Science.gov

Sample records for aluminum sodium sulfate

  1. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  11. Influence of sodium aluminosilicate, hydroxy-sodalite, carnegieite, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum phosphate on performance of commercial Leghorns.

    PubMed

    Roland, D A; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M

    1991-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if the high ion-exchange capacity of sodium aluminosilicate (ZA) marketed as ETHACAL Feed Component or its aluminum content or both are related to the beneficial effect of ZA on egg specific gravity (ESG). In Experiments 1 and 2, ZA was compared with hydroxy-sodalite (HS) and carnegieite, which have the same chemical formula as ZA but little or no ion-exchange capacity. Two levels of ZA (0 and 1.5% of the diet) and three levels of HS (0, .75, and 1.5%) were fed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, 0, .75, and 1.5% of ZA and carnegieite were fed. In Experiment 3, ZA, carnegieite, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum phosphate were fed at levels calculated to contain .148 and .101% aluminum. Criteria evaluated were ESG, egg production, feed consumption, and egg weight. Egg specific gravity was significantly improved by ZA in all experiments and was not affected by HS, carnegieite (Experiments 1 and 2), aluminum sulfate (.148% Al), or aluminum phosphate (Experiment 3). Carnegieite and aluminum (.101%) from aluminum sulfate increased ESG in Experiment 3. In Experiments 1 and 3, egg production and feed consumption were not influenced by various treatments. Carnegieite and ZA reduced egg production and feed consumption in Experiment 2. It was concluded that the ion-exchange capacity and aluminum content of ZA may contribute to its beneficial effect on ESG.

  12. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  13. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  14. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  15. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  16. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  17. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  12. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  14. Behavior of aluminum in aluminum welders and manufacturers of aluminum sulfate--impact on biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Riihimäki, Vesa; Valkonen, Sinikka; Engström, Bernt; Tossavainen, Antti; Mutanen, Pertti; Aitio, Antero

    2008-12-01

    The suitability of determining aluminum in serum or urine as a form of biological monitoring was critically assessed. Airborne and internal aluminum exposure was assessed for 12 aluminum welders in a shipyard and 5 manufacturers of aluminum sulfate. Particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Aluminum in air and biological samples was analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Basic toxicokinetic features were inferred from the data. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of aluminum was 1.1 (range 0.008-6.1) mg/m(3) for the shipyard and 0.13 (range 0.02-0.5) mg/m(3) for the aluminum sulfate plant. Welding fume contained aluminum oxide particles <0.1 microm in diameter and their agglomerates, whereas bauxite and aluminum sulfate particles ranged from 1 to 10 microm in diameter. The shipyard welders' mean postshift serum and urinary concentrations of aluminum (S-Al and U-Al, respectively) were 0.22 and 3.4 micromol/l, respectively, and the aluminum sulfate workers' corresponding values were 0.13 and 0.58 micromol/l. Between two shifts, the welders' S-Al concentration decreased by about 50% (P<0.01), but their U-Al concentration did not change (P=0.64). No corresponding temporal changes occurred among the aluminum sulfate workers. After aluminum welding at the shipyard had ceased, the median S-Al concentration decreased by about 50% (P=0.007) within a year, but there was no change (P=0.75) in the corresponding U-Al concentration. About 1% of aluminum in welding fume appears to be rapidly absorbed from the lungs, whereas an undetermined fraction is retained and forms a lung burden. A higher fractional absorption of aluminum seems possible for aluminum sulfate workers without evidence of a lung burden. After rapid absorption, aluminum is slowly mobilized from the lung burden and dominates the S-Al and U-Al concentrations of aluminum welders. For kinetic reasons, S-Al or U-Al concentrations cannot

  15. REFINEMENT OF THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF GUANIDINIUM ALUMINUM SULFATE HEXAHYDRATE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FERROELECTRIC CRYSTALS, * CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*GUANIDINES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), SULFATES, HYDRATES, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL LATTICES, CHEMICAL BONDS

  16. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  17. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in...

  18. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following...

  19. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  20. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  1. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin...

  2. The use of primary dross from the aluminum industry for manufacturing aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The use of primary dross as a source for aluminum ion in the manufacture of aluminum sulfate offers opportunities for an inexpensive raw material. The aluminum sulfate industry in the US is a mature market with numerous small plants operating close to major users. The majority of manufacturers use either bauxite or aluminum oxide trihydrate as a source for the aluminum ion. However, using process technology developed and patented by IWC, the oxides are removed from primary dross for use in manufacturing aluminum sulfate prior to metal recovery. This process offers the benefit of reducing costs for metal recovery. This paper discusses some of the methodology used in this process.

  3. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  13. Aggregation and restabilization of colloidal titania by aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.J.; Kovac, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of aluminum sulfate with three concentrations of a negatively-charged titania sol was investigated. Changes in turbidity during settling were used to determine the critical values of coagulation and stabilization. These data were used to establish the entire log aluminum sulfate-pH stability limit diagram for the sol, and its boundaries were related to the ionic species in equilibrium with aluminum hydroxide. The stability limits, except at the very lowest aluminum concentration, are very similar to those described for other sols. Aggregation was not dependent upon sol concentration whereas the critical aluminum concentration for restabilization increased with sol concentration. Data were obtained to demonstrate that titania obeys the Schulze-Hardy rule.

  14. Behavior of Stabilized Zirconia in Molten Sodium Sulfate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ZIRCONIUM OXIDES, *CHEMICAL ATTACK(DEGRADATION), *MOLTEN SALTS , MICROSTRUCTURE, MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, ADDITIVES, SULFATES, YTTRIUM OXIDES, CALCIUM OXIDES, MAGNESIUM OXIDES, SODIUM COMPOUNDS.

  15. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  16. 40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415.20 Section 415.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  17. 40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415.20 Section 415.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  18. 40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415.20 Section 415.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  19. 40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415.20 Section 415.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  20. 40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415.20 Section 415.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  1. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate of polyphenoloxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.M.; Flurkey, W.H. )

    1989-04-01

    The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the enzymatic and physical characteristics of purified broad bean polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were examined. A sigmoidal increase in PPO activation was observed with increasing SDS concentrations. Half maximal activation occurred at .9 mM SDS well below the CMC of 3.5 mM. No apparent changes in the Km for catechol, pH optimum, of I{sub 50} for tropolone were observed in the presence vs absence of SDS. Thermal inactivation and binding of {sup 14}C dopa increased in the presence of SDS. Analytical ultracentrifugation and HPLC-SEC indicated that SDS did not change the apparent size of the PPO under nondenaturing conditions. Scanning fluorescence spectroscopy showed an increase in intrinsic trp/tyr fluorescence at approximately the same concentration in which SDS activation began. Further addition of SDS caused a large increase in intrinsic fluorescence. These results suggest the SDS causes an apparent conformational change induced by SDS binding which leads to enzyme activation.

  2. Alterations in biochemical parameters during subacute toxicity of fluoride alone and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate in goats.

    PubMed

    Kant, Vinay; Srivastava, Anil Kumar; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder

    2009-07-01

    Fluoride toxicity is a serious health problem in many parts of the globe. In present study, sodium fluoride at 20 mg/kg alone and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate at 150 mg/kg was administered orally daily for 30 days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the alterations in the various biochemical parameters during subacute toxicity of fluoride alone and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate. In Group 1, significant alterations in plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, magnesium, and sodium were observed on different days of exposure from their pre-exposure values. However, no significant changes were observed in plasma calcium, phosphorus, and potassium on different days of exposure of sodium fluoride. Similar type of biochemical alterations were noticed in the goats of Group 2 except BUN, total protein magnesium, and sodium. On the basis of results, it could be concluded that sodium fluoride alone and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate produced significant alterations in the various biochemical parameters of the body.

  3. Dissolved organic nitrogen removal during water treatment by aluminum sulfate and cationic polymer coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Coagulation of three surface waters was conducted with aluminum salt and/or cationic polymer to assess dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal. Coagulation with aluminum sulfate removed equal or slightly lower amounts of DON as compared to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). At aluminum sulfate dosages up to 5mg per mg DOC, the cationic polymer improved DON removal by an additional 15% to 20% over aluminum sulfate alone. At very high aluminum sulfate dosages (>8 mg aluminum sulfate per mg DOC), however, the cationic polymer addition negligibly increased DON removal. Molecular weight fractionation before and after coagulation experiments indicated that cationic polymer addition can increase the removal of all molecular weight fractions of DON with the highest molecular weight fraction (>10,000 Da) being preferentially removed. Results indicated that the DON added as part of the cationic polymer was almost completely removed at optimum aluminum sulfate and polymer doses.

  4. Radiolysis and photolysis of sodium sulfate crystalline hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenchurina, A. R.; Sal'keeva, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    The thermal treatment of sodium sulfate was found to affect its optical and luminescent properties when activated with trivalent rare-earth ions. The influence of crystal water molecules on radiation processes in sodium sulfate was studied. The interactions of atomic hydrogen with ions and radicals were calculated by the semiempirical MNDO quantum-chemical method. The hydrogen atom was found to form stable complexes with all ions and radicals. The ions and radicals of the sulfate subsystem play the role of traps for hydrogen atoms and escape recombination, giving rise to recombination luminescence at 150 K during UV excitation of the crystalline hydrate.

  5. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  6. Sodium sulfate - Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mass spectrometer experiments were conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties of gaseous Na2SO4, and these data were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. The work is important in that sodium sulfate is the major phase recovered from turbine surfaces after instances of corrosion, due to the presence of sulfur in fuels and sodium chloride in intake air.

  7. Sodium sulfate - Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mass spectrometer experiments were conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties of gaseous Na2SO4, and these data were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. The work is important in that sodium sulfate is the major phase recovered from turbine surfaces after instances of corrosion, due to the presence of sulfur in fuels and sodium chloride in intake air.

  8. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  9. Cellular mechanisms of renal adaptation of sodium dependent sulfate cotransport to altered dietary sulfate in rats.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, K; DuBois, D C; Almon, R R; Murer, H; Morris, M E

    1998-12-01

    The renal transport and fractional reabsorption of inorganic sulfate is altered under conditions of sulfate deficiency or excess. The objective of this study was to examine the cellular mechanisms of adaptation of renal sodium/sulfate cotransport after varying dietary intakes of a sulfur containing amino acid, methionine. Female Lewis rats were divided into four groups and fed diets containing various concentrations of methionine (0, 0.3, 0.82 and 2.46%) for 8 days. Urinary excretion rates and renal clearance of sulfate were significantly decreased in the animals fed a 0% methionine diet or a 0.3% methionine diet, and significantly increased in the animals fed a 2.46% methionine diet when evaluated on days 4 and 7. Serum sulfate concentrations were unchanged by diet treatment in all animals. The fractional reabsorption of sulfate was significantly increased in the animals fed the 0% methionine diet and the 0.3% methionine diets, and decreased in the animals fed the 2.46% methionine diet. Increased mRNA and protein levels for the sodium/sulfate transporter (NaSi-1) were found in the kidney cortex following treatment with the 0 and 0.3% methionine diet groups. Sulfate homeostasis by renal reabsorption is maintained by an up-regulation of steady state levels of NaSi-1 mRNA and protein when the diet is low in methionine.

  10. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Gil Felicisimo S; Balbin, Michelle M; Eugenio, Paul John G; Zapanta, Charleo S; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2017-03-18

    The Turkevich method has been used for many years in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Lately, the use of plant extracts and amino acids has been reported, which is valuable in the field of biotechnology and biomedicine. The AuNPs was synthesized from the reduction of HAuCl4 3H2O by sodium glutamate and stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum concentrations for sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the synthesis process were determined. The characteristics of the synthesized AuNPs was analysed through UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The AuNPs have spherical shape with a mean diameter of approximately 21.62 ± 4.39 nm and is well dispersed. FTIR analysis of the AuNPs reflected that the sulfate head group of sodium dodecyl sulfate is adsorbed at the surface of the AuNPs. Thus, we report herein the synthesis of AuNPs using sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  11. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  12. Distribution of aluminum species and the characteristics of structure of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate(PACS).

    PubMed

    Gao, B Y; Yue, Q Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2001-01-01

    A series of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate (PACS), which has different basicities (gamma) and Al3+/SO4(2-) molar ratio, has been prepared and dried at 105 degrees C and 65 degrees C, respectively. The distribution of aluminum species of PACS was examined, and the effect of gamma value, Al3+/SO4(2-) molar ratio, dilution on the distribution of aluminum species of PACS was also investigated by using Alferron timed complex colorimetric method. The IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to study the effect of gamma value, Al3+/SO4(2-) molar ratio and the drying temperature on the structure of PACS. The experimental results show that Al3+/SO4(2-) molar ratio has a great effect on the distribution of aluminum species, but the dilution has a little effect on the distribution of aluminum species. The lower the Al3+/SO4(2-) molar ratio, the higher the proportions of the polymer and colloidal species in PACS. The polymeric degree of PACS was related to gamma value and Al3+/SO4(2-) molar ratio. Drying temperature has an influence on the structure and the solubility of solid PACS products.

  13. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains...

  17. Seeded batch crystallization of ammonium aluminum sulfate from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Noriaki; Onosawa, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    Seed crystals of ammonium aluminum sulfate ((NH 4)Al(SO 4) 2··12H 2O) were grown in aqueous solution by cooling. The temperature of a crystallizer was lowered with no control by circulating cooling water through the jacket. It fell in an exponential manner. The effects of seed amount and size on the product crystal size distribution were examined. The product crystals obtained were of narrow and uni-modal size distribution with suppressed secondary nucleation if seed crystals were loaded more than a critical value. The critical value was determined and well compared with previously reported values for other material systems. This crystallization technique does not need any prior knowledge of the kinetics of crystal growth and nucleation. It is simple and robust, and can be easily applied to an existing crystallizer without installing any additional control systems.

  18. Sodium sulfate - Deposition and dissolution of silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    The hot-corrosion process for SiO2-protected materials involves deposition of Na2SO4 and dissolution of the protective SiO2 scale. Dew points for Na2SO4 deposition are calculated as a function of pressure, sodium content, and sulfur content. Expected dissolution regimes for SiO2 are calculated as a function of Na2SO4 basicity. Controlled-condition burner-rig tests on quartz verify some of these predicted dissolution regimes. The basicity of Na2SO4 is not always a simple function of P(SO3). Electrochemical measurements of an (Na2O) show that carbon creates basic conditions in Na2SO4, which explains the extensive corrosion of SiO2-protected materials containing carbon, such as SiC.

  19. Sodium sulfate - Deposition and dissolution of silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    The hot-corrosion process for SiO2-protected materials involves deposition of Na2SO4 and dissolution of the protective SiO2 scale. Dew points for Na2SO4 deposition are calculated as a function of pressure, sodium content, and sulfur content. Expected dissolution regimes for SiO2 are calculated as a function of Na2SO4 basicity. Controlled-condition burner-rig tests on quartz verify some of these predicted dissolution regimes. The basicity of Na2SO4 is not always a simple function of P(SO3). Electrochemical measurements of an (Na2O) show that carbon creates basic conditions in Na2SO4, which explains the extensive corrosion of SiO2-protected materials containing carbon, such as SiC.

  20. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined.

  1. Miscibility of sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the adsorbed film and aggregate.

    PubMed

    Iyota, Hidemi; Krastev, Rumen

    2009-04-01

    The adsorption, micelle formation, and salting out of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of sodium chloride were studied from the viewpoint of their mixed adsorption and aggregate formation. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of a sodium chloride-sodium dodecyl sulfate mixture was measured as a function of the total molality and composition of the mixture. Phase diagrams of adsorption and aggregate formation were obtained by applying thermodynamic equations to the surface tension. Judging from the phase diagrams, sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate are miscible in the adsorbed film at very large composition of sodium chloride and in the salted-out crystalline particle, while they are immiscible in the micelle. The miscibilities in the adsorbed film, micelle, and crystalline particle increase in the following order: particle > adsorbed film > micelle. The difference in miscibility among the oriented states was ascribed to the difference in geometry between the adsorbed film and micelle and to the interaction between bilayer surfaces in the particle.

  2. Transport Properties of Water and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    the diffusion of SDS in water. We carry out classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [31], where the individual atoms are approximated by spheres... Molecular Dynamics Simulations ,” J. Chem. Phys., 108, pp. 4739–4755. [34] Guillot, J., 2002, “A Reappraisal of What We Have Learnt During Three Deca- des...Berkowitz, M. L., Perera, L., and Forbes, M. D. E., 2002, “ Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle in Water: Micellar

  3. Destabilization of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by molten sodium vanadate-sodium sulfate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagelberg, A. S.; Hamilton, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The extent of surface destabilization of ZrO2 - 8 wt percent Y2O3 ceramic disks was determined after exposure to molten salt mixtures of sodium sulfate containing up to 15 mole percent sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) at 1173 K. The ceramic surface was observed to transform from the cubic/tetragonal to monoclinic phase, concurrent with chemical changes in the molten salt layer in contact with the ceramic. Significant attack rates were observed in both pure sulfate and metavanadate sulfate melts. The rate of attack was found to be quite sensitive to the mole fraction of vanadate in the molten salt solution and the partial pressure of sulfur trioxide in equilibrium with the salt melt. The observed parabolic rate of attack is interpreted to be caused by a reaction controlled by diffusion in the salt that penetrates into the porous layer formed by the destabilization. The parabolic rate constant in mixed sodium metavanadate - sodium sulfate melts was found to be proportional to the SO3 partial pressure and the square of the metavanadate concentration. In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements allowed simultaneous observations of the ceramic phases and salt chemistry during the attack process.

  4. Serum aluminum levels in dialysis patients after sclerotherapy of internal hemorrhoids with aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Akira; Nakagi, Masafumi; Kano, Nobuyasu; Mizutani, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) is an effective sclerosing agent for internal hemorrhoids. However, it is contraindicated for patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis, because the aluminum in ALTA can cause aluminum encephalopathy when it is not excreted effectively. We conducted this study to measure the serum aluminum concentrations and observe for symptoms relating to aluminum encephalopathy in dialysis patients after ALTA therapy. Ten dialysis patients underwent ALTA therapy for hemorrhoids. We measured their serum aluminum concentrations and observed them for possible symptoms of aluminum encephalopathy. The total injection volume of ALTA solution was 31 mL (24-37). The median serum aluminum concentration before ALTA therapy was 9 μg/L, which increased to 741, 377, and 103 μg/L, respectively, 1 h, 1 day, and 1 week after ALTA therapy. These levels decreased rapidly, to 33 μg/L by 1 month and 11 μg/L by 3 months after ALTA therapy. No patient suffered symptoms related to aluminum encephalopathy. Although the aluminum concentrations increased temporarily after ALTA therapy, dialysis patients with levels below 150 μg/L by 1 week and thereafter are considered to be at low risk of the development of aluminum encephalopathy.

  5. Wall pressure exerted by hydrogenation of sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Yon E.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Zimmerman, Mark D.

    2009-06-01

    Wall pressure exerted by the bulk expansion of a sodium aluminum hydride bed was measured as a function of hydrogen content. A custom apparatus was designed and loaded with sodium alanates at densities of 1.0, 1.1, and 1.16 g/cc. Four complete cycles were performed to identify variations in measured pressure. Results indicated poor correlation between exerted pressure and hydrogen capacity of the sodium alanate beds. Mechanical pressure due to the hydrogenation of sodium alanates does not influence full-scale system designs as it falls within common design factors of safety. Gas pressure gradients within the porous solid were identified and may limit reaction rates, especially for high aspect ratio beds.

  6. Gas evolution during vitrification of sodium sulfate and silica

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bakel, A.J.; Rosine, S.D. |

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the operation of an apparatus designed to identify species evolved during vitrification of hazardous waste materials and to measure the temperatures at which they are evolved. To demonstrate the utility of the apparatus for designing off-gas systems, the authors present the results of heating various sulfates alone and in the presence of silica. During vitrification, the decomposition behavior of some waste components will be affected by the chemical composition of the melt. For example, they found that when silica is present during heating, SO{sub x} gases are evolved at lower temperatures than when pure sodium sulfate is heated. Such analyses will be important in the design of off-gas units for waste vitrification systems.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling. PMID:26075726

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water.

    PubMed

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2015-06-12

    Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3-5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3-5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2-30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  9. Final report of the amended safety assessment of sodium laureth sulfate and related salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Valerie C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Sodium laureth sulfate is a member of a group of salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols, the safety of which was evaluated by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel for use in cosmetics. Sodium and ammonium laureth sulfate have not evoked adverse responses in any toxicological testing. Sodium laureth sulfate was demonstrated to be a dermal and ocular irritant but not a sensitizer. The Expert Panel recognized that there are data gaps regarding use and concentration of these ingredients. However, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentrations indicates a pattern of use. The potential to produce irritation exists with these salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols, but in practice they are not regularly seen to be irritating because of the formulations in which they are used. These ingredients should be used only when they can be formulated to be nonirritating.

  10. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    PubMed

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  11. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role. PMID:26197394

  12. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  13. Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Schiozer, Adriana Lopes

    1994-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6°C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35°C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

  14. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory §...

  15. Potassium alum and aluminum sulfate micro-inclusions in polar ice from Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Hondoh, Takeo; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Water-soluble trace constituents affect the physicochemical properties of polar ice. Their structural distribution provides important insights into the formation history of ice and inclusions. We report the first finding of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O (potassium alum) and Al2(SO4)3·nH2O (aluminum sulfate) micro-inclusions in the Dome Fuji ice core, East Antartica, using a micro-Raman technique. Eutectic temperatures of these water-soluble species determined using thermal analysis were -0.4 °C for potassium alum and -8.0 °C for aluminum sulfate. Although the formation process of the aluminum-bearing sulfates remains unclear, the occurrence of these salts largely depends on ice depth.

  16. Ionic quenching of naphthalene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandra F; Fiedler, Haidi D; Nome, Faruk

    2011-03-31

    Micellar effects on luminescense of organic compounds or probes are well established, and here we show that quenching is highly favored in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles, which concentrate a naphthalene probe and cations of lanthanides, transition metals, and noble metals. Interactions have been studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence in examining the fluorescence suppression of naphthalene by metal ions in anionic SDS micelles. The quenching is collisional and correlated with the unit charge and the reduction potential of the metal ion. The rate constants, calculated in terms of local metal ion concentrations, are close to the diffusion control limit in the interior of SDS micelles, where the microscopic viscosity decreases the transfer rate, following the Stokes-Einstein relation.

  17. Prospects of the use of sodium tetrafluoroaluminate as a correcting additive to electrolyte in aluminum baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedykh, B. I.; Tupitsyn, A. A.; Nozhko, S. I.; Gorkovenko, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The disadvantages of the use of aluminum trifluoride as a correcting additive to the commercial electrolytes of aluminum production are discussed. In pot rooms equipped with electrolysis cells having self-calcinating anodes and a dry gas cleaning system, sodium tetrafluoroaluminate can be a challenging alternative for aluminum trifluoride. In the range of acid electrolytes, sodium tetrafluoroaluminate is the dominating component of a melt and gaseous phase.

  18. Adsorption and catalytic properties of sulfated aluminum oxide modified with cobalt ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, S. N.; Bannykh, A. A.; Vlasenko, E. V.; Krotova, I. N.; Obrezkov, O. N.; Shilina, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption properties of sulfated aluminum oxide (9% SO 4 2- /γ-Al2O3) and a cobalt-containing composite (0.5%Co/SO 4 2- /γ-Al2O3) based on it are studied via dynamic sorption. The adsorption isotherms of such test adsorbates as n-hydrocarbons (C6-C8), benzene, ethylbenzene, chloroform, and diethyl ether are measured, and their isosteric heats of adsorption are calculated. It is shown that the surface sulfation of aluminum oxide substantially improves its electron-accepting properties, and so the catalytic activity of SO 4 2- /γ-Al2O3 in the liquid-phase alkylation of benzene with octene-1 at temperatures of 25-120°C is one order of magnitude higher than for the initial aluminum oxide. It is established that additional modification of sulfated aluminum oxide with cobalt ions increases the activity of this catalyst by 2-4 times. It is shown that adsorption sites capable of strong specific adsorption with both donating (aromatics, diethyl ether chemosorption) and accepting molecules (chloroform) form on the surface of sulfated γ-Al2O3 promoted by cobalt salt.

  19. Utilization of Drinking Water Treatment Slurry to Produce Aluminum Sulfate Coagulant.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mahmoud M; Razek, Taha M A; Elgendy, Ahmed S

    2017-02-01

      In Egypt, water treatment consumes about 365 000 tons of aluminum sulfate and produces more than 100 million tons of sludge per year. The common disposal system of sludge in Egypt is to discharge it into natural waterways. Toxicity of aluminum, environmental regulations and costs of chemicals used in water treatment and sludge treatment processes led to an evaluation of coagulant recovery and subsequent reuse. The present work aimed at aluminum recovery from sludge of El-Shiekh Zayd water treatment plant (WTP) to produce aluminum sulfate coagulant. Sludge was characterized and the effect of five variables was tested and the process efficiency was evaluated at different operating conditions. Maximum recovery is 94.2% at acid concentration 1.5 N, sludge weight 5 g, mixing speed 60 rpm, temperature 60 °C and leaching time 40 min. Then optimum conditions were applied to get maximum recovery for aluminum sulfate and compared to commercial coagulant on raw water of El-Shiekh Zayd (WTP).

  20. Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate partitioning into lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Anmin; Ziegler, André; Steinbauer, Bernhard; Seelig, Joachim

    2002-09-01

    The partition equilibria of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and lithium dodecyl sulfate between water and bilayer membranes were investigated with isothermal titration calorimetry and spectroscopic methods (light scattering, (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance) in the temperature range of 28 degrees C to 56 degrees C. The partitioning of the dodecyl sulfate anion (DS(-)) into the bilayer membrane is energetically favored by an exothermic partition enthalpy of Delta H(O)(D) = -6.0 kcal/mol at 28 degrees C. This is in contrast to nonionic detergents where Delta H(O)(D) is usually positive. The partition enthalpy decreases linearly with increasing temperature and the molar heat capacity is Delta C(O)(P) = -50 +/- 3 cal mol(-1) K(-1). The partition isotherm is nonlinear if the bound detergent is plotted versus the free detergent concentration in bulk solution. This is caused by the electrostatic repulsion between the DS(-) ions inserted into the membrane and those free in solution near the membrane surface. The surface concentration of DS(-) immediately above the plane of binding was hence calculated with the Gouy-Chapman theory, and a strictly linear relationship was obtained between the surface concentration and the extent of DS(-) partitioning. The surface partition constant K describes the chemical equilibrium in the absence of electrostatic effects. For the SDS-membrane equilibrium K was found to be 1.2 x 10(4) M(-1) to 6 x 10(4) M(-1) for the various systems and conditions investigated, very similar to data available for nonionic detergents of the same chain length. The membrane-micelle phase diagram was also studied. Complete membrane solubilization requires a ratio of 2.2 mol SDS bound per mole of total lipid at 56 degrees C. The corresponding equilibrium concentration of SDS free in solution is C (sat)(D,F) approximately 1.7 mM and is slightly below the critical micelles concentration (CMC) = 2.1 mM (at 56 degrees C and 0.11 M buffer). Membrane saturation occurs at

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced rapid gelation of silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xilong; Hou, Jing; Li, Mingzhong; Wang, Jiangnan; Kaplan, David L; Lu, Shenzhou

    2012-07-01

    The in situ formation of injectable silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels have potential advantages over various other biomaterials due to the minimal invasiveness during application. Biomaterials need to gel rapidly under physiological conditions after injection. In the current paper, a novel way to accelerate SF gelation using an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as a gelling agent is reported. The mechanism of SDS-induced rapid gelation was determined. At low surfactant concentrations, hydrophobic interactions among the SF chains played a dominant role in the association, leading to decreased gelation time. At higher concentrations of surfactant, electrostatic repulsive forces among micellar aggregates gradually became dominant and gelation was hindered. Gel formation involves the connection of clusters formed by the accumulation of nanoparticles. This process is accompanied by the rapid formation of β-sheet structures due to hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. It is expected that the silk hydrogel with short gelation time will be used as an injectable hydrogel in drug delivery or cartilage tissue engineering.

  2. Agaricus bisporus attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Park, Jae Ho; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM) is widely consumed in most countries and is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known regarding its effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are related to dysfunction of intestinal immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBMs in an animal model of DSS-induced colitis. Male, 4-week-old ICR mice (n=10 per group) were fed a normal diet with or without 10% WBM for 4 weeks, and colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. WBMs prevented DSS-induced shortening of colon length (P=.033) and diminished diarrhea (P=.049) and gross bleeding (P=.001), resulting in a decreased disease activity index. Results of histological analysis showed that WBMs suppressed mucosal damage. In addition, WBMs attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity (P=.012) and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (P=.020) in the colon segment. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role for the WBM as an immunomodulator that can prevent and/or treat ulcerative colitis.

  3. Alloferon Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemin; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of gut immune regulation is involved in mucosal damage in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, there is still no efficacious immune-regulator for the treatment of IBD. Alloferon is a novel immune-modulatory peptide that was originally isolated from infected insects. It shows anti-inflammatory effects by the regulation of cytokine production by immune cells and their activities. Therefore, we investigated the effect of alloferon in a mouse model of colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Colitis was induced by administration of DSS in drinking water for 7 consecutive days. It was confirmed by the presence of weight loss, diarrhea, hematochezia, and colon contraction. Alloferon was injected 4 days after DSS administration. We found that alloferon improved the pathogenesis of IBD based on the reduced disease activity index (DAI) and colon contraction. Edema, epithelial erosion, and immune cell infiltration were found in mice administered DSS, but the phenomena were reduced following alloferon treatment. The plasma level of IL-6, a classical pro-inflammatory cytokine in colitis, was also decreased by alloferon. Moreover, alloferon inhibited the TNF-α-induced degradation and phosphorylation of IκB in Colo205 colon cancer cells. Taken together, these results show that alloferon has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates DSS-induced colitis. PMID:26140045

  4. Alloferon Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemin; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-06-01

    Dysfunction of gut immune regulation is involved in mucosal damage in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, there is still no efficacious immune-regulator for the treatment of IBD. Alloferon is a novel immune-modulatory peptide that was originally isolated from infected insects. It shows anti-inflammatory effects by the regulation of cytokine production by immune cells and their activities. Therefore, we investigated the effect of alloferon in a mouse model of colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Colitis was induced by administration of DSS in drinking water for 7 consecutive days. It was confirmed by the presence of weight loss, diarrhea, hematochezia, and colon contraction. Alloferon was injected 4 days after DSS administration. We found that alloferon improved the pathogenesis of IBD based on the reduced disease activity index (DAI) and colon contraction. Edema, epithelial erosion, and immune cell infiltration were found in mice administered DSS, but the phenomena were reduced following alloferon treatment. The plasma level of IL-6, a classical pro-inflammatory cytokine in colitis, was also decreased by alloferon. Moreover, alloferon inhibited the TNF-α-induced degradation and phosphorylation of IκB in Colo205 colon cancer cells. Taken together, these results show that alloferon has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates DSS-induced colitis.

  5. Gels composed of sodium-aluminum silicate, Lake Magadi, Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eugster, H.P.; Jones, B.F.

    1968-01-01

    Sodium-aluminum silicate gels are found in surftcial deposits as thick as 5 centimeters in the Magadi area of Kenya. Chemical data indicate they are formed by the interaction of hot alkaline springwaters (67?? to 82??C; pH, about 9) with alkali trachyte flows and their detritus, rather than by direct precipitation. In the process, Na2O is added from and silica is released to the saline waters of the springs. Algal mats protect the gels from erosion and act as thermal insulators. The gels are probably yearly accumulates that are washed into the lakes during floods. Crystallization of these gels in the laboratory yields analcite; this fact suggests that some analcite beds in lacustrine deposits may have formed from gels. Textural evidence indicates that cherts of rocks of the Pleistocene chert series in the Magadi area may have formed from soft sodium silicate gels. Similar gels may have acted as substrates for the accumulation and preservation of prebiological organic matter during the Precambrian.

  6. Aluminum bioavailability from basic sodium aluminum phosphate, an approved food additive emulsifying agent, incorporated in cheese

    PubMed Central

    Yokel, Robert A.; Hicks, Clair L.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined in the rat from basic [26Al]-sodium aluminum phosphate (basic SALP) in a process cheese. Consumption of ~ 1 gm cheese containing 1.5 or 3% basic SALP resulted in oral Al bioavailability (F) of ~ 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, and time to maximum serum 26Al concentration (Tmax) of 8 to 9 h. These Al bioavailability results were intermediate to previously reported results from drinking water (F ~ 0.3%) and acidic-SALP incorporated into a biscuit (F ~ 0.1%), using the same methods. Considering the similar oral bioavailability of Al from food vs. water, and their contribution to the typical human’s daily Al intake (~ 95 and 1.5%, respectively), these results suggest food contributes much more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water. These results do not support the hypothesis that drinking water provides a disproportionate contribution to total Al absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18436363

  7. The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Johnson, James; Brunson, Ed; Almoazen, Hassan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

  8. Effect of dietary aluminum sulfate on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hussein, A S; Cantor, A H; Johnson, T H; Yokel, R A

    1990-06-01

    The effect of dietary aluminum sulfate on Ca and P metabolism was studied using 1-day-old male broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, practical diets providing .90% Ca plus .45% available P (Pav), .90% Ca plus .78% Pav, 1.80% Ca plus .45% Pav, or 1.80% Ca plus .90% Pav were fed with 0 or .392% A1 as aluminum sulfate for 21 days. The control diet (.90% Ca plus .45% Pav) without added A1 was fed to all chicks during Days 22 to 49. In general, A1 significantly (P less than .05) decreased BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, plasma inorganic P (Pi), tibia breaking strength, tibia weight, percentage of tibia ash, and plasma Zn, measured at Day 21. Elevating Pav increased BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, tibia weight and plasma Zn, and decreased plasma total Ca in the presence of .392% A1 plus 1.80% Ca. Plasma Pi, tibia breaking strength, and percentage of tibia ash were increased by raising dietary Pav in the presence of .392% A1 with either level of Ca. Negative effects of dietary A1 on feed intake and BW persisted through Day 49. In Experiment 2, a control diet (.90% Ca, .45% Pav) was fed for ad libitum access either alone or supplemented with .2% A1 as aluminum sulfate or with an equivalent amount of sulfate provided by potassium sulfate. The control diet was also pair-fed to chicks given .2% A1. Dietary A1 significantly depressed weight gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and plasma Pi.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The role of sodium in aluminum electrolysis: A possible indicator of cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tabereaux, A.T.

    1996-10-01

    The sodium concentration in the aluminum metal pad of modern prebake cells, having superior magnetic compensation and stable operating conditions, is substantially higher compared with that measured in older, less stable prebake and Soederberg cells. In one case, the sodium content was found to increase in the metal after the cells were retrofitted with improved technologies. The higher sodium level in aluminum in modern cells is due to the increase in the cathode polarization and build up of sodium containing species in the electrolyte near the bath metal interface as a consequence of reduced stirring and cell hydrodynamic forces. Correlations between sodium content in the aluminum metal pad and stability of the bath-metal pad interface of different cell technologies are discussed.

  10. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  11. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive.

  12. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R L; Ashley, C S

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about 1.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodecyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks. PMID:6250474

  13. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

  14. Dielectric constants and electrical conductivities of sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.; Ogino, K.

    1981-03-01

    Dielectric properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solution have been studied. The dielectric constant and ac electrical conductivity were measured in the frequency range 30 Hz to 6 MHz. At lower frequencies, with increasing concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate, dielectric properties were greatly affected by polarization on the surfaces of the electrode, the so-called space charge polarization. ac electrical conductivities were dependent on the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate at all frequencies. The activation energies of dc electrical conduction were much larger in the molecular state than in the aggregation state. The radius of a spherical particle with an electric double layer could be calculated through the measurement of dielectric constant and dc electrical conductivity. 18 references.

  15. Cooperative alpha-helix formation of beta-lactoglobulin induced by sodium n-alkyl sulfates.

    PubMed

    Chamani, J; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Rajabi, O; Gharanfoli, M; Momen-Heravi, M; Hakimelahi, G H; Neamati-Baghsiah, A; Varasteh, A R

    2006-01-01

    It is generally assumed that folding intermediates contain partially formed native-like secondary structures. However, if we consider the fact that the conformational stability of the intermediate state is simpler than that of the native state, it would be expected that the secondary structures in a folding intermediate would not necessarily be similar to those of the native state. beta-Lactoglobulin is a predominantly beta-sheet protein, although it has a markedly high intrinsic preference for alpha-helical structure. The formation of non-native alpha-helical intermediate of beta-lactoglobulin was induced by n-alkyl sulfates including sodium octyl sulfate, SOS; sodium decyl sulfate, SDeS; sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS; and sodium tetradecyl sulfate, STS at special condition. The effect of n-alkyl sulfates on the structure of native beta-lactoglobulin at pH 2 was utilized to investigate the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to the stability of non-native alpha-helical intermediate. The addition of various concentrations of n-alkyl sulfates to the native state of beta-lactoglobulin (pH 2) appears to support the stabilized form of non-native alpha-helical intermediate at pH 2. The m values of the intermediate state of beta-lactoglobulin by SOS, SDeS, SDS and STS showed substantial variation. The enhancement of m values as the stability criterion of non-native alpha-helical intermediate state corresponded with increasing chain length of the cited n-alkyl sulfates. The present results suggest that the folding reaction of beta-lactoglobulin follows a non-hierarchical mechanism and hydrophobic interactions play important roles in stabilizing the non-native alpha-helical intermediate state.

  16. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on the deposition of alkali-soluble fluoride on enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barkvoll, P; Rølla, G; Lagerlöf, F

    1988-01-01

    There are indications that sodium lauryl sulfate may reduce the cariostatic effect of fluoride when present together with sodium monofluorophosphate during topical application. The aim of the present study was to examine the in vitro deposition of alkali soluble fluoride on enamel during topical application with sodium fluoride in combination with sodium lauryl sulfate. It was found that increasing amounts of lauryl sulfate decreased the amount of alkali soluble fluoride deposited on the enamel. The amount of fluoride deposited from toothpaste supernatants was less than that from aqueous solutions of NaF with the same concentration of fluoride. Enamel pieces, pretreated with sodium lauryl sulfate showed a reduced deposition of alkali-soluble fluoride after incubation in a fluoride solution. It was also observed that the presence of lauryl sulfate increased the solubility of CaF2 in water.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)....

  18. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility.

  19. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  20. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  1. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  2. Cytokine release and cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts induced by phenols and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Newby, C S; Barr, R M; Greaves, M W; Mallet, A I

    2000-08-01

    Phenolic compounds used in pharmaceutical and industrial products can cause irritant contact dermatitis. We studied the effects of resorcinol, phenol, 3,5-xylenol, chloroxylenol, and 4-hexyl-resorcinol on normal human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts for cytotoxicity and cytokine release, determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide methodology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. An inverse correlation between phenol concentrations causing a 50% reduction in keratinocyte and fibroblast viability at 24 h and their octanol water-partition coefficients (i.e., hydrophobicity) was observed. 3,5-xylenol, chloroxylenol, hexyl-resorcinol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but not resorcinol or phenol, induced release of interleukin-1alpha from keratinocytes at cytotoxic concentrations. Variable release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8 from keratinocytes occurred only at toxic threshold concentrations of the phenols or sodium dodecyl sulfate. Subtoxic concentrations of phenols or sodium dodecyl sulfate did not induce cytokine release from keratinocytes. Neither the phenols nor sodium dodecyl sulfate induced release of the chemokines interleukin-8, growth-related oncogene-alpha or monocyte chemotactic protein-1 from fibroblasts. Conditioned media from keratinocytes treated with cytotoxic concentrations of 3,5-xylenol, chloroxylenol, hexyl-resorcinol, or sodium dodecyl sulfate stimulated further release of the chemokines from fibroblasts above that obtained with control media. Rabbit anti-interleukin-1alpha serum inhibited keratinocyte-conditioned media induction of chemokine release. We have shown a structure-cytotoxicity relationship for a series of phenols as well as an association of interleukin-1alpha release with a cytotoxic effect. We demonstrated a cytokine cascade amplification step by the actions of stimulated keratinocyte media on cultured dermal fibroblasts, identifying interleukin-1alpha as

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  5. Effects of sodium sulfate content on mechanical behavior of frozen silty sand considering concentration of saline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangtian; Wang, Yubing; Bai, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Hu, Kai

    Triaxial compressive tests were conducted on a frozen silty sand with four sodium sulfate contents (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%) at temperature of -6 °C. The test results revealed that it is important and necessary to firstly identify whether the concentration of sodium sulfate solution in the silty sand is saturated for studying effects of the salt content on the strength and deformation characteristics. We established a function which can interconvert the concentration of the sodium sulfate solution and the sodium sulfate content in the silty sand if either one of these two variables is a known quantity. Based on this function, the saturated or unsaturated state of the concentration of sodium sulfate solution corresponding to each given sodium sulfate content in the frozen silty sand can be conveniently identified. The influence of confining pressure and sodium sulfate content on the deformation characteristics, failure mode and strength of the frozen saline silty sand were then analyzed.

  6. The Effects of Gaseous Atmospheres on the Performance Characteristics of Aluminum-Sodium Nitrate Flares

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ALUMINUM-SODIUM NTRAn FURES PATRICIA L. FARNELL FRANCIS R. TAYLOR ANTHONY J. BEARDELL AUGUST 1981 US ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH...composition and of atmospheric content. Also studied were the -^^-^^^ f loading pressure upon the combustion process. The gaseous_ atmospheres... combustion process. The gaseous atmospheres Investigated were mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen, argon, or helium. For all systems, except those in which

  7. Chromate Conversion Coating of Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-10

    a sodium sulfate-nitric acid solution sometimes used to clean aluminum prior to spotwelding. Immersion times were varied in the chromate-sulfate...Good results were also obtained with sodium sulfate-nitric acid and an 8 minute treatment in one non-chromete proprietary solution. Average resis...molybdate or tungstate salts with the ferricyanide ion considered to be the most effective accelerator. Water for Bath Make-Up and Rinsing It is very

  8. Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack. 3: Sulfate-resisting Portland cement -- Reactions with sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gollop, R.S.; Taylor, H.F.W.

    1995-10-01

    Cubes of a sulfate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) paste that had been stored for 6 months in solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or MgSO{sub 4} were examined by scanning electron microscopy using backscattered electron imaging and X-ray microanalysis. The changes observed were broadly similar to those which the authors have found with a normal Portland cement (PC), but cracking and loss of material were less marked, less ettringite was formed, and decalcification of the C-S-H was much reduced. At with the PC gypsum was formed, both in veins and mixed with the C-S-H. The differences are attributed to the low content of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the hydration products of the SRPC, and to the fact that some of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is already present as ettringite. The decreased formation of ettringite and decreased decalcification of the C-S-H in the SRPC together explain the superior resistance to sulfate attack.

  9. Liver injury after aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid treatment of hemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kawashima, Reimi; Hirose, Yuki; Shibata, Keiko; Akasu, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Noriko; Yokota, Takeharu; Imai, Nami; Iwaku, Akira; Kobayashi, Go; Kobayashi, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Akiyoshi; Fushiya, Nao; Kijima, Hiroyuki; Koike, Kazuhiko; Saruta, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    We are reporting a rare case of acute liver injury that developed after an internal hemorrhoid treatment with the aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) regimen. A 41-year-old man developed a fever and liver injury after undergoing internal hemorrhoid treatment with a submucosal injection of ALTA with lidocaine. The acute liver injury was classified clinically as hepatocellular and pathologically as cholestastic. We could not classify the mechanism of injury. High eosinophil and immunoglobulin E levels characterized the injury, and a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was negative on postoperative day 25. Fluid replacement for two weeks after hospitalization improved the liver injury. ALTA therapy involves injecting chemicals into the submucosa, from the rectum to the anus, and this is the first description of a case that developed a severe liver disorder after this treatment; hence, an analysis of future cases as they accumulate is desirable. PMID:28785156

  10. Water soluble sodium sulfate nanorods as a versatile template for the designing of copper sulfide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautam; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Karak, Niranjan; Yoon, Young Soo

    2014-06-01

    The present study reports the use of water soluble sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanorods as a versatile template for generation of tubular copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures. The Na2SO4 nanorods were synthesized from ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), under refluxing condition. The shape and morphology control of the Na2SO4 nanorods were studied with respect to nature of surfactant used and reactant mole ratio. While, PVP mole ratio was important to obtain homogeneous nanorods. Uniform and stable nanotubes of CuS were than obtained by the dissolution of the nanorods in water. The use of simple chemicals for synthesis of such nanotube templates opens the prospect for wide scale downstream applications.

  11. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: direct observation of crystallization in a porous material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher; Pel, Leo

    2008-11-01

    It is well known that sodium sulfate causes salt crystallization damage in building materials and rocks. However since the early 1900s the existence of the metastable heptahydrate has been largely forgotten and almost entirely overlooked in scientific publications on salt damage mechanics and on terrestrial and planetary geochemistry. We use hard synchrotron x-rays to detect the formation of this metastable heptahydrate on cooling a porous calcium silicate material saturated with sodium sulfate solution. The heptahydrate persists indefinitely and transforms to mirabilite only below 0 °C. At the transformation, which is rapid, the solution is highly supersaturated with respect to mirabilite. We estimate that crystallization of the heptahydrate and of mirabilite have associated Correns pressures of about 9 and 19 MPa, respectively, exceeding the tensile strength of building stones. We detect lattice strains in the salts from x-ray measurements consistent with these values.

  12. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Klingelfus, Tatiane; da Costa, Paula Moiana; Scherer, Marcos; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA) found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure. PMID:26692157

  13. [A 13-week toxicity study of simultaneous administration of cochineal and aluminum potassium sulfate in rats].

