Science.gov

Sample records for aluminium hydroxide formulation

  1. Stabilization of tetanus toxoid formulation containing aluminium hydroxide adjuvant against agitation.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Vipul A; Jain, Nishant K; Roy, Ipsita

    2012-02-28

    The aggregation of tetanus toxoid leads to reduced bioavailability of the vaccine and failure of immunization programmes in many parts of the globe. One of the main reasons for denaturation and aggregation of tetanus toxoid formulations is agitation of the protein during transport. We have identified that agitation leads to collapse of the gel matrix of aluminium hydroxide which is used as an adjuvant in these preparations. This results in desorption of the toxoid from the matrix, which then loses its antigenicity due to agitation-induced denaturation of the protein. We show that incorporation of some compatible osmolytes like sorbitol, glucose and arginine, but not trehalose, is able to protect the adjuvant matrix from degradation, and retain the integrity of the vaccine preparation in terms of its antigenicity.

  2. Stabilization of tetanus toxoid formulation containing aluminium hydroxide adjuvant against freeze-thawing.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Vipul A; Jain, Nishant K; Roy, Ipsita

    2011-07-29

    Exposure to subzero temperature leads to loss of vaccine potency. This can happen due to degradation of adjuvant surface and/or inactivation of the antigen. When adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide and subjected to freeze-thawing, tetanus toxoid was desorbed from the gel matrix and the preparation was found to lose its antigenicity. Analyses showed that the gel particles were denatured after freezing. When freeze-thawing was carried out in the presence of glucose, sorbitol and arginine, the degradation of gel particles was inhibited. A higher fraction of the protein could be retained on the gel. However, the antigenicity of these preparations was quite low. In the presence of trehalose, the protein could be partially retained on aluminium hydroxide. Being a cryoprotectant, trehalose was also able to inhibit the freezing-induced denaturation of tetanus toxoid, which resulted in retention of antigenicity of the adjuvanted toxoid.

  3. Antiasthmatic Role of "Pentapala -04" a Herbal Formulation Against Ova Albumin and Aluminium HydroxideInduced LungDamage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, D Srinivasa; Jayaraaj, Indira A; Jayaraaj, R

    2005-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by proximal dysphasia and wheeze due to increased resistance to the flow of air through the narrowed bronchi. Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in the world and epidemiological studies suggest that its prevalence, severity and mortality are rising at a time when mortality from other common treatable conditions is falling. The reasons for the above statistics are environmental factors such as increased exposure to allergens and atmospheric pollutants. Antiasthmatic treatment includes corticosteroids, which are very effective in the treatment of asthma. But corticosteroids are costly and if given systemically, have many severe adverse effects. Hence, the present research work involves the use of a herbal compound formulation Pentapala -04 prepared from five medicinal plants namely, Adhatoda vasica Need, Ocimum sanctum Linn, Coleus aromaticus Benth, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn and Alpiania galangal Sw.The effect of "Pentapala-04" on ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage in albino wistar rats was investigated. The rats were divided into three groups of four animals each. Group I, II and III serves as control, toxic and post treatment group respectively. Our results showed that their was increased level of lipid peroxidation and secreased level of antioxidants in toxic group animals. But the levels of antioxidant enzymes were restored in post-treated groups of animals, which might be due to the ability of "ability of "Pentapala-04 to scavenge the reactive oxygen species.

  4. Dialysis encephalopathy in a non-dialysed uraemic boy treated with aluminium hydroxide orally.

    PubMed

    Nathan, E; Pedersen, S E

    1980-11-01

    Brain aluminium concentration has been found significantly higher in patients dying with dialysis encephalopathy than in uraemic patients without this syndrome, and it has previously been reported only in haemodialysed patients. We report a case of high brain aluminium concentration in a uraemic boy showing symptoms of severe encephalopathy. He was never dialysed but only treated with aluminium hydroxide orally. Baluarte reported corresponding symptoms in nondialysed uraemic children, but brain aluminium concentrations were not reported. His patients as well as our had very high levels of parathormone which may play a role in the resorption and distribution of aluminium. Aluminium preparations should be avoided in children with renal failure.

  5. Aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine as new photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, I. G.; Smirnova, Z. S.; Oborotova, N. A.; Lukyanets, E. A.; Meerovich, G. A.; Derkacheva, V. M.; Polozkova, A. P.; Kubasova, I. Y.; Baryshnikov, A. Y.

    2005-08-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of possibility to use the liposomal form of aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine as photosensitizer of near-infrared range. Aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine has shown high selectivity of accumulation in tumor comparing to normal tissue of mice as well as high photodynamic efficiency on mice bearing Erlich tumor (ELD) and lympholeucosis P-388. This compozition can be used to develop new effective photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics.

  6. Advantages of aluminium hydroxide adsorbed combined diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines for the immunization of infants.

    PubMed

    Butler, N R; Voyce, M A; Burland, W L; Hilton, M L

    1969-03-15

    Three combined triple antigen vaccines were used to inoculate infants receiving primary immunization at 3 to 6 months of age. Laboratory potency and toxicity tests and clinical evaluation again showed that the mouse weight gain test is able to predict which vaccines will give reactions in children. The addition of aluminium hydroxide to the vaccine both increased potency and reduced the tendency to cause reactions. Assays on sera showed that almost all children produced agglutinins to Bordetella pertussis types 1, 2, and 3 when the vaccine contained aluminium hydroxide.

  7. Aluminium substitution in iron(II III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Christian; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Aissa, Rabha; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Brunelli, Michela; François, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe4IIFe(2-6y)IIIAl6yIII (OH) 12 SO 4, 8H 2O are followed by pH titration curves, Mössbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO 42-), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions points to the Fe 3+ species. A cationic order is proposed to occur in both GR(SO 42-) and aluminium-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust when y<0.08. Variation of the cell parameters and a sharp decrease in average crystal size and anisotropy are detected for an aluminium content as low as y=0.01. The formation of Al-GR(SO 42-) is preceded by the successive precipitation of Fe III and Al III (oxy)hydroxides. Adsorption of more soluble Al III species onto the initially formed ferric oxyhydroxide may be responsible for this slowdown of crystal growth. Therefore, the insertion of low aluminium amount ( y˜0.01) could be an interesting way for increasing the surface reactivity of iron(II-III) LDH that maintains constant the quantity of the reactive Fe II species of the material.

  8. Calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in dialysis patients: evaluation of an enteric-coated preparation and effect of additional aluminium hydroxide on hyperaluminaemia.

    PubMed

    Ittel, T H; Schäfer, C; Schmitt, H; Gladziwa, U; Sieberth, H G

    1991-01-22

    Calcium carbonate has been successfully used as a phosphate binder in patients with chronic renal failure; however, a high frequency of hypercalcaemia has been reported. To study the effects of calcium carbonate preparations with different dissolution characteristics on the incidence of this side effect, we conducted a double-blind, crossover trial in 21 patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis. Aluminum hydroxide therapy was replaced with calcium carbonate. The subjects then randomly received either an enteric-coated or a gastric-coated preparation. Calcium carbonate (3.1-3.6 g/d) controlled serum phosphate concentrations as effectively as aluminium hydroxide (2.9 g/d). Concurrently, there was a significant rise in mean serum calcium and a fall in serum concentrations of both parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin, the latter suggesting a decrease in bone turnover. Overall, hypercalcaemic episodes developed in 9 patients (43%) and occurred at a considerable frequency (33 episodes per 100 patient-months) during treatment with the gastric-coated formulation. Following conversion to enteric-coated calcium carbonate (3.6 g/d) patients had fewer occurrences of hypercalcaemia (12 episodes per 100 patient-months, P less than 0.05) and, as compared to the gastric-coated preparation, increases in serum calcium greater than 3.00 mmol/l were not observed at all. Hyperaluminaemia was regressive during therapy with calcium carbonate, but addition of small doses of aluminium hydroxide caused a large rise in serum aluminium concentrations after infusion of desferrioxamine, indicating an enhanced rate of absorption or aberrant compartmentalization of aluminium. We conclude that calcium carbonate can control hyperphosphataemia in dialysis patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Aluminium substitution in iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, Christian Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Aissa, Rabha; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Brunelli, Michela; Francois, Michel

    2008-09-15

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe{sub 4}{sup II}Fe{sub (2-6y)}{sup III}Al{sub 6y}{sup III} (OH){sub 12} SO{sub 4}, 8H{sub 2}O are followed by pH titration curves, Moessbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions points to the Fe{sup 3+} species. A cationic order is proposed to occur in both GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and aluminium-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust when y<0.08. Variation of the cell parameters and a sharp decrease in average crystal size and anisotropy are detected for an aluminium content as low as y=0.01. The formation of Al-GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is preceded by the successive precipitation of Fe{sup III} and Al{sup III} (oxy)hydroxides. Adsorption of more soluble Al{sup III} species onto the initially formed ferric oxyhydroxide may be responsible for this slowdown of crystal growth. Therefore, the insertion of low aluminium amount (y{approx}0.01) could be an interesting way for increasing the surface reactivity of iron(II-III) LDH that maintains constant the quantity of the reactive Fe{sup II} species of the material. - Graphical abstract: (a) Crystallographical structure of sulphated green rust: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} point to the Fe{sup 3+} cations (red) that form an ordered array with the Fe{sup 2+} cations (green). (b) Width and asymmetry of the synchrotron XRD peaks increase rapidly when some Al{sup 3+} species substitute the Fe{sup 3+} cations; z is molar ratio Al{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 3+}.

  10. Adjuvant effects of aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed allergens and allergoids - differences in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heydenreich, B; Bellinghausen, I; Lund, L; Henmar, H; Lund, G; Adler Würtzen, P; Saloga, J

    2014-06-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a clinically effective therapy for immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic diseases. To reduce the risk of IgE-mediated side effects, chemically modified allergoids have been introduced. Furthermore, adsorbance of allergens to aluminium hydroxide (alum) is widely used to enhance the immune response. The mechanisms behind the adjuvant effect of alum are still not completely understood. In the present study we analysed the effects of alum-adsorbed allergens and allergoids on their immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo and their ability to activate basophils of allergic donors. Human monocyte derived dendritic cells (DC) were incubated with native Phleum pratense or Betula verrucosa allergen extract or formaldehyde- or glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, adsorbed or unadsorbed to alum. After maturation, DC were co-cultivated with autologous CD4(+) T cells. Allergenicity was tested by leukotriene and histamine release of human basophils. Finally, in-vivo immunogenicity was analysed by IgG production of immunized mice. T cell proliferation as well as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ production were strongly decreased using glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, but did not differ between alum-adsorbed allergens or allergoids and the corresponding unadsorbed preparations. Glutaraldehyde modification also led to a decreased leukotriene and histamine release compared to native allergens, being further decreased by adsorption to alum. In vivo, immunogenicity was reduced for allergoids which could be partly restored by adsorption to alum. Our results suggest that adsorption of native allergens or modified allergoids to alum had no consistent adjuvant effect but led to a reduced allergenicity in vitro, while we observed an adjuvant effect regarding IgG production in vivo.

  11. Ginseng extract in aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines improves the antibody response of pigs to porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    Rivera, E; Daggfeldt, A; Hu, S

    2003-01-10

    Ginseng, the dry extract prepared from the Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer-root contain immunomodulators named ginsenosides, which in the pig enhance the antibody response to viral and bacterial antigens. The enhancing effect of ginseng was demonstrated vaccinating pigs against porcine parvovirus (PPV) and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infections, using commercially available vaccines. The potency of the licensed, aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted; vaccines were compared with those supplemented with ginseng. The antibody response to PPV was measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test whereas the mouse potency test and ELISA evaluated the immune response to E. rhusiopathiae. Antibodies to the 64-66 kDa glycoprotein of the E. rhusiopathiae were demonstrated by immunoblotting. The qualitative antibody responses were evaluated by means of ELISA(s) using monoclonal antibodies to swine IgG1 and IgG2. The addition of 2mg ginseng per vaccine dose, potentiate the antibody response of the commercial vaccines without altering their safety. Significantly higher (P<0.001) antibody titres were achieved to both PPV and to E. rhusiopathiae by the supplementation with ginseng. Aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines favoured the production of IgG1 antibodies. Interestingly, the vaccines supplemented with ginseng favoured IgG2. The vaccines used in the evaluations varied in their immunogenic potency. However, after the addition of ginseng the less immunogenic vaccine proved to be as potent as the better one without ginseng. Thus, the use of ginseng as a co-adjuvant provides a simple, safe and cheap alternative for improving the potency of aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines.

  12. Kinetics of intercalation of fluorescent probes in magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide within a multiscale reaction-diffusion framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Daniel; Al-Ghoul, Mazen

    2016-11-01

    We report the synthesis of magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) using a reaction-diffusion framework (RDF) that exploits the multiscale coupling of molecular diffusion with chemical reactions, nucleation and growth of crystals. In an RDF, the hydroxide anions are allowed to diffuse into an organic gel matrix containing the salt mixture needed for the precipitation of the LDH. The chemical structure and composition of the synthesized magnesium-aluminium LDHs are determined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR), Fourier transform infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This novel technique also allows the investigation of the mechanism of intercalation of some fluorescent probes, such as the neutral three-dimensional rhodamine B (RhB) and the negatively charged two-dimensional 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS), using in situ steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The incorporation of these organic dyes inside the interlayer region of the LDH is confirmed via fluorescence microscopy, solid-state lifetime, SSNMR and PXRD. The activation energies of intercalation of the corresponding molecules (RhB and HPTS) are computed and exhibit dependence on the geometry of the involved probe (two or three dimensions), the charge of the fluorescent molecule (anionic, cationic or neutral) and the cationic ratio of the corresponding LDH. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  13. Mechanical Properties Studies of Components Formulation for Mixing Process Contain of Polypropylene, Polyethylene, and Aluminium Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamsi, A.; Dinzi, R.

    2017-03-01

    Certain powder and others components can induce toxic reactions if not properly handled in the mixing stage. During handling, the small particles can become airborne and be trapped in the lungs, another concern is inhomogeneities in the mixing process. Uniform quantities of the particles of the components are needed in all portions of the mixture. This paper reports the results of mechanical properties studies of mixing three components formulation for mixing process. Contain of Polyethylene (PE), Polyprophylene (PP) and Aluminium Powder. Powder mixer, Autodesk mold flow and computer based on excell method was carried out to study the influence of each formulation component on the flow %, PE 20% and Aluminium powder 2%. Macroscopic optic and macro photo was carried out to identify the homogenity of mixing, tensile test for identify the strength of component after mixing. Finally the optimal tensile test with composition PP 785,PE 20% and Aluminium powder 2% at speed 52 rpm, temperature 1500C, the tensile strength 20,92 N/mm2. At temperature 1600C, speed 100 rpm the optimum tensile strength 17,91 N/mm2. The result of simulation autodesk mold flow adviser the filling time 6 seconds. Otherwise on manual hot hidraulic press the time of filling 10 seconds.

  14. Immunotherapy with yellow jacket venom. A comparative study including three different extracts, one adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide and two unmodified.

    PubMed

    Mosbech, H; Malling, H J; Biering, I; Böwadt, H; Søborg, M; Weeke, B; Løwenstein, H

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-two patients with previous systemic allergic reaction to yellow jacket stings were randomly allocated to three groups receiving immunotherapy with different preparations of yellow jacket venom: 1) extract adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide (Alutard-SQ), 2) Pharmalgen extract or 3) non-adsorbed extract from Allergologisk Laboratorium (ALK aq.). Regular examinations showed a decrease in skin prick test size in nearly all patients. Specific IgE-antibody (RAST and CRIE scores) showed a similar, but not significant tendency to decrease in all three groups. Specific IgG-antibody increased considerably in the Alutard group only; after 2 years, however, no difference could be detected between the three groups. During dose increase, patients treated with ALK aq. generally had smaller local reactions to injections than those treated with Pharmalgen. Few systemic reactions occurred in all three groups. Nineteen patients treated for 2 1/2-3 1/2 years were challenged in-hospital with stings from yellow jackets. No systemic and only minor local reactions occurred. Consequently, with the dose regimens applied all three extracts seem effective even though no common changes in either specific IgE or IgG could be demonstrated.

  15. Synthesis of protocatechuic acid-zinc/aluminium-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite as an anticancer nanodelivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Gani, Shafinaz Abd; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid, an active anticancer agent, has been intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide at Zn/Al=2) using two different preparation methods, co-precipitation and ion-exchange, which are labelled as PZAE and PZAC, respectively. The release of protocatechuate from the nanocomposites occurred in a controlled manner and was fitted satisfactorily to pseudo-second order kinetics. The basal spacing of the resulting nanocomposites PZAE and PZAC was 10.2 and 11.0 Å, respectively, indicating successful intercalation of protocatechuate anions into the interlayer galleries of Zn/Al-NO3-LDH in a monolayer arrangement with angles of 24 and 33° from the z-axis in PZAE and PZAC, respectively. The formation of nanocomposites was further confirmed by a Fourier transform infrared study. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses indicated that the thermal stability of the intercalated protocatechuic acid was significantly enhanced compared to its free protocatechuic acid, and the drug content in the nanocomposites was estimated to be approximately 32.6% in PZAE and 29.2% in PZAC. Both PZAE and PZAC nanocomposites inhibit the growth of human cervical, liver and colorectal cancer cell lines and exhibit no toxic effects towards normal fibroblast 3T3 cell after 72 h of treatment.

  16. Removal of Remazol Blue 19 from wastewater by zinc-aluminium-chloride-layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhattabi, El Hassan; Lakraimi, Mohamed; Badreddine, Mohamed; Legrouri, Ahmed; Cherkaoui, Omar; Berraho, Moha

    2013-06-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also called anionic clays, consist of cationic brucite-like layers and exchangeable interlayer anions. These hydrotalcite-like compounds, with Zn and Al in the layers and chloride in the interlayer space, were prepared following the coprecipitation method at constant pH. The affinity of this material for Remazol Blue 19, RB19 [ 2- (3- (4- Amino- 9,10- dihydro- 3- sulpho- 9,10- dioxoanthracen- 4- yl) aminobenzenesulphonyl) vinyl) disodiumsulphate], was studied as a function of contact time, pH of the solutions LDH dose and the RB19/[Zn-Al-Cl] mass ratio. It was found that 48 h is enough time for the equilibrium state to be reached with maximum RB19 retention at pH of 9 for an LDH dose equal to 100 mg and with an RB19/[Zn-Al-Cl] mass ratio higher than 3. The adsorption isotherm, described by the Langmuir model, is of L-type. The results demonstrate that RB19 retention on LDHs occurs by adsorption on external surface when RB19/[Zn-Al-Cl] mass ratio is equal or <3 and by both adsorption and interlayer ion exchange for ratios higher than 3. A mechanism for removal of RB19 anion has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and TG analysis (TG and DTG curves).

  17. Development of a Highly Biocompatible Antituberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation Based on Para-Aminosalicylic Acid—Zinc Layered Hydroxide Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J.; Geilich, Benjamin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a lethal epidemic, difficult to control disease, claiming thousands of lives every year. We have developed a nanodelivery formulation based on para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and zinc layered hydroxide using zinc nitrate salt as a precursor. The developed formulation has a fourfold higher efficacy of PAS against mycobacterium tuberculosis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) found to be at 1.40 μg/mL compared to the free drug PAS with a MIC of 5.0 μg/mL. The newly developed formulation was also found active against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. The formulation was also found to be biocompatible with human normal lung cells MRC-5 and mouse fibroblast cells-3T3. The in vitro release of PAS from the formulation was found to be sustained in a human body simulated phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at pH values of 7.4 and 4.8. Most importantly the nanocomposite prepared using zinc nitrate salt was advantageous in terms of yield and free from toxic zinc oxide contamination and had higher biocompatibility compared to one prepared using a zinc oxide precursor. In summary, these promising in vitro results are highly encouraging for the continued investigation of para-aminosalicylic acid and zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposites in vivo and eventual preclinical studies. PMID:25050392

  18. Calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for the conservation of cultural heritage: new formulations for the deacidification of cellulose-based artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggi, G.; Toccafondi, N.; Melita, L. N.; Knowles, J. C.; Bozec, L.; Giorgi, R.; Baglioni, P.

    2014-03-01

    Alkaline earth metal hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions have demonstrated to be efficient for the preservation of cellulose-based artifacts, providing a stable neutral environment and, if in excess, turning into mild alkaline species. New formulations tailored for specific conservation issues have been recently obtained via a solvothermal reaction, starting from bulk metal, and short chain alcohols. Using this synthetic procedure, stable, and high concentrated calcium hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions can be obtained. The characterization of nanoparticles was carried out by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction and showed that the dispersed systems are particularly suitable for the application on porous substrates. In a direct application of this technology, acidic paper and canvas samples were artificially aged after deacidification using calcium hydroxide nanoparticles dispersed in short chain alcohols. Cellulose viscosimetric polymerization degree (DPv), cellulose pyrolysis temperature, and samples' pH were evaluated upon the aging and in terms of protective action arising from the applied treatment. In particular, determinations of DPv clearly showed that the degradation of acidic paper and canvas samples proceeds at higher rates with respect to deacidified samples. These evidences were also confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis of samples, in which the benefits due to the deacidification treatments are measured in terms of pyrolysis temperature of cellulose. These new formulations of nanoparticles dispersions expand the palette of available tools for the conservation of cellulose-based works of art, such as easel paintings, and manuscripts, potentially opening the way for the intervention on parchment and leather, whose preservation is a particularly challenging task.

  19. Effect of Aluminum Hydroxide Adjuvant and Formaldehyde in the Formulation of rPA Anthrax Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-02

    2006.12.043inum hydroxide gel adjuvant; Formaldehyde . Introduction Anthrax is an infection that may result after exposure o spores of Bacillus anthracis by the...N, et al. Immunological correlates for protection against intranasal challenge of Bacillus anthracis spores conferred by a protective antigen-based...neutralizing antibody titers and protection from intranasal challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain spores in mice after transcutaneous

  20. Synthesis of 4-chlorophenoxyacetate-zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite: physico-chemical and controlled release properties.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Sarijo, Siti Halimah; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2007-08-01

    Layered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material was synthesised using 4-chlorophenoxyacetate (4CPA) as guest anion intercalated into the Zn-Al layered double hydroxide inorganic host by direct co-precipitation method at pH = 7.5 and Zn to Al molar ratio of 4. Both PXRD and FTIR results confirmed that the 4CPA was successfully intercalated into the Zn-AI-LDH interlayer. As a result, a well-ordered nanolayered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite, with the expansion of the basal spacing from 8.9 angstroms in the layered double hydroxide to 20.1 angstroms in the resulting nanocomposite was observed. The FTIR spectrum of the nanocomposite (ZAC) showed that it composed spectral features of Zn-AI-LDH (ZAL) and 4CPA. The nanocomposites synthesized in this work are of mesoporous-type containing 39.8% (w/w) of 4CPA with mole fraction of Al3+ in the inorganic brucite-like layers (xAI) of 0.224. The release studies showed a rapid release of the 4CPA for the first 600 min, and more sustained thereafter. The total amount of 4CPA released from the nanocomposite interlayer into the aqueous solution were 21%, 66%, and 72% in 0.0001, 0.00025, and 0.0005 M sodium carbonate, respectively. In distilled water, about 75, 35, and 57% of 4CPA could be released in 1000 min, when the pH of the release media was set at 3, 6.25, and 12, respectively. In comparison with a structurally similar organic moiety with one more chlorine atom at the 2-position of the aromatic ring, namely 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (24D), the 4CPA showed a slower release rate. The slightly bulkier organic moiety of 24D together with the presence of chlorine atom at the 2-position presumably had contributed to its higher release rate, and it seems that these factors may be exploited for tuning the release rate of intercalated guest anions with similar properties. This study suggests that layered double hydroxide can be used as a carrier for an active agent and the chemical structure of the intercalated moiety

  1. Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 in aluminium hydroxide induces serum bactericidal and opsonic antibodies against Brucella canis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Clausse, Maria; Díaz, Alejandra G; Pardo, Romina P; Zylberman, Vanesa; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Estein, Silvia M

    2017-02-01

    Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 is an immunogenic vaccine candidate that confers protection against Brucella canis in mice. In this preliminary study, the immunogenicity and safety of BLSOmp31 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel (BLSOmp31-AH) were evaluated in Beagle dogs. In addition, the potential to elicit serum antibodies with complement-dependent bactericidal activity and/or to enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils were analyzed. Dogs were immunized three times with BLSOmp31-AH by subcutaneous route, followed by an annual booster. The vaccine elicited specific antibodies 3 weeks after the first immunization. Annual booster induced comparable antibody response as the primary series. Humoral immune response stimulated by BLSOmp31-AH did not interfere with routine agglutination test for canine brucellosis. Antibodies demonstrated a high complement-dependent bactericidal activity against B. canis. Moreover, opsonization by immune serum not only stimulated binding and uptake of the bacteria by neutrophils but effectively enhanced the destruction of B. canis. Specific IgG was detected in 3/4 immunized dogs in preputial secretions. The antibody profile corresponded to a marked Th2 response, since IgG1 prevailed over IgG2 and cellular immune response was not detected in vitro or in vivo. These results require further evaluation in larger field studies to establish the full prophylactic activity of BLSOmp31 against canine brucellosis.

  2. Meso/macroporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fabricated by thermal decomposition of nanorods ammonium aluminium carbonate hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guang-Ci; Liu, Yun-Qi; Guan, Li-Li; Hu, Xiao-Fu; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rod-like AACH were synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AACH was formed via a Al(OH){sub 3} {yields} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Al{sub 6}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(OH){sub 14}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O {yields} NH{sub 4}Al(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O {yields} NH{sub 4}Al(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} path. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alumina derived from AACH has a good thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained alumina possesses large pore volume and bimodal porosity. -- Abstract: Through exploring the reaction parameters during the synthesis of the AACH, rod-like ammonium aluminium carbonate hydroxide (AACH) with high crystallinity has been successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. The synthesis parameters like time, the molar ratio of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}/Al and the properties of starting materials were systematically investigated. The structure was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results display that the obtained {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials possess meso/macroporosity and large pore volume, which are mainly attributed to the removal of gas molecules during the decomposition of AACH. Moreover, using the rod-like AACH as precursor, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods were obtained via a low-temperature thermal decomposition method.

  3. Microleakage of glass ionomer formulations after erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser preparation.

    PubMed

    Delmé, Katleen I M; Deman, Peter J; De Bruyne, Mieke A A; Nammour, Samir; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microleakage in class V cavities restored with four conventionally setting glass ionomers (CGIs) and one resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) following erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser or conventional preparation. Four hundred class V cavities were assigned to four groups: A and B were prepared by an Er:YAG laser; C and D were conventionally prepared. In groups B and D, the surface was additionally conditioned with Ketac conditioner. Each group was divided into five subgroups according to the glass ionomer cement (GIC) used: groups 1 (Ketac Fil), 2 (Ketac Molar), 3 (Ionofil Molar), 4 (Ionofil Molar Quick) and 5 (Photac Fil Quick). After thermocycling, a 2% methylene blue solution was used as dye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken to show the conditioner's effect. Complete marginal sealing could not be reached. PhotacFil showed less microleakage than the conventionally setting glass ionomer cements (CGICs) investigated. Conditioning laser-prepared cavities did not negatively influence microleakage results except for Ionofil Molar Quick.

  4. New proteoliposome vaccine formulation from N. meningitidis serogroup B, without aluminum hydroxide, retains its antimeningococcal protectogenic potential as well as Th-1 adjuvant capacity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteoliposomes purified from the Outer Membrane of Neisseria meningitidis B, have been successfully used as core for adjuvants and vaccine formulations. We have tried to increase their structural definition and to conserve their efficacy and stability avoiding the addition of the aluminum hydroxide to the final formulation. Liposomal particle systems were prepared from components of defined molecular structure, such as a Neisseria meningitidis B protein complex, extracted and purified without forming vesicle structures. Liposomes were prepared from a mixture of dioleoyl phosphatidyl serine and cholesterol, using the classical dehydration-rehydration method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the liposomes. BALB/c mice were used for animal testing procedures. Analysis of specific IgG response, serum bactericidal activity as well as DTH reaction was carried out. Isolation and purification of mRNA and real-time PCR, was performed to determine the dominating Th lymphokine pattern. The new antimeningococcal formulation without aluminum hydroxide prepared with components of defined molecular structure assembled itself into Neoproteoliposomes (NPL) ranging from 50 to 70 nm in diameter. The extraction and purification of selected membrane proteins to provide the antigen for this new formulation (PD-Tp), as well as the NPL-formulation favors a Th1 response pattern, suggested by the higher percentages of DTH, increased expression of proinflamatory lymphokine mRNAs when administered by intramuscular and intranasal routes. It stimulates a systemic bactericidal antibody response against Neisseria meningitidis B and immunologic memory similar to the Cuban VA-MENGOC-BC® vaccine, even at lower dosages and is less reactogenic at the injection site in comparison with the formulation with aluminum hydroxide. This new adjuvant formulation could be applicable to the development of new and improved vaccines against meningococcal disease, and eventually as

  5. An improved assay for (68)Ga-hydroxide in (68)Ga-DOTATATE formulations intended for neuroendocrine tumour imaging.

    PubMed

    Ali, Masood; Hsieh, William; Tsopelas, Chris

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a more rapid assay for (68)Ga(OH)3 impurity in (68)Ga-DOTATATE formulations. Three methods were used to prepare (68)Ga(OH)3 reference material (pharmacopoeial, bench titration and automated radiosynthesis), and four quality control methods for its assessment (thin layer chromatography, membrane filtration, HPLC and solid phase extraction). The optimal method of preparing (68)Ga(OH)3 was by titrating (68)Ga(3+) with buffered sodium hydroxide solutions to pH 5.6 ± 0.2. The precipitate was quantitatively isolated by membrane filtration (0.02 µm)/hydrochloric acid (HCl; pH 5.6) solvent, and also it remained 100% at the origin on instant thin layer chromatography with silica gel paper/HCl (pH 5.6) solvent. For (68)Ga-DOTATATE samples, the thin layer chromatography technique was used with a single paper strip developed separately on two occasions, once in HCl (pH 5.6) and next in methanol solvent. This so-called double-developed (DD) method separated (68)Ga(OH)3 impurity located at the origin, from (68)Ga-DOTATATE plus (68)Ga(3+) at ~Rf 0.4, and it was superior to the other methods. It assayed for the impurity similarly to the pharmacopoeial method. The advantages of the DD method were that it required inexpensive test materials and it reproducibly determined % (68)Ga(OH)3 in (68)Ga-DOTATATE in 12 min, 13 min earlier than the pharmacopoeial method. This time efficiency resulted in a surplus of 12% (68)Ga-DOTATATE counts in the product vial, and this provided a contingency of radioactivity or time for the injection/imaging processes in the Nuclear Medicine Department.

  6. Ab initio calculation of the deprotonation constants of an atomistically defined nanometer-sized, aluminium hydroxide oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Wander, Matthew C. F.; Shuford, Kevin L.; Rustad, James R.; Casey, William H.

    2013-03-01

    Aluminium possesses significant and diverse chemistry. Numerous compounds have been defined, and the elucidation of their chemistry is of significant geochemical interest. In this paper, a brucite-like, eight-aluminium aqueous cluster is modelled with density functional theory to identify its primary site of deprotonation and the associated pK(a) constant using both explicit (a full first solvent shell) and implicit solvent. Two methods for calculating the pK(a) are compared. We found that a bond density approach is better than a direct energy calculation for ions with large charge and high symmetry. The terminal aluminium atoms have equatorial ligated waters that in solvent have one long O-H bond. This site is more reactive than any of the other protons on the particle. Insights into the experimental crystal structure and Bader's Atoms in Molecules density analysis are presented as routes to reduce the computational time required for the identification of protonation sites.

  7. Protective immune-response of aluminium hydroxide gel adjuvanted phage lysate of Brucella abortus S19 in mice against direct virulent challenge with B. abortus 544.

    PubMed

    Jain, Lata; Rawat, Mayank; Prajapati, Awadhesh; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Bablu; Chaturvedi, V K; Saxena, H M; Ramakrishnan, Sarvanan; Kumar, Jatin; Kerketta, Priscilla

    2015-09-01

    The prophylactic efficacies of plain and alum adsorbed lysate were evaluated by direct virulent challenge in mice model. A recently isolated brucellaphage 'ϕLd' was used for generation of lysates. Twenty four h incubated Brucella abortus S19 broth cultures standardized to contain approximately 10(8) CFU/ml were found suitable for generation of lysates. Three lysate batches produced through separate cycles did not show any significant variation with respect to protein and polysaccharide contents, endotoxin level and phage counts, indicating that compositionally stable lysate preparations can be generated through an optimized production process. Three polypeptides of ∼16, 19 and 23 kDa could be identified as immuno-dominant antigens of the lysate which induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a dose dependent manner. Results of efficacy evaluation trial confirmed dose-dependent protective potencies of lysate preparation. The lysate with an antigenic dose of 0.52 μg protein and 60 μg CHO adsorbed on aluminium gel (0.1 percent aluminium concentration) exhibited the highest protective potency which was greater than that induced by standard S19 vaccine. Phage lysate methodology provides a very viable option through which an improved immunizing preparation with all desirable traits can be developed against brucellosis, and integrated with immunization programmes in a more efficient manner.

  8. Formulation of anisotropic Hill criteria for the description of an aluminium alloy behaviour during the channel die compression test

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrus, A.; Francillette, H.

    2007-04-07

    During the last years the study of the plastic deformation modes and the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloys have been the subject of many investigations. This paper deals with a phenomenological identification of an anisotropic Hill constitutive equation of aluminium AU4G samples using a channel die compression device at room temperature. By considering the different possible orientations of the samples in the channel die device, three initial textures, named ND (normal direction Z), LD (longitudinal direction X) and TD (transverse direction Y), were defined with the corresponding stresses {sigma}ND, {sigma}LD and {sigma}TD. To describe the anisotropy of the material, a quadratic Hill criteria is used. An Avrami type equation based on the mixture of the hardening and softening phenomena is used to describe variation of each stress component with the equivalent plastic strain. The identification of the parameters of the law is made using an identification software (OPTPAR) and a good correlation between the experimental stresses and computed ones is obtained. The variation of the Hill parameters with a proposed equivalent strain, describing the deformation history of the material, is analysed. Finally, using the expressions of F, G, H and N, the constitutive equation of the normal anisotropy in the plane XY is obtained.

  9. Aluminium plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we present an overview of 'aluminium plasmonics', i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  10. Aluminium plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2015-05-01

    We present an overview of ‘aluminium plasmonics’, i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  11. Controlled-release formulation of antihistamine based on cetirizine zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposites and its effect on histamine release from basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Samer; Ali, Hussein Al; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2012-01-01

    A controlled-release formulation of an antihistamine, cetirizine, was synthesized using zinc-layered hydroxide as the host and cetirizine as the guest. The resulting well-ordered nanolayered structure, a cetirizine nanocomposite “CETN,” had a basal spacing of 33.9 Å, averaged from six harmonics observed from X-ray diffraction. The guest, cetirizine, was arranged in a horizontal bilayer between the zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH) inorganic interlayers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicated that the intercalation takes place without major change in the structure of the guest and that the thermal stability of the guest in the nanocomposites is markedly enhanced. The loading of the guest in the nanocomposites was estimated to be about 49.4% (w/w). The release study showed that about 96% of the guest could be released in 80 hours by phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 compared with about 97% in 73 hours at pH 4.8. It was found that release was governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. Release of histamine from rat basophilic leukemia cells was found to be more sensitive to the intercalated cetirizine in the CETN compared with its free counterpart, with inhibition of 56% and 29%, respectively, at 62.5 ng/mL. The cytotoxicity assay toward Chang liver cells line show the IC50 for CETN and ZLH are 617 and 670 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:22848164

  12. Controlled-release formulation of antihistamine based on cetirizine zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposites and its effect on histamine release from basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Samer; Al Ali, Hussein; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Zobir Hussein, Mohd; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Nazrul Hakim, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    A controlled-release formulation of an antihistamine, cetirizine, was synthesized using zinc-layered hydroxide as the host and cetirizine as the guest. The resulting well-ordered nanolayered structure, a cetirizine nanocomposite "CETN," had a basal spacing of 33.9 Å, averaged from six harmonics observed from X-ray diffraction. The guest, cetirizine, was arranged in a horizontal bilayer between the zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH) inorganic interlayers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicated that the intercalation takes place without major change in the structure of the guest and that the thermal stability of the guest in the nanocomposites is markedly enhanced. The loading of the guest in the nanocomposites was estimated to be about 49.4% (w/w). The release study showed that about 96% of the guest could be released in 80 hours by phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 compared with about 97% in 73 hours at pH 4.8. It was found that release was governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. Release of histamine from rat basophilic leukemia cells was found to be more sensitive to the intercalated cetirizine in the CETN compared with its free counterpart, with inhibition of 56% and 29%, respectively, at 62.5 ng/mL. The cytotoxicity assay toward Chang liver cells line show the IC₅₀ for CETN and ZLH are 617 and 670 μg/mL, respectively.

