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Fazenda, Lidiane; Nazario, Luiza Reali; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Da Silva, Rosane Souza; Wyse, Angela Terezinha; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2013-02-01

    Hyperargininemia is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) characterized by tissue accumulation of arginine (Arg). Mental retardation and other neurological features are common symptoms in hyperargininemic patients. Considering purinergic signaling has a crucial role from the early stages of development and underlying mechanisms of this disease are poorly established, we investigated the effect of Arg administration on locomotor activity, morphological alterations, and extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis in larvae and adult zebrafish. We showed that 0.1 mM Arg was unable to promote changes in locomotor activity. In addition, 7-day-post-fertilization (dpf) larvae treated with Arg demonstrated a decreased body size. Arg exposure (0.1 mM) promoted an increase in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis when compared to control group. These findings demonstrated that Arg might affect morphological parameters and ectonucleotidase activities in zebrafish larvae, suggesting that purinergic system is a target for neurotoxic effects induced by Arg. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant adaptation to extreme environments: the example of Cistus salviifolius of an active geothermal alteration field.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Bottega, Stefania; Forino, Laura M C; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Spanò, Carmelina

    2014-02-01

    Cistus salviifolius is able to colonise one of the most extreme active geothermal alteration fields in terms of both soil acidity and hot temperatures. The analyses of morpho-functional and physiological characters, investigated in leaves of plants growing around fumaroles (G leaves) and in leaves developed by the same plants after transfer into growth chamber under controlled conditions (C leaves) evidenced the main adaptive traits developed by this pioneer plant in a stressful environment. These traits involved leaf shape and thickness, mesophyll compactness, stomatal and trichome densities, chloroplast size. Changes of functional and physiological traits concerned dry matter content, peroxide and lipid peroxidation, leaf area, relative water and pigment contents. A higher reducing power and antioxidant enzymatic activity were typical of G leaves. Though the high levels of stress parameters, G leaves showed stress-induced specific morphogenic and physiological responses putatively involved in their surviving in active geothermal habitats. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Activating Akt1 mutations alter DNA double strand break repair and radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Oeck, S.; Al-Refae, K.; Riffkin, H.; Wiel, G.; Handrick, R.; Klein, D.; Iliakis, G.; Jendrossek, V.

    2017-01-01

    The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and Akt1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts in vitro, the classical constitutively active membrane-targeted myrAkt1 mutant had the opposite effects. Interestingly, DNA-PKcs directly phosphorylated Akt1 at S473 in an in vitro kinase assay but not vice-versa. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PKcs or Akt restored radiosensitivity in tumour cells expressing Akt1-E17K or Akt1-TDSD. In conclusion, Akt1-mediated radioresistance depends on its activation state and nuclear localization and is accessible to pharmacologic inhibition. PMID:28209968

  15. Alteration of growth and metabolic activity of cells in the presence of propranolol and metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Lodowska, Jolanta; Wilczok, Adam; Tam, Irena; Cwalina, Beata; Swiatkowska, Longina; Wilczok, Tadeusz

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms of action at the cellular level of a variety of drugs and xenobiotics may be assessed using Chlorella vulgaris cells. Synchronous culture, which consists of cells at the same phase of development, provides the most convenient model for studying processes at the cellular level. Stability of metabolic activity of synchronously growing cells is achieved by conducting cell culturing under strictly controlled conditions. The aim of the present study was to determine to what extent propranolol and metoprolol alter the Chlorella vulgaris metabolic activity, expressed by the number of progeny cells, the culture absorbance at lambda = 680 nm and the amount of selected photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, antheraxanthin, lutein, violaxanthin and beta-carotene). Three different concentrations (10(-4), 10(-5) and 10(-6) M) of propranolol and metoprolol were administered to the Chlorella vulgaris cultures. It has been demonstrated that the higher the propranolol and metoprolol concentrations (from 10(-6) M to 10(-4) M) the lower the number of progeny cells in the cultures, expressed by the lower values of division coefficient. Both the propranolol and metoprolol caused a decrease in the photosynthetic pigments production in the mother cells. This effect was more important in the propranolol-treated cultures. The higher values of photosynthetic pigments concentrations in the progeny cells grown under the presence of a drug indicate that both the drugs tested influence mainly the cell growth and in a lower manner--their metabolic activity, expressed by the production of photosynthetic pigments.

  16. Activating Akt1 mutations alter DNA double strand break repair and radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Oeck, S; Al-Refae, K; Riffkin, H; Wiel, G; Handrick, R; Klein, D; Iliakis, G; Jendrossek, V

    2017-02-17

    The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and