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Y; Umemura, T; Sai, K; Hasegawa, R; Momma, J; Saitoh, M; Matsushima, Y; Nakaji, Y; Tsuda, M; Kurokawa, Y

    1994-01-01

    Cochineal (C), a scarlet material extracted from the powdered pregnant insect, Dactylopius Coceus Costa, is used as a color food additive in the form of aluminum lakes. A 13 week subchronic toxicity study was conducted to investigate the effects of simultaneous administration of C and aluminum potassium sulfate (A). Male and female Wistar rats (5-weeks-old, 15 rats/group) were given diets containing 0.75%A and 0.75%C (1.5%AC), 1.5%A and 1.5%C (3%AC), 3%C alone or 3%A alone. The following results were obtained. 1) No toxic symptoms or death occurred in any treated group. Body weight gain in male rats of the 3%A group decreased significantly. 2) Serum levels of phospholipids, triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol in male rats and TG in female rats fed 3%C, 3%A or 3%AC were significantly decreased at the 13th week. The serum level of glutamate dehydrogenase (GIDH) in male rats treated with 1.5% or 3%AC was increased at the 4th week but no difference from control was observed at the 13th week. 3) No histopathological changes attributable to A and/or C administration were observed. In this 13-week oral toxicity study, no dose-dependent synergistic effects of simultaneous administration of C and A were found except for an increase in serum GIDH.

  14. Effects of aluminum potassium sulfate on learning, memory, and cholinergic system in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y H; Zhou, Z M; Xiong, Y L; Wang, Y L; Sun, J H; Liao, H B; Luo, X D

    1998-11-01

    To study the relationship between aluminum potassium sulfate (APS) and memory deficits of mice. 30, 60, or 90 d after the mice were given daily APS i.g., the step-through latency (STL) was determined with a passive avoidance task. Aluminum (Al) contents in brain and blood were assayed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Acetylcholine (ACh) content in brain was determined with chemiluminescent method and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was measured radiochemically. APS 1 g.kg-1 increased blood-Al only after 30 d. After 60 d, STL, ACh content and ChAT activity decreased by 46.4%, 8.5%, and 22.6%, respectively. These parameters decreased by 50%, 11.1%, and 27.8%, respectively, with increased Al in blood and brain, after 90 d. APS 0.25 g.kg-1 had no effects on mice except blood-Al. In ethylcholine mustard aziridium chloride (AF64A) treated mice, APS 1 g.kg-1 only increased blood and brain-Al. The intake of APS 1 g.kg-1.d-1 for 60 d induced learning and memory deficits in mice.

  15. Electrochemistry of Ferrous Sulfate-Sodium Thiosulphate and Copper Sulfate-Sodium Thiosulphate Systems for Template-Assisted Nanowire Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogan, Lee Jeffery

    Two related series of investigations are presented in this dissertation. First, two candidate systems for electrochemical deposition of metal sulfides for photovoltaic applications have been characterized. Secondly, a general electrochemical synthesis method allowing countable numbers of wires embedded in porous anodic alumina arrays to be measured using macroscopic contacts was developed. Electrochemical studies of the FeSO4-Na2S 2O3 system and the CuSO4-Na2S 2O3 system were undertaken to evaluate their suitability as electrodeposition baths for FeS2 and CuxS, respectively. Each solution system was studied extensively using cyclic voltammetry to characterize electrochemical processes at various concentrations. The iron sulfide / thiosulfate system was found to be unsuitable for the synthesis of FeS2 due to the preferential formation of FeS. The copper sulfide / thiosulfate system was found to be suitable for the synthesis of Cu2S, with thiosulfate concentration being the most important parameter due to the high complexation of Cu(I) by thiosulfate. Investigations into the electrochemical synthesis of metal wires in porous anodic alumina templates revealed an interesting synthesis mechanism wherein sparse, isolated wires are created in a very small fraction of the available pores. These wires are nucleated through the reduction of metal from the deposition bath by aluminum at the base of the alumina pores. This reduction causes a localized increase in acidity, accelerating the dissolution of the alumina barrier layer and allowing more typical wire deposition to occur. The sparse nucleation is exaggerated by the increasing rate of wire deposition as the wires lengthen and the swift rate of overgrowth formation at the surface of the template, resulting in domes of overgrowth attached to countable numbers of nanowires. This geometry has been exploited to obtain in situ measurements of known numbers of nanowires.

  16. Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

  17. Plant-derived polysaccharide supplements inhibit dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie; Jacoby, Henry I

    2010-05-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count.

  18. Use of intraoperative sodium tetradecyl sulfate for the treatment of a spinal epidural hemangioma. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza N; Saquib, Syed; Christoforidis, Greg; Caragine, Louis P

    2007-08-01

    Spinal hemangiomas can be categorized into three different groups based on location. Vertebral body (VB) hemangiomas are frequent incidental findings on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. There is a subdivision of these with spinal epidural extension that have been reported in the literature. Spinal hemangiomas can also be epidural without VB involvement; these are extremely rare with few reported cases in the thoracic epidural spinal column. The diagnosis and imaging characteristics as well as the surgical tools used in gross-total resection of spinal epidural hemangioma are not well understood. The authors present a detailed characterization of a spinal epidural hemangioma in a 30-year-old woman who presented with complaints of gradual onset of low-back pain that worsened over 1 year. The MR imaging findings indicated a large L2-S1 epidural spinal mass causing thecal sac compression. The patient underwent an L2-S1 laminectomy, and a vascular extradural mass was noted on the posterior aspect of the dura mater. Preoperative spinal angiography as well as intraoperative angiography was performed. Total resection of the tumor was achieved using intraoperative embolization with sodium tetradecyl sulfate and microscopic dissection. The postoperative MR imaging findings and clinical outcome were excellent. The findings and use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate in gross-total resection are discussed. The authors also review treatment modalities and demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of intraoperative sodium tetradecyl sulfate in grosstotal resection of large difficult spinal epidural hemangiomas.

  19. Prevent Effects of Lactobacillus Fermentum HY01 on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Hongwei; Yang, Zelin; Li, Jian; Suo, Huayi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the preventive effects of Lactobacillus fermentum HY01 (LF-HY01) to dextran sulfate sodium induced-colitis. We observed the ratio of colon weight to its length, colon pathological changes, and the concentrations of pro-inflammatory factors (IFN-γ, IL-12, TNFα, and IL-6) in serum. We also took account of the protein levels of IκBα, NF-κB p65, iNOS, and COX-2, and we measured the best effects of different doses of Lactobacillus fermentum HY01 (low dose group was 109 CFU/kg·bw, high dose group was 1010 CFU/kg·bw) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice. The results were remarkable, suggesting that Lactobacillus fermentum HY01 had significant preventive effects in dextran sulfate sodium induced-colitis; simultaneously, the high dose group showed the best results among other groups. It can effectively alleviate the shortened colon length, reduce the ratio of colon weight to its length, reduce edema, inflammatory cells infiltration, and colon mucosa injury, and play an important role in the down-regulation of concentrations of pro-inflammatory factors (IFN-γ, IL-12, TNFα, and IL-6). Above all, Lactobacillus fermentum HY01 shows promising prevention for IκBα degradation, inhibition of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation cascades, and decreases the protein levels of iNOS and COX-2 as well. PMID:28587089

  20. Replacing PAPS: In vitro phase II sulfation of steroids with the liver S9 fraction employing ATP and sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Weththasinghe, Sumudu A; Waller, Christopher C; Fam, Han Ling; Stevenson, Bradley J; Cawley, Adam T; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2017-06-21

    In vitro technologies provide the capacity to study drug metabolism where in vivo studies are precluded due to ethical or financial constraints. The metabolites generated by in vitro studies can assist anti-doping laboratories to develop protocols for the detection of novel substances that would otherwise evade routine screening efforts. In addition, professional bodies such as the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) currently permit the use of in-vitro-derived reference materials for confirmation purposes providing additional impetus for the development of cost effective in vitro metabolism platforms. In this work, alternative conditions for in vitro phase II sulfation using human, equine or canine liver S9 fraction were developed, with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and sodium sulfate in place of the expensive and unstable co-factor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), and employed for the generation of six representative steroidal sulfates. Using these conditions, the equine in vitro phase II metabolism of the synthetic or so-called designer steroid furazadrol ([1',2']isoxazolo[4',5':2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol) was investigated, with ATP and Na2 SO4 providing comparable metabolism to reactions using PAPS. The major in vitro metabolites of furazadrol matched those observed in a previously reported equine in vivo study. Finally, the equine in vitro phase II metabolism of the synthetic steroid superdrol (methasterone, 17β-hydroxy-2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-androstan-3-one) was performed as a prediction of the in vivo metabolic profile. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Excess dietary aluminum increases Drosophila's rate of aging.

    PubMed

    Massie, H R; Williams, T R; Aiello, V R

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum concentrations in the whole organism increased during development and aging of Drosophila melanogaster. The amount of aluminum in the flies was also reflected by the dietary content of aluminum. Additional dietary aluminum, in the form of aluminum salts, decreased the life span by as much as 20%. A significant reduction in life span was found for 1 X 10(-4) M aluminum chloride and for 1 X 10(-3) M aluminum nitrate and aluminum sulfate. Dietary sodium fluoride failed to increase life span.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles in the presence of sodium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Guangxiang; Song Xinyu; Yu Haiyun; Fan Chunhua; Yin Zhilei; Sun Sixiu . E-mail: ssx@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-02-02

    Sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles have been successfully prepared, for the first time, through a simple salt-assisted hydrothermal route based on the reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and HCl in aqueous solution. The resultant sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) techniques. The ingredients of the sample have been detected by energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) method. It is found that hydrothermal temperature and time play important roles in the control of the morphology and size of the products.

  3. Influence and hydrolysis kinetics in titanyl sulfate solution from the sodium hydroxide molten salt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weijing; Chen, Desheng; Chu, Jinglong; Li, Jie; Xue, Tianyan; Wang, Lina; Wang, Dong; Qi, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD) was precipitated by thermal hydrolysis in purified titanyl sulfate solution (TSS) obtained through the sodium hydroxide molten salt clean method. Various factors including the stirring speed and initial concentrations of TiOSO4, sulfuric acid, and sodium ion were studied. The main influence factors in the hydrolysis process were the initial concentrations of TiOSO4 and sulfuric acid. Contrary to the ferrous ion, the sodium ion improved the ionic activity of Ti4+, but did not decrease the crystal size. The Boltzman growth model (x=A2+(A1-A2)/{1+exp[(t-t0)/dt)]}, which focuses on two main parameters (CTiOSO4 and CH2SO4), fits the hydrolysis process well with R2>0.97. An increase in sulfuric acid concentration negatively affected the hydrolysis rates and the value of A2, while t0 increased. An increase in titanyl sulfate concentration directly reduced the hydrolysis rates and particle size of HTD, contrary to the trend for the value of t0. A simulation software called 1stopt was used to observe the relationship between Z (A1, A2, t0, dt) and a, b (CTiO2 and CH2SO4).

  4. Sodium tungstate and vanadyl sulfate effects on blood pressure and vascular prostanoids production in fructose-overloaded rats.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Horatio A; Zabalza, Maria; Mayer, Marcos A; Carranza, Andrea; Puyó, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of sodium tungstate and vanadyl sulphate in the fructose-overloaded rat, a model of metabolic syndrome. Fructose (9 weeks) increased blood pressure, triglycerydemia, glycemia, and reduced release of vasodilator prostaglandins (prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2 ) in the mesenteric vascular bed. Sodium tungstate prevented those alterations; meanwhile vanadyl sulfate only prevented the increase in glycemia. In conclusion, the present experiments showed that sodium tungstate is more effective than vanadyl sulfate for the treatment of experimental metabolic syndrome in rats.

  5. Solubilities and Glass Formation in Aqueous Solutions of the Sodium Salts of Malonic Acid With and Without Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, Jared A; Buttke, Lukas G; Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Guzei, Ilia A; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-06-02

    The solubility of sodium hydrogen malonate and sodium malonate in water both with and without ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from sodium hydrogen malonate/water solutions were determined to be sodium hydrogen malonate monohydrate by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. The crystals formed in sodium malonate/water solutions were determined to be sodium malonate monohydrate, a compound whose structure had not been previously known. When ammonium sulfate is added to these respective aqueous systems, the precipitation solids contain sodium sulfate decahydrate under low to moderate ammonium concentrations and lecontite (NaNH4SO4·2H2O) under high ammonium concentrations, which can be found under dry atmospheric conditions. Thus, it appears the presence of malonate and hydrogen malonate ions does not significantly affect the precipitation of inorganic salts in these systems. The glass transition temperatures of all solutions were also determined, and it was observed that the addition of ammonium sulfate slightly lowers the glass transition temperature in these solutions.

  6. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    PubMed

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment.

  7. Origin and paleoenvironmental interpretation of aluminum phosphate-sulfate minerals in a Neoproterozoic Baltic paleosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vircava, Ilze; Somelar, Peeter; Liivamägi, Sirle; Kirs, Juho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2015-04-01

    Aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) mineral solid-solutions occur as accessory phases in different sedimentary and hydrothermal deposits. Their composition is a sensitive environmental indicator recording changes in pH, temperature and chemical composition of the weathering, diagenetic or hydrothermal fluids. In this contribution we studied APS mineralization in a Neoproterozoic paleotropical paleosol developed on Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement in the Baltic Basin. Small and disseminated APS minerals occur in high abundance (up to 4 wt.% of crystalline phases) in the weathering profile developed on gabbroic rocks rich in magmatic apatite. APS minerals belonging to a goyazite-florencite-svanbergite-woodhouseite solid-solution series occur in the uppermost part of the weathering profile and are replaced down-profile with secondary apatite. The change from APS minerals to secondary apatite precipitates reflects a paleo-pH gradient in the weathering profile from acidic (pH < 6) in the uppermost few meters in the APS precipitation zone, to neutral or near neutral at 4-5 m-depth from the paleoweathered surface where secondary apatite occurs. Typically uniform < 5 μm-size APS crystallites suggest rapid precipitation in a highly supersaturated solution, but these crystals show a fine zonal structure whose nature and formation mechanism remain unclear.

  8. Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) injection as the mainstay of treatment for internal hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masao; Abe, Tatsuya; Kitada, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) induce noninvasive sclerosis and the involution of hemorrhoids by initiating an inflammatory reaction. We assessed the mid-term outcome after ALTA sclerotherapy for symptomatic hemorrhoids. Between May 2006 and July 2009, 1210 patients with grade III or IV hemorrhoids underwent surgery at Kunimoto Hospital. Our treatment strategy for internal hemorrhoids is first establishing whether ALTA therapy is possible for the type of hemorrhoid, and then performing either ALTA therapy or alternatively, ligation and excision (LE) for those types unsuitable for ALTA therapy. A total of 448 patients were treated with ALTA therapy alone (Group A), 706 patients were treated with a combination of ALTA and LE therapy (Group B), and 56 patients were treated with LE alone (Group C). The overall recurrence rates were 3.6% (16/448) and 0.3% (2/706) in Groups A and B, respectively. There was no recurrence in Group C. Rectal ulcers developed at the injection site in four (0.9%) patients from Group A, but they healed within a few months with conservative therapy. ALTA sclerotherapy is a simple and safe treatment for symptomatic hemorrhoids, with few complications.

  9. Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection in the treatment of total rectal prolapse: early outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masao; Abe, Tatsuya; Kitada, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki

    2007-11-01

    No surgical method for repair of total rectal prolapse has been established as optimal. We describe a new technique that uses ALTA (aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid) injection as a simple perianal procedure for total rectal prolapse. Fourteen patients with total rectal prolapse were treated with sclerosing therapy by using ALTA injection. Via a perianal approach, 0.5 to 1 ml of ALTA solution was injected along a linear track into the submucosa at 30 to 80 different sites, totaling 20 to 60 ml. All 14 patients treated with injection sclerotherapy were cured, with no intraoperative or postoperative complications. One patient required a repeat injection after two months to be cured. No exacerbation of constipation has resulted, and no stenosis has been evident on rectal examination. In seven of ten patients presenting with fecal incontinence, this complaint resolved after therapy. ALTA sclerotherapy yielded satisfactory results in total rectal prolapse, causing no alteration in neurophysiology of bowel function. Injection sclerotherapy should be recommended as the first procedure for treatment of total rectal prolapse.

  10. Treatment of Internal Hemorrhoids by Endoscopic Sclerotherapy with Aluminum Potassium Sulfate and Tannic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tomiki, Yuichi; Ono, Seigo; Takahashi, Rina; Ishiyama, Shun; Sugimoto, Kiichi; Yaginuma, Yukihiro; Goto, Michitoshi; Okuzawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. A new sclerosing agent for hemorrhoids, aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA), is attracting attention as a curative treatment for internal hemorrhoids without resection. The outcome and safety of ALTA sclerotherapy using an endoscope were investigated in the present study. Materials and Methods. Subjects comprised 83 internal hemorrhoid patients (61 males and 22 females). An endoscope was inserted and retroflexed in the rectum, and a 1st-step injection was applied to the upper parts of the hemorrhoids. The retroflexed scope was returned to the normal position, and 2nd–4th-step injections were applied to the middle and lower parts of the hemorrhoids under direct vision. The effects of endoscopic ALTA sclerotherapy were determined by evaluating the condition of the hemorrhoids using an anoscope and interviewing the patient 28 days after the treatment. Results. A cure, improvement, and failure were observed in 54 (65.1%), 27 (32.5%), and 2 (2.4%) patients, respectively, treated with ALTA. Complications developed in 4 patients (mild fever in 3 and hematuria in 1). Recurrence occurred in 9.6%. Conclusions. The results of the present study suggest that endoscopic ALTA has the potential to become a useful and minimally invasive approach for ALTA sclerotherapy. PMID:26246785

  11. Treatment of Internal Hemorrhoids by Endoscopic Sclerotherapy with Aluminum Potassium Sulfate and Tannic Acid.

    PubMed

    Tomiki, Yuichi; Ono, Seigo; Aoki, Jun; Takahashi, Rina; Ishiyama, Shun; Sugimoto, Kiichi; Yaginuma, Yukihiro; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Okuzawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective. A new sclerosing agent for hemorrhoids, aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA), is attracting attention as a curative treatment for internal hemorrhoids without resection. The outcome and safety of ALTA sclerotherapy using an endoscope were investigated in the present study. Materials and Methods. Subjects comprised 83 internal hemorrhoid patients (61 males and 22 females). An endoscope was inserted and retroflexed in the rectum, and a 1st-step injection was applied to the upper parts of the hemorrhoids. The retroflexed scope was returned to the normal position, and 2nd-4th-step injections were applied to the middle and lower parts of the hemorrhoids under direct vision. The effects of endoscopic ALTA sclerotherapy were determined by evaluating the condition of the hemorrhoids using an anoscope and interviewing the patient 28 days after the treatment. Results. A cure, improvement, and failure were observed in 54 (65.1%), 27 (32.5%), and 2 (2.4%) patients, respectively, treated with ALTA. Complications developed in 4 patients (mild fever in 3 and hematuria in 1). Recurrence occurred in 9.6%. Conclusions. The results of the present study suggest that endoscopic ALTA has the potential to become a useful and minimally invasive approach for ALTA sclerotherapy.

  12. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-02-20

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase.

  13. Heme degradation upon production of endogenous hydrogen peroxide via interaction of hemoglobin with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Salehi, N; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Fotouhi, L; Yousefinejad, S; Shourian, M; Hosseinzadeh, R; Sheibani, N; Habibi-Rezaei, M

    2014-04-05

    In this study the hemoglobin heme degradation upon interaction with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated using UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, multivariate curve resolution analysis, and chemiluminescence method. Our results showed that heme degradation occurred during interaction of hemoglobin with SDS producing three fluorescent components. We showed that the hydrogen peroxide, produced during this interaction, caused heme degradation. In addition, the endogenous hydrogen peroxide was more effective in hemoglobin heme degradation compared to exogenously added hydrogen peroxide. The endogenous form of hydrogen peroxide altered oxyHb to aquamethemoglobin and hemichrome at low concentration. In contrast, the exogenous hydrogen peroxide lacked this ability under same conditions.

  14. Analysis of Furaneol in tomato using dynamic headspace sampling with sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttery, R G; Takeoka, G R; Naim, M; Rabinowitch, H; Nam, Y

    2001-09-01

    High-flow dynamic headspace sampling with excess anhydrous sodium sulfate was found to be an effective method of isolating Furaneol from fresh tomatoes. Quantitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography using maltol as internal standard. Furaneol was found in the highest concentrations (660-1100 ppb) in the summer crop of home-grown tomatoes and in some of the greenhouse hydroponically grown tomatoes, which are ripened on the plant before being transported to the supermarkets. Furaneol was found in the lowest concentrations (38-180 ppb) in the common ethylene-ripened, field-grown, supermarket tomatoes.

  15. Aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate purified from traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean monkshood root is a potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yehua; Liu, Sen; Jin, Fenghai; Mu, Tianyang; Li, Cong; Jiang, Kun; Tian, Weihua; Yu, Dahai; Zhang, Yingqi; Fang, Xuexun

    2012-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases and key regulators for many physiological and pathological functions. The MMP inhibitors have been shown to modulate diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper we tracked the MMP inhibitory activities of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean Monkshood Root. The purified active ingredient was identified by the elemental analysis, infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray diffraction as aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate. This inorganic compound showed inhibitory activities toward a number of MMP family members. In particular, it has a strong inhibitory effect toward MMP-2 and MMP-9, with IC50 values of 0.54 and 0.50 μM, respectively. Further analysis suggested that the MMP inhibitory activity is mainly due to Al(3+). Cell viability assays using human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells showed aluminum ammonium sulfate had minimal cyto-toxicity with a concentration up to 500 μM. However, within 50 μM, it exhibited significant inhibition of cell invasion. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of inorganic form of the MMP inhibitor with strong inhibitory activity. Our results for the first time showed that aluminum ammonium sulfate is an inorganic form of MMP inhibitor with high potency, and can be used to interfere with MMP related cellular processes.

  16. ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

    2011-01-27

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  17. Effects of sodium sulfate on the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii: implications for the optimization of algal culture media.

    PubMed

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-02-01

    The study of the microalgal growth kinetics is an indispensable tool in all fields of phycology. Knowing the optimal nutrient concentration is an important issue that will help to develop efficient growth systems for these microorganisms. Although nitrogen and phosphorus are well studied for this purpose, sulfur seems to be less investigated. Sulfate is a primary sulfur source used by microalgae; moreover, the concentration of this compound is increasing in freshwater systems due to pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different sodium sulfate concentrations in the culture medium on growth and growth kinetics of the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Production of biomass, chl content, kinetic equations, and a mathematical model that describe the microalgal growth in relation with the concentration of sodium sulfate were obtained. The lowest concentration of sodium sulfate allowing optimal growth was 0.1 mM. Concentrations higher than 3 mM generated a toxic effect. This work demonstrates that this toxic effect was not directly due to the excess of sulfate ion but by the elevation of the ionic strength. An inhibition model was successfully used to simulate the relationship between specific growth rate and sodium sulfate in this microalga.

  18. Multi-scale characterization of nanostructured sodium aluminum hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NaraseGowda, Shathabish

    Complex metal hydrides are the most promising candidate materials for onboard hydrogen storage. The practicality of this class of materials is counter-poised on three critical attributes: reversible hydrogen storage capacity, high hydrogen uptake/release kinetics, and favorable hydrogen uptake/release thermodynamics. While a majority of modern metallic hydrides that are being considered are those that meet the criteria of high theoretical storage capacity, the challenges lie in addressing poor kinetics, thermodynamics, and reversibility. One emerging strategy to resolve these issues is via nanostructuring or nano-confinement of complex hydrides. By down-sizing and scaffolding them to retain their nano-dimensions, these materials are expected to improve in performance and reversibility. This area of research has garnered immense interest lately and there is active research being pursued to address various aspects of nanostructured complex hydrides. The research effort documented here is focused on a detailed investigation of the effects of nano-confinement on aspects such as the long range atomic hydrogen diffusivities, localized hydrogen dynamics, microstructure, and dehydrogenation mechanism of sodium alanate. A wide variety of microporous and mesoporous materials (metal organic frameworks, porous silica and alumina) were investigated as scaffolds and the synthesis routes to achieve maximum pore-loading are discussed. Wet solution infiltration technique was adopted using tetrahydrofuran as the medium and the precursor concentrations were found to have a major role in achieving maximum pore loading. These concentrations were optimized for each scaffold with varying pore sizes and confinement was quantitatively characterized by measuring the loss in specific surface area. This work is also aimed at utilizing neutron and synchrotron x-ray characterization techniques to study and correlate multi-scale material properties and phenomena. Some of the most advanced

  19. Neutralization of complement component C5 ameliorates the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aomatsu, Tomoki; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Fujimoto, Takehide; Kasumi, Eiji; Ban, Hiromitsu; Bamba, Shigeki; Yoden, Atsushi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Andoh, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is a potent effector of innate immunity. To elucidate the pathophysiological role of the complement system in inflammatory bowel disease, we evaluated the effects of anti-C5 antibodies on the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Dextran sulfate sodium-colitis was induced in BALB/c mice with intraperitoneal administrations of anti-C5 antibodies (1 µg/body) every 48 h. Tissue samples were evaluated by standard histological procedures. The mucosal mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines was analyzed by real-time PCR. Body weight loss in the mice was completely blocked by the administration of anti-C5 antibody. The disease activity index was significantly lower in the anti-C5 antibody-treated mice than the dextran sulfate sodium mice. The colonic weight/length ratio, histological colitis score and mucosal myeloperoxidase activity were significantly lower in the anti-C5 antibody-treated mice than the dextran sodium sulfate mice. The administration of the anti-C5 antibody significantly reduced the mucosal expression of mRNAs for tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6. In conclusion, the complement system plays a role in the development of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. PMID:23341701

  20. Ultrastructural Alterations of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica Caused by Treatment with Aluminum Chloride and Sodium Metabisulfite

    PubMed Central

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Arul, Joseph; Tweddell, Russell J.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum and bisulfite salts inhibit the growth of several fungi and bacteria, and their application effectively controls potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora. In an effort to understand their inhibitory action, ultrastructural changes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica after exposure (0 to 20 min) to different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) of these salts were examined by using transmission electron microscopy. Plasma membrane integrity was evaluated by using the SYTOX Green fluorochrome that penetrates only cells with altered membranes. Bacteria exposed to all aluminum chloride concentrations, especially 0.2 M, exhibited loosening of the cell walls, cell wall rupture, cytoplasmic aggregation, and an absence of extracellular vesicles. Sodium metabisulfite caused mainly a retraction of plasma membrane and cellular voids which were more pronounced with increasing concentration. Bacterial mortality was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption when bacteria were exposed to either a high concentration (0.2 M) of aluminum chloride or prolonged exposure (20 min) to 0.05 M aluminum chloride or to a pH of 2.5. Bacteria exposed to lower concentrations of aluminum chloride (0.05 and 0.1 M) for 10 min or less, or to metabisulfite at all concentrations, did not exhibit significant stain absorption, suggesting that no membrane damage occurred or it was too weak to allow the penetration of the stain into the cell. While mortality caused by aluminum chloride involves membrane damage and subsequent cytoplasmic aggregation, sulfite exerts its effect intracellularly; it is transported across the membrane by free diffusion of molecular SO2 with little damage to the cellular membrane. PMID:15528547

  1. Ultrastructural alterations of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica caused by treatment with aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite.

    PubMed

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Arul, Joseph; Tweddell, Russell J

    2004-11-01

    Aluminum and bisulfite salts inhibit the growth of several fungi and bacteria, and their application effectively controls potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora. In an effort to understand their inhibitory action, ultrastructural changes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica after exposure (0 to 20 min) to different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) of these salts were examined by using transmission electron microscopy. Plasma membrane integrity was evaluated by using the SYTOX Green fluorochrome that penetrates only cells with altered membranes. Bacteria exposed to all aluminum chloride concentrations, especially 0.2 M, exhibited loosening of the cell walls, cell wall rupture, cytoplasmic aggregation, and an absence of extracellular vesicles. Sodium metabisulfite caused mainly a retraction of plasma membrane and cellular voids which were more pronounced with increasing concentration. Bacterial mortality was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption when bacteria were exposed to either a high concentration (0.2 M) of aluminum chloride or prolonged exposure (20 min) to 0.05 M aluminum chloride or to a pH of 2.5. Bacteria exposed to lower concentrations of aluminum chloride (0.05 and 0.1 M) for 10 min or less, or to metabisulfite at all concentrations, did not exhibit significant stain absorption, suggesting that no membrane damage occurred or it was too weak to allow the penetration of the stain into the cell. While mortality caused by aluminum chloride involves membrane damage and subsequent cytoplasmic aggregation, sulfite exerts its effect intracellularly; it is transported across the membrane by free diffusion of molecular SO2 with little damage to the cellular membrane.

  2. Stability of nicotinate and dodecyl sulfate in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid for aluminum electroplating and characterization of their degradation products.

    PubMed

    Kosmus, Patrick; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Gollas, Bernhard; Fauler, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Plating bath additives are essential for optimization of the morphology of electroplated layers. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) chloride plus 1.5 mol equivalents of AlCl3 has great potential for electroplating of aluminum. In this study, the chemical and electrochemical stability of the additives EMIM-nicotinate and sodium dodecyl sulfate and their effect on the stability of EMIM was investigated and analyzed. Nicotinate and its electrochemical decomposition product β-picoline could be detected and we show with a single HPLC-UV-MS method that EMIM is not affected by the decomposition of this additive. An adapted standard HPLC-UV-MS method together with GC-MS and ion chromatography was used to analyze the decomposition products of SDS and possible realkylation products of EMIM. Several volatile medium and short chain-length alkanes as well as sulfate ions have been found as decomposition products of SDS. Alkenium ions formed as intermediates during the decomposition of SDS realkylate EMIM to produce mono- up to pentasubstituted alkyl-imidazoles. A reaction pathway involving Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements and Friedel-Crafts alkylations has been suggested to account for the formation of the detected products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Rhodamine-123: a p-glycoprotein marker complex with sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad Ibrahim; Alam, Mohd Aftab

    2015-03-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the role of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as P-glycoprotein inhibitor. The everted rat gut sac model was used to study in-vitro mucosal to serosal transport of Rhodamine-123 (Rho-123). Surprisingly, SLS decreases the serosal absorption of Rho-123 at all investigated concentrations. Investigation reveals complex formation between Rhodamine-123 and sodium lauryl sulfate. Interaction profile of SLS & Rho-123 was studied at variable SLS concentrations. The SLS concentration higher than critical micelle concentration (CMC) increases the solubility of Rho-123 but could not help in serosal absorption, on the contrary the absorption of Rho-123 decreased. Rho-123 and SLS form pink color complex at sub-CMC. The SLS concentrations below CMC decrease the solubility of Rho-123. For further studies, Rho-123 & SLS complex was prepared by using solvent evaporation technique and characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Thermal analysis also proved the formation of complex between SLS & Rho-123. The P values were found to be significant (<0.05) except group comprising 0.0001% SLS, and that is because 0.0001% SLS is seems to be very low to affect the solubility or complexation of Rho-123.

  4. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  5. Beyond the detergent effect: a binding site for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in mammalian apoferritin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Renyu Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Mortazavi, Shirin R.; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.

    2012-05-01

    Using X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) binds specifically to a pre-formed internal cavity in horse-spleen apoferritin. Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an anionic detergent, it can also exert specific pharmacological effects that are independent of the surfactant properties of the molecule. However, structural details of how proteins recognize SDS are scarce. Here, it is demonstrated that SDS binds specifically to a naturally occurring four-helix bundle protein: horse apoferritin. The X-ray crystal structure of the apoferritin–SDS complex was determined at a resolution of 1.9 Å and revealed that the SDS binds in an internal cavity that has previously been shown to recognize various general anesthetics. A dissociation constant of 24 ± 9 µM at 293 K was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. SDS binds in this cavity by bending its alkyl tail into a horseshoe shape; the charged SDS head group lies in the opening of the cavity at the protein surface. This crystal structure provides insights into the protein–SDS interactions that give rise to binding and may prove useful in the design of novel SDS-like ligands for some proteins.

  6. Deliquescence and crystallization of ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Atul; Fok, Abel; Parsons, Matthew T.; Mak, Jackson; Bertram, Allan K.

    2004-06-01

    In the following, we report the deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and crystallization relative humidities (CRH) of mixed inorganic-organic particles, specifically ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles. Knowledge of the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic particles is crucial for predicting the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Our DRH results are in good agreement with previous measurements, but our CRH results are significantly lower than some of the previous measurements reported in the literature. Our studies show that the DRH and CRH of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride only decreased slightly when the mole fraction of the acid was less than 0.4. If other organics in the atmosphere behave in a similar manner, then the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic atmospheric particles will only be slightly less than the DRH and CRH of pure inorganic particles when the organic mole fraction is less than 0.4. Our results also show that if the particles contain a significant amount of organics (mole fraction > 0.5) the crystallization relative humidity decreases significantly and the particles are more likely to remain in the liquid state. Further work is needed to determine if other organics species of atmospheric importance have a similar effect.

  7. Cooked Chickpea Consumption Inhibits Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice Induced with Azoxymethane and Dextran Sulfate Sodium.

    PubMed

    Chino, Xariss M Sánchez; Martínez, Cristian Jiménez; Garzón, Verónica R Vásquez; González, Isela Álvarez; Treviño, Saúl Villa; Bujaidar, Eduardo Madrigal; Ortiz, Gloria Dávila; Hoyos, Rafael Baltiérrez

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption of cooked chickpea (2% and 10%) in ICR male mice in which colon cancer was induced with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium. The effect of consumption of 2% or 10% cooked chickpeas on carcinogenesis-induced colon azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in ICR mice was determined. Protein oxidation and lipids were determined by colorimetric methods and oxidation of DNA through the identification of adducts 8-hydroxy-2'-desoxiguanosine and proliferation markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], Ki-67, and β-catenin), and inflammation (cyclooxygenase [COX]-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) were identified by immunohistochemistry reactions. The results showed the protective effect of daily consumption of rich cooked chickpeas in the carcinogenesis process, decreasing lipid, protein, and DNA oxidation and decreasing the expression of inflammatory enzymes (COX-2 and iNOS) as well as β-catenin, one of the most important oncogenic proteins in colon cancer. Animals that were fed with the 10% chickpea diet showed an inhibition in cellular proliferation (Ki-67 and PCNA expression). The addition of cooked chickpea seed (2% and 10%) to the daily diet is proposed as a chemopreventive agent against colon cancer.

  8. Inhibition of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cell proliferation by sodium spirulan, a new sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Hamada, Chieko; Yamamoto, Chika; Shimada, Satomi; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2002-06-01

    Sodium spirulan (Na-SP) is a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, which consists of two types of disaccharide repeating units, O-hexuronosyl-rhamnose (aldobiuronic acid) and O-rhamnosyl-3-O-methylrhamnose (acofriose) with sulfate groups, other minor saccharides and sodium ion. Vascular endothelial cells are present on the inner surface of blood vessels in a monolayer and have anticoagulant properties. To address the question whether Na-SP influences the maintenance of endothelial cell monolayers, we investigated the proliferation of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells treated with Na-SP. It was found that Na-SP has an inhibitory activity on endothelial cell proliferation accompanied with suppression of whole protein synthesis but without non-specific cell damage. The inhibitory activity of Na-SP was the strongest when compared to that of heparan sulfate, heparin, dextran sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate A/C and hyaluronan. Furthermore, it was shown that the inhibitory activity of Na-SP disappeared by either desulfation or depolymerization. The present data suggest that Na-SP is a unique sulfated polysaccharide that strongly inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation, and the inhibitory activity requires polymerization of sulfated O-rhamnosyl-acofriose repeating units.

  9. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Senbel, Amira M; Saad, Evan I; Taha, Safaa S; Mohamed, Hosny F

    2016-01-18

    Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10-2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of l-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K+channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded hemofiltration solution.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Michael; Rehak, Nadja N; Danner, Robert L; Walsh, Thomas J; Grimes, George J

    2010-04-01

    The physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded hemofiltration solution was assessed. Two bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solutions (low- and high-magnesium formulations) were compounded in triplicate. The concentrations of magnesium (15 meq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 meq/L) in the high-magnesium formulation were chosen to be somewhat below the concentrations reported as being incompatible in a popular reference. The six hemofiltration bags were stored at 22-25 degrees C without protection from light for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed 3-4 and 52-53 hours after compounding. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations of the solutions were assayed at 3-4 and 50-51 hours after preparation. No particulate matter was observed by visual or microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. The mean +/- S.D. pH values of the low-magnesium solutions were 8.01 +/- 0.02 and 8.04 +/- 0.02 at 3-4 and 52-53 hours after compounding, respectively. The mean +/- S.D. pH values of the high-magnesium solutions were 7.96 +/- 0.02 and 7.98 +/- 0.01 at 3-4 and 52-53 hours after compounding, respectively. The electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the low- and high-magnesium solutions were similar 3-4 and 50-51 hours after preparation. Magnesium sulfate 1.5 meq/L and sodium bicarbonate 50 meq/L were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded hemofiltration solution for 48 hours when stored at 22-25 degrees C without protection from light.

  11. A novel solubilization of phenanthrene using Winsor I microemulsion-based sodium castor oil sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baowei; Zhu, Lizhong; Gao, Yanzheng

    2005-03-17

    Problems associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. Ex situ soil washing is commonly used for treating contaminated soils by separating the most contaminated fraction of the soil for disposal. Surfactant-enhanced soil washing is being considered with increasing frequency to actually achieve soil-contaminant separation. In this research, a novel solubilization of phenanthrene and extraction of phenanthrene from spiked soil by sodium castor oil sulfate (SCOS) microemulsion was presented and compared with the conventional surfactants, Triton X-100 (TX100), Tween 80 (TW80), Brij35, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Unlike conventional surfactants, SCOS forms stable microemulsion in water and thus behaves much like a separate bulk phase in concentrating organic solutes. The extent of solubility enhancement is linearly proportional to the concentration of SCOS microemulsion, in contrast with the effect of a conventional surfactant in which a sharp inflection occurs in the vicinity of the measured critical micelle concentration. SCOS microemulsion exhibits the largest mass solubilization ratio among the selected surface active agents (SAAs) in both soil-free system and soil-water system. The partitioning coefficients of phenanthrene between the emulsified phase and the aqueous phase, Kem, is slightly larger than those between the micellar pseudo phase and the aqueous phase, Kmc. The extraction experiments demonstrate high and fast desorption of phenanthrene from spiked soil by SCOS microemulsion perhaps due to its high solubilization capacity compared with the conventional surfactant solutions. The results show that SCOS could be an attractive alternative to synthetic surfactants in ex situ washing for PAH-contaminated soils.

  12. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  13. Comparative toxicities of aluminum and zinc from sacrificial anodes or from sulfate salt in sea urchin embryos and sperm.

    PubMed

    Caplat, Christelle; Oral, Rahime; Mahaut, Marie-Laure; Mao, Andrea; Barillier, Daniel; Guida, Marco; Della Rocca, Claudio; Pagano, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    The toxicity of aluminum or zinc from either sacrificial anodes (SA) or their sulfate salts (SS) was evaluated in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos or sperm exposed to Al(III) or Zn(II) (SA or SS, 0.1-10 microM), scoring developmental defects (DDs), fertilization rate (FR), and mitotic abnormalities. A significant DD increase was observed in SS, but not SA Al(III)- and Zn(II)-exposed embryos vs. controls. Both Al(III) and Zn(II), up to 10 microM, from SA and SS, inhibited mitotic activity and induced mitotic aberrations in exposed embryos. SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant FR increase, unlike Al(III) sulfate overlapping with controls. Both SA-Zn(II) and Zn(II) sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant FR increase. The offspring of SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant DD decrease, unlike Al(III) sulfate exposure. Zinc sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant increase in offspring DDs, whereas SA-Zn(II) sperm exposure decreased DDs. Together, exposures to SA-dissolved Al(III) or Zn(II) resulted in lesser, if any toxicity, up to hormesis, compared to SS. Studies of metal speciation should elucidate the present results. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Full-scale implementation of the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment process. Final report, October 1987-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, J.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; McAtee, R.E.; Pryfogle, P.A.; Suciu, D.F.

    1989-09-01

    In Phase I, jar and dynamic testing showed that the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process was a viable method for reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from the Tinker AFB industrial wastewater with a significant decrease in sludge production and treatment costs. In Phase II pilot-plant field verification studies were conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical parameters of the chromium reduction process, the precipitation and clarification process, and the activated sludge system. Sludge production was evaluated and compared to the sulfuric acid/sulfur dioxide/lime process. The impact of and procedure for change-over to the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process were also investigated.

  15. Quinapyramine sulfate-loaded sodium alginate nanoparticles show enhanced trypanocidal activity.

    PubMed

    Manuja, Anju; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Chopra, Meenu; Kaur, Harmanmeet; Kumar, Rajender; Manuja, Balvinder K; Singh, Shailendra K; Yadav, Suresh C

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the dose, toxic effects and to ensure sustained release of quinapyramine sulfate (QS), a highly effective drug against Trypanosoma evansi. QS-loaded sodium alginate nanoparticles (QS-NPs) were formed by emulsion-crosslinking technology using dioctyl-sodium-sulfosuccinate and sodium alginate. The formulation was characterized for size, stability, morphology and functional groups by a zetasizer, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro safety and toxicity studies were performed by metabolic assay in Vero cell lines, and in vivo efficacy was evaluated in mice. QS-NPs were <60 nm with 96.48% entrapment efficiency and 3.70% drug loading. The formulation showed an initial burst effect followed by slow drug release in accordance with quasi-Fickian Higuchi diffusion mechanism. QS-NPs were much less toxic and able to clear the parasite at a much lower concentration than QS. The QS-NPs synthesized are safe, less toxic and highly effective compared with QS.

  16. Evaluation of using aluminum sulfate and water-soluble Moringa oleifera seed lectin to reduce turbidity and toxicity of polluted stream water.

    PubMed

    Freitas, José Henrique Edmilson Souza; de Santana, Keissy Vanderley; do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Claudina; de Paiva, Sérgio Carvalho; de Moura, Maiara Celine; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; de Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Aluminum salts are used as coagulants in water treatment; however, the exposure to residual aluminum has been associated with human brain lesions. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL), which is extracted with distilled water and isolated by chitin chromatography, has coagulant activity and is able to reduce the concentration of metal ions in aqueous solutions. This study evaluated the potential of using aluminum sulfate and WSMoL to reduce the turbidity and toxicity of water from the Cavouco stream located in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The water sample used (called P1) was collected from the stream source, which was found to be strongly polluted based on physicochemical and water quality analyses, as well as ecotoxicity assays with Artemia salina and seeds of Eruca sativa and Lactuca sativa. The assays combining WSMoL and aluminum sulfate were more efficient than those that used these agents separately. Furthermore, the greatest reduction in turbidity (96.8%) was obtained with the treatment using aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL, compared to when they were applied simultaneously (91.3%). In addition, aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL treatment resulted in residual aluminum concentration (0.3 mg/L) that was much lower than that recorded after the treatment using only the salt (35.5 mg/L). The ecotoxicity of P1 was also strongly reduced after the treatments. In summary, the combined use of aluminum sulfate and WSMoL was efficient in promoting a strong reduction of turbidity and ecotoxicity of a polluted water sample, without resulting in a high residual aluminum concentration at the conclusion of the treatment.

  17. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by

  18. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    PubMed

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these

  19. Combined aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerosing therapy and anal encirclement using an elastic artificial ligament for rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masao

    2014-05-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid is a sclerosant used for sclerosing therapy in the treatment of hemorrhoids, and a Leeds-Keio artificial ligament is a new anal-encircling material for the management of rectal prolapse. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical data and recurrence rates in patients with rectal prolapse undergoing combined aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection and anal encirclement using the Leeds-Keio artificial ligament. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent this procedure. This study was conducted at a community-based hospital within a specialized colorectal unit. A total of 23 patients (20 women; median age, 83 years) with full-thickness rectal prolapse underwent treatment between 2005 and 2010. The main outcome measures were morbidity and recurrence rate. The median duration of surgery was 36 minutes. Mean total injection dose of aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid was 30 mL. There were no postoperative deaths. Wound infection occurred in 2 patients (9%), and new or worsening symptoms of constipation after surgery occurred in 6 patients (26%). There were 3 recurrences at a median follow-up of 36 months (range, 7-86 months). Recurrence rate at 5 years was 14% (95% CI, 5%-35%). The limitations of this study include its retrospective nature, the potential for selection bias, and lack of a control group. This procedure is quick and easy to perform, with no formidable morbidity, and the recurrence rate is reasonably low. Therefore, it seems to be a reasonable alternative for rectal prolapse in frail, elderly, and high-risk patients.

  20. [Microstructure morphology and flocculation mechanism of the decolorizing flocculant poly-aluminum (III)-magnesium (II)-sulfate].

    PubMed

    Sang, Yi-min; Chang, Xue-hong; Che, Yue; Gu, Qing-bao

    2013-09-01

    Crystal structures and morphologic characteristics of poly-aluminum (III)-magnesium (II)-sulfate (PMAS) were discussed using X-radial diffraction and infrared spectrogram and the flocculation mechanism was explored here based on comparisons between decolorization effect of landfill leachate secondary effluent and the system Zeta potential. The results indicated that PMAS was a kind of macromolecular composite polymer of aluminum and magnesium based on -OH bonding. The flocculation mechanism of PMAS was mainly charge neutralization and co-precipitation netting. Charge neutralization was the main mechanism at low dose. Its flocculation behaviors were different along with different pH of wastewater at high doses, namely, it was mainly charge neutralization at low pH and co-precipitation netting at high pH and both of them work together at neutral condition.