  13. Synthesis and characterisation of a new stable organo-mineral hybrid nanomaterial: 4-Chlorobenzenesulfonate in the zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lakraimi, Mohamed; Legrouri, Ahmed . E-mail: legrouri@aui.ma; Barroug, Allal; De Roy, Andre; Besse, Jean Pierre

    2006-09-14

    4-Chlorobenzenesulfonate (4-CBS) was intercalated between layers of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Two methods of incorporation were applied: (1) direct synthesis by coprecipitation of metal nitrates and sodium 4-CBS and (2) ion exchange of the LDH nitrate with the organic ion. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The direct method, effected at different pH values, led to a hybrid material with good degree of intercalation. In order to optimise the exchange conditions, particular attention was given to the effect of solution pH, 4-CBS/NO{sub 3} ratio and exchange temperature. The total exchange was successful and a new stable hybrid nanostructured material was obtained at pH 8 and with a 4-CBS concentration of 0.0028 M. This solid was further characterised by chemical and thermal analyses.

  14. [Removal of PO4(3-) from solution, wastewater and seawater by modification and granulation magnesium and aluminium layered double hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Xing, Kun; Wang, Hai-Zeng

    2013-04-01

    Powder layered double hydroxide of Mg-Al LDH were prepared by hydrothermal technology with 500 kg x batch(-1), modified and granulated (MG Mg-Al CLDH) by deposition method. After the modification and granulation, the fixed bed can not be accumulated and clogged by the adsorbents. The PO4(3-) is removed from aqueous solution, wastewater and seawater by MG Mg-Al CLDH with column experiments. It shows that MG Mg-Al CLDH is an effective adsorbent. After removal, the water quality can satisfy with the first degree of integrated wastewater discharge or seawater standards. The mechanism of removal PO4(3-) is ion exchange and 'memory effect'. The breakthrough adsorption capacity of PO4(3-) from solution is 13.49 mg x g(-1), more than 6 times higher than that by Mg-Al LDH without modification. The exhausted MG Mg-Al CLDH can be desorbed with 0.1 mol x L(-1) NaOH and 3 mol x L(-1) NaCl and regenerated with 25% MgCl2. The regeneration rate is 126.24%. The breakthrough curves are influenced by bed depth, flow rate, initial concentration and initial pH. The adsorption processes are controlled by film diffusion. When the initial concentration is as low as 0.38 micromol x L(-1), PO4(3-) can be removed from seawater to satisfy with the first degree of seawater quality. So this work is very useful for the practical application of Mg-Al LDH and the removal of phosphorus.

  15. Aluminum Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  16. Sustained release formulation of an anti-tuberculosis drug based on para-amino salicylic acid-zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    nanocomposite treated with normal 3T3 cells shows it reduces cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conclusions Sustained release formulation of the nanocomposite, 4-ASA intercalated into zinc layered hydroxides, with its ease of preparation, sustained release of the active and less-toxic to the cell is a step forward for a more patient-friendly chemotherapy of Tuberculosis. PMID:23601852

  17. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  18. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Hajime; Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire; Carro-Mateo, Beatriz; Collier, Nick; Milestone, Neil

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  19. Aluminium in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans.

  20. Aluminium speciation in effluents and receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M J; Comber, S D W

    2003-12-01

    The respective speciation of aluminium in sewage effluent and in river water receiving effluent, has been examined. Results showed that concentrations of reactive aluminium changed over a timescale of hours and were controlled predominantly by pH. A minimum concentration of reactive aluminium occurred at a pH of approximately 6.8, coinciding with the prevalence of non-reactive, insoluble Al(OH)3 species. For receiving waters of low pH value, typically < pH 5, a large proportion of the 'naturally present' aluminium can be present in a reactive form at concentrations higher than the proposed Environmental Quality Standard (EQS). Mixing of waters of this type with effluent of a higher pH value leads to the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide. Mixing of effluent of pH value in the range 7.5-8.0 with river water in the same (or slightly higher) pH range appears to result in no appreciable change in the proportion of reactive aluminium; the change in concentration tends to be related simply to dilution. On the basis of a theoretical knowledge of aluminium speciation, results obtained in this work indicate that it is possible to make predictions about the proportion of reactive aluminium present in a receiving water, based on the pH values of the effluent water mixture and the concentration in the effluent. Reasonable comparisons between measured and predicted values were obtained at higher pH values, but the relationship was less certain at pH values less than 6.5 for which levels of reactive metal tended to be higher than the quality standard value.

  1. Human exposure to aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of nickel-aluminium oxide system from metals obtained by ore processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobochkin, V. V.; Usoltseva, N. V.; Shorokhov, K. G.; Popova, E. V.

    2015-11-01

    Separate and combined electrochemical oxidation of aluminium and nickel has been conducted by alternating current of industrial frequency. Concentration increase of electrolyte solution (sodium chloride) in the range from 3 to 25 wt. % and current density from 0.5 to 1.5 A/cm2 was found to result in the increasing metal oxidation rate, excluding aluminium oxidation which oxidation rate is independent of the electrolyte solution concentration. At the current density of 1.5 A/cm2 the products of separate oxidation of nickel and aluminium are nickel oxyhydroxides, nickel hydroxides and aluminium oxyhydroxide (boehmite), respectively. In addition to these compounds, the nickel-aluminium oxide hydrate is included in the products of nickel and aluminium co-oxidation. Its content grows with the increasing electrolyte solution concentration. Varying the concentration and current density within the limits indicated, the nickel-aluminium oxide system with nickel oxide content from 3 to 10 wt. % is produced.

  3. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  4. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  5. Potentiometric determination of the 'formal' hydrolysis ratio of aluminium species in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Agathe C; Shafran, Kirill L; Perry, Carole C

    2008-01-21

    The 'formal' hydrolysis ratio (h = C(OH-)added/C(Al)total) of hydrolysed aluminium-ions is an important parameter required for the exhaustive and quantitative speciation-fractionation of aluminium in aqueous solutions. This paper describes a potentiometric method for determination of the formal hydrolysis ratio based on an automated alkaline titration procedure. The method uses the point of precipitation of aluminium hydroxide as a reference (h = 3.0) in order to calculate the initial formal hydrolysis ratio of hydrolysed aluminium-ion solutions. Several solutions of pure hydrolytic species including aluminium monomers (AlCl3), Al13 polynuclear cluster ([Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)12]7+), Al30 polynuclear cluster ([Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)26]18+) and a suspension of nanoparticulate aluminium hydroxide have been used as 'reference standards' to validate the proposed potentiometric method. Other important variables in the potentiometric determination of the hydrolysis ratio have also been optimised including the concentration of aluminium and the type and strength of alkali (Trizma-base, NH3, NaHCO3, Na2CO3 and KOH). The results of the potentiometric analysis have been cross-verified by quantitative 27Al solution nuclear magnetic resonance (27Al NMR) measurements. The 'formal' hydrolysis ratio of a commercial basic aluminium chloride has been measured as an example of a practical application of the developed technique.

  6. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many ...

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  8. Aluminium overload after 5 years in skin biopsy following post-vaccination with subcutaneous pseudolymphoma.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Olivier; Fauconneau, Bernard; Pineau, Alain; Marrauld, Annie; Bellocq, Jean-Pierre; Chenard, Marie-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium hydroxide is used as an effective adjuvant in a wide range of vaccines for enhancing immune response to the antigen. The pathogenic role of aluminium hydroxide is now recognized by the presence of chronic fatigue syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitis and subcutaneous pseudolymphoma, linked to intramuscular injection of aluminium hydroxide-containing vaccines. The aim of this study is to verify if the subcutaneous pseudolymphoma observed in this patient in the site of vaccine injection is linked to an aluminium overload. Many years after vaccination, a subcutaneous nodule was discovered in a 45-year-old woman with subcutaneous pseudolymphoma. In skin biopsy at the injection site for vaccines, aluminium (Al) deposits are assessed by Morin stain and quantification of Al is performed by Zeeman Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Morin stain shows Al deposits in the macrophages, and Al assays (in μg/g, dry weight) were 768.10±18 for the patient compared with the two control patients, 5.61±0.59 and 9.13±0.057. Given the pathology of this patient and the high Al concentration in skin biopsy, the authors wish to draw attention when using the Al salts known to be particularly effective as adjuvants in single or repeated vaccinations. The possible release of Al may induce other pathologies ascribed to the well-known toxicity of this metal.

  9. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  10. Reactivity and applications of layered silicates and layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Thangaraj; Inayat, Alexandra; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-07-21

    Layered materials, such as layered sodium silicates and layered double hydroxides (LDHs), are well-known for their remarkable adsorption, intercalation and swelling properties. Their tunable interlayers offer an interesting avenue for the fabrication of pillared nanoporous materials, organic-inorganic hybrid materials and catalysts or catalyst supports. This perspective article provides a summary of the reactivity and applications of layered materials including aluminium-free layered sodium silicates (kanemite, ilerite (RUB-18 or octosilicate) and magadiite) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Recent developments in the use of layered sodium silicates as precursors for the preparation of various porous, functional and catalytic materials including zeolites, mesoporous materials, pillared layered silicates, organic-inorganic nanocomposites and synthesis of highly dispersed nanoparticles supported on silica are reviewed in detail. Along this perspective, we have attempted to illustrate the reactivity and transformational potential of LDHs in order to deduce the main differences and similarities between these two types of layered materials.

  11. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate.

  12. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  13. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Lars; Exley, Christopher; Darabi, Anna; Sandén, Emma; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium oxyhydroxide, Al(OH)3 is one of few compounds approved as an adjuvant in human vaccines. However, the mechanism behind its immune stimulating properties is still poorly understood. In vitro co-culture of an aluminium adjuvant and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Inhibition occurred at concentrations of adjuvant several times lower than would be found at the injection site using a vaccine formulation containing an aluminium adjuvant. Based on evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, THP-1 cells showed no mitochondrial rupture after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant, instead an increase in mitochondrial activity was seen. The THP-1 cells are phagocytosing cells and after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant the phagosomal pathway was obstructed. Primary or early phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes with an internal pH of 4.5 - 5 and carry a wide variety of hydrolysing enzymes. Co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant yielded a reduced level of acidic vesicles and cathepsin L activity, a proteolytic enzyme of the phagolysosomes, was almost completely inhibited. THP-1 cells are an appropriate in vitro model in order to investigate the mechanism behind the induction of a phagocytosing antigen presenting cell into an inflammatory cell by aluminium adjuvants. Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles.

  14. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment with solution containing HNO3 caused dissolution of Cu and Si from the intermetallic particles in the aluminium substrate. The growth rate of oxide layer was observed to be a function of MnO4- and NO3- ions present in the aqueous solution. The NO3- ions exhibit higher affinity towards the intermetallic particles resulting in poor coverage by the steam generated oxide layer compared to the coating formed using MnO4- ions. Further, increase in the concentration of NO3- ions in the solution retards precipitation of the steam generated aluminium hydroxide layer.

  15. Recovering obliterated engraved marks on aluminium surfaces by etching technique.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Mohd Izhar Mohd; Kuppuswamy, R; Rahman, Azari Abd

    2008-05-20

    A study has been made of the characteristics of restoration of obliterated engraved marks on aluminium surfaces by etching technique. By etching different reagents on 0.61mm thick sheets of aluminium (99wt%) on which some engraved marks had been erased to different depths it was found that the reagent 60% hydrochloric acid and 40% sodium hydroxide on alternate swabbing on the surfaces was found to be the most sensitive one for these metal surfaces. This reagent was able to restore marks in the above plates erased down to 0.04mm below the bottom of the engraving. The marks also presented excellent contrast with the background. This reagent was further experimented with similar aluminium surfaces, but of relatively greater thickness of 1.5mm. It was noticed that the recovery depth increased slightly to 0.06mm; this suggested the dependence of recovery depth on the thickness of the sheet metal. Further, the depth of restoration decreased in cases where the original number was erased and over which a new number was engraved; the latter results are similar to those of steel surfaces reported earlier [M.A.M. Zaili, R. Kuppuswamy, H. Harun, Restoration of engraved marks on steel surfaces by etching technique, Forensic Sci. Int. 171 (2007) 27-32].

  16. Novel synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) from zinc hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zilin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xue; Liu, Leipeng; Komarneni, Sridhar; Lv, Fengzhu

    2017-02-01

    The most common synthesis methods for layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are co-precipitation and reconstruction, which can have some limitations for application. Here, we report a novel synthesis method for LDHs. We use zinc hydroxide as the precursor to synthesize LDHs phase through a simple transformation process of zinc hydroxide phase. For this transformation process, aluminum can enter into zinc hydroxide and replace zinc quickly to transform it into LDH by creating positive charges in the zinc hydroxide solid phase. The mechanism of LDH formation was through Al3+ reaction first with zinc hydroxide followed by recrystallization of the original structure of zinc hydroxide. Thus, the new process of LDH formation involves a reaction of Al to substitute for Zn and recrystallization leading to LDH and the final pH influences the crystallization of LDHs by this process. In addition, Cr3+ was employed as a trivalent cation for LDH formation to react with zinc hydroxide, which also led to LDH structure.

  17. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  18. The toxicity of aluminium in humans.

    PubMed

    Exley, C

    2016-06-01

    We are living in the 'aluminium age'. Human exposure to aluminium is inevitable and, perhaps, inestimable. Aluminium's free metal cation, Alaq(3+), is highly biologically reactive and biologically available aluminium is non-essential and essentially toxic. Biologically reactive aluminium is present throughout the human body and while, rarely, it can be acutely toxic, much less is understood about chronic aluminium intoxication. Herein the question is asked as to how to diagnose aluminium toxicity in an individual. While there are as yet, no unequivocal answers to this problem, there are procedures to follow to ascertain the nature of human exposure to aluminium. It is also important to recognise critical factors in exposure regimes and specifically that not all forms of aluminium are toxicologically equivalent and not all routes of exposure are equivalent in their delivery of aluminium to target sites. To ascertain if Alzheimer's disease is a symptom of chronic aluminium intoxication over decades or breast cancer is aggravated by the topical application of an aluminium salt or if autism could result from an immune cascade initiated by an aluminium adjuvant requires that each of these is considered independently and in the light of the most up to date scientific evidence. The aluminium age has taught us that there are no inevitabilities where chronic aluminium toxicity is concerned though there are clear possibilities and these require proving or discounting but not simply ignored.

  19. Dependence in Classification of Aluminium Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resti, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the dependence between edge and colour intensity of aluminium waste image, the aim of this paper is to classify the aluminium waste into three types; pure aluminium, not pure aluminium type-1 (mixed iron/lead) and not pure aluminium type 2 (unrecycle). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed to reduction the dimension of image data, while Bayes’ theorem with the Gaussian copula was applied to classification. The copula was employed to handle dependence between edge and colour intensity of aluminium waste image. The results showed that the classifier has been correctly classifiable by 88.33%.

  20. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10 = 250 µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10 = 410 µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used.

  1. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully understood. Current explanations for the mode of action of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants include, among others, the repository effect, pro-phagocytic effect, and activation of the pro-inflammatory NLRP3 pathway. These collectively galvanize innate as well as acquired immune responses and activate the complement system. Factors that have a profound influence on responses evoked by aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant applications include adsorption rate, strength of the adsorption, size and uniformity of aluminum hydroxide particles, dosage of adjuvant, and the nature of antigens. Although vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants are beneficial, sometimes they cause adverse reactions. Further, these vaccines cannot be stored frozen. Until recently, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants were known to preferentially prime Th2-type immune responses. However, results of more recent studies show that depending on the vaccination route, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants can enhance both Th1 as well as Th2 cellular responses. Advances in systems biology have opened up new avenues for studying mechanisms of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants. These will assist in scaling new frontiers in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research that include improvement of formulations, use of nanoparticles of aluminum hydroxide and development of composite adjuvants.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs... addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  12. Aluminium phosphide-induced leukopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ntelios, Dimitrios; Mandros, Charalampos; Potolidis, Evangelos; Fanourgiakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Acute intoxication from the pesticide aluminium phosphide is a relatively rare, life-threatening condition in which cardiovascular decompensation is the most feared problem. We report the case of a patient exposed to aluminium phosphide-liberated phosphine gas. It resulted in the development of a gastroenteritis-like syndrome accompanied by severe reduction in white blood cell numbers as an early and prominent manifestation. By affecting important physiological processes such as mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species homeostasis, phosphine could cause severe toxicity. After presenting the characteristics of certain leucocyte subpopulations we provide the current molecular understanding of the observed leukopenia which in part seems paradoxical. PMID:24172776

  13. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    SciTech Connect

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-09-15

    with slightly different physico-chemical properties. • Chlorogenate-zinc aluminium layered double hydroxide nanohybrids have the potential to be used as a controlled release formulation. • The thermal stability of chlorogenic acid is markedly enhanced upon the intercalation process. • The inhibition of cancer cell growth is higher for nanohybrids than for free chlorogenic acid.

  14. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail.

  15. Occupational asthma caused by aluminium welding.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, O; Delwiche, J P; Vanbilsen, M L; Joly, J; Roosels, D

    1998-05-01

    Work-related asthma has been documented in workers employed in the primary aluminium industry and in the production of aluminium salts. The role of aluminium in the development of occupational asthma has, however, never been convincingly substantiated. We investigated a subject who experienced asthmatic reactions related to manual metal arc welding on aluminium. Challenge exposure to aluminium welding with flux-coated electrodes, as well as with electrodes without flux, elicited marked asthmatic reactions. Manual metal arc welding on mild steel did not cause significant bronchial response. The results of inhalation challenges combined with exposure assessments provided evidence that aluminium can cause asthmatic reactions in the absence of fluorides. Awareness of this possibility may be relevant to the investigation of asthma in workers exposed to aluminium.

  16. Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites as Insulation Materials for Industrial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembovska, L.; Bajare, D.; Pundiene, I.; Bumanis, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article reports on the study of thermal stability of alkali-activated aluminium- silicate composites (ASC) at temperature 800-1100°C. ASC were prepared by using calcined kaolinite clay, aluminium scrap recycling waste, lead-silicate glass waste and quartz sand. As alkali activator, commercial sodium silicate solution modified with an addition of sodium hydroxide was used. The obtained alkali activation solution had silica modulus Ms=1.67. Components of aluminium scrap recycling waste (aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron sulphite (FeSO3)) react in the alkali media and create gases - ammonia and sulphur dioxide, which provide the porous structure of the material [1]. Changes in the chemical composition of ASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analysed by using DTA/TG, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of ASC was determined by XRD. The density of ASC was measured in accordance with EN 1097-7. ASC with density around 560 kg/m3 and heat resistance up to 1100°C with shrinkage less than 5% were obtained. The intended use of this material is the application as an insulation material for industrial purposes at elevated temperatures.

  17. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  18. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  19. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  19. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.

  20. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  1. High aluminium content of infant milk formulas.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, R; Hams, G; Meerkin, M; Rosenberg, A R

    1986-01-01

    The aluminium content of several commercially available infant milk formulas was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Results were compared with those for fresh breast milk, cow's milk, and local tap water. Differences in aluminium concentration of greater than 150-fold were found, with the lowest concentrations in breast milk. PMID:3767424

  2. Aluminium Diphosphamethanides: Hidden Frustrated Lewis Pairs.

    PubMed

    Styra, Steffen; Radius, Michael; Moos, Eric; Bihlmeier, Angela; Breher, Frank

    2016-07-04

    The synthesis and characterisation of two aluminium diphosphamethanide complexes, [Al(tBu)2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (3) and [Al(C6 F5 )2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (4), and the silylated analogue, Mes*PCHP(SiMe3 )Mes* (5), are reported. The aluminium complexes feature four-membered PCPAl core structures consisting of diphosphaallyl ligands. The silylated phosphine 5 was found to be a valuable precursor for the synthesis of 4 as it cleanly reacts with the diaryl aluminium chloride [(C6 F5 )2 AlCl]2 . The aluminium complex 3 reacts with molecular dihydrogen at room temperature under formation of the acyclic σ(2) λ(3) ,σ(3) λ(3) -diphosphine Mes*PCHP(H)Mes* and the corresponding dialkyl aluminium hydride [tBu2 AlH]3 . Thus, 3 belongs to the family of so-called hidden frustrated Lewis pairs.

  3. Intestinal absorption of aluminium in renal failure.

    PubMed

    Drüeke, Tilman B

    2002-01-01

    The proportion of the daily ingested aluminium that is absorbed in the intestinal tract has remained a matter of debate for many years because no reliable method of measurement was available. Studies with earlier analytic techniques reported fractional absorption of aluminium from as little as 0.001% to as much as 27% of an oral dose. Measurement of (26)Al by high-energy accelerator mass spectrometry has permitted more accurate analyses. In normal young rats, 0.05-0.1% of ingested aluminium is absorbed in the intestine, of which roughly half goes to the skeleton within 2 h, whereas the remaining half is excreted in the urine, most of it within 48 h. Deposition in organs other than the skeleton appears to be negligible. In healthy human volunteers, the most recent estimates of fractional intestinal (26)Al absorption were also in the range of 0.06-0.1%. In both rats and humans, intestinal absorption of aluminium is subject to many systemic and local factors. The latter include various compounds with which aluminium is complexed in the gut lumen, and gastric acidity. The influence of food is controversial; however, absorption appears higher in the fasted than the post-prandial state. Luminal phosphate concentration decreases aluminium absorption, whereas citrate increases it. For theoretical reasons, silicates should prevent aluminium absorption, but experimental evidence has not supported this theory. Whether water hardness affects aluminium bioavailability remains a matter of debate. General conditions may also modify aluminium absorption and deposition in bone. Examples of these general factors include the uraemic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, secondary hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D status, Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Awareness of intestinal absorption of aluminium is particularly important, given that aluminium-based binders continue to be used in uraemic patients, despite the hazards of aluminium accumulation. The lessons we have learned about

  4. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH....

  5. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes for electrochemical...Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Report Title Hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer ...constructing HEMs. EXPLORING ALKALINE STABLE ORGANIC CATIONS FOR POLYMER HYDROXIDE EXCHANGE MEMBRANES by Bingzi Zhang

  6. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  7. Study of Sorption Properties of Aluminium Oxides and Hydroxides Powders Obtained by Electro-Impulse Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravkov, S. P.; Lobanova, G. L.; Martemiyanov, D. V.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2015-04-01

    Experimental results of physicochemical and sorption properties of material samples obtained by electro-spark dispersion in water and by conductor electric explosion in argon are shown in the paper. Due to comparison of investigated samples sorption activity under static conditions, it was able to determine the most effective samples in the process of extraction of Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions.

  8. The removal of iron from molten aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Donk, H.M. van der; Nijhof, G.H.; Castelijns, C.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this work an overview is given about the techniques available for the removal of metallic impurities from molten aluminium. The overview is focused on the removal of iron. Also, some experimental results are given about the creation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds in an aluminium system, which are subsequently removed by gravity segregation and filtration techniques. This work is part of an ongoing research project of three major European aluminium companies who are co-operating on the subject of recycling of aluminium packaging materials recovered from household waste by means of Eddy-Current techniques. Using this technique the pick-up of some contaminating metals, particularly iron, is almost unavoidable.

  9. Novel method for joining CFRP to aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, F.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.; Schiebel, P.; Hoffmeister, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    The current state of the art in joining of carbon-fibre reinforced composites (CFRP) to metals such as aluminium is - for the case of aircraft structures, e.g.- riveting or bolting. However, to reduce structural weight and improve structural performance, integral, load-bearing aluminium-CFRP-structures are desirable. To produce such structures, a novel joint configuration together with an appropriate thermal, laser-based joining process is suggested by the authors. In this paper, the joint configuration (based on CFRP-Ti-aluminium joints) and the laser beam conduction welding process will be presented, and first specimens obtained will be discussed with respect to their properties. It will be shown that the novel approach is in principle suitable to produce load-bearing CFRP-aluminium structures.

  10. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  11. Booster vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus in man. Comparison of three different vaccine formulations--III.

    PubMed

    Aggerbeck, H; Wantzin, J; Heron, I

    1996-09-01

    Adverse reactions and antibody levels were compared following a booster vaccination of 177 Danish military recruits with a plain, an aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg Al per human dose, HD) and a calcium phosphate (0.25 mg Ca per HD) adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus (D-T) vaccine. The calcium phosphate adsorbed vaccine was given in a HD of 3 Lf of D and T toxoids and proved to be of equal efficacy as the aluminium hydroxide adsorbed vaccine which was injected in a dose containing twice the antigen amount. The calcium phosphate vaccine caused fewer adverse reactions than the one adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide. The plain vaccine (6 Lf per HD of D and T toxoid) had the highest efficacy with a similar low occurrence of adverse reactions as the calcium phosphate adsorbed vaccine. Potency assays in mice were in accordance with these immunogenicity results in man if a two dose immunization schedule was followed, but not if the vaccines were compared after a single immunization as requested by the procedure for potency testing according to current WHO and European Pharmacopoeia requirements. Both of the adsorbed vaccines primed mice for specific IgE antibody formation. This could be detected after a second immunization with either of the adsorbed vaccines or with the plain D-T vaccine. Also in humans, immunization with the plain vaccine boosted specific IgE formation to a detectable level. This may be ascribed to adjuvant priming during the primary vaccination series some 20 years previously.

  12. An empirical model to estimate density of sodium hydroxide solution: An activator of geopolymer concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2016-02-01

    Geopolymer concrete is zero-Portland cement concrete containing alumino-silicate based inorganic polymer as binder. The polymer is obtained by chemical activation of alumina and silica bearing materials, blast furnace slag by highly alkaline solutions such as hydroxide and silicates of alkali metals. Sodium hydroxide solutions of different concentrations are commonly used in making GPC mixes. Often, it is seen that sodium hydroxide solution of very high concentration is diluted with water to obtain SHS of desired concentration. While doing so it was observed that the solute particles of NaOH in SHS tend to occupy lower volumes as the degree of dilution increases. This aspect is discussed in this paper. The observed phenomenon needs to be understood while formulating the GPC mixes since this influences considerably the relationship between concentration and density of SHS. This paper suggests an empirical formula to relate density of SHS directly to concentration expressed by w/w.

  13. Properties of oxide-hydroxide sintered ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R. V.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  14. Investigation of the formability of aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, M.; Budai, D.; Kovács, P. Z.; Lukács, Zs

    2016-11-01

    Aluminium alloys are more and more widely applied in car body manufacturing. Increasing the formability of aluminium alloys are one of the most relevant tasks in todays’ research topics. In this paper, the focus will be on the investigation of the formability of aluminium alloys concerning those material grades that are more widely applied in the automotive industry including the 5xxx and 6xxx aluminium alloy series. Recently, besides the cold forming of aluminium sheets the forming of aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures became a hot research topic, too. In our experimental investigations, we mostly examined the EN AW 5754 and EN AW 6082 aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures. We analysed the effect of various material and process parameters (e.g. temperature, sheet thickness) on the formability of aluminium alloys with particular emphasis on the Forming Limit Diagrams at elevated temperatures in order to find the optimum forming conditions for these alloys.

  15. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M; Cui, Zhengrong

    2014-01-10

    Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1-20μm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the present study, we synthesized aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles of 112nm. Using ovalbumin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens, we showed that protein antigens adsorbed on the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles induced a stronger antigen-specific antibody response than the same protein antigens adsorbed on the traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles of around 9.3μm. The potent adjuvant activity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles was likely related to their ability to more effectively facilitate the uptake of the antigens adsorbed on them by antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced by microparticles. Simply reducing the particle size of the traditional aluminum hydroxide adjuvant into nanometers represents a novel and effective approach to improve its adjuvanticity.

  16. [Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rosa Marie Ø; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2015-04-27

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site – vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark.

  17. A study on the structure and electrochemical characteristics of a Ni/Al double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Fu Zhong; Quan, Jiang Wen; Min, Yu Li; Peng, Zhang; Jun, Jiang Li

    2004-10-01

    Aluminium-substituted nickel based layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Ni0.78Zn0.04Co0.04Co0.02Al0.16(OH)2(CO3)0.08· 1.0H2O, were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitating process. It was shown that the structure of the LDHs is similar with that of α-Ni(OH)2 investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The electrode comprising the LDHs was charged/discharged according to a galvanostatic model, and displayed better discharge capacity than the common β-Ni(OH)2 electrode. In addition, the effects of losing structure water on structure and electrochemical performance were investigated.

  18. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  19. Flow and sequential injection methods for the spectrofluorimetric determination of aluminium in pharmaceutical products using chromotropic acid as chromogenic reagent.

    PubMed

    Themelis, Demetrius G; Kika, Fotini S

    2006-06-16

    This work reports rapid and sensitive FI and SI spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of aluminium in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the reaction of aluminium with chromotropic acid (CA) in acidic medium to form a water-soluble complex (lambdaex.=360 nm, lambdaem.=385 nm). The proposed methods were validated in terms of linearity, repeatability, detection limit, accuracy and selectivity. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.03-2.0 and 0.1-4.0mg/l of aluminium using the FI and SI assays, respectively. The repeatabilities (sr=0.8% and 1.1% at 1mg/l aluminium using the FI and the SI assay, respectively, n=12) were satisfactory. The FI and SI methods proved to be adequately selective and sensitive with respective 3sigma limits of detection equal to cL=0.01 and 0.03 mg/l Al(III). The sampling rates were 120 and 72 h(-1) with the FI and SI assay. The methods were applied successfully to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and suspensions). The results were in good agreement with those by an official reference method and the nominal values of the pharmaceutical products.

  20. Aluminium in over-the-counter drugs: risks outweigh benefits?

    PubMed

    Reinke, Claudia M; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Leuenberger, Hans

    2003-01-01

    In the early 1970s, aluminium toxicity was first implicated in the pathogenesis of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure involving bone (renal osteomalacia) or brain tissue (dialysis encephalopathy). Before that time the toxic effects of aluminium ingestion were not considered to be a major concern because absorption seemed unlikely to occur. Meanwhile, aluminium toxicity has been investigated in countless epidemiological and clinical studies as well as in animal experiments and many papers have been published on the subject. It is now commonly acknowledged that aluminium toxicity can be induced by infusion of aluminium-contaminated dialysis fluids, by parenteral nutrition solutions, and by oral exposure as a result of aluminium-containing pharmaceutical products such as aluminium-based phosphate binders or antacid intake. Over-the-counter antacids are the most important source for human aluminium exposure from a quantitative point of view. However, aluminium can act as a powerful neurological toxicant and provoke embryonic and fetal toxic effects in animals and humans after gestational exposure. Despite these facts, the patient information leaflets from European antacids that are available OTC show substantial differences regarding warnings from aluminium toxicity. It seems advisable that all patients should receive the same information on aluminium toxicity from patient information leaflets, in particular with regard to the increased absorption through concomitant administration with citrate-containing beverages and the use of such antacids during pregnancy.

  1. The interrelationship between silicon and aluminium in the biological effects of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Birchall, J D

    1992-01-01

    It is well established that aluminium is toxic at the cellular level and that pathological symptoms follow its entry into organisms (plants, fish, humans) when the normal exclusion mechanisms fail or are bypassed, as for example in renal dialysis. The present debate concerns the availability of environmental aluminium and the possible impact of its slow and insidious absorption and accumulation in vulnerable individuals. Silicon is considered as essential element but the mechanisms underlying its essentiality remain unknown and binding of the element (through oxygen) with biomolecules has not been demonstrated. There is, however, a unique affinity between aluminium and silicon, not only in solid state chemistry ([AlO4]5- and [SiO4]4- are isostructural), but also in aqueous solution chemistry as illustrated by the synthesis of zeolite from aluminate and silicate anions at high pH and under hydrothermal conditions. This affinity exists also in very dilute solution (< 10(-5) M) at near-neutral pH when hydroxyalumino-silicate species form. These species mediate the bioavailability and cellular toxicity of aluminium. The observed effects of silicon deficiency can be attributed to consequential aluminium availability. There are important implications for the epidemiology and biochemistry of aluminium-induced disorders and any consideration of one element must include the other.

  2. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  3. Effect of aluminium chloride on human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-03-01

    Aluminium (Al), which is the most prevalent metal in the earth's crust, has been implicated as an etiological factor in a variety of clinical disorders. Only recently Al has been discussed in the pathogenesis of the parenteral nutrition - associated liver disease. Included in this report are the preliminary findings on its effects on the reproductive functions of human beings.

  4. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  5. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Yinggang; Liu, Shuangyan; Li, Yulong; Lu, Guoxing

    2015-09-01

    The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ˜ 30 m/s) was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ˜10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ˜10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  6. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as <0.025μm filtered, <0.45μm filtered (dissolved) and unfiltered (total) present in solution over the 72-h bioassay. The chronic population growth rate inhibition after aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (p<0.05) increasing with initial cell density from 10(3) to 10(5)cells/mL. No effects on plasma membrane permeability were observed for any of the three diatoms suggesting that mechanisms of aluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated

  7. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study (P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  8. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  9. Assessing aluminium toxicity in streams affected by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Waters, A S; Webster-Brown, J G

    2013-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has degraded water quality and ecology in streams on the Stockton Plateau, the site of New Zealand's largest open-cast coal mining operation. This has previously been attributed largely to the effects of acidity and elevated aluminium (Al) concentrations. However, the toxicity of dissolved Al is dependent on speciation, which is influenced by pH which affects Al hydrolysis, as well as the concentrations of organic carbon and sulphate which complex Al. Methods for the assessment of the toxic fraction of Al, by chemical analysis and geochemical modelling, have been investigated in selected streams on the Stockton Plateau, where dissolved Al concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 27 mg L(-1). Modelling using PHREEQC indicated that between 0.2 and 85% of the dissolved Al was present as the free ion Al(3+), the most toxic Al species, which dominated in waters of pH = 3.8-4.8. Al-sulphate complexation reduced the Al(3+) concentration at lower pH, while Al-organic and -hydroxide complexes dominated at higher pH. Macroinvertebrate richness in the streams identified an Al(3+) 'threshold' of approximately 0.42 mg/L, above which taxa declined rapidly. Colorimetric 'Aluminon' analysis on unpreserved, unfiltered waters provided a better estimation of Al(3+) concentrations than inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on filtered, acidified waters. The Aluminon method does not react with particulate Al or strong Al complexes, often registering as little as 53% of the dissolved Al concentration determined by ICP-MS.

  10. The intercalation of bicyclic and tricyclic carboxylates into layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aamir I.; Williams, Gareth R.; Hu, Gang; Rees, Nicholas H.; O'Hare, Dermot

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-four nanocomposites built from layered double hydroxides and bicyclic and tricyclic carboxylates have been synthesised for the first time. Eight carboxylates were successfully intercalated into [LiAl 2(OH) 6]Cl· yH 2O, [Ca 2Al(OH) 6]NO 3· yH 2O, and [Mg 2Al(OH) 6]NO 3· yH 2O, and the products fully characterised. Guest species incorporated include 1-adamantane carboxylate (1- AC) and 5-norbornene-2- endo-3- exo-dicarboxylate. In some cases, carbonate anions were co-intercalated with the organic guest, and in others poorly crystalline aluminium hydroxides formed as by-products. Sharper resonances were observed in the 13C solid-state NMR spectra of the 1- AC intercalates than in the spectrum of pure 1- AC, suggesting increased order in the arrangement of the cyclic cages in the intercalates. Where possible, time-resolved in situ X-ray diffraction was employed to study the nanoscopic steps involved in the intercalation reactions. These investigations showed that the reactions are one-step processes, proceeding directly to the fully exchanged intercalate with no intermediate phases. The intercalation processes were found to be nucleation controlled.

  11. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  12. Microemulsion extraction separation and determination of aluminium species by spectrofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jusheng; Tian, Jiuying; Guo, Na; Wang, Yan; Pan, Yichun

    2011-01-30

    A simple and sensitive microemulsion extraction separation method was developed for the speciation of aluminium in tea samples by spectrofluorimetry. With 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as the chelating agent and Triton X-100 Winsor II microemulsion as the extractant, separation of aluminium species in different pH solutions was achieved by microemulsion extraction. The formation of microemulsion, the conditions of extraction and determination of aluminium species were studied. The results showed that, the contents of aluminium species in tea leaves and infusions samples, such as total aluminium, total soluble aluminium, total granular aluminium, inorganic aluminium except Al-F, and (Al-F+Al-org), were obtained successfully under the optimal conditions. The limit of detection was 0.23 μg L(-1) in pH 9.5 solution, and 0.59 μg L(-1) in pH 6.0 solution respectively; the precision (RSD) for 11 replicate measurements of 10 μg L(-1) aluminium was 2.1% in pH 9.5 solution, and 2.8% in pH 6.0 solution respectively; the recoveries for the spiked samples were 96.8-103.5%. The proposed method is simple and efficient, which has been applied to the speciation of aluminium in tea samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Ambreen; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Exley, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    The genetic predispositions which describe a diagnosis of familial Alzheimer's disease can be considered as cornerstones of the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Essentially they place the expression and metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein as the main tenet of disease aetiology. However, we do not know the cause of Alzheimer's disease and environmental factors may yet be shown to contribute towards its onset and progression. One such environmental factor is human exposure to aluminium and aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have made the first ever measurements of aluminium in brain tissue from 12 donors diagnosed with familial Alzheimer's disease. The concentrations of aluminium were extremely high, for example, there were values in excess of 10μg/g tissue dry wt. in 5 of the 12 individuals. Overall, the concentrations were higher than all previous measurements of brain aluminium except cases of known aluminium-induced encephalopathy. We have supported our quantitative analyses using a novel method of aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy to visualise aluminium in all lobes of every brain investigated. The unique quantitative data and the stunning images of aluminium in familial Alzheimer's disease brain tissue raise the spectre of aluminium's role in this devastating disease.

