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Sample records for alveolar epithelial repair

  1. Urokinase plasminogen activator released by alveolar epithelial cells modulates alveolar epithelial repair in vitro.

    PubMed

    Van Leer, Coretta; Stutz, Monika; Haeberli, André; Geiser, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Intra-alveolar fibrin is formed following lung injury and inflammation and may contribute to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrin turnover is altered in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, resulting in intra-alveolar fibrin accumulation, mainly due to decreased fibrinolysis. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC) repair the injured alveolar epithelium by migrating over the provisional fibrin matrix. We hypothesized that repairing alveolar epithelial cells modulate the underlying fibrin matrix by release of fibrinolytic activity, and that the degree of fibrinolysis modulates alveolar epithelial repair on fibrin. To test this hypothesis we studied alveolar epithelial wound repair in vitro using a modified epithelial wound repair model with human A549 alveolar epithelial cells cultured on a fibrin matrix. In presence of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta, wounds increase by 800% in 24 hours mainly due to detachment of the cells, whereas in serum-free medium wound areas decreases by 22.4 +/- 5.2% (p < 0.01). Increased levels of D-dimer, FDP and uPA in the cell supernatant of IL-1beta-stimulated A549 epithelial cells indicate activation of fibrinolysis by activation of the plasmin system. In presence of low concentrations of fibrinolysis inhibitors, including specific blocking anti-uPA antibodies, alveolar epithelial repair in vitro was improved, whereas in presence of high concentrations of fibrinolysis inhibitors, a decrease was observed mainly due to decreased spreading and migration of cells. These findings suggest the existence of a fibrinolytic optimum at which alveolar epithelial repair in vitro is most efficient. In conclusion, uPA released by AEC alters alveolar epithelial repair in vitro by modulating the underlying fibrin matrix.

  2. Hepatocyte growth factor secreted by bone marrow stem cell reduce ER stress and improves repair in alveolar epithelial II cells

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Izabela; Hostettler, Katrin; Tamo, Luca; Medová, Michaela; Bombaci, Giuseppe; Zhong, Jun; Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Roth, Michael; Geiser, Thomas; Gazdhar, Amiq

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, irreversible lung disease with complex pathophysiology. Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in IPF patients. Secreted mediators from bone marrow stem cells (BMSC-cm) have regenerative properties. In this study we investigate the beneficial effects of BMSC-cm on ER stress response in primary AEC and ER stressed A549 cells. We hypothesize that BMSC-cm reduces ER stress. Primary AEC isolated from IPF patients were treated with BMSC-cm. To induce ER stress A549 cells were incubated with Tunicamycin or Thapsigargin and treated with BMSC-cm, or control media. Primary IPF-AEC had high Grp78 and CHOP gene expression, which was lowered after BMSC-cm treatment. Similar results were observed in ER stressed A549 cells. Alveolar epithelial repair increased in presence of BMSC-cm in ER stressed A549 cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was detected in biologically relevant levels in BMSC-cm. Neutralization of HGF in BMSC-cm attenuated the beneficial effects of BMSC-cm including synthesis of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in primary AEC, indicating a crucial role of HGF in ER homeostasis and alveolar epithelial repair. Our data suggest that BMSC-cm may be a potential therapeutic option for treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:28157203

  3. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  4. Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel R; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Miller, Rachel K; Ji, Hong; Akiyama, Haruhiko; McCrea, Pierre D; Chen, Jichao

    2013-11-05

    Mammalian organs, including the lung and kidney, often adopt a branched structure to achieve high efficiency and capacity of their physiological functions. Formation of a functional lung requires two developmental processes: branching morphogenesis, which builds a tree-like tubular network, and alveolar differentiation, which generates specialized epithelial cells for gas exchange. Much progress has been made to understand each of the two processes individually; however, it is not clear whether the two processes are coordinated and how they are deployed at the correct time and location. Here we show that an epithelial branching morphogenesis program antagonizes alveolar differentiation in the mouse lung. We find a negative correlation between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation temporally, spatially, and evolutionarily. Gain-of-function experiments show that hyperactive small GTPase Kras expands the branching program and also suppresses molecular and cellular differentiation of alveolar cells. Loss-of-function experiments show that SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9) functions downstream of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)/Kras to promote branching and also suppresses premature initiation of alveolar differentiation. We thus propose that lung epithelial progenitors continuously balance between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation, and such a balance is mediated by dual-function regulators, including Kras and Sox9. The resulting temporal delay of differentiation by the branching program may provide new insights to lung immaturity in preterm neonates and the increase in organ complexity during evolution.

  5. Differentiation of Club Cells to Alveolar Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dahai; Soh, Boon-Seng; Yin, Lu; Hu, Guangan; Chen, Qingfeng; Choi, Hyungwon; Han, Jongyoon; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chen, Jianzhu

    2017-01-01

    Club cells are known to function as regional progenitor cells to repair the bronchiolar epithelium in response to lung damage. By lineage tracing in mice, we have shown recently that club cells also give rise to alveolar type 2 cells (AT2s) and alveolar type 1 cells (AT1s) during the repair of the damaged alveolar epithelium. Here, we show that when highly purified, anatomically and phenotypically confirmed club cells are seeded in 3-dimensional culture either in bulk or individually, they proliferate and differentiate into both AT2- and AT1-like cells and form alveolar-like structures. This differentiation was further confirmed by transcriptomic analysis of freshly isolated club cells and their cultured progeny. Freshly isolated club cells express Sca-1 and integrin α6, markers commonly used to characterize lung stem/progenitor cells. Together, current study for the first time isolated highly purified club cells for in vitro study and demonstrated club cells’ capacity to differentiate into alveolar epithelial cells at the single-cell level. PMID:28128362

  6. Epithelial Notch signaling regulates lung alveolar morphogenesis and airway epithelial integrity

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Po-Nien; Matsuoka, Chisa; Wei, Shu-Chen; Sato, Atsuyasu; Sato, Susumu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Chen, Hung-kuan; Ling, Thai-Yen; Mori, Munemasa; Cardoso, Wellington V.; Morimoto, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal enlargement of the alveolar spaces is a hallmark of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Notch signaling is crucial for differentiation and regeneration and repair of the airway epithelium. However, how Notch influences the alveolar compartment and integrates this process with airway development remains little understood. Here we report a prominent role of Notch signaling in the epithelial–mesenchymal interactions that lead to alveolar formation in the developing lung. We found that alveolar type II cells are major sites of Notch2 activation and show by Notch2-specific epithelial deletion (Notch2cNull) a unique contribution of this receptor to alveologenesis. Epithelial Notch2 was required for type II cell induction of the PDGF-A ligand and subsequent paracrine activation of PDGF receptor-α signaling in alveolar myofibroblast progenitors. Moreover, Notch2 was crucial in maintaining the integrity of the epithelial and smooth muscle layers of the distal conducting airways. Our data suggest that epithelial Notch signaling regulates multiple aspects of postnatal development in the distal lung and may represent a potential target for intervention in pulmonary diseases. PMID:27364009