  1. Aluminum manganese oxides with mixed crystal structure: high-energy-density cathodes for rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Wook; Ku, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Ryoung-Hee; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seok-Soo; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2014-07-01

    We report a new discovery for enhancing the energy density of manganese oxide (Nax MnO2 ) cathode materials for sodium rechargeable batteries by incorporation of aluminum. The Al incorporation results in NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 with a mixture of tunnel and layered crystal structures. NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 shows a much higher initial discharge capacity and superior cycling performance compared to pristine Na(0.65) MnO2 . We ascribe this enhancement in performance to the formation of a new orthorhombic layered NaMnO2 phase merged with a small amount of tunnel Na(0.44) MnO2 phase in NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 , and to improvements in the surface stability of the NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 particles caused by the formation of Al-O bonds on their surfaces. Our findings regarding the phase transformation and structure stabilization induced by incorporation of aluminum, closely related to the structural analogy between orthorhombic Na(0.44) MnO2 and NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 , suggest a strategy for achieving sodium rechargeable batteries with high energy density and stability.

  2. Use of nanoparticles to improve the performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate flooding in a sandstone reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    One of the prominent enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in oil reservoirs is surfactant flooding. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nanoparticles on the surfactant adsorption. Real reservoir sandstone rock samples were implemented in adsorption tests. The ranges of the initial surfactant and nano silica concentrations were from 500 to 5000 ppm and 500 ppm to 2000 ppm, respectively. The commercial surfactant used is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an ionic surfactant and two different types of nano silica were employed. The rate of surfactant losses extremely depends on the concentration of surfactant in the system, and it was found that the adsorption of surfactant decreased with increasing the concentration of nano silica. Also, it was found that hydrophobic nano silica is more effective than hydrophilic nanoparticles.

  3. Heterogeneous freezing of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions by long chain alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, Will; Robinson, Carly

    2006-04-01

    High molecular weight organic compounds emitted during biomass burning can be transported to high altitudes where they may affect ice processes through heterogeneous nucleation. We show that freezing of solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride catalyzed by long chain alcohols is roughly consistent with the hypothesis that the water activity at the mean freezing temperature is a constant offset from the water activity at the melting point of the solution, though films of the longer chain alcohols may undergo structural changes at higher salt concentrations which cause a deviation from the constant offset. The heterogeneous nucleation rate coefficient, averaged over all solutions, alcohols, and droplet sizes is 6.0 × 104 +/- 4.0 × 104 cm-2 s-1, with no dependence on any of those parameters.

  4. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Molin, Soeren; Yang, Liang; Ndoni, Sokol

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h) and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week) by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability. PMID:23377015

  5. Sand sorption process for the removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate (anionic surfactant) from water.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nasiruddin; Zareen, Uzma

    2006-05-20

    Granite sand was used to adsorb anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) from water at natural pH 6.25. The effect of adsorbent size, pH, temperature and amount of adsorbent has been examined. The results indicate that the Langmuir model provides the best correlation of experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters like entropy, enthalpy and free energy of adsorption were evaluated. Decreasing the temperature accelerates the adsorption of SDS onto sand surface. The kinetic data were analyzed by using pseudo-first order Lagergren equation. Adsorption of SDS was exothermic and dominated by physisorption with activation energy (Ea) 33.65 kJ mol(-1). In addition, regeneration of granite sand by washing with Fenton likes reagent was examined. The results suggested that granite sand is suitable as a sorbent material for recovery and adsorption of SDS from aqueous solutions in view of its effectiveness and cheaper cost.

  6. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician’s diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case. PMID:27789914

  7. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician's diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case.

  8. Characterization of a Disordered Protein During Micellation: Interactions of α-Synuclein with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianhui; Sethi, Anurag; Anunciado, Divina; Vu, Dung M.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the interaction of α-Synuclein (αSyn) with lipid membranes, we carried out self-assembly molecular dynamics simulations of αSyn with monomeric and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a widely used membrane mimic. We find that both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces contribute to the interactions of αSyn with SDS. In the presence of αSyn, our simulations suggest that SDS aggregates along the protein chain and forms small size micelles at very early times. Aggregation is followed by formation of a collapsed protein-SDS micelle complex, which is consistent with experimental results. Finally, interaction of αSyn with preformed micelles induces alterations in the shape of the micelle, and the N-terminal helix (residues 3 through 37) tends to associate with micelles. Overall, our simulations provide an atomistic description of the early timescale αSyn-SDS interaction during the self-assembly of SDS into micelles. PMID:22439820

  9. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Ge substrate: the effect of a low-polarity solvent.

    PubMed

    Viana, Rommel B; da Silva, Albérico B F; Pimentel, André S

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules in a low polar solvent on Ge substrate by using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The maximum SDS amount adsorbed is (5.0 ± 0.3) × 10(14) molecules cm(-2) in CHCl(3), while with the use of CCl(4) as subphase the ability of SDS adsorbed is 48% lower. AFM images show that depositions are highly disordered over the interface, and it was possible to establish that the size of the SDS deposition is around 30-40 nm over the Ge surface. A complete description of the infrared spectroscopic bands for the head and tail groups in the SDS molecule is also provided.

  10. Impaired skin barrier function in mice with colon carcinoma induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that impaired skin barrier function was induced by small intestinal injury in mice. Therefore, we postulated that other intestinal diseases might also influence skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluated the skin barrier function of hairless mice with colon carcinoma that was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In mice treated with these drugs, we observed elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced skin hydration levels, compared to those in the control mice. In addition, plasma nitrogen di/trioxide (NO2(-)/NO3(-)) levels were significantly elevated, and expression of type I collagen was significantly reduced in the treated mice, compared to those in control. These results suggest that impaired skin barrier function occurs in mice when colon carcinoma is present.

  11. Renaturation of enzymes after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Springhorn, S.S.

    1980-08-10

    A number of enzymes, including amylases, dehydrogenases, and proteases, were shown to be renaturable after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzyme activity was detected in situ by action on substrates introduced into the gel and subsequent staining of either the product or unreacted substrate. Enzymes appeared to recover activity as soon as the detergent diffused out of the gel. Renatured enzymes were retained in gels after electrophoresis longer than native enzymes which had been subjected to electrophoresis in the absence of detergent. Re-electrophoresis of the renatured enzymes showed that part of the retained activity was physically anchored to the gel, possibly by the folding of polypeptides around the gel matrix as the enzymes were renatured.

  12. Improved detection of amylase activity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with copolymerized starch.

    PubMed

    Martínez, T F; Alarcón, F J; Díaz-López, M; Moyano, F J

    2000-08-01

    An improved method, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for detection of amylase activity is described. This method will allow better characterization of certain amylases than that obtained by the Davis technique. The main features of the technique are: (i) identification of amylase bands and molecular mass determination are possible in the same gel; (ii) the hydrolysis of copolymerized substrate during electrophoretic separation is prevented using very low temperatures instead of inactivating agents such as chelating agents; and (iii) the technique is applicable to reveal amylase activity in a wide range of biological samples. The method is not useful for enzymes sensitive to SDS and for high molecular mass amylases.

  13. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate on kaolin from different alcohol-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhus, A.M.; Hoeiland, H.; Gjerde, M.I.; Ersland, E.K.

    1996-05-10

    The adsorption of surfactants on solid/liquid interfaces is a subject of great interest especially for enhanced oil recovery processes. The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto kaolin from different alcohol-water mixtures has been studied. The alcohols used were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-decanol containing 3.5 or 7 wt% water. In all cases the adsorption isotherms show a rather steep rise at low surfactant concentrations. Thereafter, there is a more or less continuous leveling off. The plateau adsorption of SDS on kaolin is found to increase with increasing chain length of the alcohol in the alcohol-water solvent. The adsorption properties are discussed in relation to the dielectric constant of the solvents; the aggregation properties of the surfactant in the bulk phase and the molecular packing of the surfactant in the adsorbed state are also considered.

  14. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    PubMed

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  15. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Ge Substrate: The Effect of a Low-Polarity Solvent

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Rommel B.; da Silva, Albérico B. F.; Pimentel, André S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules in a low polar solvent on Ge substrate by using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The maximum SDS amount adsorbed is (5.0 ± 0.3) × 1014 molecules cm−2 in CHCl3, while with the use of CCl4 as subphase the ability of SDS adsorbed is 48% lower. AFM images show that depositions are highly disordered over the interface, and it was possible to establish that the size of the SDS deposition is around 30–40 nm over the Ge surface. A complete description of the infrared spectroscopic bands for the head and tail groups in the SDS molecule is also provided. PMID:22942685

  16. Improving the performance of starch-based wood adhesive by using sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Hong, Yan; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to improve the performance of starch-based wood adhesive. The effects of SDS on shear strength, viscosity and storage stability were investigated. It was shown that, although the addition of 1.5-2% (dry starch basis) SDS resulted in a slight decrease in shear strength, the mobility and storage stability of adhesive were significantly enhanced. Possible mechanisms regarding specific action of SDS were discussed. It was proved, using blue value or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, that the amylose-SDS complexes were formed in the adhesive. The complex formation or simple adsorption of SDS with starch molecules might hinder the aggregation of latex particles, as shown by scanning electron microscopy images, and inhibit starch retrogradation, as observed by DSC analysis. As a result, in the presence of SDS, the adhesive had higher mobility and storage stability, indicating that SDS could be used to prepare starch-based wood adhesives with high performance.

  17. Removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant from aqueous dispersions of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Jamie E; Soule, Karen J; Cleveland, Erin; Schmucker, Scott W; Cress, Cory D; Cox, Nathanael D; Merrill, Andrew; Landi, Brian J

    2017-06-01

    A reagent-based treatment method was developed for the removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) from aqueous dispersions of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Based on a survey of various reagents, organic solvents emerged as the most effective at interrupting the SDS:SWCNT interaction without producing deleterious side reactions or causing precipitation of the surfactant. Specifically, treatment with acetone or acetonitrile allows for the facile isolation of SWCNTs with near complete removal of SDS through vacuum filtration, resulting in a 100x reduction in processing time. These findings were validated via quantitative analysis using thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, 4-point probe electrical measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequent thermal oxidation further enhances the purity of the reagent treated samples and yields bulk SWCNT samples with >95% carbonaceous purity. The proposed reagent treatment method thus demonstrates potential for large volume SWCNT processing.

  18. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant on rheological properties of gellan gum hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithra, K.; Khandai, Santripti; Jena, Sidhartha S.

    2017-05-01

    Rheological measurements on gellan gum hydrogels were carried out to investigate the effect of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on hydrogel structure. The gel strength was found to be strongly correlated to surfactant concentration. Below the Critical Micellar Concentration (CMC), we observed an increase in gel strength with rise in surfactant concentration and a reverse trend is observed for surfactant concentration above CMC. The gel network structure is found to be highly elastic below CMC, while an aggregated network is observed at higher concentration of surfactant. With the addition of surfactant, sol to gel transition temperature of Gellan Gum is shifted to higher temperature, suggesting addition of surfactant promotesas well as stabilizes the helix formation.

  19. A direct calorimetric determination of denaturation enthalpy for lysozyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, G Rezaei; Saboury, A A; Taleshi, E

    2008-02-15

    Thermodynamics of the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with lysozyme were investigated at pH 7.0 and 27 degrees C in phosphate buffer by isothermal titration calorimetry. A new method to follow protein denaturation, and the effect of surfactants on the stability of proteins was introduced. The new solvation model was used to reproduce the enthalpies of lysozyme-SDS interaction over the whole range of SDS concentrations. The solvation parameters recovered from the new equation, attributed to the structural change of lysozyme and its biological activity. At low concentrations of SDS, the binding is mainly electrostatic, with some simultaneous interaction of the hydrophobic tail with nearby hydrophobic patches on the lysozyme. These initial interactions presumably cause some protein unfolding and expose additional hydrophobic sites. The enthalpy of denaturation is 160.81+/-0.02 kJ mol(-1) for SDS.

  20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis for the detection and isolation of amyloid curli fibers.

    PubMed

    Sitaras, Chris; Naghavi, Mahsa; Herrington, Muriel B

    2011-01-15

    Curli are amyloid-like fibers on the surface of some strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. We tested the use of horizontal sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-agarose gel electrophoresis to detect, isolate, and quantitate curli. Cell extracts fractionated in SDS-agarose gels and stained with Coomassie blue exhibited a soluble fraction that entered the gel and an insoluble fraction that remained in the well. Much more insoluble material was observed with curli-proficient strains than with strains that do not make curli. Both highly purified curli and the insoluble material isolated from an SDS-agarose gel could be dissociated into monomers when treated with formic acid. For quantitation, we immobilized samples in SDS-agarose prior to electrophoresis. This avoids losses during the staining of the gel. Our methods provide a rapid and simple fractionation of curli using equipment that is readily available.

  1. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  2. Sputtering Products of Sodium Sulfate: Implications for Io's Surface and for Sodium-Bearing Molecules in the Io Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, D. S.; Calaway, W. F.; Hansen, C. S.; Lykke, K. R.; Pellin, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    The composition of the sodium-bearing molecular ion cloud in the vicinity of Io may yield clues to Io's geochemistry. Likely Na-bearing source minerals are Na-sulfides and Na2SO4, with the relative composition depending on the distribution of thermal environments in the upper crust. These materials will be sputtered by co-rotating torus ions either from the surface or from atmospheric aerosols. Using laser postionization, we investigated the ion-sputtered neutral products of Na2SO4to determine whether NaO in the Io torus might be a diagnostic indicator for sodium sulfate on Io's surface or in aerosols. With an ArF excimer laser (λ = 6.4 eV), single-photon saturation of the ionization step was achieved for NaS, Na2O, and the combination Na2S + Na2O2at mass 78, while other species, including NaO, were close to saturation. Photofragmentation during the ionization step was minimal by all indications. The results predict sputtering ratios NaO/NaS > 8, Na2O/NaS ∼8, Na2/NaS ≥ 6, and Na/NaS ≥ 100. Multiphoton ionization was also attempted using a frequency-doubled (3.2-eV) Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser at high intensities, but saturation was not achieved for the major species, and there was evidence of photofragmentation. Velocity distributions of the sputter products show for the first time that significant fractions of sodium-bearing molecules can be sputtered into unbound trajectories from Io's surface, with escape fractions > 50% in the case of NaO. Combining relative sputter yields and velocity distributions gives escape ratios of NaO/NaS > 10, Na2/NaS ∼ 6, and Na2O/NaS ∼2.8 from Na2SO4. While absolute sputtering and escape ratios need to be compared for Na-sulfides versus Na2SO4, this work shows that, in the absence of significant modification by atmospheric chemical reactions, measurement of the neutral NaO/NaS ratio in the vicinity of Io could identify the major Na-bearing minerals.

  3. Over-Expression of CD200 Protects Mice from Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiqi; Yu, Kai; Zhu, Fang; Gorczynski, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim CD200:CD200 receptor (CD200R) interactions lead to potent immunosuppression and inhibition of autoimmune inflammation. We investigated the effect of "knockout"of CD200 or CD200R, or over-expression of CD200, on susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)—induced colitis, a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods Acute or chronic colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in four groups of age-matched C57BL/6 female mice: (1) CD200-transgenic mice (CD200tg); (2) wild-type (WT) mice; (3) CD200 receptor 1-deficient (CD200R1KO) mice; and (4) CD200-deficient (CD200KO) mice. The extent of colitis was determined using a histological scoring system. Colon tissues were collected for quantitative RT-PCR and Immunohistochemical staining. Supernatants from colonic explant cultures and mononuclear cells isolated from colonic tissue were used for ELISA. Results CD200KO and CD200R1KO mice showed greater sensitivity to acute colitis than WT mice, with accelerated loss of body weight, significantly higher histological scores, more severe infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and CD3+ cells, and greater expression of macrophage-derived inflammatory cytokines, whose production was inhibited in vitro (in WT/CD200KO mouse cells) by CD200. In contrast, CD200tg mice showed less sensitivity to DSS compared with WT mice, with attenuation of all of the features seen in other groups. In a chronic colitis model, greater infiltration of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells was seen in the colon of CD200tg mice compared to WT mice, and anti-CD25 mAb given to these mice attenuated protection. Conclusions The CD200:CD200R axis plays an immunoregulatory role in control of DSS induced colitis in mice. PMID:26841120

  4. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of fluorescence labeled propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengli; Li, Chunxia; Xue, Yiting; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hongbing; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence labeling method was developed and validated for the microanalysis of a sulfated polysaccharide drug,namely propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), in rat plasma. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was selected to label PSS, and 1, 6-diaminohexane was used to link PSS and FITC in order to prepare FITC-labeled PSS (F-PSS) through a reductive amination reaction. F-PSS was identified by UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectrum. The cell stability and cytotoxicity of F-PSS were tested in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The results indicated that the labeling efficiency of F-PSS was 0.522% ± 0.0248% and the absolute bioavailability was 8.39%. F-PSS was stable in MDCK cells without obvious cytotoxicity. The method was sensitive and reliable; it showed a good linearity, precision, recovery and stability. The FITC labeling method can be applied to investigating the absorption and metabolism of PSS and other polysaccharides in biological samples.

  5. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of low-molecular-weight propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS).

    PubMed

    Xin, Meng; Ren, Li; Sun, Yang; Li, Hai-hua; Guan, Hua-Shi; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-05-23

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide derivative, has been used as a heparinoid drug to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia and ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. To extend the applications of PSS, a series of low-molecular-weight PSSs (named FPs) were prepared by oxidative-reductive depolymerization, and the antithrombotic activities were investigated thoroughly in vitro and in vivo. The bioactivity evaluation demonstrated a positive correlation between the molecular weight and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of FPs. FPs could prolong the APTT and clotting time and reduce platelet aggregation significantly. FPs could also effectively inhibit factor IIa in the presence of AT-III and HC-II. FPs decreased the wet weights and lengths of the thrombus and increased occlusion times in vivo. FP-6k, a PSS fragment with a molecular weight of 6 kDa, is an optimal antithrombotic candidate for further study and showed little chance for hemorrhagic action.

  6. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop, Frederick V.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-04

    We measured the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. Moreover, this corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.

  7. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    DOE PAGES

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop, Frederick V.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; ...

    2014-12-04

    We measured the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over themore » equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. Moreover, this corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.« less

  8. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  9. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  10. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  11. A study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and sodium (lithium) dodecyl sulfate by the small-angle neutron scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajewska, A.; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E.

    2007-09-01

    The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a new nonionic surfactant, namely, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C14E7), and an anionic surfactant, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, or lithium dodecyl sulfate, is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary results of the investigation into the behavior of C14E7 aqueous solutions (at two concentrations, 0.17 and 0.50%) upon addition of small amounts of three different classical anionic surfactants are reported.

  12. The effect of sulfate on aluminum concentrations in natural waters: some stability relations in the system Al2O3-SO3-H2O at 298 K

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    While gibbsite and kaolinite solubilities usually regulate aluminum concentrations in natural waters, the presence of sulfate can dramatically alter these solubilities under acidic conditions, where other, less soluble minerals can control the aqueous geochemistry of aluminum. The likely candidates include alunogen, Al2(SO4)3 ?? 17H2O, alunite, KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6, jurbanite, Al(SO4)(OH) ?? 5H2O, and basaluminite, Al4(SO4)(OH)10 ?? 5H2O. An examination of literature values shows that the log Ksp = -85.4 for alunite and log Ksp = -117.7 for basaluminite. In this report the log Ksp = -7.0 is estimated for alunogen and log Ksp = -17.8 is estimated for jurbanite. The solubility and stability relations among these four minerals and gibbsite are plotted as a function of pH and sulfate activity at 298 K. Alunogen is stable only at pH values too low for any natural waters (<0) and probably only forms as efflorescences from capillary films. Jurbanite is stable from pH < 0 up to the range of 3-5 depending on sulfate activity. Alunite is stable at higher pH values than jurbanite, up to 4-7 depending on sulfate activity. Above these pH limits gibbsite is the most stable phase. Basaluminite, although kinetically favored to precipitate, is metastable for all values of pH and sulfate activity. These equilibrium calculations predict that both sulfate and aluminum can be immobilized in acid waters by the precipitation of aluminum hydroxysulfate minerals. Considerable evidence supports the conclusion that the formation of insoluble aluminum hydroxy-sulfate minerals may be the cause of sulfate retention in soils and sediments, as suggested by Adams and Rawajfih (1977), instead of adsorption. ?? 1982.

  13. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and zinc sulfate as reference substances for toxicity tests with the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Moreira, G S

    2005-06-01

    Effects of anthropogenic pollution have been observed at different trophic levels in the oceans, and toxicity tests constitute one way of monitoring these alterations. The present assay proposes the use of two reference substances, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate, for Perna perna larvae. This common mussel on the Brazilian coast is used as a bioindicator and is of economic interest. The chronic static embryo-larval test of short duration (48 h) was employed to determine the NOEC, LOEC, and IC50 for SDS and zinc sulfate, as well as the coefficient of variation. Salinity, pH and un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were measured to monitor water quality. The results demonstrated that the main alterations in veliger larvae are the development of only one shell, protruded mantle, malformed shell, formation of only part of a valve, clipped edges, uneven sizes and presence of a concave or convex hinge. NOEC values were lower than 0.25 mg L(-1) for zinc sulfate and 0.68 mg L(-1) for SDS. The coefficient of variation was 17.63% and 2.50% for zinc sulfate and SDS, respectively.

  14. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-09

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment.

  15. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  16. Initial Stages in the Biodegradation of the Surfactant Sodium Dodecyltriethoxy Sulfate by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DES1

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Stephen G.; Dodgson, Kenneth S.; White, Graham F.; Jones, Norman; Watson, G. Keith

    1982-01-01

    The biodegradation of the surfactant sodium dodecyltriethoxy sulfate by Pseudomonas sp., strain DES1 (isolated from activated sludge plant effluent) has been studied. Growth of the organism when the 35S-labeled surfactant was present as the sole source of carbon and energy led to the appearance in the culture fluid of five 35S-labeled organic metabolites. These have been identified as mono-, di-, and triethylene glycol monosulfates (major metabolites) and acetic acid 2-(ethoxy sulfate) and acetic acid 2-(diethoxy sulfate), authentic samples of which have been prepared and characterized. Evidence is presented that the major metabolites were produced by rupture of one or another of the three ether linkages present in the surfactant molecule, probably via the agency of a single etherase enzyme. Acetic acid 2-(ethoxy sulfate) and acetic acid 2-(diethoxy sulfate) were formed by the oxidation of the free alcohol groups of di- and triethylene glycol monosulfates, respectively, and increased in amount during the stationary phase of growth. Inorganic 35S-sulfate also appeared in significant quantities in culture fluids and arose from the parent surfactant (presumably via the action of an alkylsulfatase) and not from any of the five metabolites. The appearance of sulfated organic metabolites during the exponential phase of growth and their quantitative relationship remained remarkably constant, even when additional carbon and energy sources (succinate or yeast extract) were also present in the growth media. PMID:16346108

  17. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate plus Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate Solution on Peritendinous Adhesion and Tendon Healing: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Hacı Bayram; Gümüştaş, Seyit Ali; Kom, Mustafa; Uludağ, Abuzer; Serbest, Sancar; Eröksüz, Yesari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adhesion formation following tendon injury is a serious clinical problem. Aims: In this experimental study, the effects of the combination of sodium hyaluronate (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) on peritendinous adhesion and tendon healing were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Twenty-one mature Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. The rats’ Achilles tendons were cut and repaired with a modified Kessler technique. About 0.25 and 0.50 mL of the HA and CS (HA+CS) combination were injected subcutaneously into the repair site of the rats in groups 1 and 2, respectively, on days 0, 3, 7, and 10. The subjects in group 3 were used as the control group. At 6 weeks, all rats were euthanized. The tenotomy site was examined macroscopically in all animal subjects. Four samples were assigned to the histopathological examination group, and the others were assigned to the biomechanical assessment group. Results: Inflammation and adhesion in both treatment groups were observed at a lower rate than in the control group. The collagen filaments in both treatment groups were regular and the number was low when compared to the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between group 1 and the control group. The quantity, quality, and grade of the adhesions were statistically significantly lower in group 2 when compared with the other groups. The mean maximum stress strength in group 2 was statistically significantly higher than that in group 1 and the control group. Conclusion: Local administration of the HA+CS combination solution is a valid tool for preventing peritendinous adhesion after extrasynovial tendon repair such as Achilles tendon, and is a treatment option in such cases. PMID:27308069

  18. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C.

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  19. Mixed sodium nickel-manganese sulfates: Crystal structure relationships between hydrates and anhydrous salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Delyana M.; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N.; Kukeva, Rositsa R.; Markov, Pavel V.; Nihtianova, Diana D.; Stoyanova, Radostina K.

    2017-06-01

    The present contribution provides new structural and spectroscopic data on the formation of solid solutions between hydrated and dehydrated sulfate salts of sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese in a whole concentration range: Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·yH2O, 0≤ x≤1.0. Using powder XRD, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), IR and Raman spectroscopy it has been found that double sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese salts form solid solutions Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·4H2O with a blödite-type of structure within a broad concentration range of 0≤x≤0.49, while the manganese rich compositions Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·2H2O (0.97≤x≤1.0) crystallize in the kröhnkite-type of structure. The Ni-based blödites Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·4H2O dehydrate between 140 and 260 °C into anhydrous salts Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2, 0≤ x≤0.44, with a structure where Ni1-xMnxO6 octahedra are bridged into pairs by edge- and corner sharing SO42- groups. Both TEM and EPR methods show that the Ni2+ and Mn2+ ions are homogenously distributed over three crystallographic positions of the large monoclinic cell. The dehydration of the kröhnkite phase Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·2H2O yields the alluaudite phase Na2+δMn2-δ/2(SO4)3, where the Na-to-Mn ratio decreases and all Ni2+ dopants are released from the structure. The process of the dehydration is discussed in terms of structural aspects taking into account the distortion degree of the Ni,MnO6 and SO4 polyhedra.

  20. Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

  1. Iron Supplements Modulate Colon Microbiota Composition and Potentiate the Protective Effects of Probiotics in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Constante, Marco; Fragoso, Gabriela; Lupien-Meilleur, Joseph; Calvé, Annie; Santos, Manuela M

    2017-05-01

    Iron is an important nutrient for both the host and colonizing bacteria. Oral iron supplementation may impact the composition of the microbiota and can be particularly damaging to patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, patients with IBD may require iron supplementation to treat their anemia. We fed mice with diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate at different doses (5, 50, and 500 mg of iron/kg chow) and with different iron formulations (ferrous sulfate, ferrous bisglycinate and ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [FEDTA]), and analyzed the effects on the composition of the gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, we investigated the effects of iron supplementation in colitis severity, as well as the use of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in combination with iron supplementation. Iron supplementation at different doses induced shifts in the gut microbial communities and inferred metabolic pathways. However, depending on the iron formulation used in the diets, iron supplementation during dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis was either beneficial (ferrous bisglycinate) or highly detrimental (FEDTA). Finally, the beneficial effect of the probiotic EcN in the dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model was potentiated by oral iron supplementation with ferrous sulfate. These results show that the iron formulations used to treat iron deficiency influence the gut microbiota and colitis in mice and suggest that distinct iron compounds may be of particular relevance to patients with IBD. In addition, the beneficial action of probiotics in IBD may be enhanced by oral iron supplementation.

  2. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) degradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Ana M S; Aydin, Rozelin; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Vreeling, Harm; Cavaleiro, Ana J; García-Encina, Pedro A; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-06-01

    The surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is widely used in the composition of detergents and frequently ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). While aerobic SLES degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as denitrification tanks of WWTPs, nor about the bacteria involved in the anoxic biodegradation. Here, we used SLES as sole carbon and energy source, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 mg L(-1), to enrich and isolate nitrate-reducing bacteria from activated sludge of a WWTP with the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) concept. In the 50 mg L(-1) enrichment, Comamonas (50%), Pseudomonas (24%), and Alicycliphilus (12%) were present at higher relative abundance, while Pseudomonas (53%) became dominant in the 1000 mg L(-1) enrichment. Aeromonas hydrophila strain S7, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain S8, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens strain S11 were isolated from the enriched cultures. Under denitrifying conditions, strains S8 and S11 degraded 500 mg L(-1) SLES in less than 1 day, while strain S7 required more than 6 days. Strains S8 and S11 also showed a remarkable resistance to SLES, being able to grow and reduce nitrate with SLES concentrations up to 40 g L(-1). Strain S11 turned out to be the best anoxic SLES degrader, degrading up to 41% of 500 mg L(-1). The comparison between SLES anoxic and oxic degradation by strain S11 revealed differences in SLES cleavage, degradation, and sulfate accumulation; both ester and ether cleavage were probably employed in SLES anoxic degradation by strain S11.

  3. The Use of Sodium Chloride & Aluminum as Phase Change Materials for High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Characterized by Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM) have a great deal of potential for the storage of thermal energy in a wide range of applications. The present work is aimed at developing encapsulated phase change materials capable of storing thermal energy at temperatures above 700°C for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. EPCM with a phase change material (PCM) with both a salt (sodium chloride) and a metal (aluminum) are considered here. Sodium chloride and aluminum are effective storage mediums because of their high melting points and large latent heats of fusion, 800°C and 660°C and 430kJ/kg and 397kJ/kg, respectively. Based on the heat capacities and the latent heat of fusion, for a 100 degree temperature range centered on the melting point of the PCM, 80% of the energy stored by the sodium chloride PCM can be attributed to the latent heat and 79% for the aluminum PCM. These large fractions attributed to latent heat have the potential for making EPCM based thermal energy storage devices smaller and less expensive. To study the performance of the candidate PCMs considered here, a specialized immersion calorimeter was designed, calibrated, and used to evaluate the storage capabilities of sodium chloride and aluminum based EPCMs. Additionally, the EPCMs were studied to ensure no loss of capacity would occur over the lifetime of the EPCM. While no reduction in the storage capacity of the sodium chloride EPCMs was found after repeated thermal cycles, there was a decrease in the storage capacity of the aluminum EPCMs after prolonged exposure to high temperatures.

  4. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Stimulates the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Interactions with Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Taeko; Mori, Ryota; Hirayama, Misaki; Sagawa, Yuki; Shimizu, Kenji; Okano, Yuri; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a representative anionic surfactant, is well-known to induce rough skin following single or multiple topical applications. The mechanism by which SLS induces rough skin is thought to result from the disruption of skin moisture function consisting of NMF and epidermal lipids. However, a recent study demonstrated that topically applied SLS easily penetrates into the living cell layers of the epidermis, which suggests that physiological alterations of keratinocytes might cause the SLS-induced rough skin. This study was conducted to clarify the effects of SLS on keratinocytes to demonstrate the contribution of SLS to the induction of rough skin. In addition, the potentials of other widely used anionic surfactants to induce rough skin were evaluated. HaCaT keratinocytes treated with SLS had increased levels of intracellular ROS and IL-1α secretion. Application of SLS on the surface of a reconstructed epidermal equivalent also showed the increased generation of ROS. Further, SLS-treated cells showed an increase of intracellular calpain activity associated with the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The increase of intracellular ROS was abolished by the addition of BAPTA-AM, a specific chelator of Ca(2+). In addition, IL-1α also stimulated ROS generation by HaCaT keratinocytes. An ESR spin-labeling study demonstrated that SLS increased the fluidity of membranes of liposomes and cells. Together, those results indicate that SLS initially interacts with cell membranes, which results in the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) influx. Ca(2+) stimulates the secretion of IL-1α due to the activation of calpain, and also increases ROS generation. IL-1α also stimulates ROS generation by HaCaT keratinocytes. We conclude from these results that the elevation of intracellular ROS levels is one of the causes of SLS-induced rough skin. Finally, among the other anionic surfactants tested, sodium lauryl phosphate has less potential to induce

  5. Preparation of Highly Immunogenic Ribosomal Fractions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Use of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Anne S.; Youmans, Guy P.

    1966-01-01

    Youmans, Anne S. (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.), and Guy P. Youmans. Preparation of highly immunogenic ribosomal fractions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate. J. Bacteriol. 91:2139–2145. 1966.—Ribosomal fractions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, strain H37Ra, were prepared by treatment of the intracellular particulate fraction with 0.25 or 0.5% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) followed by centrifugation at 144,700 × g for 3 hr. This procedure has greatly simplified the preparation of ribosomal fractions and has given fractions composed of approximately 50% ribonucleic acid (RNA) and 15 to 20% protein. When incorporated into Freund's incomplete adjuvant and injected intraperitoneally into CF-1 mice, the SDS ribosomal fractions were more immunogenic than the particulate fractions from which they were prepared. They were as much as 100 times more immunogenic than ribosomal fractions prepared by differential centrifugation, 1 μg (dry weight) per mouse being sufficient for the induction of some immunity. However, none of these ribosomal preparations, in comparable doses, was as immunogenic as the living cells from which they were prepared. It was also shown that the addition of 10−4m MgCl2 to the final diluent increased immunogenic activity, whereas larger concentrations (10−3m) reduced immunogenic activity. Preparation of the ribosomal fraction from ruptured cells in one continuous process during the course of 1 day increased the activity. Two-week-old H37Ra cells contained more RNA and were more immunogenic than the older cultures which have been used in the past. PMID:4957609

  6. Mechanism for stabilization of the molten globule state of papain by sodium n-alkyl sulfates: spectroscopic and calorimetric approaches.

    PubMed

    Chamani, J; Heshmati, M

    2008-06-01

    Papain exists in a molten globule (MG) state at pH 2 and in this state protein tends to aggregate in the presence of lower concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Such aggregation is prevented if low concentrations of sodium n-alkyl sulfates are also present in the buffer; in addition, stabilization of the protein is also induced. The guanidine hydrochloride and temperature-induced unfolding of papain, in the presence of n-alkyl sulfates, indicate stabilization of the protein as seen from the higher transition midpoints when monitored by fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry. However, a similar phenomenon is not seen under neutral conditions in the presence of n-alkyl sulfate concentrations. The effect of n-alkyl sulfates on the structure of the MG state of papain was utilized to investigate the contribution of hydrophobic interaction to the stability of the MG state. The Td values of the MG states of papain in the presence of n-alkyl sulfates at different concentrations showed substantial variation. The enhancement of Td values at the stability criterion of MG states corresponded with increasing chain length of the cited n-alkyl sulfates. The present results suggest that the hydrophobic interactions play important roles in stabilizing and preventing the aggregation of the MG state of papain.

  7. Protective Effect of Daikenchuto on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Takaharu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kawasato, Ryo; Shirasawa, Tomohiro; Goto, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Okamoto, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of daikenchuto (TJ-100; DKT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) model mouse and assess its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Methods. We evaluated the effects of DKT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced experimental colitis. First, we assessed the short-term effects of DKT using two groups: 5% DSS group and 5% DSS with DKT group. Colon length; histological scores; and interleukin- (IL-) 10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression profiles were analyzed using real-time PCR. Second, we assessed the long-term effects of DKT, by comparing survival time between 2% DSS and 2% DSS with DKT groups. Results. After 7 days, the colon lengths of DSS + DKT group were longer than those of the DSS group (mean values: 6.11 versus 5.69 cm, p < 0.05). Furthermore, compared to DSS group, the DSS + DKT group maintained significantly higher levels of serum hemoglobin (13.1 versus 10.7 g/dL, p < 0.05) and exhibited significantly higher expression levels of IL-10 (p < 0.05). The 2% DSS + DKT group exhibited significantly longer survival time than the 2% DSS group (70 versus 44 days, p < 0.01). Conclusion. Our results indicate that DKT prevented inflammation in the colon, indicating its potential as a new therapeutic agent for UC. PMID:28210268

  8. Positive control for cytotoxicity evaluation of dental vinyl polysiloxane impression materials using sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-11-01

    Vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) is elastomeric dental impression material which, despite having very few reports of adverse reactions, has shown high levels of cytotoxicity that is difficult to be interpreted without referencing to the positive control material. Therefore, in this study, positive control VPS was developed using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) for the reference of cytotoxicity test. The positive control VPS with SLS was formed with a different proportion of SLS (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 wt%) added to the base. The cytotoxicity test was then carried out using the extractions or dilutions of the extractions from each of the test samples using murine fibroblast cells (L929). The final product of positive control VPS behaved similar to commercially available VPS; being initially liquid-like and then becoming rubber-like. Ion chromatography showed that the level of SLS released from the product increased as the proportion of added SLS increased, consequently resulting in an increased level of cytotoxicity. Also, the commercially available VPS was less cytotoxic than the positive control VPS with more or equal to 2 wt% of SLS. However, even the VPS with the highest SLS (16 wt%) did not cause oral mucosa irritation during the animal study. The positive control VPS was successfully produced using SLS, which will be useful in terms of providing references during in vitro cytotoxicity testing.

  9. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  10. Allicin Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Ismail, Salmiah; Saadatdoust, Zeinab; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of allicin (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) in an experimental murine model of UC by administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water to BALB/c mice. DSS-induced mice presented reduced body weight, which was improved by allicin administration. We noted increases in CD68 expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and Malonaldehyde (MDA) and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-17, and decrease in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in DSS-induced mice. However, allicin treatment significantly decreased CD68, MPO, MDA, and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the enzymic antioxidants significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, allicin was capable of reducing the activation and nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby preventing degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB and inducing inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB-p65 in the colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that allicin exerts clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of the NF-κB and IL-6/p-STAT3(Y705) pathways.

  11. Hyperbranched exopolysaccharide-enhanced foam properties of sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Quanhua; Li, Haiping; Sun, Haoyang; Sun, Yange; Li, Ying

    2016-05-01

    The foam properties, such as the foamability, foam stability, drainage, coalescence and bulk rheology, of aqueous solutions containing an eco-friendly exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted by a deep-sea mesophilic bacterium, Wangia profunda SM-A87, and an anionic surfactant, sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (AES), were studied. Both the foamability and foam stability of the EPS/AES solutions are considerably higher than those of single AES solutions, even at very low AES concentrations, although pure EPS solutions cannot foam. The improved foamability and foam stability arise from the formation of the EPS/AES complex via hydrogen bonds at the interfaces. The synergism between the EPS and AES decreases the surface tension, increases the interfacial elasticity and water-carrying capacity, and suppresses the coalescence and collapse of the foams. The EPS/AES foams are more salt-resistant than the AES foams. This work provides not only a new eco-friendly foam with great potential for use in enhanced oil recovery and health-care products but also useful guidance for designing other environmentally friendly foam systems that exhibit high performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-04-05

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103(-)CD11c⁺ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103⁺CD11c⁺ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  13. Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-11-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor.

  14. Effect of Nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum in Kimchi on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Bong, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Hyunung; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Kim, Hee-Young; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-10-01

    Nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) is a processed form of Lab. plantarum derived from kimchi and is 0.5-1.0 μm in size. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of nLp and kimchi plus nLp (K-nLp) on a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis. Animals fed nLp or K-nLp had longer colons, but lower colon weights per unit length than DSS controls. In addition, nLp- or K-nLp-fed animals showed lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory genes in serum and in colon tissues, lower populations of total bacteria, but higher populations of lactic acid bacteria in feces, and lower activities of fecal β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase. Furthermore, these suppressive activities of nLp on colitis were equivalent to or higher than those of naive Lab. plantarum. Consequently, nLp was found to exhibit anticolitic effects, and the addition of nLp to kimchi was found to enhance the protective activity of kimchi against DSS-induced colitis. These results suggest that nLp might be an effective substitute for live probiotics and be useful as a functional ingredient with the anticolitic activity by the probiotic and food processing industries.

  15. Protective Effect of Daikenchuto on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Takaharu; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kawasato, Ryo; Shirasawa, Tomohiro; Goto, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Okamoto, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of daikenchuto (TJ-100; DKT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) model mouse and assess its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Methods. We evaluated the effects of DKT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced experimental colitis. First, we assessed the short-term effects of DKT using two groups: 5% DSS group and 5% DSS with DKT group. Colon length; histological scores; and interleukin- (IL-) 10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression profiles were analyzed using real-time PCR. Second, we assessed the long-term effects of DKT, by comparing survival time between 2% DSS and 2% DSS with DKT groups. Results. After 7 days, the colon lengths of DSS + DKT group were longer than those of the DSS group (mean values: 6.11 versus 5.69 cm, p < 0.05). Furthermore, compared to DSS group, the DSS + DKT group maintained significantly higher levels of serum hemoglobin (13.1 versus 10.7 g/dL, p < 0.05) and exhibited significantly higher expression levels of IL-10 (p < 0.05). The 2% DSS + DKT group exhibited significantly longer survival time than the 2% DSS group (70 versus 44 days, p < 0.01). Conclusion. Our results indicate that DKT prevented inflammation in the colon, indicating its potential as a new therapeutic agent for UC.

  16. Clostridium butyricum, a probiotic derivative, suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshio; Andoh, Akira; Takizawa, Jyou; Takizawa, Wataru; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2004-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that probiotics or short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) exert a therapeutic effect on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In a previous study, we demonstrated that Clostridium butyricum produces high levels of SCFAs in culture. In addition, a yogurt-based additive effectively masked, completely eliminating the unpleasant odor derived from the SCFAs. We recently reported that the oral administration of both high and low dose diets (50% w/w for 17 days and 5% w/w for 16 months, respectively) of the Clostridium butyricum derivative did not cause pathological abnormalities in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of this product against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in rats. Five-week-old male Wistar Hannover GALAS rats were given a mixture of a standard diet containing 3% (w/w) of DSS for 8 days. In the derivative-fed group, Clostridium butyricum derivative (20% w/w) with 0.1% (w/w) additive was also added to their diet. The control-fed group was given tap water (20% w/w) with 0.1% (w/w) additive. After 8 days, a laparotomy was performed, and macroscopic and microscopic inflammation scoring was determined. The Clostridium butyricum derivative effectively prevented bloody diarrhea. In addition, mucosal damage to the derivative-fed group was significantly reduced macroscopically compared to that of the control-fed group. The potential clinical efficacy of the Clostridium butyricum derivative in IBD patients is also discussed.

  17. Intermittent fasting prompted recovery from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Toshihiko; Otsubo, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Teruki; Inazuka, Fumika; Kobayashi, Eiko; Fukuda, Shinji; Inoue, Takuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Kawamura, Yuki I; Dohi, Taeko

    2017-09-01

    Fasting-refeeding in mice induces transient hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells, which is dependent on the lactate produced as a metabolite of commensal bacteria. We attempted to manipulate colonic epithelial cell turnover with intermittent fasting to prompt recovery from acute colitis. Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in the drinking water for 5 days. From day 6, mice were fasted for 36 h and refed normal bait, glucose powder, or lactylated high-amylose starch. On day 9, colon tissues were subjected to analysis of histology and cytokine expression. The effect of lactate on the proliferation of colonocytes was assessed by enema in vivo and primary culture in vitro. Intermittent fasting resulted in restored colonic crypts and less expression of interleukin-1β and interleukin-17 in the colon than in mice fed ad libitum. Administration of lactate in the colon at refeeding time by enema or by feeding lactylated high-amylose starch increased the number of regenerating crypts. Addition of lactate but not butyrate or acetate supported colony formation of colonocytes in vitro. In conclusion, intermittent fasting in the resolution phase of acute colitis resulted in better recovery of epithelial cells and reduced inflammation.

  18. Intermittent fasting prompted recovery from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Toshihiko; Otsubo, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Teruki; Inazuka, Fumika; Kobayashi, Eiko; Fukuda, Shinji; Inoue, Takuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Dohi, Taeko

    2017-01-01

    Fasting-refeeding in mice induces transient hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells, which is dependent on the lactate produced as a metabolite of commensal bacteria. We attempted to manipulate colonic epithelial cell turnover with intermittent fasting to prompt recovery from acute colitis. Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in the drinking water for 5 days. From day 6, mice were fasted for 36 h and refed normal bait, glucose powder, or lactylated high-amylose starch. On day 9, colon tissues were subjected to analysis of histology and cytokine expression. The effect of lactate on the proliferation of colonocytes was assessed by enema in vivo and primary culture in vitro. Intermittent fasting resulted in restored colonic crypts and less expression of interleukin-1β and interleukin-17 in the colon than in mice fed ad libitum. Administration of lactate in the colon at refeeding time by enema or by feeding lactylated high-amylose starch increased the number of regenerating crypts. Addition of lactate but not butyrate or acetate supported colony formation of colonocytes in vitro. In conclusion, intermittent fasting in the resolution phase of acute colitis resulted in better recovery of epithelial cells and reduced inflammation. PMID:28955126

  19. Suppression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Radon Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon. PMID:23365486

  20. Preventive effects of Goji berry on dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yifei; Xue, Yansong; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) exerts immune modulation and suppresses inflammation in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that Goji berry had beneficial effects on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice through suppressing inflammation. Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with a standard AIN-93G diet with or without 1% (w/w) Goji berry for 4 weeks. Then, colitis was induced by supplementing 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days, followed by 7 days of remission period to mimic ulcerative colitis symptoms. Goji berry supplementation ameliorated DSS-induced body weight loss, diminished diarrhea and gross bleeding, and resulted in a significantly decreased disease activity index, as well as DSS-associated colon shortening. Moreover, 30% mortality rate caused by DSS-induced colitis was avoided because of Goji berry supplementation. Histologically, Goji berry ameliorated colonic edema, mucosal damage and neutrophil infiltration into colonic intestinal tissue in response to DSS challenge, which was associated with decreased expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2. In conclusion, Goji supplementation confers protective effects against DSS-induced colitis, which is associated with decreased neutrophil infiltration and suppressed inflammation. Thus, dietary Goji is likely beneficial to inflammatory bowel disease patients as a complementary therapeutic strategy.