  14. Development of biodegradable aluminium carboxymethylcellulose matrices for mosquito larvicides.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Kalyanasundaram, Muthuswami

    2004-07-01

    The use of ecofriendly biodegradable controlled-release formulations of mosquito larvicides could reduce the frequency of application and losses due to degradation of the insecticide compared with conventional formulations. Among the 20 matrices developed by entrapping the organophosphorus mosquito larvicide, fenthion, in carboxymethylcellulose ionotropically cross-linked with aluminium ions which were studied for release profiles, two matrices, CRF3b and CRF5b, were found to be stable for 16 and 14 weeks under simulated field conditions. The average concentration of fenthion released per week ranged from 0.06 to 3.5 mg litre(-1) for CRF3b and 0.09 to 2.72 mg litre(-1) for CRF5b. Of these two formulations, CRF3b was the more stable, maintaining the concentration of the active ingredient at the level required to effect mosquito control. The cumulative release of fenthion per pellet was 80% from CRF3b and 72% from CRF5b. Based on the study with fenthion, two similar matrices for triflumuron, a benzoylphenylurea insect growth regulator, STAR3b and STAR5b were developed. These matrices were stable up to 16 weeks with the average concentration of triflumuron released per week ranging from 0.05 to 3.44 mg litre(-1) for STAR3b and 0.07 to 2.71 mg litre(-1) for STARSb. The cumulative release of triflumuron per pellet was 75% from STAR3b and 76% from STAR5b. From the results of this study under simulated conditions, it is estimated that the application of four pellets of either fenthion or triflumuron per square metre of the breeding surface may play a useful role in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus Say in larval habitats for about 4 months.

  15. [Calcium hydroxide in the treatment of traumatized teeth].

    PubMed

    Cvek, M

    1989-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide is used in the treatment of different traumatized teeth. New concepts about the effects of calcium hydroxide on vital pulps and immature non vital teeth are developed. Some clinical techniques and their results are described.

  16. Tribological properties of aluminium-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias Victoria, Patricia

    In order to improve the tribological performance of the aluminium-steel contact, two research lines have been followed: (1) Use of the ordered fluids liquid crystals and ionic liquids as lubricant additives. (2) Tribological behaviour of new powder metallurgy aluminium materials processed by mechanical milling. A parafinic-naftenic base oil modified by a 1wt% of four additives has been used: Three liquid crystals with increasing polarity: 4,4' -dibutylazobenzene (LC1) < colesteryl linoleate (LC2) < n-dodecyl ammonium chloride (LC3), and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl, 3-methyl-imidazolonium tetrafluoroborate. This is the first time that a ionic liquid is studied as lubricant additive. Viscosity measurements at 25 and 100°C, maximum number of molecules by unit aluminium surface and comparative costs of the additives showed the advantage of the ionic additives over the neutral ones. Pin-on-disk tests were performed according to ASTM G99. Influence of load, speed and temperature on friction and wear was studied for each additive. While the ionic liquid gives low friction (<0.1) and wear (≤10-5 mm3m-1), the performance of the liquid crystalline additives depends on the conditions. LC3 shows a higher lubricating ability than the neutral LC1 and LC2 under high load, speed or temperature. Only the ionic liquid shows tribochemical interaction (by SEM and EDS) with the steel and aluminium surfaces, with an increment in the fluorine content inside the wear track. The second line was to study the influence of the process conditions on the dry and lubricated wear of new powder-metallurgy aluminium materials. MA Al-NH3 milled under NH3 atmosphere was compared with (MA Al-Air) processed in air and with Al-1 which has not been mechanically alloyed. Conditions for mild to severe wear transition have been established. Al-1 is always under a severe wear regime. MA Al-NH3 shows transition to severe wear at 150°C, showing a 60% reduction in wear rate with respect to MA Al-Air and a two

  17. Modelling of stress fields during LFEM DC casting of aluminium billets by a meshless method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrič, B.; Šarler, B.

    2015-06-01

    Direct Chill (DC) casting of aluminium alloys is a widely established technology for efficient production of aluminium billets and slabs. The procedure is being further improved by the application of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (LFEM) in the area of the mold. Novel LFEM DC processing technique affects many different phenomena which occur during solidification, one of them being the stresses and deformations present in the billet. These quantities can have a significant effect on the quality of the cast piece, since they impact porosity, hot-tearing and cold cracking. In this contribution a novel local radial basis function collocation method (LRBFCM) is successfully applied to the problem of stress field calculation during the stationary state of DC casting of aluminium alloys. The formulation of the method is presented in detail, followed by the presentation of the tackled physical problem. The model describes the deformations of linearly elastic, inhomogeneous isotropic solid with a given temperature field. The temperature profile is calculated using the in-house developed heat and mass transfer model. The effects of low frequency EM casting process parameters on the vertical, circumferential and radial stress and on the deformation of billet surface are presented. The application of the LFEM appears to decrease the amplitudes of the tensile stress occurring in the billet.

  18. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  20. Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

  1. Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

  2. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  18. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  4. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention.

  5. What is the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin?

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium is neurotoxic. Its free ion, Al(3+) (aq), is highly biologically reactive and uniquely equipped to do damage to essential cellular (neuronal) biochemistry. This unequivocal fact must be the starting point in examining the risk posed by aluminium as a neurotoxin in humans. Aluminium is present in the human brain and it accumulates with age. The most recent research demonstrates that a significant proportion of individuals older than 70 years of age have a potentially pathological accumulation of aluminium somewhere in their brain. What are the symptoms of chronic aluminium intoxication in humans? What if neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are the manifestation of the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin? How might such an (outrageous) hypothesis be tested?

  6. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2003-09-01

    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  7. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-16

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  8. Structural engineering of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide by pulse anodization of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo; Schwirn, Kathrin; Steinhart, Martin; Pippel, Eckhard; Scholz, Roland; Gösele, Ulrich

    2008-04-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide has traditionally been made in one of two ways: mild anodization or hard anodization. The first method produces self-ordered pore structures, but it is slow and only works for a narrow range of processing conditions; the second method, which is widely used in the aluminium industry, is faster, but it produces films with disordered pore structures. Here we report a novel approach termed "pulse anodization" that combines the advantages of the mild and hard anodization processes. By designing the pulse sequences it is possible to control both the composition and pore structure of the anodic aluminium oxide films while maintaining high throughput. We use pulse anodization to delaminate a single as-prepared anodic film into a stack of well-defined nanoporous alumina membrane sheets, and also to fabricate novel three-dimensional nanostructures.

  9. Lab scale study on electrocoagulation defluoridation process optimization along with aluminium leaching in the process and comparison with full scale plant operation.

    PubMed

    Gwala, Poonam; Andey, Subhash; Mhaisalkar, Vasant; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Pimpalkar, Sarika; Kshirsagar, Chetan

    2011-01-01

    An excess or lack of fluoride in drinking water is harmful to human health. Desirable and permissible standards of fluoride in drinking water are 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively, as per Indian drinking water quality standards i.e., BIS 10500, 1991. In this paper, the performance of an electro-coagulation defluoridation batch process with aluminium electrodes was investigated. Different operational conditions such as fluoride concentration in water, pH and current density were varied and performance of the process was examined. Influence of operational conditions on (i) electrode polarization phenomena, (ii) pH evolution during electrolysis and (iii) the amount of aluminium released (coagulant) was investigated. Removal by electrodes is primarily responsible for the high defluoridation efficiency and the adsorption by hydroxide aluminium floc provides secondary effect. Experimental data obtained at optimum conditions that favored simultaneous mixing and flotation confirmed that concentrations lower than 1 mg/L could be achieved when initial concentrations were between 2 and 20 mg/L. pH value was found to be an important parameter that affected fluoride removal significantly. The optimal initial pH range is between 6 and 7 at which effective defluoridation and removal efficiencies over 98% were achieved. Furthermore, experimental results prominently displayed that an increase in current density substantially reduces the treatment duration, but with increased residual aluminium level. The paper focuses on pilot scale defluoridation process optimization along with aluminium leaching and experimental results were compared with a full-scale plant having capacity of 600 liter per batch.

  10. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  11. Particle size and shape of calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; D’souza, Rena N; Dechow, Paul C; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spångberg, Larz S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the particle length, width, perimeter, and aspect ratio of calcium hydroxide powder using a flow particle image analyzer (FPIA). Five sample groups each with 10mg calcium hydroxide were mixed with 15mL of alcohol and sonicated. Digital images of the particle samples were taken using the FPIA and analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. The overall averages±S.D. among the five groups for particle length (μm), width (μm), perimeter (μm), and aspect ratio were 2.255±1.994, 1.620±1.464, 6.699±5.598, and 0.737±0.149, respectively. No statistical significance was observed among the groups for all parameters. When the total of 46,818 particles from all five groups were classified into the five length categories of 0.5μm increments, there were significant differences in width, perimeter, and aspect ratio (all p-values<0.0001). In conclusion, calcium hydroxide particles have a size and shape that may allow direct penetration into open dentin tubules. PMID:19166791

  12. Hydroxide catalysis bonding for astronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veggel, Anna-Maria A.; Killow, Christian J.

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) as a jointing technique has been under development for astronomical applications since ˜1998 (patented by D.-H. Gwo). It uses an aqueous hydroxide solution to form a chemical bond between oxide or oxidisable materials (e.g., SiO2, sapphire, silicon and SiC). It forms strong, extremely thin bonds, and is suitable for room temperature bonding, precision alignment, operation in ultra-low vacuum and down to temperatures of 2.5 K. It has been applied in the NASA satellite mission Gravity Probe B and in the ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detector GEO600. It will soon fly again on the ESA LISA Pathfinder mission and is currently being implemented in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo ground-based GW detectors. This technique is also of considerable interest for use in other astronomical fields and indeed more broadly, due to its desirable, and adjustable, combination of properties. This paper gives an overview of how HCB has been and can be applied in astronomical instruments, including an overview of the current literature on the properties of hydroxide catalysis bonds.

  13. Speciation analysis of aluminium and aluminium fluoride complexes by HPIC-UVVIS.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta

    2010-10-15

    The study presents a new analytical method for speciation analysis in fractionation of aluminium fluoride complexes and free Al(3+) in soil samples. Aluminium speciation was studied in model solutions and soil extract samples by means of high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) with UV-VIS detection using post-column reaction with tiron for the separation and detection of aluminium fluoride complex and Al(3+) forms during one analysis. The paper presents particular stages of the chromatographic process optimization involving selecting the appropriate eluent strength, type of elution or concentration and quantity of derivatization reagent. HPIC was performed on a bifunctional analytical column Dionex IonPac CS5A. The use of gradient elution and the eluents A: 1M NH(4)Cl and B: water acidified to pH of eluent phase, enabled full separation of fluoride aluminium forms as AlF(2)(+), AlF(3)(0), AlF(4)(-) (first signal), AlF(2+) (second signal) and form Al(3+) in a single analytical procedure. The proposed new method HPIC-UVVIS was applied successfully in the quantitative and qualitative analysis of soil samples.

  14. Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization--a review.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E

    2012-05-30

    Aluminium salt slag (also known as aluminium salt cake), which is produced by the secondary aluminium industry, is formed during aluminium scrap/dross melting and contains 15-30% aluminium oxide, 30-55% sodium chloride, 15-30% potassium chloride, 5-7% metallic aluminium and impurities (carbides, nitrides, sulphides and phosphides). Depending on the raw mix the amount of salt slag produced per tonne of secondary aluminium ranges from 200 to 500 kg. As salt slag has been classified as toxic and hazardous waste, it should be managed in compliance with the current legislation. Its landfill disposal is forbidden in most of the European countries and it should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This paper presents a review of the aluminium salt slag chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as various processes for metal recovery, recycling of sodium and potassium chlorides content back to the smelting process and preparation of value added products from the final non metallic residue.

  15. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium.

  16. Galvanised steel to aluminium joining by laser and GTAW processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, G.; Peyre, P.; Deschaux Beaume, F. Stuart, D.; Fras, G.

    2008-12-15

    A new means of assembling galvanised steel to aluminium involving a reaction between solid steel and liquid aluminium was developed, using laser and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. A direct aluminium melting strategy was investigated with the laser process, whereas an aluminium-induced melting by steel heating and heat conduction through the steel was carried out with the GTAW process. The interfaces generated during the interaction were mainly composed of a 2-40 {mu}m thick intermetallic reaction layers. The linear strength of the assemblies can be as high as 250 N/mm and 190 N/mm for the assemblies produced respectively by laser and GTAW processes. The corresponding failures were located in the fusion zone of aluminium (laser assemblies), or in the reaction layer (GTAW assemblies)

  17. Experimental investigations on mechanical behavior of aluminium metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, A. M.; Kaleemulla, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Today we are widely using aluminium based metal matrix composite for structural, aerospace, marine and automobile applications for its light weight, high strength and low production cost. The purpose of designing metal matrix composite is to add the desirable attributes of metals and ceramics to the base metal. In this study we developed aluminium metal matrix hybrid composite by reinforced Aluminium7075 alloy with silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminium oxide (alumina) by method of stir casting. This technique is less expensive and very effective. The Hardness test and Wear test were performed on the specimens which are prepared by stir casting techniques. The result reveals that the addition of silicon carbide and alumina particles in aluminium matrix improves the mechanical properties.

  18. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  19. Multilayer roll bonded aluminium foil: processing, microstructure and flow stress

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, C.Y.; Nielsen, P.; Hansen, N

    2004-08-02

    Bulk aluminium has been produced by warm-rolling followed by cold-rolling of commercial purity (99% purity) aluminium foil. The bonding appeared perfect from observation with the naked eye, light and transmission electron microscopy. By comparison with bulk aluminium of similar purity (AA1200) rolled to a similar strain (90%RA), the roll-bonded metal showed a much higher density of high-angle grain boundaries, similar strength and improved thermal stability. This study has implications for a number of applications in relation to the processing of aluminium. Roll bonding is of interest as a method for grain size refinement; oxide-containing materials have increased strength, enhanced work-hardening behaviour, and exhibit alterations in recrystallisation behaviour. The behaviour of the hard oxide film is of interest in aluminium processing, and has been investigated by characterising the size and distribution of oxide particles in the roll-bonded samples.

  20. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer. PMID:25922850

  1. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  2. Acoustic Emission from the Aluminium Alloy 7050.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    thick-section applications, has good stress - corrosion resistance, and is now being used in airframe construction. In this report, we present our AE...160.00 1S0.00 200.90 2SO.I9 TIMlE (sec) Fig. 8 Count-rate/time and nominal- stress /time curves for 7050 C-specimen (a) and 0-speimen lb). CO 0 CC 0T LLQ...A094 38" AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABS MELBOURNE (AUSTRALIA) F/6 11/6 ACOUSTIC EMISSION FROM THE ALUMINIUM ALLOY 7050 .(U) OCT 79 S M COUSLAND, C M SCALA

  3. Forming of aluminium alloy friction stir welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The present paper aims at investigating, through analytical models, numerical models and experiments, the effect of the warm deformation phase, realised with an in temperature upsetting, on the weld previously performed by friction stir lap welding on aluminium alloy blanks. The investigation allows to show the deformation zones after upsetting that determine the homogenisation of the weld section. The analytical model allows to relate the friction factor with the upsetting load. The presence on the weld of not elevated friction factor values determines the deformation and localisation levels very useful for the weld. Such methodology allows to improve the weld itself with the forming phase.

  4. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-02

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments.

  5. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  6. Ionic conductivity of single crystals of sodium aluminium germanate Na8Al6Ge6O24(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, N. I.

    2015-09-01

    The electrical conductivity of single crystals of sodium aluminium germanate Na8Al6Ge6O24(OH)2 (cubic system, sp. gr. ), which is a germanium analog of sodalite, has been studied in the temperature range of 468‒758 K. Na8Al6Ge6O24(OH)2 crystals are obtained by hydrothermal synthesis (temperature in the dissolution zone 573‒673 K, temperature gradient ~1.5 K/cm). NaAlO2 and GeO2В oxides are used as starting reagents; NaOH hydroxide serves as a solvent. The ionic conductivity of Na8Al6Ge6O24(OH)2 crystals is 2 × 10-4 S/cm (at 758 K); the activation energy of ionic transfer is 0.46 ± 0.03 eV.

  7. Aluminium uptake and excretion in potroom workers of a new primary aluminium smelter during the construction stage.

    PubMed

    Röllin, H B; Theodorou, P; Nogueir, C M; Levin, J

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to define bio-accumulation and excretion patterns of aluminium in newly employed potroom workers as well as changes in ambient aluminium levels in the potrooms of a modern aluminium smelter during the plant construction stage and one year into full production. A study was carried out on 115 newly employed volunteer potroom workers at various intervals, over a total period of 36 months. Before commencement of employment a structured questionnaire was completed by all study participants and the first collection of blood and urine specimens took place. As none of the subjects had ever worked in the aluminium industry before, they also served as their own controls. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the aluminium content in the biological fluids and the content of the metal in the ambient air of the potrooms. Significantly, the study found an early and marked biological response to inhalation of very low levels of airborne aluminium. After only 12 months, the mean concentration of aluminium in serum had almost doubled; thereafter it levelled off. A mixed model analysis did not find any differences in the concentrations of aluminium in the serum of the subjects since the variation between subjects at any given time was much smaller than the variation within subjects. This may be an indication of the pronounced effect of aluminium inhalation on the kinetics of this metal in the human body. Furthermore, urinary excretion of aluminium by the potroom workers showed a linear increase reaching a concentration of only 49 microg l(-1) at the 36 month stage, suggesting a slow rate of elimination.

  8. Study on aluminium-based single films.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G S; García-Moreno, F; Babcsán, N; Brothers, A H; Murty, B S; Banhart, J

    2007-12-28

    In the present paper the authors studied isolated metallic films made from the same material used for making metallic foams, and then characterised their properties. Metal films were made from a liquid aluminium alloy reinforced with ceramic particles of known concentration. Melts without such particles were also investigated. It is shown that stable films could not be made from Al-Si alloy having no particles, and just extremely thin and fragile films could be made from commercially-pure Al. In contrast, aluminium alloys containing particles such as SiC and TiB(2) allowed pulling thin, stable films, which did not rupture. Significant thinning of films was observed when the particle concentration in the melt decreased. By in situ X-ray monitoring of liquid films during pulling, film thickness and drainage effects within the liquid film could be studied. The morphology and microstructure of films was characterised after solidification. Our work shows that the question of how foams are stabilised can be studied using a simplified system such as a film, instead of having to deal with the multitude of different structural elements present in a foam.

  9. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  10. Anticancer nanodelivery system with controlled release property based on protocatechuate–zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid

    PubMed Central

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Abd Gani, Shafinaz; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Background We characterize a novel nanocomposite that acts as an efficient anticancer agent. Methods This nanocomposite consists of zinc layered hydroxide intercalated with protocatechuate (an anionic form of protocatechuic acid), that has been synthesized using a direct method with zinc oxide and protocatechuic acid as precursors. Results The resulting protocatechuic acid nanocomposite (PAN) showed a basal spacing of 12.7 Å, indicating that protocatechuate was intercalated in a monolayer arrangement, with an angle of 54° from the Z-axis between the interlayers of the zinc layered hydroxide, and an estimated drug loading of about 35.7%. PAN exhibited the properties of a mesoporous type material, with greatly enhanced thermal stability of protocatechuate as compared to its free counterpart. The presence of protocatechuate in the interlayers of the zinc layered hydroxide was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Protocatechuate was released from PAN in a slow and sustained manner. This mechanism of release was well represented by a pseudo-second order kinetics model. PAN has shown increased cytotoxicity compared to the free form of protocatechuic acid in all cancer cell lines tested. Tumor growth suppression was extensive, particularly in HepG2 and HT29 cell lines. Conclusion PAN is suitable for use as a controlled release formulation, and our in vitro evidence indicates that PAN is an effective anticancer agent. PAN may have potential as a chemotherapeutic drug for human cancer. PMID:25061291

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and efficacy of antituberculosis isoniazid zinc aluminum-layered double hydroxide based nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin Mahler; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB) is complicated by its long-term treatment, its frequent drug dosing, and the adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. In this study, we have developed two nanocomposites (A and B) by intercalating the anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH) into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides. The average size of the nanocomposites was found to bê164 nm. The efficacy of the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated INH against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was increased by approximately three times more than free INH. The nanocomposites were also found to be active against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to the free INH, the nanodelivery formulation was determined to be three times more biocompatible with human normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and 3T3 fibroblast cells at a very high concentration of 50 µg/mL for up to 72 hours. The in vitro release of INH from the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides was found to be sustained in human body-simulated buffer solutions of pH 4.8 and 7.4. This research is a step forward in making the TB chemotherapy patient friendly.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and efficacy of antituberculosis isoniazid zinc aluminum-layered double hydroxide based nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin Mahler; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB) is complicated by its long-term treatment, its frequent drug dosing, and the adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. In this study, we have developed two nanocomposites (A and B) by intercalating the anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH) into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides. The average size of the nanocomposites was found to bê164 nm. The efficacy of the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated INH against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was increased by approximately three times more than free INH. The nanocomposites were also found to be active against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to the free INH, the nanodelivery formulation was determined to be three times more biocompatible with human normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and 3T3 fibroblast cells at a very high concentration of 50 µg/mL for up to 72 hours. The in vitro release of INH from the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides was found to be sustained in human body-simulated buffer solutions of pH 4.8 and 7.4. This research is a step forward in making the TB chemotherapy patient friendly. PMID:27486322

  13. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  14. Does allergen-specific immunotherapy induce contact allergy to aluminium?

    PubMed

    Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Siemund, Ingrid; Björk, Jonas; Werner, Sonja; Jacobsson, Helene; Güner, Nuray; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Persistent, itching nodules have been reported to appear at the injection site after allergen-specific immuno-therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen extract, occasionally in conjunction with contact allergy to aluminium. This study aimed to quantify the development of contact allergy to aluminium during allergen-specific immunotherapy. A randomized, controlled, single-blind multicentre study of children and adults entering allergen-specific immunotherapy was performed using questionnaires and patch-testing. A total of 205 individuals completed the study. In the 3 study groups all subjects tested negative to aluminium before allergen-specific immunotherapy and 4 tested positive after therapy. In the control group 4 participants tested positive to aluminium. Six out of 8 who tested positive also had atopic dermatitis. Positive test results were found in 5/78 children and 3/127 adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was not shown to be a risk factor for contact allergy to aluminium. Among those who did develop aluminium allergy, children and those with atopic dermatitis were more highly represented.

  15. The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters–much more than aluminium resistance

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Antony J.; Baker, Alison; Muench, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour. Recent evidence has also shown that ALMT proteins can act as key molecular actors in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) signalling, the first evidence that GABA can act as a signal transducer in plants. PMID:27284052

  16. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  17. Aluminium migration into beverages: are dented cans safe?

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Marta I S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2008-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) migration from cans to beer and tea was studied along time. Analyses of Al in the canned drinks were performed till the sell-by date, and, in seven months, aluminium migration was found to increase 0.14 mg L(-1) in beer, and 0.6 mg L(-1) in tea. This study included dented cans from which aluminium migration into tea was found to be particularly severe. Al concentration in dented canned tea increased 9.6 mg L(-1) in seven months.

  18. Aluminium and iron air pollution near an iron casting and aluminium foundry in Turin district (Italy).

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Salvatore; Ferrara, Mauro; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Barbero, Domenico; Baccolo, Tiziana

    2007-09-01

    This work reports the results of an environmental survey carried out in an industrial area in the Province of Turin: its main aim is to assess the levels of iron and aluminium in the outside air during the period from July to September to assess the influence of industrial activity (a cast-iron and aluminium foundry) which is interrupted during the month of August, on the level of metals present in the air. Conducting the analysis during this period of time made it possible to avoid the confounding effect of pollution due to domestic central heating. The measurements were taken from nine areas at different distances from the foundry in the area and according to the direction of the prevailing winds, as deduced from the historical data. The results of this survey show a statistically significant difference in iron and aluminium levels in the outside air in the geographic areas between the two main periods examined: during August (no foundry activity) v/s July-September (foundry activity). The values recorded are: Aluminium 0.4+/-0.45 microg/m(3) v/s 1.12+/-1.29 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001); Iron 0.95+/-0.56 microg/m(3) v/s 1.6+/-1.0 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences between the nine sampling points from the point of view of the sampling sites, climate conditions and wind directions. We found no correlation with car traffic, in terms of the number of vehicles, and metals. The values of iron tended to be higher in the areas farther away from the foundry site in the areas located along the path of the prevailing winds.

  19. DNA strand patterns on aluminium thin films.

    PubMed

    Khatir, Nadia Mahmoudi; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Maryam; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Majid, Wan Haliza Abd; Rahman, Saadah Abdul; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al) metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si) and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS) applications in general.

  20. Telangiectasia in aluminium workers: a follow up.

    PubMed

    Thériault, G; Gingras, S; Provencher, S

    1984-08-01

    A five step investigation was carried out to gain a better understanding of the morbidity that accompanied the development of telangiectasia on aluminium workers and to find its cause. Fifty workers with multiple telangiectasia when matched with normal controls showed the same amount of illness except that evidence of ischaemia on the ECG was found in nine cases and one control. The cases did not show an excess of abnormal biochemical tests. The basic histopathological lesion affected the surrounding tissue rather than the vessels themselves. Working in the current environment and wearing masks seems to protect young workers from developing the lesions. The Soderberg and not the prebake process was associated with the lesions; the causative agent is probably a gas that contains both hydrocarbons and fluoride components emitted from the electrolytic reactors.

  1. Hydrogenated vacancies lock dislocations in aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Degang; Li, Suzhi; Li, Meng; Wang, Zhangjie; Gumbsch, Peter; Sun, Jun; Ma, Evan; Li, Ju; Shan, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Due to its high diffusivity, hydrogen is often considered a weak inhibitor or even a promoter of dislocation movements in metals and alloys. By quantitative mechanical tests in an environmental transmission electron microscope, here we demonstrate that after exposing aluminium to hydrogen, mobile dislocations can lose mobility, with activating stress more than doubled. On degassing, the locked dislocations can be reactivated under cyclic loading to move in a stick-slip manner. However, relocking the dislocations thereafter requires a surprisingly long waiting time of ∼103 s, much longer than that expected from hydrogen interstitial diffusion. Both the observed slow relocking and strong locking strength can be attributed to superabundant hydrogenated vacancies, verified by our atomistic calculations. Vacancies therefore could be a key plastic flow localization agent as well as damage agent in hydrogen environment. PMID:27808099

  2. Hydrogenated vacancies lock dislocations in aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Degang; Li, Suzhi; Li, Meng; Wang, Zhangjie; Gumbsch, Peter; Sun, Jun; Ma, Evan; Li, Ju; Shan, Zhiwei

    2016-11-01

    Due to its high diffusivity, hydrogen is often considered a weak inhibitor or even a promoter of dislocation movements in metals and alloys. By quantitative mechanical tests in an environmental transmission electron microscope, here we demonstrate that after exposing aluminium to hydrogen, mobile dislocations can lose mobility, with activating stress more than doubled. On degassing, the locked dislocations can be reactivated under cyclic loading to move in a stick-slip manner. However, relocking the dislocations thereafter requires a surprisingly long waiting time of ~103 s, much longer than that expected from hydrogen interstitial diffusion. Both the observed slow relocking and strong locking strength can be attributed to superabundant hydrogenated vacancies, verified by our atomistic calculations. Vacancies therefore could be a key plastic flow localization agent as well as damage agent in hydrogen environment.

  3. Organo/layered double hydroxide nanohybrids used to remove non ionic pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chaara, D; Bruna, F; Ulibarri, M A; Draoui, K; Barriga, C; Pavlovic, I

    2011-11-30

    The preparation and characterization of organo/layered double hydroxide nanohybrids with dodecylsulfate and sebacate as interlayer anion were studied in detail. The aim of the modification of the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was to change the hydrophilic character of the interlayer to hydrophobic to improve the ability of the nanohybrids to adsorb non-ionic pesticides such as alachlor and metolachlor from water. Adsorption tests were conducted on organo/LDHs using variable pH values, contact times and initial pesticide concentrations (adsorption isotherms) in order to identify the optimum conditions for the intended purpose. Adsorbents and adsorption products were characterized several physicochemical techniques. The adsorption test showed that a noticeable increase of the adsorption of the non-ionic herbicides was produced. Based on the results, the organo/LDHs could be good adsorbents to remove alachlor and metolachlor from water. Different organo/LDHs complexes were prepared by a mechanical mixture and by adsorption. The results show that HTSEB-based complex displays controlled release properties that reduce metolachlor leaching in soil columns compared to a technical product and the other formulations. The release was dependent on the nature of the adsorbent used to prepare the complexes. Thus, it can be concluded that organo/LDHs might act as suitable supports for the design of pesticide slow release formulations with the aim of reducing the adverse effects derived from rapid transport losses of the chemical once applied to soils.

  4. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures.

  5. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E.; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A.

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  7. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Dessislava; Cenacchi Pereira, Ana; Lansalot, Muriel; D’Agosto, Franck; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Leroux, Fabrice; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Cadars, Sylvian

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH)-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA) and n-butyl acrylate (BA) with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II) and aluminium(III) intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH). At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents) carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA), the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure. PMID:28144548

  8. Incremental forming of aluminium alloys in cryogenic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhove, Hans; Mohammadi, Amirahmad; Duflou, Joost R.

    2016-10-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming processes suffer from stringent forming limits, restricting the range of producible geometries. Through in-process cooling of the sheet to cryogenic level, this paper explores the potential of altering material properties benefiting the formability and residual hardness of different aluminium alloys. Global cooling of aluminium sheets with liquid nitrogen and dry ice allows to reach temperatures of 78K and 193K respectively. Extended with experiments at room temperature (293K), these tests form a base for comparison of surface quality, formability and residual hardness. As an aluminium alloy commonly used for its high strength to weight ratio, but suffering from limited formability compared to draw-quality steels, AA5083-H111 is of interest for cryogenic treatment. AA1050-H24 is included in the test campaign as a base for commercially pure aluminium.

  9. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud.

  10. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  11. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  12. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Mold, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and yet, paradoxically, it has no known biological function. Aluminium is biochemically reactive, it is simply that it is not required for any essential process in extant biota. There is evidence neither of element-specific nor evolutionarily conserved aluminium biochemistry. This means that there are no ligands or chaperones which are specific to its transport, there are no transporters or channels to selectively facilitate its passage across membranes, there are no intracellular storage proteins to aid its cellular homeostasis and there are no pathways which evolved to enable the metabolism and excretion of aluminium. Of course, aluminium is found in every compartment of every cell of every organism, from virus through to Man. Herein we have investigated each of the 'silent' pathways and metabolic events which together constitute a form of aluminium homeostasis in biota, identifying and evaluating as far as is possible what is known and, equally importantly, what is unknown about its uptake, transport, storage and excretion.

  13. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  14. Buckling tests of aluminium columns at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Langhelle, N.K.; Amdahl, J.; Eberg, E.; Lundberg, S.

    1996-12-31

    Accidental fires are events with severe catastrophe potential for all offshore structures, and in particular for aluminium structures. Due to aluminium`s rapid strength degradation at elevated temperatures, this is particular true for aluminium structures. Accurate prediction of fire resistance is therefore essential. Experimental tests are needed to evaluate current design rules and state-of-the-art material models for aluminium under elevated temperatures. An experimental investigation was undertaken in order to study the behavior of AA 6082 alloy aluminium columns at elevated temperatures. Some of the tests were carried out at constant load with increasing temperature. Other tests experienced constant temperature and increasing load. Buckling tests at ambient temperature were also conducted. Particular emphasis was put on high temperature creep effects. The purpose of the tests was to provide data for verification of the material model implemented in the computer program USFOS, for analysis of progressive collapse analyses of space frame structures. The performance of the tempers T4 and T6 as well as columns with transversal welds are compared internally as well as to column buckling curves given in current design codes.

  15. COS, CS2 and SO 2 in aluminium smelter exhaust : The contribution of aluminium production to the global COS budget.

    PubMed

    Harnisch, J; Borchers, R; Fabian, P

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbondisulfide (CS2) were carried out on samples drawn from a smoke stack of an aluminium smelter. Volume mixing ratios of 6 ppm COS and 0.1 ppm CS2 were measured for gases from the electrolysis unit that had previously passed an Al2O3 fluid bed reactor and electrostatic precipitators. Specific emissions of 1.6 kg COS and 0.03 kg CS2 per ton of primary aluminium were found. Extrapolating from this particular smelter's conditions to a world mix specific COS emissions of about 4 kg/t(Al) are calculated resulting in emissions of annually 0.08 Tg COS into the atmosphere due to electrolytic aluminium production in 1995. Besides the photochemical conversion of anthropogenic CS2 aluminium production is established to be the second major industrial source of COS probably exceeding automotive tire wear's and coal combustion's contributions.

  16. CRC/EORTC/NCI Joint Formulation Working Party: experiences in the formulation of investigational cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Beijnen, J. H.; Flora, K. P.; Halbert, G. W.; Henrar, R. E.; Slack, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    The pharmaceutical formulation of a new anti-tumour agent has often been perceived as the bottleneck in anti-cancer drug development. In order to increase the speed of this essential development step, the Cancer Research Campaign (CRC), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) agreed in 1987 to form the Joint Formulation Working Party (JFWP). The main goal of the JFWP is to facilitate the rapid progress of a new drug through pharmaceutical developmental to preclinical toxicology and subsequently to phase I clinical trial. Under the auspices of the JFWP around 50 new agents have been developed or are currently in development. In this report we present our formulation experiences since the establishment of the JFWP with a selected number of agents: aphidicolin glycinate, bryostatin 1, carmethizole, carzelesin, combretastatin A4, dabis maleate, disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine, E.O.9, 4-hydroxyanisole, pancratistatin, rhizoxin, Springer pro-drug, SRI 62-834, temozolomide, trimelamol and V489. The approaches used and problems presented may be of general interest to scientists in related fields and those considering submitting agents for development. PMID:7599054

  17. Psychiatrists' use of formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Both psychologists and psychiatrists are trained to write formulations of their patients' illnesses, with some differences in how they do this. Psychologists focus on psychological understanding, while psychiatrists' formulation brings together aetiology, functioning and a management plan. Mohtashemi et al's study records how some psychiatrists understand formulation and its usefulness. Time pressure was an important barrier to making a full formulation, and some believed the medical role of the psychiatrist was a priority. The study illustrates some of the challenges facing psychiatrists working in the NHS in terms of maintaining high clinical standards and a holistic approach to patient care. PMID:27512593

  18. [Lipid formulations of amphotericin].

    PubMed

    Botero, Martha C; Puentes-Herrera, Marcela; Cortés, Jorge A

    2014-10-01

    Amphotericin B deoxycholate use has increased during the past years in parallel with the increase in the number of immunosuppressed patients suffering invasive fungal infections. This drug is associated with a high rate of side effects, especially renal toxicity. Lipid formulations (liposomal, lipid complex, colloidal suspension and the Indian liposomal formulation) have been developed, which share the same antifungal spectrum but differ in efficacy and toxicity. A review of amphotericin lipid formulations is presented, focusing on differences in efficacy and, especially renal toxicity. The main problem for use of these formulations in Latin America is their highcost.

  19. Accumulation and toxicity of aluminium-contaminated food in the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus.

    PubMed

    Woodburn, Katie; Walton, Rachel; McCrohan, Catherine; White, Keith

    2011-10-01

    The accumulation and toxicity of aluminium in freshwater organisms have primarily been examined following aqueous exposure. This study investigated the uptake, excretion and toxicity of aluminium when presented as aluminium-contaminated food. Adult Pacifastacus leniusculus were fed control (3 μg aluminium/g) or aluminium-spiked pellets (420 μg aluminium/g) over 28 days. Half the crayfish in each group were then killed and the remainder fed control pellets for a further 10 days (clearance period). Concentrations of aluminium plus the essential metals calcium, copper, potassium and sodium were measured in the gill, hepatopancreas, flexor muscle, antennal gland (kidney) and haemolymph. Histopathological analysis of tissue damage and sub-cellular distribution of aluminium were examined in the hepatopancreas. Haemocyte number and protein concentration in the haemolymph were analysed as indicators of toxicity. The hepatopancreas of aluminium-fed crayfish contained significantly more aluminium than controls on days 28 and 38, and this amount was positively correlated with the amount ingested. More than 50% of the aluminium in the hepatopancreas of aluminium-fed crayfish was located in sub-cellular fractions thought to be involved in metal detoxification. Aluminium concentrations were also high in the antennal glands of aluminium-fed crayfish suggesting that some of the aluminium lost from the hepatopancreas is excreted. Aluminium exposure via contaminated food caused inflammation in the hepatopancreas but did not affect the number of circulating haemocytes, haemolymph ion concentrations or protein levels. In conclusion, crayfish accumulate, store and excrete aluminium from contaminated food with only localised toxicity.