  7. Review of secondary alveolar cleft repair

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Lee, Gui-Youn; García-Díez, Eloy-Miguel; Nunes, Richard-Agostinho; Martí-Pagès, Carles; Sieira-Gil, Ramón; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The alveolar cleft is a bony defect that is present in 75% of the patients with cleft lip and palate. Although secondary alveolar cleft repair is commonly accepted for these patients, nowadays, controversy still remains regarding the surgical technique, the timing of the surgery, the donor site, and whether the use of allogenic materials improve the outcomes. The purpose of the present review was to evaluate the protocol, the surgical technique and the outcomes in a large population of patients with alveolar clefts that underwent secondary alveolar cleft repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 109 procedures in 90 patients with alveolar cleft were identified retrospectively after institutional review board approval was obtained. The patients were treated at a single institution during a period of 10 years (2001-2011). Data were collected regarding demographics, type of cleft, success parameters of the procedure (oronasal fistulae closure, unification of the maxillary segments, eruption and support of anterior teeth, support to the base of the nose, normal ridge form for prosthetic rehabilitation), donor site morbidity, and complications. Pre- and postoperative radiological examination was performed by means of orthopantomogram and computed tomography (CT) scan. Results: The average patient age was 14.2 years (range 4–21.3 years). There were 4 right alveolar-lip clefts, 9 left alveolar-lip clefts, 3 bilateral alveolar-lip clefts, 18 right palate-lip clefts, 40 left palate-lip clefts and 16 bilateral palate-lip clefts. All the success parameters were favorable in 87 patients. Iliac crest bone grafts were employed in all cases. There were three bone graft losses. In three cases, allogenic materials used in a first surgery performed in other centers, underwent infection and lacked consolidation. They were removed and substituted by autogenous iliac crest bone graft. Conclusions: The use of autogenous iliac crest for secondary alveolar bone grafting

  8. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-01-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing. Images PMID:3771800

  9. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

    2012-12-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness.

  10. Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

  11. Secretion of alpha 1-antitrypsin by alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Venembre, P; Boutten, A; Seta, N; Dehoux, M S; Crestani, B; Aubier, M; Durand, G

    1994-06-13

    We have investigated the ability of alveolar epithelial cells (human A549 cell line and rat type-II pneumocytes) to produce alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT). Northern blot analysis demonstrated the presence of an AAT-specific mRNA transcript in A549 cells. Unstimulated A549 cells secreted immunoreactive AAT at a rate of 0.51 +/- 0.04 ng/10(6) cells/h, with a modified glycosylation compared to serum AAT. AAT formed a complex with neutrophil elastase. Rat type-II pneumocytes secreted immunoreactive AAT. Our results suggest that alveolar epithelial cells could participate in antiprotease defense within the lung through local AAT production.

  12. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  13. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y.; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P.; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin–dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladaptbed hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis. PMID:26779814

  14. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  15. Transport Mechanism of Nicotine in Primary Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Nagahiro, Machi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, there is little information concerning the transport mechanism of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized the uptake of nicotine in rat primary cultured type II (TII) and transdifferentiated type I-like (TIL) epithelial cells. In both TIL and TII cells, [(3)H]nicotine uptake was time and temperature-dependent, and showed saturation kinetics. [(3)H]Nicotine uptake in these cells was not affected by Na(+), but was sensitive to extracellular and intracellular pH, suggesting the involvement of a nicotine/proton antiport system. The uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in these cells was potently inhibited by organic cations such as clonidine, diphenhydramine, and pyrilamine, but was not affected by substrates and/or inhibitors of known organic cation transporters such as carnitine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and tetraethylammonium. In addition, the uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in TIL cells was stimulated by preloading the cells with unlabeled nicotine, pyrilamine, and diphenhydramine, but not with tetraethylammonium. These results suggest that a novel proton-coupled antiporter is involved in the uptake of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells and its absorption from the lungs into the systemic circulation.

  16. Targeted Type 2 Alveolar Cell Depletion. A Dynamic Functional Model for Lung Injury Repair

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Orquidea; Hiatt, Michael J.; Lundin, Amber; Lee, Jooeun; Reddy, Raghava; Navarro, Sonia; Kikuchi, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) are regarded as the progenitor population of the alveolus responsible for injury repair and homeostatic maintenance. Depletion of this population is hypothesized to underlie various lung pathologies. Current models of lung injury rely on either uncontrolled, nonspecific destruction of alveolar epithelia or on targeted, nontitratable levels of fixed AEC2 ablation. We hypothesized that discrete levels of AEC2 ablation would trigger stereotypical and informative patterns of repair. To this end, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the surfactant protein-C promoter drives expression of a mutant SR39TK herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase specifically in AEC2. Because of the sensitivity of SR39TK, low doses of ganciclovir can be administered to these animals to induce dose-dependent AEC2 depletion ranging from mild (50%) to lethal (82%) levels. We demonstrate that specific levels of AEC2 depletion cause altered expression patterns of apoptosis and repair proteins in surviving AEC2 as well as distinct changes in distal lung morphology, pulmonary function, collagen deposition, and expression of remodeling proteins in whole lung that persist for up to 60 days. We believe SPCTK mice demonstrate the utility of cell-specific expression of the SR39TK transgene for exerting fine control of target cell depletion. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that specific levels of type 2 alveolar epithelial cell depletion produce characteristic injury repair outcomes. Most importantly, use of these mice will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AEC2 in the initiation of, and response to, lung injury. PMID:26203800

  17. Type II alveolar epithelial cell in vitro culture in aerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B

    1988-08-01

    A method of Type II alveolar epithelial cell culture in aerobiosis has been developed. Isolation of Type II cells was performed by digesting guinea-pig lung tissue with crude trypsin and elastase and using discontinuous Percoll density gradients. The Type II cells, as identified by light and electron microscopy, were cultured in aerobiosis for up to six days, in direct contact with the atmosphere in conditions mimicking those present in the lower respiratory tract. Significant activities of cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found at the time of isolation. In contrast, cell glutathione content varied widely from one experiment to another. Changes of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated during cell culture in aerobiosis. SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase were significantly decreased after three days but were not significantly different between a three day and six day culture. Antioxidant changes did not influence the cell culture. In marked contrast, decrease in cell glutathione was associated with rapid cell death, whereas good cell survival was obtained at high levels of cell glutathione. Cell culture in aerobiosis will permit a precise evaluation of the effects of gases, particularly oxidant gases, on a primary culture of Type II alveolar epithelial cells.

  18. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Willems, Coen H M P; Zimmermann, Luc J I; Sanders, Patricia J L T; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Duimel, Hans J Q; Verheyen, Fons K C P; van Iwaarden, J Freek

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process.

  19. Lipoxin A4 promotes lung epithelial repair whilst inhibiting fibroblast proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shengxing; D'Souza, Vijay K; Bartis, Domokos; Dancer, Rachel C A; Parekh, Dhruv; Naidu, Babu; Gao-Smith, Fang; Wang, Qian; Jin, Shengwei; Lian, Qingquan; Thickett, David R

    2016-07-01

    Therapy that promotes epithelial repair whilst protecting against fibroproliferation is critical for restoring lung function in acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Primary human alveolar type II cells were used to model the effects of lipoxin A4in vitro upon wound repair, proliferation, apoptosis and transdifferention. Effects of lipoxin A4 upon primary human lung fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and myofibroblast differentiation were also assessed. Lipoxin A4 promoted type II cell wound repair and proliferation, blocked the negative effects of soluble Fas ligand/tumour necrosis factor α upon cell proliferation, viability and apoptosis, and augmented the epithelial cell proliferative response to bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In contrast, Lipoxin A4 reduced fibroblast proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast differentiation induced by transforming growth factor β and BALF from ARDS. The effects of Lipoxin A4 were phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase dependent and mediated via the lipoxin A4 receptor. Lipoxin A4 appears to promote alveolar epithelial repair by stimulating epitheial cell wound repair, proliferation, reducing apoptosis and promoting trans-differentiation of alveolar type II cells into type I cells. Lipoxin A4 reduces fibroblast proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast differentiation. These data suggest that targeting lipoxin actions may be a therapeutic strategy for treating the resolution phase of ARDS.