  1. Solvation dynamics of DCM in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate: gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Halder, Arnab; Sen, Pratik; Burman, Anupam Das; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2004-02-03

    Solvation dynamics of 4-(dicyanomethylidene)-2-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-6-methyl-4H-pyran (DCM) is studied in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate consisting of gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KP) buffer. The average solvation time (tauS) in gelatin-SDS aggregate at 45 degrees C is found to be 1780 ps, which is about 13 times slower than that in 15 mM SDS in KP buffer at the same temperature. The fluorescence anisotropy decay in gelatin-SDS aggregate is also different from that in SDS micelles in KP buffer. DCM displays negligible emission in the presence of gelatin in aqueous solution. Thus the solvation dynamics in the presence of gelatin and SDS is exclusively due to the probe (DCM) molecules at the gelatin-micelle interface. The slow solvation dynamics is ascribed to the restrictions imposed on the water molecules trapped between the polypeptide chain and micellar aggregates. The critical association concentration (cac) of SDS for gelatin is determined to be 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM.

  2. Electrochemistry of Cytochrome P450 BM3 in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Films

    PubMed Central

    Udit, Andrew K.; Hill, Michael G.; Gray, Harry B.

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3) was achieved by confining the protein within sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films on the surface of basal-plane graphite (BPG) electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the heme FeIII/II redox couple at −330 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl, pH 7.4). Up to 10 V/s, the peak current was linear with scan rate, allowing us to treat the system as surface-confined within this regime. The standard heterogeneous rate constant determined at 10 V/s was estimated to be 10 s−1. Voltammograms obtained for the BM3-SDS-BPG system in the presence of dioxygen exhibited catalytic waves at the onset of FeIII reduction. The altered heme reduction potential of the BM3-SDS-graphite system indicates that SDS is likely bound in the enzyme active-site region. Compared to other P450-surfactant systems, we find redox potentials and electron transfer rates that differ by ~ 100 mV and > 10-fold, respectively, indicating that the nature of the surfactant environment has a significant effect on the observed heme redox properties. PMID:17129070

  3. Psychological stress reactivates dextran sulfate sodium-induced chronic colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Melgar, S; Engström, K; Jägervall, A; Martinez, V

    2008-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition with alternating active and quiescent phases of inflammation. Stress has been suggested as a factor triggering a relapse of IBD. We investigated the role of repetitive psychological stress [water avoidance stress (WAS)] in reactivating colonic inflammation in a murine model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 female mice by exposure to 3% DSS (5 days). During chronic inflammation(day 34), mice underwent repetitive WAS (1 h/day/7 days) and were given a sub-threshold concentration of DSS (1%, 5 days)or normal water to drink. At euthanasia (day 40), inflammatory parameters were assessed (colon inflammatory score, levels of inflammatory markers and histology). Mice with chronic colitis exposed to WAS had higher macroscopic and microscopic colonic inflammatory scores and levels of inflammatory markers (mainly IL-1beta, IL12p40 and CCL5) than non-stressed mice. Inflammatory responses were further enhanced by the presence of a sub-threshold concentration of DSS (1%). In mice without chronic inflammation, neither WAS nor 1% DSS, individually or in combination, elicited any inflammation. Hence stress, per se, reactivates a quiescent chronic inflammation, but does not initiate inflammation in healthy mice. Stress should be regarded as an environmental factor triggering IBD relapses in humans.

  4. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Mohebali, Nooshin; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA. PMID:26251571

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of the unfolding of individual bacteriorhodopsin helices in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Krishnamani, Venkatramanan; Lanyi, Janos K

    2012-02-14

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of the trends in the changes in secondary structure of the seven individual helices of bacteriorhodopsin when inserted into sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles, and their dependence on the amino acid sequence. The results indicate that the partitioning of the helices in the micelles and their stability are dependent on the hydrophobicity of the transmembrane segments. Helices A, B, and E are stable and retain their initial secondary structure throughout the 100 ns simulation time. In contrast, helices C, D, F, and G show structural perturbations within the first 10 ns. The instabilities are localized near charged residues within the transmembrane segments. The overall structural instability of the helix is correlated with its partitioning to the surface of the micelle and its interaction with polar groups there. The in silico experiments were performed to complement the in vitro experiments that examined the partial denaturation of bacteriorhodopsin in SDS described in the preceding article (DOI 10.1021/bi201769z ). The simulations are consistent with the trends revealed by the experimental results but strongly underestimate the extent of helix to extended coil transformation. The reason may be either that the sampling time was not sufficiently long or, more interestingly, that interhelix residue interactions play a role in the unfolding of the helices.

  6. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kanbe, Takamasa |; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki |; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Shiota, Goshi . E-mail: gshiota@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.

  7. Interaction of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with sodium dodecyl sulfate below the critical aggregation concentration.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Nobuo; Ogawa, Minami

    2014-06-10

    Interaction between the thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (P-NIP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) both above and below its phase transition temperature was examined under dilute conditions. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of P-NIP (32 °C), 0.01 wt % P-NIP specifically interacted with 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L SDS to form a precipitate. However, when SDS was added at concentrations above or below 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, the P-NIP solution remained clear above the LCST. A fluorometric probe, N-phenyl-naphthalene, indicated that the hydrophobicity of the aggregates composed of P-NIP and SDS changed at an SDS concentration of 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. Although the hydrophobicity of the precipitate was similar to that of P-NIP alone at less than 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, it approached that of SDS homomicelles as the SDS concentration increased above 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. Dynamic light scattering and turbidimetry studies showed no P-NIP phase transition above an SDS concentration of 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, which is much lower than the reported critical association concentration (CAC) of SDS with P-NIP. This indicates that P-NIP interacted with SDS above the LSCT at much lower SDS concentration than the reported CAC.

  8. Differentiation and distribution of colistin- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-tolerant cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, Janus A J; Klausen, Mikkel; Ernst, Robert K; Miller, Samuel I; Folkesson, Anders; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Molin, Søren

    2007-01-01

    During Pseudomonas aeruginosa flow cell biofilm development, the cell population differentiates into a nonmotile subpopulation which forms microcolonies and a migrating subpopulation which eventually colonizes the top of the microcolonies, resulting in the development of mushroom-shaped multicellular structures. The cap-forming subpopulation was found to develop tolerance to membrane-targeting antimicrobial agents, such as the cyclic cationic peptide colistin and the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. The stalk-forming subpopulation, on the other hand, was sensitive to the membrane-targeting antibacterial agents. All biofilm-associated cells were sensitive to the antibacterial agents when tested in standard plate assays. A mutation eliminating the production of type IV pili, and hence surface-associated motility, prevented the formation of regular mushroom-shaped structures in the flow cell biofilms, and the development of tolerance to the antimicrobial agents was found to be affected as well. Mutations in genes interfering with lipopolysaccharide modification (pmr) eliminated the biofilm-associated colistin tolerance phenotype. Experiments with a PAO1 strain harboring a pmr-gfp fusion showed that only the cap-forming subpopulation in biofilms treated with colistin expresses the pmr operon. These results suggest that increased antibiotic tolerance in biofilms may be a consequence of differentiation into distinct subpopulations with different phenotypic properties.

  9. Crystallisation of sodium dodecyl sulfate and the corresponding effect of 1-dodecanol addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerton, Emily; Zimbitas, Georgina; Britton, Melanie; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-12-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) exhibits crystallisation upon exposure to low temperatures, which can pose a problem in terms of product stability. In this study, non-isothermal crystallisation of SDS is investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at concentrations that are typical of those present in many industrial liquid detergents. At different low temperatures, the crystal structures are analysed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it is concluded that ice formation during the surfactant crystallisation process occurs below 0 °C. The capability of the alcohol precursor, 1-dodecanol, as a seeding material for SDS crystallisation is also investigated through the use of DSC and optical microscopy. These results show that 1-dodecanol can successfully act as a seed for SDS crystallisation. Upon cooling an SDS aqueous system, the crystallisation peak in the DSC thermogram shifts to a higher temperature in the presence of 1-dodecanol. Therefore, any remnant alcohol precursor in surfactant-based formulations could have a negative impact on the product stability upon exposure to cold climates.

  10. Improving the hardness of dry granulated tablets containing sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Moore, Francis; Okelo, Geoffrey; Colón, Ivelisse; Kushner, Joseph

    2010-11-15

    The impact of the addition of a wetting agent, the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on the tablet hardness of a dry granulated, solid oral dosage form was investigated. In three batches, SLS was added concurrently with: (1) a poorly soluble, highly hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the other excipients prior to the initial blending step, (2) magnesium stearate prior to roller compaction, or (3) magnesium stearate prior to tableting. A fourth batch, which did not contain SLS, served as a control. The maximum hardness of 100 mg, 1/4″-SRC tablets for the four batches--SLS added initially, prior to roller compaction, prior to tableting, and no SLS--were 61±3, 71±3, 89±5, and 86±3N, respectively, suggesting reduced processing of SLS improves tablet hardness by ∼50%. Dissolution of the tablets in 900 ml of simulated gastric fluid with paddles at 75 rpm showed that: (1) there was no impact on the insertion point of SLS into the process on API dissolution, and (2) that the presence of SLS improved dissolution by 5% compared to the control tablets. Adding SLS just prior to tableting can improve tablet hardness and yield similar dissolution performance relative to SLS addition prior to the initial blending step.

  11. Simple Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Assisted Sample Preparation Method for LC-MS-based Proteomic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Shi, Tujin; Wang, Lu; Gao, Xiaoli; Su, Dian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-03-10

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for highly efficient biological sample extraction; however, SDS presents a significant challenge to LC-MS-based proteomic analyses due to its severe interference with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization interfaces. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomic sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal protocol. After SDS-assisted protein extraction and digestion, SDS was effectively (>99.9%) removed from peptides through ion substitution-mediated DS- precipitation with potassium chloride (KCl) followed by {approx}10 min centrifugation. Excellent peptide recovery (>95%) was observed for less than 20 {mu}g of peptides. Further experiments demonstrated the compatibility of this protocol with LC-MS/MS analyses. The resulting proteome coverage from this SDS-assisted protocol was comparable to or better than those obtained from other standard proteomic preparation methods in both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples. These results suggest that this SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomic sample processing method, which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods.

  12. Microfluidic integration of Western blotting is enabled by electrotransfer-assisted sodium dodecyl sulfate dilution.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chenlu; Herr, Amy E

    2013-01-07

    We integrate sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with subsequent antibody probing in a single, monolithic microdevice to realize microfluidic Western blotting. A hurdle to successful on-chip Western blotting lies in restoring antibody recognition of previously sized (denatured, reduced) proteins. To surmount this hurdle, we locally dilute free SDS from SDS-protein complexes using differential electromigration of the species during electrotransfer between SDS-PAGE and blotting regions of a microchamber. Local dilution of SDS minimizes re-association of SDS with proteins offering means to restore antibody binding affinity to proteins after SDS-PAGE. To achieve automated, programmable operation in a single instrument, we utilize a 1 × 2 mm(2) glass microchamber photopatterned with spatially distinct, contiguous polyacrylamide regions for SDS-PAGE, electrotransfer, and antibody blotting. Optimization of both the SDS-PAGE and electrotransfer conditions yields transfer distances of <1 mm (40 s). The Western blot is completed in 180 s, with fully automated assay operation using programmable voltage control. After SDS-PAGE and electrotransfer, we observe ~80% capture of protein band mass on the blotting region for a model protein, C-reactive protein. This novel microfluidic Western blot approach introduces fine transport control for in-transit protein handling to form the basis for an automated, rapid alternative to conventional slab-gel Western blotting.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of Forsythia suspensa in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Gun; Li, Wei; Yang, Hye Jin; Yim, Nam-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-07-12

    Forsythia suspensa Fructus (FS) is used to treat various inflammatory disorders in traditional Oriental medicine, including gastrointestinal diseases, but its therapeutic potential in ulcerative colitis is unclear. Thus, we investigated any potential therapeutic effects of FS against intestinal inflammation and the bioactive constituents in FS. After the induction of colitis using 3% dextran sulfate sodium, FS (100mg/kg/day) was administered orally during the experimental period. We evaluated body weight, bloody diarrhea, colon length, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Subsequently, the bioactive constituents of FS were identified using UPLC/MS/MS. FS significantly decreased the body weight loss, colon length shortening, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 elevations induced by colitis compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). Moreover, FS improved the colitis-induced histopathological damage to the colon, including epithelial necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, ulceration, and submucosal edema. In phytochemical analyses, 7 flavonoids, 9 lignans, 13 phenolics, and 2 triterpenes were identified by comparison with the retention times and mass fragmentations of authentic standards. We demonstrated beneficial effects of FS and its constituents, suggesting their potential for treatment of intestinal inflammation. These data could provide useful information for managing ulcerative colitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 ± 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-α, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

  15. Evaluation of toxicity reduction of sodium dodecyl sulfate submitted to electron beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, M. F.; Moraes, M. C. F.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Surfactants, as detergent active substances, are an important source of pollution causing biological adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Several data have been showing ecological disturbance due to the high concentration of surfactants on receiving waters and on wastewater treatment plants. Ionizing radiation has been proved as an effective technology to decompose organic substances and few papers have included ecotoxicological aspects. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity of a specific surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), when diluted in distilled water and submitted to electron beam radiation. The study included two test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. Radiation processing resulted in an important acute toxicity removal for both assays, which can be summarized between 70% and 96%, using 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 kGy as radiation doses. Nevertheless, lower doses demonstrated better effect than 9.0 and 12.0 kGy and the bacterium assay was more sensitive to SDS than crustacean assay.

  16. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties.

  17. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. PMID:26713317

  18. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.

  19. Surface modification to produce hydrophobic nano-silica particles using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Bing; Liang, Yong; Wang, Ting-Jie; Jiang, Yanping

    2016-02-01

    Hydrophobic silica particles were prepared using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a modifier by a new route comprising three processes, namely, aqueous mixing, spray drying and thermal treatment. Since SDS dissolves in water, this route is free of an organic solvent and gave a perfect dispersion of SDS, that is, there was excellent contact between SDS and silica particles in the modification reaction. The hydrophobicity of the modified surface was verified by the contact angle of the nano-sized silica particles, which was 107°. The SDS grafting density reached 1.82 nm-2, which is near the highest value in the literature. The optimal parameters of the SDS/SiO2 ratio in the aqueous phase, process temperature and time of thermal treatment were determined to be 20%, 200 °C and 30 min, respectively. The grafting mechanism was studied by comparing the modification with that on same sized TiO2 particles, which indicated that the protons of the Brønsted acid sites on the surface of SiO2 reacted with SDS to give a carbocation which then formed a Si-O-C structure. This work showed that the hydrophilic surface of silica can be modified to be a hydrophobic surface by using a water soluble modifier SDS in a new modification route.

  20. Sodium hexadecyl sulfate as an interfacial substance adjusting the adsorption of a protein on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Du, Kun; Fu, Li; Gao, Jiang; Zhang, Haiyang; Feng, Wei; Ji, Peijun

    2014-09-10

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS). The lysozyme adsorbed on the SHS-CNTs exhibited a higher activity than that immobilized on the nonfunctionalized CNTs. To explain the experimental results and explore the mechanism of lysozyme adsorption, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for a four-component system, including lysozyme, SHS, CNTs in explicit water. It has been found that the assembled SHS molecules form a soft layer on the surface of CNTs. The interactions between lysozyme and SHS induce the rearrangement of SHS molecules, forming a saddle-like structure on the CNT surface. The saddle-like structure fits the shape of the lysozyme, and the active-site cleft of the lysozyme is exposed to the water phase. Whereas, for the lysozyme adsorbed on the nonfunctionalized CNT, due to the hydrophobic interactions, the active-site cleft of the enzyme tends to face the wall of the CNT. The results of this work demonstrate that the SHS molecules as the interfacial substance have a function of adjusting the lysozyme with an appropriate orientation, which is favorable for the lysozyme having a higher activity.

  1. Bovine serum albumin-sodium alkyl sulfates bioconjugates as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Benkő, M; Varga, N; Sebők, D; Bohus, G; Juhász, Á; Dékány, I

    2015-06-01

    Precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by anionic surfactants with alkyl chains of increasing lengths (octyl, decyl, dodecyl sulfates) was studied at room temperature, at pH 3.0, in isotonic sodium chloride solution. The particle size of albumin, the zeta potential, the surface charge and fluorescent properties of BSA-surfactant composites were investigated concerning addition of increasing amount of surfactant. The thermal stability of the systems was monitored by calorimetric analysis (DSC). The formation of the well-ordered structure in the self-assembly process in liquid phase was studied by XRD measurement. The structure of the precipitated BSA-surfactant nanocomposites was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Finally, ibuprofen (IBU) molecules were enclosed in BSA-surfactant bioconjugate systems and the release properties of the drug were investigated. It has been found out that, as a consequence to the increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chains of the surfactant, the structure and the fluorescent properties of the aggregates formed can be controlled due to the increase in the hydrophobicity of BSA-surfactant composites. The bioconjugates are well applicable as carrier to realize controlled release of drug molecules.

  2. Improved oral absorption of tacrolimus by a solid dispersion with hypromellose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyuck Jun; Ahn, Hye In; Park, Ji Yeon; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Dae Ro; Cho, Ha Ra; Park, Jun Seo; Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-02-01

    A novel surfactant-incorporated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) solid dispersion (SD) system was constructed in order to facilitate the release rate and oral absorption of tacrolimus (FK506), a poorly water-soluble immunosuppressant. Several emulsifiers including sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), as drug release promotors, were employed with HPMC to fabricate SD using the solvent wetting method. The solid state characteristics using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction, revealed that FK506 was molecularly distributed within all dispersions in amorphous form. The dissolution rates of FK506 in SLS-incorporated SDs were much higher than those in SDs prepared with HPMC alone, and even with stearoyl polyoxyl-32 glycerides or tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. In particular, the greatest dissolution enhancement was obtained from the SD consisting of the drug, HPMC, and SLS in a weight ratio of 1:1:3, providing a 50-fold higher drug concentration within 15 min, compared with HPMC SD. In vivo absorption study in rats demonstrates that the optimized formula remarkably increased the oral absorption of FK506, providing about 4.0-fold greater bioavailability (p<0.05) compared with the marketed product (Prograf®, Astellas Pharma). These data suggest that a novel SLS/HPMC SD may be an advantageous dosage form of FK506, boosting the dissolution and absorption in gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Examination of surface adsorption of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

    2011-07-28

    Several pieces of experimental evidence of condensation of soluble surfactant molecules, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), into the air/water surface region from the bulk solution are presented at different added salt concentrations in order to substantiate that the concentrated molecules do not locate just at the air/solution interface. The insoluble monolayer just at the air/subphase interface for the two surfactants could be studied by surface pressure (π) versus molecular surface area (A), surface potential (ΔV) versus the area (A), infrared absorption of the surface region, and BAM (Brewster angle microscope) image. From surface tension versus concentration curves for the two surfactant solutions, the apparent molecular surface area and the cmc values were determined at different added salt concentrations, and the degree of counterion binding to micelle was found to be 0.70 and 0.73 for CTAB and SDS, respectively. Further examination was made on infrared absorption from the surface region of the surfactant solutions and on BAM images of the surface planes in order to examine the difference between the insoluble monolayer and the condensation in the surface region. Finally, the new concept of bilayer or bilamellar aggregate for soluble surfactant solutions is presented together with the former experimental evidence, which is consistent with several interfacial phenomena of the surfactant solutions.

  4. Adsorption and Aggregation Activity of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Rhamnolipid Mixture.

    PubMed

    Mańko, Diana; Zdziennicka, Anna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the surface tension, density and viscosity of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and rhamnolipid (RL) mixtures were carried out in aqueous solution. From the obtained results, composition of mixed surface layer at the water-air interface, mixed micelles, parameter of intermolecular interactions, activity of SDS and RL in the surface layer and micelles, Gibbs standard free energy of adsorption and micellization as well as Gibbs free energy of SDS and RL mixing in the surface layer and micelles were established. These parameters were discussed in the light of independent adsorption of SDS and RL and the size of their molecules as well as the area in contact with water molecules. A correlation between the number of water molecules in contact with those of SDS and RL and standard free energy of adsorption as well as micellization of these surfactants was observed. A correlation between the apparent and partial molar volumes of RL and SDS in their mixture and size of surfactant molecules as well as the average distance between molecules was also found. The parameter of intermolecular interactions indicates that there is a synergetic effect in the reduction of water surface tension and micelle formation.

  5. Fabrication and surface properties of hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates based on sodium cocoate modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Linna; Wang, Guangxiu; Cao, Rong; Yang, Chun; Chen, Xi

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates were fabricated by the direction of cocoate anions. At 30 °C, when the weight ratio of sodium cocoate to BaSO4 particles was 2.0 wt.%, the active ratio of the product reached 99.43% and the contact angle was greater than 120°. This method could not only simplify the complex modification process, but reduce energy consumption. The surface morphology, chemical structure and composition of BaSO4 aggregates were characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicated that the as-synthesized BaSO4 particles were almond-liked and were composed of many interconnected nanoballs and that their surfaces were affected by cocoate anions. The adsorption of cocoate anions reversed the charge and weakened the surface polarity of BaSO4 particles, driving the formation of aggregates. And cocoate anions induced a change of the BaSO4 particles surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by a self-assembly and transformation process. Due to the self-assembled structure and the surface hydrophobicity, when adding the hydrophobic BaSO4 into PVC, the mechanical properties of PVC composite materials were significantly improved.

  6. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  7. Dextran sodium sulfate enhances secretion of recombinant human transferrin in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Mukaiyama, Hiroyuki; Giga-Hama, Yuko; Tohda, Hideki; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2009-11-01

    The effect of medium supplementation on heterologous production of human serum transferrin (hTF) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been investigated. The productivity of recombinant hTF was low in wild-type S. pombe cells. To overcome this impediment, culture media supplements were screened for their ability to improve secretion of hTF. Casamino acids (CAA), which have been reported to increase heterologous protein productivity in Pichia pastoris, improved the secretion hTF by more than fourfold. An anion surfactant deoxycholate or polyethylene glycol also improved the secretion hTF. Interestingly, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), a poly-anion surfactant, was found to enhance production of secreted hTF better than any other supplement tested. Addition of DSS in the presence of 2% CAA exhibited a synergistic effect on increasing hTF secretion, resulting in an increase of about sevenfold relative to conventional conditions. Cell growth was not found to be affected by the addition of DSS or CAA. DSS may act as a surfactant and may also facilitate the anchoring of liposomes, and these properties may contribute to efficient secretion or exocytosis through the plasma membrane.

  8. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  9. Curcumin prevents the development of dextran sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Yasuyuki; Andoh, Akira; Inatomi, Osamu; Yagi, Yuhki; Bamba, Shigeki; Araki, Yoshio; Hata, Kazunori; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2007-11-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic natural product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric). We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. BALB/c mice were fed a chow containing either 3.5% (wt/wt) DSS or 3.5% DSS + 2.0% (wt/wt) curcumin. The body weight loss was more apparent in DSS-treated mice than in DSS + curcumin-treated mice. The disease activity index, histological colitis score, and MPO activity were all significantly higher in DSS-treated mice than in DSS plus curcumin-treated mice. Microscopically, mucosal edema, cellular infiltration, and epithelial disruption were much more severe in DSS-treated mice than in DSS + curcumin-treated mice. In DSS + curcumin-treated mice, NF-kappaB activation was blocked in the mucosa. In conclusion, the development of DSS-induced colitis was significantly attenuated by curcumin. Being a nontoxic natural dietary product, curcumin could be useful in treatment of IBD patients.

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Rice Bran Effectively Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Jahidul; Koseki, Takuya; Watanabe, Kouichi; Ardiansyah; Budijanto, Slamet; Oikawa, Akira; Alauddin, Md; Goto, Tomoko; Aso, Hisahi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Rice bran (RB) is a major by-product of rice polishing and a rich source of bioactive compounds. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis effect of diet supplementation with fermented rice bran (FRB) in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. FRB was prepared by dual fermentation of RB using fungi and lactic acid bacteria. Colitis was induced in C57Bl/6N male mice (n = 8/group) by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Body weight change, disease activity index (DAI), histopathology score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, cytokine and chemokine transcript levels, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and mucin in the colonic tissue were monitored. Based on histopathology scores, DSS induced severe mucosal inflammation, with an increased loss of crypts, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the control and RB groups, but not in the FRB group. MPO activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine transcript (Tnf-α, Il-1β, Il-6, and Il-17) levels were significantly higher in the control and RB groups than in the FRB group. Thus, dietary FRB attenuated intestinal inflammation owing to elevated SCFAs and tryptamine production, which might regulate tight junction barrier integrity and intestinal homeostasis. These results suggest that FRB could comprise an effective potential preventive agent for ulcerative colitis. PMID:28703759

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Rice Bran Effectively Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Jahidul; Koseki, Takuya; Watanabe, Kouichi; Budijanto, Slamet; Oikawa, Akira; Alauddin, Md; Goto, Tomoko; Aso, Hisahi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi

    2017-07-13

    Rice bran (RB) is a major by-product of rice polishing and a rich source of bioactive compounds. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis effect of diet supplementation with fermented rice bran (FRB) in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. FRB was prepared by dual fermentation of RB using fungi and lactic acid bacteria. Colitis was induced in C57Bl/6N male mice (n = 8/group) by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Body weight change, disease activity index (DAI), histopathology score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, cytokine and chemokine transcript levels, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and mucin in the colonic tissue were monitored. Based on histopathology scores, DSS induced severe mucosal inflammation, with an increased loss of crypts, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the control and RB groups, but not in the FRB group. MPO activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine transcript (Tnf-α, Il-1β, Il-6, and Il-17) levels were significantly higher in the control and RB groups than in the FRB group. Thus, dietary FRB attenuated intestinal inflammation owing to elevated SCFAs and tryptamine production, which might regulate tight junction barrier integrity and intestinal homeostasis. These results suggest that FRB could comprise an effective potential preventive agent for ulcerative colitis.

  12. Suppressive effect of berberine on experimental dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tie; Yang, Zhen; Lv, Chuan-Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of berberine was evaluated in murine model of acute experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Berberine, given orally at 40, 20, 10 mg/kg for 10 days, ameliorated all the supposed inflammatory symptoms of the induced colitis, such as body weightloss, blood hemoglobin reduction, high myeloperoxidase levels, and malondialdehyde content-inflamed mucosa. Furthermore, the cytokine production of splenic lymphocytes was analyzed. The results showed the IFN-γ and IL-12 were increased, but IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased in DSS-induced colitis,when those were compared with the normal control. But the administration of berberine to DSS-induced colitis mice showed lower production of IFN-γ and IL-12 and higher production of IL-4 and IL-10 than the DSS-induced colitis mice. The results suggest that the protective effects of berberine against the DSS-induced colitis may be associated with the regulation of cytokine production.

  13. Mucin production and composition is altered in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Faure, M; Moënnoz, D; Montigon, F; Mettraux, C; Mercier, S; Schiffrin, E J; Obled, C; Breuillé, D; Boza, J

    2003-07-01

    We evaluated the small and large intestinal mucin production in a rat model of human ulcerative colitis by measuring the in vivo fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and the expression of mucins. A chronic colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 9 days followed by 2% DSS for 18 days. DSS-treated rats showed increased colonic MUC2,3 mRNA levels compared pair-fed controls. The mucin FSR was unaffected while mucin-containing goblet cells were depleted in the vicinity of lesions. In the small intestine, no inflammatory lesions were observed but ileal MUC2 mRNA levels and mucin FSR were decreased by 46% and 21%, respectively. Finally, DSS-treated rats showed a marked decrease in mucin's threonine + serine content all along the gut, which may lead to a reduction of potential O-glycosylation sites. Our data indicate that the chronic colitis may impair the mucus layer protective function all along the gut.

  14. Microenvironment of tryptophan residues in beta-lactoglobulin derivative polypeptide-sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes.

    PubMed

    Imamura, T; Konishi, K

    1992-06-01

    The changes of microenvironment of tryptophan residues in beta-lactoglobulin A and its cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragments with the binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied with measurements of the rates of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) modification reactions by stopped-flow photometry. Two tryptophan residues of carboxyamidomethylated (RCM) beta-lactoglobulin A in the states of their complexes with SDS were clearly distinguishable by their differences in NBS modification rates. We confirmed by experiments with CNBr fragments containing trytophan residue. The modification rates of Trp 19 in RCM beta-lactoglobulin A-SDS complexes were about 10-fold smaller than those expected for tryptophan residues exposed entirely to the aqueous solvent. The Trp 61 was hardly changed. The change of rate constants for Trp 19 was virtually consistent with those observed when N-acetyl-L-trytophan ethylester was dissolved in SDS micelles. For various species of polypeptide-SDS complexes, all tryptophan residues were reactive to NBS and also, for some of them, the differences in NBS modification rates were observed between tryptophan residues on a common polypeptide chain. These results suggest micellar and heterogeneous bindings of SDS to polypeptides.

  15. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis of freshwater photosynthetic sulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Osuna, M Begoña; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2011-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out using different bacterial strains of the photosynthetic sulfur bacteria Chlorobium, Thiocapsa, Thiocystis, and Chromatium cultured in the laboratory, and the natural blooms in two karstic lakes (Lake Cisó and Lake Vilar, NE Spain) where planktonic photosynthetic bacteria (purple and green sulfur bacteria) massively developed accounting for most of the microbial biomass. Several extraction, solubilization, and electrophoresis methods were tested to develop an optimal protocol for the best resolution of the SDS-PAGE. Protein composition from different water depths and at different times of the year was visualized within a molecular mass range between 100 and 15 kDa yielding up to 20 different protein bands. Protein banding patterns were reproducible and changed in time and with depth in agreement with changes in photosynthetic bacteria composition. When a taxonomically stable community was followed in time, differences were observed in the intensity but not in the composition of the SDS-PAGE banding pattern. Three environmental variables directly related to the activity of sulfur bacteria (light, oxygen, and sulfide concentrations) had a significant effect on protein banding patterns and explained 33% of the variance. Changes in natural protein profiles of the bacterial blooms agreed with changes in species composition and in the in situ metabolic state of the populations.

  16. Th17 Responses Are Not Induced in Dextran Sodium Sulfate Model of Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Suk; Lee, Min Ho; Ju, Ahn Seung

    2011-01-01

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is a widely used chemical model for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is thought that imbalances in the T helper (Th) cell subsets contribute to IBD. Recent studies suggest that the acute DSS-colitis model is polarized toward a Th1/Th17 profile based on RT-PCR analysis of colonic tissues. In the current study we determined whether colonic Th cells from DSS-colitis mice were skewed toward the Th17 profile. Mice were treated with 5% DSS for 7 days and colonic T cells isolated and examined for production of IFN-γ (Th1 cell), IL-4 (Th2 cell) and IL-17 (Th17 cell) by intracellular flow cytometry. We found that the percentage of colonic Th17 cells were similar to non-treated controls but the percentage of Th1 cells were elevated in DSS-colitis mice. These results suggest that in the acute DSS-colitis model the colonic Th cells exhibit a Th1 profile and not a Th17 profile. PMID:22346784

  17. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  18. Effect of Arctium lappa L. in the dextran sulfate sodium colitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong; Liu, Li-Fang; Liu, Yu Lin; Liu, Hung-Jen; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2010-09-07

    To analyze the possible protective role of Arctium lappa L. (AL) in a murine model of ulcerative colitis (UC). BALB/c mice were administered 100 mg/kg AL powder orally each day. After 7 d, colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) (5% W/V) in drinking water for a further 8 consecutive days. Diarrhea and bloody stools as well as colonic histology were observed. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in colonic sections were detected by immunohistochemistry. There were significant differences in mean body weight values and disease activity indices between controls and AL-treated animals. Moreover, the histological findings showed that AL treatment can prevent mucosal edema, submucosal erosions, ulceration, inflammatory cell infiltration and colon damage. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were also decreased in AL-treated groups. We suggest that AL can prevent intestinal damage and decrease inflammatory cytokines in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Thus, AL could prove to be a useful food for UC.

  19. Effect of Arctium lappa L. in the dextran sulfate sodium colitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong; Liu, Li-Fang; Liu, Yu Lin; Liu, Hung-Jen; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the possible protective role of Arctium lappa L. (AL) in a murine model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: BALB/c mice were administered 100 mg/kg AL powder orally each day. After 7 d, colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) (5% W/V) in drinking water for a further 8 consecutive days. Diarrhea and bloody stools as well as colonic histology were observed. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in colonic sections were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There were significant differences in mean body weight values and disease activity indices between controls and AL-treated animals. Moreover, the histological findings showed that AL treatment can prevent mucosal edema, submucosal erosions, ulceration, inflammatory cell infiltration and colon damage. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α were also decreased in AL-treated groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that AL can prevent intestinal damage and decrease inflammatory cytokines in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Thus, AL could prove to be a useful food for UC. PMID:20806438

  20. Comparison of the bile salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate stress responses in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Flahaut, S; Frere, J; Boutibonnes, P; Auffray, Y

    1996-01-01

    The resistance to detergents and detergent-induced tolerance of a gastrointestinal organism, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433, were examined. The most remarkable observation was the rapid response of cells in contact with bile salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The killing by high concentrations of detergents was nearly instantaneous. A 5-s adaptation with moderate sublethal concentrations of bile salts or SDS (0.08 or 0.01%, respectively) was sufficient to induce significant adaptation against homologous lethal conditions (0.3% bile salts or 0.017% SDS). However, resistance to a subsequent lethal challenge progressively increased further to a maximum reached after 30 min of adaptation. Furthermore, extremely strong cross-resistances were observed with bile salts- and SDS-adapted cells. However, no relationship seems to exist between levels of tolerance and de novo-synthesized proteins, since blockage of protein synthesis during adaptation had no effect on induction of resistance to bile salts and SDS. We conclude that this induced tolerance to detergent stress is independent of protein synthesis. Nevertheless, the stress-induced protein patterns of E. faecalis ATCC 19433 showed significant modifications. The rates of synthesis of 45 and 34 proteins were enhanced after treatments with bile salts and SDS, respectively. In spite of the overlap of 12 polypeptides, the protein profiles induced by the two detergents were different, suggesting that these detergents trigger different responses in E. faecalis. Therefore, bile salts cannot be substituted for SDS in biochemical detergent shock experiments with bacteria. PMID:8779581

  1. Monte carlo simulations of micellization in model ionic surfactants: application to sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Daniel W; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2006-04-25

    A lattice model for ionic surfactants with explicit counterions is proposed for which the micellization behavior can be accurately determined from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The model is characterized by a few parameters that can be adjusted to represent various linear surfactants with ionic headgroups. The model parameters have a clear physical interpretation and can be obtained from experimental data unrelated to micellization, namely, geometric information and solubilities of tail segments. As a specific example, parameter values for sodium dodecyl sulfate were obtained by optimizing for the solubility of hydrocarbons in water and the structural properties of dodecane. The critical micelle concentration (cmc), average aggregation number, degree of counterion binding, and their dependence on temperature were determined from histogram reweighting grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and were compared to experimental results. The model gives the correct trend and order of magnitude for all quantities but underpredicts the cmc and aggregation number. We suggest ways to modify the model that may improve agreement with experimental values.

  2. Mechanical properties of mouse lungs along organ decellularization by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Paula N; Uriarte, Juan J; Campillo, Noelia; Melo, Esther; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon; Oliveira, Luis V F

    2014-08-15

    Lung decellularization is based on the use of physical, chemical, or enzymatic methods to break down the integrity of the cells followed by a treatment to extract the cellular material from the lung scaffold. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical changes throughout the different steps of lung decellularization process. Four lungs from mice (C57BL/6) were decellularized by using a conventional protocol based on sodium dodecyl sulfate. Lungs resistance (R(L)) and elastance (E(L)) were measured along decellularization steps and were computed by linear regression fitting of tracheal pressure, flow, and volume during mechanical ventilation. Transients differences found were more distinct in an intermediate step after the lungs were rinsed with deionized water and treated with 1% SDS, whereupon the percentage of variation reached approximately 80% for resistance values and 30% for elastance values. In conclusion, although a variation in extracellular matrix stiffness was observed during the decellularization process, this variation can be considered negligible overall because the resistance and elastance returned to basal values at the final decellularization step.

  3. Antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate in apple slices.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

    2009-01-01

    There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh

  4. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium saccharin on morphology, hardness and wear behavior of Cr-WC nano composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei-Sameti, M.; Nadali, S.; Falahatpisheh, A.; Rakhshi, M.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of sodium saccharin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) additives on the amount of incorporated tungsten carbide (WC) particles and morphology of the coatings are investigated. The structure and morphology of the coatings are determined by scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). The hardness and tribological behavior of the coatings are studied by micro hardness and pin on disk methods. The experimental results show that with the addition of sodium saccharin and SDS the amount of WC particles in the coating decreases and the size of WC agglomerates reduces. The average size of WC particles is 70 nm. On the other hand the wear resistances of the coatings increase and the optimum wear resistance is 1 g/L.

  5. Effects of various polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooils (Tweens) and sodium dodecyl sulfate on reflux synthesis of copper nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xifeng; Yin Hengbo . E-mail: yin@ujs.edu.cn; Cheng Xiaonong; Hu Huifeng; Yu Qi; Wang Aili

    2006-11-09

    Size-controlled synthesis of phase pure Cu nanoparticles was carried out by using copper sulfate pentahydrate as a precursor, ascorbic acid as a reductant, Tweens and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as modifiers in an aqueous solution at 80 deg. C. The as-prepared Cu nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The stabilizing effects of SDS and Tweens on the Cu nanoparticles should be through the coordination between Cu nanoparticles and the respective sulfate group and oxygen-containing bond. The synergic effect of the composite SDS and Tweens on Cu nanoparticles was different from those arising from the individuals.

  6. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats. Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed. Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment. Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute experimental colitis in C57BL/6 mice is mitigated by selenium.

    PubMed

    Sang, Lixuan; Chang, Bing; Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Xun; Lu, Changlong; Wang, Danan

    2016-10-01

    Sodium selenite has been shown to have a protective role in experimental colitis. Th1 and Th17 responses are involved in the pathogenesis of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated whether sodium selenite can suppress Th1/Th17-mediated experimental colitis. Mice were administered sodium selenite (2μg/g body weight) by gavage daily for 30days. Beginning on day 21, mice were administered 2.5% oral DSS for 9days. The mice were sacrificed on day 31. Survival rates, clinical symptoms, colon lengths, and histological changes were determined. Pretreatment with sodium selenite (2μg/g body weight) improved survival rates, colon shortening, body weight loss, disease activity index, and histopathological score in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Pretreatment with sodium selenite restored interleukin-10 and Foxp3 excretion, as well as reducing the levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-17A. Pretreatment with sodium selenite showed therapeutic potential for preventing colitis in mice. This effect may be mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells, expressing anti-inflammatory genes that suppress Th1 and Th17 responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  9. Compounds of glycine with metal sulfates and thiosulfates: glycine cobalt sulfate pentahydrate, glycine sodium thiosulfate dihydrate and glycine potassium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Michel; Bohatý, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    In the crystal structures of the title compounds, hexaaquacobalt(II) tetraaquadiglycinatocobalt(II) bis(sulfate), [Co(H2O)6][Co(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, (I), poly[diaqua-mu3-glycinato-di-mu4-thiosulfato-tetrasodium(I)], [Na4(C2H5NO2)(S2O3)2(H2O)2]n, (II), and poly[mu2-glycinato-mu4-thiosulfato-dipotassium(I)], [K2(C2H5NO2)(S2O3)]n, (III), all atoms are located on general positions, except the Co atoms in (I), which are located on inversion centres. In (I), hydrogen bonds play an important role, while the alkali thiosulfate compounds are characterized by three-dimensional frameworks of polyhedra. Relations to other compounds of glycine and metal sulfates are commented on.

  10. Effect of natural dissolved organic carbon on phosphate removal by ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate treatment of wetland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qualls, Robert G.; Sherwood, Lindsay J.; Richardson, Curtis J.

    2009-09-01

    The use of wetlands for the removal of excess N and P has become widespread. Some sensitive P-limited ecosystems, however, may require additional reductions in the concentration of P entering the system. It has been proposed that the treatment of wetlands through addition of ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate can augment the natural P removal mechanisms. However, high concentrations of natural dissolved organic matter may interfere with the removal of P by metal addition. We evaluated the doses of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate necessary to reduce total P concentrations below 0.32 μM (10 μg/L) in water from the Northern Everglades, and we determined the effect of various concentrations (21, 38, and 60 mg/L) of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the removal of PO4 and total P. High concentrations of natural DOC inhibited both the short-term removal of PO4 and the longer-term removal of total P from the water column. Similar results were observed using 15 μM citric acid in an experiment to determine whether citric acid could effectively mimic the inhibition of phosphorus removal associated with natural DOC. Stoichiometry of these experiments indicates that the mechanism of natural DOC interference was not complexation of the metal ions by the DOC; we hypothesize that it could be adsorption to the terminal hydroxyl groups on a polynuclear Fe or Al colloid, effectively blocking the adsorption sites from a phosphate molecule. Also, the ability of citric acid to mimic the inhibitory effects also suggests that the results of the study are broadly applicable to wetland and other waters with high natural organic acid concentrations.

  11. Fabrication and study of properties of magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Loginova, T. P. Timofeeva, G. I.; Lependina, O. L.; Shandintsev, V. A.; Matyushin, A. A.; Khotina, I. A.; Shtykova, E. V.

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been formed for the first time in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate in water by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature. An analysis by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of block copolymer and sodium dodecyl sulfate are polydesperse (have sizes from 0.5 to 20 nm). The specific magnetization of solid samples has been measured.

  12. Extraction of aflatoxins B1 and G1 from maize by using aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Maragos, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens produced by certain Aspergillus fungi. The aflatoxins were first discovered in the 1960s, and since then have been found to be distributed worldwide in a variety of commodities, foods, and feeds. Many of the early techniques for detecting aflatoxins involved extraction with halogenated solvents. With the increased availability and use of reversed-phase solid-phase extraction cartridges and the availability of immunoaffinity columns, aqueous mixtures of nonhalogenated solvents have been frequently used. To further reduce the need for solvents, we examined the effects of eliminating solvents during the extraction of maize, using aqueous mixtures of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. After extraction and filtration, aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and G1 (AFG1) were isolated by using commercially available immunoaffinity columns. The isolated AFB1 and AFG1 were derivatized with trifluoroacetic acid before separation by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In spiked maize, the limits of detection were 0.5 and 1 ng/g for AFB1 and AFG1, respectively. Recoveries of AFB1 from maize spiked at 1-20 ng/g averaged 87.5% (range, 76.3-99.0%), with an average repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) of 4.0%. Recoveries of AFG1 from maize spiked at 2-20 ng/g averaged 80.4% (range, 70.3-85.8%), with an average RSDr of 3.5%. This is the first reported demonstration of an effective solvent-free extraction of aflatoxins from maize at ambient pressure, and this extraction procedure may serve to help reduce solvent consumption during aflatoxin analysis.

  13. Aggregation and adsorption properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate in water-acetamide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Ismail, K

    2008-11-01

    The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of sodium dodecyl sulfate was determined in water + acetamide media from 0 to 70 wt% of acetamide and at temperatures in the range from 20 to 40 degrees C by using conductance, surface tension, and fluorescence methods. The cmc increases with increase in acetamide concentration and the reported [M.S. Akhter, Colloids Surf. A 121 (1997) 103] decrease in cmc was not observed. The limiting surface tension at the cmc does not have any dependence on the amount of acetamide added. The cmc data as a function of temperature were used to estimate the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy terms for micellization. Enthalpy-entropy compensation takes place during micellization. Counterion binding constant, surface excess, and aggregation number of SDS decrease with increasing acetamide concentration and become almost constant for weight percentages of acetamide greater or equal to 30. Pyrene appears to move from the interior of the SDS micelle to the micellar interface at about 30 wt% acetamide. The empirical relations reported by Aguiar et al. [J. Aguiar, P. Carpena, J.A. Molina-Bolivar, C. Carnero Ruiz, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 258 (2003) 116] between the parameters of a sigmoid-type expression for the ratio of fluorescence emission intensities of pyrene and surfactant properties are found to be applicable to SDS in water + acetamide medium below 20 wt% acetamide only. Standard free energy of micellization has linear correlations with reciprocal of dielectric constant and Gordon parameter of the solvent. The water + acetamide medium behaves similar to mixed solvents containing water and any polar liquid nonaqueous solvent and this study highlights the significance of solvophobicity.

  14. Dietary flaxseed intake exacerbates acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Zhang, Claire; Wu, Wenqing; Lepp, Dion; Robinson, Lindsay; Wanasundara, Janitha; Cui, Steve; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Fofana, Bourlaye; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Power, Krista A

    2014-06-15

    Flaxseed (FS), a dietary oilseed, contains a variety of anti-inflammatory bioactives, including fermentable fiber, phenolic compounds (lignans), and the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) α-linolenic acid. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of FS and its n-3 PUFA-rich kernel or lignan- and soluble fiber-rich hull on colitis severity in a mouse model of acute colonic inflammation. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a basal diet (negative control) or a basal diet supplemented with 10% FS, 6% kernel, or 4% hull for 3 wk prior to and during colitis induction via 5 days of 2% (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in their drinking water (n = 12/group). An increase in anti-inflammatory metabolites (hepatic n-3 PUFAs, serum mammalian lignans, and cecal short-chain fatty acids) was associated with consumption of all FS-based diets, but not with anti-inflammatory effects in DSS-exposed mice. Dietary FS exacerbated DSS-induced acute colitis, as indicated by a heightened disease activity index and an increase in colonic injury and inflammatory biomarkers [histological damage, apoptosis, myeloperoxidase, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β), and NF-κB signaling-related genes (Nfkb1, Ccl5, Bcl2a1a, Egfr, Relb, Birc3, and Atf1)]. Additionally, the adverse effect of the FS diet was extended systemically, as serum cytokines (IL-6, IFNγ, and IL-1β) and hepatic cholesterol levels were increased. The adverse effects of FS were not associated with alterations in fecal microbial load or systemic bacterial translocation (endotoxemia). Collectively, this study demonstrates that although consumption of a 10% FS diet enhanced the levels of n-3 PUFAs, short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lignans in mice, it exacerbated DSS-induced colonic injury and inflammation.