  20. Nickel hydroxide/cobalt-ferrite magnetic nanocatalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pooja B; Inam, Fawad; Bhat, Badekai Ramachandra

    2014-08-11

    A magnetically separable, active nickel hydroxide (Brønsted base) coated nanocobalt ferrite catalyst has been developed for oxidation of alcohols. High surface area was achieved by tuning the particle size with surfactant. The surface area of 120.94 m2 g(-1) has been achieved for the coated nanocobalt ferrite. Improved catalytic activity and selectivity were obtained by synergistic effect of transition metal hydroxide (basic hydroxide) on nanocobalt ferrite. The nanocatalyst oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols efficiently (87%) to corresponding carbonyls in good yields.

  1. Fuzzy Multicriteria Ranking of Aluminium Coating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with multicriteria ranking of aluminium coating methods. The alternatives used are: sulfuric acid anodization, A1; oxalic acid anodization, A2; chromic acid anodization, A3; phosphoric acid anodization, A4; integral color anodizing, A5; chemical conversion coating, A6; electrostatic powder deposition, A7. The criteria used are: cost of production, f1; environmental friendliness of production process, f2; appearance (texture), f3; reflectivity, f4; response to coloring, f5; corrosion resistance, f6; abrasion resistance, f7; fatigue resistance, f8. Five experts coming from relevant industrial units set grades to the criteria vector and the preference matrix according to a properly modified Delphi method. Sensitivity analysis of the ranked first alternative A1 against the `second best', which was A3 at low and A7 at high resolution levels proved that the solution is robust. The dependence of anodized products quality on upstream processes is presented and the impact of energy price increase on industrial cost is discussed.

  2. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).

  3. Product development of FGD recovered magnesium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.; Babu, M.; Smith, K.J.

    1999-07-01

    The ThioClear FGD processes developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) produce a high brightness gypsum and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) by-product. Both originate as white precipitates from a solution of magnesium sulfate. The use of magnesium-enhanced lime avoids the mineral impurities from direct neutralization when using pulverized limestone rock. White, pure FGD synthetic gypsum can be used to produce higher value products such as mineral fillers and industrial plasters. This paper focuses on the product development of the Mg(OH){sub 2} by-product. Commercial Mg(OH){sub 2} sells at over $200/Ton for a variety of uses, most of which is wastewater treatment and a feedstock to make magnesium chemicals and refractories. Beneficial uses in the power plant are pH control of acidic coal pile stormwater runoff and bottom ash quench water. A future use being explored is injection into coal fired boilers to neutralize sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) to prevent stack gas opacity related emission problems and minimize air preheater corrosion and fouling. The objective of this project is to improve the purity and solids content of the by-product after it is separated from the gypsum. Several options were investigated to convert it into a more marketable or usable form. Test results and economic evaluations are reported during the different process steps needed to improve the product quality: (1) dissolving or washing out the gypsum impurity; (2) thickening the washed solids and using the overflow for makeup water within the FGD water balance; (3) finding the best means to dewater the washed, thickened slurry; and (4) repulp the dewatered cake into a stabilized slurry or dry it to powder. Flash drying the dewatered cake is compared to spray drying the thickened slurry. FGD Mg(OH){sub 2} is shown to have equal reactivity as an acid neutralization reagent on a Mg(OH){sub 2} molar basis to commercial Mg(OH){sub 2} products and other alkaline reagents. Its use for pH control

  4. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Mavis, Bora

    2003-01-01

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni2+ precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni2+ form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni2+. On the other hand, presence of Al3+ facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni2+ in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator™, Version 1.01) lets the user change

  5. Aluminium recycling and environmental issues of salt slag treatment.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanping; Reuter, Markus A; Boin, Udo

    2005-01-01

    Environmental friendly recycling is the trend toward total recycling of aluminium metal. In the secondary aluminium industry, due to the complexity of compositions and contaminants in the various types of aluminium scraps, an understanding of the behavior of different scraps during melting is crucial in the recycling process. Salt slags are the byproducts of the secondary aluminium industry, which should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This article provides qualitative assessment on 10 different commercial aluminium scraps for their relative recyclability via well-designed and controlled laboratory experiments. It confirms that more nonmetallic contaminants, smaller size, and higher ratio of surface area to body volume generally lead to a lower metal recovery. Recycling the scraps with lower recyclability normally generates more salt slags. High slag viscosity leads to more fine aluminum metal entrapped in the salt slag and thus increases the load of salt slag recycling. It was found that viscosity of the salt flux is increased with the amount of entrapped nonmetallic components, which affect the settling of heavier materials. In addition, the slag samples from the melting tests were leached and analyzed to evaluate the behavior of carbon containing scrap. The elevated carbon content in the scrap resulted in more carbide formation in salt slags and thus more methane generation in salt slag recycling with a higher environmental impact.

  6. Ageing characteristics of aluminium alloy aluminosilicate discontinuous fiber reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, D.; Singh, V.

    1999-03-05

    Development of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites is aimed at providing high specific strength and stiffness needed for aerospace and some critical high temperature structural applications. Considerable efforts have been made, during the last decade, to improve the strength of age-hardening aluminium alloy matrix composites by suitable heat treatment. It has also been well established that age-hardenable aluminium alloy composites show accelerated ageing behavior because of enhanced dislocation density at the fiber/matrix interface resulting from thermal expansion mismatch between ceramic fiber and the metal matrix. The accelerated ageing of aluminium alloy composites either from dislocation density or the residual stress, as a result of thermal expansion mismatch is dependent on the size of whisker and particulate. Investigations have also been made on the effect of volume fraction of particulate on the ageing behavior of aluminium alloys. The present investigation is concerned with characterization of age-hardening behavior of an Al-Si-Cu-Mg(AA 336) alloy alumino-silicate discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites (referred to as aluminium MMCs in the present text) being developed for automotive pistons. An effort is made to study the effect of volume fraction of the reinforcement on age-hardening behavior of this composite.

  7. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W. George

    2009-08-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  8. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  9. Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alexander; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    A process for hydroxide-assisted bonding has been developed as a means of joining optical components made of ultra-low-expansion (ULE) glass, while maintaining sufficiently precise alignment between. The process is intended mainly for use in applications in which (1) bonding of glass optical components by use of epoxy does not enable attainment of the required accuracy and dimensional stability and (2) conventional optical contacting (which affords the required accuracy and stability) does not afford adequate bond strength. The basic concept of hydroxide-assisted bonding is not new. The development of the present process was prompted by two considerations: (1) The expertise in hydroxide-assisted bonding has resided in very few places and the experts have not been willing to reveal the details of their processes and (2) data on the reliability and strength attainable by hydroxide-assisted bonding have been scarce.

  10. Conversion coatings prepared or treated with calcium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating process that forms a stable and corrosion-resistant oxide layer on metal or metal oxide substrates or layers. Particularly, the conversion coating process involves contacting the metal or metal oxide substrate or layer with the aqueous calcium hydroxide solutions in order to convert the surface of the substrate to a stable metal oxide layer or coating. According to the present invention, the calcium hydroxide solution is prepared by removing carbon dioxide from water or an aqueous solution before introducing the calcium hydroxide. In this manner, formation of calcium carbonate particles is avoided and the porosity of the conversion coating produced by the calcium hydroxide solution is reduced to below about 1%.

  11. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  12. Exfoliation of layered double hydroxides for enhanced oxygen evolution catalysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Fang; Hu, Xile

    2014-07-17

    The oxygen evolution reaction is a key reaction in water splitting. The common approach in the development of oxygen evolution catalysts is to search for catalytic materials with new and optimized chemical compositions and structures. Here we report an orthogonal approach to improve the activity of catalysts without alternating their compositions or structures. Specifically, liquid phase exfoliation is applied to enhance the oxygen evolution activity of layered double hydroxides. The exfoliated single-layer nanosheets exhibit significantly higher oxygen evolution activity than the corresponding bulk layered double hydroxides in alkaline conditions. The nanosheets from nickel iron and nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides outperform a commercial iridium dioxide catalyst in both activity and stability. The exfoliation creates more active sites and improves the electronic conductivity. This work demonstrates the promising catalytic activity of single-layered double hydroxides for the oxygen evolution reaction.

  13. The Corrosion Resistance and Paint Adhesion Properties of Chromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminium and Its Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    aluminium and its alloys has been evaluated with respect to both corrosion resistance of, and paint adhesion to, the chromate films. The process involves...The findings in this Report will be used as the basis for a Defence Standard for chromate conversion coatings for aluminium and aluminium alloys...3 PROPRIETARY CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS FOR ALUMINIUM 17 4 PAINT ADHESION 19 5 DISCUSSION 21 6 CONCLUSIONS 24 Acknowledgments 25 Appendix A

  14. Removal of chelated aluminium during haemodialysis using polysulphone high-flux dialysers.

    PubMed

    Aarseth, H P; Ganss, R

    1990-01-01

    Polysulphone high-flux dialysers were used for removal of chelated aluminium in desferrioxamine-treated patients on maintenance haemodialysis. When compared with charcoal haemoperfusion in series with a cuprophane dialyser, the same aluminium clearance was obtained (34% of blood flow). During 4 h of haemodialysis serum aluminium was reduced to the concentration seen before desferrioxamine infusion. We conclude that high-flux polysulphone dialysers remove chelated aluminium as efficiently as does charcoal haemoperfusion, and at a lower cost.

  15. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  16. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from <0.0001 to 752.7 μg L(-1). The aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  17. A heat-stable hepatitis B vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Jezek, Jan; Chen, Dexiang; Watson, Lynne; Crawford, Jill; Perkins, Shalimar; Tyagi, Anil; Jones-Braun, LaToya

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a formulation of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with improved stability at elevated temperatures. A validated in vitro antigen reactivity assay was used to measure the stability of the vaccine. The formulation development focused on modification of the interactions between the antigen and aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and subsequent optimization of the ionic aqueous environment of the adsorbed vaccine. A formulation of hepatitis B vaccine containing 40 mM histidine and 40 mM phosphate at pH 5.2 had considerably improved stability at elevated temperatures as measured by the in vitro antigen reactivity assay. The formulation exhibited 9-week stability at 55 degrees C and was subsequently shown to be stable both at 37 degrees C and at 45 degrees C for at least 6 months based on the in vitro antigen reactivity and immunogenicity in mice. The formulation comprises only excipients which have a history of safe use in approved drug products. The new vaccine formulation has the potential to be used outside the cold chain for part of its shelf life. This may improve the immunization coverage, simplify the logistics for outreach immunization, and ensure the potency of the vaccine in areas where the cold chain is insufficient.

  18. IEC 61267: Feasibility of type 1100 aluminium and a copper/aluminium combination for RQA beam qualities.

    PubMed

    Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Zhao, Wei; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    In the course of performance acceptance testing, benchmarking or quality control of X-ray imaging systems, it is sometimes necessary to harden the X-ray beam spectrum. IEC 61267 specifies materials and methods to accomplish beam hardening and, unfortunately, requires the use of 99.9% pure aluminium (Alloy 1190) for the RQA beam quality, which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Less expensive and more readily available filters, such as Alloy 1100 (99.0% pure) aluminium and copper/aluminium combinations, have been used clinically to produce RQA series without rigorous scientific investigation to support their use. In this paper, simulation and experimental methods are developed to determine the differences in beam quality using Alloy 1190 and Alloy 1100. Additional simulation investigated copper/aluminium combinations to produce RQA5 and outputs from this simulation are verified with laboratory tests using different filter samples. The results of the study demonstrate that although Alloy 1100 produces a harder beam spectrum compared to Alloy 1190, it is a reasonable substitute. A combination filter of 0.5 mm copper and 2 mm aluminium produced a spectrum closer to that of Alloy 1190 than Alloy 1100 with the added benefits of lower exposures and lower batch variability.

  19. Time-resolved aluminium laser-induced plasma temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmick, D. M.; Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    We seek to characterize the temperature decay of laser-induced plasma near the surface of an aluminium target from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of aluminium alloy sample. Laser-induced plasma are initiated by tightly focussing 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Temperatures are inferred from aluminium monoxide spectra viewed at systematically varied time delays by comparing experimental spectra to theoretical calculations with a Nelder Mead algorithm. The temperatures are found to decay from 5173 ± 270 to 3862 ± 46 Kelvin from 10 to 100 μs time delays following optical breakdown. The temperature profile along the plasma height is also inferred from spatially resolved spectral measurements and the electron number density is inferred from Stark broadened Hβ spectra.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a new aluminium-based compound.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Cosp, José; Artiaga, Ramón; Corpas-Iglesias, Francisco; Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica

    2009-08-28

    A new aluminium polynuclear crystalline species, Al(13)(OH)(30)(H(2)O)(15)Cl(9) has been synthesized and characterized. It is a particular case of the Al(13)(OH)(30-y)(H(2)O)(18-x)Cl(9) x zH(2)O family. It has been obtained from aluminium waste cans treated with HCl solution in strong acid media, followed by an ageing period. The crystalline structure of the complex was determined by XRD spectroscopy. Twelve reflections were found and indexed with the DICVOL04 software. Morphologically, a flattened preferred orientation was observed by SEM and FESEM. The chemical structure was studied by several absorption spectroscopy techniques: FTIR, ATR-FTIR and Raman dispersion spectroscopy. The coordination of the aluminium nuclei was determined by Al-MAS-NMR. Only octahedral sites were observed. Thermal characterization of the compound was performed by evolved gas analysis (EGA) coupled to simultaneous TGA-DSC.

  1. Coal fly ash: a potential resource for aluminium and titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.

    1980-01-01

    Two processes are described which utilize fly ash as a source of metals and by-products. The lime-soda sinter process involves sintering of the fly ash and alkaline oxides at 1100-1300/sup 0/C to break the alumina-silica bonds and form soluble aluminate compounds and insoluble calcium silicates. The aluminates are extracted from the sinter by dissolution in sodium carbonate. The calcium silicate sinter extract shows promise as a raw material for the manufacture of portland cement. The HiChlor process uses high temperature chlorination of fly ash in the presence of a reductant to form volatile metal chlorides of aluminium, titanium, iron, and silicon. The HiChlor process extracts aluminium, titanium, and iron, while the sinter process extracts only aluminium.

  2. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav; Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun

    2007-04-07

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process.

  3. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1993-04-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells.

  4. [Photophysical properties and photodynamic activity of nanostructured aluminium phthalocyanines].

    PubMed

    Udartseva, O O; Lobanov, A V; Andeeva, E R; Dmitrieva, G S; Mel'nikov, M Ia; Buravkova, L B

    2014-01-01

    We developed water-soluble supramolecular complexes of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles and polyvinylpirrolidone containing rare photoactive nanoaggregates. Radiative lifetimes, extinction coefficients and energy of electronic transitions of isolated and associated metal phthalocyanine complexes were calculated. Nontoxic concentrations of synthesized nanocomposite photosensibilizers were in vitro determined. In present study we compared photodynamic treatment efficacy using different modifications of aluminium phthalocyanine (Photosens®, AlPc-nSiO2 and AlPc-PVP). Mesenchymal stromal cells were used as a model for photodynamic treatment. Intracellular accumulation of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles AlPc-nSiO2 was the most efficient. Illumination of phthalocyanine-loaded cells led to reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Silica nanoparticles provided a significant decrease of effective phthalocyanine concentration and enhanced cytotoxicity of photodynamic treatment.

  5. Surface chemical studies of anodically oxidised aluminium membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treverton, J. A.; West, R.; Johnson, D.; Thornton, M.

    1993-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fast atom bombardment secondary ion mass spectrometry (FAB-SIMS) have been used to study the surfaces of inorganic microfiltration membranes produced by controlled removal of anodic films formed on aluminium in phosphoric and oxalic acid electrolytes. The results are compared with those of similar analyses of membranes produced from anodic films formed in mixed oxalic/phosphoric acid electrolyte. Both techniques established that phosphates were concentrated on the surface of membranes formed in phosphoric acid and oxalic/phosphoric acid and that oxalate ions were present on the surfaces of membranes formed in oxalic acid. The low intensity of the AlO -x fragments implies that all of the aluminium ions in the surface are coordinated to phosphates or oxalates. However, any differences its the chemical state of the aluminium on the different membranes were not detectable by either technique.

  6. The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work?

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2010-03-01

    Aluminium adjuvants potentiate the immune response, thereby ensuring the potency and efficacy of typically sparingly available antigen. Their concomitant critical importance in mass vaccination programmes may have prompted recent intense interest in understanding how they work and their safety. Progress in these areas is stymied, however, by a lack of accessible knowledge pertaining to the bioinorganic chemistry of aluminium adjuvants, and, consequently, the inappropriate application and interpretation of experimental models of their mode of action. The objective herein is, therefore, to identify the many ways that aluminium chemistry contributes to the wide and versatile armoury of its adjuvants, such that future research might be guided towards a fuller understanding of their role in human vaccinations.

  7. Airway inflammation in aluminium potroom asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sjaheim, T; Halstensen, T; Lund, M; Bjortuft, O; Drablos, P; Malterud, D; Kongerud, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine whether asthma induced by exposure to aluminium potroom emissions (potroom asthma) is associated with inflammatory changes in the airways. Methods: Bronchial biopsy specimens from 20 asthmatic workers (8 non-smokers and 12 smokers), 15 healthy workers (8 non-smokers and 7 smokers), and 10 non-exposed controls (all non-smokers) were analysed. Immunohistofluorescent staining was performed to identify mucosal total leucocytes (CD45+ leucocytes), neutrophils, and mast cells. Results: Median RBM thickness was significantly increased in both asthmatic workers (8.2 µm) and healthy workers (7.4 µm) compared to non-exposed controls (6.7 µm). Non-smoking asthmatic workers had significantly increased median density of lamina propria CD45+ leucocytes (1519 cells/mm2v 660 and 887 cells/mm2) and eosinophils (27 cells/mm2v 10 and 3 cells/mm2) and significantly increased concentrations of exhaled NO (18.1 ppb v 6.5 and 5.1 ppb) compared to non-smoking healthy workers and non-exposed controls. Leucocyte counts and exhaled NO concentrations varied with smoking habits and fewer leucocytes were observed in asthmatic smokers than in non-smokers Asthmatic smokers had significantly increased numbers of eosinophils in lamina propria compared to non-exposed controls (10 v 3 cells/mm2). Both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic phenotypes of asthma were recognised in the potroom workers and signs of airway inflammation were also observed in healthy workers. Conclusions: Airway inflammation is a central feature of potroom asthma and exposure to potroom emissions induces pathological alterations similar to those described in other types of asthma. Cigarette smoking seems to affect the underlying mechanisms involved in asthma, as the cellular composition of airway mucosa appears different in asthmatic smokers and non-smokers. PMID:15317920

  8. Stimulation of eryptosis by aluminium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Niemoeller, Olivier M.; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Dreischer, Peter; Wieder, Thomas; Lang, Florian . E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de

    2006-12-01

    Aluminium salts are utilized to impede intestinal phosphate absorption in chronic renal failure. Toxic side effects include anemia, which could result from impaired formation or accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may be cleared secondary to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the erythrocyte surface. As macrophages are equipped with PS receptors, they bind, engulf and degrade PS-exposing cells. The present experiments have been performed to explore whether Al{sup 3+} ions trigger eryptosis. The PS exposure was estimated from annexin binding and cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis. Exposure to Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 10 {mu}M Al{sup 3+} for 24 h) indeed significantly increased annexin binding, an effect paralleled by decrease of forward scatter at higher concentrations ({>=} 30 {mu}M Al{sup 3+}). According to Fluo3 fluorescence Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 30 {mu}M for 3 h) increased cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} activity. Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 10 {mu}M for 24 h) further decreased cytosolic ATP concentrations. Energy depletion by removal of glucose similarly triggered annexin binding, an effect not further enhanced by Al{sup 3+} ions. The eryptosis was paralleled by release of hemoglobin, pointing to loss of cell membrane integrity. In conclusion, Al{sup 3+} ions decrease cytosolic ATP leading to activation of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cation channels, Ca{sup 2+} entry, stimulation of cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. Moreover, Al{sup 3+} ions lead to loss of cellular hemoglobin, a feature of hemolysis. Both effects are expected to decrease the life span of circulating erythrocytes and presumably contribute to the development of anemia during Al{sup 3+} intoxication.

  9. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  10. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  11. Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Ferchaud, E.; Christien, F.; Barnier, V.; Paillard, P.

    2012-05-15

    This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

  12. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  13. Chemical modification of zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide with dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio; da Costa Gardolinski, José Eduardo Ferreira; Wypych, Fernando

    2008-04-01

    A zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN), Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2.2H2O, and a layered double hydroxide (LDH), Zn/Al-NO3 were doped with 0.2 mol% of Cu2+ during alkaline chemical precipitation. Both compounds were intercalated with adipate ((-)OOC(CH2)4COO(-)), azelate ((-)OOC(CH2)7COO(-)), and benzoate (C6H5COO(-)) ions through ion exchange reactions. Solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed only one signal of carboxylic carbon for adipate and azelate intercalated into LDH, indicating that the carboxylic ends of both acids were equivalent, whereas the signal split when the intercalation was into the ZHN matrix. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of copper in octahedral cation sites of LDH layers showed a Hamiltonian parameter ratio g ||/A ||=170 cm and, after intercalation of adipate, the change was not significant: g ||/A ||=174 cm. This result indicates that the carboxylate ions did not coordinate with copper centers. Nonetheless, the intercalation of azelate increased the ratio to g ||/A ||=194 cm, similar to the spectra of ZHN modified with adipate, g ||/A ||=199 cm, and azelate, g ||/A ||=183 and 190 cm, which are associated with the coordination of copper by weak carboxylate anion ligands. Copper occupies octahedral or tetrahedral sites in ZHN layers, and the EPR spectra indicate that the dicarboxylate anions reacted preferentially with octahedral sites, whereas benzoate reacted with both sites.

  14. Silver coated aluminium microrods as highly colloidal stable SERS platforms.

    PubMed

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Borke, Tina; Andreeva, Daria V; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2011-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of a novel material with the ability to remain in solution even under the very demanding conditions required for structural and dynamic characterization of biomacromolecule assays. This stability is provided by the increase in surface area of a low density material (aluminium) natively coated with a very hydrophilic surface composed of aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and metallic silver nanoparticles. Additionally, due to the dense collection of active hot spots on their surface, this material offers higher levels of SERS intensity as compared with the same free and aggregated silver nanoparticles.

  15. Transmittance jump in a thin aluminium layer during laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Bykovsky, N E; Senatsky, Yu V; Pershin, S M; Samokhin, A A

    2016-02-28

    A jump in the transmittance (from ∼0.1% to ∼50% for ∼1 ns) of an optical gate on a Mylar film (a thin aluminium layer on a Lavsan substrate) irradiated by nanosecond (10{sup -7} – 10{sup -8} s) pulses of a neodymium laser with an intensity up to 0.1 GW cm{sup -2} has been recorded. The mechanism of a fast (10{sup -10} – 10{sup -11} s) increase in the transmittance of the aluminium layer upon its overheating (without boiling) to the metal – insulator phase-transition temperature is discussed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  16. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  17. [Plant physiological and molecular biological mechanism in response to aluminium toxicity].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Shaojian; Lin, Xianyong

    2004-09-01

    Aluminium toxicity is the major factor limiting crop growth on acid soils, which greatly affects the crop productivity on about 40% cultivated soils of the world and 21% of China. In the past decades, a lot of researches on aluminium toxicity and resistant mechanisms have been doing, and great progress was achieved. This paper dealt with the genetic differences in aluminium tolerance among plants, screening and selecting methods and technologies for identifying aluminium resistance in plants, and physiological and molecular mechanism resistance to aluminium toxicity. Some aspects needed to be further studied were also briefly discussed.

  18. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polus, Łukasz; Szumigała, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally friendly. Aluminium is lighter and more resistant to corrosion than steel, which is often used in composite structures.

  19. Nanoparticulate iron(III) oxo-hydroxide delivers safe iron that is well absorbed and utilised in humans

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Dora I.A.; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F.A.; Faria, Nuno; Poots, Lynsey K.; Tagmount, Mani A.; Aslam, Mohamad F.; Frazer, David M.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide with substantial impact on health and economy. Current treatments predominantly rely on soluble iron which adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. We have developed organic acid-modified Fe(III) oxo-hydroxide nanomaterials, here termed nano Fe(III), as alternative safe iron delivery agents. Nano Fe(III) absorption in humans correlated with serum iron increase (P < 0.0001) and direct in vitro cellular uptake (P = 0.001), but not with gastric solubility. The most promising preparation (iron hydroxide adipate tartrate: IHAT) showed ~80% relative bioavailability to Fe(II) sulfate in humans and, in a rodent model, IHAT was equivalent to Fe(II) sulfate at repleting haemoglobin. Furthermore, IHAT did not accumulate in the intestinal mucosa and, unlike Fe(II) sulfate, promoted a beneficial microbiota. In cellular models, IHAT was 14-fold less toxic than Fe(II) sulfate/ascorbate. Nano Fe(III) manifests minimal acute intestinal toxicity in cellular and murine models and shows efficacy at treating iron deficiency anaemia. From the Clinical Editor This paper reports the development of novel nano-Fe(III) formulations, with the goal of achieving a magnitude less intestinal toxicity and excellent bioavailability in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Out of the tested preparations, iron hydroxide adipate tartrate met the above criteria, and may become an important tool in addressing this common condition. PMID:24983890

  20. Effect of lysine acetylsalicylate on aluminium accumulation and (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity in rat brain cortex synaptosomes after aluminium ingestion.

    PubMed

    Silva, V S; Gonçalves, P P

    2015-01-05

    Aluminium is neurotoxic in humans and has been implicated in several neurological disorders. Chronic use of buffered aspirins, as aspegic, would likely constitute the major human aluminium uptake source. Low-dose aspirin is beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, so it is widely used for long periods of time. We studied if oral administration of aspegic to rats modified the aluminium inhibitory effect on brain (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase due to alteration in synaptosomal membrane aluminium content. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to sub-acute (1.00g/day during 10 days) and chronic (0.03g/day during 4 months) dietary AlCl3 exposure and/or to aspegic (0.11g/day). The exposure protocol increased the synaptosomal aluminium content especially after a long-term exposure to aluminium and aspegic. Although no alterations were observed in rat body weight gain and adenylate energy charge, the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity was significantly reduced when aluminium was orally administered to rats. The oral administration of aspegic increased the synaptosomal aluminium content and concomitantly enhanced the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase inhibition. In our exposure protocol the increase in synaptosomal aluminium content correlates with the reduction of the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity.

  1. Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ≤ 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

  2. Quaternized graphene oxide nanocomposites as fast hydroxide conductors.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Hadis; Fu, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Yoo, Skylar; Lenos, Jared; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-02-24

    Nanocomposites play a key role in performance improvements of hydroxide conductors employed in a wide range of alkaline-electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets are considered to be outstanding nanofillers for polymeric nanocomposites on account of their excellent physicochemical strength and electrochemical properties. In this work, a fast hydroxide conductor was developed on the basis of a chemically modified GO nanocomposite membrane. The high surface area of GO was functionalized with highly stable hydroxide-conductive groups using a dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMAOP) precursor, named QAFGO, and then composed with porous polybenzimidazole PBI (pPBI) as a well-suited polymeric backbone. The nanocomposite exhibited outstanding hydroxide conductivity of 0.085 S cm(-1), high physicochemical strength, and electrochemical stability for 21 days. An alkaline fuel cell (AFC) setup was fabricated to determine the functionality of QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite in an alkaline-based system. The high AFC performance with peak power density of 86.68 mW cm(-2) demonstrated that QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite membrane has promising potential to be employed as a reliable hydroxide conductor for electrochemical systems working in alkaline conditions.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Aluminium (aluminum) Tolerance in Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to utilize moisture and nutrients by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of ...

  4. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounaghi, S. A.; Eshghi, H.; Scudino, S.; Vyalikh, A.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Gruner, W.; Oswald, S.; Kiani Rashid, A. R.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scheler, U.; Eckert, J.

    2016-09-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN.

  5. Examples of liquiq metal embrittlement in industrial aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchet, Y.; Rodine, A.; Véron, M.; Péron, S.; Deschamps, A.

    2002-09-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) phenomena were investigated in two industrial aluminium alloys. Gallium penetration in 7010 alloys was systematically investigated to shed light on the effect of microstructure and plasticity ahead of the crack tip. Hot temperature shortness in 5083 alloy is given as an example of cleavage induced by LME.

  6. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.

    2016-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  7. Reactive ion beam figuring of optical aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jens; Frost, Frank; Arnold, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Ultra-smooth and arbitrarily shaped reflective optics are necessary for further progress in EUV/XUV lithography, x-ray and synchrotron technology. As one of the most important technological mirror optic materials, aluminium behaves in a rather difficult way in ultra-precision machining with such standard techniques as diamond-turning and subsequent ion beam figuring (IBF). In particular, in the latter, a strong surface roughening is obtained. Hence, up to now it has not been possible to attain the surface qualities required for UV or just visible spectral range applications. To overcome the limitations mainly caused by the aluminium alloy structural and compositional conditions, a reactive ion beam machining process using oxygen process gas is evaluated. To clarify the principle differences in the effect of oxygen gas contrary to oxygen ions on aluminium surface machining, we firstly focus on chemical-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) and reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) experiments in a phenomenological manner. Then, the optimum process route will be explored within a more quantitative analysis applying the concept of power spectral density (PSD) for a sophisticated treatment of the surface topography. Eventually, the surface composition is examined by means of dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) suggesting a characteristic model scheme for the chemical modification of the aluminium surface during oxygen ion beam machining. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to achieve a more detailed process conception.

  8. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yu P.; Alfimov, E. E.; Vasil'ev, N. E.; Denisov, A. N.; Makukha, V. K.; Ogirenko, A. P.

    1999-12-01

    A demonstration is given of the feasibility of two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanine and of the pharmaceutical preparation 'Fotosens', used in photodynamic therapy. The excitation source was an Nd:YAG laser emitting at the 1064 nm wavelength. The spectra of the two-photon-excited luminescence were obtained and the two-photon absorption cross sections were determined.

  9. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  10. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  11. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride

    PubMed Central

    Rounaghi, S. A.; Eshghi, H.; Scudino, S.; Vyalikh, A.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Gruner, W.; Oswald, S.; Kiani Rashid, A. R.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scheler, U.; Eckert, J.

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN. PMID:27650956

  12. Aluminium in allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy--a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Matthias F; Heath, Matthew D

    2014-07-16

    We are living in an "aluminium age" with increasing bioavailability of the metal for approximately 125 years, contributing significantly to the aluminium body burden of humans. Over the course of life, aluminium accumulates and is stored predominantly in the lungs, bones, liver, kidneys and brain. The toxicity of aluminium in humans is briefly summarised, highlighting links and possible causal relationships between a high aluminium body burden and a number of neurological disorders and disease states. Aluminium salts have been used as depot-adjuvants successfully in essential prophylactic vaccinations for almost 100 years, with a convincing positive benefit-risk assessment which remains unchanged. However, allergen-specific immunotherapy commonly consists of administering a long-course programme of subcutaneous injections using preparations of relevant allergens. Regulatory authorities currently set aluminium limits for vaccines per dose, rather than per treatment course. Unlike prophylactic vaccinations, numerous injections with higher proportions of aluminium-adjuvant per injection are applied in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and will significantly contribute to a higher cumulative life dose of aluminium. While the human body may cope robustly with a daily aluminium overload from the environment, regulatory cumulative threshold values in immunotherapy need further addressing. Based on the current literature, predisposing an individual to an unusually high level of aluminium, such as through subcutaneous immunotherapy, has the potential to form focal accumulations in the body with the propensity to exert forms of toxicity. Particularly in relation to longer-term health effects, the safety of aluminium adjuvants in immunotherapy remains unchallenged by health authorities - evoking the need for more consideration, guidance, and transparency on what is known and not known about its safety in long-course therapy and what measures can be taken to prevent or

  13. Formulations and nebulizer performance.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Thomas G

    2002-11-01

    To deliver a drug by nebulization, the drug must first be dispersed in a liquid (usually aqueous) medium. After application of a dispersing force (either a jet of gas or ultrasonic waves), the drug particles are contained within the aerosol droplets, which are then inhaled. Some drugs readily dissolve in water, whereas others need a cosolvent such as ethanol or propylene glycol. Some drugs are delivered as suspensions, and the efficiency of nebulizers can be different for solutions and suspensions. Solutions are delivered more efficiently with most devices. In general, conventional ultrasonic nebulizers should not be used to aerosolize suspensions, because of low efficiency. Newer strategies to improve the delivery of non-water-soluble drugs include the use of liposomes and the milling of the drug into very small "nanoparticles." In addition to the active therapeutic ingredient and solvents, drug formulations may include buffers (the solubility of some medications is influenced by pH), stabilizers, and, in the case of multi-dose preparations, antibacterial agents. Though formulations are designed to optimize drug solubility and stability, changes in formulation can also affect inhaled mass, particle size, and treatment time, though the differences between nebulizer brands probably have a greater impact than differences in formulation. Ultrasonic and jet nebulizers may damage protein and other complex agents through heat or shear stress. Additives to multi-dose formulations, especially antimicrobial and chelating agents, may cause adverse events, so there is a trend towards single-use, preservative-free vials.

  14. Interfacial morphology of low-voltage anodic aluminium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Naiping; Dongcinn, Xuecheng; He, Xueying; Argekar, Sandip; Zhang, Yan; Browning, Jim; Schaefer, Dale

    2013-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and neutron reflectivity (NR), as well as ultra-smallangle X-ray scattering (USAXS), are used to examine the in-plane and surfacenormal structure of anodic films formed on aluminium alloy AA2024 and pure aluminium. Aluminium and alloy films up to 3500 A thick were deposited on Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of ingots. Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) films are formed by polarizing at constant voltage up to 20 V noble to the open circuit potential. The voltage sweet spot (5 V) appropriate for constant-voltage anodization of such thin films was determined for both alloy and pure Al. In addition, a new concurrent voltage- and current-control protocol was developed to prepare films with larger pores (voltages higher than 5 V), but formed at a controlled current so that pore growth is slow enough to avoid stripping the aluminium substrate layer. USAXS shows that the pore size and interpore spacing are fixed in the first 10 s after initiation of anodization. Pores then grow linearly in time, at constant radius and interpore spacing. Using a combination of XRR and NR, the film density and degree of hydration of the films were determined from the ratio of scattering length densities. Assuming a chemical formula Al2O3xH2O, it was found that x varies from 0.29 for the native oxide to 1.29 for AAO grown at 20 V under concurrent voltage and current control. The average AAO film density of the porous film at the air surface is 2.45 (20) g cm3. The density of the barrier layer at the metal interface is 2.9 (4) g cm3, which indicates that this layer is also quite porous

  15. Advanced protein formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that protein product development is far more challenging than that for small-molecule drugs. The major challenges include inherent sensitivity to different types of stresses during the drug product manufacturing process, high rate of physical and chemical degradation during long-term storage, and enhanced aggregation and/or viscosity at high protein concentrations. In the past decade, many novel formulation concepts and technologies have been or are being developed to address these product development challenges for proteins. These concepts and technologies include use of uncommon/combination of formulation stabilizers, conjugation or fusion with potential stabilizers, site-specific mutagenesis, and preparation of nontraditional types of dosage forms—semiaqueous solutions, nonfreeze-dried solid formulations, suspensions, and other emerging concepts. No one technology appears to be mature, ideal, and/or adequate to address all the challenges. These gaps will likely remain in the foreseeable future and need significant efforts for ultimate resolution. PMID:25858529

  16. Sunscreen product formulation.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Paul R

    2006-01-01

    On the surface, sunscreen products are pretty simple. They consist of a delivery vehicle containing one or more sunscreen active ingredients. When applied to the skin, these sunscreen actives intercept solar ultraviolet (UV) rays before they can damage the underlying skin. However, while conceptually simple, a detailed analysis reveals that sunscreen formulations are quite complex, requiring careful selection of sunscreen active and vehicle components to control multiple performance and in-use parameters.Thus, to enable a better understanding and appreciation of sunscreen products, the typical steps in formulating a sunscreen product are described. Throughout this process, the key is to apply scientific principles together with a bit of formulation art to holistically create the best sunscreen product that meets the design targets--a sunscreen product that people will use regularly and properly.

  17. Granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  18. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K; Bist, Itti; Jalil, Karim Abdel; Suib, Steven L; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ~60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ~3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications. PMID:27606068

  19. Standard enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Burylev, B.P.

    1995-03-01

    Available experimental data on standard enthalpies of formation of alkali metal hydroxide hydrates have been summarized. Using equations derived, the authors have calculated previously unknown enthalpies of formation of some lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium hydroxide hydrates. Taking into account the contribution of water to the enthalpies of formation of monohydrates, the authors have estimated the enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates FrOH{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, FrOH{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, and FrOH{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O (-745.8, -1085.8, and -1515.8 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively).

  20. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K.; Bist, Itti; Abdel Jalil, Karim; Suib, Steven L.; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ∼60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ∼3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications.