  20. Lipoxin A4 promotes lung epithelial repair whilst inhibiting fibroblast proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shengxing; Dancer, Rachel C.A.; Parekh, Dhruv; Naidu, Babu; Gao-Smith, Fang; Wang, Qian; Jin, Shengwei; Lian, Qingquan

    2016-01-01

    Therapy that promotes epithelial repair whilst protecting against fibroproliferation is critical for restoring lung function in acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Primary human alveolar type II cells were used to model the effects of lipoxin A4 in vitro upon wound repair, proliferation, apoptosis and transdifferention. Effects of lipoxin A4 upon primary human lung fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and myofibroblast differentiation were also assessed. Lipoxin A4 promoted type II cell wound repair and proliferation, blocked the negative effects of soluble Fas ligand/tumour necrosis factor α upon cell proliferation, viability and apoptosis, and augmented the epithelial cell proliferative response to bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In contrast, Lipoxin A4 reduced fibroblast proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast differentiation induced by transforming growth factor β and BALF from ARDS. The effects of Lipoxin A4 were phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase dependent and mediated via the lipoxin A4 receptor. Lipoxin A4 appears to promote alveolar epithelial repair by stimulating epitheial cell wound repair, proliferation, reducing apoptosis and promoting trans-differentiation of alveolar type II cells into type I cells. Lipoxin A4 reduces fibroblast proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast differentiation. These data suggest that targeting lipoxin actions may be a therapeutic strategy for treating the resolution phase of ARDS. PMID:27957484

  1. Alveolar Epithelial Cell Injury Due to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Ho; Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Kennedy, Ian M.; Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Although inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known to cause systemic disease (i.e., metal fume fever), little is known about mechanisms underlying injury to alveolar epithelium. Objectives: Investigate ZnO NP–induced injury to alveolar epithelium by exposing primary cultured rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECMs) to ZnO NPs. Methods: RAECMs were exposed apically to ZnO NPs or, in some experiments, to culture fluid containing ZnCl2 or free Zn released from ZnO NPs. Transepithelial electrical resistance (RT) and equivalent short-circuit current (IEQ) were assessed as functions of concentration and time. Morphologic changes, lactate dehydrogenase release, cell membrane integrity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial activity were measured. Measurements and Main Results: Apical exposure to 176 μg/ml ZnO NPs decreased RT and IEQ of RAECMs by 100% over 24 hours, whereas exposure to 11 μg/ml ZnO NPs had little effect. Changes in RT and IEQ caused by 176 μg/ml ZnO NPs were irreversible. ZnO NP effects on RT yielded half-maximal concentrations of approximately 20 μg/ml. Apical exposure for 24 hours to 176 μg/ml ZnO NPs induced decreases in mitochondrial activity and increases in lactate dehydrogenase release, permeability to fluorescein sulfonic acid, increased intracellular ROS, and translocation of ZnO NPs from apical to basolateral fluid (most likely across injured cells and/or damaged paracellular pathways). Conclusions: ZnO NPs cause severe injury to RAECMs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, mediated, at least in part, by free Zn released from ZnO NPs, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased intracellular ROS. PMID:20639441

  2. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    SciTech Connect

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P.; Iwaarden, J. Freek van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ► Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ► Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ► A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ► A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  3. Alveolar Macrophages Prevent Lethal Influenza Pneumonia By Inhibiting Infection Of Type-1 Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardani, Amber; Boulton, Adam; Kim, Taeg S.; Braciale, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major human pathogen that produces significant morbidity and mortality. To explore the contribution of alveolar macrophages (AlvMΦs) in regulating the severity of IAV infection we employed a murine model in which the Core Binding Factor Beta gene is conditionally disrupted in myeloid cells. These mice exhibit a selective deficiency in AlvMΦs. Following IAV infection these AlvMΦ deficient mice developed severe diffuse alveolar damage, lethal respiratory compromise, and consequent lethality. Lethal injury in these mice resulted from increased infection of their Type-1 Alveolar Epithelial Cells (T1AECs) and the subsequent elimination of the infected T1AECs by the adaptive immune T cell response. Further analysis indicated AlvMΦ-mediated suppression of the cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) pathway genes in T1AECs in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of the cysLT pathway enzymes in a T1AECs cell line reduced the susceptibility of T1AECs to IAV infection, suggesting that AlvMΦ-mediated suppression of this pathway contributes to the resistance of T1AECs to IAV infection. Furthermore, inhibition of the cysLT pathway enzymes, as well as blockade of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptors in the AlvMΦ deficient mice reduced the susceptibility of their T1AECs to IAV infection and protected these mice from lethal infection. These results suggest that AlvMΦs may utilize a previously unappreciated mechanism to protect T1AECs against IAV infection, and thereby reduce the severity of infection. The findings further suggest that the cysLT pathway and the receptors for cysLT metabolites represent potential therapeutic targets in severe IAV infection. PMID:28085958

  4. Protein Expression Profile of Rat Type Two Alveolar Epithelial Cells During Hyperoxic Stress and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Maneesh

    Rationale: In rodent model systems, the sequential changes in lung morphology resulting from hyperoxic injury are well characterized, and are similar to changes in human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the injured lung, alveolar type two (AT2) epithelial cells play a critical role restoring the normal alveolar structure. Thus characterizing the changes in AT2 cells will provide insights into the mechanisms underpinning the recovery from lung injury. Methods: We applied an unbiased systems level proteomics approach to elucidate molecular mechanisms contributing to lung repair in a rat hyperoxic lung injury model. AT2 cells were isolated from rat lungs at predetermined intervals during hyperoxic injury and recovery. Protein expression profiles were determined by using iTRAQRTM with tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Of 959 distinct proteins identified, 183 significantly changed in abundance during the injury-recovery cycle. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified cell cycle, cell differentiation, cell metabolism, ion homeostasis, programmed cell death, ubiquitination, and cell migration to be significantly enriched by these proteins. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of data acquired during lung repair revealed differential expression of gene sets that control multicellular organismal development, systems development, organ development, and chemical homeostasis. More detailed analysis identified activity in two regulatory pathways, JNK and miR 374. A Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) algorithm identified protein clusters with coherent changes during injury and repair. Conclusion: Coherent changes occur in the AT2 cell proteome in response to hyperoxic stress. These findings offer guidance regarding the specific molecular mechanisms governing repair of the injured lung.