  15. Garlic oil inhibits dextran sodium sulfate-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Balaha, Mohamed; Kandeel, Samah; Elwan, Walaa

    2016-02-01

    Garlic oil (GO) is used for centuries in folk medicine as a therapy for many diseases including inflammatory disorders. Recently, it has exhibited potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Consequently, we evaluated the possible protective effect of GO in a rat model of colitis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Colitis induced by allowing rats a free access to drinking water containing 5% DSS for 7 days, from day 1 to day 7. GO was administered orally in doses of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day. Mesalazine used as a standard medication in a dose of 15 mg/kg/day. All animals fasted for 2h, 1h before and 1h after giving the treatment, which introduced daily for 7 days, from day 1 to day 7, at 10:00 to 11:00 A.M. Animal body, and colonic weights, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, colonic reduced-glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 levels, macroscopic and microscopic changes of colonic tissues were evaluated. GO treatment significantly suppressed the elevated colonic weight, MPO activity, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β levels. However, it potentiated the decrease body weight, colonic SOD activity, GSH and IL-10 levels. Moreover, it ameliorated the marked macroscopic and microscopic changes of colonic mucosa in a dose dependent manner. Garlic oil inhibits DSS-induced colitis in rats may be through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Therefore, GO could be a promising protective agent recommended for UC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Poultry enteric inflammation model with dextran sodium sulfate mediated chemical induction and feed restriction in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kuttappan, V A; Berghman, L R; Vicuña, E A; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Wolchok, J D; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Tellez, G I; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-06-01

    Gut inflammation is a cardinal event occurring in various gastrointestinal diseases regardless of etiology. A potential mechanism of action for antibiotic growth promoters and probiotics is alleviation or attenuation of such inflammation. In vivo inflammation models and markers to quantify changes in inflammation, such as paracellular leakage and tight junction function, are necessary tools in the search for methods to reduce enteric inflammation. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and feed restriction (FRS), and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d; 3 to 5 kDa) marker were evaluated for induction and assessment of enteric inflammation in broilers. Three independent experiments were conducted where birds received an inflammation inducer treatment and an oral gavage of FITC-d (2.2 mg/bird) 2.5 h before killing on d 4, followed by measurement of serum FITC-d levels and release of FITC-d from different regions of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to evaluate tight junction function. Experiment 1 tested control (CON) and DSS; Experiments 2 and 3 evaluated CON, DSS, and FRS. In all experiments DSS, as well as FRS in Experiments 2 and 3, showed higher (P<0.05) leakage of FITC-d into serum than CON, but FRS was not different from DSS. The amount of FITC-d retained in duodenal and cecal tissue was affected (P<0.05) by FRS in Experiments 2 and 3, and DSS affected FITC-d retention in duodenum only, suggesting differences in gut passage or absorption/adsorption. In conclusion, DSS oral gavage and FRS could induce leaky gut, with changes in serum FITC-d and migration of FITC-d from GIT.

  17. Affinity Labeling of the Acetylcholine Receptor in the Electroplax: Electrophoretic Separation in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Michael J.; Cowburn, David A.; Prives, Joav M.; Karlin, Arthur

    1972-01-01

    Electroplax, single cells dissected from electric tissue of Electrophorus, are labeled in a two-step procedure: reduction by dithiothreitol followed by alkylation by the affinity label 4-(N-maleimido)-α-benzyltri-[methyl-3H]methylammonium iodide, either alone or in combination with [2,3-14C]N-ethylmaleimide. Electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate on polyacrylamide gel of an extract, prepared with this detergent, of single-labeled or of double-labeled cells results in a major peak of 3H activity, with a mobility corresponding to a polypeptide of molecular weight 42,000. In addition, in the double-labeled samples, there is a unique peak in the ratio of 3H to 14C that is coincident with the 3H peak. The electrophoretic patterns of extracts of cells in which affinity alkylation of the reduced receptor has been suppressed by dithiobischoline, an affinity oxidizing agent, by cobratoxin, an irreversible ligand, or by hexamethonium, a reversible ligand, show a considerably diminished peak of 3H activity in the region of molecular weight 42,000. This is the predominant difference between the electrophoretic patterns of extracts of unprotected and of protected cells. Furthermore, extracts of cells protected with dithiobischoline before labeling with both tritiated affinity label and [14C]N-ethylmaleimide do not show the peak in the 3H to 14C ratio seen in the absence of protection. Thus, by several diverse criteria, the peak of 3H activity corresponding to a molecular weight of 42,000 contains affinity-labeled acetylcholine receptor or receptor subunit. PMID:4504331

  18. Aronia Berry Extract Ameliorates the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sa-Haeng; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Moon, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Dae-Geun; Kim, Wook; Myung, Hyun; Kim, Jong-Sung; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Jin, Jong-Sik

    2017-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. UC is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon and rectum that includes intervals of acute exacerbation. Although recent studies have suggested that proinflammatory cytokines might have initiated the inflammatory responses in UC, its etiology remains unclear. Aronia berries are rich in dietary polyphenols such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins with various health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging activities. The objective of this study was to determine whether Aronia berry can be an effective intervention for the treatment of UC. BALB/c mice were administered 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce UC. They were then given Aronia berry extracts at concentrations of 10 or 100 mg/kg. During the induction of UC, the expression levels of nuclear factor-kappa B were increased in colonic epithelial cells and immune cells, leading to increased proinflammatory cytokine levels. Aronia berry extract significantly improved the clinical signs of DSS-induced UC, including body weight loss, colon length shortening, and disease activity index increase, with histological markers of colon injury. Furthermore, oral administration of Aronia berry extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 production in DSS-induced colitis and decreased the levels of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that Aronia berry extract could efficiently ameliorate clinical signs and inflammatory mediators of UC. Therefore, Aronia berry might be a promising natural treatment for UC.

  19. Boswellia serrata resin extract alleviates azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ya-Chun; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Wang, Yu; Pahwa, Manoj; Badmaev, Vladimir; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2017-09-01

    Boswellia serrata (BS) resin is a popular dietary supplement for joint nourishment. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of dietary BS extract and its impact of gut microbiota on azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. Male ICR mice were injected with AOM and 2% DSS via drinking water. The mice were fed with 0.25 or 0.5% BS extract, and colonic tissue were collected at 15 weeks. The main effective components of BS supercritical CO2 extraction were analyzed by LC-MS/MS are boswellic acids. We found that treatment with BS extract significantly reduce the colonic tumor formation. Western blot and histological analysis revealed that dietary BS extract could markedly reduce the inflammation associated protein levels expression. Furthermore, BS extract reduced cell proliferation via inhibiting phosphorylation level of protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and downregulation of cyclin D1. In addition, BS extract also altered the composition of gut microbiota by enhancing the proportion of Clostridiales and reducing the percentage of Bacteroidales. In summary, BS extract decreased the protein levels of inflammative enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in colonic mucosa. It also mediated Akt/GSK3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway and altered the composition of gut microbiota to alleviate tumor growth. Taken together, this study suggests that BS extract has great potential to suppress colon tumorigenesis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synergistic antifungal activity of sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and cupric sulfate against Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Cerioni, Luciana; Rapisarda, Viviana Andrea; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando Eduardo; Rodríguez-Montelongo, Luisa

    2009-08-01

    Oxidizing compounds such as sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are widely used in food sanitization because of their antimicrobial effects. We applied these compounds and metals to analyze their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of citrus green mold. The MICs were 300 ppm for NaClO and 300 mM for H2O2 when these compounds were individually applied for 2 min to conidia suspensions. To minimize the concentration of these compounds, we developed and standardized a sequential treatment for conidia that resulted in loss of viability on growth plates and loss of infectivity on lemons. The in vitro treatment consists of preincubation with 10 ppm of NaClO followed by incubation with 100 mM H2O2 and 6 mM CuSO4 (cupric sulfate). The combination of NaClO and H2O2 in the presence of CuSO4 produces a synergistic effect (fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.36). The sequential treatment applied in situ on lemon peel 24 h after the fruit was inoculated with conidia produced a significant delay in the fungal infection. The in vitro treatment was effective on both imazalil-sensitive and imazalil-resistant strains of P. digitatum and Geotrichum candidum, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. However, this treatment inhibited 90% of mycelial growth for Penicillium italicum (citrus blue mold). These results indicate that sequential treatment may be useful for postharvest control of citrus fruit diseases.

  1. Petite and sectored induction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by propidium iodide: synergistic effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Y; Yielding, K L

    1984-04-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was examined for its effect on petite and sectored colony induction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by propidium iodide (PI) and ethidium bromide (EB). 4-h cultivation with 100 microM PI and 100 micrograms/ml SDS resulted in virtually all plated cells growing as sectored colonies with no decrease in viability. Sectored colonies are mixed colonies comprised of respiratory deficient and competent cells believed to be derived from an unstable respiratory deficient cell. Further cultivation with PI and SDS prior to plating led to induction of complete petite colonies with a rapid decrease in viable cells. PI alone at this concentration exhibited weak induction of sectored colonies (maximum 12.3% at 8 h) and petite colonies (maximum 10.8% at 12 h), but SDS alone caused induction of neither. 50 microM PI had almost the same activity as 100 microM except for a delay in the induction of sectored colonies in the initial stage, and a decreased rate of petite colony induction. The effects of 20 microM PI and SDS were much lower than that by 50 microM and no inhibition of growth was observed. 10 microM PI was quite inactive even in the presence of SDS. Under resting conditions, 10 approximately 100 microM PI and 100 micrograms/ml SDS induced about 60% sectored colonies at 12 h incubation and more than 60% petite colonies at 24 h. After 6 h incubation, decrease in survival was also observed.

  2. Transcatheter Foam Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Female Varicocele with Sodium-Tetradecyl-Sulfate Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Chiocchi, Marcello Konda, Daniel; Pampana, Enrico; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-07-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of transcatheter foam sclerotherapy (TCFS) in pelvic varicocele using sodium-tetradecyl-sulfate foam (STSF), we conducted a retrospective study in 38 patients (mean age, 36.9 years; range, 22-44 years) with pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) treated between January 2000 and June 2005 by TCFS. Pelvic pain was associated with dyspareunia in 23 (60.5%) patients, urinary urgency in 9 (23.7%) patients, and worsening of pain during menstruation and at the end of a day of work in 7 (18.4%) and 38 (100%) patients, respectively. Diagnosis was made by pelvic and transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound examination, demonstrating ovarian or pelvic varices with a diameter >5 mm presenting venous reflux. TCFS was performed in all patients, using 3% STSF. Follow-up was performed by physical examination, pelvic and transvaginal Doppler ultrasound examination and by a questionnaire-based assessment of pain at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). In three patients a pelvic colic-like pain occurred immediately after sclerotic agent injection, disappearing spontaneously after a few minutes. No recurrent varicoceles were observed during a 12-month follow-up. A statistically significant improvement in each category of specific symptoms was observed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. We conclude that TCFS of female varicocele using a 3% STSF is safe and effective for the treatment of PCS. It is associated with a significant reduction of symptoms and can be regarded as a valid alternative to other endovascular and surgical techniques.

  3. Micelle to solvent stacking of organic cations in micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Quirino, Joselito P; Aranas, Agnes T

    2011-10-14

    The on-line sample concentration technique, micelle to solvent stacking (MSS), was studied for small organic cations (quaternary ammonium herbicides, β-blocker drugs, and tricyclic antidepressant drugs) in reversed migration micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Electrokinetic chromatography was carried out in fused silica capillaries with a background solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a low pH phosphate buffer. MSS was performed using anionic SDS micelles in the sample solution for analyte transport and methanol or acetonitrile as organic solvent in the background solution for analyte effective electrophoretic mobility reversal. The solvent also allowed for the separation of the analyte test mixtures. A model for focusing and separation was developed and the mobility reversal that involved micelle collapse was experimentally verified. The effect of analyte retention factor was observed by changing the % organic solvent in the background solution or the concentration of SDS in the sample matrix. With an injection length of 31.9 cm (77% of effective capillary length) for the 7 test drugs, the LODs (S/N=3) of 5-14 ng/mL were 101-346-fold better when compared to typical injection. The linearity (R(2), range=0.025-0.8 μg/mL), intraday and interday repeatability (%RSD, n=10) were ≥0.988, <6.0% and <8.5%, respectively. In addition, analysis of spiked urine samples after 10-fold dilution with the sample matrix yielded LODs=0.02-0.10 μg/mL. These LODs are comparable to published electrophoretic methods that required off-line sample concentration. However, the practicality of the technique for more complex samples will rely on dedicated sample preparation schemes.

  4. Dietary tryptophan alleviates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis through aryl hydrocarbon receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Jahidul; Sato, Shoko; Watanabe, Kouichi; Watanabe, Takaya; Ardiansyah; Hirahara, Keisuke; Aoyama, Yukihide; Tomita, Shuhei; Aso, Hisashi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis is the typical progression of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Amino acids, particularly tryptophan, have been reported to exert a protective effect against colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), but the precise underlying mechanisms remain incompletely clarified. Tryptophan metabolites are recognized to function as endogenous ligands for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), which is a critical regulator of inflammation and immunity. Thus, we conducted this study to investigate whether dietary tryptophan supplementation protects against DSS-induced colitis by acting through Ahr. Female wild-type (WT) and Ahr-deficient (knockout; KO) mice (10-12 weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed either a control or 0.5% tryptophan diet. The tryptophan diet ameliorated DSS-induced colitis symptoms and severity in WT mice but not in KO mice, and the diet reduced the mRNA expression of Il-6, Tnfα, Il-1β and the chemokines Ccl2, Cxcl1 and Cxcl2 in the WT groups. Furthermore, Il-22 and Stat3 mRNA expression in the colon was elevated in WT mice fed with the tryptophan diet, which mainly protected epithelial layer integrity, and Ahr also modulated immune homeostasis by regulating Foxp3 and Il-17 mRNA expression. These data suggest that tryptophan-containing diet might ameliorate DSS-induced acute colitis and regulate epithelial homeostasis through Ahr. Thus, tryptophan could serve as a promising preventive agent in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RAMP1 suppresses mucosal injury from dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kawashima-Takeda, Noriko; Ito, Yoshiya; Nishizawa, Nobuyuki; Kawashima, Rei; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Watanabe, Masahiko; Majima, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is thought to be involved in the modulation of intestinal motility. CGRP receptor is composed of receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 combined with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) for CGRP. The study investigated the role of CGRP in mice with experimentally induced colitis. The study used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis in mice. The study compared the severity of colitis in wild-type (WT) mice, mice treated with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 ), and RAMP1 knockout ((-/-) ) mice. Pathological changes in the mucosa were assessed, and inflammatory cells and cytokine levels were measured. The severity of inflammation in DSS-induced colitis increased markedly in CGRP8-37 -treated mice and RAMP1(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. RAMP1(-/-) mice showed more severe damage compared with CGRP8-37 -treated mice. The number of periodic acid-Schiff-positive cells decreased in CGRP8-37 -treated mice compared with WT mice and was even further decreased in RAMP1(-/-) mice. RAMP1 was expressed by macrophages, mast cells, and T-cells. RAMP1(-/-) mice exhibited excessive accumulation of macrophages and mast cells into the colonic tissue with increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β as compared with WT mice. Infiltration of T-cells into the colonic mucosa, which was associated with the expression of T helper (Th) cytokines including Th1 (interferon gamma) and Th17 (IL-17), was augmented in RAMP1(-/-) mice. The findings of this study suggest that RAMP1 exerted mucosal protection in DSS-induced colitis via attenuation of recruitment of inflammatory cells and of pro-inflammatory cytokines. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant proteolytic activity in the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Blumentals, I.I.; Robinson, A.S.; Kelly, R.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Cell extracts from Pyrococcus furiosus were found to contain five proteases, two of which (S66 and S102) are resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) denaturation. Cell extracts incubated at 98{degree}C in the presence of 1% SDS for 24 h exhibited substantial cellular proteolysis such that only four proteins could be visualized by amido black-Coomassie brilliant blue staining of SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The SDS-treated extract retained 19% of the initial proteolytic activity as represented by two proteases, S66 (66 kilodaltons (kDa)) and S102 (102 kDa). Immunoblot analysis with guinea pig sera containing antibodies against protease S66 indicated that S66 is related neither to S102 nor to the other proteases. The results of this analysis also suggest that S66 might be the hydrolysis product of a 200-kDa precursor which does not have proteolytic activity. The 24-h SDS-treated extract showed unusually thermostable proteolytic activity; the measured half-life at 98{degree}C was found to be 33 h. Proteases S66 and S102 were also resistant to denaturation by 8 M urea, 80 mM dithiothreitol, and 5% {beta}-mercaptoethanol. Purified protease S66 was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate but not by EDTA, ethylene glycol-bis({beta}-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetraacetic acid, or iodoacetic acid. These results indicate that S66 is a serine protease. Amino acid ester hydrolysis studies showed that protease S66 was hydrolytically active towards N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester.

  7. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption onto Positively Charged Surfaces: Monolayer Formation With Opposing Headgroup Orientations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Hun; Koelsch, Patrick; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew S.; Castner, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption and structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) layers onto positively charged films have been monitored in situ with vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. Substrates with different charge densities and polarities used in these studies include CaF2 at different pH values as well as allylamine and heptylamine films deposited onto CaF2 and Au substrates by radio frequency glow discharge deposition. The SDS films were adsorbed from aqueous solutions ranging in concentration from 0.067 to 20 mM. In general the SFG spectra exhibited well resolved CH and OH peaks. However, at SDS concentrations between 1–8 mM the SFG CH and OH intensities decreased close to background levels. Combined data sets from molecular conformation, orientation, and order sensitive SFG with mass sensitive SPR suggest that the observed changes in SFG intensities above 0.2 mM are related to structural arrangements in the SDS layer. A model is proposed where the SFG intensity minimum between 1–8 mM is associated with a monolayer containing two head group orientations, one pointing towards the substrate and one pointing towards the solution phase. The SFG peaks observed at concentrations below 0.2 mM are dominated by the presence of adsorbed contaminants such as fatty alcohols (e.g., dodecanol), which are more surface active than SDS. As SDS solution concentration is increased above 1 mM SDS molecules are incorporated in the surface layer, with dodecanol continuing to be present in the surface layer for solution concentrations up to at least critical micelle concentration. PMID:24024777

  8. Protective effect of sugar cane extract against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Yansen; Mizu, Masami; Furuta, Toma; Li, ChunMei

    2017-02-01

    Sugar cane extract (SCE) exhibits various biological effects and has been reported to enhance animal growth performance. However, the effect of SCE on inflammation in animals is still obscure. To study the effects and underlying mechanism of SCE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic inflammation, forty female ICR mice (26.63±0.19g, 6-week-old) were assigned into four groups: a control group (Cont), a DSS-challenged group (DSS), a SCE-supplemented group (SCE), and a DSS+SCE group (DSS+SCE). Mice in Cont group and DSS group were fed basic diet and other mice received 1% SCE supplemented in basic diet from 6-week to 8-week-old. Mice in DSS and DSS+SCE groups were also given a 4% DSS solution from 7-week to 8-week-old via drinking water to induce colonic inflammation. After 2 weeks, mice were sacrificed and samples were collected. The results showed that dietary SCE alleviated DSS induced growth suppression, splenic damage, colonic histological changes, colonic inflammation, oxidative stress, and colonic dysfunction of tight junctions. Meanwhile, the DSS exposure activated nuclear transcription factor kappa B p65 and inhibited nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), while SCE markedly attenuated the DSS-promoted effect on the p65 nuclear accumulation and the DSS-inhibited effect on the Nrf2 nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, SCE conferred a protective role in the DSS-induced inflammation and the mechanism might be associated with the activated signals of the nuclear factor kappa B p65 and Nrf2.

  9. Comparison of sodium acid sulfate to citric acid to inhibit browning of fresh-cut potatoes.

    PubMed

    Calder, Beth L; Kash, Emily A; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Bushway, Alfred A

    2011-04-01

    Sodium acid sulfate (SAS) dip treatments were evaluated against a distilled water control and citric acid (CA) to compare its effectiveness in reducing enzymatic browning of raw, French-fry cut potatoes. Two separate studies were conducted with dip concentrations ranging from 0%, 1%, and 3% in experiment 1 to 0%, 2%, and 2.5% in experiment 2 to determine optimal dip concentrations. Russet Burbank potatoes were peeled, sliced, and dipped for 1 min and stored at 3 °C. Color, texture, fry surface pH, and microbiological analyses were conducted on days 0, 7, and 14. The 3% SAS- and CA-treated samples had significantly (p<0.0001) lower pH levels on fry surfaces than all other treatments. Both acidulants had significantly (p≤0.05) lower aerobic plate counts compared to controls in both studies by day 7. However, SAS appeared to be the most effective at the 3% level in maintaining a light fry color up to day 14 and had the highest L-values than all other treatments. The 3% SAS-treated fry slices appeared to have the least change in textural properties over storage time, having a significantly (p=0.0002) higher force value (kg force [kgf]) than the other treatments during experiment 1, without any signs of case-hardening that appeared in the control and CA-treated samples. SAS was just as comparable to CA in reducing surface fry pH and also lowering microbial counts over storage time. According to the results, SAS may be another viable acidulant to be utilized in the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry.

  10. Chondroitin sulfate-chitosan nanoparticles for ocular delivery of bromfenac sodium: Improved permeation, retention, and penetration

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Tara Abdulrahman; Ibrahim, Naz Jamal; Warsi, Musarrat Husain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Superiority of topical instillation of drug into the cul-de-sac for the treatment of various ophthalmic complications can be validated with commercial availability of a large number of conventional formulations even though this mode of instillation still elicits limitations owing to poor ocular bioavailability. To overcome the drawbacks of conventional formulations, a large number of novel carriers have been investigated. In this perspective, a new novel nanocarrier, chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-chitosan (CS)-nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated for improved delivery of bromfenac sodium. Materials and Methods: Formulation was developed and optimized for CS, chondroitin, and initial drug concentration. Optimized formulation was evaluated for various in vitro aspects i.e., particles’ size, size distribution, zeta potential, shape and morphology, in vitro release profile, corneal permeation, corneal retention, corneal uptake, and ocular tolerance test. Results: The mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of optimized formulation were found to be 245.6 ± 14.22 nm, 0.187 ± 0.016, +37.59 ± 4.05 mV, and 71.72 ± 4.43%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed a spherical shape of developed formulation. Further, formulation exhibited biphasic release profile and Korsmeyer–Peppas model was found to be the best fit model. Significantly high transcorneal permeation (1.62-fold) and corneal retention (1.92-fold) of bromfenac was observed through ChS-CS-NPs when compared with marketed eyedrops (P < 0.01). Furthermore, high corneal uptake of CHS-CS-NPs was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Safety profile of the developed formulation was established by hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane test. Conclusion: Encouraging outcomes of in vitro and ex vivo studies indicated that CHS-CS-NPs could be a potential substitute for improved ocular delivery. PMID:27051629

  11. Lactulose mediates suppression of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon inflammation by increasing hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Zhai, Xiao; Shi, Jiazi; Liu, Wen Wu; Tao, Hengyi; Sun, Xuejun; Kang, Zhimin

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent antioxidant and able to protect organs from oxidative stress injuries. Orally administered lactulose, a potent H2 inducer, is digested by colon microflora and significantly increases H2 production, indicating its potential anti-inflammatory action. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of lactulose on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Mice were randomly assigned into seven groups, receiving regular distilled water, H2-rich saline (peritoneal injection), DSS, oral lactulose (0.1, 0.15, 0.2 ml/10 g, respectively), and lactulose (0.2 ml/10 g) + oral antibiotics. The mouse model of human ulcerative colitis was established by supplying mice with water containing DSS. The H2 breath test was used to determine the exhaled H2 concentration. Body weight, colitis score, colon length, pathological features and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and marrow peroxidase (MPO) levels in colon lesions were evaluated. After 7 days, DSS-induced loss of body weight, increase of colitis score, shortening of colon length, pathological changes and elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, MDA, and MPO in colon lesions, were significantly suppressed by oral lactulose administration and intraperitoneally injected H2-rich saline. Ingestion of antibiotics significantly compromised the anti-inflammatory effects of lactulose. The H2 breath test showed that lactulose administration significantly induced hydrogen production and that antibiotics administration could inhibit H2 production. Lactulose can prevent the development of DSS-induced colitis and alleviate oxidative stress in the colon, as measured by MDA and MPO, probably by increasing endogenous H2 production.

  12. Marine Hydroquinone Zonarol Prevents Inflammation and Apoptosis in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mice Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Ueda, Yuki; Kitsuyama, Ryo; Shimizu, Hiroya; Tanimoto, Akihide; Wang, Ke-Yong; Nawata, Aya; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim We previously identified an anti-inflammatory compound, zonarol, a hydroquinone isolated from the brown algae Dictyopteris undulata as a marine natural product. To ascertain the in vivo functions of zonarol, we examined the pharmacological effects of zonarol administration on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). Our goal is to establish a safe and effective cure for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using zonarol. Methods and Results We subjected Slc:ICR mice to the administration of 2% DSS in drinking water for 14 days. At the same time, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) at a dose of 50 mg/kg (positive control) and zonarol at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, were given orally once a day. DSS-treated animals developed symptoms similar to those of human UC, such as severe bloody diarrhea, which were evaluated by the disease activity index (DAI). Treatment with 20 mg/kg of zonarol, as well as 5-ASA, significantly suppressed the DAI score, and also led to a reduced colonic ulcer length and/or mucosal inflammatory infiltration by various immune cells, especially macrophages. Zonarol treatment significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory signaling molecules, and prevented the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, zonarol protected against in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. Conclusions This is the first report that a marine bioproduct protects against experimental UC via the inhibition of both inflammation and apoptosis, very similar to the standard-of-care sulfasalazine, a well-known prodrug that releases 5-ASA. We believe that the oral administration of zonarol might offer a better treatment for human IBDs than 5-ASA, or may be useful as an alternative/additive therapeutic strategy against UC, without any evidence of side effects. PMID:25409433

  13. Modulation of partition and localization of perfume molecules in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaxun; Tang, Haiqiu; Strand, Ross; Wang, Yilin

    2016-01-07

    The influence of perfume molecules on the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their localization in SDS micelles have been investigated by ζ potential, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), one- and two-dimensional NMR and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC). A broad range of perfume molecules varying in octanol/water partition coefficients P are employed. The results indicate that the surface charge, size and aggregation number of the SDS micelles strongly depend on the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity degree of perfume molecules. Three distinct regions along the log P values are identified. Hydrophilic perfumes (log P < 2.0) partially incorporate into the SDS micelles and do not lead to micelle swelling, whereas hydrophobic perfumes (log P > 3.5) are solubilized close to the end of the hydrophobic chains in the SDS micelles and enlarge the micelles with higher ζ potential and a larger aggregation number. The incorporated fraction and micelle properties show increasing tendency for the perfumes in the intermediate log P region (2.0 < log P < 3.5). Besides, the molecular conformation of perfume molecules also affects these properties. The perfumes with a linear chain structure or an aromatic group can penetrate into the palisade layer and closely pack with the SDS molecules. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC show that the binding of the perfumes in the intermediate log P region is more spontaneous than those in the other two log P regions, and the micellization of SDS with the perfumes is driven by entropy.

  14. Biochemical and histological changes in the small intestine of mice with dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    PubMed

    Yazbeck, Roger; Howarth, Gordon S; Butler, Ross N; Geier, Mark S; Abbott, Catherine A

    2011-12-01

    The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis has been commonly utilized in mice to assess novel treatments for ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have indicated that morphological and biochemical changes extend to the small intestine (SI). This study aimed to characterize histological and biochemical changes in the SI during DSS colitis in wild-type (WT) and DPIV knock-out (DPIV(-/-) ) mice treated with saline or the DPIV inhibitors, Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA or Ile-Thia. Groups (n = 10) of DPIV(-/-) and WT mice were orally gavaged twice daily with saline, Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA or Ile-Thia. Mice consumed 2% DSS in drinking water for 6 days to induce colitis. Small intestinal tissue was assessed for histological changes, sucrase, and DPIV activity and neutrophil infiltration. Jejunal villus length was increased in all groups after 6 days DSS consumption (P < 0.05). Jejunal DPIV activity was significantly lower by 35% in WT mice receiving Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA compared to saline controls. Jejunal MPO activity was significantly increased in the WT + saline and DPIV(-/-)  + saline groups following DSS consumption, compared to WT and DPIV(-/-) controls at day 0. Increased sucrase activity was apparent at day 0 in DPIV(-/-) compared to WT mice (P < 0.05). We conclude that DSS-induced damage is not restricted to the colon, but also extends to the small intestine. Furthermore, reduced or absent DPIV activity resulted in functional adaptations to brush border enzyme activity. DPIV inhibitors are now a recognized therapy for type-II diabetes. The work presented here highlights the need to delineate any long-term effects of DPIV inhibitors on SI function, to further validate their safety and tolerability.

  15. Sodium Hypochlorite Versus Formocresol and Ferric Sulfate Pulpotomies in Primary Molars: 18-month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Deema J; El-Khodary, Heba M; Farsi, Najat M; El Ashiry, Eman A; Yagmoor, Mohammed A; Alzain, Soha M

    2015-01-01

    This study's purpose was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates of 5.25 percent Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) pulpotomies to Formocresol (FC) and Ferric Sulfate (FS) in decayed primary molars. Eighty-one primary molars, randomly divided into three groups, were treated with one of three different pulpotomy materials; NaOCl, FC and FS. The outcomes of the different groups were assessed clinically and radiographically every six months over 18 months. Chi-square test was used to detect differences in outcome measures in all groups. At six months, clinical and radiographic success rates were 100 percent for each group (27/27). At 12 months, clinical success was 100 percent (24/24), 96 percent (24/25), and 95.7 percent (22/23) for NaOCl, FC, and FS respectively. The radiographic success was 95.8 percent (23/24) for NaOCl group, and 100 percent for FC (25/25), and FS (23/23). At 18 months, the clinical success was 83.3 percent (20/24), 96 percent (24/25), and 87 percent (20/23) for NaOCL, FC, and FS respectively. The 18 month radiographic success was 91.7 percent (22/24), 100 percent (25/25), and 95.7 percent (22/23) for NaOCl, FC, and FS respectively. No significant differences were found in clinical or radiographic outcomes between the three groups at six, 12 and 18 months. The three pulpotomy medicaments yielded similar outcomes.

  16. Exposure of RML scrapie agent to a sodium percarbonate-based product and sodium dodecyl sulfate renders PrPSc protease sensitive but does not eliminate infectivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prions, the causative agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are notoriously difficult to inactivate. Current decontamination recommendations by the World Health Organization include prolonged exposure to 1 N sodium hydroxide or > 20,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving. For decontamination of large stainless steel surfaces and equipment as in abattoirs, for example, these methods are harsh or unsuitable. The current study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate to inactivate prions. Samples of mouse brain infected with a mouse-adapted strain of the scrapie agent (RML) were exposed to a sodium percarbonate-based product (SPC-P). Treated samples were evaluated for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc)-immunoreactivity by western blot analysis, and residual infectivity by mouse bioassay. Results Exposure to a 21% solution of SPC-P or a solution containing either 2.1% or 21% SPC-P in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resulted in increased proteinase K sensitivity of PrPSc. Limited reductions in infectivity were observed depending on treatment condition. A marginal effect on infectivity was observed with SPC-P alone, but an approximate 2–3 log10 reduction was observed with the addition of SDS, though exposure to SDS alone resulted in an approximate 2 log10 reduction. Conclusions This study demonstrates that exposure of a mouse-adapted scrapie strain to SPC-P does not eliminate infectivity, but does render PrPSc protease sensitive. PMID:23311930

  17. Effectiveness of intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate-chondroitin sulfate in knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Fabrizio; Bertignone, Luca; Grandi, Giancarlo; Camisassa, Roberto; Comaschi, Guido; Trentini, Diego; Zanone, Marco; Teppex, Giuseppe; Vasario, Gabriele; Fortina, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-established therapy for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of the use of Arthrum HCS(®) (40 mg hyaluronic acid and 40 mg chondroitin sulfate in 2 mL). This was an open, multicenter, prospective study. Men or women over 40 years of age with documented knee osteoarthritis and WOMAC subscore A (severity of pain) ≥25 were enrolled. They received three weekly intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate 2 % and chondroitin sulfate 2 % in combination. WOMAC subscore A was assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months after the last injection. One hundred and twelve patients were included (women, 66 %). The mean (SD) WOMAC subscore A decreased from 52.1 (15.2) at inclusion to 20.5 (19.7) at month 6 (P < 0.0001). The mean subscore was already significantly decreased 1 month after the last injection at 25.7 (P < 0.0001). Pain relief and consumption of analgesic drugs, both assessed with visual analogic scale (VAS), consistently decreased. The investigators were satisfied/very satisfied as regards the therapeutic effectiveness of sodium hyaluronate-chondroitin sulfate in reducing pain (77 %), improving mobility (78 %) and reducing the consumption of analgesics (74 %). Only one adverse effect was reported by one patient (knee tumefaction). These results suggest that intra-articular injections of Arthrum HCS(®) (sodium hyaluronate plus chondroitin sulfate) in patients with knee osteoarthritis are efficient and safe. These results should be confirmed in a randomized controlled study. IV.

  18. Selective removal of gallium (III) from aqueous solutions containing zinc or aluminum using sodium di-(n-octyl) phosphinate.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, Rémy; Rodil, Eva; Weber, Martin E; Vera, Juan H

    2004-04-01

    Gallium was removed selectively from aqueous solutions containing zinc or aluminum using sodium di-(n-octyl) phosphinate as a ligand (NaL). At low pH or low mole ratios, the gallium was removed by complexation with the ligand as GaL(3(S)), while the zinc or the aluminum remained in the solution. Nearly complete separation of gallium was obtained. By increasing the amount of ligand or by increasing the pH, the zinc or aluminum remaining in the solution was then removed as a solid complex: ZnL(2(S)) or AlL(3(S)), respectively. At a pH between 1.5 and 2 and a mole ratio ligand to total metals of 0.75 for zinc solutions and 1.0 for aluminum solutions, more than 98% of the gallium was selectively removed with a high molar selectivity, alpha(Ga/Zn) and alpha(Ga/Al), respectively. Over 95% of gallium was recovered from the solid GaL(3(S)) complex by treatment of the complex with a 3M NaOH solution and diethyl ether. The gallium was concentrated in the aqueous solution to 4 times its initial concentration and the ligand was extracted into the ether phase. After evaporation of the ether, 95% of the ligand was regenerated in its sodium form as a solid.

  19. Mechanical properties of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic (sodium aluminum silicate) composites for dental restoration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bencang; Li, Jing; Wang, Huining; Lin, Yuanhua; Shen, Yang; Li, Ming; Deng, Xuliang; Nan, Cewen

    2017-07-01

    To fabricate indirect restorative composites for CAD/CAM applications and evaluate the mechanical properties. Polymer-infiltrated-ceramic composites were prepared through infiltrating polymer into partially sintered sodium aluminum silicate ceramic blocks and curing. The corresponding samples were fabricated according to standard ISO-4049 using for mechanical properties measurement. The flexural strength and fracture toughness were measured using a mechanical property testing machine. The Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were calculated from the results of nano-indentation. The microstructures were investigated using secondary electron detector. The density of the porous ceramic blocks was obtained through TG-DTA. The conversion degrees were calculated from the results of mid-infrared spectroscopy. The obtained polymer infiltrated composites have a maximum flexural strength value of 214±6.5MPa, Vickers hardness of 1.76-2.30GPa, elastic modulus of 22.63-27.31GPa, fracture toughness of 1.76-2.35MPam(1/2) and brittleness index of 0.75-1.32μm(-1/2). These results were compared with those of commercial CAD/CAM blocks. Our results suggest that these materials with good mechanical properties are comparable to two commercial CAD/CAM blocks. The sintering temperature could dramatically influence the mechanical properties. Restorative composites with superior mechanical properties were produced. These materials mimic the properties of natural dentin and could be a promising candidate for CAD/CAM applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immobilization of sodium alginate sulfates on polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes for selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Cao, Jian-Da; Lan, Ping; Wu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the immobilization of sodium alginate sulfates (SAS) on polysulfone (PSu) ultrafiltration membranes to achieve selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was developed, which involved the photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylamide on the membrane and the Hofmann rearrangement reaction of grafted acrylamide followed by chemical binding of SAS with glutaraldehyde. The surface modification processes were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization. Zeta potential and water contact angle measurements were performed to investigate the surface charge and wettability of the membranes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the binding of LDL on plain and modified PSu membranes. It was found that the PSu membrane immobilized with sodium alginate sulfates (PSu-SAS) greatly enhanced the selective adsorption of LDL from protein solutions and the absorbed LDL could be easily eluted with sodium chloride solution, indicating a specific and reversible binding of LDL to SAS, mainly driven by electrostatic forces. Furthermore, the PSu-SAS membrane showed good blood compatibility as examined by platelet adhesion. The results suggest that the PSu-SAS membranes are promising for application in simultaneous hemodialysis and LDL apheresis therapy.

  1. Safety assessment of non-animal chondroitin sulfate sodium: Subchronic study in rats, genotoxicity tests and human bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Niccolò; Bianchi, Davide; Trentin, Antonella; Volpi, Nicola; Soni, Madhu G

    2016-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate, an amino sugar polymer made of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-galactosamine, is used in dietary supplements to promote joint health. Commonly used chondroitin sulfate is of animal origin and can pose potential safety problems including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of microbial derived chondroitin sulfate sodium (CSS) in subchronic toxicity, genotoxicity and bioavailability studies. In the toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were gavaged with CSS at dose levels of 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90-days. No mortality or significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, body weight gain or feed consumption were noted. Similarly, no toxicologically relevant treatment-related changes in hematological, clinical chemistry, urinalysis and organ weights were noted. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. In vitro mutagenic and clastogenic potentials as evaluated by Ames assay, chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay did not reveal genotoxicity of CSS. In pharmacokinetic study in human, CSS showed higher absorption as compared to chondroitin sulfate of animal origin. The results of subchronic toxicity study supports the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for CSS as 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-12-14

    To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15(th) day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3(rd) and 5(th) days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6(th) day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0.05). Kefir treatment

  3. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15th day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. RESULTS: The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3rd and 5th days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6th day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0

  4. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Deficiency Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis and Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    DONG, HUA; LIAO, JIE; HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.; YANG, GUANG-YU

    2014-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH−/− mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm3 vs. 22.42±11.22 mm3), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH−/− mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1β and TNF-α expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis

  5. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

    PubMed

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  6. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii supernatant ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by regulating Th17 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Xin; Fei, Xian-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Gui; Hao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Yu, Yan-Qiu; Yu, Cheng-Gong

    2016-06-14

    To explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii) supernatant on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. Forty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group, model group, treatment group, and prevention group. Mice were weighed daily. On day 10, the colon length was measured, the colorectal histopathologic damage score (HDS) was assessed, and plasma interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-6, and IL-4 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt) and IL-17A in colon inflammatory mucosa tissue were determined by immunohistochemical assay, and the expression levels of RORγt mRNA, IL-17A mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The proportion of Th17 in mononuclear cells in spleen was assayed by fluorescence activated cell sorter. When compared with the model group, the colon length (P < 0.05) and body weight (P < 0.01) in the treatment and prevention groups were significantly increased, and the colon HDS was decreased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference between the treatment group and prevention group. After treatment with F. prausnitzii supernatant, the plasma levels of IL-17A and IL-6 (P < 0.05), the protein and mRNA expression of IL-17A and RORγt, and the Th17 cell ratio of spleen cells (P < 0.01) were significantly decreased compared to the model group. Plasma IL-4 level in the prevention group was significantly higher than that in the model group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between these two groups in the expression of IL-6 in both the plasma and colon mucosa tissues. F. prausnitzii supernatant exerts protective and therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis in mice, probably via inhibition of Th17 differentiation and IL-17A secretion in the plasma and colon mucosa tissues. It can also

  7. Global gene expression analysis of the mouse colonic mucosa treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rikako; Miyamoto, Shingo; Yasui, Yumiko; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is well known to be a risk factor for colon cancer. Previously we established a novel mouse model of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, which is useful to examine the involvement of inflammation in colon carcinogenesis. To shed light on the alterations in global gene expression in the background of inflammation-related colon cancer and gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, we conducted a comprehensive DNA microarray analysis using our model. Methods Male ICR mice were given a single ip injection of azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg body weight), followed by the addition of 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to their drinking water for 7 days, starting 1 week after the AOM injection. We performed DNA microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip) on non-tumorous mucosa obtained from mice that received AOM/DSS, AOM alone, and DSS alone, and untreated mice at wks 5 and 10. Results Markedly up-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa given AOM/DSS at wk 5 or 10 included Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5 and 5.7-fold increase at wk 10) and plasminogen activator, tissue (Plat, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5), myelocytomatosis oncogene (Myc, 3.0-fold increase at wk 5), and phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid) (Plscr2, 8.0-fold increase at wk 10). The notable down-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa of mice treated with AOM/DSS were the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding protein (Pparbp, 0.06-fold decrease at wk 10) and the transforming growth factor, beta 3 (Tgfb3, 0.14-fold decrease at wk 10). The inflammation-related gene, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (Pparγ 0.38-fold decrease at wk 5), was also down-regulated in the colonic mucosa of mice that received AOM/DSS. Conclusion This is the first report describing global gene expression analysis of an AOM/DSS-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis model, and

  8. Modeling Colitis-Associated Cancer with Azoxymethane (AOM) and Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Ameet I.; Shaker, Anisa; Rao, M. Suprada; Ciorba, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) over healthy individuals. This risk is proportional to the duration and extent of disease, with a cumulative incidence as high as 30% in individuals with longstanding UC with widespread colonic involvement.1 Colonic dysplasia in IBD and colitis associated cancer (CAC) are believed to develop as a result of repeated cycles of epithelial cell injury and repair while these cells are bathed in a chronic inflammatory cytokine milieu.2 While spontaneous and colitis-associated cancers share the quality of being adenocarcinomas, the sequence of underlying molecular events is believed to be different.3 This distinction argues the need for specific animal models of CAC. Several mouse models currently exist for the study of CAC. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), an agent with direct toxic effects on the colonic epithelium, can be administered in drinking water to mice in multiple cycles to create a chronic inflammatory state. With sufficient duration, some of these mice will develop tumors.4 Tumor development is hastened in this model if administered in a pro-carcinogenic setting. These include mice with genetic mutations in tumorigenesis pathways (APC, p53, Msh2), as well as mice pre-treated with genotoxic agents (azoxymethane [AOM], 1,2-dimethylhydrazine [DMH]).5 The combination of DSS with AOM as a model for colitis associated cancer has gained popularity for its reproducibility, potency, low price, and ease of use. Though they have a shared mechanism, AOM has been found to be more potent and stable in solution than DMH. While tumor development in other models generally requires several months, mice injected with AOM and subsequently treated with DSS develop adequate tumors in as little as 7-10 weeks.6, 7 Finally, AOM and DSS can be administered to mice of any genetic background (knock out, transgenic, etc

  9. Sulfate transport kinetics and toxicity are modulated by sodium in aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Scheibener, Shane; Conley, Justin M; Buchwalter, David

    2017-09-01

    The salinization of freshwater ecosystems is emerging as a major ecological issue. Several anthropogenic causes of salinization (e.g. surface coal mining, hydro-fracking, road de-icing, irrigation of arid lands, etc.) are associated with biodiversity losses in freshwater ecosystems. Because insects tend to dominate freshwater ecology, it is important that we develop a better understanding of how and why different species respond to salinity matrices dominated by different major ions. This study builds upon previous work demonstrating that major ion toxicity to the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer was apparently due to the ionic composition of water rather than specific conductance. Synthetic waters with low Ca:Mg ratios and high SO4:Na ratios produced toxicity, whereas waters with higher Ca:Mg ratios and lower SO4:Na ratios were not toxic to mayflies at comparable conductivities. Here we used a radiotracer approach to show that Mg did not competitively exclude Ca uptake at environmentally realistic ratios in 4 aquatic insect species. We characterized SO4 uptake kinetics in 5 mayflies and assessed the influence of different ions on SO4 uptake. Dual label experiments show an inverse relationship between SO4 and Na transport rates as SO4 was held constant and Na was increased, suggesting that Na (and not Cl or HCO3) is antagonistic to SO4 transport. Based on this observation, we tested the hypothesis that increasing Na would protect against SO4 induced toxicity in a Na-dependent manner. Increasing Na from 0.7 to 10.9mM improved 96-h survivorship associated with 20.8mM SO4 from 44% to 73% in a concentration dependent manner. However, when Na reached 21.8mM, survivorship decreased to 16%, suggesting that other interactive effects of major ions caused toxicity under those conditions. Thus, the combination of elevated sulfate and low sodium commonly observed in streams affected by mountaintop coal mining has the potential to cause toxicity in sensitive aquatic insects

  10. Higher fecal bile acid hydrophobicity is associated with exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Lotta K; Holma, Reetta; Forsgård, Richard; Gylling, Helena; Korpela, Riitta

    2013-11-01

    Increased luminal bile acid hydrophobicity is associated with cytotoxicity and has been suggested to contribute to gut barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare 2 high-fat diets and a low-fat diet as to whether they modify fecal bile acid profile and hydrophobicity and/or susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis in C57Bl/6J mice. Control and DSS-Control groups received a low-fat control diet [5.5% of total energy (E%) soy oil, 4.5 E% lard], and the DSS-Lard (5.5 E% soy oil, 54.5 E% lard) and DSS-Fish oil (5.5 E% soy oil, 27.2 E% lard and 27.2% menhaden oil) groups received high-fat diets. Feces for bile acid analysis were collected after 3-wk feeding, followed by induction of dextran DSS colitis (2 d 5% DSS in drinking water + 2 d tap water). Fecal bile acid hydrophobicity was elevated 76% in the lard group (P = 0.051) and 122% in the fish oil group (P = 0.001) compared with control, indicating potentially increased cytotoxicity. DSS caused severe colitis symptoms, evaluated as rectal bleeding, whereas all the controls were symptom free. The median symptom scores were: DSS-Control, 2.3 (IQR = 0.6, 3.0); DSS-Lard, 0.3 (IQR = 0, 2.3); and DSS-Fish oil, 2.4 (IQR = 1.9, 2.8). The only differences were DSS-Control vs. control (P < 0.001) and DSS-Fish oil vs. control (P < 0.001). Severity of symptoms in all colitic mice was positively correlated with fecal bile acid hydrophobicity (Spearman's ρ = 0.43; P = 0.028) and fecal deoxycholic acid concentration (Spearman's ρ = 0.39; P = 0.048). These results suggest that luminal bile acid modification, induced by altered dietary fat composition, may alter susceptibility to DSS colitis.