  1. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  2. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  3. Development of a biocompatible nanodelivery system for tuberculosis drugs based on isoniazid-Mg/Al layered double hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    The primary challenge in finding a treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is patient non-compliance to treatment due to long treatment duration, high dosing frequency, and adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. This study reports on the development of a nanodelivery system that intercalates the anti-TB drug isoniazid into Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Isoniazid was found to be released in a sustained manner from the novel nanodelivery system in humans in simulated phosphate buffer solutions at pH 4.8 and pH 7.4. The nanodelivery formulation was highly biocompatible compared to free isoniazid against human normal lung and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. The formulation was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Thus results show significant promise for the further study of these nanocomposites for the treatment of TB. PMID:25336952

  4. Protective effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa), against aluminium toxicity: Possible behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Dogra, Samrita; Prakash, Atish

    2009-12-28

    Aluminium is a potent neurotoxin and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) causality for decades. Prolonged aluminium exposure induces oxidative stress and increases amyloid beta levels in vivo. Current treatment modalities for AD provide only symptomatic relief thus necessitating the development of new drugs with fewer side effects. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the protective effect of chronic curcumin administration against aluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Aluminium chloride (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to rats daily for 6 weeks. Rats were concomitantly treated with curcumin (per se; 30 and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for a period of 6 weeks. On the 21st and 42nd day of the study behavioral studies to evaluate memory (Morris water maze and elevated plus maze task paradigms) and locomotion (photoactometer) were done. The rats were sacrificed on 43rd day following the last behavioral test and various biochemical tests were performed to assess the extent of oxidative damage. Chronic aluminium chloride administration resulted in poor retention of memory in Morris water maze, elevated plus maze task paradigms and caused marked oxidative damage. It also caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium treated rats. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly improved memory retention in both tasks, attenuated oxidative damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium treated rats (P<0.05). Curcumin has neuroprotective effects against aluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage.

  5. Aluminium-phosphorus interactions in plants growing on acid soils: does phosphorus always alleviate aluminium toxicity?

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong Fu; Zhang, Fu Lin; Zhang, Qi Ming; Sun, Qing Bin; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren Fang

    2012-03-30

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are considered to be the main constraints for crop production in acid soils, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Conventionally, P addition is regarded as capable of alleviating Al toxicity in plants. However, this field is still rife with unsubstantiated theories, especially for different plant species growing on acid soils. In this review, the responses of plants to different methods of Al-P treatments are briefly summarized, and possible reasons are proposed by considering recent results from our laboratory. It is shown that: (1) long-term Al-P alternate treatment is advantageous for studying Al-P interactions in plants; (2) under the long-term Al-P alternate treatment, the roles of P in Al phytotoxicity might be associated with the Al resistance capability and P use efficiency of the plant, and a P/Al molar ratio exceeding 5 in roots may be the threshold of P alleviating Al toxicity based on the calculation of the tested plants; (3) in acid soils, P application may be effective only after Al stress is overcome for Al-sensitive species. Thus it is concluded that P application does not always alleviate Al toxicity under long-term Al-P alternate treatment.

  6. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples.

  7. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  8. Crashworthiness of Aluminium Tubes; Part 1: Hydroforming at Different Corner-Fill Radii and End Feeding Levels

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amours, Guillaume; Rahem, Ahmed; Williams, Bruce; Worswick, Michael; Mayer, Robert

    2007-05-17

    The automotive industry, with an increasing demand to reduce vehicle weight through the adoption of lightweight materials, requires a search of efficient methods that suit these materials. One attractive concept is to use hydroforming of aluminium tubes. By using FE simulations, the process can be optimized to reduce the risk for failure while maintaining energy absorption and component integrity under crash conditions. It is important to capture the level of residual ductility after forming to allow proper design for crashworthiness. This paper presents numerical and experimental studies that have been carried out for high pressure hydroforming operations to study the influence of the tube corner radius, end feeding, material thinning, and work hardening in 76.2 mm diameter, 3 mm wall thickness AA5754 aluminium alloy tube. End feeding was used to increase the formability of the tubes. The influence of the end feed displacement versus tube forming pressure schedule was studied to optimize the forming process operation to reduce thinning. Validation of the numerical simulations was performed by comparison of the predicted strain distributions and thinning, with measured quantities. The effect of element formulation (thin shell versus solid elements) was also considered in the models.

  9. Matrix effect on leaching of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from epoxy resin based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes into semi-solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Uwe; Haverkamp, Jan Boris; Zapf, Thomas; Lipperheide, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues.

  10. Administration of aluminium to neonatal mice in vaccine-relevant amounts is associated with adverse long term neurological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C A; Li, Y; Tomljenovic, L

    2013-11-01

    Our previous ecological studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has demonstrated a correlation between increasing ASD rates and aluminium (Al) adjuvants in common use in paediatric vaccines in several Western countries. The correlation between ASD rate and Al adjuvant amounts appears to be dose-dependent and satisfies 8 of 9 Hill criteria for causality. We have now sought to provide an animal model to explore potential behavioural phenotypes and central nervous system (CNS) alterations using s.c. injections of Al hydroxide in early postnatal CD-1 mice of both sexes. Injections of a "high" and "low" Al adjuvant levels were designed to correlate to either the U.S. or Scandinavian paediatric vaccine schedules vs. control saline-injected mice. Both male and female mice in the "high Al" group showed significant weight gains following treatment up to sacrifice at 6 months of age. Male mice in the "high Al" group showed significant changes in light-dark box tests and in various measures of behaviour in an open field. Female mice showed significant changes in the light-dark box at both doses, but no significant changes in open field behaviours. These current data implicate Al injected in early postnatal life in some CNS alterations that may be relevant for a better understanding of the aetiology of ASD.

  11. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. G.; Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of thermal energy storage prototypes was performed in order to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. The testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module is described. This module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  12. Praseodymium(III) sulfate hydroxide, Pr(SO(4))(OH).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Cheng, Jian-Wen

    2011-01-15

    The title compound, Pr(SO(4))(OH), obtained under hydro-thermal conditions, consists of Pr(III) ions coordinated by nine O atoms from six sulfate groups and three hydroxide anions. The bridging mode of the O atoms results in the formation of a three-dimensional framework, stabilized by two O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions.

  13. Sintering of corundum ceramics based on aluminum hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Afoninia, G.A.; Leonov, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of using aluminum hydroxide obtained by the precipitation method for synthesis of corundum ceramics with additives forming a liquid phase during firing and without additives, is investigated. The optimum parameters of the manufacturing process and the main properties of the material recommended for testing in the production of glass ceramic substrates for integrated circuits are investigated.

  14. Calcium hydroxide paste in the maxillary sinus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fava, L R

    1993-09-01

    A case is reported in which a perforation of the sinus floor of the maxillary sinus occurred with extrusion of a calcium hydroxide paste during routine root canal treatment of a maxillary premolar. All clinical manifestations are described as well as the results of a follow-up evaluation.

  15. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  16. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  20. INFLUENCE OF IODOFORM ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Carlos; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo; Hollanda, Augusto César Braz; Decurcio, Daniel de Almeida; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to verify the influence of Iodoform on antimicrobial potential of calcium hydroxide. S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans were the biological indicators. The substances tested were: calcium hydroxide + saline; calcium hydroxide + Iodoform + saline; Iodoform + saline. For the agar diffusion test, 18 Petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with the microbial suspensions. Fifty-four cavities were made and filled with the substances tested. The diameters of microbial inhibition were then measured. In direct exposure test, 162 #50 sterile absorbent paper points were immersed in the experimental suspensions for 5 min, and covered with the pastes. At intervals of 24, 48 and 72 hours, the paper points were immersed in 10 ml of Letheen Broth, followed by incubation at 37°°C for 48h. Microbial growth was evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. A 0.1 ml inoculum obtained from the Letheen Broth was transferred to 7 ml of BHI, and incubated at 37°°C for 48h. Bacterial growth was again evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. The calcium hydroxide associated with the saline or the iodoform plus saline showed antimicrobial effectiveness in both experimental methods. The iodoform paste presented antimicrobial ineffectiveness for the agar diffusion test on all biological microorganisms and for the direct exposure test on B. subtilis and on the mixture. PMID:19089027

  1. Recovery of the actinides by electrochemical methods in molten chlorides using solid aluminium cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Malmbeck, R.; Mendes, E.; Serp, J.; Soucek, P.; Glatz, J.P.; Cassayre, L.

    2007-07-01

    An electrorefining process in molten chloride salts is being developed at ITU to reprocess the spent nuclear fuel. According to the thermochemical properties of the system, aluminium is the most promising electrode material for the separation of actinides (An) from lanthanides (Ln). The actinides are selectively reduced from the fission products and stabilized by the formation of solid and compact actinide-aluminium alloys with the reactive cathode material. In this work, the maximum loading of aluminium with actinides was investigated by potentiostatic and galvano-static electrorefining of U-Pu- Zr alloys. A very high aluminium capacity was achieved, as the average loading was 1.6 g of U and Pu into 1 g of aluminium and the maximum achieved loading was 2.3 g. For recovery of the actinides from aluminium, a process based on chlorination and a subsequent sublimation of AlCl{sub 3} is proposed. (authors)

  2. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  3. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  6. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  7. Histopathological changes in cases of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinha, U S; Kapoor, A K; Singh, A K; Gupta, A; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2005-04-01

    Of a total of 205 poisoning deaths in our hospital in 2003, 83 cases were due to Aluminium phosphide poisoning and were further analyzed. Most vulnerable age group was 21-40 years and M:F ratio was 2:1. On naked eye examination, almost all the vital organs were found to be congested. On microscopic study, the liver showed central venous congestion, degeneration, haemorrhage, sinusoidal dilation, bile stasis, centrilobular necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, infiltration by mononuclear cells and fatty change. Microscopy of the lungs revealed alveolar thickening, oedema, dilated capillaries, collapsed alveoli and haemorrhage. In the kidney, changes were degeneration, infiltration, tubular dilation and cloudy swelling. Changes in the brain included congestion and coagulative necrosis and in the stomach, congestion and haemorrhage. Easy availability of this cheap and highly toxic substance was responsible for the sudden spurt of poisoning with aluminium phosphide.

  8. Surface roughness effects on aluminium-based ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of ultraviolet zinc oxide plasmonic nanolasers fabricated on aluminium films with two different degrees of surface roughness. We demonstrate that the effective dielectric functions of aluminium interfaces with distinct roughness can be analysed from reflectivity measurements. By considering the scattering losses, including Rayleigh scattering, electron scattering, and grain boundary scattering, we adopt the modified Drude-Lorentz model to describe the scattering effect caused by surface roughness and obtain the effective dielectric functions of different Al samples. The sample with higher surface roughness induces more electron scattering and light scattering for SPP modes, leading to a higher threshold gain for the plasmonic nanolaser. By considering the pumping efficiency, our theoretical analysis shows that diminishing the detrimental optical losses caused by the roughness of the metallic interface could effectively lower (~33.1%) the pumping threshold of the plasmonic nanolasers, which is consistent with the experimental results. PMID:28045127

  9. Prediction of the ballistic limit of an aluminium sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J.; De Vuyst, T.; Vignjevic, R.; Hughes, K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents research on modelling the impact of a 150g projectile on a 35mm thick aluminium sandwich panel. The objective of the work is a predictive modelling capability for the ballistic limit of the panel. A predictive modelling capability supports the design of capture and deorbit missions for large items of space debris such as satellites and rocket upper stages. A detailed explicit finite element model was built using the LSDYNA software and results were compared with experimental data for the projectile exit velocity to establish key parameters. The primary parameters influencing the model behaviour were the strength and failure of the aluminium face sheets and the friction between projectile and panel. The model results showed good agreement with experimental results for ogive nose projectiles, but overestimated the exit velocity for flat nose projectiles.

  10. Surface roughness effects on aluminium-based ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of ultraviolet zinc oxide plasmonic nanolasers fabricated on aluminium films with two different degrees of surface roughness. We demonstrate that the effective dielectric functions of aluminium interfaces with distinct roughness can be analysed from reflectivity measurements. By considering the scattering losses, including Rayleigh scattering, electron scattering, and grain boundary scattering, we adopt the modified Drude-Lorentz model to describe the scattering effect caused by surface roughness and obtain the effective dielectric functions of different Al samples. The sample with higher surface roughness induces more electron scattering and light scattering for SPP modes, leading to a higher threshold gain for the plasmonic nanolaser. By considering the pumping efficiency, our theoretical analysis shows that diminishing the detrimental optical losses caused by the roughness of the metallic interface could effectively lower (~33.1%) the pumping threshold of the plasmonic nanolasers, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  11. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E; Bygum, Anette

    2016-11-02

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons. Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were treated with potent topical corticosteroids and disappeared slowly. Although we advised families to continue vaccination of their children, one-third of parents omitted or postponed further vaccinations.

  12. Numerical Modelling of Drawbeads for Forming of Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Y.; Christiansen, P.; Masters, I.; Bay, N.; Dashwood, R.

    2016-08-01

    The drawbeads in stamping tools are usually designed based on experience from the forming of steel. However, aluminium alloys display different forming behaviour to steels, which is not reflected in the drawbead design for tools used for stamping aluminium. This paper presents experimental results from different semi-circular drawbead geometries commonly encountered in automotive dies and compares them to those obtained from Stoughton's analytical drawbead model and the 2D plane strain drawbead model set up using LS-DYNA. The study was conducted on lubricated NG5754 strips. The results presented are in terms of drawbead restraining force versus strip displacement, as a function of drawbead depth. The FE drawbead model agrees well with the experiments whereas the analytical model overpredicted the drawbead forces.

  13. Liposomal paclitaxel formulations.

    PubMed

    Koudelka, Stěpán; Turánek, Jaroslav

    2012-11-10

    Over the past three decades, taxanes represent one of the most important new classes of drugs approved in oncology. Paclitaxel (PTX), the prototype of this class, is an anti-cancer drug approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. However, notwithstanding a suitable premedication, present-day chemotherapy employing a commercial preparation of PTX (Taxol®) is associated with serious side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Liposomes represent advanced and versatile delivery systems for drugs. Generally, both in vivo mice tumor models and human clinical trials demonstrated that liposomal PTX formulations significantly increase a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PTX which outperform that for Taxol®. Liposomal PTX formulations are in various stages of clinical trials. LEP-ETU (NeoPharm) and EndoTAG®-1 (Medigene) have reached the phase II of the clinical trials; Lipusu® (Luye Pharma Group) has already been commercialized. Present achievements in the preparation of various liposomal formulations of PTX, the development of targeted liposomal PTX systems and the progress in clinical testing of liposomal PTX are discussed in this review summarizing about 30 years of liposomal PTX development.

  14. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Zr Modified 2014 Aluminium Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    heated using an induction furnace; the temperature stabilisation time was 6 min. -The gauge section of samples was a solid cylinder with a length (L) of...torsion tests - Fatigue tests -Fracture observations Introduction -Aluminium sheets require a good attitude to the cold metal forming. -Al-Cu-Mg alloys...precipitation occurring during hot deformation or heat treatment Introduction -The precipitation sequence for 2014 Al alloys has been extensively

  15. Comparative genotoxicity of aluminium and cadmium in embryonic zebrafish cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandrine; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2013-01-20

    Aluminium is a toxic metal whose genotoxicity has been scarcely studied in aquatic species and more generally in mammals. Recently, human and ecological disaster caused by the discharge of red mud in Hungary has revived questions about the toxicity of this metal particularly for the environment. On the contrary, cadmium is a highly toxic metal whose genotoxicity has been well characterized in various mammalian cells. However on non-human cells, little is known about its impact on DNA damage and repair. In this study, the genotoxic potential of both metals on embryonic zebrafish cells ZF4 was analyzed and particularly the impairment of the major DNA double strand breaks (DSB)-repair pathway, i.e. non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). To this aim, DNA single strand breaks (SSB) and DSB were evaluated using the comet assay and the immunodetection of γ-H2AX proteins, respectively, in AlCl(3) or CdCl(2) exposed ZF4 cells. These exposures result in the production of DSBs a few hours after incubation. The DNA-PK kinase activity, essential for NHEJ, is more affected by the presence of aluminium than cadmium. Altogether our data provide evidence of the high toxicity induced by aluminium in zebrafish and indicates the pertinence of genotoxicity evaluation in organisms living in contaminated water.

  16. Modelling of detonation cellular structure in aluminium suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, A.; Veyssiere, B.; Khasainov, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous detonations involving aluminium suspensions have been studied for many years for industrial safety policies, and for military and propulsion applications. Owing to their weak detonability and to the lack of available experimental results on the detonation cellular structure, numerical simulations provide a convenient way to improve the knowledge of such detonations. One major difficulty arising in numerical study of heterogeneous detonations involving suspensions of aluminium particles in oxidizing atmospheres is the modelling of aluminium combustion. Our previous two-step model provided results on the effect on the detonation cellular structure of particle diameter and characteristic chemical lengths. In this study, a hybrid model is incorporated in the numerical code EFAE, combining both kinetic and diffusion regimes in parallel. This more realistic model provides good agreement with the previous two-step model and confirms the correlations found between the detonation cell width, and particle diameter and characteristic lengths. Moreover, the linear dependence found between the detonation cell width and the induction length remains valid with the hybrid model.

  17. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.

    2007-10-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  18. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-08-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials.

  19. Recycling of aluminium scrap for secondary Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Eulogio; Nino, Jose

    2011-07-01

    An increasing amount of recycled aluminium is going into the production of aluminium alloy used for automotive applications. In these applications, it is necessary to control and remove alloy impurities and inclusions. Cleaning and fluxing processes are widely used during processing of the alloys for removal of inclusions, hydrogen and excess of magnesium. These processes use salt fluxes based in the system NaCl-KCl, injection of chlorine or mixture of chlorine with an inert gas. The new systems include a graphite wand and a circulation device to force convection in the melt and permit the bubbling and dispersion of reactive and cleaning agents. This paper discusses the recycling of aluminium alloys in rotary and reverberatory industrial furnaces. It focuses on the removal of magnesium during the melting process. In rotary furnaces, the magnesium lost is mainly due to the oxidation process at high temperatures. The magnesium removal is carried out by the reaction between chlorine and magnesium, with its efficiency associated to kinetic factors such as concentration of magnesium, mixing, and temperature. These factors are also related to emissions generated during the demagging process. Improvements in the metallic yield can be reached in rotary furnaces if the process starts with a proper salt, with limits of addition, and avoiding long holding times. To improve throughput in reverberatories, start the charging with high magnesium content material and inject chlorine gas if the molten metal is at the right temperature. Removal of magnesium through modern technologies can be efficiently performed to prevent environmental problems.

  20. High rate constitutive modeling of aluminium alloy tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive models for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain rate of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain rates on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static rates using an Instron test fixture and at strain rates of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High rate testing was then conducted at rates of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material models.

  1. Pulse electrodeposition of adherent nickel coatings onto anodized aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, Cédric; Vichery, Charlotte; Zechner, Johannes; Frey, Damian; Bürki, Gerhard; Cebeci, Halil; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

    2015-03-01

    Aluminium is one of the mostly used elements in the industry because of its abundance and low weight. However, the deposition of a metallic coating requires performing the so-called zincate pre-treatment in order to allow the formation of inter-metallic bonds and thereby achieving sufficient adherence. In this work, porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) is used as an anchoring intermediate layer for nickel coatings. AAO is grown anodically in sulfuric acid and nickel coatings are deposited by potentiostatic reverse pulse electrodeposition onto as-anodized aluminium surfaces. The electrodeposition of nickel is initiated onto the electrochemically thinned barrier layer of AAO and pursued until the complete covering of the oxide. The electrochemical behavior of Watts and sulfamate baths is investigated by cyclic voltammetry for different barrier layer thickness, allowing to validate the thinning conditions and to determine the appropriate deposition potential of nickel. GD-OES measurements show that low duty cycles are necessary to achieve high filling ratio of the AAO. SEM micrographs show that a smooth uniform coating is obtained when nickel is deposited in presence of additives.

  2. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    PubMed

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella.

  3. Stock dynamics and emission pathways of the global aluminium cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Bangs, Colton E.; Müller, Daniel B.

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation in the materials sector faces a twin challenge: satisfying rapidly rising global demand for materials while significantly curbing greenhouse-gas emissions. Process efficiency improvement and recycling can contribute to reducing emissions per material output; however, long-term material demand and scrap availability for recycling depend fundamentally on the dynamics of societies' stocks of products in use, an issue that has been largely neglected in climate science. Here, we show that aluminium in-use stock patterns set essential boundary conditions for future emission pathways, which has significant implications for mitigation priority setting. If developing countries follow industrialized countries in their aluminium stock patterns, a 50% emission reduction by 2050 below 2000 levels cannot be reached even under very optimistic recycling and technology assumptions. The target can be reached only if future global per-capita aluminium stocks saturate at a level much lower than that in present major industrialized countries. As long as global in-use stocks are growing rapidly, radical new technologies in primary production (for example, inert anode and carbon capture and storage) have the greatest impact in emission reduction; however, their window of opportunity is closing once the stocks begin to saturate and the largest reduction potential shifts to post-consumer scrap recycling.

  4. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  5. Thermoelectric power in low-density interstitial-free iron-aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Radhakanta; Liu, Cheng

    2013-09-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) studies on low-density interstitial-free iron-aluminium alloys reveal that the TEP decreases with increase in the aluminium content on account of the introduction of lattice dispersion centres. The TEP coefficients, determined from the Nordheim-Gorter law, for 6.8 and 8.1 wt.% aluminium additions to α-iron are found to be higher than values reported in previous literature for small aluminium additions. The grain size has a very weak effect on the TEP of these alloys.

  6. Aluminium removal with the double chamber technique: paired filtration-dialysis (PFD).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martín, J L; Douthat, W; Barreto, S; Canteros, A; Acuña, G; Cannata Andía, J B

    1998-01-01

    Several dialysis techniques have been used to improve aluminium removal. So far there are no data available using paired filtration-dialysis (PFD). In this study, we evaluated the aluminium removed by PFD in two phases. Bovine plasma with known concentrations of aluminium and desferrioxamine was used in both experiments. In phase I, the aluminium removal was investigated using the PFD system (single pass) in its usual configuration, modifying the order of the convective and diffusive processes, dialysis with high permeability membranes and dialysis with low permeability membranes. During the second phase, the experiment lasted longer using recirculation, and the PFD was compared with conventional dialysis using high permeability membranes. Changes in the PFD configuration did not alter the aluminium removal; the efficiency of PFD for aluminium removal was very close to that of dialysis with high permeability membranes and much greater than with low permeability membranes. The aluminium is removed mainly in the first part of the dialysis. Aluminium mobilization using the double chamber technique (PFD) was efficient and might be of value for those patients with aluminium overload who needs high depurative techniques and are unable to tolerate high-flux techniques.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  8. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  9. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    PubMed

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-07

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  10. Galvanic interactions of aluminium 3004 and ∝ brass in tropical marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palraj, S.; Subramanian, G.; Palanichamy, S.

    2014-12-01

    The galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 - ∝ brass with different area ratios was studied in the tropical marine atmosphere at Tuticorin harbour over a period of 426 days. The area ratios, viz. A Aluminium: A ∝ brass, studied were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of the metals was studied in terms of the relative increase in the corrosion rate of aluminium due to galvanic coupling with ∝ brass, the relative decrease in the corrosion rate of ∝ brass due to galvanic coupling with aluminium, and the susceptibility of aluminium to pitting owing to galvanic coupling with ∝ brass. The galvanic potential and galvanic current of the system were monitored. Pits of different dimensions ranging from mild etchings to perforations were experienced on the borders and the surfaces of the interface of aluminium in contact with ∝ brass. The corrosion products resulting from galvanic corrosion were analysed using XRD and the pitting on aluminium as a result of galvanic corrosion was highlighted in terms of pit depth, size and density of pit, using a high resolution microscope. The most favourable area ratio of aluminium — ∝ brass in marine atmosphere in terms of gravimetric corrosion rate is 8:1 and the most unfavourable area ratio of aluminium — ∝ brass is 1:4.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Property of Wine and Ozone with Calcium Hydroxide and Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezar, A. V. Rajesh; Anand, Nirupa; Mary, A.Vinita; Mony, Bejoy

    2015-01-01

    Background The antibacterial properties of wine and ozone have been established but their antibacterial efficacies against endodontic pathogens are yet to be ascertained. Aim The purpose of this study is to comparatively evaluate the antibacterial property of ozonated water, white wine (14%) and de-alcoholised white wine. Materials and Methods S.mutans and E.faecalis were subcultured and inoculated in a nutrient broth for 24 hours. The following groups were formulated: Group 1A:2% Chlorhexidine (Control group); Group 1B:White wine; Group 1C:Dealcoholised white wine; Group 1D:Ozonated water; Group 2A: Ca(OH)2 + Chlorhexidine (Control group); Group 2B: White wine + Ca(OH)2; Group 2C:De-alcoholised White wine + Ca(OH)2 + chlorhexidine; Group 2D:White wine + Ca(OH)2 + chlorhexidine and group 2E: Dealcoholised white wine + Ca(OH)2 + chlorhexidine. The samples were allowed to diffuse into the culture medium for two hours, later the S. mutans were streaked on to the blood agar medium and the E. faecalis were streaked on to the Muller Hilton agar medium and incubated for 48 hours at 370C the zone of inhibition was measured after 48 hours. Results There was no growth of microorganisms seen with ozonated water. Chlorhexidine showed large zone of inhibition compared to the other groups. White wine has better antimicrobial property than de-alcoholised white wine, but when mixed with calcium hydroxide the dealcoholised white wine has better action against the microorganisms. Conclusion Ozonated water has the best antibacterial property and the antibacterial action of Calcium hydroxide is enhanced when it is mixed with de-alcoholised white wine. PMID:26266206

  12. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10-20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation.

  13. The effects of aluminium on plant growth in a temperate and deciduous aluminium accumulating species

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Marco; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is a phytotoxic element affecting the growth and yield of many crop plants, especially in the tropics. Yet, some plants are able to accumulate high levels of Al. The monogeneric family Symplocaceae represents an Al accumulating family including many tropical and evergreen species with high Al levels in their above ground plant tissues. It is unclear, however, whether Al accumulation also characterises temperate species of Symplocos, and whether or not the uptake has a beneficial growth effect. Here, we investigate if the temperate, deciduous species Symplocos paniculata is able to accumulate Al by growing seedlings and saplings in a hydroponic setup at pH 4 with and without Al. Pyrocatechol-violet (PCV) and aluminon staining was performed to visualize Al accumulation in various plant tissues. Both seedlings and saplings accumulate Al in their tissues if available. Mean Al levels in leaves were 4107 (±1474 mg kg−1) and 4290 (±4025 mg kg−1) for the seedlings and saplings, respectively. The saplings treated without Al showed a high mortality rate unlike the Al accumulating ones. The seedlings, however, showed no difference in growth and vitality between the two treatments. The saplings treated with Al showed new twig, leaf and root development, resulting in a considerable biomass increase. PCV and aluminon staining indicated the presence of Al in leaf, wood and bark tissue of the plants. S. paniculata shares the capacity to accumulate Al with its tropical sister species and is suggested to be a facultative accumulator. Whether or not Al has a beneficial effect remains unclear, due to developmental differences between seedlings and saplings. Al is suggested to be transported via the xylem transport system into the leaves, which show the highest Al levels. Radial transport via ray parenchyma to bark tissue is also likely given the high Al concentrations in the bark tissue. PMID:27613876

  14. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10–20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation. PMID:21831842

  15. Immuno-detection of aluminium and aluminium induced conformational changes in calmodulin--implications in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Levi, R; Wolf, T; Fleminger, G; Solomon, B

    1998-12-01

    Binding of calcium to calmodulin (CAM) induces specific structural rearrangements in the whole protein molecule. Ca2+ organizes and stabilizes the four-domains structure of calmodulin in a helical, active conformation that can bind to its target proteins; the central helix remaining flexible is an essential condition for their bio-recognition. The conformation of calmodulin, and its efficacy to interact with target proteins, is profoundly altered when bound to metal ions other than calcium. As recently reported, the local structural changes of CaM, which occur upon aluminium binding, lead to the impairment of protein flexibility and to the loss of its ability to interact with several other proteins, which may decrease or inhibit the regulatory character of calmodulin. In this study we followed conformational changes occurring in the calmodulin molecule after aluminium binding using highly specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) able to differentiate between the conformational states of calmodulin, as well as mAbs which recognize aluminium free or bound to proteins. Under the same experimental conditions, mAb CAM-1, a Ca2+ conformation sensitive antibody raised against calmodulin, fails to recognize the calmodulin-aluminium complex, despite the presence of Ca2+, while the anti-Al antibodies show a maximal binding pattern towards their antigen. These data suggest that Al3+ ions bind to calmodulin in the presence of Ca2+ ions, leading to an inactive, reversible conformation, instead of its physiological active form. Alteration of the conformation of calmodulin imposed by Al binding may have possible implications in the neurotoxicity mechanism related to Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Formulations of entomopathogens as bioinsecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a proper formulation is a necessary component for commercialization of entomopathogenic microbes as biological insecticides. The objective of this chapter is to present broad-ranging information about formulations to foster research toward developing commercial microbial-based insecticide...

  17. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 2: Cook yield, tenderness, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles DeWitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    The impact of 2 different brines on the palatability and tenderness of select beef strip loin steaks was evaluated. Brines were differentiated by the type of alkaline agent, 4.5% sodium-based phosphate (control brine; CON) or 1% ammonium hydroxide (ammonium hydroxide treatment; AHT), incorporated into the formula. Injected steaks were placed in high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) MAP, stored 4 d at 4 °C in dark storage to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display. Steaks were selected randomly on day 0, 7, and 14 retail display to measure pH, cook loss, shear force, and sensory characteristics. The pH for AHT steaks (pH 5.96) was slightly higher than CON steaks (pH 5.86; P < 0.05). Cook loss was lower (21%) for CON than AHT steaks (23%). There was neither a treatment nor day effect on tenderness as measured by Warner-Braztler shear force (P > 0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that on day 0, retail display the initial juiciness, sustained juiciness, tenderness 1st impression, tenderness overall impression, and connective tissue in AHT steaks was not different from CON steaks (P > 0.05). A day effect (decrease) for those sensory parameters was observed only for sustained juiciness (P < 0.05). AHT steaks were rated higher in cooked beef flavor while CON steaks were higher in peppery and salty flavor. There was no difference in soapy and ammonia intensity between treatments. Results indicated that despite lower performance in cook loss the replacement of 4.5% sodium-based phosphate in a meat injection brine with 1% ammonium hydroxide produced a beef loin steak with comparable tenderness and palatability. Practical Application: The research in this study compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with sodium phosphates to steaks that have been injected with a brine where the sodium phosphate in the formulation was replaced with 1% ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines

  18. Preparation of aluminium-magnesium alloys and some valuable salts from used beverage cans.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to recover standard aluminium-magnesium alloy(s) and some valuable salts from used beverage cans (UBCs). The suggested method updated the current recycling technology by augmenting removal of the coating paint, decreasing magnesium loss during melting process and improving hydrochloric acid leaching of the formed slag. Iron impurity present in the leaching solution, was removed by oxidation using oxygen gas or hydrogen peroxide and filtered as goethite. Results obtained revealed that a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone/dimethyl formamide entirely removes the paint coating at room temperature. The process compares favorably to the current methods involving firing or swell peeling. The coating decomposes to titanium dioxide by heating at 750 degrees C for 30 min. Standard compositions of Al-Mg alloys are formulated using secondary magnesium. The extent of recovery (R) of these alloy(s) is a function of the melting time and temperature and type of the flux. The maximum (R) value amounts to 94.4%. Sodium borate/chloride mix decreases magnesium loss to a minimum. The extent of leaching valuable salts from the slag increases with increasing the molarity, stoichiometric ratio and leaching temperature of the acid used. Removal of iron is a function of the potential of the oxidation process. Stannous chloride has been recovered from the recovered and dried salts by distillation at 700-750 degrees C.

  19. Mechanochemical mechanism for reaction of aluminium nano- and micrometre-scale particles.

    PubMed

    Levitas, Valery I

    2013-11-28

    A recently suggested melt-dispersion mechanism (MDM) for fast reaction of aluminium (Al) nano- and a few micrometre-scale particles during fast heating is reviewed. Volume expansion of 6% during Al melting produces pressure of several GPa in a core and tensile hoop stresses of 10 GPa in an oxide shell. Such stresses cause dynamic fracture and spallation of the shell. After spallation, an unloading wave propagates to the centre of the particle and creates a tensile pressure of 3-8 GPa. Such a tensile pressure exceeds the cavitation strength of liquid Al and disperses the melt into small, bare clusters (fragments) that fly at a high velocity. Reaction of the clusters is not limited by diffusion through a pre-existing oxide shell. Some theoretical and experimental results related to the MDM are presented. Various theoretical predictions based on the MDM are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments, which resolves some basic puzzles in combustion of Al particles. Methods to control and improve reactivity of Al particles are formulated, which are exactly opposite to the current trends based on diffusion mechanism. Some of these suggestions have experimental confirmation.

  20. Toxicity of agrochemical formulations.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Neil G

    2005-01-01

    Most agrochemicals have physicochemical properties that make it impractical to apply them directly to crops and other targets. It is necessary to provide a concentrate of the active ingredient, to which formulation agents have been added to allow dilution with water for spraying. These ingredients perform several functions, including emulsifying, solubilizing, antifoaming, and the like. The properties of these materials are not intended to include pesticidal activity. However, some of these materials may have intrinsic toxicologic properties that should be taken into account in an overall evaluation of the safety of the product. In agriculture, exposure to these materials is sporadic and seasonal. The testing of the complete formulation is based on the evaluation of this risk, and it is concentrated on the evaluation of the short-term exposure to the concentrated product. Many of these substances are rather banal and are generally regarded as safe. Exceptions to this rule do exist, particularly concerning solvents; in such cases a fuller data package is necessary to perform risk assessment.

  1. Preparation and photoluminescence study of mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyu; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shouxin; Kang, Zhenhui

    2010-02-15

    Mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods were successfully synthesized by a mild one-step one-pot method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that there were some pores in the samples, which were mainly composed of rod-like shapes with length of 300 nm and diameter of 90 nm. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements confirmed that the prepared powder was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 3.1 nm. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the band gap energy of the samples was 5.15 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed that there were two strong emissions under ultraviolet light irradiation. The growth mechanism of indium hydroxide nanorods and the role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were also discussed.

  2. Electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Jorne, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrode was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The loading level and plaque expansion were the most important parameters to be considered. The effects of applied current density, stirring, ratio of solution to electrode volume and pH were identified. A novel flow through electrochemical impregnation is proposed in which the electrolyte is forced through the porous nickel plaque. The thickening of the plaque can be reduced while maintaining high loading capacity. A mathematical model is presented which describes the transport of the nitrate, nickel and hydroxyl ions and the consecutive heterogeneous electrochemical reduction of nitrate and the homogeneous precipitation reaction of nickel hydroxide. The distributions of precipitation rate and active material within the porous electrode are obtained. A semiempirical model is also proposed which takes into account the plugging of the pores.

  3. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  4. Synthesis and characterization of α-cobalt hydroxide nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Zhu, J. L.; Chen, L.; An, B.; Liu, Q. Q.; Huang, K. L.

    2011-08-01

    α-Cobalt hydroxide was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process from Co(Ac)2 and NH3·H2O in the presence of 1,3-propanediol. The large-scale-prepared cobalt hydroxide has a uniform nanobelt morphology with a considerably high aspect-ratio more than 20 which may be advantageous for exploration of their physicochemical properties. This synthetic method is convenient, economical, and controllable. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, CHN element analysis, thermogravimetric and differential-thermogravimetric analysis, which revealed the compound is lamellar structural cobalt organic-inorganic hybrid with the chemical formula of Co(OH)1.49(NH3)0.01(CO3 2-)0.22(Ac-)0.07(H2O)0.11 and single-crystalline.

  5. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  6. Why does hydronium diffuse faster than hydroxide in liquid water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lixin; Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert; Klein, Michael; Car, Roberto; Wu, Xifan

    Experiments show that the hydronium ion (H3O+) diffuses much faster than the hydroxide ion (OH-) in liquid water. ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations correctly associated the diffusion mechanism to proton transfer (PT) but have been unable so far to clearly identify the reason for the faster diffusion of hydronium compared to hydroxide, as the diffusion rate was found to depend sensitively on the adopted functional approximation. We carried out AIMD simulations of the solvated water ions using a van der Waals (vdW) inclusive PBE0 hybrid density functional. It is found that not only hydronium diffuses faster than hydroxide but also the absolute rates agree with experiment. The fast diffusion of H3O+ occurs via concerted PT that enables the ion to jump across several H-bonded molecules in successful transfer events; in contrast, such concerted motion is significantly hindered in OH- where the ion is easily trapped in a hyper-coordination configuration (a local solvation structure that forbids PT). As a result multiple PT events are rare and the diffusion of OH- is significantly slowed down. Such a clear difference between the two ions results from the combined effect of vdW interactions and self-interaction correction. Doe SciDac: DE-SC0008626 and DE-SC0008726.

  7. Chronic Toxicity of Aluminium in Rats and Mice and its Effects on Phosphorous Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ondreička, R.; Ginter, E.; Kortus, J.