  5. An Optimised Human Cell Culture Model for Alveolar Epithelial Transport

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Nigel P.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2. Consistent with this phenotype NCI-H441, but not A549, cells formed a functional barrier with active ion transport characterised by higher electrical resistance (529 ± 178 Ω cm2 vs 28 ± 4 Ω cm2), lower paracellular permeability ((176 ± 42) ×10−8 cm/s vs (738 ± 190) ×10−8 cm/s) and higher transepithelial potential difference (11.9 ± 4 mV vs 0 mV). Phenotypic and functional properties of NCI-H441 cells were tuned by varying cell seeding density and supplement concentrations. The cells formed a polarised monolayer typical of in vivo epithelium at seeding densities of 100,000 cells per 12-well insert while higher densities resulted in multiple cell layers. Dexamethasone and insulin-transferrin-selenium supplements were required for the development of high levels of electrical resistance, potential difference and expression of claudin-3 and Na+-K+-ATPase. Treatment of NCI-H441 cells with inhibitors and agonists of sodium and chloride channels indicated sodium absorption through ENaC under baseline and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Chloride transport was not sensitive to inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) under either condition. Channels inhibited by 5-nitro-1-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) contributed to chloride secretion following forskolin stimulation, but not at baseline. These data precisely define experimental conditions for the application of NCI

  6. Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

  7. Substrate stiffness regulates extracellular matrix deposition by alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Jessica L; Safi, Asmahan; Wei, Xiaoding; Espinosa, Horacio D; Budinger, GR Scott; Takawira, Desire; Hopkinson, Susan B; Jones, Jonathan CR

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to address whether a stiff substrate, a model for pulmonary fibrosis, is responsible for inducing changes in the phenotype of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lung, including their deposition and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Methods Freshly isolated lung AEC from male Sprague Dawley rats were seeded onto polyacrylamide gel substrates of varying stiffness and analyzed for expression and organization of adhesion, cytoskeletal, differentiation, and ECM components by Western immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results We observed that substrate stiffness influences cell morphology and the organization of focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, however, we found that substrate stiffness has no influence on the differentiation of type II into type I AEC, nor does increased substrate stiffness lead to an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In contrast, our data indicate that substrate stiffness regulates the expression of the α3 laminin subunit by AEC and the organization of both fibronectin and laminin in their ECM. Conclusions An increase in substrate stiffness leads to enhanced laminin and fibronectin assembly into fibrils, which likely contributes to the disease phenotype in the fibrotic lung. PMID:23204878

  8. Diesel exhaust particles induce aberrant alveolar epithelial directed cell movement by disruption of polarity mechanisms.

    PubMed

    LaGier, Adriana J; Manzo, Nicholas D; Dye, Janice A

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following injury requires efficient and directed alveolar epithelial cell migration, this study's goal was to understand the mechanisms underlying alveolar epithelial cells response to DEP, particularly when exposure is accompanied with comorbid lung injury. Separate mechanistic steps of directed migration were investigated in confluent murine LA-4 cells exposed to noncytotoxic concentrations (0-100 μg/cm(2)) of either automobile-emitted diesel exhaust particles (DEP(A)) or carbon black (CB) particles. A scratch wound model ascertained how DEP(A) exposure affected directional cell migration and BCECF ratio fluorimetry-monitored intracellular pH (pHi). Cells were immunostained with giantin to assess cell polarity, and with paxillin to assess focal cell adhesions. Cells were immunoblotted for ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) to assess cytoskeletal anchoring. Data demonstrate herein that exposure of LA-4 cells to DEP(A) (but not CB) resulted in delayed directional cell migration, impaired de-adhesion of the trailing edge cell processes, disrupted regulation of pHi, and altered Golgi polarity of leading edge cells, along with modified focal adhesions and reduced ERM levels, indicative of decreased cytoskeletal anchoring. The ability of DEP(A) to disrupt directed cell migration at multiple levels suggests that signaling pathways such as ERM/Rho are critical for transduction of ion transport signals into cytoskeletal arrangement responses. These results provide insights into the mechanisms by which chronic exposure to traffic-based emissions may result in decrements in lung capacity.

  9. MCP-1 antibody treatment enhances damage and impedes repair of the alveolar epithelium in influenza pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Narasaraju, T; Ng, H H; Phoon, M C; Chow, Vincent T K

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an essential role of alveolar macrophages during influenza virus infection. Enhanced mortalities were observed in macrophage-depleted mice and pigs after influenza virus infection, but the basis for the enhanced pathogenesis is unclear. This study revealed that blocking macrophage recruitment into the lungs in a mouse model of influenza pneumonitis resulted in enhanced alveolar epithelial damage and apoptosis, as evaluated by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR, and TUNEL assays. Abrogation of macrophage recruitment was achieved by treatment with monoclonal antibody against monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) after sub-lethal challenge with mouse-adapted human influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus. Interestingly, elevated levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a mitogen for alveolar epithelium, were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and in lung homogenates of control untreated and nonimmune immunoglobulin (Ig)G-treated mice after infection compared with anti-MCP-1-treated infected mice. The lungs of control animals also displayed strongly positive HGF staining in alveolar macrophages as well as alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia. Co-culture of influenza virus-infected alveolar epithelial cells with freshly isolated alveolar macrophages induced HGF production and phagocytic activity of macrophages. Recombinant HGF added to mouse lung explants after influenza virus infection resulted in enhanced BrdU labeling of alveolar type II epithelial cells, indicating their proliferation, in contrast with anti-HGF treatment showing significantly reduced epithelial regeneration. Our data indicate that inhibition of macrophage recruitment augmented alveolar epithelial damage and apoptosis during influenza pneumonitis, and that HGF produced by macrophages in response to influenza participates in the resolution of alveolar epithelium.

  10. Epithelial-fibroblast interactions in bleomycin-induced lung injury and repair.

    PubMed Central

    Young, L; Adamson, I Y

    1993-01-01

    Intercellular communication between epithelial cells and fibroblasts of the alveolar wall contributes to regulatory control of each cell type. We examined whether lung injury and subsequent fibrosis are associated with disturbance of this mutual control system. Rats received bleomycin intratracheally, and after 10 days, when acute epithelial injury occurs, and at 6 weeks, when repair with fibrosis is found, pure populations of type 2 epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts were prepared to study interactions with respect to growth control. Epithelial cells were cultured alone, on a permeable filter over fibroblasts, and in co-culture with fibroblasts. The results showed that the low growth rate of normal epithelial cells increased when cells were exposed to fibroblast supernatants. This effect was also seen using cells from the 10-day bleomycin group, but it was diminished in the group treated for 6 weeks. However, epithelial cells from exposed or control rats did not show increased DNA synthesis when grown in contact with fibroblasts in co-culture. In contrast, fibroblast growth was inhibited when exposed to epithelial cell secretions in control cultures and when using cells from the 10-day bleomycin group. No inhibition of fibroblast growth by epithelial cells was found using cells from the fibrotic lungs. These results suggest that after lung injury by bleomycin, a fibroblast-secreted factor promotes epithelial growth; however, during repair, regenerating epithelial cells lose the ability to inhibit fibro-blast proliferation. These local changes in cellular control at the alveolar wall may be sufficient to produce pulmonary fibrosis. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B PMID:7685692

  11. Analysis of cellular senescence induced by lipopolysaccharide in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Oh; Huh, Ae Jung; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, June Myung

    2012-01-01

    In this work, it was examined the possibility of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causing cellular senescence in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Then, it was clarified how this cellular senescence phenomenon is associated with oxidative stress effect induced by LPS and whether antioxidants could inhibit reduced cellular viability by oxidant stress effect of LPS. In cell viability using cell counting kit-8, exposure to LPS decreased cellular viability and induced growth arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. The pre-apoptotic concentration of LPS was determined by caspase activation using a Caspase-Glo 3/7 luminescence assay kit. This concentration of LPS caused morphologic characteristics shown in senescent cells and elevated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In addition, lysosomal content associated with senescence was increased by LPS at the pre-apoptotic concentration. However, this concentration of LPS did not shorten the telomere length. Exposure to LPS resulted in the formation of hydrogen peroxide in a concentration-dependent manner. The ability of LPS to reduce cellular viability was inhibited by the presence of glutathione. This study revealed that LPS could induce cellular senescence in lung alveloar epithelial cells, and these phenomena were closely associated with hydrogen peroxide production by LPS. Taken together, it is suggested that LPS-induced cellular senescence may play an important role in limiting the tissue repair response after sepsis.