  11. Propionate Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ling-chang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhi-bin; Liu, Wei-ye; Sun, Sheng; Li, Ling; Su, Ding-feng; Zhang, Li-chao

    2016-01-01

    Propionate is a short chain fatty acid that is abundant as butyrate in the gut and blood. However, propionate has not been studied as extensively as butyrate in the treatment of colitis. The present study was to investigate the effects of sodium propionate on intestinal barrier function, inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Animals in DSS group received drinking water from 1 to 6 days and DSS [3% (w/v) dissolved in double distilled water] instead of drinking water from 7 to 14 days. Animals in DSS+propionate (DSS+Prop) group were given 1% sodium propionate for 14 consecutive days and supplemented with 3% DSS solution on day 7–14. Intestinal barrier function, proinflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the colon were determined. It was found that sodium propionate ameliorated body weight loss, colon-length shortening and colonic damage in colitis mice. Sodium propionate significantly inhibited the increase of FITC-dextran in serum and the decrease of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin expression in the colonic tissue. It also inhibited the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and phosphorylation of STAT3 in colitis mice markedly, reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase level in colon and serum compared with DSS group. Sodium propionate inhibited macrophages with CD68 marker infiltration into the colonic mucosa of colitis mice. These results suggest that oral administration of sodium propionate could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis mainly by improving intestinal barrier function and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress via the STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27574508

  12. Speciation and Structural Properties of Hydrothermal Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Sulfate Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Joachim; Vogel, Frédéric; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew

    2016-05-18

    Aqueous solutions of salts at elevated pressures and temperatures play a key role in geochemical processes and in applications of supercritical water in waste and biomass treatment, for which salt management is crucial for performance. A major question in predicting salt behavior in such processes is how different salts affect the phase equilibria. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate molecular-scale structures of solutions of sodium and/or potassium sulfate, which show contrasting macroscopic behavior. Solutions of Na-SO4 exhibit a tendency towards forming large ionic clusters with increasing temperature, whereas solutions of K-SO4 show significantly less clustering under equivalent conditions. In mixed systems (Nax K2-x SO4 ), cluster formation is dramatically reduced with decreasing Na/(K+Na) ratio; this indicates a structure-breaking role of K. MD results allow these phenomena to be related to the characteristics of electrostatic interactions between K(+) and SO4 (2-) , compared with the analogous Na(+) -SO4 (2-) interactions. The results suggest a mechanism underlying the experimentally observed increasing solubility in ternary mixtures of solutions of Na-K-SO4 . Specifically, the propensity of sodium to associate with sulfate, versus that of potassium to break up the sodium-sulfate clusters, may affect the contrasting behavior of these salts. Thus, mutual salting-in in ternary hydrothermal solutions of Na-K-SO4 reflects the opposing, but complementary, natures of Na-SO4 versus K-SO4 interactions. The results also provide clues towards the reported liquid immiscibility in this ternary system.

  13. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  14. Pilot field-verification studies of the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment process. Final report, September 1987-May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wiloff, P.M.; Suciu, D.F.; Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Loyd, F.S.

    1988-09-01

    In previous project, jar and dynamic testing showed that the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process was a viable method for reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from the Tinker AFB industrial wastewater with significant decrease in sludge production and treatment costs. In this phase, pilot-plant field verification studies were conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical parameters of the chromium reduction process, the precipitation and clarification process, and the activated-sludge system. Sludge production was evaluated and compared to the sulfuric acid/sulfur dioxide/lime process.

  15. Simple, time-saving dye staining of proteins for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Coomassie blue.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jun-He

    2011-01-01

    A fixation-free and fast protein-staining method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Coomassie blue is described. The protocol comprises staining and quick washing steps, which can be completed in 0.5 h. It has a sensitivity of 10 ng, comparable with that of conventional Coomassie Brilliant Blue G staining with phosphoric acid in the staining solution. In addition, the dye stain does not contain any amount of acid and methanol, such as phosphoric acid. Considering the speed, simplicity, and low cost, the dye stain may be of more practical value than other dye-based protein stains in routine proteomic research.

  16. Electrochemical measurements on the binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide with {alpha}- and {beta}-cyclodextrins

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Yunus, W.M.Z.; Taylor, J.; Bloor, D.M.; Hall, D.G.; Wyn-Jones, E.

    1992-10-29

    The binding of ionic surfactants (S) to {alpha}- and {beta}-cyclodextrins (CD) has been investigated using surfactant-selective electrodes. These electrochemical measurements have shown that S(CD) and S(CD){sub 2} inclusion complexes are formed between sodium dodecyl sulfate and both {alpha}- and {beta}-cyclodextrins and also between dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide and {alpha}-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the cationic surfactant only forms a 1:1 complex with {beta}-cyclodextrin. From the data the equilibrium binding constants for the formation of each of the complexes have been evaluated. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Optimal concentrations of N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamine and sodium dodecyl sulfate allow the extraction and analysis of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jen-Hua; Kao, Yu-Jing; Ruderman, Neil B; Tung, Li-Chu; Lin, Yenshou

    2011-11-15

    We studied the extraction and analysis of integral membrane proteins possessing hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and found that a nonionic detergent called MEGA-10, used in lysis buffers, had a superior extraction effect compared to most conventional detergents. A sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration of >0.4% (w/v) in the sample buffer was crucial for those proteins to be clearly analyzed by electrophoresis and Western blotting. Furthermore, MEGA-10 had the tendency to maximally extract proteins around its critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.24% (w/v). These solutions can greatly assist functional investigations of membrane proteins in the proteomics era.

  18. Microstructure and Physical Properties of Sulfate Hydrate/Ice Eutectic Aggregates in the Binary System Sodium-Sulfate/Water at Planetary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, C. M.; Kirby, S.; Durham, W.; Stern, L.

    2004-12-01

    Reflectance spectra data from Mars Odyssey, Galileo and potentially from Cassini suggest the presence of hydrated salts on numerous satellites in environments such as evaporate beds or combined with water ice. Improved mission data on these occurrences indicate that grain structures and properties of such materials merit a closer look using laboratory methods. Here we report the synthesis of a two-phase aggregate of sodium sulfate hydrate and water ice made by eutectic solidification from solution, characterization of its microstructure using cryogenic SEM, and comparison of its physical properties to those of its end-member components. Samples are crystallized from solution using a precision cryobath and seeded growth. The reaction is a "simple" one meaning that there is no solid solution formation in either of the two solid phases. The eutectic composition we studied for the sodium sulfate hydrate is 4wt% Na2SO4, which corresponds to about .06 volume fraction of Na2SO4ṡ10H2O, mirabilite, and .94 ice I. The eutectic microstructure observed with this volume fraction, which is termed "broken lamellar", consists of fairly uniform blade-like mirabilite grains arranged in roughly parallel columns within a water ice matrix. The blades and matrix material form a lamella that alternates with lamellae of pure ice. Energy dispersive spectroscopy of these eutectic mixtures confirms the presence of the two crystalline phases. Also, we find that lamellar spacing decreases with increasing growth rate. Constant-strain-rate tests in compression are carried out in the cryogenic gas deformation apparatus at LLNL in a pressure-temperature range appropriate to the icy satellites. We report the rheology of the two-phase aggregate and compare it to the strength properties of pure water ice and pure mirabilite. With the aid of numerous studies on similar structures in the literature on metals, we analyze the deformation mechanics from the perspective of defect and crack propagation

  19. The effects of sodium sulfate in the water of nursery pigs and the efficacy of nonnutritive feed additives to mitigate those effects.

    PubMed

    Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of sodium sulfate water and the efficacy of nonnutritive feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 320 barrows (5.4 ± 0.1 kg BW and 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 8 treatments for 24 d in a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 levels of sodium sulfate water (control or 3,000 mg sodium sulfate/L added), and 4 dietary zeolite (clinoptilolite) levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, or 1%). Fecal samples were collected on d 5, 9, 16, and 23; visually scored for consistency (1 = firm and 5 = watery); and analyzed for DM. No interactions of sodium sulfate × zeolite were observed for any response criteria. Overall (d 0 to 24), pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared with pigs drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water also had increased (P < 0.01) fecal scores and lower (P < 0.04) fecal DM on d 5, 9, and 16 compared with pigs drinking control water. Increasing dietary zeolite increased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI but had no effect on G:F. In Exp. 2, 350 barrows (5.7 ± 0.1 kg BW and 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments in a 2 × 5 factorial for 21 d with 2 levels of sodium sulfate water (control or 2,000 mg sodium sulfate/L added) and 5 dietary treatments (control, 1 or 2% zeolite, 1% humic acid substance [HA], and 1% humic and fulvic acid substance [HFB]). Fecal samples were collected on d 5, 8, 15, and 21; visually scored for consistency (1 = firm and 5 = watery); and analyzed for DM. Overall (d 0 to 21), a water source × diet interaction was observed for ADG and G:F because pigs fed the 1% HA had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F when drinking sodium sulfate water compared with other treatments but increased ADG and G:F when drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F and tended (P < 0.08) to have decreased ADFI compared with pigs drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had

  20. A benign synthesis of alane by the composition-controlled mechanochemical reaction of sodium hydride and aluminum chloride

    DOE PAGES

    Hlova, Ihor; Goldston, Jennifer F.; Gupta, Shalabh; ...

    2017-05-30

    Solid-state mechanochemical synthesis of alane (AlH3) starting from sodium hydride (NaH) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) has been achieved at room temperature. The transformation pathway of this solid-state reaction was controlled by a stepwise addition of AlCl3 to the initial reaction mixture that contained sodium hydride in excess of stoichiometric amount. As in the case of previously investigated LiH–AlCl3 system, complete selectivity was achieved whereby formation of unwanted elemental aluminum was fully suppressed, and AlH3 was obtained in quantitative yield. Reaction progress during each step was investigated by means of solid-state NMR and powder X-ray diffraction, which revealed that the overallmore » reaction proceeds through a series of intermediate alanates that may be partially chlorinated. The NaH–AlCl3 system presents some subtle differences compared to LiH–AlCl3 system particularly with respect to optimal concentrations needed during one of the reaction stages. Based on the results, we postulate that high local concentrations of NaH may stabilize chlorine-containing derivatives and prevent decomposition into elemental aluminum with hydrogen evolution. As a result, complete conversion with quantitative yield of alane was confirmed by both SSNMR and hydrogen desorption analysis.« less

  1. Preparation of sodium humate/{alpha}-aluminum oxide adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.G.; Gao, H.Y.; Hu, G.X.; Li, Y.H.

    2009-06-15

    A new composite adsorbent of sodium humate (HNa)=alpha-aluminium oxide ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) was prepared using the impregnation method. Both the adsorbent of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HNa={alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Desulfurization activity of the adsorbent impregnated with ammonia (NH{sub 4}OH) was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. Experimental results indicate that HNa, which coats the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibers impregnated with HNa solution, improved the property of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support for FGD. On the other hand, the HNa-coating on the adsorbent of HNa/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} impregnated with NH{sub 4}OH played an important role in enhancing the desulfurization property of the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Due to the strong adsorption capability of HNa, more NH{sub 4}OH was adsorbed in the adsorbent of HNa/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} the longer a high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) conversation rate was maintained. In addition, because the desulfurization product was a compound fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}), ammonium humate (HNH{sub 4}), and HNa, the recycling use of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also easily achieved. Thus, this study can provide a new cost-effective way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas.

  2. Electrophoretic nature and evaluation of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate (PACS) as a coagulant for water and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bao-yu; Yue, Qin-yan; Wang, Bing-jian

    2003-05-01

    A series of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfates (PACS), which have different OH/Al (gamma) and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratios, has been prepared using AlCl3 x 6H2O, A(SO4)3 x 18H2O and Na2CO3 as raw materials. The electrophoretic nature of PACS was investigated by electrophoresis. Laboratory experiments were undertaken to evaluate the PACS in comparison with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) for the coagulation of simulating water and actual wastewaters. The experimental results show that the gamma value and the Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio affect the electrophoretic nature of PACS. PACS has a maximum zeta potential at about a gamma value of 1.5 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio of 12-16. The zeta potential of PACS varies with pH. The performance of PACS as coagulant is affected by gamma value and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio. PACS of gamma = 2.1 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) = 15 gives best turbidity removal effectiveness. In comparison with PAC of gamma = 2.0, PACS of gamma = 2.0 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) = 16 gives higher removal efficiency for turbidity and COD, and shows the following advantages in the clarification of waters and wastewaters: rapid aggregation velocity, larger and heavier flocs, and lower required dosage.

  3. Effect of sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and urea on the molecular interactions and properties of whey protein isolate-based films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm³ (STP / standard temperature and pressure) 100 µm (m² d bar)-1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 µm (m² d)-1 measured at 50 to 0 % r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient.

  4. Effect of Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, and Urea on the Molecular Interactions and Properties of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Films

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm3 (STP/standard temperature and pressure) 100 μm (m2 d bar)−1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 μm (m2 d)−1 measured at 50 to 0% r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient. PMID:28149835

  5. Purification of papain by metal affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phase polyethylene glycol/sodium sulfate systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hai-De; Wang, Wei-Tao

    2015-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive aqueous two-phase affinity partitioning system using metal ligands was introduced to improve the selectivity of commercial papain extraction. Polyethylene glycol 4000 was first activated using epichlorohydrin, then it was covalently linked to iminodiacetic acid. Finally, the specific metal ligand Cu(2+) was attached to the polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid. The chelated Cu(2+) content was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry as 0.88 mol/mol (polyethylene glycol). The effects on the purification at different conditions, including polyethylene glycol molecular weight (2000, 4000, and 6000), concentration of phase-forming components (polyethylene glycol 12-20% w/w and sodium sulfate 12-20%, w/w), metal ligand type, and concentration, system pH and the commercial papain loading on papain extraction, were systematically studied. Under optimum conditions of the system, i.e. 18% w/w sodium sulfate, 18% w/w polyethylene glycol 4000, 1% w/w polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid-Cu(2+) and pH 7, a maximum yield of 90.3% and a degree of purification of 3.6-fold were obtained. Compared to aqueous two phase extraction without ligands, affinity partitioning was found to be an effective technique for the purification of commercial papain with higher extraction efficiency and degree of purification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effects of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride concentration on PEG/protein liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Dumetz, André C; Lewus, Rachael A; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Kaler, Eric W

    2008-09-16

    When added to protein solutions, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) creates an effective attraction between protein molecules due to depletion forces. This effect has been widely used to crystallize proteins, and PEG is among the most successful crystallization agents in current use. However, PEG is almost always used in combination with a salt at either low or relatively high concentrations. Here the effects of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate concentration on PEG 8000/ovalbumin liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation are investigated. At low salt the L-L phase separation occurs at decreasing protein concentration with increasing salt concentration, presumably due to repulsive electrostatic interactions between proteins. At high salt concentration, the behavior depends on the nature of the salt. Sodium chloride has little effect on the L-L phase separation, but ammonium sulfate decreases the protein concentration at which the L-L phase separation occurs. This trend is attributed to the effects of critical fluctuations on depletion forces. The implications of these results for designing solution conditions optimal for protein crystallization are discussed.

  7. Proteomic profiling of dextran sulfate sodium induced acute ulcerative colitis mice serum exosomes and their immunomodulatory impact on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wing-Yan; Lee, Magnolia Muk-Lan; Chan, Brandon Dow; Kam, Richard Kin-Tin; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Ai-Ping; Tai, William Chi-Shing

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and their activation has been proposed to be critical to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although there are many recognized mediators of macrophage activation, increasing evidence suggests that macrophages respond to exosome stimulation. Exosomes are 40-150 nm microvesicles released from different cell types and are found in a variety of physiological fluids, including serum. As studies have shown that circulating exosomes participate in intercellular communication and can mediate the immune response, we hypothesized that exosomes may play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD though modulation of macrophage activity. In this study, we used the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis mice model to investigate the effect of serum exosomes on macrophages and identify exosome proteins potentially involved in macrophage activation. We treated RAW264.7 macrophages with serum exosomes isolated from dextran sulfate sodium induced mice and found that treatment induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK and production of tumor necrosis factor α when compared to treatment with exosomes isolated from control mice. Subsequent proteomic analysis identified 56 differentially expressed proteins, a majority of which were acute-phase proteins and immunoglobulins. Bioinformatics analysis suggested these proteins were mainly involved in the complement and coagulation cascade, which has been implicated in macrophage activation. Our findings provide new insight into the role of circulating serum exosomes in acute colitis and contribute to the understanding of macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of IBD.

  8. Aggregation number-based degrees of counterion dissociation in sodium n-alkyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Nataly V; Shahine, Antoine; Bales, Barney L

    2005-10-27

    Values of the degree of counterion dissociation, alpha, for sodium n-alkyl sulfate micelles, denoted by SN(c)S, where N(c) is the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain, are defined by asserting that the aggregation number, N, is dependent only on the concentration, C(aq), of counterions in the aqueous pseudophase. By using different combinations of surfactant and added salt concentrations to yield the same value of N, alpha can be determined, independent of the experimental method. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of the hyperfine spacings of two nitroxide spin probes, 16- and 5-doxylstearic acid methyl ester (16DSE and 5DSE, respectively), are employed to determine whether micelles from two samples have the same value of N to high precision. The EPR spectra are different for the two spin probes, but the values of alpha are the same, within experimental error, as they must be. In agreement with recent work on S12S and with prevailing thought in the literature, values of alpha are constant as a function of N. This implies that the value of alpha is constant whether the surfactant or added electrolyte concentrations are varied. Interestingly, alpha varies with chain length as follows: N(c) = 8, alpha = 0.42 +/- 0.03; N(c) = 9, alpha = 0.41 +/- 0.03; N(c) = 10, alpha = 0.35 +/- 0.02; N(c) = 11, alpha = 0.30 +/- 0.02 at 25 degrees C and N(c) = 13, alpha = 0.22 +/- 0.02; and N(c) = 14, alpha = 0.19 +/- 0.01 at 40 degrees C. A simple electrostatic theoretical description, based on the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the ion distribution around a charged sphere, was compared with the experimental results. The theory predicts values of alpha that are in reasonable agreement with experiment, nicely predicting the decrease of alpha as N(c) increases. However, the theory also predicts that, for a given value of N(c), alpha decreases as N increases. Moreover, this decrease is predicted to be different if N is increased by adding salt or by increasing

  9. Anticoagulant and FGF/FGFR signal activating activities of the heparinoid propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate and its oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Yiran; Zeng, Yangyang; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Xia

    2016-01-20

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), prepared by chemical sulfation of alginate, has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. In the current study, the PSS was hydrolyzed partially by an environment-friendly solid phase acid degradation method, and then separated by using a Bio-Gel P6 chromatographic column. Thirteen PSS oligosaccharide fractions were obtained and characterized by ESI-MS. The results of different coagulation assays showed that a high molecular weight and a higher degree of sulfation were essential for the anticoagulant activity of the PSS because the PSS oligosaccharides exhibited no detectable anticoagulant activity. In contrast, not only PSS but also certain oligosaccharides showed significant activities in stimulation of FGF1, 2, 7, 8, 9 or 10 induced cell proliferation in FGFR1c-expressing BaF3 cells. Such properties made the PSS and its oligosaccharides promising compounds in the regulation of FGF-dependent development, treatment of cancer, and wound healing processes.

  10. Ductile and strong aluminum-matrix titanium aluminide composite formed in-situ from aluminum, titanium dioxide and sodium hexafluoroaluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1994-12-31

    An aluminum-matrix TiAl{sub 3}-particle (1--2 {mu}m) composite exhibiting high tensile ductility (22%), high tensile strength (235 MPa) and a grain size of 50 {mu}m was made by a new in-situ method involving reactions among Al, TiO{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}, which were subjected to stir casting at 900 C. The strength and ductility were higher than those of an aluminum-matrix TiAl{sub 3}-particle Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-particle composite made in-situ by reacting Al with TiO{sub 2}, (without Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}). This is due to the ability of Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6} to enhance the reduction of TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, thus resulting in more TiAl{sub 3} and a smaller grain size.

  11. Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies on Titanium-doped Sodium Aluminum Hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culnane, Lance F.

    Hydrogen fuel cells play an important role in today's diverse and blossoming alternative energy industry. One of the greatest technological barriers for vehicular applications is the storage of hydrogen (which is required to power hydrogen fuel cells). Storing hydrogen as a gas is not volume efficient, and storing it as a liquid is not cost effective, therefore solid-state storage of hydrogen, such as in metal hydrides offers the most potential for success since many metal hydrides have attractive qualities for hydrogen storage such as: high volumetric capacity, cost efficiency, weight efficiency, low refueling times, and most importantly, high safety. Unfortunately, a compound has not been discovered which contains all of the attractive hydrogen storage qualities for vehicular applications. Sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH 4) is one of the few compounds which is close to meeting requirements for car manufacturers, and has perhaps been researched the most extensively out of all metal hydrides in the last 15 years. This arises from the remarkable discovery by Bogdanovic who found that doping NaAlH4 with Ti dopants enabled the reversible dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of NaAlH 4 at mild conditions. Various evidence and theories have been proposed to suggest explanations for the enhanced kinetic effect that Ti-doping and ball-milling provide. However, the research community has not reached a consensus as to the exact role of Ti-dopants. If the role of titanium in the NaAlH4 dehydrogenation/hydrogenation mechanism could be understood, then more attractive metal hydrides could be designed. To this end, we conducted Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies to explain the role of the Ti dopants. The first known thorough particle size analysis of the NaAlH4 system was conducted, as well as TEM-EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy), TEM-EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), and in-situ imaging studies. Preparation methods were found to be important for the

  12. Chemistry of Frozen Sodium-Magnesium-Sulfate-Chloride Brines: Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tuan H.; Hodyss, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu; Johnson, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of Europa’s subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability. However, our current understanding of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the surface. This work investigates experimentally the composition of mixed sodium-magnesium-sulfate-chloride solutions when frozen to 100 K, simulating conditions that likely occur as ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa’s surface. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize phase composition of the frozen brines at 100 K. Our results show that solutions containing Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, and {{{SO}}4}2- preferentially crystallize into Na2SO4 and MgCl2 hydrated minerals upon freezing, even at elevated [Mg2+]/[Na+] ratios. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) on Europa’s surface, if confirmed, may thus imply a relatively sodium-poor ocean composition or a radiolytic process that converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Brown & Hand. The formation of NaCl on the surface, while dependent upon a number of factors such as freezing rate, may indicate an ocean significantly more concentrated in sodium than in magnesium.

  13. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  14. Chronic toxicity and tumorigenicity study of aluminum potassium sulfate in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Oneda, S; Takasaki, T; Kuriwaki, K; Ohi, Y; Umekita, Y; Hatanaka, S; Fujiyoshi, T; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, H

    1994-01-01

    The tumorigenic potential of aluminum potassium sulfate [A1K (SO4)2 12H2O, APS], a compound which exists widely in the environment, was investigated in B6C3F1 mice. APS was administered in the diet for 20 months at dose levels of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/w). One group receiving the basal diet served as the control. Body weight gain in both sexes was decreased in the 10.0% APS treated group, and increased in the 1.0 and 2.5% APS treated groups. The survival rates at the end of the dosing period were 73.3% (male) and 78.3% (female) in the control group, and 86.7-95.0% (male) and 86.7-91.7% (female) in the APS treated groups. The survival rate showed a tendency to increase in both sexes in all the APS treated groups. In the tumor pathology, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly decreased in the males in the 10% APS treated group. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly decreased in females in all groups including the control group. As regards the nontumorous pathology, the incidence of myocardial eosinophilic cytoplasm showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in males in the APS treated groups. A comparison between the sexes revealed a significant decrease in the incidence of hepatocytic anisonucleosis, myocardial eosinophilic cytoplasm and acinar cell vacuolation of the submandibular gland in the females; and lymphocyte infiltration in renal cortex and pelvis, and vacuolation of cerebellar white matter were noted in the males. The results of the present study indicate that long-term administration of APS does not exert tumorigenic or any other toxic actions in B6C3F1 mice.

  15. Injection sclerotherapy using aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid in the treatment of symptomatic rectocele: A prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kunimoto, Masao; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    Although various surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of rectocele, there is currently no method exhibiting overall superiority because of the different types of complications and varying rate of recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of injection sclerotherapy using aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid in the management of symptomatic rectocele. Twelve patients were recruited and treated using injection sclerotherapy. Efficacy measures included changes in the Constipation Scoring System value and rectocele size. The median operative duration was 7.5 min (range, 3-16 min). Three months after treatment, the mean Constipation Scoring System value decreased significantly in comparison with the baseline value (8.9 ± 4.1 vs. 4.9 ± 2.8, P = 0.0014) and the mean rectocele size reduced significantly in comparison with the baseline size (3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.7 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). Regarding complications, a patient showed temporary fecal impaction after treatment. The recurrence rate at 4 years was 29% (95% confidence interval, 10%-66%). Injection sclerotherapy is quick, easy to perform, and offers reasonable mid-term outcomes; furthermore, it is associated with a low rate of complications. Therefore, it appears to be a reasonable alternative for patients with symptomatic rectocele. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerotherapy for Goligher Grades II and III hemorrhoids: Results from a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hidenori; Hada, Takenori; Ishiyama, Gentaro; Ono, Yoshito; Watanabe, Hideo

    2016-07-18

    To show that aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) sclerotherapy has a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids. This study was based on the clinical data of 604 patients with hemorrhoids who underwent ALTA sclerotherapy between January 2009 and February 2015. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of this treatment for Grades II and III hemorrhoids. Preoperative and postoperative symptoms, complications and success rate were all assessed retrospectively. Follow-up consisted of a simple questionnaire, physical examination and an anoscopy. Patients were followed-up at one day, one week, two weeks, one month, one year, two years, three years, four years and five years after the ALTA sclerotherapy. One hundred and sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with Grade II hemorrhoids and 435 patients were diagnosed with Grade III hemorrhoids. The one year, three year and five year cumulative success rates of ALTA sclerotherapy for Grades II and III hemorrhoids were 95.9% and 93.1%; 89.3% and 83.7%; and 89.3% and 78.2%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the cumulative success rates after ALTA sclerotherapy between Grades II and III hemorrhoids (P = 0.09). There were forty-seven post-operative complications (low grade fever; anal pain; urinary retention; rectal ulcer; and others). No serious or life-threatening complications occurred and all cases improved through conservative treatment. At univariate analysis there were no predictive factors of failure. ALTA sclerotherapy has had a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids during five years of post-operative treatment. However, additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this ALTA sclerotherapy in the management of hemorrhoidal disease.

  17. Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerotherapy for Goligher Grades II and III hemorrhoids: Results from a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Hidenori; Hada, Takenori; Ishiyama, Gentaro; Ono, Yoshito; Watanabe, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To show that aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) sclerotherapy has a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids. METHODS: This study was based on the clinical data of 604 patients with hemorrhoids who underwent ALTA sclerotherapy between January 2009 and February 2015. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of this treatment for Grades II and III hemorrhoids. Preoperative and postoperative symptoms, complications and success rate were all assessed retrospectively. Follow-up consisted of a simple questionnaire, physical examination and an anoscopy. Patients were followed-up at one day, one week, two weeks, one month, one year, two years, three years, four years and five years after the ALTA sclerotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with Grade II hemorrhoids and 435 patients were diagnosed with Grade III hemorrhoids. The one year, three year and five year cumulative success rates of ALTA sclerotherapy for Grades II and III hemorrhoids were 95.9% and 93.1%; 89.3% and 83.7%; and 89.3% and 78.2%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the cumulative success rates after ALTA sclerotherapy between Grades II and III hemorrhoids (P = 0.09). There were forty-seven post-operative complications (low grade fever; anal pain; urinary retention; rectal ulcer; and others). No serious or life-threatening complications occurred and all cases improved through conservative treatment. At univariate analysis there were no predictive factors of failure. CONCLUSION: ALTA sclerotherapy has had a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids during five years of post-operative treatment. However, additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this ALTA sclerotherapy in the management of hemorrhoidal disease. PMID:27458504

  18. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain

  19. Role of Lipid Composition and Lipid Peroxidation in the Sensitivity of Fungal Plant Pathogens to Aluminum Chloride and Sodium Metabisulfite▿

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Tyler J.; Michaud, Mélanie; Tweddell, Russell J.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite have shown high efficacy at low doses in controlling postharvest pathogens on potato tubers. Direct effects of these two salts included the loss of cell membrane integrity in exposed pathogens. In this work, four fungal potato pathogens were studied in order to elucidate the role of membrane lipids and lipid peroxidation in the relative sensitivity of microorganisms exposed to these salts. Inhibition of mycelial growth in these fungi varied considerably and revealed sensitivity groups within the tested fungi. Analysis of fatty acids in these fungi demonstrated that sensitivity was related to high intrinsic fatty acid unsaturation. When exposed to the antifungal salts, sensitive fungi demonstrated a loss of fatty acid unsaturation, which was accompanied by an elevation in malondialdehyde content (a biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation). Our data suggest that aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite could induce lipid peroxidation in sensitive fungi, which may promote the ensuing loss of integrity in the plasma membrane. This direct effect on fungal membranes may contribute, at least in part, to the observed antimicrobial effects of these two salts. PMID:17337539

  20. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Chapter 4 - Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    an overall association between fluid in- take and bladder cancer risk (Bruemmer et al., 1997; Geoffroy- Perez and Cordier, 2001; Slattery et al., 1988...Sulfate http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10925.html WATER 167 Armstrong LE, Hubbard RW, Jones BH, Daniels JT. 1986. Preparing Alberto Salazar for the heat...Psychiatric mani- festations of hyponatremia. Psychosomatics 22:739–743. Geoffroy- Perez B, Cordier S. 2001. Fluid consumption and the risk of bladder

  1. Electrochemical behavior of sodium azide at Pt and Au electrodes in sodium sulfate electrolyte: A DEMS study

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmia, A.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F.; Liu, C.C.

    1995-11-01

    Azides are widely used in chemical technology for a large variety of applications, such as detonators (Pb(N{sub 3}){sub 2}), getters in electric discharge tubes, anticorrosive agents, or additives for the production of foam rubber. The electro-oxidation and -reduction of sodium azide at porous painted platinum and gold electrodes was studied using the multipurpose electrochemical mass spectrometry (MPEMS) which was operated in the differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) mode. The platinum electrode was found to be active for electro-oxidation as well as for electroreduction. Above 0.3 V vs. Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, azide is oxidized to give N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O. Reduction of azide takes place below {minus}0.9 V forming N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and possibly NH{sub 3}. In contrast to platinum, gold showed only activity for the electro-oxidation of azide leading to the formation of N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O above 0.5 V. Evidence for a reaction without evolution of volatile products was also found taking place above 0.1 V. A reaction mechanism is discussed emphasizing the role of adsorbed hydrogen and oxygen.

  2. Influence of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Tween 80 on Carbamazepine–Nicotinamide Cocrystal Solubility and Dissolution Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine–nicotinamide (CBZ–NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR. PMID:24300560

  3. Astragalus polysaccharides protect against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κВ activation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Zhang, Yahong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fang; Shi, Ying; Liu, Yao; Xia, Peiyuan

    2017-05-01

    Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a bioactive extract of Astragalus membranaceus (AM), which possess a wide range of medicinal benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor and anti-diabetic effects. The present work evaluated the therapeutic effect of APS and its potential mechanisms in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The APS treatment led to significant improvements in colitis disease activity index (DAI) and histological scores, as well as significantly increased weight and colon length in mice as compared to the control group. Mechanically, reduced NF-κВ DNA phosphorylation activity and downregulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 expressions and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were associated with improvement in colitis observed in APS-treated mice. These findings suggest that APS may represent a natural therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis.

  4. Measuring the enthalpies of interaction between glycine, L-cysteine, glycylglycine, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelin, V. G.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Tyunina, E. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of solution Δsol H m for glycine, L-cysteine, and glycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with concentrations of up to 0.05 mol kg-1 are made. Standard enthalpy of solution Δsol H 0 and enthalpy of transfer Δtr H 0 of the dipeptide from water into mixed solvent are calculated. The calculated enthalpy coefficients of paired interactions of amino acids and dipeptide with SDS prove to be positive. Hydrophobic interactions between the biomolecules and SDS are found to have a major impact on the enthalpies of interaction in the three-component systems under study, within the indicated range of concentrations.

  5. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption of phenol molecules by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants deposited on solid surfaces: A computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Peredo-Mancilla, Deneb; Dominguez, Hector

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption studies of phenol molecules on a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations were carried out in bulk and on three distinct solid surfaces, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide and graphite. It was observed that different surfactant micellar shapes were formed on the surfaces. For the silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide surfaces the surfactants were adsorbed by their headgroups whereas for the graphite surface they were adsorbed mainly by their tail groups. It was found that the amount of phenol adsorbed on the SDS micelle was altered by the surfactant shape deposited on the solid surface. However, the best phenol adsorption was obtained by the surfactant modified silicon dioxide surface. Moreover, in all cases, from structural investigations, it was determined that the phenol molecules were located inside the surfactant micelle with their hydroxyl groups close to the SDS headgroups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of caffeine on the reactions of the excited singlet state of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Thomas, J. Kerry

    1984-08-01

    The effect of caffeine on a few photo-induced reactions of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) has been studied. In these systems caffeine complexes with the pyrene (K asso = 85 ± 10 M -1 and also with the other reactants, e.g. Cu 2+ or TI +. The efficiencies of reactions which involve contact, i.e. pyrene excimer formation, and quenching by TI + ions to give the triplet state of pyrene, are significantly reduced in the presence of caffeine, due to geometric inhibitions formed by the complexation processes. The kinetics of photo-induced electron transfer, e.g. between excited pyrene and Cu 2+, are not affected. However, the subsequent reactions of the products are modified and the yield of ionic products is markedly increased.

  8. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M.; Hussein, Lobna A.; Sedki, Nehal G.; Salama, Nahla N.

    2016-01-01

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λex 257 nm and λem 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH 3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  9. Skid-mounted sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate metal precipitation project. Phase 1. Final report, June 1991-October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington-Baker, M.A.; Wikoff, P.M.; Rademacher, E.J.; Suiciu, D.; Prescott, D.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this Phase I research project was to develop the data and design criteria necessary to design and test the skid-mounted sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process for small point-source wastewater generators throughout the Air Force. The work done included a paper survey of three Air Logistics Centers (ALCs) Columbus AFB, MS, and Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; laboratory testing of two Columbus AFB wastestreams; and design and construction of the mobile wastetreatment unit. Results from Columbus AFB show the process is capable of removing heavy metals from the tested wastestream to discharge standards. However, there were organic constituents in the Columbus AFB wastestream that this process would not remove and therefore would prevent discharge.The mobile unit was not tested; testing is planned for Phase II.

  10. Adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide in water under the effect of the potassium persulfate-sodium metabisulfite-copper sulfate system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurenkov, V.F.; Baiburdov, T.A.; Stupen'kova, L.L.

    1988-04-10

    Since adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide (AA) has been studied very little and the information on the effect of copper ions on polymerization of AA prepared in dilute aqueous solutions is very limited, the features of adiabatic polymerization of AA in concentrated aqueous solutions in the presence of the potassium persulfate-sodium metabisulfite-copper sulfate redox initiating system were investigated in this study. The empirical equation for the overall rate of adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide in concentrated aqueous solutions was found, and the effective total activation energy, which decreases with an increase in the concentration of CuSO/sub 4/, was determined. An increase in the molecular weight of the polymer with an increase in the concentration of the monomer and a decrease in the concentration of the components of the initiating system was demonstrated.

  11. High-impact polystyrene/halloysite nanocomposites prepared by emulsion polymerization using sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Ng, Kai Mo; Chan, Chi-Ming; Sun, Guoxing; Wu, Jingshen

    2011-06-15

    High-impact polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites filled with individually dispersed halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of HNTs with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the emulsifier. The SDS is a good dispersing agent for HNTs in aqueous solution. The emulsion polymerization resulted in the formation of polystyrene nanospheres separating individual HNTs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the PS matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry were used to characterize the PS/HNT nanocomposites. The impact strength of the PS/HNTs nanocomposites was 300% higher than that of the neat PS. This paper presents a simple yet feasible method for the preparation of high-impact PS/halloysite nanocomposites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of the albumin concentration and temperature on the lysis of human erythrocytes by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L C; Arvelos, L R; Netto, R C M; Lins, A B; Garrote-Filho, M S; Penha-Silva, N

    2010-10-01

    The stability of human erythrocytes to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was assessed spectrophotometrically in the presence of different concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and at different temperatures (27-45 °C). The absorbance at 540 nm (A₅₄₀) was correlated with the SDS concentration by sigmoidal regression based on the Boltzmann equation. Erythrocyte stability was characterized on the basis of the SDS concentration that induces hemolysis in 50% of the cells (D₅₀). Progressive increases in the albumin concentration led to increases in the D₅₀ value. The protective effect of BSA against SDS-induced hemolysis was attributed to the binding of the surfactant to the hydrophobic binding sites of this protein. The D₅₀ values decreased sigmoidally with an increase in the temperature. This trend, which could not be explained by changes in the spectral properties of hemoglobin, maybe due to heterogeneity in the erythrocyte population.

  13. Occurrence of photoluminescence and onion like structures decorating graphene oxide with europium using sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño, V. J.; Rangel, R.; Cervantes, J. L.; Lara, J.; Alvarado, J. J.; Galván, D. H.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide decoration with europium was carried out using SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the surfactant. The reaction was performed in a microwave oven and subsequently underwent thermal treatment under hydrogen flow. The results found in the present work demonstrate that through the use of SDS surfactant aggregates of hemi-cylindrical and onion-like structures could be obtained; which propitiate an enhanced synergistic photoluminescence located at the red wavelength. On the other hand, after thermal treatment the aggregates disappear providing a good dispersion of europium, however a decrease in the photoluminescence signal is observed. The graphene oxide decorated with europium was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, showing the characteristic features of graphene oxide and europium.

  14. Influence of sodium lauryl sulfate and tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-10-11

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide (CBZ-NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR.

  15. The Revision of Aluminum-containing Food Additive Provisions in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Ji Yue; Wang, Hua Li; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhang, Jian Bo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to revise the provisions for aluminum-containing food additives in GB 2760-2011 (The National Food Safety Standard for Use of Food Additives), in order to reduce aluminum exposure among the Chinese population. According to the latest risk assessment results of JECFA and China on aluminum and the actual use of aluminum-containing food additives in certain products, the aluminum-containing food additive-related provisions in GB 2760-2011 were revised. Those revisions included narrowing down the applicable food categories and adjusting the maximum use level of aluminum potassium sulfate and aluminum ammonium sulfate, repealing nine aluminum-containing food additives in puffed food and repealing the use of sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminosilicate and starch aluminum octenylsuccinate in all food. After revision of the use of aluminum food additive provisions, the weekly dietary intake of aluminum in the Chinese population can be reduced to a safe level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute murine colitis by regulating Th17/Treg cell balance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liya; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Xia, Zhenwei

    2014-09-26

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent investigations suggest that activation of Th17 cells and/or deficiency of regulatory T cells (Treg) is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a protein with a wide range of anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory function, which exerts significantly protective roles in various T cell-mediated diseases. In this study, we aim to explore the immunological regulation of HO-1 in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of experimental murine colitis. BALB/c mice were administered 4% dextran sulfate sodium orally; some mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with HO-1 inducer hemin or HO-1 inhibitor stannum protoporphyrin IX. The results show that hemin enhances the colonic expression of HO-1 and significantly ameliorates the symptoms of colitis with improved histological changes, accompanied by a decreased proportion of Th17 cells and increased number of Tregs in mesenteric lymph node and spleen. Moreover, induction of HO-1 down-regulates retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt expression and IL-17A levels, while promoting Treg-related forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression and IL-10 levels in colon. Further study in vitro revealed that up-regulated HO-1 switched the naive T cells to Tregs when cultured under a Th17-inducing environment, which involved in IL-6R blockade. Therefore, HO-1 may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in the murine model of acute experimental colitis via regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells, thus providing a possible novel therapeutic target in IBD.

  17. Lactic acid bacteria inhibit proinflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial glycosaminoglycan degradation activity in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitic mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Han, Song-Yi; Bae, Eun-Ah; Huh, Chul-Sung; Ahn, Young-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), inhibitory effect of several LAB isolated from intestinal microflora and commercial probiotics against NO production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was measured and anti-inflammatory effect of NO production-inhibitory LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum HY115 and L. brevis HY7401, in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitic mice was investigated. The oral administration of the LAB to mice inhibited colon shortening and myeloperoxidase productivity in DSS-induced colitic mice. These LABs repressed the mRNA expressions of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, as well as the protein expressions of IL-1beta and IL-6 proteins in the colon. The activation of the transcription factor, NF-kB, induced by DSS, was also inhibited by LAB. The administration of LAB reduced the degradation activities of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid of intestinal bacteria, induced by DSS, of which could induce the cytotoxic metabolites against intestinal cells. These findings suggest that NO-inhibitory LAB against LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells may improve colitis by the regulation of the inflammatory cytokine expression via the activation of transcription factor NF-kB as well as GAGs-degrading intestinal microflora.

  18. Aggregation and micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of Ce(III) at different temperatures: a conductometric study.

    PubMed

    Valente, Artur J M; Burrows, Hugh D; Cruz, Sandra M A; Pereira, Rui F P; Ribeiro, Ana C F; Lobo, Victor M M

    2008-07-01

    Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of cerium(III) chloride, at various temperatures (298.15-323.15 K) have been measured by the electrical conductance technique. The experimental data on aqueous solutions as a function of SDS concentration show the presence of two inflexion points indicating the presence of two distinct interaction mechanisms: the first, occurring at SDS concentrations below the critical micelle concentration of the pure surfactant, which can be explained by the formation of aggregates between dodecyl sulfate (DS-) and Ce(III), while the second one, at SDS concentrations around the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the pure surfactant which is due to the SDS micellization. The aggregation between DS- and Ce(III) was confirmed by static light scattering. The binding ratio of DS-/Ce(III) changes from 6 to 4, shows a slight dependence on the Ce(III) concentration and is independent of the temperature. The thermodynamic micellization parameters, Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy of micellization were calculated on the basis of the experimental data for the aggregation concentration, and the degree of counterion dissociation of the micelles. The SDS micellization is energetically favoured by increasing either the concentration of CeCl3 or the temperature. Such behaviour is clearly dominated by a decrease of the micellization (exothermic) enthalpy. The entropy of micellization approaches zero as the cerium(III) chloride concentration and temperature increase.