    1966-01-01

    In mice the oral LD50 values of aluminium chloride and aluminium sulphate were 0·77 ± 0·12 and 0·98 ± 0·09 g. Al/kg. (± S.E.) respectively. Mice and rats were fed on a normal diet containing about 170 p.p.m. of aluminium. Doubling this concentration caused a decrease in growth in the second and third generations of mice. A high intake of aluminium sulphate (2,835 p.p.m.) caused a 20-fold increase of aluminium retention in white rats. Aluminium accumulated in various tissues, especially in the skeleton, liver, and testes. A high rate of intake (2,665 p.p.m.) caused a negative phosphorus balance in the rat, with an increased output of phosphorus in the faeces. The lower absorption of phosphorus was also demonstrated with Na2H32PO4. Chronic and acute poisoning by aluminium chloride caused, after intraperitoneal Na2H32PO4, decreased incorporation of 32P into the phospholipids and nucleic acids of various tissues in the rat. It also caused a fall in the adenosinetriphosphate acid-levels in plasma, and a rise in the adenosine diphosphate level. The results suggest that the toxic effects of aluminium salts result both from decreased absorption of phosphorus and from interference with phosphorylation processes in the tissues. PMID:5926895

  8. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-08-12

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al(3+) in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain.

  9. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    PubMed Central

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain. PMID:27515230

  10. Dietary exposure to aluminium of urban residents from cities in South China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Wang, Jing; Li, Min; Liang, Xuxia; Dai, Guangwei; Hu, Zhikun; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-01-01

    A dietary survey was conducted over three consecutive days by using 24-hour dietary recall in the Pearl River Delta of South China to investigate the dietary consumption status. A total of 1702 food samples, 22 food groups, were collected, and aluminium concentrations of foods were determined by using ICP-MS. Weekly dietary exposure to aluminium of the average urban residents of South China was estimated to be 1.5 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 76% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Wheat-made products (53.5%) contributed most to the dietary exposure, followed by vegetables (12.2%). The high-level consumers' weekly exposure to aluminium was 11.1 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 407% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. The results indicated that the general urban residents in South China might be safe from aluminium exposure, but the high-level consumers might be at some risk of aluminium exposure. The foods contributing to aluminium exposure were processed food with aluminium-containing food additives. It is necessary to take effective measures to control the overuse of aluminium-containing food additives.

  11. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain.

  12. Toxicity evaluation of zinc aluminium levodopa nanocomposite via oral route in repeated dose study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hassan, Zurina; Tengku Azmi, Tengku Ibrahim; Hussein, Nor Fuzina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology, through nanomedicine, allowed drugs to be manipulated into nanoscale sizes for delivery to the different parts of the body, at the same time, retaining the valuable pharmacological properties of the drugs. However, efficient drug delivery and excellent release potential of these delivery systems may be hindered by possible untoward side effects. In this study, the sub-acute toxicity of oral zinc aluminium nanocomposite with and without levodopa was assessed using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. No sign or symptom of toxicity was observed in orally treated rats with the nanocomposite at 5 and 500 mg/kg concentrations. Body weight gain, feeding, water intake, general survival and organosomatic index were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (169 ± 30 U/L), 5 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (172 ± 49 U/L), and 500 mg/kg layered double hydroxides (LDH) nanocomposite (175 ± 25 U/L) were notably elevated compared to controls (143 ± 05 U/L); but the difference were not significant ( p > 0.05). However, the differences in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio of 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (0.32 ± 0.12) and 500 mg/kg LDH nanocomposite (0.34 ± 0.12) were statistically significant ( p < 0.05) compared to the control (0.51 ± 0.07). Histology of the liver, spleen and brain was found to be of similar morphology in both control and experimental groups. The kidneys of 500-mg/kg-treated rats with levodopa nanocomposite and LDH nanocomposite were found to have slight inflammatory changes, notably leukocyte infiltration around the glomeruli. The ultra-structure of the neurons from the substantia nigra of nanocomposite-exposed group was similar to those receiving only normal saline. The observed result has suggested possible liver and renal toxicity in orally administered levodopa intercalated

  13. Toxicity evaluation of zinc aluminium levodopa nanocomposite via oral route in repeated dose study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, through nanomedicine, allowed drugs to be manipulated into nanoscale sizes for delivery to the different parts of the body, at the same time, retaining the valuable pharmacological properties of the drugs. However, efficient drug delivery and excellent release potential of these delivery systems may be hindered by possible untoward side effects. In this study, the sub-acute toxicity of oral zinc aluminium nanocomposite with and without levodopa was assessed using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. No sign or symptom of toxicity was observed in orally treated rats with the nanocomposite at 5 and 500 mg/kg concentrations. Body weight gain, feeding, water intake, general survival and organosomatic index were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (169 ± 30 U/L), 5 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (172 ± 49 U/L), and 500 mg/kg layered double hydroxides (LDH) nanocomposite (175 ± 25 U/L) were notably elevated compared to controls (143 ± 05 U/L); but the difference were not significant (p > 0.05). However, the differences in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio of 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (0.32 ± 0.12) and 500 mg/kg LDH nanocomposite (0.34 ± 0.12) were statistically significant (p < 0.05) compared to the control (0.51 ± 0.07). Histology of the liver, spleen and brain was found to be of similar morphology in both control and experimental groups. The kidneys of 500-mg/kg-treated rats with levodopa nanocomposite and LDH nanocomposite were found to have slight inflammatory changes, notably leukocyte infiltration around the glomeruli. The ultra-structure of the neurons from the substantia nigra of nanocomposite-exposed group was similar to those receiving only normal saline. The observed result has suggested possible liver and renal toxicity in

  14. Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

  15. The chemical transformation of copper in aluminium oxide during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Wang, Hsi-Chih; Yang, Yaw-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2004-08-01

    Thermal treatment has recently been emerging as a promising environmental technology to stabilize heavy metal-containing industrial sludge. This study used x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the species of copper contaminant contained in aluminium oxide that is one of the main compositions of sludge and soil. Results indicate that the originally loaded copper nitrate was transformed into Cu(OH)2 after its dissolution in the aluminium oxide slurry. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting indicates that the main copper species in the 105 °C dried Cu(NO3)2-loaded aluminium oxide is Cu(OH)2 which accounts for ca. 75% of the loaded copper. After thermal treatment at 500 °C for 1 h, both x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and EXAFS fitting results show that CuO became the prevailing copper species (about 85%); the rest of the copper consisted of {\\sim }15{%} Cu(OH)2 and a negligible amount of Cu(NO3)2. It was found that most Cu(OH)2 and Cu(NO3)2 decomposed into CuO at 500 °C. Further increase of the heating temperature from 500 to 900 °C resulted in more decomposition of Cu(OH)2 and Cu(NO3)2; therefore CuO remained as the main copper species. However, it was suggested that about 15% of the loaded copper formed CuAl2O4 through the chemical reaction between CuO and Al2O3 at 900 °C.

  16. Blood plasma contact activation on silicon, titanium and aluminium.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Sara; Askendal, Agneta; Tengvall, Pentti

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, blood plasma protein deposition to spontaneously air oxidized silicon, titanium and aluminium was re-investigated in vitro. Immunological- and null ellipsometry methods were used to detect and quantitate adsorbed proteins, RIA methods to study the retention of preadsorbed 125I-HSA upon exposure to buffer or blood plasma, and kallikrein-specific colorimetric substrate S-2302 to follow the surface generation of kallikrein. The results show that the contact activation of coagulation and complement systems are connected on Si and Ti, but not on Al, via coagulation factor XII. Preadsorbed 125I-HSA was most readily displaced on silicon, followed by titanium and aluminium. The surfaces displayed different antibody binding patterns after short and long-time exposures to plasma. Titanium and silicon bound anti-HMWK after 1 min in plasma, but aluminium did not. When the plasma incubation time was prolonged up to 2h the anti-HMWK binding disappeared totally on titanium and decreased on silicon. During the same time period, anti-C3c binding increased to the three types of surfaces. Also, the anti-C3c binding onto Si and Ti, but not Al, disappeared after incubation in Factor XII deficient plasma or when a specific coagulation factor XII (Factor XII) inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) was added to normal plasma. The surface contacted plasmas cleaved the kallikrein-specific reagent S-2302 both after single surface contact, and after reincubation of surfaces in fresh plasma. The results show that C3b and Factor XIIa and their degradation products were retained at the surfaces.

  17. Ultraviolet Plasmonic Aluminium Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Light Incoupling on Silicon Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinan; Cai, Boyuan; Jia, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles supporting localized surface plasmon resonances have attracted a great deal of interest in boosting the light absorption in solar cells. Among the various plasmonic materials, the aluminium nanoparticles recently have become a rising star due to their unique ultraviolet plasmonic resonances, low cost, earth-abundance and high compatibility with the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing process. Here, we report some key factors that determine the light incoupling of aluminium nanoparticles located on the front side of silicon solar cells. We first numerically study the scattering and absorption properties of the aluminium nanoparticles and the influence of the nanoparticle shape, size, surface coverage and the spacing layer on the light incoupling using the finite difference time domain method. Then, we experimentally integrate 100-nm aluminium nanoparticles on the front side of silicon solar cells with varying silicon nitride thicknesses. This study provides the fundamental insights for designing aluminium nanoparticle-based light trapping on solar cells. PMID:28335223

  18. Ultraviolet Plasmonic Aluminium Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Light Incoupling on Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Cai, Boyuan; Jia, Baohua

    2016-05-24

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles supporting localized surface plasmon resonances have attracted a great deal of interest in boosting the light absorption in solar cells. Among the various plasmonic materials, the aluminium nanoparticles recently have become a rising star due to their unique ultraviolet plasmonic resonances, low cost, earth-abundance and high compatibility with the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing process. Here, we report some key factors that determine the light incoupling of aluminium nanoparticles located on the front side of silicon solar cells. We first numerically study the scattering and absorption properties of the aluminium nanoparticles and the influence of the nanoparticle shape, size, surface coverage and the spacing layer on the light incoupling using the finite difference time domain method. Then, we experimentally integrate 100-nm aluminium nanoparticles on the front side of silicon solar cells with varying silicon nitride thicknesses. This study provides the fundamental insights for designing aluminium nanoparticle-based light trapping on solar cells.

  19. Formulation of vaccines containing CpG oligonucleotides and alum.

    PubMed

    Aebig, Joan A; Mullen, Gregory E D; Dobrescu, Gelu; Rausch, Kelly; Lambert, Lynn; Ajose-Popoola, Olubunmi; Long, Carole A; Saul, Allan; Miles, Aaron P

    2007-06-30

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are potent immunostimulants. For parenterally delivered alum-based vaccines, the immunostimulatory effect of CpG depends on the association of the CpG and antigen to the alum. We describe effects of buffer components on the binding of CPG 7909 to aluminum hydroxide (Alhydrogel), assays for measuring binding of CPG 7909 to alum and CPG 7909 induced dissociation of antigen from the alum. Free CPG 7909 is a potent inducer of IP-10 in mice. However the lack of IP-10 production from formulations containing bound CPG 7909 suggested that CPG 7909 does not rapidly dissociate from the alum after injection. It also suggests that IP-10 assays are not a good basis for potency assays for alum-based vaccines containing CPG 7909.

  20. The fracture of boron fibre-reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. A.; Welch, D.; Jollay, J.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture of 6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with unidirectional and cross-plied 0/90 deg, 0/90/+ or - 45 deg boron fibres has been investigated. The results have been described in terms of a critical stress intensity, K(Q). Critical stress intensity factors were obtained by substituting the failure stress and the initial crack length into the appropriate expression for K(Q). Values were obtained that depended on the dimensions of the specimens. It was therefore concluded that, for the size of specimen tested, the values of K(Q) did not reflect any basic materials property.

  1. Effects of silicon on gastrointestinal absorption of aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Edwardson, J.A.; Moore, P.B.; Ferrier, I.N.; Lilley, J.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Barker, J.; Templar, J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-07-24

    The reported geographical association between Alzheimer's disease and levels of aluminium (Al) in water supplies may reflect the inverse relation between Al and silicon (Si) concentrations in water, and the potential for Si to reduce the bioavailability of the metal. The authors tested this hypothesis using isotopic [sup 26]Al tracer administered orally to five healthy volunteers in the presence and absence of Si. Dissolved Si, at a concentration found in some water supplies reduced the peak plasma [sup 26]Al concentration to 15% of the value obtained in the absence of Si. The results indicate that dissolved Si is an important factor in limiting the absorption of dietary Al.

  2. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M.; Canadas, I.; Martinez, D.

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  3. Mechanism of aluminium bio-mineralization in the apoferritin cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarpotto, M.; Ciasca, G.; Vassalli, M.; Rossi, C.; Campi, G.; Ricci, A.; Bocca, B.; Pino, A.; Alimonti, A.; De Sole, P.; Papi, M.

    2013-08-01

    Many experimental evidences point out the correlation between the presence of aluminum-ferritin complex and neursopathological disorders. In these complexes, two different ranges of Aluminium (Al) atoms are usually found, i.e., just few atoms or several hundreds. Here, we investigated the in-vitro Al-apoferritin binding, with the aim to elucidate the mechanism behind the formation of Al-ferritin complexes in-vivo. To this purpose, we studied the mineralization of Al in its ionic and complexed form with citrate demonstrating that high Al levels found in clinical studies can be obtained only conveying Al by small physiological ligands.

  4. Histological and electron microprobe studies of mineralisation in aluminium-related osteomalacia.

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, B. F.; Byars, J.; McWilliams, S.; Mocan, M. Z.; Elder, H. Y.; Boyle, I. T.; Junor, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine a possible mechanism to explain the presence of aluminium lines within fully calcified bone in aluminium-related osteomalacia. METHODS: Fifty five bone cases shown by bone biopsy to be aluminium-related osteomalacia were studied. In 38 specimens aluminium lines were identified within calcified bone by means of the Aluminon stain and a characteristic form of patchy mineralisation was seen within thickened osteoid seams. Five representative examples were analysed quantitatively by histomorphometry and electronprobe X-ray microanalysis and compared with five cases of vitamin D deficiency-related osteomalacia which also had patchy mineralisation. RESULTS: The patchy calcification occupied 40 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM) of the osteoid and consisted of small focal deposits (less than 40 microns diameter), often (52%) around osteoid osteocytes (probably an underestimate of the association), and larger areas that extended to the aluminium lines at the underlying mineralisation front. Small and large mineralisation nuclei were seen ultrastructurally in the patchy calcification. Quantitative electronprobe X-ray microanalysis showed that calcium concentrations and calcium:phosphorus ratios in the mineralisation nuclei and in the superficial layer of the fully calcified bone of the aluminium-related osteomalacia cases were significantly less than values measured at similar sites in the vitamin D deficiency-related osteomalacia cases. Furthermore, aluminium could not be detected by means of this technique at the mineralisation front or along cement lines in these specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Calcification can occur in thickened osteoid seams in osteomalacia. It can begin around osteoid osteocytes as small deposits that enlarge within the osteoid and extend to the underlying mineralisation front or cement line where aluminium lines may become trapped. Complete calcification of osteoid could account for the presence of aluminium lines within fully calcified bone. The

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  6. In Vivo Analysis of the Potency of Silicone Oil Microdroplets as Immunological Adjuvants in Protein Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Carly Fleagle; Nguyen, Bao Han; Soucie, Kaitlin R.; Torres, Raul M.; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2015-01-01

    Subvisible particles in a therapeutic protein product may act as adjuvants to promote unwanted immune responses against the protein. Silicone oil is used as a lubricant in prefilled syringes, and microdroplets of silicone oil are often detected in protein formulations expelled from prefilled syringes. In order to test the adjuvant potency of silicone oil microdroplets, antibody responses in mice to subcutaneous injections of formulations of ovalbumin (OVA) that contained silicone oil microdroplets were measured. These responses were compared against responses to oil-free OVA formulations and to OVA formulations that contained microparticulate aluminum hydroxide (“alum”), the common vaccine adjuvant. When administered with high concentrations of silicone oil microdroplets, OVA formulations elicited strong anti-OVA IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses. These responses were equivalent to those observed when alum microparticles were added to OVA formulations, suggesting that silicone oil can act as a potent adjuvant. However, when OVA formulations were prepared with lower levels of silicone oil that had been obtained directly from commercial siliconized syringes, the anti-OVA antibody response was not enhanced significantly compared to responses against OVA alone. PMID:26190624

  7. Controllable synthesis of layered Co-Ni hydroxide hierarchical structures for high-performance hybrid supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Tao; Chen, Limiao; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    A facile solvothermal method is developed for synthesizing layered Co-Ni hydroxide hierarchical structures by using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as alkaline reagent. The electrochemical measurements reveal that the specific capacitances of layered bimetallic (Co-Ni) hydroxides are generally superior to those of layered monometallic (Co, Ni) hydroxides. The as-prepared Co0.5Ni0.5 hydroxide hierarchical structures possesses the highest specific capacitance of 1767 F g-1 at a galvanic current density of 1 A g-1 and an outstanding specific capacitance retention of 87% after 1000 cycles. In comparison with the dispersed nanosheets of Co-Ni hydroxide, layered hydroxide hierarchical structures show much superior electrochemical performance. This study provides a promising method to construct hierarchical structures with controllable transition-metal compositions for enhancing the electrochemical performance in hybrid supercapacitors.

  8. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  9. Fire and thermal properties of layered double hydroxides and polyurea nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyambo, Calistor

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with linear alkyl carboxylates (CH3(CH2)n COO-, n = 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20), borate and benzyl anions were prepared. The effect on fire and thermal properties of the mode of preparation for LDHs (i.e. ion exchange, coprecipitation and rehydration of the calcined LDH methods) has been studied. After characterization, the LDHs were used to prepare nanocomposites with a range of polar and non-polar polymers. Characterization of the LDHs and the nanocomposites was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cone calorimetry. FTIR and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of the charge balancing anions in the galleries of the LDHs. Improvements in fire and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were observed. The cone calorimeter revealed that the addition of LDHs reduces the peak heat release rate significantly. LDHs were combined with commercial fire retardants. Synergistic effects were observed in both TGA and cone calorimetry for formulations containing both LDH and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Physical and chemical interactions between LDH and APP are responsible for the observed synergy in thermal stability and fire performance.

  10. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

    PubMed Central

    CAMARGO, Samira Esteves Afonso; RODE, Sigmar de Mello; do PRADO, Renata Falchete; CARVALHO, Yasmin Rodarte; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Castor oil bean cement (COB) is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH) and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Material and methods The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Results Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH) and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001) was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111) between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells) and COB (330 inflammatory cells) after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02) were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells) than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells). Conclusions These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods. PMID:20857007

  11. Lithography overlay controller formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, Christopher A.; Toprac, Anthony J.; Edwards, Richard D.; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2000-08-01

    Lithography overlay refers to the measurement of the alignment of successive patterns within the manufacture of semiconductor devices. Control of overlay has become of great importance in semiconductor manufacturing, as the tolerance for overlay error is continually shrinking in order to manufacture next-generation semiconductor products. Run-to-run control has become an attractive solution to many control problems within the industry, including overlay. The term run-to-run control refers to any automated procedure whereby recipe settings are updated between successive process runs in order to keep the process under control. The following discussion will present the formulation of such a controller by examining control of overlay. A brief introduction of overlay will be given, highlighting the control challenge overlay presents. A data management methodology that groups like processes together in order to improve controllability, referred to as control threads, will then be presented. Finally, a discussion of linear model predictive control will show its utility in feedback run-to-run control.

  12. Aluminium-oxide wires for superconducting high kinetic inductance circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotzinger, H.; Skacel, S. T.; Pfirrmann, M.; Voss, J. N.; Münzberg, J.; Probst, S.; Bushev, P.; Weides, M. P.; Ustinov, A. V.; Mooij, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate thin films of conducting aluminium-oxide, also known as granular aluminium, as a material for superconducting high quality, high kinetic inductance circuits. The films are deposited by an optimised reactive DC magnetron sputter process and characterised using microwave measurement techniques at milli-Kelvin temperatures. We show that, by precise control of the reactive sputter conditions, a high room temperature sheet resistance and therefore high kinetic inductance at low temperatures can be obtained. For a coplanar waveguide resonator with 1.5 kΩ sheet resistance and a kinetic inductance fraction close to unity, we measure a quality factor in the order of 700 000 at 20 mK. Furthermore, we observe a sheet resistance reduction by gentle heat treatment in air. This behaviour is exploited to study the kinetic inductance change using the microwave response of a coplanar wave guide resonator. We find the correlation between the kinetic inductance and the sheet resistance to be in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  13. Aluminium chloride-induced toxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Monaco, A; Grimaldi, M C; Ferrandino, I

    2016-08-15

    Embryos at shield stage and larvae at protruding mouth stage were exposed to different concentrations of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 ) for 72 h with the purpose to analyse their phenotype and lethality. After 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment, higher toxicity of the metal was observed on larvae with minimal lethal concentration of 0.25, 0.20 and 0.08 mm, respectively, while for embryos the corresponding values were 40, 25 and 16 mm. We observed pericardial oedema and alteration of heart rate in 50% of larvae after 48 h of exposure to 100 μm. In larvae exposed to the same concentration, there was also a neurological injury at the level of glial cells, with the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells being significantly reduced. This study confirms the toxic nature of this metal and shows that aluminium could also interestingly represent a cardiotoxin in addition to its neurotoxic ability.

  14. Downscaled anodic oxidation process for aluminium in oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, M.; Morgenstern, R.; Kuhn, D.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Schubert, A.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    The increasing multi-functionality of parts and assemblies in several fields of engineering demands, amongst others, highly functionalised surfaces. For the different applications, on the one hand, there is a need to scale up surface modification processes originating in the nano- and micro-scale. On the other hand, conventional macro-scale surface refinement methods offer a huge potential for application in the said nano- and micro-scale. The anodic oxidation process, which is established especially for aluminium and its alloys, allows the formation of oxide ceramic layers on the surface. The build-up of an oxide ceramic coating comes along with altered chemical, tribological and electrical surface properties. As a basis for further investigations regarding the use of the anodic oxidation process for micro-scale-manufacturing, the scale effects of oxalic acid anodising on commercially pure aluminium as well as on the AlZn5.5MgCu alloy are addressed in the present work. The focus is on the amount of oxide formed during a potentiostatic process in relation to the exchanged amount of charge. Further, the hardness of the coating as an integral measure to assess the porous oxide structure is approached by nano-indentation technique.

  15. Aluminium surface treatment with ceramic phases using diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labisz, K.; Tański, T.; Brytan, Z.; Pakieła, W.; Wiśniowski, M.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic particles powder feeding into surface layer of engineering metal alloy is a well-known and widely used technique. New approach into the topic is to obtain finely distributed nano-sized particles involved in the aluminium matrix using the traditional laser technology. In this paper are presented results of microstructure investigation of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloys surface layer after heat treatment and alloying with ceramic carbides of WC and ZrO2 using high-power diode laser. The surface layer was specially prepared for the reason of reducing the reflectivity, which is the main problem in the up-to-date metal matrix composites production. With scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to determine the deformation process and distribution of WC and ZrO2 ceramic powder phase. Structure of the surface after laser treatment changes, revealing three zones—remelting zone, heat-affected zone and transition zone placed over the Al substrate. The structural changes of ceramic powder, its distribution and morphology as well as microstructure of the matrix material influence on functional properties, especially wear resistance and hardness of the achieved layer, were investigated.

  16. Consolidation of copper and aluminium powders by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiprasad, M.; Atchayakumar, R.; Thiruppathi, K.; Raghuraman, S.

    2016-09-01

    Processing in the powder metallurgy route has emerged as an economical process for the production of near net shaped components with a wide range of desired mechanical properties suitable for various applications of industrial needs. This research work was conducted with an objective of studying the improvisation of density and hardness of Copper-Aluminium alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering. Cu-Al alloy with a composition of 95% copper and 5% aluminium was prepared by SPS process. SPS is a low voltage, DC pulse current activated, pressure-assisted sintering, which enables sintering at lower temperatures and shorter durations. The combination offered by Cu-Al alloy of high strength and high corrosion resistance results their applications under a wide variety of conditions. The density and hardness of the prepared sample were measured by conducting appropriate tests. Apparently, the values of hardness and density of the specimen prepared by SPS seemed to be better than that of conventional sintering. The experimental procedure, testing methodologies and analysis are presented.

  17. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croccolo, D.; de Agostinis, M.; Vincenzi, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE) method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces) versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces). The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  18. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium with indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-Li; Xiong, Wen-Qiang; Gong, Ying-Kun; Peng, De-Jun; Li, Ling-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A new catalytic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of trace amounts of Al(III). The methods based on catalytic action of Al(III) on the oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) by ammonium persulfate in hexamethylene tetramine-hydrochloric acid ((CH2)6N4-HCl) buffer medium (pH 5.4) and in the presence of surfactant-TritonX-100. The effects of some factors on the reaction speed were investigated. Aluminium concentration is linear for 0-1.2x10(-7) g/ml in this method. The detection limit of the proposed method is 1.96x10(-8) g/ml. Most of the foreign ions except for Cu(II), Fe(III) do not interfere with the determination, and the interference of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in this method can be removed by extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate-carbon tetrachloride (DDTC-CCl4). This system is a quasi-zero-order reaction for Al(III), but it is a quasi-first-order reaction for IC. The apparent rate constant is 2.62x10(-5) s-1 and the apparent activation energy is 6.60 kJ/mol in the system. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace aluminium(III) in real samples with satisfactory results.

  19. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, J. J.; Hung, Y.-C.; Tan, P. J.; Bourne, N. K.; Withers, P. J.; Reid, S. R.; Millett, J. C. F.; Milne, A. M.

    2006-07-01

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised according to the impact velocity. Tests have been carried out at a range of impact velocities from quasi-static to velocities approaching the speed of sound in the foam. Various experimental arrangements have been employed including pneumatic launcher tests and plate impact experimants at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was approximately elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities the deformation pattern was through the cumulative multiplication of discrete, non-contiguous crush bands. Selected impact tests are presented here for which the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity so that the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was used as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on a real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation.

  20. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, J. J.; Millett, J. C. F.; Milne, A. M.

    2005-07-01

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised by the impact velocity. Tests are reported ranging from quasi-static to impact velocities greater than the speed of sound in the foam. The techniques used ranging from drop-hammer and pneumatic launcher tests, to plate impact at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities, post-impact examination of partially crushed specimens showed that deformation was through the cumulative multiplication of crush bands. If the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity, the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. At higher impact velocities the compaction front is not preceded by an elastic wave. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was input as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation.

  1. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, J. J.; Hung, Y.-C.; Tan, P. J.; Bourne, N. K.; Withers, P. J.; Reid, S. R.; Millett, J. C. F.; Milne, A. M.

    2006-07-28

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised according to the impact velocity. Tests have been carried out at a range of impact velocities from quasi-static to velocities approaching the speed of sound in the foam. Various experimental arrangements have been employed including pneumatic launcher tests and plate impact experimants at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was approximately elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities the deformation pattern was through the cumulative multiplication of discrete, non-contiguous crush bands. Selected impact tests are presented here for which the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity so that the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was used as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on a real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation.

  2. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    PubMed

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  3. Atomistic calculations of dislocation core energy in aluminium

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, X. W.; Sills, R. B.; Ward, D. K.; ...

    2017-02-16

    A robust molecular dynamics simulation method for calculating dislocation core energies has been developed. This method has unique advantages: it does not require artificial boundary conditions, is applicable for mixed dislocations, and can yield highly converged results regardless of the atomistic system size. Utilizing a high-fidelity bond order potential, we have applied this method in aluminium to calculate the dislocation core energy as a function of the angle β between the dislocation line and Burgers vector. These calculations show that, for the face-centred-cubic aluminium explored, the dislocation core energy follows the same functional dependence on β as the dislocation elasticmore » energy: Ec = A·sin2β + B·cos2β, and this dependence is independent of temperature between 100 and 300 K. By further analysing the energetics of an extended dislocation core, we elucidate the relationship between the core energy and radius of a perfect versus extended dislocation. With our methodology, the dislocation core energy can be accurately accounted for in models of plastic deformation.« less

  4. Atomistic calculations of dislocation core energy in aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. W.; Sills, R. B.; Ward, D. K.; Karnesky, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    A robust molecular-dynamics simulation method for calculating dislocation core energies has been developed. This method has unique advantages: It does not require artificial boundary conditions, is applicable for mixed dislocations, and can yield converged results regardless of the atomistic system size. Utilizing a high-fidelity bond order potential, we have applied this method in aluminium to calculate the dislocation core energy as a function of the angle β between the dislocation line and the Burgers vector. These calculations show that, for the face-centered-cubic aluminium explored, the dislocation core energy follows the same functional dependence on β as the dislocation elastic energy: Ec=A sin2β +B cos2β , and this dependence is independent of temperature between 100 and 300 K. By further analyzing the energetics of an extended dislocation core, we elucidate the relationship between the core energy and the core radius of a perfect versus an extended dislocation. With our methodology, the dislocation core energy can accurately be accounted for in models of dislocation-mediated plasticity.

  5. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    PubMed

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works.

  6. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Goryachev, Maxim; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.

  7. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  8. Selected-control synthesis of dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods by adjusting hydrothermal temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Song Xuchun Zheng Yifan; Wang Yun

    2008-05-06

    Dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were prepared directly from commercial bulk Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals by facile hydrothermal process at 130 and 210 deg. C, respectively. The as-synthesized dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were investigated by various techniques of XRD, TEM, SEM, and EDS. In the process, the temperature was found to play important roles in determining produce dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods.

  9. Method of treating inflammatory diseases using a radiolabeled ferric hydroxide calloid

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of lawsone-lntercalated Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Yamin; Ismail, Nur Mushirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2011-06-01

    A drug-inorganic nanostructured material involving pharmaceutically active compound lawsone intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Law-LDHs) with Zn/AI = 4 has been assembled by co-precipitation and ion exchange methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) analysis indicate a successful intercalation of lawsone between the layers of layered double hydroxides. It suggests that layered double hydroxides may have application as the basis of a drug delivery system.

  11. Cu2+ ions as a paramagnetic probe to study the surface chemical modification process of layered double hydroxides and hydroxide salts with nitrate and carboxylate anions.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio; Wypych, Fernando

    2008-04-01

    A layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2.2H2O) and a layered double hydroxide (Zn/Al-NO3) were synthesized by coprecipitation and doped with different amounts of Cu2+ (0.2, 1, and 10 mol%), as paramagnetic probe. Although the literature reports that the nitrate ion is free (with D3h symmetry) between the layers of these two structures, the FTIR spectra of two zinc hydroxide nitrate samples show the C2v symmetry for the nitrate ion, whereas the g ||/A || value in the EPR spectra of Cu2+ is high. This fact suggests bonding of some nitrate ions to the layers of the zinc hydroxide nitrate. The zinc hydroxide nitrate was used as matrix in the intercalation reaction with benzoate, o-chlorobenzoate, and o-iodobenzoate ions. FTIR spectra confirm the ionic exchange reaction and the EPR spectroscopy reveals bonding of the organic ions to the inorganic layers of the zinc hydroxide nitrate, while the layered double hydroxides show only exchange reactions.

  12. Understanding Nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) reactions with ferric hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Rodrigo Javier; Farrell, James

    2017-05-01

    Phosphonate compounds are used in a wide variety of industrial and agricultural applications, and are commonly found in surface and ground waters. Adsorption to ferric hydroxide can have a significant effect on the transport and fate of phosphonate compounds in the environment. This research used density functional theory modeling to investigate the adsorption mechanisms of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) on ferric hydroxide. Standard Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔGr(o)) and reaction activation barriers (Ea) were calculated for different possible adsorption mechanisms. Physical adsorption of NTMP to ferric hydroxide was promoted by negative charge assisted hydrogen bonding, and had ΔGr(o) ranging from -2.7 to -7.4 kcal/mol. NTMP was found to form three different types of inner sphere complexes, monodentate, bidentate mononuclear and bidentate binuclear. For the monodentate complexes, ΔGr(o) ranged from -8.0 to -13.7 kcal/mol, for the bidentate complexes ΔGr(o) ranged from -15.3 to -28.9 kcal/mol. Complexation with Ca(2+) decreased the energy for physical adsorption but increased the binding energies for mono- and bidentate complexes. Complexation with Ca(2+) also allowed formation of a tridentate ternary surface complex, whereby the Ca(2+) ion formed a bridge between three FeO(-) and three PO(-) groups. Physical adsorption had Ea = 0, but mono- and bidentate complex formation had Ea values ranging from 36 to 53 kcal/mol. Formation of tridentate ternary surface complexes involving Ca(2+) had the lowest activation barriers of 8 and 10 kcal/mol. The different activation barriers for different modes of adsorption may explain previous experimental observations of unusual kinetic behavior for adsorption and desorption of NTMP.

  13. Syntheses and Properties of Cobalt and Nickel Hydroxide Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashina, Masashi; Eguchi, Akio; Kanezaki, Eiji; Shiga, Takuya; Oshio, Hiroki

    Nanosheets of cobalt and nickel hydroxides nanosheets were prepared by delamination of layered compounds, CoII(OH)1.73(DBS)0.27·0.87H2O (Co-DBS, DBS = dodecylbenzene sulfonate) and NiII(OH)1.63(DBS)0.37·1.24H2O (Ni-DBS), respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction analyses of the layered compounds revealed lattice parameters of a0 = 3.07 Å and c0 = 30 Å (Co-DBS) and a0 = 3.09 Å and c0 = 30 Å (Ni-DBS) in the hexagonal system. Dispersions of Co-DBS and Ni-DBS in 1-butanol produced colloidal solutions of nanosheets, [Co-DBS]delam and [Ni-DBS]delam, respectively. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in [Co-DBS]delam and [Ni-DBS]delam and the mixtures were dried to yield Co-PVP and Ni-PVP, respectively. These nanosheets measured 150-500 nm for [Co-DBS]delam and 135-400 nm for [Ni-DBS]delam by means of dynamic light scattering. Atomic force microscopy images showed lateral dimensions of 100-500 nm for [Co-DBS]delam and 50-100 nm for [Ni-DBS]delam. In the former image, the cobalt hydroxide nanosheets had a fairly flat terrace structure with thickness of 3.1-3.6 nm and with aspect ratios of 30-150, whereas in the latter image dome-like nanosheets of nickel hydroxide with height of 2.2-2.3 nm were confirmed. These nanosheets were regarded as monolayer. Magnetization experiments at 1.8 K showed hysteresis loops for Co-DBS, Co-PVP, Ni-DBS, and Ni-PVP.

  14. Effects of salinity and humic acid on the sorption of Hg on Fe and Mn hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Chan; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Cui, Hao-Jie; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acid (HA) and salinity on adsorption of Hg on the amorphous and crystalline of iron and manganese hydroxides. The results show that the adsorption of Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides was inhibited in marine system due to the formation of stable, nonsorbing aqueous HgCl(2) complexes in solution. Moreover, Cl(-) inhibited the Hg(2+) adsorption more severely on amorphous than crystalline hydroxides. The addition of HA inhibited Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in freshwater system might be attributed to the competition between Hg(2+) and HA on adsorption to Fe and Mn hydroxides. In contrast, the addition of HA promoted Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in the marine system, which might be due to the addition of humic acid resulted in the reaction between Cl(-) and HA, and therefore the reducing of Cl(-) promoted more Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides. In addition, the influence of HA on Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides are more visible for crystalline than amorphous hydroxides.

  15. Effects on the nervous system among welders exposed to aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Iregren, A; Frech, W; Hagman, M; Johansson, L; Tesarz, M; Wennberg, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The purpose was to study the effects on the nervous system in welders exposed to aluminium and manganese. METHODS--The investigation included questionnaires on symptoms, psychological methods (simple reaction time, finger tapping speed and endurance, digit span, vocabulary, tracking, symbol digit, cylinders, olfactory threshold, Luria-Nebraska motor scale), neurophysiological methods (electroencephalography, event related auditory evoked potential (P-300), brainstem auditory evoked potential, and diadochokinesometry) and assessments of blood and urine concentrations of metals (aluminium, lead, and manganese). RESULTS--The welders exposed to aluminium (n = 38) reported more symptoms from the central nervous system than the control group (n = 39). They also had a decreased motor function in five tests. The effect was dose related in two of these five tests. The median exposure of aluminium welders was 7065 hours and they had about seven times higher concentrations of aluminium in urine than the controls. The welders exposed to manganese (n = 12) had a decreased motor function in five tests. An increased latency of event related auditory evoked potential was also found in this group. The median manganese exposure was 270 hours. These welders did not have higher concentrations of manganese in blood than the controls. CONCLUSIONS--The neurotoxic effects found in the groups of welders exposed to aluminium and manganese are probably caused by the aluminium and manganese exposure, respectively. These effects indicate a need for improvements in the work environments of these welders. PMID:8563855

  16. Continuous flow analysis method for determination of soluble iron and aluminium in ice cores.

    PubMed

    Spolaor, A; Vallelonga, P; Gabrieli, J; Roman, M; Barbante, C

    2013-01-01

    Iron and aluminium are the two most abundant metals on the Earth's crust, but they display quite different biogeochemical properties. While iron is essential to many biological processes, aluminium has not been found to have any biological function at all. In environmental studies, iron has been studied in detail for its limiting role in the bioproductivity of high nutrient, low carbon oceanic zones, while aluminium is routinely used as a reference of crustal contributions to atmospheric deposition archives including peat bogs, lacustrine and marine sediments and ice sheets and glaciers. We report here the development of a flow injection analysis technique, which has been optimised for the simultaneous determination of soluble iron and aluminium in polar ice cores. Iron was determined by its catalytic role in the reduction of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamene (DPD) to a semiquinonic form (DPDQ) and subsequent absorption spectroscopy at 514 nm. Aluminium was determined by spectroscopic analysis of an aluminium-lumogallion complex that exhibits fluorescence at 560 nm. These techniques have been applied to a section of Greenland ice dated to 1729-1733 AD and indicate that volcanism is a source of highly soluble aluminium and iron.