  12. The Role of Mitochondrial DNA in Mediating Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Jablonski, Renea P.; Williams, David B.; Kamp, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Convincing evidence has emerged demonstrating that impairment of mitochondrial function is critically important in regulating alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) programmed cell death (apoptosis) that may contribute to aging-related lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and asbestosis (pulmonary fibrosis following asbestos exposure). The mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for 13 proteins, including several essential for oxidative phosphorylation. We review the evidence implicating that oxidative stress-induced mtDNA damage promotes AEC apoptosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We focus on the emerging role for AEC mtDNA damage repair by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO-2) in maintaining mtDNA integrity which is important in preventing AEC apoptosis and asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model. We then review recent studies linking the sirtuin (SIRT) family members, especially SIRT3, to mitochondrial integrity and mtDNA damage repair and aging. We present a conceptual model of how SIRTs modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-driven mitochondrial metabolism that may be important for their tumor suppressor function. The emerging insights into the pathobiology underlying AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis is suggesting novel therapeutic targets that may prove useful for the management of age-related diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. PMID:26370974

  13. Host-pathogen interactions during coronavirus infection of primary alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Tanya A.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2009-01-01

    Viruses that infect the lung are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in animals and humans worldwide. Coronaviruses are being associated increasingly with severe diseases in the lower respiratory tract. Alveolar epithelial cells are an important target for coronavirus infection in the lung, and infected cells can initiate innate immune responses to viral infection. In this overview, we describe in vitro models of highly differentiated alveolar epithelial cells that are currently being used to study the innate immune response to coronavirus infection. We have shown that rat coronavirus infection of rat alveolar type I epithelial cells in vitro induces expression of CXC chemokines, which may recruit and activate neutrophils. Although neutrophils are recruited early in infection in several coronavirus models including rat coronavirus. However, their role in viral clearance and/or immune-mediated tissue damage is not understood. Primary cultures of differentiated alveolar epithelial cells will be useful for identifying the interactions between coronaviruses and alveolar epithelial cells that influence the innate immune responses to infection in the lung. Understanding the molecular details of these interactions will be critical for the design of effective strategies to prevent and treat coronavirus infections in the lung. PMID:19638499

  14. Emerging roles for renal primary cilia in epithelial repair.

    PubMed

    Deane, James A; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2012-01-01

    Primary cilia are microscopic sensory antennae that cells in many vertebrate tissues use to gather information about their environment. In the kidney, primary cilia sense urine flow and are essential for the maintenance of epithelial architecture. Defects of this organelle cause the cystic kidney disease characterized by epithelial abnormalities. These findings link primary cilia to the regulation of epithelial differentiation and proliferation, processes that must be precisely controlled during epithelial repair in the kidney. Here, we consider likely roles for primary cilium-based signaling during responses to renal injury and ensuing epithelial repair processes.

  15. Cholinergic regulation of epithelial sodium channels in rat alveolar type 2 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yoshizumi; Helms, My N; Eaton, Amity F; Self, Julie; Ramosevac, Semra; Jain, Lucky; Bao, Hui-Fang; Eaton, Douglas C

    2013-03-15

    We and others have shown that epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells are activated by β2 agonists, steroid hormones, elevated oxygen tension, and by dopamine. Although acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) have been previously described in the lung, there are few reports of whether cholinergic agonists alter sodium transport in the alveolar epithelium. Therefore, we investigated how cholinergic receptors regulate ENaC activity in primary cultures of rat AT2 cells using cell-attached patch-clamp recordings to assess ENaC activity. We found that the muscarinic agonists, carbachol (CCh) and oxotremorine, activated ENaC in a dose-dependent manner but that nicotine did not. CCh-induced activation of ENaC was blocked by atropine. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry suggested that muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors (mAChRs) but not nicotinic receptors were present in AT2 cells. Endogenous RhoA and GTP-RhoA increased in response to CCh and the increase was reduced by pretreatment with atropine. We showed that Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), abolished endogenous ENaC activity and inhibited the activation of ENaC by CCh. We also showed that ROCK signaling was necessary for ENaC stability in 2F3 cells, a model for AT2 cells. Our results showed that muscarinic agonists activated ENaC in rat AT2 cells through M2 and/or M3 mAChRs probably via a RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

  16. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) inhibits epithelial sodium channel activity in primary alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Charles A.; Kreiner, Lisa; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Trac, Phi; Johnson, Nicholle M.; Hansen, Jason M.; Brown, Lou Ann

    2015-01-01

    Amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) regulate fluid balance in the alveoli and are regulated by oxidative stress. Since glutathione (GSH) is the predominant antioxidant in the lungs, we proposed that changes in glutathione redox potential (Eh) would alter cell signaling and have an effect on ENaC open probability (Po). In the present study, we used single channel patch-clamp recordings to examine the effect of oxidative stress, via direct application of glutathione disulfide (GSSG), on ENaC activity. We found a linear decrease in ENaC activity as the GSH/GSSG Eh became less negative (n = 21; P < 0.05). Treatment of 400 μM GSSG to the cell bath significantly decreased ENaC Po from 0.39 ± 0.06 to 0.13 ± 0.05 (n = 8; P < 0.05). Likewise, back-filling recording electrodes with 400 μM GSSG reduced ENaC Po from 0.32 ± 0.08 to 0.17 ± 0.05 (n = 10; P < 0.05), thus implicating GSSG as an important regulatory factor. Biochemical assays indicated that oxidizing potentials promote S-glutathionylation of ENaC and irreversible oxidation of cysteine residues with N-ethylmaleimide blocked the effects of GSSG on ENaC Po. Additionally, real-time imaging studies showed that GSSG impairs alveolar fluid clearance in vivo as opposed to GSH, which did not impair clearance. Taken together, these data show that glutathione Eh is an important determinant of alveolar fluid clearance in vivo. PMID:25713321

  17. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Puig, Ferranda; Fuster, Gemma; Adda, Mélanie; Blanch, Lluís; Farre, Ramon; Navajas, Daniel; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a clinical manifestation of respiratory failure, caused by lung inflammation and the disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Preservation of the physical integrity of the alveolar epithelial monolayer is of critical importance to prevent alveolar edema. Barrier integrity depends largely on the balance between physical forces on cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and this balance might be affected by alterations in the coagulation cascade in patients with ALI. We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC) on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) exposed to thrombin. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with APC (50 µg/ml) or vehicle (control). Subsequently, thrombin (50 nM) or medium was added to the cell culture. APC significantly reduced thrombin-induced cell monolayer permeability, cell stiffening, and cell contraction, measured by electrical impedance, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, and traction microscopy, respectively, suggesting a barrier-protective response. The dynamics of the barrier integrity was also assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the tight junction ZO-1. Thrombin resulted in more elongated ZO-1 aggregates at cell-cell interface areas and induced an increase in ZO-1 membrane protein content. APC attenuated the length of these ZO-1 aggregates and reduced the ZO-1 membrane protein levels induced by thrombin. In conclusion, pretreatment with APC reduced the disruption of barrier integrity induced by thrombin, thus contributing to alveolar epithelial barrier protection.