  19. TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

  20. Preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of a forest mushroom Suillus luteus by sodium dodecyl sulfate based "salting-in" countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Hu, Xueqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    In the course of screening new anticancer natural products, an edible forest mushroom Suillus luteus (L. Ex Franch). Gray was found to have potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells. However, the lipophilic sample made some countercurrent chromatography solvent systems emulsify, which caused difficulties in the separation of its cytotoxic components. Here, we found that the addition of an organic salt sodium dodecyl sulfate could efficiently shorten the settling time of the mushroom sample solutions by eliminating the emulsification of two-phase solvent systems. Moreover, we found that sodium dodecyl sulfate could play a new "salting-in" role and made the partition coefficients of the solutes decrease with the increased concentrations. Thus, a sodium dodecyl sulfate based salting-in countercurrent chromatography method has been successfully established for the first time for preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of the mushroom. The active component was identified as isosuillin. Whole results indicated that sodium dodecyl sulfate could be used as an efficient salting-in reagent for two-phase solvent system selection and targeted countercurrent chromatography isolation. It is very useful for current natural products isolation and drug discovery. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

  2. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  3. Control of pathogens in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel by levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-08-17

    The efficacy of levulinic acid (LVA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to remove or inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel coupons was evaluated. Five- or six-strain mixtures (ca. 9.0 log CFU/ml) of the three pathogens were separately inoculated on stainless steel coupons. After incubation at 21 °C for 72 h, the coupons were treated for 10 min by different concentrations of LVA plus SDS (0.5% LVA+0.05% SDS, 1% LVA+0.1% SDS, and 3% LVA+2% SDS) and other commonly used sanitizers, including a commercial quaternary ammonium-based sanitizer (150 ppm), lactic acid (3%), sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm), and hydrogen peroxide (2%). The pathogens grew in the biofilms to ca. 8.6 to 9.3 log CFU/coupon after 72 h of incubation. The combined activity of LVA with SDS was bactericidal in biofilms for cells of the three pathogens evaluated, with the highest concentrations (3% LVA+2% SDS) providing the greatest log reduction. Microscopic images indicated that the cells were detached from the biofilm matrix and the integrity of cell envelopes were decreased after the treatment of LVA plus SDS. This study is conducive to better understanding the antimicrobial behavior of LVA plus SDS to the foodborne pathogens within biofilms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sodium lauryl sulfate impedes drug release from zinc-crosslinked alginate beads: switching from enteric coating release into biphasic profiles.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mutasem O; Nasser, Wissam; Ardakani, Adel; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2008-02-28

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads. Different levels of SLS were mixed with sodium alginate and chlorpheniramine maleate (as loaded model drug). The resulting viscous solutions were dropped onto aqueous solutions of zinc or calcium ions for ionotropic curing. The generated beads were assessed by their drug releasing profiles, infrared and differential scanning colorimetery (DSC) traits. SLS was found to exert profound concentration-dependent impacts on the characteristics of zinc-crosslinked alginate beads such that moderate modifications in the levels of SLS switched drug release from enteric coating-like behavior to a biphasic release modifiable to sustained-release by the addition of minute amounts of xanthan gum. Calcium cross-linking failed to reproduce the same behavior, probably due to the mainly ionic nature of calcium-carboxylate bonds compared to the coordinate character of their zinc-carboxylate counterparts. Apparently, moderate levels of SLS repel water penetration into the beads, and therefore minimize chlorpheniramine release. However, higher SLS levels seem to discourage polymeric cross-linking and therefore allow biphasic drug release.

  5. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    PubMed

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  6. Molecular interaction in alginate beads reinforced with sodium starch glycolate or magnesium aluminum silicate, and their physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Priprem, Aroonsri

    2005-04-11

    Diclofenac calcium-alginate (DCA) beads were reinforced with different amounts of sodium starch glycolate (SSG) or magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) and were prepared using ionotropic gelation method. Complex formation of sodium alginate (SA) and SSG or MAS in calcium-alginate beads was revealed using FTIR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetric study indicated that diclofenac sodium (DS) in amorphous form was dispersed in the matrix of DCA beads. The thermal behavior of SSG-DCA and MAS-DCA beads was similar to the control bead. Both additives can improve the entrapment efficiency of DCA beads. The swelling and water uptake of the beads depended on the properties of incorporated additives. The SSG-DCA beads showed a higher water uptake and swelling than MAS-DCA beads. Moreover, the swelling of the beads showed a good correlation with the square root of time. The release kinetic of the beads in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was swelling controlled mechanism, while that in distilled water followed Higuchi's model. The slower release rate and the longer lag time in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was obtained from the SSG-DCA and MAS-DCA beads because of complex formation between SA and SSG or MAS. However, SSG in the beads could increase the release of DS from the beads in distilled water because it acted as a channeling agent. In contrast, MAS retarded the release of DS from the beads in distilled water due to the stronger matrix formation.

  7. Analysis of partitioning of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-10-09

    Partition behavior of nine small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. It was found out that the partition coefficient of all compounds examined (including proteins) may be described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system differ from those in polyethylene glycol-dextran system.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a combination of amikacin sulfate and penicillin G sodium for intravenous regional limb perfusion in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Jorge E; Trela, Jan; Stanley, Scott D; Yamout, Sawsan; Snyder, Jack R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of amikacin and penicillin G sodium when administered in combination as an intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) to horses. Seven healthy adult horses underwent an IVRLP in the cephalic vein with 2 g of amikacin sulfate and 10 mill IU of penicillin G sodium diluted to 60 mL in 0.9% saline. A pneumatic tourniquet set at 450 mmHg was left in place for 30 min. Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpophalangeal joint 35 min and 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after infusion of the antimicrobials. Concentrations of amikacin and penicillin in synovial fluid were quantitated by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry analysis. Therapeutic concentrations of amikacin and penicillin for equine-susceptible pathogens were achieved in the synovial fluid. Maximum synovial concentrations (Cmax) (mean ± SE) for amikacin and penicillin were 132 ± 33 μg/mL and 8474 ± 5710 ng/mL, respectively. Only 3 horses had detectable levels of penicillin at 6 h and 1 at the 12 h sample. The combination of amikacin with penicillin G sodium via IVDLP resulted in reported therapeutic concentrations of both antibiotics in the synovial fluid. The Cmax:MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) ratio for amikacin was 8:1 and Time > MIC for penicillin was 6 h. At 24 h, the mean concentration of amikacin was still above 4 μg/mL. Terminal elimination rate constants (T1/2 lambdaz) were 13.6 h and 2.8 h for amikacin and penicillin, respectively. The use of IVDLP with penicillin may therefore not be practical as rapid clearance of penicillin from the synovial fluid requires frequent perfusions to maintain acceptable therapeutic concentrations.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a combination of amikacin sulfate and penicillin G sodium for intravenous regional limb perfusion in adult horses

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Jorge E.; Trela, Jan; Stanley, Scott D.; Yamout, Sawsan; Snyder, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of amikacin and penicillin G sodium when administered in combination as an intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) to horses. Seven healthy adult horses underwent an IVRLP in the cephalic vein with 2 g of amikacin sulfate and 10 mill IU of penicillin G sodium diluted to 60 mL in 0.9% saline. A pneumatic tourniquet set at 450 mmHg was left in place for 30 min. Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpophalangeal joint 35 min and 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after infusion of the antimicrobials. Concentrations of amikacin and penicillin in synovial fluid were quantitated by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry analysis. Therapeutic concentrations of amikacin and penicillin for equine-susceptible pathogens were achieved in the synovial fluid. Maximum synovial concentrations (Cmax) (mean ± SE) for amikacin and penicillin were 132 ± 33 μg/mL and 8474 ± 5710 ng/mL, respectively. Only 3 horses had detectable levels of penicillin at 6 h and 1 at the 12 h sample. The combination of amikacin with penicillin G sodium via IVDLP resulted in reported therapeutic concentrations of both antibiotics in the synovial fluid. The Cmax:MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) ratio for amikacin was 8:1 and Time > MIC for penicillin was 6 h. At 24 h, the mean concentration of amikacin was still above 4 μg/mL. Terminal elimination rate constants (T1/2 lambdaz) were 13.6 h and 2.8 h for amikacin and penicillin, respectively. The use of IVDLP with penicillin may therefore not be practical as rapid clearance of penicillin from the synovial fluid requires frequent perfusions to maintain acceptable therapeutic concentrations. PMID:27408337

  10. Hematological changes in rats chronically exposed to oral aluminum.

    PubMed

    Farina, M; Rotta, L N; Soares, F A A; Jardim, F; Jacques, R; Souza, D O; Rocha, J B T

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of the long-term oral exposure to aluminum sulfate on hematological parameters in rats. For this purpose, 24 adult female Wistar rats were divided in three groups with 8 animals each (control, citrate, and citrate plus aluminum groups). Rats from control and citrate groups had free access to tap water and to a sodium citrate solution (35 mM), respectively. Rats from citrate plus aluminum group received, as unique source of liquid, an aluminum sulfate solution (30 mM) diluted in the above-mentioned sodium citrate solution, ad libitum. After the treatment period (18 months), aluminum-exposed rats showed a significant decrease in the number of red blood cells, blood hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit when compared to rats from the control group. Serum iron levels were also significantly lower in citrate plus aluminum group, whereas total iron binding capacity did not change after citrate plus aluminum exposure. Erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and nonprotein thiols (NPSH) levels, erythrocyte osmotic fragility and hepatic delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity did not change after treatment with citrate plus aluminum. Conversely, aluminum exposure increased delta-ALA-D activity in bone marrow. The present results indicate that long-term oral exposure to low doses of aluminum sulfate promotes alterations on erythrocyte parameters in rats, probably as a consequence of alterations in the iron status. In addition, although the details of the underlying mechanism remain unclear, our study reports, for the first time, a stimulatory effect of chronic aluminum exposure on bone marrow delta-ALA-D activity.

  11. Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO2 (rutile and anatase) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2013-09-17

    Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces and for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers <5 microm were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. Likewise, Clinoptilolite, Phillipsite, Mordenite, Nonfibrous Japanese Zeolite, and synthetic Zeolites were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. These ingredients are not significantly toxic in oral acute or short-term oral or parenteral toxicity studies in animals. Inhalation toxicity, however, is readily demonstrated in animals. Particle size, fibrogenicity, concentration, and mineral composition had the greatest effect on toxicity. Larger particle size and longer and wider fibers cause more adverse effects. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. No gross effects were reported in any of these studies. Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin

  13. Experimental study of PDT with aluminum sulphophthalocyanine using sodium ascorbate and hyperbaric oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Volkova, Anna I.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.; Kaliya, Oleg L.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Boris Y.; Butenin, Alexander V.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Gladskikh, Olga P.; Polyakova, Larisa N.

    1999-02-01

    It is well known that sulphophthalocyanine derivatives under laser irradiation induce photochemical reaction of II type with generation of cytotoxic agent - singlet oxygen. The combination of phthalocyanine and exogenic reductant - sodium ascorbate may also induce other reactions, involving the formation of free radicals, and thus intensify the antitumor effect. To improve the results of PDT we used the additional injection of sodium ascorbate, the hyperbaric oxygenation and different regimes of laser irradiation. We conducted the experimental study on 100 white mice with Erlich carcinoma. Macroscopic and microscopic data showed that sodium ascorbate significantly increases the effect of PDT in comparison with control group due to the higher tumor damage, vascular alterations, inhibition of cell proliferation and stimulation of antitumor desmoplastic reaction.

  14. Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

    2011-05-03

    The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process.

  15. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhova, Elena N.; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O.; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A.; Patsenker, Leonid D.; Doroshenko, Andrey O.; Marynin, Andriy I.; Krasovitskii, Boris M.

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR+ ⇄ R + H+) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R±. The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR+ with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKaapp = 5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators.

  16. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  17. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate pretreatment and 2-stage curing for improved quality of salted duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Lian, Zixuan; Qiao, Longshan; Zhu, Guanghong; Deng, Yun; Qian, Bingjun; Yue, Jin; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-03-01

    The effects of use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing on the microbial, physicochemical, and microstructural qualities of salted duck eggs were studied. After pretreatment in 0.5% (w/v) SDS solution at room conditions for 15 min, no discolorations were observed and no microorganisms were detected on the egg shells. In the 2-stage curing process, 25% (w/v) and 30% (w/v) saline solutions were evaluated in the 1st step (Stage I, approximately 18 d), whereas 4% (w/v) saline solution was applied in the 2nd step (Stage II, approximately 15 d). Along with increased curing time, water content decreased and NaCl content increased in the egg yolks from approximately 0.40% to 0.86%, whereas the water content of egg albumen remained at approximately 85% during the 2-stage curing. More importantly, the NaCl content of albumen maintained at approximately 4.0% at Stage II curing. Yolk index as a sign of maturity for salted duck eggs reached 1 at the end of Stage I (18 d) and retained the same value during Stage II curing regardless of the NaCl concentration in the Stage I saline solution. Oil exudation in egg yolks increased as the time of curing increased. As seen from scanning electron microscopy, oil was released from yolk granules. This study indicated that SDS pretreatment is effective to reduce microbial load on the shells of fresh duck eggs and the 2-stage curing can improve physicochemical qualities of the salted duck eggs and shortened curing time to about 7 to 17 d as compared to the traditional 1-step curing method. Spoiled saline solution and uneven distribution of salt are the 2 major problems in producing salted duck eggs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing process have shown effective to solve these problems, respectively. The SDS pretreatment was able to remove microorganisms and soil from the surface of fresh egg shells, thus preventing the spoilage of the saline solution. The 2-stage curing process

  18. Safety and efficacy of self-assembling bubble carriers stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate for oral delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Yen; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Lin, Kun-Ju; Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Chiang, Ching-Hua; Mi, Fwu-Long; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2017-08-10

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is generally regarded as a potent permeability enhancer in oral formulations; however, one concern related to the use of any permeation enhancer is its possible absorption of unwanted toxins during the period of epithelial permeability enhancement. In this work, the safety and efficacy of an SDS-containing bubble carrier system that is developed from an orally administered enteric-coated capsule are evaluated. The bubble carriers comprise diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride, sodium bicarbonate (SBC), SDS, and insulin. Upon exposure to the intestinal fluid, DTPA dianhydride hydrolyzes to yield acids, and SBC rapidly reacts with these acids to generate CO2, producing bubble carriers, each containing a self-assembling water film. The hydrophilic insulin is entrapped in the self-assembled water film, which is stabilized by SDS. The SDS in the bubble carrier system can act as a dissolution enhancer in the dispersion of insulin molecules, as a surfactant that stabilizes the bubble carriers, as a protease inhibitor that protects the protein drug, and as a permeation enhancer that augments its oral bioavailability. Hence, a significant increase in the plasma insulin level and an excellent blood glucose-lowering response in diabetic rats are effectively achieved. Moreover, the enhancement of epithelial permeation by this SDS-containing formulation does not promote the absorption of intestinal endotoxins. The above facts indicate that the bubble carrier system that is stabilized by SDS can be used as a safe and potent carrier in the oral delivery of therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NMR study of the solution conformation of rat atrial natriuretic factor 7-23 in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Olejniczak, E.T.; Gampe, R.T. Jr.; Rockway, T.W.; Fesik, S.W.

    1988-09-06

    The conformation of the cyclic portion (7-23) of naturally occurring rat atrial natriuretic factor, ANF(1-28), has been examined in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles using high-resolution NMR techniques. Evidence is presented which shows that ANF(7-23) has several regions of definable structure in SDS micelles which were not observed in earlier studies in bulk solvents. The /sup 1/H NMR resonances of ANF(7-23) in SDS micelles were assigned using sequential assignment techniques, and the conformational properties were analyzed primarily from proton-proton distances obtained from the quantitative analysis of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectra. Three-dimensional structures consistent with the NMR data were generated by using distance geometry and constrained minimization/dynamics. Several similar but not identical structures were found which adequately satisfied the NMR constraints. Although none of the structures adopted a standard secondary structure, the conformations of three different sections of the peptide, 8-13, 14-17, and 18-21, were nearly identical in all of the predicted structures when individually superimposed.

  20. IL-33 induces both regulatory B cells and regulatory T cells in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfeng; Xu, Ying; Zhu, Chunyu; Zhao, Jian; Meng, Xinrui; Chen, Siyao; Wang, Tianqi; Li, Xue; Zhang, Li; Lu, Changlong; Liu, Hongsheng; Sun, Xun

    2017-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family. Serum levels of IL-33 are increased in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), suggesting that IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, although its role is not clear. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-33 in the regulation of T-helper (Th) cell and B cell responses in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Here, we showed that IL-33-treated mice were susceptible to DSS-induced colitis as compared with PBS-treated mice. The production of spontaneous inflammatory cytokines production by macrophages or dendritic cells (DC) in MLN significantly increased, and the responses of Th2, regulatory T cells (Treg) and regulatory B cells (Breg) were markedly upregulated, while Th1 responses were significantly downregulated in MLN of IL-33-treated mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that IL-33 contributes to the pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis in mice by promoting Th2 responses, but suppressing Th1 responses, in MLN. Moreover, IL-33 treatment increased Breg and Treg responses in MLN in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Therefore, modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling is implicated as a novel biological therapy for inflammatory diseases associated with Th1 responses.

  1. Effect of low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate on the electromigration of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Guo, Wen-Bo; Guo, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The effect of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the separation of palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO) stereoisomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been investigated. It was found that the addition of SDS prolongs the migration time and the migration order of four stereoisomers changes regularly with the SDS concentration. Good separations for all the four stereoisomers were achieved at appropriate SDS concentration. The effect of SDS on the electromigration (mobilities) of PALO stereoisomers has been studied, in order to explain its effect on the separation by MEKC. It was found that low concentrations of SDS added into the separation media forms negatively charged complexes with PALO stereoisomers and hence reverses their electromigration direction. Furthermore, the migration order between two enantiomeric pairs is also reversed because the enantiomeric pair with a bigger positive mobility than that of another pair turns to have a bigger negative mobility when bound with SDS. Based on these results, the effect of SDS on the MEKC separation of PALO stereoisomers was elucidated reasonably. The performance of the developed chiral MEKC method was validated by the analysis of a real sample.

  2. Preventive Effects of Spirogyra neglecta and a Polysaccharide Extract against Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Taya, Sirinya; Kakehashi, Anna; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan; Gi, Min; Ishii, Naomi; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) results from colonic epithelial barrier defects and impaired mucosal immune responses. In this study, we aimed to investigate the modifying effects of a Spirogyra neglecta extract (SNE), a polysaccharide extract (PE) and a chloroform fraction (CF) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to determine the mechanisms. To induce colitis, ICR mice received 3% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. Seven days preceding the DSS treatment, oral administration of SNE, PE and CF at doses of 50, 25 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight (low dose), 200, 100 and 1 mg/kg body weight (high dose) and vehicle was started and continued for 14 days. Histologic findings showed that DSS-induced damage of colonic epithelial structure and inflammation was attenuated in mice pre-treated with SNE, PE and CF. Furthermore, SNE and PE significantly protected colonic epithelial cells from DSS-induced cell cycle arrest, while SNE, PE and CF significantly diminished apoptosis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that SNE and PE might ameliorate DSS-induced colitis by inducing antioxidant enzymes, restoring impaired mitochondria function, and regulating inflammatory cytokines, proliferation and apoptosis. These results suggest that SNE and PE could prevent DSS-induced colitis in ICR mice by protection against and/or aiding recovery from damage to the colonic epithelium, reducing ROS and maintaining normal mitochondrial function and apoptosis.

  3. Impact of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 synthesis capacity on healing in rats with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ağış, Erol R; Savaş, Berna; Melli, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. This study evaluates the role of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 (LXA4) synthesis in an experimental rat model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy controls, DSS-induced colitis with no or vehicle therapy, misoprostol or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy groups. Disease severity and colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis was assessed specifically during the acute phase (day 5), chronic phase (day 15) and healing phases (day 19). Both misoprostol and 5-ASA reduced histopathologic score during the acute phase and reduced disease activity score at the healing phase. In addition, misoprostol reduced histopathologic score and colon weight/length ratio during the healing phase. Only misoprostol therapy increased colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis. Furthermore, LXA4 levels correlated negatively with disease progression (R=-0.953). Collectively, our findings suggest that misoprostol-induced LXA4 synthesis may be favorable for the healing of ulcerative colitis.

  4. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic method for assessing the quaternary state and comparative thermostability of avidin and streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Bayer, E A; Ehrlich-Rogozinski, S; Wilchek, M

    1996-08-01

    Avidin, a positively charged egg-white protein, aggregates extensively when mixed at ambient temperatures with anionic detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The resultant aggregates fail to penetrate the stacking gel during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To prevent the formation of such aggregates, avidin was acetylated and the pI was thus reduced. Acetylated avidin was found to behave in a manner similar to that of streptavidin; under nondenaturing conditions (i.e., incubation of samples at room temperature), both proteins normally migrated mainly as tetramers with a tendency to form oligomers of the tetramer. When samples were boiled, both proteins migrated mainly as the monomer. The comparative stability properties of avidin and streptavidin were also examined using SDS-PAGE by heating samples and determining the extent of dissociation of tetramers to monomers as a function of temperature. A distinctive transition temperature could be defined for individual samples. Using this assay, it was determined that, in the absence of biotin, the quaternary structure of streptavidin is more stable than that of avidin. Biotin appears to stabilize structures of both avidin and streptavidin to a similar degree. Acetylation of avidin thus provides a simple means to analyze the quaternary structure of the molecule using SDS-PAGE.

  5. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, M. I. E.; Zuhainis, S. W.; Yusof, M. T.; Shaharuddin, N. A.; Helmi, W.; Shukor, Y.; Syed, M. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  6. Lack of Adrenomedullin Results in Microbiota Changes and Aggravates Azoxymethane and Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Herrero, Sonia; Larrayoz, Ignacio M.; Narro-Íñiguez, Judit; Villanueva-Millán, María J.; Recio-Fernández, Emma; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Oteo, José A.; Martínez, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The link between intestinal inflammation, microbiota, and colorectal cancer is intriguing and the potential underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we evaluate the influence of adrenomedullin (AM) in microbiota composition and its impact on colitis with an inducible knockout (KO) mouse model for AM. Microbiota composition was analyzed in KO and wild type (WT) mice by massive sequencing. Colitis was induced in mice by administration of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water. Colitis was evaluated using a clinical symptoms index, histopathological analyses, and qRT-PCR. Abrogation of the adm gene in the whole body was confirmed by PCR and qRT-PCR. KO mice exhibit significant changes in colonic microbiota: higher proportion of δ-Proteobacteria class; of Coriobacteriales order; and of other families and genera was observed in KO feces. Meanwhile these mice had a lower proportion of beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium choerinum. TLR4 gene expression was higher (p < 0.05) in KO animals. AM deficient mice treated with DSS exhibited a significantly worse colitis with profound weight loss, severe diarrhea, rectal bleeding, colonic inflammation, edema, infiltration, crypt destruction, and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. No changes were observed in the expression levels of adhesion molecules. In conclusion, we have shown that lack of AM leads to changes in gut microbiota population and in a worsening of colitis conditions, suggesting that endogenous AM is a protective mediator in this pathology. PMID:27965594

  7. Swimming attenuates inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in a rat model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced chronic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-shan; Liu, Qin-qin; Wang, Li-feng; Yang, An-gang; Gao, Chun-fang; Li, Jun-tang

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular physical exercise suppresses chronic inflammation. However, the potential inhibitory effects of swimming on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis, and its underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, rats were orally administered DSS to induce chronic colitis, and subsequently treated with or without swimming exercise. A 7-week swimming program (1 or 1.5 hours per day, 5 days per week) ameliorated DSS-caused colon shortening, colon barrier disruption, spleen enlargement, serum LDH release, and reduction of body weight gain. Swimming for 1.5 hours per day afforded greater protection than 1 hour per day. Swimming ameliorated DSS-induced decrease in crypt depth, and increases in myeloperoxidase activity, infiltration of Ly6G+ neutrophils and TNF-a- and IFN-?-expressing CD3+ T cells, as well as fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin. Swimming inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and decreased the protein expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-?B p65 and cyclooxygenase 2, whereas it elevated interleukin-10 levels. Swimming impeded the generation of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide; however, it boosted glutathione levels, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Additionally, swimming decreased caspase-3 activity and expression of apoptosis-inducing factor, cytochrome c, Bax, and cleaved-caspase-3, but increased Bcl-2 levels. Overall, these results suggest that swimming exerts beneficial effects on DSS-induced chronic colitis by modulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PMID:28030847

  8. Origin of salt additive effect on solute partitioning in aqueous polyethylene glycol-8000-sodium sulfate two-phase system.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Mikheeva, Larissa M; Teixeira, José A; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2014-04-11

    Partitioning of a homologous series of dinitrophenylted (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic side chains was examined in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000-sodium sulfate two-phase systems (ATPS) with the additives NaSCN, NaClO4, and NaH2PO4 at concentrations varied from 0.025M up to 0.54M. The differences between the relative hydrophobicities and electrostatic properties of the two phases in all ATPS were estimated. Partitioning of adenine, adenosine mono-, di- and tri-phosphates was also examined in all ATPSs, including those with NaCl additive. Partition coefficients for these compounds and for nonionic organic compounds previously reported [L.A. Ferreira, P. Parpot, J.A. Teixeira, L.M. Mikheeva, B.Y. Zaslavsky, J. Chromatogr. A 1220 (2012) 14.] were analyzed in terms of linear solvent regression relationship. The results obtained suggest that the effects of the salts additives are related to their influence on the water structure.

  9. Enhancing the transdermal delivery of rigid nanoparticles using the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Renata F V; Seto, Jennifer E; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The potential of rigid nanoparticles to serve as transdermal drug carriers can be greatly enhanced by improving their skin penetration. Therefore, the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) was evaluated as a skin pre-treatment method for enhancing the passive transdermal delivery of nanoparticles. We utilized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and an improved application of confocal microscopy to compare the delivery of 10- and 20-nm cationic, neutral, and anionic quantum dots (QDs) into US/SLS-treated and untreated pig split-thickness skin. Our findings include: (a) ∼0.01% of the QDs penetrate the dermis of untreated skin (which we quantify for the first time), (b) the QDs fully permeate US/SLS-treated skin, (c) the two cationic QDs studied exhibit different extents of skin penetration and dermal clearance, and (d) the QD skin penetration is heterogeneous. We discuss routes of nanoparticle skin penetration and the application of the methods described herein to address conflicting literature reports on nanoparticle skin penetration. We conclude that US/SLS treatment significantly enhances QD transdermal penetration by 500-1300%. Our findings suggest that an optimum surface charge exists for nanoparticle skin penetration, and motivate the application of nanoparticle carriers to US/SLS-treated skin for enhanced transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg(−1) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg(−1) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis. PMID:26973525

  11. A comparative study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and freezing/thawing treatment on wheat starch: The role of water absorption.

    PubMed

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-05

    The effect of freezing on functionality of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated wheat starches was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of water absorption during freezing process. SDS is one of most efficient detergents to remove non-starch components (such as proteins and lipids) for starches but does not cause any apparent damage on granular structure. Slow swelling could be converted to rapid swelling by SDS washing, indicating higher water absorption. Freezing process induced slight roughness on starch granules but the non-starch components content was little affected. Combined SDS+freezing treatment significantly decreased both amylose and proteins non-starch components contents, which was accompanied with high gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from SDS+freezing-treated starches while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p<0.05). SDS mainly extracted the surface components from starch granules, leading to high water absorption and making granules sensitive to the freezing treatment.

  12. Interaction of poly(ethylene oxide) with the sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle interface studied with nitroxide spin probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.S.; Kevan, L. )

    1994-08-04

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) line widths of 5-, 7-, 12-, and 16-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA) and tempo nitroxides versus the concentration of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles show different trends. The ESR line widths of 5-, 7-, and 16-DSA increase with increasing concentration of PEO, which is interpreted as due to increasing viscosity in the environment of the nitroxide spin probe. The tempo and 12-DSA line widths were independent of the concentration of PEO. The line width showed the highest value for 5-DSA and the lowest value of tempo. The line width of x-DSA decreases from 5-DSA to a minimum value for 12-DSA and then increases somewhat for 16-DSA. This is interpreted as bending of the alkyl chain to provide different locations for the nitroxide moiety relative to the micelle interface. The relative distances of the nitroxide moiety of [chi]-DSA from deuterated water at the SDS micelle interface was measured by deuterium electron spin echo modulation. The distances increased from 5-DSA to 12-DSA and then decreased for 16-DSA. The interpretation of the DSR line width trend is supported by the deuterium modulation depth trend. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity.

  14. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Rui; Qi, Li; Jia, Mingjun; Wang, Hongyu

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal strategy with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) soft template (ST). Their physicochemical properties have been characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and nitrogen sorption measurements. Their electrocatalytic performances have been examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The obtained NiCo2O4 materials exhibit a typical nanoscale crystalline hexagonal morphology with specific surface area (SSA) and mesopore volume of 88.63 m2 g-1 and 0.298 cm3 g-1. Impressively, the SDS-assisted NiCo2O4 electrode shows a catalytic current density of 125 mA cm-2 and 72% retention for consecutive 1000 s at 0.6 V in 1 M KOH and 0.5 M CH3OH electrolytes towards methanol (CH3OH) electrooxidation, which is better than the one without SDS assistance. The pronounced electrocatalytic activity is largely ascribed to their higher surface intensities of Co and Ni species and superior mesoporous nanostructures, which provide the richer electroactive sites and faster electrochemical kinetics, leading to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity.

  15. Dextran sulfate sodium upregulates MAPK signaling for the uptake and subsequent intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses worldwide that inflicts important health problems in animal and human. Here, we demonstrated that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) significantly increased adhesion of Brucella (B.) abortus in murine macrophages compared to untreated cells. Even without infection, Brucella uptake into macrophages increased and F-actin reorganization was induced compared with untreated cells. Furthermore, DSS increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38α) in Brucella-infected, DSS-treated cells compared with the control cells. Lastly, DSS markedly increased the intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in macrophages by up to 48 h. These results suggest that DSS enhanced the adhesion and phagocytosis of B. abortus into murine macrophages by stimulating the MAPK signaling proteins phospho-ERK1/2 and p38α and that DSS increased the intracellular survival of B. abortus by inhibiting colocalization of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) with the late endosome marker LAMP-1. This study emphasizes the enhancement of the phagocytic and intracellular modulatory effects of DSS, which may suppress the innate immune system and contribute to prolonged Brucella survival and chronic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Picrorhiza kurroa Derivative, Picroliv, Attenuates the Development of Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, De-Kui; Yu, Jian-Jie; Li, Yu-Min; Wei, Li-Na; Yu, Yi; Feng, Yan-Hu; Wang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Background. Free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Picroliv, a Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of picroliv on experimental model of UC in mice. Materials and Methods. Picroliv was administrated orally by gavage to mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histology score were observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and SOD, MDA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the expression of cytokine mRNAs was studied by real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and also ELISA. The expression of NF-κB p65 was observed by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Results. A significant improvement was observed in DAI and histological score in mice treated with picroliv, and incerased MPO activity, MDA concentrations, and the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in mice with DSS-induced colitis were significantly reduced while decreased SOD level increased following administration of picroliv. Conclusion. The administration of picroliv leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting administration of picroliv may provide a therapeutic approach for UC. PMID:23125487

  17. Human and Environmental Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products

    PubMed Central

    Bondi, Cara AM; Marks, Julia L; Wroblewski, Lauren B; Raatikainen, Heidi S; Lenox, Shannon R; Gebhardt, Kay E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure is a major concern for consumers of packaged goods. The complexity of chemical nomenclature and wide availability of scientific research provide detailed information but lends itself to misinterpretation by the lay person. For the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), this has resulted in a misunderstanding of the environmental health impact of the chemical and statements in the media that are not scientifically supported. This review demonstrates how scientific works can be misinterpreted and used in a manner that was not intended by the authors, while simultaneously providing insight into the true environmental health impact of SLS. SLS is an anionic surfactant commonly used in consumer household cleaning products. For decades, this chemical has been developing a negative reputation with consumers because of inaccurate interpretations of the scientific literature and confusion between SLS and chemicals with similar names. Here, we review the human and environmental toxicity profiles of SLS and demonstrate that it is safe for use in consumer household cleaning products. PMID:26617461

  18. Microemulsion formation and phase behavior of anionic and cationic surfactants with sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Lin, E.; Zhao, G.; Xiao, T.

    1996-12-01

    The phase behavior and solubilization of multiphase microemulsions in mixed anionic-cationic surfactant systems were studied for fixed ratio of water-to-oil and surfactant-to-alcohol. In the mixed surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate + cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)/heptane/alcohol/water systems, microemulsions and birefringement phases are formed by adjusting the surfactant ratio {epsilon} and the cationic weight fraction {delta}. The bicontinuous (or w/o microemulsion) {yields} birefringement o/w microemulsion transition takes place and microemulsion domain enlarges with increasing {epsilon}. The optimum surfactant concentration {gamma} increases and the corresponding optimum {delta} decreases with increasing {epsilon} and both of them decrease with increasing the alcohol chain length butanol to hexanol. The birefringent region shrinks rapidly with increasing alcohol and/or CTAB weight fractions in total surfactant concentration. Conductivity measurements have been performed in the single-phase region of the system containing mixed surfactants and alcohols at 25 C. The conductivity results indicate where a transition takes place and which of these different types of phase structures may be in the single-phase of the system containing anionic-cationic mixed surfactants.

  19. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/β-cyclodextrin vesicles embedded in chitosan gel for insulin delivery with pH-selective release.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Caifen; Xu, Jianghui; Singh, Vikramjeet; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-07-01

    In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated. The vesicles were crosslinked into thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate solution for an in-situ gel to enhance the dilution stability. The in vitro release characteristics of insulin from gels in media at different pH values were investigated. The insulin loaded vesicles-chitosan hydrogel (IVG) improved the dilution stability of the vesicles and provided pH-selective sustained release compared with insulin solution-chitosan hydrogel (ISG). In vitro, IVG exhibited slow release in acidic solution and relatively quick release in neutral solutions to provide drug efficacy. In simulated digestive fluid, IVG showed better sustained release and insulin protection properties compared with ISG. Thus IVG might improve the stability of insulin during its transport in vivo and contribute to the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin.

  20. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases.

  1. Use of an intravenous sclerosing foam (3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate) for treatment of orbital varix in a dog.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Rebecca S; Scansen, Brian A; Jung, Stephen S; Khabiri, Hooman; Wilkie, David A

    2017-01-10

    A 6-month-old intact male Standard Dachshund was referred for evaluation of a soft tissue swelling above the right eye. Examination of the right eye revealed mild lateral deviation of the globe, normal vision, and a dorsonasal soft tissue swelling. Examination of the posterior segment was normal. Dual-phase computed tomography angiography was consistent with an orbital varix of the angularis oculi and right dorsal external ophthalmic veins with no evidence of arterial involvement. Treatment involved fluoroscopically guided coil embolization of the venous outflow with nine platinum microcoils, followed by sclerotherapy of the varix using 1.5 mL of 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Moderate-to-marked swelling was noted at the treatment site in the weeks following therapy, which gradually resolved. At final reexamination 3 months post-therapy, complete sclerosis and resolution of the orbital varix were documented. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case involving the use of a sclerotic agent for successful treatment of a venous malformation in a dog.

  2. Effect of Sodium Sulfate, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate, and Salt Mixtures on Aqueous Phase Partitioning of Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2016-12-06

    Dissolved inorganic salts influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amounts of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na2SO4, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH4)2SO4. Salt mixtures were also tested to establish whether the salt effect is additive. In general, the salt effect showed a decreasing trend of Na2SO4 > (NH)2SO4 > NaCl > NH4Cl > NH4NO3 for the studied organic compounds, implying the following relative strength of the salt effect of individual anions: SO4(2-) > Cl(-) > NO3(-) and of cations: Na(+) > NH4(+). The salt effect of different salts is moderately correlated. Predictive models for the salt effect were developed based on the experimental data. The experimental data indicate that the salt effect of mixtures may not be entirely additive. However, the deviation from additivity, if it exists, is small. Data of very high quality are required to establish whether the effect of constituent ions or salts is additive or not.

  3. Inactivation of salmonella in biofilms and on chicken cages and preharvest poultry by levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Cannon, Jennifer L; Doyle, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Surface contamination (skin and feathers) of broilers with Salmonella occurs primarily during growth and transportation. Immediately after transporting chickens, chicken cage doors were sprayed with a foam containing 3% levulinic acid plus 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples were collected for Salmonella assay after 45 min. Salmonella on cage doors was reduced from 19% (19 of 100 doors) before treatment to 1% (1 of 100 doors) after treatment, coliform counts were reduced from 6 to 8 to 2 to 4 log CFU/9 cm(2), and aerobic plate counts were reduced from 7 to 9 to 4 to 6 log CFU/9 cm(2). Whole chicken carcasses with feathers were inoculated with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis, soaked for 5 min at 21°C in 72 liters of a treatment or control solution, and assayed for Salmonella. Salmonella counts on chickens treated with water were 6.8 to 8.5 log CFU/9 cm(2), those treated with 50 ppm of calcium hypochlorite were 7.6 to 8.9 log CFU/9 cm(2), and those treated with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS were <1.7 to 2.8 CFU/9 cm(2) (>4-log reduction). Results of biofilm studies on surfaces of various materials revealed that a 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS treatment used as either a foam or liquid for 10 min effectively reduced Salmonella populations by 5 and >6 log CFU/cm(2), respectively.

  4. Beneficial Effect of Shikonin on Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium in Balb/C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Giner, Rosa María; Miguel Cerdá, José; Recio, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The naphthoquinone shikonin, a major component of the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, now is studied as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Acute UC was induced in Balb/C mice by oral administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The disease activity index was evaluated, and a histologic study was carried out. Orally administered shikonin reduces induced UC in a dose-dependent manner, preventing the shortening of the colorectum and decreasing weight loss by 5% while improving the appearance of feces and preventing bloody stools. The disease activity index score was much lower in shikonin-treated mice than in the colitic group, as well as the myeloperoxidase activity. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was reduced by 75%, activation of NF-κB was reduced by 44%, and that of pSTAT-3 by 47%, as well as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production. Similar results were obtained in primary macrophages culture. This is the first report of shikonin's ability to attenuate acute UC induced by DSS. Shikonin acts by blocking the activation of two major targets: NF-κB and STAT-3, and thus constitutes a promising potential therapeutic agent for the management of the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23346196

  5. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K.; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg−1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  6. LL202 protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting MAPK/AP-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Hu, Yang; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Na

    2016-01-01

    LL202, a newly-synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to inhibit inflammatory-induced angiogenesis. However, the exact role of LL202 in inflammation along with its mechanism has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of LL202 on intestinal inflammation by establishing dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. LL202 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. The inflammatory cells infiltration, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities were decreased by LL202 in a dose-dependent manner. LL202 reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon of DSS-induced mice as well. Mechanically, LL202 could decrease the expression and nuclear translation of AP-1 to protect against DSS-induced colitis. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced THP-1 cells, LL202 markedly decreased the secretion, mRNA level and protein expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α via inhibiting ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK pathways and the nuclear translocation of AP-1. Furthermore, these findings were confirmed in LPS-induced bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that LL202 could exert its anti-inflammatory effect via inhibiting MAPK/AP-1 signaling, which suggested that LL202 might be a potential effective drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27590510

  7. Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic) and DFOD (neutral) and the ligand EDTA (anionic) onto goethite (α-FeOOH) at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III)-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition. PMID:19523232

  8. A solid-phase immunoassay of protease-resistant prion protein with filtration blotting involving sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiteru; Kohno, Naoyuki; Wanibe, Shoko; Hirayasu, Kazunari; Uemori, Hitoshi; Tagawa, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Shinagawa, Morikazu

    2006-02-15

    The precise diagnosis for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is crucial for preventing new transmission to humans. Several testing procedures are reported for determining protease-resistant prion protein in various tissues as a major hallmark of prion diseases such as BSE, scrapie, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, contamination of materials from tissues or degradation of the specimens sometimes disturbs the accuracy of the assay. Here, we have developed a novel method for solid-phase immunoassay of the disease-specific conformational isoform, PrP(Sc), using filtration blotting of protein in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) followed by a filtration-based immunoassay with a single anti-prion protein antibody, together with the improved fractionation procedure involving high concentrations of surfactant/detergent. The SDS/heat treatment renders unfolded PrP(Sc) quantitative retention on a polyvinylidene difluoride filter and allows enhancement of the analyte signal with immunodetection; thus, all of the tested specimens are determined with 100% accuracy. In addition, the immunoassay is completed in approximately 1h, indicating its usefulness not only for the screening of BSE specimens but probably also for the postmortem BSE diagnosis of fallen stock as the antibody recognizes the core part of PrP(Sc). The solid-phase immunoassay method, including the filtration blotting with SDS, would be applicable to determining even more sensitively proteins other than PrP(Sc), especially those having rigid conformations.

  9. Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

  10. Chronic ethanol feeding promotes azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing mucosal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pradeep K; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Mir, Hina; Gangwar, Ruchika; Yadav, Nikki; Manda, Bhargavi; Meena, Avtar S; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-03-07

    Alcohol consumption is one of the major risk factors for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanism involved in this effect of alcohol is unknown. We evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced carcinogenesis in mouse colon. Inflammation in colonic mucosa was assessed at a precancerous stage by evaluating mucosal infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, and analysis of cytokine and chemokine gene expression. Chronic ethanol feeding significantly increased the number and size of polyps in colon of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopic and immunoblot analyses showed a significant elevation of phospho-Smad, VEGF and HIF1α in the colonic mucosa. RT-PCR analysis at a precancerous stage indicated that ethanol significantly increases the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and TNFα, and the chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10 in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopy showed that ethanol feeding induces a dramatic elevation of myeloperoxidase, Gr1 and CD68-positive cells in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS-treated mice. Ethanol feeding enhanced AOM/DSS-induced suppression of tight junction protein expression and elevated cell proliferation marker, Ki-67 in the colonic epithelium. This study demonstrates that chronic ethanol feeding promotes colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing inflammation and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-10-30

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding.

  12. Effects of dextran sulfate sodium induced experimental colitis on cytochrome P450 activities in rat liver, kidney and intestine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Huang, Yanjuan; Gao, Xuejiao; Li, Sai; Yan, Zhixiang; Wei, Bin; Yan, Ru

    2017-06-01

    Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced experimental colitis presents a histologic resemblance to human ulcerative colitis (UC). Altered cytochrome P450s (CYPs) have been reported in this model and patients with UC. In this study, six CYPs activities were quantitatively determined in microsomes of liver (RLMs), kidney (RRMs) and intestine (RIMs) from rats with colitis at acute (5% DSS for 7 days, UCA) and remission (7-day DSS treatment followed by 7-day cessation, UCR) phases and compared with normal rats. Generally, CYPs activities varied with isoform, organ, and disease status. Hepatic CYP1A2, 2B1, 2C6/11, 2E1 and 3A1/2 activities were reduced by acute colitis and completely or partially restored after DSS was halted. Although DSS treatment decreased the Vmax of renal CYP2C6/11 and increased that of CYP2D2, their CLint, in vitro were comparable among normal, acute and remission stages. DSS treatment changed the kinetics of CYP3A1/2-mediated nifedipine metabolism in RRMs from biphasic to classical kinetics. Notably, CYP2D2 activity was elevated in liver and kidney in acute UC, while enhanced in liver and decreased in kidney in remission. In intestine, CYP3A1/2 activity was increased in UCA and further enhanced after DSS withdrawal. These findings highlight the necessity of quantifying enzyme activity for precision drug therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to mo-blue by a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14.

    PubMed

    Halmi, M I E; Zuhainis, S W; Yusof, M T; Shaharuddin, N A; Helmi, W; Shukor, Y; Syed, M A; Ahmad, S A

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.

  14. pH-dependent differential interacting mechanisms of sodium dodecyl sulfate with bovine serum fetuin: a biophysical insight.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Nida; Nusrat, Saima; Zaidi, Fatima Kamal; Khan, Rizwan H

    2014-11-20

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-glycoprotein interaction serves as a model for a biological membrane. To get mechanistic insight into the interaction of SDS and glycoprotein, the effect of SDS on bovine serum fetuin (BSF) was studied in subcritical micellar concentrations at pH 7.4 and pH 2 using multiple approaches. SDS interacts electrostatically with BSF through its negatively charged head groups at pH 2 and hydrophobically via its alkyl chains at pH 7.4 up to a 1:20 molar ratio of BSF to SDS. However, at higher concentrations of SDS, BSF undergoes amyloid fibril formation at pH 2, as confirmed by enhanced ThT fluorescence, β-sheet formation, and TEM microscopy, whereas BSF undergoes induction of an α-helical structure in the presence of higher SDS concentration at pH 7.4. The increase in α-helical content with increasing SDS concentrations constrains the environment around tryptophan. As a consequence, the interconversion of tryptophan conformers decreases, resulting in a decrement of the fluorescence lifetime for BSF in the presence of SDS at pH 7.4.

  15. Fermented herbal formula KIOM-MA-128 protects against acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Gun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Park, Kwang-Il; Ma, Jin-Yeul

    2017-07-05

    Colitis is a well-known subtype of inflammatory bowel disease and is caused by diverse factors. Previous research has shown that KIOM-MA elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects on various diseases. KIOM-MA-128, our novel herbal formula, was generated from KIOM-MA using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated whether KIOM-MA-128 has protective activity in a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colitis was induced by DSS administered to ICR mice in drinking water. KIOM-MA-128 (125 or 250 mg/kg) was orally administered once per day. The body weights of the mice were measured daily, and colonic endoscopies were performed at 5 and 8 days. Colon length as well as histological and cytokine changes were observed at the end of drug administration. KIOM-MA-128 has pharmacological activity in an acute colitis model. KIOM-MA-128 reduced the loss of body weight and disease activity index (DAI) and inhibited the abnormally short colon lengths and the colonic damage in this mouse model of acute colitis. Moreover, KIOM-MA-128 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and maintained the integrity of the tight junctions during DSS-induced colitis. The results indicated that KIOM-MA-128 protects against DSS-induced colitis in mice and suggested that this formula might be a candidate treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  16. Luteolin ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice possibly through activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Shen, Lei; Luo, Hesheng

    2016-11-01

    Luteolin has a reputation for being a safe and effective natural antioxidant that has strong radical scavenging and cell protective properties. The role of oxidative stress in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been well established and is increasingly highlighted. Thus, we studied the protective effect of luteolin administration in a mouse model of experimental colitis. Experimental acute colitis was induced by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of mice for 7days. The disease activity index (DAI); colon length; histological assessment; mRNA levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NADP(H): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1); protein expression of Nrf2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); colon malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; and the activity levels of colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Luteolin (20 and 50mg/kg) significantly attenuated the DAI, colon shortening and histological damage. In addition, luteolin administration effectively decreased the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6. Luteolin also decreased the colonic content of MDA. The activities of colonic SOD and CAT and the levels of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, HO-1 and NQO1, were elevated by luteolin treatment. These observations indicate that luteolin may suppress experimental colitis through the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrosynthesis of polyaniline-mutilwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate for glucose biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyen Le, Trong; Thang Trinh, Ngoc; Nguyen, Le Huy; Binh Nguyen, Hai; Nguyen, Van Anh; Tran, Dai Lam; Dung Nguyen, Tuan

    2013-06-01

    Polyaniline-mutilwalled carbon nanotube (PANi-MWCNT) nanocomposites were electropolymerized in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto interdigitated platinum-film planar microelectrodes (IDμE). The MWCNTs were first dispersed in SDS solution then mixed with aniline and H2SO4. This mixture was used to electro-synthesize PANi-MWCNT films with potentiostatic method at E = + 0.90 V (versus SCE). The PANi-MWCNT films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the PANi-MWCNT films have a high electroactivity, and a porous and branched structure that can increase the specific surface area for biosensing application. In this work the PANi-MWCNT films were applied for covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) via glutaraldehyde agent. The GOx/PANi-MWCNT/IDμE was studied using cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques. The effect of several interferences, such as ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and acetaminophen (AAP) on the glucosensing at +0.6 V (versus SCE) is not significant. The time required to reach 95% of the maximum steady-state current was less than 5 s. A linear range of the calibration curve for the glucose concentration lies between 1 and 12 mM which is a suitable level in the human body.