  17. Bacopa monniera prevents from aluminium neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-04-20

    Bacopa monniera is a perennial herb, and is used as a nerve tonic in äyurveda, a traditional medicinal system in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Bacopa monniera could potentially inhibit aluminium toxicity in the cerebral cortex. Male Wister rats (8 months old) were administered with AlCl(3) orally at a dose of 50mg/kg/day in drinking water for 1 month. Experimental rats were given AlCl(3) along with Bacopa monniera extract at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day. One group of rats was treated with l-deprenyl at a dose of 1mg/kg/day along with AlCl(3) treatment. We have observed that Bacopa monniera prevented accumulation of lipid and protein damage significantly, which resulted from aluminium intake. Decline in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes associated with aluminium administration was also inhibited by Bacopa monniera extract. The potential of Bacopa monniera to inhibit Al-induced oxidative stress was observed to be similar to that of l-deprenyl, which was taken as standard. The potential of Bacopa monniera extract to prevent aluminium neurotoxicity was reflected at the microscopic level as well, indicative of its neuroprotective effects. These findings strongly implicate that Bacopa monniera has potential to protect brain from oxidative damage resulting from aluminium toxicity.

  18. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland).

  19. Aqueous aluminium eliminates Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) infections in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Soleng, A; Poléo, A B; Alstad, N E; Bakke, T A

    1999-07-01

    This study focuses on the effect of acidic water and aqueous aluminium on the monogenean ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris, infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. G. salaris-infected salmon were exposed to various combinations of acidity and aluminium concentrations. The most pronounced effect was the elimination of parasites after 4 days when 202 micrograms Al/l was added to the water. The effect of aluminium was concentration dependent, but was relatively independent of pH (5.2, 5.6 and 5.9). At the lowest pH of 5.0 the effect of aluminium was enhanced. Acidic aluminium-poor water had no or minor effects on the G. salaris infections except at pH 5.0 where all parasites were eliminated within 9 days. The G. salaris populations increased exponentially in untreated control water. The results show for the first time that aqueous aluminium can, to a limited extent, have a positive effect on fish health. This study emphasizes that basic knowledge about abiotic environmental factors is of importance in order to understand the population dynamics, range extension and dispersal of ectoparasites such as G. salaris. Finally, our results suggest that aluminium treatment could form an effective disinfection method against ectoparasites in hatcheries and laboratories, as well as complementing the controversial rotenone treatments used against natural populations of G. salaris.

  20. Sodium hydroxide anodization of Ti-Al-4V adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filbey, Jennifer A.; Wightman, J. P.; Progar, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA) for Ti-6Al-4V adherends is examined. The SHA surface is evaluated using SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The SHA procedures of Kennedy et al. (1983) were employed in this experiment. The photomicrographs of the SHA (sandblasted) and PSHA (sandblasted and pickled) oxide surface reveal that the two surfaces differ. The PSHA is patchy and similar to a chromic acid anodization surface and the porosity of the PSHA is more uniform than the SHA surface. The compositions of the surfaces are studied. It is noted that SHA is an effective pretreatment for Ti-6Al-4V adherends.

  1. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to

  2. Iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower assisted removal of arsenic from water

    SciTech Connect

    Raul, Prasanta Kumar; Devi, Rashmi Rekha; Umlong, Iohborlang M.; Thakur, Ashim Jyoti; Banerjee, Saumen; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Non-magnetic polycrystalline iron oxide hydroxide nanoparticle with flower like morphology is found to play as an effective adsorbent media to remove As(III) from 300 μg L{sup −1} to less than 10 μg L{sup −1} from drinking water over wide range of pH. TEM image clearly reveals that the nanoparticle looks flower like morphology with average particle size less than 20 nm. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic at room temperature and the data fitted to different isotherm models indicate the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface. The material can be regenerated up to 70% using dilute hydrochloric acid and it would be utilized for de-arsenification purposes. - Highlights: • The work includes synthesis of iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower and its applicability for the removal of arsenic from water. • The nanoparticle was characterized using modern instrumental methods like FESEM, TEM, BET, XRD, etc. • The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic at room temperature. • The sorption is multilayered on the heterogeneous surface of the nano adsorbent. • The mechanism of arsenic removal of IOH nanoflower follows both adsorption and ion-exchange. - Abstract: Non-magnetic polycrystalline iron oxide hydroxide nanoparticle with flower like morphology is found to play as an effective adsorbent media to remove As(III) from 300 μg L{sup −1} to less than 10 μg L{sup −1} from drinking water over wide range of pH. The nanoparticle was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), BET surface area, FTIR, FESEM and TEM images. TEM image clearly reveals flower like morphology with average particle size less than 20 nm. The nanoflower morphology is also supported by FESEM images. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic and the data fitted to different isotherm models indicate the

  3. Sorption of Np (V) by U (VI) hydroxide solids

    SciTech Connect

    Wruck, D A; Brachmann, A; Sylwester, E; Allen, C E A

    1999-09-20

    The distribution of {sup 237}Np(V) between aqueous NaHCO{sub 3} solutions and U(VI) hydroxide solids was investigated. Experiments were initiated by addition of U solids to Np solutions and by coprecipitation of U and Np. Analysis by U L{sub III} extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy indicated the solid phase was synthetic schoepite. Equilibrium Np distribution coefficients were 5-44 mL/g in the pH range 6-8. The results are consistent with adsorption of Np by the solids and provide no evidence of Np incorporation in the bulk solid.

  4. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  5. Stabilising metal(loid)s in soil with iron and aluminium-based products: microbial, biochemical and plant growth impact.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Silvetti, Margherita; Castaldi, Paola; Mele, Elena; Deiana, Pietrino; Deiana, Salvatore

    2014-06-15

    Four iron and aluminium-based products, including red mud (RM), hematite (Fe2O3), an iron-rich water treatment residual (Fe-WTR) and amorphous Al hydroxide (Al-OH), were evaluated for their effectiveness at stabilising As and heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) in a circumneutral contaminated soil [As (2105 mg kg(-1)), Cd (18 mg kg(-1)), Cu (264 mg kg(-1)), Pb (710 mg kg(-1)), Zn (522 mg kg(-1))]. Treatment impacts on soil microbial and biochemical features (i.e. microbial biomass-C, microbial counts, 16S rRNA PCR-TTGE of culturable bacteria, dehydrogenase, urease and β-glucosidase activity, Biolog derived parameters-AWCD and richness) as well as bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also assessed. After 6 months equilibration, all the amendments (application rate 3% w/w) but RM reduced labile As while only Al-OH reduced the concentration of water-soluble heavy metals. Despite the highest bioavailability of contaminants, most of the soil microbial and biochemical features monitored (i.e. microbial biomass-C, total bacterial counts, dehydrogenase activity and AWCD) were significantly higher in the RM-soil. Bean germination was completely inhibited in RM-soil while wheat growth was similar to that of the control. The Al-OH treatment was best overall, promoting microbial abundance, diversity and activity while increasing bean and wheat growth and reducing As accumulated in plant shoots. Results suggest that Al-OH is a suitable candidate for field evaluations while the use of RM in the remediation of circumneutral or subalkaline contaminated soils should be reconsidered.

  6. Chemical mimicking of bio-assisted aluminium extraction by Aspergillus niger's exometabolites.

    PubMed

    Boriová, Katarína; Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Pifková, Ivana; Matúš, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Presence of microorganisms in soils strongly affects mobility of metals. This fact is often excluded when mobile metal fraction in soil is studied using extraction procedures. Thus, the first objective of this paper was to evaluate strain Aspergillus niger's exometabolites contribution on aluminium mobilization. Fungal exudates collected in various time intervals during cultivation were analyzed and used for two-step bio-assisted extraction of alumina and gibbsite. Oxalic, citric and gluconic acids were identified in collected culture media with concentrations up to 68.4, 2.0 and 16.5 mmol L(-1), respectively. These exometabolites proved to be the most efficient agents in mobile aluminium fraction extraction with aluminium extraction efficiency reaching almost 2.2%. However, fungal cultivation is time demanding process. Therefore, the second objective was to simplify acquisition of equally efficient extracting agent by chemically mimicking composition of main organic acid components of fungal exudates. This was successfully achieved with organic acids mixture prepared according to medium composition collected on the 12th day of Aspergillus niger cultivation. This mixture extracted similar amounts of aluminium from alumina compared to culture medium. The aluminium extraction efficiency from gibbsite by organic acids mixture was lesser than 0.09% which is most likely because of more rigid mineral structure of gibbsite compared to alumina. The prepared organic acid mixture was then successfully applied for aluminium extraction from soil samples and compared to standard single step extraction techniques. This showed there is at least 2.9 times higher content of mobile aluminium fraction in soils than it was previously considered, if contribution of microbial metabolites is considered in extraction procedures. Thus, our contribution highlights the significance of fungal metabolites in aluminium extraction from environmental samples, but it also simplifies the

  7. Aluminium exposure from parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and later health outcomes during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Edmonds, Caroline J; Isaacs, Elizabeth; Bishop, Nick J; Lucas, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem.

  8. Biopsychosocial Formulation: Recognizing Educational Shortcomings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Tina; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Clardy, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Since Engel introduced the biopsychosocial model, it has been extensively examined. The authors expect psychiatrists to formulate cases using the biopsychosocial model. However, resident psychiatrists' ability to generate formulations using this model has received little attention. Methods: The authors evaluated resident biopsychosocial…

  9. Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)

  10. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  11. Cobalt and Nickel Nanopillars on Aluminium Substrates by Direct Current Electrodeposition Process

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A fast and cost-effective technique is applied for fabricating cobalt and nickel nanopillars on aluminium substrates. By applying an electrochemical process, the aluminium oxide barrier layer is removed from the pore bottom tips of nanoporous anodic alumina templates. So, cobalt and nickel nanopillars are fabricated into these templates by DC electrodeposition. The resulting nanostructure remains on the aluminium substrate. In this way, this method could be used to fabricate a wide range of nanostructures which could be integrated in new nanodevices. PMID:20596338

  12. Aluminium hydroxide stabilised MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles as dual-modality contrasts agent for MRI and PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xianjin; Belo, Salome; Krüger, Dirk; Yan, Yong; de Rosales, Rafael T M; Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Ye, Haitao; Su, Shi; Mathe, Domokos; Kovács, Noémi; Horváth, Ildikó; Semjeni, Mariann; Sunassee, Kavitha; Szigeti, Krisztian; Green, Mark A; Blower, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were stabilised by depositing an Al(OH)3 layer via a hydrolysis process. The particles displayed excellent colloidal stability in water and a high affinity to [(18)F]-fluoride and bisphosphonate groups. A high radiolabeling efficiency, 97% for (18)F-fluoride and 100% for (64)Cu-bisphosphonate conjugate, was achieved by simply incubating NPs with radioactivity solution at room temperature for 5 min. The properties of particles were strongly dependant on the thickness and hardness of the Al(OH)3 layer which could in turn be controlled by the hydrolysis method. The application of these Al(OH)3 coated magnetic NPs in molecular imaging has been further explored. The results demonstrated that these NPs are potential candidates as dual modal probes for MR and PET. In vivo PET imaging showed a slow release of (18)F from NPs, but no sign of efflux of (64)Cu.

  13. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  14. Hydroxide Degradation Pathways for Imidazolium Cations. A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B.

    2014-05-15

    Imidazolium cations are promising candidates as covalently tetherable cations for application in anion exchange membranes. They have generated specific interest in alkaline membrane fuel cell applications where ammonium-based cations have been the most commonly applied but have been found to be susceptible to hydroxide attack. In the search for high stability cations, a detailed understanding of the degradation pathways and reaction barriers is required. In this work, we investigate imidazolium and benzimidazolium cations in the presence of hydroxide using density functional theory calculations for their potential in alkaline membrane fuel cells. Moreover, the dominant degradation pathway for these cations is predicted to be the nucleophilic addition–elimination pathway at the C-2 atom position on the imidazolium ring. Steric interferences, introduced by substitutions at the C-2, C-4, and C-5 atom positions, were investigated and found to have a significant, positive impact on calculated degradation energy barriers. Benzimidazolium cations, with their larger conjugated systems, are predicted to degrade much faster than their imidazolium counterparts. Our results provide important insight into designing stable cations for anion exchange membranes. Some of the molecules studied have significantly increased degradation energy barriers suggesting that they could possess significantly improved (several orders of magnitude) durability compared to traditional cations and potentially enable new applications.

  15. Sulfur dioxide removal process with gypsum and magnesium hydroxide production

    SciTech Connect

    College, J.W.; Benson, L.B.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes improvement in a method for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases wherein the flue gases are contacted in a wet scrubbing unit, in the absence of any substantial amount of calcium components, with an aqueous solution of magnesium components and magnesium sulfite produced, with aqueous solution, following the contact, collected and recycled to the wet scrubber for further contact with flue gases, and subjecting a portion of the aqueous discharge from the scrubbing unit, containing magnesium sulfite, to oxidation in an oxidation unit. The improvement comprises: adding calcium sulfate to the portion of aqueous discharge containing magnesium sulfite prior to oxidation in the oxidation unit to form an oxidized aqueous effluent containing calcium sulfate solids and dissolved magnesium sulfate; passing the oxidized aqueous effluent to a regeneration tank; adding lime to the regeneration tank to precipitate gypsum from and form an aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension in the oxidized aqueous effluent; separating the precipitated gypsum from the aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension; and returning at least a portion of the separated precipitated gypsum to the oxidizing unit as the added calcium sulfate.

  16. Lithium hydroxide, LiOH, at elevated densities

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Andreas; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

    2014-07-14

    We discuss the high-pressure phases of crystalline lithium hydroxide, LiOH. Using first-principles calculations, and assisted by evolutionary structure searches, we reproduce the experimentally known phase transition under pressure, but we suggest that the high-pressure phase LiOH-III be assigned to a new hydrogen-bonded tetragonal structure type that is unique amongst alkali hydroxides. LiOH is at the intersection of both ionic and hydrogen bonding, and we examine the various ensuing structural features and their energetic driving mechanisms. At P = 17 GPa, we predict another phase transition to a new phase, Pbcm-LiOH-IV, which we find to be stable over a wide pressure range. Eventually, at extremely high pressures of 1100 GPa, the ground state of LiOH is predicted to become a polymeric structure with an unusual graphitic oxygen-hydrogen net. However, because of its ionic character, the anticipated metallization of LiOH is much delayed; in fact, its electronic band gap increases monotonically into the TPa pressure range.

  17. Biodiesel synthesis using calcined layered double hydroxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, J. Link; Crofcheck, Czarena; TAckett, S. Adam; Santillan-Jimenez, Eduardo; Morgan, Tonya; Ji, Yaying; Crocker, Mark; Toops, Todd J

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic properties of calcined Li-Al, Mg-Al and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were examined in two transesterification reactions, namely, the reaction of glyceryl tributyrate with methanol, and the reaction of soybean oil with methanol. While the Li-Al catalysts showed high activity in these reactions at the reflux temperature of methanol, the Mg-Fe and Mg-Al catalysts exhibited much lower methyl ester yields. CO2 TPD measurements revealed the presence of sites of weak, medium and strong basicity on both Mg-Al and Li-Al catalysts, the latter showing higher concentrations of medium and strong base sites; by implication, these are the main sites active in transesterification catalyzed by calcined Li-Al LDHs. Maximum activity was observed for the Li-Al catalysts when a calcination temperature of 450-500 aC was applied, corresponding to decomposition of the layered double hydroxide to the mixed oxide without formation of crystalline lithium aluminate phases.

  18. Cation ordering and superstructures in natural layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Krivovichev, Sergey V; Yakovenchuk, Victor N; Zolotarev, Andrey A; Ivanyuk, Gregory N; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A

    2010-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) constitute an important group of materials with many applications ranging from catalysis and absorption to carriers for drug delivery, DNA intercalation and carbon dioxide sequestration. The structures of LDHs are based upon double brucite-like hydroxide layers [M(2+)(n)M(3+)(m)(OH)(2(m+n)](m+), where M(2+) = Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), etc.; M(3+) = Al(3+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Mn(3+), etc. Structural features of LDHs such as cation ordering, charge distribution and polytypism have an immediate influence upon their properties. However, all the structural studies on synthetic LDHs deal with powder samples that prevent elucidation of such fine details of structure architecture as formation of superstructures due to cation ordering. In contrast to synthetic materials, natural LDHs are known to form single crystals accessible to single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, which provides a unique possibility to investigate 3D cation ordering in LDHs that results in formation of complex superstructures, where 2D cation order is combined with a specific order of layer stacking (polytypism). Therefore LDH minerals provide an indispensable source of structural information for modeling of structures and processes happening in LDHs at the molecular and nanoscale levels.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Volatile Metal Hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Dwight L.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern superalloys used in the construction of turbomachinery contain a wide range of metals in trace quantities. In addition, metal oxides and silicon dioxide are used to form Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) to protect the underlying metal in turbine blades. Formation of volatile hydroxides at elevated temperatures is an important mechanism for corrosion of metal alloys or oxides in combustion environments (N. Jacobson, D. Myers, E. Opila, and E. Copland, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 66, 471-478, 2005). Thermodynamic data is essential to proper design of components of modern gas turbines. It is necessary to first establish the identity of volatile hydroxides formed from the reaction of a given system with high temperature water vapor, and then to determine the equilibrium pressures of the species under operating conditions. Theoretical calculations of reaction energies are an important check of experimental results. This presentation reports results for several important systems: Si-O-H, Cr-O-H, Al-O-H, Ti-O-H, and ongoing studies of Ta-O-H.

  20. Sustained release of calcium hydroxide from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) acid microspheres for apexification.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino Isaac; Breceda-Leija, Alejandro; Méndez-González, Verónica; Chavarría-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Héctor; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Komabayashi, Takashi; Wadajkar, Aniket S; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury J

    2016-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide (CH) loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) microspheres (MS) might be used for apexification requiring a sustained release of Ca(2+). The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize CH-PLGA-MS. The CH-loaded MS were prepared by either oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil/in-water (W/O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation technique. MS produced by the O/W technique exhibited a larger diameter (18.63 ± 7.23 μm) than the MS produced by the W/O/W technique (15.25 ± 7.37 μm) (Mann-Whitney U test P < 0.001). The CH encapsulation efficiency (E e) and Ca(2+) release were calculated from data obtained by absorption techniques. Ca(2+) release profile was evaluated for 30 days. To know the E e, the CH-loaded MS were dissolved in 1 M NaOH to release all its content and a Ca(2+) colorimetric marker was added to this solution. The reagent marked the Ca(2+) in blue color, which was then measured by a UV-Vis system (650 nm). The percentage of E e was calculated on the basis of the theoretical loading. The E e of the O/W-produced MS was higher (24 %) than the corresponding percentage of the W/O/W-produced MS (11 %). O/W- and W/O/W-produced MS released slower and lower Ca(2+) than a control CH paste with polyethylene glycol 400 (Kruskal-Wallis test). O/W-produced MS released higher Ca(2+) than W/O/W-produced MS (statistically significant differences; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the CH-PLGA-MS were successfully formulated; the technique of formulation influenced the size, encapsulation efficiency and release profile. The MS were better sustained release system than the CH paste.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of luminescent aluminium selenide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balitskii, O.A.; Demchenko, P.Yu.; Mijowska, E.; Cendrowski, K.

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis procedure of size and sharp controlled Al{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals is introduced. ► Obtained nanoparticles are highly crystalline of hexagonal wurtzite type. ► Colloidal Al{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals are highly luminescent in the near UV spectral region. ► They can be implemented in light emitters/collectors, concurring with II–VI nanodots. -- Abstract: We propose the synthesis and characterization of colloidal aluminium selenide nanocrystals using trioctylphosphine as a solvent. The nanoparticles have several absorption bands in the spectral region 330–410 nm and are bright UV-blue luminescent, which is well demanded in light collecting and emitting devices, e.g. for tuning their spectral characteristics to higher energy solar photons.

  2. Frictional conditions between alloy AA6060 aluminium and tool steel

    SciTech Connect

    Wideroee, Fredrik; Welo, Torgeir

    2011-05-04

    The frictional conditions in the new process of screw extrusion of aluminium have been investigated. The contact behaviour between the aluminum alloy and the tool steel in the extruder is vital for understanding the extrusion process. Using a compressive-rotational method for frictional measurements the conditions for unlubricated sticking friction between aluminum alloy AA6060 and tool steel at different combinations of temperatures and pressures have been investigated. In this method the samples in the form of disks are put under hydrostatic pressure while simultaneously being rotated at one end. Pins made from contrast material have been inserted into the samples to measure the deformation introduced. This approach along with 3D simulations form a method for determining the frictional conditions. The paper describes the test method and the results. It was found that the necessary pressure for sticking to occur between the aluminum AA6060 and the different parts of the extruder is heavily influenced by the temperature.

  3. Neutron irradiation influence on magnesium aluminium spinel inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsova, V.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Ulmanis, U.

    2002-05-01

    Grown by the Verneuil method MgO · nAl 2O 3 single crystals and natural spinel crystal have been studied using X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra. The fast neutron irradiation of magnesium aluminium spinel leads to the lattice parameter decrease. The bond lengths of Mg-O and Al-O vary with the u-parameter and the lattice parameter. On the other hand, the bond lengths are related with the inversion parameter. Using changes of the lattice parameter during irradiation we have calculated the inversion parameter, which is 15-20%. In the luminescence spectra, the fast neutron radiation (fluence 10 16 cm -2) produces an increase in the intensity ratio of the N- to R-lines by 5-20%. Taking into account that intensity of the N-lines is closely associated with the inversion parameter, it is possible to state that the neutron irradiation causes the increasing of the spinel inversion.

  4. Natural gas anodes for aluminium electrolysis in molten fluorides.

    PubMed

    Haarberg, Geir Martin; Khalaghi, Babak; Mokkelbost, Tommy

    2016-08-15

    Industrial primary production of aluminium has been developed and improved over more than 100 years. The molten salt electrolysis process is still suffering from low energy efficiency and considerable emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and PFC). A new concept has been suggested where methane is supplied through the anode so that the CO2 emissions may be reduced significantly, the PFC emissions may be eliminated and the energy consumption may decrease significantly. Porous carbon anodes made from different graphite grades were studied in controlled laboratory experiments. The anode potential, the anode carbon consumption and the level of HF gas above the electrolyte were measured during electrolysis. In some cases it was found that the methane oxidation was effectively participating in the anode process.

  5. Multicomponental fluorimetric determination of aluminium, gallium and indium.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Simon; Jancár, Ludek; Sommer, Lumír

    2008-03-01

    For the fast characteristics of mixtures of Aluminium, Gallium and Indium the fluorimetric evaluation in the form of complexes with 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid is described at selected pH. The highly collinear correlated fluorescent spectra and their first derivation were evaluated under various experimental conditions with the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) methods and Kalman filtering. When comparing the results, the PLS gives the least relative prediction errors under optimal conditions, 5.6-15.9% for the concentration range of Al 0.025-0.2 microg cm(-3), Ga 0.1-0.8 microgcm(-3) and In 0.1-0.8 microg cm(-3) in the mixture.

  6. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quay, C. H. L.; Weideneder, M.; Chiffaudel, Y.; Strunk, C.; Aprili, M.

    2015-10-01

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (~100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott-Yafet spin-orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (~10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  8. Multiple nanostructures based on anodized aluminium oxide templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Liaoyong; Xu, Rui; Mi, Yan; Lei, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Several physico-chemical effects and properties in the solid state involve nanoscale interactions between adjacent materials and morphologies. Arrays of binary nanostructures can generate intimate interactions between different sub-components, but fabricating binary nanostructures is challenging. Here, we propose a concept to achieve diverse binary nanostructure arrays with high degrees of controllability for each of the sub-components, including material, dimension and morphology. This binary nanostructuring concept originates with a distinctive binary-pore anodized aluminium oxide template that includes two dissimilar sets of pores in one matrix, where the openings of the two sets of pores are towards opposite sides of the template. Using the same growth mechanism, the binary-pore template can be extended to multi-pore templates with more geometrical options. We also present photoelectrodes, transistors and plasmonic devices made with our binary nanostructure arrays using different combination of materials and morphologies, and demonstrate superior performances compared to their single-component counterparts.

  9. Benchmark 2 - Springback of a Jaguar Land Rover Aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Martin; Oliveira, Marta; Hazra, Sumit; Adetoro, Oluwamayokun; Das, Abhishek; Cardoso, Rui

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this benchmark is the numerical prediction of the springback of an aluminium panel used in the production of a Jaguar car. The numerical simulation of springback has been very important for the reduction of die try outs through the design of the tools with die compensation, thereby allowing for the production of dimensionally accurate complex parts at a reduced cost. The forming stage of this benchmark includes one single forming operation followed by a trimming operation. Cross-sectional profiles should be reported at specific (provided) sections in the part before and after springback. Problem description, tool geometries, material properties, and the required simulation reports are summarized in this benchmark briefing.

  10. Microstructure characterization of hypereutectoid aluminium bronze composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucita, P.; Wang, S. C.; Li, W. S.; Cook, R. B.; Starink, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Hypereutectoid aluminium bronze coating was deposited onto an E.N. 10503 steel substrate using plasma transferred arc welding (PTA). Microstructure characterisation of the coating and a section near the steel substrate joint was carried out using SEM, EBSD, EDS in conjunction with XRD and depth-sensing nano-indentation. The constituent phases in the coating were identified as: martensitic Cu3Al β1' phase, solid solution of Al in Cu α phase and the intermetallic Fe3Al κ1 phase. The region near the steel substrate was characterised by high hardness, large grains and presence of Cu precipitates. No cracks were observed in this region. The coating has high hardness of 4.9GPa and Young's modulus of 121.7GPa. This is attributed to homogeneous distribution of sub microns size Fe3Al intermetallic phase. The implications of the coating to the engineering application of sheet metal forming are discussed.

  11. Unusual sources of aluminium and heavy metals in potable waters.

    PubMed

    Fuge, R; Pearce, N J; Perkins, W T

    1992-04-01

    Aluminium in water supplies derives from natural sources and from the use of Al2(SO4)3 in water treatment. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd can be added to water from pipework and solder. However, it is apparent that AI and other metals in potable waters can derive from deposits on pipe walls which can be subsequently mobilised when the supply and/or treatment process is changed. Concentrations of Al in domestic supply water of the Llanbrynmair area have been shown to increase from 1 μg to 50 μg L(-1) during its 18 km journey along the water main. Similarly, Pb concentrations in a public building in the Aberystwyth area are found to be extremely elevated due to the metal's mobilisation from encrustations occurring on the copper pipework.

  12. Abrasive wear of alumina fibre-reinforced aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axen, N.; Alahelisten, A.; Jacobson, S.

    1994-04-01

    The friction and abrasive wear behaviour of an Al-Si1MgMn aluminium alloy reinforced with 10, 15 and 30 vol.% of alumina fibers has been evaluated. The influence of fiber content, matrix hardness, applied load as well as the hardness and size of the abrasive grits was investigated. The tests were performed with a pin-on-drum two-body abrasion apparatus. The wear mechanisms were studied using scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that fiber reinforcement increases the wear resistance in milder abrasive situations, i.e. small and soft abrasives and low loads. However, in tougher abrasive situations, meaning coarse and hard abrasives and high loads, the wear resistance of the composites is equal to or, in some cases, even lower than that of the unreinforced material. It is also shown that the coefficient of friction decreases with increasing fiber content and matrix hardness of the composites.

  13. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-09-07

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space.

  14. Cyclic carbonate synthesis catalysed by bimetallic aluminium-salen complexes.

    PubMed

    Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W; North, Michael; Pasquale, Riccardo

    2010-06-18

    The development of bimetallic aluminium-salen complexes [{Al(salen)}(2)O] as catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates (including the commercially important ethylene and propylene carbonates) from a wide range of terminal epoxides in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide as a cocatalyst is reported. The bimetallic structure of one complex was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The bimetallic complexes displayed exceptionally high catalytic activity and in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide could catalyse cyclic carbonate synthesis at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Catalyst-reuse experiments demonstrated that one bimetallic complex was stable for over 60 reactions, though the tetrabutylammonium bromide decomposed in situ by a retro-Menschutkin reaction to form tributylamine and had to be regularly replaced. The mild reaction conditions allowed a full analysis of the reaction kinetics to be carried out and this showed that the reaction was first order in aluminium complex concentration, first order in epoxide concentration, first order in carbon dioxide concentration (except when used in excess) and unexpectedly second order in tetrabutylammonium bromide concentration. Further kinetic experiments demonstrated that the tributylamine formed in situ was involved in the catalysis and that addition of butyl bromide to reconvert the tributylamine into tetrabutylammonium bromide resulted in inhibition of the reaction. The reaction kinetics also indicated that no kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides was possible with this class of catalysts, even when the catalyst was derived from a chiral salen ligand. However, it was shown that if enantiomerically pure styrene oxide was used as substrate, then enantiomerically pure styrene carbonate was formed. On the basis of the kinetic and other experimental data, a catalytic cycle that explains why the bimetallic complexes display such high catalytic activity has been developed.

  15. Controlled release and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition properties of an antihypertensive drug based on a perindopril erbumine-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Al Ali, Samer Hasan Hussein; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2012-01-01

    Background The intercalation of perindopril erbumine into Zn/Al-NO3-layered double hydroxide resulted in the formation of a host-guest type of material. By virtue of the ion-exchange properties of layered double hydroxide, perindopril erbumine was released in a sustained manner. Therefore, this intercalated material can be used as a controlled-release formulation. Results Perindopril was intercalated into the interlayers and formed a well ordered, layered organic-inorganic nanocomposite. The basal spacing of the products was expanded to 21.7 Å and 19.9 Å by the ion-exchange and coprecipitation methods, respectively, in a bilayer and a monolayer arrangement, respectively. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite synthesized by the coprecipitation method was slower than that of its counterpart synthesized by the ion-exchange method. The rate of release was governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. An in vitro antihypertensive assay showed that the intercalation process results in effectiveness similar to that of the antihypertensive properties of perindopril. Conclusion Intercalated perindopril showed better thermal stability than its free counterpart. The resulting material showed sustained-release properties and can therefore be used as a controlled-release formulation. PMID:22619549

  16. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  17. Novel formulations for antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2014-10-09

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  18. BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES CONTROLLING ARSENIC SPECIATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN GRANULAR FERRIC HYDROXIDE COATED SAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic mobilization from solid phase Fe (III) hydroxides is an issue of concern, as water-borne arsenic can migrate into pristine environments, endangering aquatic and human life. In general, metal oxide (hydroxides) exerts a dominating effect on the fate and transport of arseni...

  19. Preparation of plate-shape nano-magnesium hydroxide from asbestos tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao-xiang, Du; Shui-lin, Zheng

    2009-09-01

    To prepare magnesium hydroxide is one of the effective methods to the comprehensive utilization of asbestos tailings. Nano-scale magnesium hydroxide was prepared and mechanisms of in-situ surface modification were characterized in the paper. Process conditions of preparation of magnesium hydroxide from purified hydrochloric acid leachate of asbestos tailings were optimized and in-situ surface modification of the product was carried out. Results showed that optimum process conditions for preparing nano-scale magnesium hydroxide were as follows: initial concentration of Mg2+ in the leachate was 22.75g/L, precipitant was NaOH solution (mass concentration 20%), reaction temperature was 50°C, and reaction time was 5min. The diameter and thickness of the plate nano-scale magnesium hydroxide powder prepared under optimal conditions were about 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. However, particle agglomeration was obvious, the particle size increased to micron-grade. Dispersity of the magnesium hydroxide powder could be elevated by in-situ modification by silane FR-693, titanate YB-502 and polyethylene glycol and optimum dosages were 1.5%, 1.5% and 0.75% of the mass of magnesium hydroxide, respectively. All of the modifiers adsorbed chemically on surfaces of magnesium hydroxide particles, among which Si-O-Mg bonds formed among silane FR-693 and the particle surfaces and Ti-O-Mg among titanate YB-502 and the surfaces.

  20. Dissolution of fine and intermediate sized galena particles and their interactions with iron hydroxide colloids.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yongjun; Grano, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Dissolution of fine (-10 microm) and intermediate (+10-53 microm) galena particles was studied in the presence and absence of iron hydroxide colloids at pH 9 with nitrogen and oxygen purging. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and ethylene diamine-tetra acid (EDTA) extraction of the galena particles after dissolution indicate that galena dissolution is strongly dependent on particle size. Fine galena particles produced a much higher amount of lead hydroxide species per surface area than intermediate galena particles. Gas purging only affected galena dissolution slightly. More iron hydroxide colloids adsorbed on fine particles. Zeta potential measurements indicate that galena dissolution enhances the adsorption of iron hydroxide colloids due to the electrostatic attraction between lead hydroxide products and iron hydroxide colloids at pH 9. This explains the stronger affinity of iron hydroxide colloids to fine galena particles than intermediate galena particles. This study has an important implication in sulfide flotation where iron hydroxide colloids play a dominant role in mineral depression.

  1. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  2. Non-aqueous aluminium-air battery based on ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Renaud; Audichon, Thomas; Gonzalez, Serge

    2014-12-01

    A promising metal-air secondary battery based on aluminium-oxygen couple is described. In this paper, we observed that an aluminium-air battery employing EMImCl, AlCl3 room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as electrolyte and aluminium as negative electrode, has an exceptional reduced self-discharged rate. Due to its new and innovative type of electrolyte, this aluminium-air battery can support relatively high current densities (up to 0.6 mA cm-2) and an average voltage of 0.6-0.8 V. Such batteries may find immediate applications, as they can provide an internal, built-in autonomous and self-sustained energy source.

  3. Numerical modelling of closed-cell aluminium foam under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazell, Paul; Kader, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Escobedo, J. P.; Saadatfar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Closed-cell aluminium foams are extensively used in aerospace and automobile industries. The understanding of their behaviour under impact loading conditions is extremely important since impact problems are directly related to design of these engineering structures. This research investigates the response of a closed-cell aluminium foam (CYMAT) subjected to dynamic loading using the finite element software ABAQUS/explicit. The aim of this research is to numerically investigate the material and structural properties of closed-cell aluminium foam under impact loading conditions with interest in shock propagation and its effects on cell wall deformation. A μ-CT based 3D foam geometry is developed to simulate the local cell collapse behaviours. A number of numerical techniques are applied for modelling the crush behaviour of aluminium foam to obtain the more accurate results. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the experimental results and numerical predictions.

  4. Shear Strength of Single Lap Joint Aluminium-Thermoplastic Natural Rubber (Al-TPNR) Laminated Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzakkar, M. Z.; Ahmad, S.; Yarmo, M. A.; Jalar, A.; Bijarimi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of surface treatment on the aluminium surface and a coupling agent to improve adhesion between aluminium with organic polymer. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) matrix was prepared by melt blending of natural rubber (NR), liquid natural rubber (LNR) compatibilizer, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The PEgMAH concentration used was varied from 0% - 25%. In addition, the aluminium surface was pre-treated with 3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane (3-GPS) to enhance the mechanical properties of laminated composite. It was found that the shear strength of single lap joint Al-TPNR laminated composite showing an increasing trend as a function of PE-g-MAH contents for the 3-GPS surface treated aluminium. Moreover, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the strength improvement was associated with the chemical state of the compound involved.

  5. Determination of soluble aluminium concentration in alkaline humic water using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K L; Lewis, D M; Jolly, M; Robinson, J

    2004-11-01

    The steps of the standard method to determine soluble aluminium concentration are filtering, followed by acidifying, then analysing with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). When applied to alkaline humic water, acidification gives rise to the formation of humic acid as a brown particulate matter. Of the total soluble aluminium in the original water, 49-61% forms complexes with the particulate humic acid upon acidification. Although the AAS is capable of detecting the binding aluminium, the particulate nature of humic acid easily induces inaccurate readings as a result of the non-uniform distribution of the particulate matter. A more precise analysis of soluble aluminium concentration of alkaline humic water is shown to be achievable in basicified solutions instead. Basicified solutions keep humic acid in the soluble form; hence maintain the homogeneity of the sample.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide composite for the removal of oil particles from oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2017-01-23

    The recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion has been investigated using chitosan/magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide hybrid composite (CS-LDHCs) by a single co-precipitation method. Resulting better adsorption efficiency of CS-LDHCs could be observed, indicating the synthesized material was effective to adsorb oil particles from oil-in-water emulsion at acidic pH (pH 3.0) than as-prepared LDH and raw chitosan. The enhancement of adsorption properties by CS-LDHCs material were attributed to the high content of LDH in chitosan, which makes the material more effective towards immobilization of oily particles. Batch experiment study has been elucidated by varying different physicochemical parameters such as time, pH, dose, initial oil concentration and temperature. The as-synthesized CS-LDHCs was characterized by various spectro analytical techniques viz., FTIR, SEM with EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC analysis. To find out the best fit for the sorption process, the obtained adsorption equilibrium data was explained with Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Tempkin isotherm models. The mechanism of adsorption process was demonstrated by calculating ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° values from thermodynamic parameters in order to understand the nature of sorption process. The schematic representation of oil removal using CS-LDHCs was explored in detail. This work provides an apparent proposal for the growth of oil removal technology.