  18. Functional expression of nicotine influx transporter in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tega, Yuma; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is a potent addictive alkaloid, and is rapidly absorbed through the alveoli of the lung. However, the transport mechanism of nicotine at the human alveolar epithelial barrier has not been investigated in great detail. In the present study, the transport mechanism of nicotine across alveolar epithelium was investigated in vitro using A549 cells, a human adenocarcinoma-derived cell line with an alveolar epithelial cell like phenotype. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells exhibited time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependence with a Km of 50.4 μM. These results suggest that a carrier-mediated transport process is involved in nicotine transport in human alveolar epithelial cells. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells was insensitive to change in extracellular pH. Moreover, nicotine uptake by A549 cells could be inhibited by organic cations such as verapamil and pyrilamine, but not typical substrates of organic cation transporters and β2-agonist. These results suggest that a novel, not yet molecularly identified, organic cation transporter plays a role in nicotine transport which is unlikely to interact with β2-agonist transport. This nicotine influx transporter in human alveolar epithelium might have implications for the rapid absorption of nicotine into the systemic circulation.

  19. NLRP3 protects alveolar barrier integrity by an inflammasome-independent increase of epithelial cell adherence

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Elena; Chaput, Catherine; Gutbier, Birgitt; Lippmann, Juliane; Sander, Leif E.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin; Opitz, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, characterized by alveolar barrier disruption. NLRP3 is best known for its ability to form inflammasomes and to regulate IL-1β and IL-18 production in myeloid cells. Here we show that NLRP3 protects the integrity of the alveolar barrier in a mouse model of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced pneumonia, and ex vivo upon treatment of isolated perfused and ventilated lungs with the purified bacterial toxin, pneumolysin. We reveal that the preserving effect of NLRP3 on the lung barrier is independent of inflammasomes, IL-1β and IL-18. NLRP3 improves the integrity of alveolar epithelial cell monolayers by enhancing cellular adherence. Collectively, our study uncovers a novel function of NLRP3 by demonstrating that it protects epithelial barrier function independently of inflammasomes. PMID:27476670

  20. Sirtuin 1 Activator SRT1720 Protects Against Lung Injury via Reduction of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells Apoptosis in Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Li, Yaqing; Xu, Wu-Lin; Yan, Jian-Ping; Xia, Ying-jie; Ma, Ying-Yu; Chen, Chun; Wang, Hui-Ju; Tao, Hou-quan

    2015-08-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two major pathological changes that occur are the loss of alveolar structure and airspace enlargement. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) play a vital role in maintaining alveolar homeostasis and lung tissue repair. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, regulates many pathophysiological processes including inflammation, apoptosis, cellular senescence and stress resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether SRT1720, a pharmacological SIRT1 activator, could protect against AECII apoptosis in rats with emphysema caused by cigarette smoke exposure and intratracheal lipopolysaccharide instillation in vivo. During the induction of emphysema in rats, administration of SRT1720 improved lung function including airway resistance and pulmonary dynamic compliance. SRT1720 treatment up-regulated the levels of surfactant protein (SP)A, SPC, SIRT1 and forkhead box O 3, increased SIRT1 activity, down-regulated the level of p53 and inhibited AECII apoptosis. Lung injury caused by emphysema was alleviated after SRT1720 treatment. SRT1720 could protect against AECII apoptosis in rats with emphysema and thus could be used in COPD treatment.

  1. Activated alveolar epithelial cells initiate fibrosis through autocrine and paracrine secretion of connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jibing; Velikoff, Miranda; Canalis, Ernesto; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Kim, Kevin K

    2014-04-15

    Fibrogenesis involves a pathological accumulation of activated fibroblasts and extensive matrix remodeling. Profibrotic cytokines, such as TGF-β, stimulate fibroblasts to overexpress fibrotic matrix proteins and induce further expression of profibrotic cytokines, resulting in progressive fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic cytokine that is indicative of fibroblast activation. Epithelial cells are abundant in the normal lung, but their contribution to fibrogenesis remains poorly defined. Profibrotic cytokines may activate epithelial cells with protein expression and functions that overlap with the functions of active fibroblasts. We found that alveolar epithelial cells undergoing TGF-β-mediated mesenchymal transition in vitro were also capable of activating lung fibroblasts through production of CTGF. Alveolar epithelial cell expression of CTGF was dramatically reduced by inhibition of Rho signaling. CTGF reporter mice demonstrated increased CTGF promoter activity by lung epithelial cells acutely after bleomycin in vivo. Furthermore, mice with lung epithelial cell-specific deletion of CTGF had an attenuated fibrotic response to bleomycin. These studies provide direct evidence that epithelial cell activation initiates a cycle of fibrogenic effector cell activation during progressive fibrosis. Therapy targeted at epithelial cell production of CTGF offers a novel pathway for abrogating this progressive cycle and limiting tissue fibrosis.

  2. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu; Wang, Yuan; Song, Kang; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Junchao

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN in a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. MCP-1 expression by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Paine, R; Rolfe, M W; Standiford, T J; Burdick, M D; Rollins, B J; Strieter, R M

    1993-05-15

    Recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes are potentially critical regulatory events for control of pulmonary inflammation. Located at the boundary between the alveolar airspace and the interstitium, alveolar epithelial cells are ideally situated to regulate the recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes through the production of cytokines in response to inflammatory stimulation from the alveolar space. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the production of monocyte chemotactic polypeptide-1 (MCP-1), a protein that is chemotactic for and that activates monocytes, by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. Immunocytochemical staining using anti-murine JE, an antibody recognizing rat MCP-1, demonstrated cell-associated MCP-1 Ag throughout the monolayer. The intensity of staining was increased in response to IL-1 beta. When type II epithelial cells formed a tight monolayer on a filter support, there was polar secretion of MCP-1 Ag into the apical compartment by both control and IL-1-stimulated cells as measured by specific MCP-1 ELISA. Northern blot analysis revealed that IL-1 and TNF-alpha stimulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, whereas dexamethasone blocked MCP-1 expression by cells stimulated with IL-1. In contrast to previous results using transformed epithelial cell lines, MCP-1 mRNA was induced in these primary cultures directly by stimulation with LPS. These data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells may have an important and previously unrecognized role in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory processes in the lung by recruiting and activating circulating monocytes through the production of MCP-1.