  18. Quantification of AAV particle titers by infrared fluorescence scanning of coomassie-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E; Linden, R Michael; Hajjar, Roger J; Weber, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two-for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons-a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS-PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity.

  19. Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sylvie; Gourde, Pierrette; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Lamontagne, Julie; Haineault, Caroline; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50% (50% inhibitory dose) and 90% (90% inhibitory dose) were 32.67 and 46.53 μM, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for LS were 141.76 and 225.30 μM. In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with thermoreversible gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS prior to the inoculation of HSV-2 strain 333 completely prevented the development of genital herpetic lesions and the lethality associated with infection. Of prime interest, no infectious virus could be detected in mouse vaginal mucosa. Both formulations still provided significant protection when viral challenge was delayed until 1 h after pretreatment. Finally, intravaginal application of gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS once daily for 14 days to rabbits did not induce significant irritations to the genital mucosa, as demonstrated from macroscopic and histopathologic examinations. These results suggest that thermoreversible gel formulations containing SLS or LS could represent potent and safe topical microbicides for the prevention of HSV-2 and possibly other sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11353610

  20. A comparison of oral sulfate solution with sodium picosulfate: magnesium citrate in split doses as bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rex, Douglas K; DiPalma, Jack A; McGowan, John; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2014-12-01

    There are few data comparing U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved low-volume bowel preparations for colonoscopy. To compare oral sulfate solution (OSS) with sodium picosulfate plus magnesium citrate (SP+MC) for bowel cleansing efficacy. Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ten U.S. centers. Outpatients undergoing colonoscopy for routine indications. Patients were randomized to undergo bowel preparation with OSS or SP+MC. Both preparations were given in split doses. Cleansing efficacy on a 4-point scale from excellent (4) to poor (1). Among 338 randomized patients who took preparation, OSS resulted in a higher rate of successful (excellent or good) preparation (94.7% vs 85.7%; P = .006) and more excellent preparations (54% vs 26%; P < .001) compared with SP+MC. There was no difference between OSS and SP+MC in treatment-emergent adverse events. SP+MC had better scores for nausea, but the differences were small. The preparation grading scale has been used in previous studies and has regulatory acceptance but has not been formally validated. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved split-dose regimen of OSS provides superior bowel cleansing compared with the approved split-dose regimen of SP+MC. ( NCT01786629.). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Probiotic bacteria lactobacillus and bifidobacterium attenuate inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Toumi, R; Soufli, I; Rafa, H; Belkhelfa, M; Biad, A; Touil-Boukoffa, C

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) arises from a dysregulated mucosal immune response to the enteric microbiota in the gut of a genetically susceptible individual. No definitive therapies are available for this inflammatory disorder. Therefore it became imperative to develop new strategies for treating this disease. Probiotics have emerged as a potential new therapeutic strategy for IBD, however their exact mechanisms of action is still poorly defined. In this study, we address the potential effect of a probiotic cocktail (Ultrabiotique®) composed of four live bacterial strains (L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, B. lactis and B.breve) to promote recovery from acute colitis. Probiotic was given to mice by oral gavage after the onset of colitis and the establishment of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal injury. Clinical parameters were monitored daily, histological scores of colitis and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined. In addition, TLR4, NF-κB and iNOS colonic expression were examined. Probiotic treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and histological scores. NO and IFN-γ production in plasma were decreased by probiotic. These results were associated with reduced TLR4, iNOS and NF-кB expression in colonic tissue. In conclusion, probiotic exerted anti-inflammatory effects and contributed to a rapid recovery of DSS-induced acute colitis.

  2. A Microfluidic Approach to Investigating a Synergistic Effect of Tobramycin and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soojeong; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Lee, Eunwon; Choi, Jonghoon; Moon, Sangjun; Hong, Jong Wook

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a microfluidic technology has contributed a significant role in biological research, specifically for the study of biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are a source of infections and contamination in the environment due to an extra polymeric matrix. Inadequate uses of antibiotics make the bacterial biofilms antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it is important to determine the effective concentration of antibiotics in order to eliminate bacterial biofilms. The present microfluidic study was carried out to analyze the activities of tobramycin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms with a continuous flow in order to achieve a greater delivery of the agents. The results show that a co-treatment of tobramycin and SDS significantly reduced the biomass of biofilms (by more than 99%) after 24 h. Tobramycin and SDS killed and detached bacteria in the cores of biofilms. Evidently, our data suggest that a microchannel would be effective for both quantitative and qualitative evaluations in order to test combinatorial effect of drugs and chemicals on a complexed biological system including biofilm.

  3. Nicotine-induced neurogenic relaxation in the mouse colon: changes with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Ikuo; Hamada, Yuri; Yamane, Satoshi; Fujino, Hiromichi; Horie, Shunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine has been shown to reduce both tone and muscular activity in the human colon by releasing nitric oxide (NO) from nerves. To our knowledge, however, the effect of nicotine on mouse colon has not been elucidated, and the response in tissue from ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been investigated. We examined nicotine-induced responses in colon from control mice and mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC. In controls, bath application of nicotine caused a transient relaxation in longitudinal preparations from the transverse and distal colons but not from the rectum. The response was observed in the presence of bethanechol, abolished by treatment with tetrodotoxin and hexamethonium, and mediated partially (>50%) by the NO pathway. In longitudinal preparations of the distal colon from DSS-treated mice, spontaneous contractions decreased markedly, and nicotine caused contraction without relaxation in half of the preparations tested. Nicotine-induced relaxation in the presence of bethanechol was significantly decreased in the DSS-treated distal colon without changing bethanechol-induced contractions. These data suggest that 1) responses to nicotine differ dependent on colon regions, 2) DSS treatment predominantly caused nicotine-sensitive neurogenic changes in distal colon, and 3) DSS treatment may reverse the direction of nicotine-evoked responses in the colon, in mice.

  4. Ablation of Doublecortin-Like Kinase 1 in the Colonic Epithelium Exacerbates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    May, Randal; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Madhoun, Mohammad; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M.; An, Guangyu; Schlosser, Michael J.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1), a microtubule-associated kinase, marks the fifth lineage of intestinal epithelial cells called tuft cells that function as tumor stem cells in Apc mutant models of colon cancer. In order to determine the role of Dclk1 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colonic inflammation both intestinal epithelial specific Dclk1 deficient (VillinCre;Dclk1f/f) and control (Dclk1f/f) mice were fed 3% DSS in drinking water for 9 days, allowed to recover for 2 days, and killed. The clinical and histological features of DSS-induced colitis were scored and immunohistochemical, gene expression, pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and immunoblotting analyses were used to examine epithelial barrier integrity, inflammation, and stem and tuft cell features. In DSS-induced colitis, VillinCre;Dclk1f/f mice demonstrated exacerbated injury including higher clinical colitis scores, increased epithelial barrier permeability, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, decreased levels of Lgr5, and dysregulated Wnt/b-Catenin pathway genes. These results suggest that Dclk1 plays an important role in regulating colonic inflammatory response and colonic epithelial integrity. PMID:26285154

  5. A systematic investigation into the recovery of radioactively labeled proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaobo; Bailey, Matthew J; Dunn, Michael J; Preedy, Victor R; Emery, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic investigation designed to optimize a method for quantifying radioactivity in proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The method involves dissolving appropriately sized pieces of gel in hydrogen peroxide and heating to 70 degrees C overnight followed by liquid scintillation counting. H(2)O(2) had no effect on the count rates of [(14)C]bovine serum albumin (BSA) when counted in a conventional liquid scintillation system, and the count rates remained stable for several days. Temperatures below 70 degrees C resulted in incomplete extraction of radioactivity from gels containing [(14)C]BSA, but there was also a significant reduction in count rates in samples incubated at 80 degrees C. At 70 degrees C recovery was not affected by the amount of sample loaded onto the gel or by the staining procedure (Coomassie Brilliant Blue or SYPRO Ruby). Recoveries were in the range of 89-94%, and the coefficient of variation for five replicate samples was 5-10%. This method offers a reliable way of measuring the amount of radioactivity in proteins that have been separated by electrophoresis. It may be useful, for example, in quantitative metabolic labeling experiments when it is necessary to know precisely how much tracer has been incorporated into a particular protein.

  6. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and static magnetic field on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Chibowski, Emil; Szczes, Aleksandra; Holysz, Lucyna

    2005-08-30

    Properties of calcium carbonate precipitated from aqueous solutions of CaCl(2) and Na(2)CO(3) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and S-S 0.1 T magnetic field (MF) were studied. The nucleation and precipitation processes of CaCO(3) were investigated by pH and zeta potential measurements at 20 +/- 1 degrees C up to 2 h after mixing the solutions. Also the amounts of calcium carbonate deposited on the glass surfaces and its structure were examined. It was found that SDS influences the kinetics of precipitation, crystallographic forms, and crystal size of CaCO(3). The SDS effects are more pronounced in MF presence. A small amount of SDS accelerates transformation of vaterite into calcite, whereas increasing surfactant concentration moderates such a transformation. On the other hand, in all the systems, MF in the presence of SDS causes a slower transformation of vaterite into calcite. These effects are reflected in pH and zeta potential changes, although there is no clear dependence between the SDS amount present during the precipitation and changes of the parameters investigated. It seems that MF effect is most significant at a defined optimal SDS concentration. The results, however, do not allow suggestion of any detailed mechanism of the field interaction.

  7. Propylene Glycol Alginate Sodium Sulfate Alleviates Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis by Modulating the MEK/ERK Pathway in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yueyue; Li, Linqiang; Liu, Hua; Hu, Liangkai; Dai, Ying; Chen, Jianqing; Xu, Shuqi; Chen, Weimin; Xu, Xiaorong; Xu, Xuanfu

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effects of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) against thrombosis, but the anti-inflammatory potential is unknown. Therefore, we specifically focused on the protective effects of PSS on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using a mouse model, and investigated the mechanism of PSS on autophagy and apoptosis via the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Cerulein (100 ug/kg) was used to induce AP by ten intraperitoneal injections at hourly intervals in Balb/C mice. Pretreatment with vehicle or PSS was carried out 1 h before the first cerulein injection and two doses (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) of PSS were injected intraperitoneally. The severity of AP was assessed by pathological score, biochemistry, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and MEK/ERK activity. Furthermore, pancreatic histological scores, serum amylase and lipase activities, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β interleukin (IL)-6 levels, and MPO activity were significantly reduced by PSS via up-regulated MEK/ERK activity. The representative molecules of apoptosis and autophagy, such as Bcl-2, Bax, Lc-3, Beclin-1, P62, were remarkably reduced. Taken together, these results indicate that PSS attenuates pancreas injury by inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis through a mechanism involving the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:28218693

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Enaminone E121 in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Khajah, Maitham A.; Ananthalakshmi, Kethireddy V.; Edafiogho, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Background Enaminones are synthetic compounds with an established role in the prevention of various forms of seizures. Recent evidence suggests potent anti-tussive, bronchodilation and anti-inflammatory properties. Pre-treatment with particularly E121 compound resulted in a decrease in leukocyte recruitment in the ovalbumin induced-model of asthma, immune cell proliferation and cytokine release in vitro. We hypothesize that E121 might serve as a therapeutic potential in intestinal inflammation through modulating immune cell functions. Methods Colitis was induced by daily dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration for 5 days, and its severity was determined by gross and histological assessments. The plasma level of various cytokines was measured using flow cytometry-based assay. The colonic expression/ phosphorylation level of various molecules was determined by immunofluorescence and western blotting. The effects of E121 treatment on in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis (under-agarose assay), superoxide release (luminol oxidation assay) and apoptosis (annexin V/7AAD) were also determined. Results DSS-induced colitis in mice was significantly reduced by daily E121 treatment (30–100 mg/kg) at gross and histological levels. This effect was due to modulated plasma levels of interleukin (IL-2) and colonic expression levels of various signaling molecules and proteins involved in apoptosis. In vitro neutrophil survival, chemotaxis, and superoxide release were also reduced by E121 treatment. Conclusion Our results indicate important anti-inflammatory actions of E121 in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:27997590

  9. Nonlinear response of a batch BZ oscillator to the addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Luciana; Lombardo, Renato; Turco Liveri, Maria Liria

    2007-02-15

    The response of the Belousov-Zhabotinsy (BZ) system to the addition of increasing amounts of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was monitored at 25.0 degrees C in stirred batch conditions. The presence of SDS in the reaction mixture influences the oscillatory parameters, i.e., induction period and oscillation period, to an extent that depends on the surfactant concentration. The experimental results have shown that the induction period increases slightly on increasing surfactant concentration and, then, a further increase in the [SDS] leads to an enhancement while the oscillation period increases monotonously on increasing SDS concentration. It has been proposed that the response of the oscillatory BZ system to the addition of SDS is due to the peculiar capability of the organized surfactant assemblies to affect the reactivity by selectively sequestering some key reacting species. Indeed, explanations of the experimental results have been given on the basis of the role played by the micellar shape, which in turn dictates the hydrophobic nature. The suggested perturbation effects have been supported by performing viscosity measurements on the aqueous SDS solutions and by the spectrophotometric estimation of the binding constant of the bromine species to the micellar aggregates. This study has indirectly corroborated the existence of two kind of micelles and unambiguously revealed that the bromine species show a different affinity toward the spherical and rod-like micelles.

  10. Abnormalities in endocrine and immune cells are correlated in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the gut hormones and the immune system has been suggested to serve an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. The aims of the present study were to elucidate the possible abnormalities in the colonic endocrine cells in rats with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, and to determine whether they are correlated with alterations in the immune cells. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Control and DSS-induced colitis. Colonic tissues were harvested via postmortem laparotomy from all of the animals at the end of the experimental period, and fixed and sectioned for histology. The colonic endocrine and immune cells in those tissue samples were immunostained and their densities quantified by computerized image analysis. The densities of chromogranin A, serotonin, peptide YY and oxyntomodulin cells were significantly higher, and those of pancreatic peptide and somatostatin cells were lower in rats with DSS-induced colitis than in the controls. The densities of mucosal leukocytes, T and B lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes, and mast cells were significantly higher than in the controls, and these changes were closely associated with the aforementioned changes in all endocrine cell types. These observations indicate an interaction between intestinal hormones and the immune system as represented by immune cells. PMID:27959399

  11. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-05-27

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis.

  12. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis. PMID:26013555

  13. Photochemistry of "end-only" oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes: complexation with sodium dodecyl sulfate reduces solvent accessibility.

    PubMed

    Hill, Eric H; Evans, Deborah G; Whitten, David G

    2013-08-06

    Cationic oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes are very effective light-activated biocides and biosensors but degrade upon exposure to light. In this study, we explore the photochemistry of a class of "end-only" compounds from this series, which have cationic moieties on the ends of the backbone. Product characterization by mass spectrometry reveals that the photoreactivity of these molecules is higher than that of a previously studied oligomer and that the primary products of photolysis result from the addition of water or oxygen across the triple bond. In addition, a product suggesting the addition of peroxide or other reactive oxygen species across the triple bond was observed. To explore avenues by which the photodegradation of these compounds can be mitigated, the effects of complexation with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles on their photochemistry was explored. Classical molecular dynamics simulations revealed that compounds that were protected from photolysis by SDS buried their phenylene ethynylene backbones into the interior of the micelle, protecting it from contact with water. This work has revealed a molecular basis for the protection of a novel class of light-activated biocides from irradiation that is consistent with the proposed photochemistry of these compounds. This information can be useful for developing photodegradation-resistant biocidal materials and applications for current compounds and leads to new molecular design.

  14. Carbon nanotube-modified sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for molecular weight determination of proteins.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Meera; Debgupta, Joyashish; Kakade, Bhalchandra; Ansary, Abu A; Islam Khan, M; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K

    2011-02-15

    The effect of incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the gel matrix on the electrophoretic mobility of proteins based on their molecular weight differences was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). More specifically, a reduction in standard deviation in the molecular weight calibration plots by 55% in the case of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and by 34% in the case of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) compared with that of pristine polyacrylamide gels was achieved after incorporating an insignificant amount of functionalized CNTs into the gel matrix. A mechanism based on a more uniform pore size distribution in CNT modified polyacrylamide gel matrix is proposed. Furthermore, the impact of SWCNTs and MWCNTs on the mobility of proteins in different molecular weight regimes at a given acrylamide concentration offers a tunable gel matrix in terms of the selection of molecular weight ranges of proteins. The robustness and excellent reproducibility of the CNT-PAGE protocol are expected to have a significant impact on the molecular weight determination of newly isolated proteins.

  15. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: from coarse-grained to all-atom resolution.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Guillaume; Michaux, Catherine; Perpète, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is a well-known anionic detergent widely used in both experimental and theoretical investigations. Many molecular dynamics (MD) simulation have been performed on the SDS molecule at coarse-grained (CG), united-atom (UA), and all-atom (AA) resolutions. However, these simulations are usually based on general parameters determined from large sets of molecules, and as a result, peculiar molecular specificities are often poorly represented. In addition, the parameters (ideal bond lengths, angles, dihedrals and charge distribution) differ according to the resolution, highlighting a lack of coherence. We therefore propose a new set of parameters for CG, UA, and AA resolutions based on a high quantum mechanics (QM) level optimization of the detergent structure and the charge distribution. For the first time, QM-optimized parameters were directly applied to build the AA, UA, and CG model of the SDS molecule, leading to a more coherent description. As a test case, MD simulations were then performed on SDS preformed micelles as previous experimental and theoretical investigations allow direct comparison with our new sets of parameters. While all three models yield similar macromolecular properties (size, shape, and accessible surface) perfectly matching previous results, the attribution of more coherent parameters to SDS enables the description of the specific interactions inside and outside the micelle. These more consistent parameters can now be used to accurately describe new multi-scale systems involving the SDS molecule.

  16. Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia) or Wine Phytochemicals Reduce Intestinal Inflammation in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiqi; Kim, Min-Hyun; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gao, Chi; Gu, Liwei

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemical extracts from muscadine grapes or wine on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to investigate cellular mechanisms. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were gavaged with muscadine grape phytochemicals (MGP) or muscadine wine phytochemicals (MWP), respectively, for 14 days. Acute colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. An additional two groups of mice served as healthy and disease controls. Results indicated that MGP or MWP significantly prevented weight loss, reduced disease activity index, and preserved colonic length compared to the colitis group (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity as well as the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in colon (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP caused down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that phytochemicals from muscadine grape or wine mitigate ulcerative colitis via attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and modulation of the NF-κB pathway.

  17. Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael D; Scott, Evan A; Elbert, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between approximately 1 and 100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3-5 min following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  18. Human and Environmental Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Cara Am; Marks, Julia L; Wroblewski, Lauren B; Raatikainen, Heidi S; Lenox, Shannon R; Gebhardt, Kay E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure is a major concern for consumers of packaged goods. The complexity of chemical nomenclature and wide availability of scientific research provide detailed information but lends itself to misinterpretation by the lay person. For the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), this has resulted in a misunderstanding of the environmental health impact of the chemical and statements in the media that are not scientifically supported. This review demonstrates how scientific works can be misinterpreted and used in a manner that was not intended by the authors, while simultaneously providing insight into the true environmental health impact of SLS. SLS is an anionic surfactant commonly used in consumer household cleaning products. For decades, this chemical has been developing a negative reputation with consumers because of inaccurate interpretations of the scientific literature and confusion between SLS and chemicals with similar names. Here, we review the human and environmental toxicity profiles of SLS and demonstrate that it is safe for use in consumer household cleaning products.

  19. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  20. Interference in the Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Pyrogallol Red protein dye-binding assays is increased by the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate to the dye reagents.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Thomas; Williams, Katherine M

    2004-08-15

    We have investigated the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) upon the response of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) and Pyrogallol Red-molybdate (PRM) protein dye-binding assays to interference from aminoglycosides, ampholytes, detergents, phenothiazines, reducing agents, and miscellaneous substances previously reported to interfere with the assays. The CBB assay was less prone to interference than the PRM assay but gave positive interference with the detergents and the phenothiazines and negative interference with dextran sulfate. The PRM assay gave positive interference with the aminoglycosides, ampholytes, and phenothiazines and negative interference with SDS, citric acid, dextran sulfate, EDTA, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid. The level of interference varied in the presence of different proteins (albumin, gamma globulin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, or lysozyme) and increased when SDS was added to the dye reagents.

  1. The Distribution of mixtures of dodecyl ether of poly(23)ethylene glycol with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide in the water/octane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboleva, O. A.; Pronchenko, K. S.; Chernysheva, M. G.; Badun, G. A.

    2012-03-01

    The scintillation phase and tensiometry methods were used to study the mutual influence of dodecyl ether of poly(23)ethylene glycol (Brij-35) with sodium dodecyl sulfate and Brij-35 with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide on the distribution in the water/octane system and adsorption at the liquid/liquid interface. The composition of mixed adsorption layers was determined and interaction parameters between molecules were calculated according to the Rosen model.

  2. Metachromatic staining patterns of basic proline-rich proteins from rat and human saliva in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys-Beher, M.G.; Wells, D.J.

    1984-10-01

    A series of basic proteins, rich in proline, were isolated from the salivary secretions of humans and rats. These proteins underwent metachromasia after staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The technique of destaining gels in several changes of 10% acetic acid after a 30-min staining period is a rapid method of general utility for the identification of proline-rich proteins from total cell lysates from other sources besides saliva.

  3. Cooperativity between Volatilization of NH3, Evaporation of Water and Crystallization of Na2SO4 in Internally Mixed Sodium Succinate/Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pan; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Gas-to-particle partitioning is one of the most important physicochemical process in atmospheric aerosols. The chemical reaction in the internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosols attracts much attention on the volatility and hygroscopicity. In this study, FTIR spectra evolution with time were observed by FTIR-ATR technique at constant relative humidity for the internally mixed sodium succinate/ammonium sulfate aerosols with molar ratio of 1:1. The results showed that sodium succinate and ammonium sulfate in the mixed aerosols could react to form succinate acid and sodium sulfate accompanying NH3 volatile as followings: NaOOCCH2CH2COONa (aq) + (NH4)2SO4 (aq) → HOOCCH2CH2COOH (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq or crystal) + NH3 (g) The volatilization of NH3 speeded up the evaporation of water, and indirectly accelerated the crystallization of Na2SO4 in the mixed aerosols, which synergistically accelerated release of NH3. The complex reaction between dicarboxylic salt and (NH4)2SO4 could help us to understand the cooperativity between the gas-to-particle equilibrium, phase transition, atmospheric composition and volatility, which could reveal the formation mechanism of the secondary organic aerosols.

  4. Comparison of Injection Sclerotherapy Between 5% Phenol in Almond Oil and Aluminum Potassium Sulfate and Tannic Acid for Grade 3 Hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Yano, Takaaki; Yano, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    Injection sclerotherapy for hemorrhoids has been performed for many years. Currently, 5% phenol in almond oil (PAO) and aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) are used as the agents. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the two agents. A retrospective study was conducted involving 135 patients who underwent injection therapy for grade 3 hemorrhoids for the first time between 2013 and 2014 (PAO, 55 patients; ALTA, 80 patients). The efficacy was established as the proportion (%) of patients without symptoms such as hemorrhage and prolapse one year after treatment. We investigated four factors-sex, age, number of hemorrhoids, and agent-that might have an influence on the efficacy. The efficacies of ALTA and PAO one year after treatment were 75% and 20%, respectively. Only the agent was a significant independent factor (P < 0.01). The results suggest that ALTA is markedly more useful than PAO for injection sclerotherapy for grade 3 hemorrhoids.

  5. The SPASIBA force field for chondroitin sulfate: vibrational analysis of D-glucuronic and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate sodium salts.

    PubMed

    Meziane-Tani, M; Lagant, P; Semmoud, A; Vergoten, G

    2006-10-05

    Normal-mode analyses were carried out on the two components of the chondroitin 4-sulfate linear glycosaminoglycan, a copolymer implying alternate D-glucuronate beta-(1-->3) and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate beta-(1-->4) (hereafter named D-galactosamine 4-sulfate) residues. Scaled quantum mechanical calculations (SQM) using the density functional theory approach at different levels of theory (B3LYP/6-31G** and B3LYP/6-31++G**) were performed to obtain correct vibrational assignments. The SPASIBA empirical force field parameters were then obtained from both theoretical predictions and observed IR and Raman data. It is shown that calculations including diffuse functions at the B3LP/6-31++G** level and the introduction of the Na+ counterion are necessary to give correct assignments of the CO2- symmetric (nu(s)) and antisymmetric (nu(a)) stretching modes for the glucuronic carboxylate residue.

  6. Extracellular vesicles derived from gut microbiota, especially Akkermansia muciniphila, protect the progression of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chil-Sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Jae Gyu; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis.

  7. Comparative Study of Mechanisms of Herpes Simplex Virus Inactivation by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and n-Lauroylsarcosine

    PubMed Central

    Piret, Jocelyne; Roy, Sylvie; Gagnon, Mylène; Landry, Sébastien; Désormeaux, André; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms of herpes simplex virus (HSV) inactivation by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), two anionic surfactants with protein denaturant potency, have been evaluated in cultured cells. Results showed that pretreatment of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) strain F and HSV-2 strain 333 with either surfactant inhibited, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, their infectivities on Vero cells. SLS was a more potent inhibitor of HSV-2 strain 333 infectivity than LS with respect to the concentration (4.8-fold lower) and time (2.4-fold shorter) required to completely inactivate the virus. No inhibition of both herpesvirus strains infectivities was observed when Vero cells were pretreated with either surfactant. LS prevented the binding of HSV-2 strain 333 to cells without affecting the stable attachment and the rate of penetration into cells, whereas SLS exerted the opposite effect. Both SLS and LS inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the HSV-2 strain 333-induced cytopathic effect, probably by affecting newly synthesized virions that come into contact with surfactant molecules present in culture medium. The pretreatment of HSV-2 strain 333 with specific combinations of SLS and LS concentrations inhibited the viral infectivity in a synergistic manner and resulted in only a small increase in their toxicities for exponentially growing Vero cells compared with that caused by each compound alone. Taken together, these results suggest that SLS and LS, alone or combined, could represent potent candidates as microbicides in topical vaginal formulations to prevent the transmission of herpes and possibly other pathogens that cause sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1. PMID:12183250

  8. Protective role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis through generating gut-homing macrophages.

    PubMed

    Meshkibaf, Shahab; Martins, Andrew J; Henry, Garth T; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its role in promoting the generation and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also found to be involved in macrophage generation and immune regulation; however, its in vivo role in immune homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using G-CSF receptor-deficient (G-CSFR(-/-)) mice. Mice were administered with 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5days, and the severity of colitis was measured for the next 5days. GCSFR(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than G-CSFR(+/+) or G-CSFR(-/+) mice. G-CSFR(-/-) mice harbored less F4/80(+) macrophages, but a similar number of neutrophils, in the intestine. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of both G-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (G-BMDM) expressed higher levels of regulatory macrophage markers such as programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2), CD71 and CD206, but not in arginase I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Ym1 (chitinase-like 3) and FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), and lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD80 and CD86 than bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of M-CSF alone (BMDM), in response to interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ, respectively. Adoptive transfer of G-BMDM, but not BMDM, protected G-CSFR(-/-) mice from DSS-induced colitis, and suppressed expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β and iNOS in the intestine. These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in preventing colitis, likely through populating immune regulatory macrophages in the intestine.

  9. MicroRNA-155 deletion promotes tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Kandy T; Enos, Reilly T; McClellan, Jamie L; Cranford, Taryn L; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Fan, Daping; Murphy, E Angela

    2016-03-15

    Clinical studies have linked microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression in the tumor microenvironment to poor prognosis. However, whether miR-155 upregulation is predictive of a pro- or antitumorigenic response is unclear, as the limited preclinical data available remain controversial. We examined miR-155 expression in tumor tissue from colon cancer patients. Furthermore, we investigated the role of this microRNA in proliferation and apoptosis, inflammatory processes, immune cell populations, and transforming growth factor-β/SMAD signaling in a chemically induced (azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium) mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer. We found a higher expression of miR-155 in the tumor region than in nontumor colon tissue of patients with colon cancer. Deletion of miR-155 in mice resulted in a greater number of polyps/adenomas, an increased symptom severity score, a higher grade of epithelial dysplasia, and a decrease in survival. Surprisingly, these findings were associated with an increase in apoptosis in the normal mucosa, but there was no change in proliferation. The protumorigenic effects of miR-155 deletion do not appear to be driven solely by dysregulation of inflammation, as both genotypes had relatively similar levels of inflammatory mediators. The enhanced tumorigenic response in miR-155(-/-) mice was associated with alterations in macrophages and neutrophils, as markers for these populations were decreased and increased, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated a greater activation of the transforming growth factor-β/SMAD pathway in miR-155(-/-) mice, which was correlated with the increased tumorigenesis. Given the multiple targets of miR-155, careful evaluation of its role in tumorigenesis is necessary prior to any consideration of its potential as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  10. Exacerbation of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by dietary iron supplementation: role of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Julie C; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Allard, Johane P

    2006-05-01

    In colitis, iron therapy may be given to treat anemia, but it may also be detrimental based on our previous studies using a rat model with colitis where iron supplementation increased disease activity and oxidative stress. This effect was partially reduced by an antioxidant. The aim of this study was to further evaluate, in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, the effect of iron on neutrophilic infiltration, cytokines and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB)-associated inflammation and to determine whether the addition of vitamin E would be beneficial. Colitis was induced with DSS at 50 g/l in drinking water for 7 days. DSS rats were randomized to the following: DSS, receiving a control, non-purified diet (iron, 270 mg and DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate, 49 mg/kg); DSS+iron (diet+iron, 3,000 mg/kg); DSS+vitamin E (diet+DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate, 2,000 mg/kg); or the DSS+iron+vitamin E. Colonic inflammation, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), lipid peroxides (LPO), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6] and NF-kappaB binding activity were measured. The DSS+iron group showed a significant increase in inflammatory scores, MPO, TNF-alpha, IL-1, LPO and NF-kappaB activity compared to DSS or DSS+vitamin E. The addition of vitamin E to iron (DSS+iron+vitamin E group) significantly reduced the inflammatory scores, TNF-alpha and IL-6. None of the other parameters were affected. Iron increases disease activity in colitis, and this is associated with oxidative stress, neutrophilic infiltration, increased cytokines and activation of NF-kappaB. This detrimental effect was partially reduced by vitamin E.

  11. Phospholipid containing mixed micelles. Characterization of diheptanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate and DHPC and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Radha; Vautier-Giongo, Carolina; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Bales, Barney L; Hajdu, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Mixed micelles of l,2-diheptanoyl-sn-grycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) with ionic detergents were prepared to develop well characterized substrates for the study of lipolytic enzymes. The aggregates that formed on mixing DHPC with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and with the positively charged dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) to determine the aggregation numbers and bimolecular collision rates, and electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure the hydration index and microviscosity of the micelles at the micelle-water interface. Mixed micelles between the phospholipid and each of the detergents formed in all compositions, yielding interfaces with varying charge, hydration, and microviscosity. Both series of micelles were found to be globular up to 0.7 mole fraction of DHPC, while the aggregation numbers varied within the same concentration range of the components less than 15%. Addition of the zwitterionic phospholipid component increased the degree of counterion dissociation as measured by the quenching of the fluorescence of pyrene by the bromide ions bound to DHPC/DTAB micelles, showing that at 0.6 mole fraction of DHPC 80% of the bromide ions are dissociated from the micelles. The interface water concentration decreased significantly on addition of DHPC to each detergent. For combined phospholipid and detergent concentration of 50 mM the interface water concentration decreased, as measured by ESR of the spin-probes, from 38.5 M/L of interface volume in SDS alone to 9 M/L when the phospholipid was present at 0.7 mole fraction. Similar addition of DHPC to DTAB decreased the interfacial water concentration from 27 M/L to 11 M/L. Determination of the physicochemical parameters of the phospholipid containing mixed micelles here presented are likely to provide important insight into the design of assay systems for kinetic studies of phospholipid metabolizing enzymes.

  12. The Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits the Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Mouse Colitis Through Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Yiseul; Kim, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) against oxidative stress in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: Mice were treated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage in advance two weeks before inflammation was induced. Then, the mice were administered with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days and normal drinking water for 7 days between two DSS treatment. Disease activity index values, gut motility, and severity of the resulting oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of SQE was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma samples. Catalase activity and expressions levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), SOD1, and SOD2 were also detected in colon tissues. Results: Administration of SQE significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis compared to the control (Ctrl) group. Levels of 8-oxo-dG, an oxidative DNA damage marker, were significantly lower in the SQE group compared to the untreated DSS Ctrl group. In the SQE (300 mg/kg) group, MDA levels were significantly lower, while SOD and catalase activity levels in the plasma samples were significantly higher compared with the DSS Ctrl group. The expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and Gpx1, were significantly higher, while the levels of SOD 1 expression were lower, in the colon tissues of the DSS Ctrl group compared with those of the Ctrl group. In contrast, administration of SQE significantly down-regulated SOD2 and Gpx1 expressions and up-regulated SOD1 expression. Conclusions: These results indicate that SQE efficiently suppresses oxidative stress in DSS-induced colitis in mice, and its action is associated with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26151047

  13. Characteristics and gel properties of gelatin from goat skin as affected by pretreatments using sodium sulfate and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mad-Ali, Sulaiman; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Maqsood, Sajid

    2016-04-01

    Goat skin can be used as an alternative raw material for gelatin production, in which pretreatment conditions can determine the characteristics or properties of the resulting gelatin. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pretreatment using sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on properties of goat skin gelatin. Pretreatment of skin using Na2SO4 (0-1 mol L(-1)) increased the yield of gelatin in a concentration-dependent manner. When skins with prior Na2SO4 treatment were bleached using H2O2 (0-2 mol L(-1)), the resulting gelatin showed higher yield and gel strength than those without prior Na2SO4 treatment. All gelatins had α-chain as a major component, followed by β-chain. The degradation induced by H2O2 was lower in gelatin with prior Na2SO4 treatment. L* values increased with increasing H2O2 concentrations (P < 0.05) due to the bleaching effect of H2O2. With Na2SO4 and H2O2 pretreatments, gelatin gel had a finer and more ordered microstructure. Gelatin had an imino acid content of 217 residues/1000 residues with gelling and melting temperature of 22.49 and 32.28 °C, respectively. The optimal pretreatment conditions for gelatin extraction from goat skin included soaking the skin in 0.75 mol L(-1) NaOH, followed by treatment using 0.75 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 and subsequent bleaching with 2 mol L(-1) H2O2. This resulted in gelatin with superior quality to the untreated counterpart. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Mg, Mn, and Co ions enhance the formation of Entamoeba histolytica cyst-like structures resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Campos-Góngora, E; Viader-Salvadó, J M; Martínez-Rodríguez, H G; Zuñiga-Charles, M A; Galindo, J M; Said-Fernández, S

    2000-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica forms cyst-like structures (CLS) in PEHPS but not in TYS-33 medium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate [(SDS (0.1%)] dissolves most of them in 10 min, but not natural cysts. Chitin is responsible mainly for cyst wall resistance. Its synthesis depends on Mg(2)+, Mn(2)+, or Co(2)+, whose action is interactive. With the aid of the Simplex method, we analyzed the effect of 20 blends of these cations to find the one that, when added to PEHPS, produced the highest proportion of CLS resistant to 1% SDS (RCLS). The concentration of Mg(2)+, Mn(2)+, and Co(2)+ was determined in PEHPS and TYI-S-33 with a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The proportion of RCLS produced in PEHPS with each ion blend was tested. The CLS and RCLS affinity to fluorescein wheat germ agglutinin (WGA/FITC), which binds chitin, was determined. PEHPS contained a similar concentration of Co(2)+ (0.52 microM) and 3.4 and 1.6 times more Mg(2)+ (798 microM) and Mn(2)+ (3.15 microM) than TYI-S-33, respectively. The proportion of RCLS increased gradually in PEHPS until reaching 3.6 +/- 1.43% with MgCl(2) 1.22 mM, MnCl(2) 14.44 mM, and CoCl(2) 19.44 mM (ion blend No. 20). Both CLS and RCLS bound WGA/FITC. The RCLS formed in the presence of ion blend No. 20 appeared wrinkled. Mg(2)+, Mn(2)+, and Co(2)+ enhanced the ability of PEHPS to form RCLS, possibly because these ions stimulated their chitin synthesis. Although ion blend No. 20 produced the highest proportion of RCLS, this high ion concentration may be toxic for encysting amebas.

  15. Transglutaminase 2 is dispensable but required for the survival of mice in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Eui Man; Son, Young Hoon; Choi, Yewon; Kim, Jin-Hee; Lee, Jin-Haeng; Cho, Sung-Yup; Kim, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes crosslinking, polyamination or deamidation of glutamine residues in proteins. It has been reported that TG2 is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases including celiac disease, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis and sepsis. Recently, using a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, we showed that TG2 is required to trigger inflammation via the induction of T helper type 17 (Th17) cell differentiation in response to tissue damage. However, the role of TG2 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is thought to be a Th17 cell-associated disease, has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of TG2 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, the most widely used mouse model for IBD. Age- and sex-matched wild-type and TG2−/− mice were fed 2% DSS for 7 days or 3.5% DSS for 5 days in drinking water. An in situ TG activity assay revealed that DSS treatment activates TG2 in various colon cell types, including columnar absorptive cells and goblet cells. DSS-treated TG2−/− mice showed lower interleukin (IL)-6, but higher IL-17A and RORγt (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt) expression levels in the colon tissues than that in the wild-type mice. Moreover, TG2−/− mice showed higher mortality than the wild-type mice because of DSS treatment. Nevertheless, we found no significant differences in changes of body weight, colon length, morphology, immune cell infiltration and in vivo intestinal permeability between DSS-treated wild-type and TG2−/− mice. These results indicate that TG2-mediated Th17 cell differentiation is not required for the pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis. PMID:27811936

  16. Differential in vivo mechanism of chemoprevention of tumor formation in azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate mice by PEITC and DBM.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ka Lung; Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2010-05-01

    Previously, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and dibenzoylmethane (DBM) had been shown to inhibit intestinal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive efficacy of PEITC and DBM in the azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon cancer mouse model and to compare their potential in vivo mechanisms leading to chemoprevention. The mice were fed with diet supplemented with 0.05% PEITC or 1% DBM before or after AOM initiation. Our results showed that AOM/DSS mice fed with PEITC- or DBM-supplemented diet had lower tumor incidence, lower colon tumor multiplicities and smaller polyps as compared with mice fed with the standard AIN-76A diet. PEITC was effective even after AOM initiation, whereas DBM was not as effective when fed after AOM initiation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that mice fed with PEITC or DBM had attenuated loss of crypt, a marker of inflammation. To examine potential in vivo mechanisms involved in chemoprevention, western blotting was performed and showed that inhibition of growth of adenomas by PEITC was associated with an increase of apoptosis (increased cleaved caspase-3 and-7) and cell cycle arrest (increased p21). In contrast DBM's effect on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis markers was not as substantial as PEITC. Instead, DBM showed increased induction of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor and phase II detoxifying enzymes, which appears to correlate with in vitro cell lines results that DBM is a more potent Nrf2 activator than PEITC. In summary, our present study shows that PEITC and DBM are potent natural dietary compounds for chemoprevention of colon cancer induced by AOM/DSS and appears to be associated with different in vivo mechanism of actions. PEITC's chemopreventive effect appears to be due to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, whereas DBM's effect is due to prevention of AOM initiation via induction of Nrf2 and phase II detoxifying

  17. High-fat diets rich in saturated fat protect against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Enos, Reilly T; Velázquez, Kandy T; McClellan, Jamie L; Cranford, Taryn L; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Davis, J Mark; Murphy, E Angela

    2016-06-01

    High-fat-diet (HFD) consumption is associated with colon cancer risk. However, little is known about how the lipid composition of a HFD can influence prooncogenic processes. We examined the effects of three HFDs differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6, 12, and 24% of total caloric intake), but identical in total fat (40%), and a commercially available Western diet (26 and 41% saturated and total fat, respectively) on colon cancer development using the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) murine model. A second dose-response experiment was performed using diets supplemented with the saturated-fatty-acid (SFA)-rich coconut oil. In experiment 1, we found an inverse association between SF content and tumor burden. Furthermore, increased SF content was associated with reduced inflammation, increased apoptosis, and decreased proliferation. The second dose-response experiment was performed to test whether this effect may be attributed to the SF content of the diets. Consistent with the initial experiment, we found that high SF content was protective, at least in male mice; there was a decrease in mortality in mice consuming the highest concentration of SFAs. To explore a potential mechanism for these findings, we examined colonic mucin 2 (Muc2) protein content and found that the HFDs with the highest SF content had the greatest concentration of Muc2. Our data suggest that high dietary SF is protective in the AOM/DSS model of colon cancer, which may be due, at least in part, to the ability of SF to maintain intestinal barrier integrity through increased colonic Muc2.

  18. Sarcodon aspratus Extract Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mouse Colon and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Yu; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kim, Jin Hee; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms have been previously investigated for their immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory properties. We examined whether the anti-inflammatory properties of Sarcodon aspratus ethanol extract (SAE) could elicit protective effects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. Male C57/BL6 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: control (CON; n = 8), DSS-treated (DSS; n = 9), DSS+SAE at 50 mg/kg BW (SAE50; n = 8), and DSS+SAE at 200 mg/kg BW groups (SAE200; n = 9). DSS treatment induced significant weight loss, which was significantly recovered by SAE200. Although SAE did not affect DSS-mediated reductions in colon length, it improved diarrhea and rectal bleeding induced by DSS. SAE at 200 mg/kg BW significantly attenuated IL-6 and enhanced IL-10 expression in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and significantly reduced IL-6 levels in splenocytes. SAE200 also significantly attenuated DSS-induced increase in IL-6 and IL-1β, and reductions in IL-10 in colon tissue. High levels of SAE were also observed to significantly decrease inflammatory COX-2 expression that was upregulated by DSS in mice colon. These findings may have relevance for novel therapeutic strategies to mitigate inflammatory bowel disease-relevant inflammatory responses, via the direct and indirect anti-inflammatory activity of SAE. We also found that SAE harbors significant quantities of total fiber and β-glucan, suggesting a possible role for these components in protection against DSS-mediated colitis.

  19. Oligosaccharides isolated from goat milk reduce intestinal inflammation in a rat model of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Lara-Villoslada, Federico; Debras, Elisabeth; Nieto, Ana; Concha, Angel; Gálvez, Julio; López-Huertas, Eduardo; Boza, Julio; Obled, Christiane; Xaus, Jordi

    2006-06-01

    There is increased interest in the study of manipulation of the flora with pro- and prebiotics regarding inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oligosaccharides from goat milk in a rat model of dextran sodium sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis. Twenty rats were fed the same diet but with different sources of fiber (5% of the diet): cellulose or a mixture of goat's milk oligosaccharides (GMO) and cellulose. DSS treatment was used to induce a colonic inflammation. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters, as well as intestinal micorbiota and gene expression by DNA microarray technology, were evaluated. DSS induced a decrease in body weight which was not observed in rats fed the GMO (decrease of 21+/-11% in control rats vs increase of 5.2+/-8.6 in GMO rats, P<0.05). DSS also caused an acute colonic inflammatory process which was weaker in rats fed the GMO, as shown by colon myeloperoxidase activity (0.53+/-0.16 vs 0.14+/-0.07U/mg of protein, P<0.05), as well as clinical symptoms measured by a scoring system (1.25+/-1.14 vs 0.4+/-0.07, P<0.05). GMO rats also showed less severe colonic lesions and a more favorable intestinal microbiota. The expression of genes involved in intestinal function, such as mucine-3, was down-regulated in DSS-control rats but returned to normal values in GMO rats. GMO reduce intestinal inflammation and contribute to the recovery of damaged colonic mucosa.

  20. Açaí Berries Inhibit Colon Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Nayoung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Lee, Seonmin; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Ha-Na; Surh, Young-Joon; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of açaí against azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colorectal cancer development. Methods The effect of açaí on tumorigenesis was assessed by evaluating tumor incidence, multiplicity and invasiveness in the mouse colon. The levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) and cleaved-caspase-3 were assessed by immunoblotting. Results Administration of pellets containing 5% açaí powder reduced the incidences of both colonic adenoma and cancer (adenoma, 23.1% vs 76.9%, respectively, p=0.006; cancer, 15.4% vs 76.9%, respectively, p=0.002). In the açaí-treated mice, the MPO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the colon were significantly down-regulated. Açaí inhibited PCNA and Bcl-2 expression and increased Bad and cleaved-caspase-3 expression. In vitro studies demonstrated that açaí treatment reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and COX-2 in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusions Açaí demonstrated protective effects against AOM/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis, which suggests that the intake of açaí may be beneficial for the prevention of human colon cancer. PMID:27965474