  7. Dynamic crushing response of closed-cell aluminium foams during shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. A.; Kader, M. A.; Hazell, P. J.; Escobedo-Diaz, J. P.; Brown, A. D.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Saadatfar, M.; Quadir, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impact response of aluminium foams is essential for assessing their energy absorption capacity under dynamic loading. In this paper, the dynamic compaction behavior of closed-cell aluminium foam (CYMAT ™) has been tested using the plate-impact technique. Post-impacted samples have been examined using optical microscopy to observe the microstructural changes with the objective of elucidating the pore-collapse mechanism.

  8. Stress proteins and glial cell functions during chronic aluminium exposures: protective role of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Sood, Pooja Khanna; Nahar, Uma; Nehru, Bimla

    2012-03-01

    Involved in the ongoing debate is the speculation that aluminium is somehow toxic for neurons. Glial cells cope up to protect neurons from this toxic insult by maintaining the glutathione homeostasis. Of late newer and newer roles of glial cells have been depicted. The present work looks into the other regulatory mechanisms that show the glial cells response to pro-oxidant effects of aluminium exposure. In the present investigation we have evaluated the inflammatory responses of the glial cells as well as HSP70-induction during aluminium exposure. Further, the protective role of curcumin is also evaluated. Aluminium was administered by oral gavage at a dose level of 100 mg/kg b.wt/day for a period of 8 weeks. Curcumin was administered i.p. at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.wt./day on alternate days. Enhanced gene and protein expression of HSP70 in the glial fractions of the aluminium exposed animals as compared to the corresponding neuronal population. Aluminium exposure resulted in a significant increase in the NF-κB and TNF-α expression suggesting inflammatory responses. In the conjunctive treatment group of aluminium and curcumin exposure marked reduction in the gene and protein expression of NF-κB and TNF-α was observed. This was further reflected in histopathological studies showing no evidence of inflammation in conjunctive group as compared to aluminium treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that curcumin has a potential anti-inflammatory action and can be exploited in other toxicological conditions also.

  9. The effects of lithium hydroxide solution on alkali silica reaction gels created with opal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lyndon D.; Beaudoin, James J.; Grattan-Bellew, Patrick

    2004-04-01

    The reaction of Nevada opal with calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions was investigated. In addition, opal was exposed to a combined solution of these three hydroxides. The progress of the three reactions was followed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated the presence of a low-angle peak exclusive to the lithium-based reactions. The NMR results suggested a change in the silicate structure in the presence of lithium. These techniques indicated that the reaction of the alkali with the opal starting material is inhibited and perhaps stopped in the presence of lithium hydroxide. SEM revealed that the morphology of the reaction products on the surface of the reacted opal grains is markedly different invariably. It was concluded that evidence to support the theory of a protective layer exists and that the nature of the layer varies with ion type.

  10. Mg/Al double-metal hydroxide regeneration of anion exchange resin by electric field intensification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhun; Li, Yansheng; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    Fouled anion exchange resins were regenerated by electric field intensification of Mg/Al double-metal hydroxides. Regenerative experiments were performed with varying voltages (10-30 V) and dosages of Mg/Al hydroxides (0.045-0.135 mol and 0.015-0.045 mol, respectively) for 1-5 h. Optimal results were obtained under the following regenerative conditions: 20 V, 4 h, and 0.09/0.03 mol of Mg/Al hydroxides. The maximum regenerative capacity of resins was increased to 41.07%. The regenerative mechanism was presented by Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of resins and Mg/Al hydroxides, and the regenerative degree was analyzed with respect to conductivity, pH value, and electric current. Mg/Al hydroxides were also recycled after the regeneration. This method was proven to be cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

  11. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Iranian Propolis and Calcium Hydroxide on Dental Pulp Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Ranjbarian, Parisa; Shiravi, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Since intracanal medicaments can affect the cell viability in periapical tissues, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide and propolis on pulp fibroblasts. Materials and methods. Two healthy third molars were used as a source to obtain fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were cultured and subjected to 1 mg/mL of propolis and calcium hydroxide. This experiment was performed in six replicates and cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay. Statistical analysis was performed by t-test. Results. Comparison of cell viability with the use of 1 mg/mL of calcium hydroxide and propolis showed that cells subjected to propolis were more viable when compared to calcium hydroxide (P < 0.05). Conclusion. In this study, calcium hydroxide reduced fibroblast viability, significantly more than Iranian propolis. Other properties should be evaluated before Iranian propolis could be indicated for use as intracanal medicament. PMID:25346830

  12. Effects of processing parameters on the extrusion by continuous variable cross-section direct extrusion with 7A09 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Wu, Hongbin; Qin, Minghan

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the effects of processing parameters on the continuous variable cross-section direct extrusion (CVCDE), taking 7A09 aluminium alloy for example, the extrusion speed and forming temperature and the friction factor as key processing parameters are applied to research by finite element (FE) simulation. The research result showed that the extrusion speed had a significant influence on the maximum temperature of the billet, at the same time, both decreasing the friction factor and increasing forming temperature within a certain range were beneficial to reduce extrusion load. Both forming temperature and the extrusion speed were inversely linked to extrusion load, but the friction factor was directly proportional to extrusion load. Forming temperature had a far more important influence on extrusion load by comparison: when forming temperature increased from 380∘ to 430∘C, the peak value of extrusion load decreased by 25.6% and the flow uniformity of extruded product got improved. The process window based on both the press limit and surface defects limit was established and the most reasonable forming temperature was 405∘C under this process condition, which provided theoretical basis for formulation process of 7A09 aluminium alloy on the CVCDE extrusion.

  13. Pesticide formulations and application systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko; Spicer

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses pesticide formulations; spraying techniques and/or low and ultra low volume applications employing oil carriers, including subsurface drip irrigation and plant growth regulators; and granule technology.

  14. Naturally occurring radioactive material from the aluminium industry--a case study: the Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M

    2006-12-01

    The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in samples of bauxite, alumina and aluminium dross tailings industrial waste (used to produce two types of alums) using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. The bauxite and alumina are imported by Egyptalum (The Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt) from Guinea and India. The activity concentrations in the bauxite range from 29 +/- 1 to 112 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and 151 +/- 8 to 525 +/- 12 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, with mean values of 62 +/- 8 and 378 +/- 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. With respect to alumina and tail, the mean values are 5.7 +/- 1.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and 7.2 +/- 1.6 and 10.7 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th. Potassium-40 was not detected in any of the studied samples. The measured activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in bauxite are higher than the world average while in alumina and tail they are lower. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and members of the public, the Ra equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to natural radionuclides at 1 m above the ground surface were calculated. The external gamma-radiation doses received by the Egyptalum workers are 97, 409, 8.5 and 12.7 microSv y(-1) for the Guinean and Indian bauxite, the alumina and tail, respectively, which is well below the recommended allowed dose of 1 mSv y(-1) for non-exposed workers.

  15. Studies on adhesion characteristics and corrosion behaviour of vinyltriethoxysilane/epoxy coating protective system on aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajat, Jelena B.; Milošev, Ingrid; Jovanović, Željka; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna B.

    2010-03-01

    The corrosion stability of vinyltriethoxysilane/epoxy coating protective system on aluminium is strongly related to the strength of bonds forming at the metal/organic coating interface. This article is a study of adhesion, composition, electrochemical and transport properties of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on bare aluminium and aluminium pretreated by vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) during exposure to 3% NaCl. The VTES film was deposited on aluminium surface from 2% vinyltriethoxysilane solution during 30 s. From the values of adhesion strength (pull-off test), time dependence of pore resistance and coating capacitance of epoxy coating (impedance measurements) and diffusion coefficient of water through epoxy coating (gravimetric liquid sorption measurements), the influence of VTES sublayer on the corrosion stability of the electrodeposited epoxy coating was shown. The work discusses the role of the VTES pretreatment in the enhanced adhesion and corrosion stability of epoxy cataphoretic coating. The electrochemical results showed that the aluminium pretreatment by VTES film improved barrier properties of epoxy coating (greater pore resistance and lower coating capacitance). The lower value of diffusion coefficient of water through epoxy coating indicates the lower porosity, while the smaller adhesion reduction points to better adhesion of epoxy coating on aluminium pretreated by VTES film. The composition of the deposited coatings investigated by XPS enabled the clarification of the bonding mechanism.

  16. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems.

  17. Galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 and copper in tropical marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, G.; Palraj, S.; Palanichamy, S.

    2014-06-01

    The galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 and copper with different area ratios were studied in the tropical marine atmosphere at Tuticorin harbour over a period of 426 days. The area ratios of A Al: A Cu, studied were 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1 & 8:1. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of metals was studied in terms of relative increase in the corrosion rate of aluminium due to galvanic coupling with copper, relative decrease in the corrosion rate of copper due to galvanic coupling with aluminium, and the susceptibility of aluminium to pitting owing to galvanic coupling with copper. The galvanic potential and galvanic current of the system were monitored. Pits of different dimensions ranging from mild etchings to perforations were experienced on the borders and the surfaces of the interface of aluminium in contact with copper. The weathering parameters and the environmental pollutants which have a major role in influencing the galvanic corrosion of metals were also monitored. The corrosion products resulting from galvanic corrosion were analysed using XRD and the pitting on aluminium resulting from galvanic corrosion has been highlighted in terms of pit depth, size and density of pit, using a high resolution microscope.

  18. Bioavailability of cefuroxime axetil formulations.

    PubMed

    Donn, K H; James, N C; Powell, J R

    1994-06-01

    Cefuroxime axetil tablets have proved effective for the treatment of a variety of community-acquired infections. A suspension formulation has been developed for use in children. Two studies have been conducted to determine if the cefuroxime axetil formulations are bioequivalent. In the initial randomized, two-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received 250-mg doses of suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil every 12 h after eating for seven doses. Each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Comparisons of serum and urine pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that the suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil are not bioequivalent. Following the initial bioequivalency study, 0.1 % sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was added to the suspension to assure the homogeneity of the granules during the manufacturing process. In the subsequent randomized, three-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received single 250-mg doses of three cefuroxime axetil formulations: suspension without SLS, suspension with SLS, and tablet. Again each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that while the suspension with SLS and suspension without SLS are bioequivalent, bioequivalence between the suspension with SLS and the tablet was not observed. Thus, the addition of the SLS surfactant to the suspension did not alter the bioavailability of the formulation.

  19. Predicting anion breakthrough in granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) adsorption filters.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Alexander; Schimmelpfennig, Sebastian; Baumgarten, Benno; Genz, Arne; Amy, Gary; Worch, Eckhard; Jekel, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption of arsenate, phosphate, salicylic acid, and groundwater DOC onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) was studied in batch and column experiments. Breakthrough curves were experimentally determined and modelled using the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) and two of its derivatives, the constant pattern homogeneous surface diffusion model (CPHSDM) and the linear driving force model (LDF). Input parameters, the Freundlich isotherm constants, and mass transfer coefficients for liquid- and solid-phase diffusion were determined and analysed for their influence on the shape of the breakthrough curve. HSDM simulation results predict the breakthrough of all investigated substances satisfactorily, but LDF and CPHSDM could not describe arsenate breakthrough correctly. This is due to a very slow intraparticle diffusion and hence higher Biot numbers. Based on this observation, limits of applicability were defined for LDF and CPHSDM. When designing fixed-bed adsorbers, model selection based on known or estimated Biot and Stanton numbers is possible.

  20. Biological evaluation of layered double hydroxides as efficient drug vehicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Ai, Hanhua; Chang, Qing; Liu, Dandan; Xia, Ying; Liu, Shuwen; Peng, Nanfang; Xi, Zhuge; Yang, Xu

    2010-03-12

    Recently there has been a rapid expansion of the development of bioinorganic hybrid systems for safe drug delivery. Layered double hydroxides (LDH), a variety of available inorganic matrix, possess great promise for this purpose. In this study, an oxidative stress biomarker system, including measurement of reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, endogenous nitric oxide, carbonyl content in proteins, DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, was designed to evaluate the biocompatibility of different concentrations of nano-Zn/Al-LDH with a Hela cell line. The drug delivery activity of the LDH-folic-acid complex was also assessed. The resulting data clearly demonstrated that nano-LDH could be applied as a relatively safe drug vehicle with good delivery activity, but with the caveat that the effects of high dosages observed here should not be ignored when attempting to maximize therapeutic activity by increasing LDH concentration.

  1. Layered double hydroxides: an attractive material for electrochemical biosensor design.

    PubMed

    Shan, Dan; Cosnier, Serge; Mousty, Christine

    2003-08-01

    Electrochemical biosensors for phenol determination were developed based on the immobilization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) within two different clay matrixes, one anionic (layered double hydroxide, LDH) and the other cationic (Laponite). The biosensor based on the enzyme immobilized in [Zn-Al-Cl] LDH shows greater sensitivity (7807 mA M(-1) cm(-2)) and maximum current (492 microA cm(-2)). Biosensor characteristics, such as Michaelis-Menten constant, recycling constant, activation energy, and permeability highlight the advantages of LDH matrixes to immobilize PPO. It appears that LDH provides a favorable environment to PPO activity. The best PPO/[Zn-Al-Cl] configuration was used to determine five different phenol derivatives reaching extremely sensitive detection limits (< or = 1 nM).

  2. Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, G.S.; Eschen, V.G.

    1993-08-01

    Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; favorable public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). This paper presents the results from a series of TCLP tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP`s commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various mixed waste streams.

  3. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  4. Extended development of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The post-test evaluation of a single heat exchanger sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module for use in solar electric generation is reported. Chemical analyses of the storage medium used in the experimental model are presented. The experimental verification of the module performance using an alternate heat transfer fluid, Caloria HT-43, is described. Based on these results, a design analysis of a dual heat exchanger concept within the storage module is presented. A computer model and a reference design for the dual system (storage working fluid/power cycle working fluid) were completed. The dual system is estimated to have a capital cost of approximately one half that of the single heat exchanger concept.

  5. Hybrid and biohybrid layered double hydroxides for electrochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Mousty, Christine; Prévot, Vanessa

    2013-04-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are lamellar materials that have been extensively used as electrode modifiers. Nanostructured organic-inorganic materials can be designed by intercalation of organic or metallic complexes within the interlayer space of these materials or by the formation of composite materials based on biopolymers (alginate or chitosan) or biomolecules, such as enzymes. These hybrid or biohybrid materials have interesting properties applicable in electroanalytical devices. From an exhaustive review of the literature, the relevance of these hybrid and biohybrid LDH materials as electrode materials for electrochemical detection of species with an environmental or health impact is evaluated. The analytical characteristics (sensitivity and detection limit) of LDH-based amperometric sensors or biosensors are scrutinized.

  6. Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoix, F. ); Lewis, M. )

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

  7. Hydroxide decomposition of dimethylsulfoniopropionate to form dimethylsulfide. [in sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Blough, Neil V.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of DMS production resulting from reaction of OH(-) with DMSP were investigated as a function of hydroxide concentration and temperature. The reaction was first-order with respect to DMSP and OH(-). The second order rate constant at 20+/-1 C is 0.0044/M/sec. The activation energy for this reaction is 14.4 kcal/mode. The investigation indicates that the rate of reaction of DMSP with OH(-) is very slow at the pH of seawater, suggesting that DMSP, which may be a major precursor of DMS in seawater, decomposes in the ocean by other mechanisms. A bacterium which produces DMS from DMSP quantitatively at rates many orders of magnitude higher than indicated by OH(-1) decomposition has been cultured, suggesting that enzymatic processes accelerate the production of DMS from DMSP in seawater.

  8. Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xue; Zhang, Hui; Dou, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Biocompatible clay materials have attracted particular attention as the efficient drug delivery systems (DDS). In this article, we review developments in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for controlled drug release and delivery. We show how advances in the ability to synthesize intercalated structures have a significant influence on the development of new applications of these materials. We also show how modification and/or functionalization can lead to new biotechnological and biomedical applications. This review highlights the most recent progresses in research on LDH-based controlled drug delivery systems, focusing mainly on: (i) DDS with cardiovascular drugs as guests; (ii) DDS with anti-inflammatory drugs as guests; and (iii) DDS with anti-cancer drugs as guests. Finally, future prospects for LDH-based drug carriers are also discussed. PMID:24940733

  9. Effect of aluminium toxicity on growth responses and antioxidant activities in Gmelina arborea Roxb. inoculated with AM fungi.

    PubMed

    Dudhane, Mayura; Borde, Mahesh; Jite, Paramjit Kaur

    2012-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviating the adverse Aluminium effects on growth and antioxidant activity was tested in Gmelina plants. Under greenhouse and aluminium stress condition, the mycorrhizal Gmelina plants showed good growth as compared to non mycorrhizal Gmelina plants. Mycorrhizal colonization in Gmelina was found not to be significantly influenced by aluminium concentrations. Results also indicate that symbiotic association was successfully established between Glomus intraradices and Gmelina plants and mycorrhizal colonization consequently increased the biomass of Gmelina. The root proline accumulation was found to increase in mycorrhizal Gmelina plants for osmotic adjustment of stress tissues under first and second level of Aluminium stress. It was observed that Mycorrhizal colonization increased the shoot root Peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase activities in mycorrhizal Gmelina under second level of Aluminium stress. Mycorrhizal fungi play a major role in phytostabilization by secreting one of the glycoprotein, i.e., Glomalin, which stabilizes the Aluminium in soil as well as in the roots of Gmelina plants.

  10. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  11. Determining the aluminium occupancy on the active T-sites in zeolites using X-ray standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Lee, Tien-Lin; Drakopoulos, Michael; Lamberti, Carlo; Thieß, Sebastian; Zegenhagen, Jörg

    2008-07-01

    Zeolites are microporous crystalline materials that find wide application in industry, for example, as catalysts and gas separators, and in our daily life, for example, as adsorbents or as ion exchangers in laundry detergents. The tetrahedrally coordinated silicon and aluminium atoms in the zeolite unit cell occupy the so-called crystallographic T-sites. Besides their pore size, the occupation of specific T-sites by the aluminium atoms determines the performance of the zeolites. Despite its importance, the distribution of aluminium over the crystallographic T-sites remains one of the most challenging, unresolved issues in zeolite science. Here, we report how to determine unambiguously and directly the distribution of aluminium in zeolites by means of the X-ray standing wave technique using brilliant, focused X-rays from a third-generation synchrotron source. We report in detail the analysis of the aluminium distribution in scolecite, which demonstrates how the aluminium occupancy in zeolites can systematically be determined.

  12. Structural characterisation of a layered double hydroxide nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funnell, Nicholas P.; Wang, Qiang; Connor, Leigh; Tucker, Matthew G.; O'Hare, Dermot; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2014-06-01

    We report the atomic-scale structure of a Zn2Al-borate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet, as determined by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of X-ray total scattering data. This study involves the extension of the RMC method to enable structural refinement of two-dimensional nanomaterials. The refined LDH models show the intra-layer geometry in this highly-exfoliated phase to be consistent with that observed in crystalline analogues, with the reciprocal-space scattering data suggesting a disordered arrangement of the Zn2+ and Al3+ cations within the nanosheet. The approach we develop is generalisable and so offers a method of characterising the structures of arbitrary nanosheet phases, including systems that support complex forms of disorder within the nanosheets themselves.We report the atomic-scale structure of a Zn2Al-borate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet, as determined by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of X-ray total scattering data. This study involves the extension of the RMC method to enable structural refinement of two-dimensional nanomaterials. The refined LDH models show the intra-layer geometry in this highly-exfoliated phase to be consistent with that observed in crystalline analogues, with the reciprocal-space scattering data suggesting a disordered arrangement of the Zn2+ and Al3+ cations within the nanosheet. The approach we develop is generalisable and so offers a method of characterising the structures of arbitrary nanosheet phases, including systems that support complex forms of disorder within the nanosheets themselves. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01265h

  13. An Aluminum Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate-based Skin Barrier Protection Cream Used for the Management of Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhambri, Sanjay; Michaels, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Eczematous dermatoses can often be very difficult to treat. An aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream has recently become available for clinical use. Aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream provides an alternative option in treating these dermatoses while providing barrier protection against external allergens and irritants. This article reviews various studies evaluating aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream. PMID:21212843

  14. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  15. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  16. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  17. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  18. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  19. Synthesis of protocatechuic acid–zinc/aluminium–layered double hydroxide nanocomposite as an anticancer nanodelivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Gani, Shafinaz Abd; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2015-01-15

    Protocatechuic acid, an active anticancer agent, has been intercalated into Zn/Al–layered double hydroxide at Zn/Al=2) using two different preparation methods, co-precipitation and ion-exchange, which are labelled as PZAE and PZAC, respectively. The release of protocatechuate from the nanocomposites occurred in a controlled manner and was fitted satisfactorily to pseudo-second order kinetics. The basal spacing of the resulting nanocomposites PZAE and PZAC was 10.2 and 11.0 Å, respectively, indicating successful intercalation of protocatechuate anions into the interlayer galleries of Zn/Al–NO{sub 3}–LDH in a monolayer arrangement with angles of 24 and 33° from the z-axis in PZAE and PZAC, respectively. The formation of nanocomposites was further confirmed by a Fourier transform infrared study. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses indicated that the thermal stability of the intercalated protocatechuic acid was significantly enhanced compared to its free protocatechuic acid, and the drug content in the nanocomposites was estimated to be approximately 32.6% in PZAE and 29.2% in PZAC. Both PZAE and PZAC nanocomposites inhibit the growth of human cervical, liver and colorectal cancer cell lines and exhibit no toxic effects towards normal fibroblast 3T3 cell after 72 h of treatment. - Graphical abstract: Protocatechuate anions were arranged in monolayer mode with the angle of 24° for PZAE and 33° for PZAC from Z axis to maximize interaction between carboxylate groups and brucite-like layers. - Highlights: • Two methods gave nanocomposites with slightly different physico-chemical properties. • PZAE and PZAC have the potential to be used as a controlled release formulation. • The thermal stability of PA is markedly enhanced upon the intercalation process. • Higher cancer cell growth inhibition for PZAE and PZAC nanocomposites than for PA.

  20. New waste based clinkers: Belite and lime formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano; Ball, Richard James Rocha, Joao; Labrincha, Joao A.; Allen, Geoffrey C.

    2008-04-15

    This work describes the formulation of new belite-based (CR2) and lime-based (CR3) cementitious materials derived from industrial wastes, such as sludges (generated in the Al-anodising and surface coating industrial processes, potable water filtration/cleaning operations and in marble sawing processes) and foundry sand. Powder mixtures were prepared and fired at different temperatures. For comparison, similar formulations were prepared with pre-treated and commercially available natural raw materials and processed in similar conditions. The thermal process was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) studies. The CR2 clinker was found to contain belite as the main cementitious phase, the main polymorph being identified by NMR. The CR3 clinker contained common cementitious phases, such as C{sub 3}A and C{sub 3}S, but free lime and calcium aluminium oxide sulphates were also identified by high temperature XRD and NMR. Then the corresponding cement was prepared and the evolution of the mechanical strength with time was evaluated. The lime-based cement obtained from wastes shows a stronger hardening character than the standard material, which tends to show dusting phenomena due to the presence of a reasonable amount of free lime (as the result of its expansive reaction with ambient moisture). Some fluxing impurities (e.g. alkalis) present in the waste materials improve the overall reactivity of the mixture and induces the combination of the lime in CR3. Raman, XPS and FIB techniques were used to fully characterise the aged cements.

  1. Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-06-01

    Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 microM) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death.

  2. Effect of aluminium on migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Darbre, Philippa D; Bakir, Ayse; Iskakova, Elzira

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) has been measured in human breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid and breast cyst fluid, and recent studies have shown that at tissue concentrations, aluminium can induce DNA damage and suspension growth in human breast epithelial cells. This paper demonstrates for the first time that exposure to aluminium can also increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Long-term (32 weeks) but not short-term (1 week) exposure of MCF-7 cells to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate increased motility of the cells as measured by live cell imaging (cumulative length moved by individual cells), by a wound healing assay and by migration in real time through 8 μm pores of a membrane using xCELLigence technology. Long-term exposure (37 weeks) to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate also increased the ability of MCF-7 cells to invade through a matrigel layer as measured in real time using the xCELLigence system. Although molecular mechanisms remain to be characterized, the ability of aluminium salts to increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 cells suggests that the presence of aluminium in the human breast could influence metastatic processes. This is important because mortality from breast cancer arises mainly from tumour spread rather than from the presence of a primary tumour in the breast.

  3. ASSOCIATION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE AND METRONIDAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF DOG'S TEETH WITH CHRONIC PERIAPICAL LESION

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Souza, Valdir; Holland, Roberto; Dezan, Eloi

    2006-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I – no root canal dressing; group II – calcium hydroxide; group III – metronidazole; group IV – calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (α = 0.01). Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing. PMID:19089054

  4. Sorption of phosphate and Cr(VI) by Fe(III) and Cr(III) hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Y M; Wang, M K; Loeppert, R H

    2003-05-01

    Understanding the chemical behavior and interactions of Cr(VI) ( e.g., HCrO(4)(-)) and other anions, such as orthophosphate (P) with insoluble metal hydroxides ( i.e., Cr[III] and Fe[III]) in disposal landfills or in chromite ore processing residue (CORP)-enriched soil is very important in predicting the movement and the fate of Cr(VI). This study evaluates the sorption behavior of P and Cr(VI) by Fe(III) ( i.e., ferrihydrite), Cr(III) ( i.e., Cr[OH](3)), and coprecipitated Fe(III)/Cr(III) hydroxides. These metal hydroxide sorbents were synthesized, and sorption of P and Cr(VI) were conducted at different pH using a batch technology. Our results show that P and Cr(VI) sorption by metal hydroxides decreased with increasing suspension pH. Greater decrease in P sorption was observed when Cr(III) was present in the structures of hydroxides. Following the sorption of low concentration of P ( i.e., 0.5 mM), the sorption of subsequently added Cr(VI) by hydroxides was less influenced. However, Cr(VI) sorption was greatly inhibited when high concentration of P ( i.e., 10 mM) prereacted with hydroxides, particularly in Fe(III) hydroxide system. Results also indicated that high concentration of Cr(VI) (10 mM) could dissolve Cr(III) hydroxide at pH 3 and reprecipitate as an amorphous form of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) compound at pH about 6.5. Although coprecipitation of Cr(VI) with Cr(III) can inhibit Cr(VI) movement through soil profiles, the inhibition seems to be low due to the gradual release of Cr(VI) with increasing pH.

  5. New methodologies for the conservation of cultural heritage: micellar solutions, microemulsions, and hydroxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Michele; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero

    2010-06-15

    of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for the consolidation of works of art. In this Account, we highlight how conservation science can benefit from the conceptual and the methodological background derived from both soft (microemulsions and micelles for cleaning) and hard (nanoparticles for consolidation) nanoscience. A combination of different nanotechnologies allows today's conservators to provide, in each restoration step, interventions respectful of the physicochemical characteristics of the materials used by artists. The "palette" of methods provided by nanoscience is continuously enriching the field, and the development of novel nanomaterials and the study of nanoscale physicochemical phenomena will further improve the performance of restoration formulations and our comprehension of degradation mechanisms.

  6. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Sivasubramanian, J.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J.; Raja, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278 ± 3.121 to 189.872 ± 2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749 ± 2.052 to 21.170 ± 1.311 and 13.167 ± 1.441 to 8.953 ± 0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicdbnd CH stretching band and Cdbnd O stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  7. Dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products of residents in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junfei; Peng, Shaojie; Tian, Mingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Bo; Wu, Min; He, Gengsheng

    2015-01-01

    A dietary survey of 3431 residents was conducted by a 24-h dietary recall method in Shanghai, China, quarterly from September 2013 to September 2014. A total of 400 food samples were tested for aluminium concentration, including wheat flour and puffed products from 2011 to 2013. Probabilistic analysis was used to estimate the dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat and puffed products. The means of dietary aluminium exposure for children (2-6 years old), juveniles (7-17 years old), adults (18-65 years old) and seniors (over 65 years old) were 1.88, 0.94, 0.44 and 0.42 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) respectively, with a population average of 0.51 mg kg(-1) bw week(-1). The proportions of those who had aluminium exposure from wheat and puffed products lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were 77%, 90%, 97%, and 97% respectively from children to seniors. We estimated that the proportions of people at risk would decrease by 13%, 6%, 2% and 2% respectively under the new China National Standards - GB 2760-2014 National Food Safety for Standards for using food additives. The results indicated that aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the general population in Shanghai; however, children were at a higher risk of excess aluminium exposure. Significant improvements in reducing the dietary exposure to aluminium are expected in the population, especially for children after the implementation of GB 2760-2014.

  8. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Sivasubramanian, J; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J; Raja, B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278±3.121 to 189.872±2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749±2.052 to 21.170±1.311 and 13.167±1.441 to 8.953±0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicCH stretching band and CO stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  9. Formulations of Amlodipine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Syed Furqan; Khan, Marium Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Amlodipine (AD) is a calcium channel blocker that is mainly used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. However, latest findings have revealed that its efficacy is not only limited to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as it has shown to possess antioxidant activity and plays an important role in apoptosis. Therefore, it is also employed in the treatment of cerebrovascular stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, leukemia, breast cancer, and so forth either alone or in combination with other drugs. AD is a photosensitive drug and requires protection from light. A number of workers have tried to formulate various conventional and nonconventional dosage forms of AD. This review highlights all the formulations that have been developed to achieve maximum stability with the desired therapeutic action for the delivery of AD such as fast dissolving tablets, floating tablets, layered tablets, single-pill combinations, capsules, oral and transdermal films, suspensions, emulsions, mucoadhesive microspheres, gels, transdermal patches, and liposomal formulations. PMID:27822402

  10. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  11. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and weatherproofed'' pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  12. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM BY REPEATED PRECIPITATION WITH AMPHOTERIC HYDROXIDE CARRIERS

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1960-04-01

    A multiple carrier precipitation method is described for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. The hydroxide of an amphoteric metal is precipitated in an aqueous plutonium-containing solution. This precipitate, which carries plutonium, is then separated from the supernatant liquid and dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution, forming a second plutonium- containing solution. lons of an amphoteric metal which forms an insoluble hydroxide under the conditions existing in this second solution are added to the second solution. The precipitate which forms and which carries plutonium is separated from the supernatant liquid. Amphoteric metals which may be employed are aluminum, bibmuth, copper, cobalt, iron, lanthanum, nickel, and zirconium.

  13. Detection of interstellar sodium hydroxide in self-absorption toward the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Rhodes, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    A weak self-absorbed emission line, which is identified as the J = 4-3 transition of sodium hydroxide, has been detected in the direction of Sgr B2(OH). The correspondingly weak Sgr B2(QH) emission line U75406, previously reported as an unidentified spectral feature by other investigators, is consistent with the J = 3-2 transition of sodium hydroxide. This detection may represent the first evidence of a grain reaction formation mechanism for simple metal hydroxides. The detection of H62 Delta toward Orion A is also reported.

  14. Reactive transport modeling at uranium in situ recovery sites: uncertainties in uranium sorption on iron hydroxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Tutu, Hlanganani; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical changes that can occur down gradient from uranium in situ recovery (ISR) sites are important for various stakeholders to understand when evaluating potential effects on surrounding groundwater quality. If down gradient solid-phase material consists of sandstone with iron hydroxide coatings (no pyrite or organic carbon), sorption of uranium on iron hydroxides can control uranium mobility. Using one-dimensional reactive transport models with PHREEQC, two different geochemical databases, and various geochemical parameters, the uncertainties in uranium sorption on iron hydroxides are evaluated, because these oxidized zones create a greater risk for future uranium transport than fully reduced zones where uranium generally precipitates.

  15. Paracetamol-propyphenazone interaction and formulation difficulties associated with eutectic formation in combination solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Zalac, S; Khan, M Z; Gabelica, V; Tudja, M; Mestrović, E; Romih, M

    1999-03-01

    Polymorphic behaviours of paracetamol and propyphenazone and interaction between these two compounds were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR)-spectroscopy. Binary mixtures containing various ratios of the compounds were prepared as physical and fused mixtures and analysed by DSC to study their thermal behaviours. Phase diagrams obtained from the melting endotherms of the binary mixtures demonstrated formation of an eutectic mixture at a paracetamol-propyphenazone combination of about 35:65 (w/w) with an eutectic temperature of 56 degrees C. The FT-IR spectroscopy revealed no chemical interaction due to eutectic formation, and a lower degree of crystallinity of the eutectic mixture than individual substances was observed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The DSC and X-ray powder diffraction data demonstrated a polymorphic change in propyphenazone as a result of melting of the compound. Tablets, containing both paracetamol and propyphenazone in a combination formulation and prepared using standard wet granulation technology, were found to have physical instability when packed in either polyvinylchloride// aluminium or polyvinylchloride/polyvinyldienechloride// aluminium blisters and stored for one month at 40 degrees C with either 75% relative humidity or without any humidity control. The instability of the tablets was more apparent under the high humidity condition.

  16. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Henrique Bortolaz; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated.

  17. Mechanism of stabilization of dicalcium silicate solid solution with aluminium.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Ana; Aranda, Miguel A G; Sanz, Jesús; de la Torre, Angeles G; Losilla, Enrique R

    2014-02-07

    Stoichiometric dicalcium silicate, Ca2SiO4, displays a well-known polymorphism with temperature. When this phase is doped by a range of elements, belite, one of the main phases of cements, is generated. Here, we thoroughly study the aluminum doping of dicalcium silicate. This type of study is important for cement characterization and also from a basic point of view. Ca2Si(1-2x)Al(2x)O(4-x)□(x) (x = 0, 0.010, 0.014, 0.03) has been prepared and studied by X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The limiting composition has been established as Ca2Si0.972Al0.028O3.986□0.014. The (27)Al MAS NMR band located close to ~-70 ppm is ascribed to tetrahedral environments, in agreement with the proposed aliovalent Si/Al atomic substitution mechanism. Thermal analysis measurements under a wet atmosphere indirectly confirm the increase of oxygen vacancies as the amount of incorporated protons increases with the aluminium content. A thorough electrical characterization has been carried out including overall conductivity measurements under wet and dry atmospheres and conductivity as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. The samples show oxide anion conductivity with a small p-type electronic contribution under oxidizing conditions. These compounds display a very important proton contribution to the overall conductivities under humidified atmospheres.

  18. Anode characterisation and gas diffusion behaviour in aluminium smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Epma; Brooks, Geoffrey; Snook, Graeme; Eick, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Over the past century, significant research on different aspects of the Hall-Héroult process has been conducted to increase energy efficiency. Bubble generation at the anode reaction and its contribution to the overall voltage drop in aluminium production holds significant potential for energy saving, yet the details of the gas transport mechanism for bubble nucleation behaviour are not completely understood. The multi-step electrochemical reaction releases predominantly CO2 gas along with CO gas, which is a reduction product formed by reaction of CO2 with the anode carbon. Complicating the reaction is the multiple paths by which the gas can diffuse (either through the porous anode or the electrolyte bath). There has been no detailed investigation of the correlation between gas diffusion as a function of anode and bath properties. In the present study, the porosity measurement techniques in the anode will be used to understand the relation of gas diffusion and anode properties. A porosimetric study was conducted for two different anode samples using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and hydrostatic method. The MIP method provides important anode properties information such as density, percent porosity, pore size distribution, permeability, and tortuosity factor which affect gas diffusion and anode performance. The Knudsen number obtained from MIP data shows both Knudsen diffusion and molecular diffusion need to be considered when predicting the effective diffusion.

  19. The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Daniel L.; Ross, D. Keith; Gale, Julian D.; Taylor, Jon W.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332

  20. Involvement of ASR genes in aluminium tolerance mechanisms in rice.

    PubMed

    Arenhart, Rafael Augusto; Lima, Julio César de; Pedron, Marcelo; Carvalho, Fabricio E L; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes da; Rosa, Silvia Barcelos; Caverzan, Andreia; Andrade, Claudia M B; Schünemann, Mariana; Margis, Rogério; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia

    2013-01-01

    Among cereal crops, rice is considered the most tolerant to aluminium (Al). However, variability among rice genotypes leads to remarkable differences in the degree of Al tolerance for distinct cultivars. A number of studies have demonstrated that rice plants achieve Al tolerance through an unknown mechanism that is independent of root tip Al exclusion. We have analysed expression changes of the rice ASR gene family as a function of Al treatment. The gene ASR5 was differentially regulated in the Al-tolerant rice ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare. However, ASR5 expression did not respond to Al exposure in Indica cv. Taim rice roots, which are highly Al sensitive. Transgenic plants carrying RNAi constructs that targeted the ASR genes were obtained, and increased Al susceptibility was observed in T1 plants. Embryogenic calli of transgenic rice carrying an ASR5-green fluorescent protein fusion revealed that ASR5 was localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Using a proteomic approach to compare non-transformed and ASR-RNAi plants, a total of 41 proteins with contrasting expression patterns were identified. We suggest that the ASR5 protein acts as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of different genes that collectively protect rice cells from Al-induced stress responses.