  4. Cigarette Smoke Enhances the Expression of Profibrotic Molecules in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Checa, Marco; Hagood, James S; Velazquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ruiz, Victor; García-De-Alba, Carolina; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Urrea, Francisco; Becerril, Carina; Montaño, Martha; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Cisneros Lira, José; Aquino-Gálvez, Arnoldo; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disease of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence indicates that it may result from an aberrant activation of alveolar epithelium, which induces the expansion of the fibroblast population, their differentiation to myofibroblasts and the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that activate the alveolar epithelium are unknown, but several studies indicate that smoking is the main environmental risk factor for the development of IPF. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile and signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cell line from human (A549), was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 1, 3, and 5 weeks at 1, 5 and 10% and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. Signaling networks were analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. At 5 weeks of exposure, alveolar epithelial cells acquired a fibroblast-like phenotype. At this time, gene expression profile revealed a significant increase of more than 1000 genes and deregulation of canonical signaling pathways such as TGF-β and Wnt. Several profibrotic genes involved in EMT were over-expressed, and incomplete EMT was observed in these cells, and corroborated in mouse (MLE-12) and rat (RLE-6TN) epithelial cells. The secretion of activated TGF-β1 increased in cells exposed to cigarette smoke, which decreased when the integrin alpha v gene was silenced. These findings suggest that the exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CSE induces the expression and release of a variety of profibrotic genes, and the activation of TGF-β1, which may explain at least partially, the increased risk of developing IPF in smokers.

  5. Cigarette Smoke Enhances the Expression of Profibrotic Molecules in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Marco; Hagood, James S.; Velazquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ruiz, Victor; García-De-Alba, Carolina; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Urrea, Francisco; Becerril, Carina; Montaño, Martha; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Cisneros Lira, José; Aquino-Gálvez, Arnoldo; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disease of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence indicates that it may result from an aberrant activation of alveolar epithelium, which induces the expansion of the fibroblast population, their differentiation to myofibroblasts and the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that activate the alveolar epithelium are unknown, but several studies indicate that smoking is the main environmental risk factor for the development of IPF. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile and signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cell line from human (A549), was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 1, 3, and 5 weeks at 1, 5 and 10% and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. Signaling networks were analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. At 5 weeks of exposure, alveolar epithelial cells acquired a fibroblast-like phenotype. At this time, gene expression profile revealed a significant increase of more than 1000 genes and deregulation of canonical signaling pathways such as TGF-β and Wnt. Several profibrotic genes involved in EMT were over-expressed, and incomplete EMT was observed in these cells, and corroborated in mouse (MLE-12) and rat (RLE-6TN) epithelial cells. The secretion of activated TGF-β1 increased in cells exposed to cigarette smoke, which decreased when the integrin alpha v gene was silenced. These findings suggest that the exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CSE induces the expression and release of a variety of profibrotic genes, and the activation of TGF-β1, which may explain at least partially, the increased risk of developing IPF in smokers. PMID:26934369

  6. Wound repair and proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells enhanced by bombesin receptor subtype 3 activation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu-Rong; Qi, Ming-Ming; Qin, Xiao-Qun; Xiang, Yang; Li, Xiang; Wang, Yue; Qu, Fei; Liu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Song

    2006-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) in airway wound repair. The results showed that: (1) There was few expression of BRS-3 mRNA in the control group. In contrast, the expression of BRS-3 mRNA was gradually increased in the early 2 days, and peaked on the fourth day, and then decreased in the ozone-stressed AHR animal. BRS-3 mRNA was distributed in the ciliated columnar epithelium, monolayer columnar epithelium cells, scattered mesenchymal cells and Type II alveolar cells; (2) The wound repair and proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were accelerated in a concentration-dependent manner by BRS-3 activation with P3513, which could be inhibited by PKA inhibitor H89. The study demostrated that activation of BRS-3 may play an important role in wound repair of AHR.

  7. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts decrease bronchial epithelial wound repair.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Todd A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Tuma, Dean J; Sisson, Joseph H; Spurzem, John R

    2005-05-01

    Most people who abuse alcohol are cigarette smokers. Previously, we have shown that malondialdehyde, an inflammation product of lipid peroxidation, and acetaldehyde, a component of both ethanol metabolism and cigarette smoke, form protein adducts that stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) activation in bronchial epithelial cells. We have also shown that PKC can regulate bronchial epithelial cell wound repair. We hypothesize that bovine serum albumin adducted with malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde (BSA-MAA) decreases bronchial epithelial cell wound repair via binding to scavenger receptors on bronchial epithelial cells. To test this, confluent monolayers of bovine bronchial epithelial cells were grown in serum-free media prior to wounding the cells. Bronchial epithelial cell wound closure was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (up to 60%) in the presence of BSA-MAA than in media treated cells (Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis [LHC]-9-Roswell Park Memorial Institute [RPMI]). The specific scavenger receptor ligand, fucoidan, also stimulated PKC activation and decreased wound repair. Pretreatment with fucoidan blocked malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde binding to bronchial epithelial cells. When bronchial epithelial cells were preincubated with a PKC alpha inhibitor, Gö 6976, the inhibition of wound closure by fucoidan and BSA-MAA was blocked. Western blot demonstrated the presence of several scavenger receptors on bronchial epithelial cell membranes, including SRA, SRBI, SRBII, and CD36. Scavenger receptor-mediated activation of PKC alpha may function to reduce wound healing under conditions of alcohol and cigarette smoke exposure where malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts may be present.

  8. DA-Raf-dependent inhibition of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells controls alveolar formation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Takano, Kazunori; Sakamoto, Akemi; Matsumoto, Kenji; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Endo, Takeshi; Hatano, Masahiko

    2014-06-03

    Alveolar formation is coupled to the spatiotemporally regulated differentiation of alveolar myofibroblasts (AMYFs), which contribute to the morphological changes of interalveolar walls. Although the Ras-ERK signaling pathway is one of the key regulators for alveolar formation in developing lungs, the intrinsic molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying its role remain largely unknown. By analyzing the Ras-ERK signaling pathway during postnatal development of lungs, we have identified a critical role of DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf)-a dominant-negative antagonist for the Ras-ERK signaling pathway-in alveolar formation. DA-Raf-deficient mice displayed alveolar dysgenesis as a result of the blockade of AMYF differentiation. DA-Raf is predominantly expressed in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) in developing lungs, and DA-Raf-dependent MEK1/2 inhibition in AEC2s suppresses expression of tissue inhibitor of matalloprotienase 4 (TIMP4), which prevents a subsequent proteolytic cascade matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)14-MMP2. Furthermore, MMP14-MMP2 proteolytic cascade regulates AMYF differentiation and alveolar formation. Therefore, DA-Raf-dependent inhibition of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in AEC2s is required for alveolar formation via triggering MMP2 activation followed by AMYF differentiation. These findings reveal a pivotal role of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in the dynamic regulation of alveolar development.

  9. Pulmonary surfactant mitigates silver nanoparticle toxicity in human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Leo, Bey Fen; Chen, Shu; Abraham-Thomas, Nisha; Thorley, Andrew J; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Shaffer, Milo S P; Chung, Kian Fan; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2016-09-01

    Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs.

  10. Organotypic culture of fetal lung type II alveolar epithelial cells: applications to pulmonary toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Shami, S G; Aghajanian, J D; Sanders, R L

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for isolation and culture of fetal Type II alveolar epithelial cells, as well as the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of these histotypic cultures, are described. Type II alveolar epithelial cells can be isolated from fetal rat lungs and grown in an organotypic culture system as described in this review. The fetal Type II cells resemble differentiated rat Type II cells in morphology, biochemistry, and karyotype as they grow in culture for up to 5 weeks. The cells of the mature organotypic cultures form alveolarlike structures while growing on a gelatin sponge matrix. The Type II cells also synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant similar in biochemical composition to that produced in vivo. This system has been used to study the effects of hormones on surfactant production and composition. The organotypic model has many potential applications to the study of pulmonary toxicology. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:6548184

  11. Isolation of Highly Pure Primary Mouse Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells by Flow Cytometric Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Clifford A.

    2017-01-01

    In this protocol, we describe the method for isolating highly pure primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells from lungs of naïve mice. The method combines negative selection for a variety of lineage markers along with positive selection for EpCAM, a pan-epithelial cell marker. This method yields 2-3 × 106 ATII cells per mouse lung. The cell preps are highly pure and viable and can be used for genomic or proteomic analyses or cultured ex vivo to understand their roles in various biological processes. PMID:28180137

  12. Proinflammatory Cytokines Increase Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Maloney, James P; Gao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial permeability mediator that is highly expressed in lung epithelium. In nonlung cells proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase VEGF expression, but their effects on lung epithelium remain unclear. We hypothesized that increases in alveolar epithelial cell VEGF RNA and protein expression occur after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. We tested this using human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) stimulated with 5 proinflammatory cytokines. VEGF RNA expression was increased 1.4-2.7-fold in response to IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, or TGF-β over 6 hours, with TGF-β having the largest response. TNF-α increased VEGF RNA as early as 1 hour. A mix of IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 had effects similar to IL-1. TNF-α increased protein expression as early as 4 hours and had a sustained effect at 16 hours, whereas IL-1 did not increase protein expression. Only VEGF165 was present in cultured A549 cells, yet other isoforms were seen in human lung tissue. Increased expression of VEGF in alveolar epithelial cells occurs in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Increased VEGF expression likely contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases and to the angiogenic phenotype of lung cancer, a disease typically preceded by chronic inflammation.

  13. Plexins function in epithelial repair in both Drosophila and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sa Kan; Pascoe, Heath G.; Pereira, Telmo; Kondo, Shu; Jacinto, Antonio; Zhang, Xuewu; Hariharan, Iswar K.

    2016-01-01

    In most multicellular organisms, homeostasis is contingent upon maintaining epithelial integrity. When unanticipated insults breach epithelial barriers, dormant programmes of tissue repair are immediately activated. However, many of the mechanisms that repair damaged epithelia remain poorly characterized. Here we describe a role for Plexin A (PlexA), a protein with particularly well-characterized roles in axonal pathfinding, in the healing of damaged epithelia in Drosophila. Semaphorins, which are PlexA ligands, also regulate tissue repair. We show that Drosophila PlexA has GAP activity for the Rap1 GTPase, which is known to regulate the stability of adherens junctions. Our observations suggest that the inhibition of Rap1 activity by PlexA in damaged Drosophila epithelia allows epithelial remodelling, thus facilitating wound repair. We also demonstrate a role for Plexin A1, a zebrafish orthologue of Drosophila PlexA, in epithelial repair in zebrafish tail fins. Thus, plexins function in epithelial wound healing in diverse taxa. PMID:27452696

  14. Sepsis impairs alveolar epithelial function by downregulating Na-K-ATPase pump.

    PubMed

    Berger, Gidon; Guetta, Julia; Klorin, Geula; Badarneh, Reem; Braun, Eyal; Brod, Vera; Saleh, Niroz Abu; Katz, Adriana; Bitterman, Haim; Azzam, Zaher S

    2011-07-01

    Widespread vascular endothelial injury is the major mechanism for multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Following this process, the permeability of the alveolar capillaries is augmented with subsequent increase in water content and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nevertheless, the role of alveolar epithelium is less known. Therefore, we examined alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) using isolated perfused rat lung model in septic rats without ARDS. Sepsis was induced by ligating and puncturing the cecum with a 21-gauge needle. AFC was examined 24 and 48 h later. The expression of Na-K-ATPase proteins was examined in type II alveolar epithelial cells (ATII) and basolateral membrane (BLM). The rate of AFC in control rats was 0.51 ± 0.02 ml/h (means ± SE) and decreased to 0.3 ± 0.02 and 0.33 ± 0.03 ml/h in 24 and 48 h after sepsis induction, respectively (P < 0.0001). Amiloride, significantly decreased AFC in sepsis; conversely, isoproterenol reversed the inhibitory effect of sepsis. The alveolar-capillary barrier in septic rats was intact; therefore the finding of increased extravascular lung water in early sepsis could be attributed to accumulation of protein-poor fluid. The expression of epithelial sodium channel and Na-K-ATPase proteins in whole ATII cells was not different in both cecal ligation and puncture and control groups; however, the abundance of Na-K-ATPase proteins was significantly decreased in BLMs of ATII cells in sepsis. Early decrease in AFC in remote sepsis is probably related to endocytosis of the Na-K-ATPase proteins from the cell plasma membrane into intracellular pools, with resultant inhibition of active sodium transport in ATII cells.

  15. Secretion of IL-13 by airway epithelial cells enhances epithelial repair via HB-EGF.

    PubMed

    Allahverdian, Sima; Harada, Norihiro; Singhera, Gurpreet K; Knight, Darryl A; Dorscheid, Delbert R

    2008-02-01

    Inappropriate repair after injury to the epithelium generates persistent activation, which may contribute to airway remodeling. In the present study we hypothesized that IL-13 is a normal mediator of airway epithelial repair. Mechanical injury of confluent airway epithelial cell (AEC) monolayers induced expression and release of IL-13 in a time-dependent manner coordinate with repair. Neutralizing of IL-13 secreted from injured epithelial cells by shIL-13Ralpha2.FC significantly reduced epithelial repair. Moreover, exogenous IL-13 enhanced epithelial repair and induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation. We examined secretion of two EGFR ligands, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), after mechanical injury. Our data showed a sequential release of the EGF and HB-EGF by AEC after injury. Interestingly, we found that IL-13 induces HB-EGF, but not EGF, synthesis and release from AEC. IL-13-induced EGFR phosphorylation and the IL-13-reparative effect on AEC are mediated via HB-EGF. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by tyrphostin AG1478 increases IL-13 release after injury, suggesting negative feedback between EGFR and IL-13 during repair. Our data, for the first time, showed that IL-13 plays an important role in epithelial repair, and that its effect is mediated through the autocrine release of HB-EGF and activation of EGFR. Dysregulation of EGFR phosphorylation may contribute to a persistent repair phenotype and chronically increased IL-13 release, and in turn result in airway remodeling.

  16. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  17. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tissue repair and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Rivka C; Pastar, Irena; Ojeh, Nkemcho; Chen, Vivien; Liu, Sophia; Garzon, Karen I; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the global process by which stationary epithelial cells undergo phenotypic changes, including the loss of cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity, and acquire mesenchymal characteristics that confer migratory capacity. EMT and its converse, MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition), are integral stages of many physiologic processes and, as such, are tightly coordinated by a host of molecular regulators. Converging lines of evidence have identified EMT as a component of cutaneous wound healing, during which otherwise stationary keratinocytes (the resident skin epithelial cells) migrate across the wound bed to restore the epidermal barrier. Moreover, EMT plays a role in the development of scarring and fibrosis, as the matrix-producing myofibroblasts arise from cells of the epithelial lineage in response to injury but are pathologically sustained instead of undergoing MET or apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the role of EMT in physiologic repair and pathologic fibrosis of tissues and organs. We conclude that further investigation into the contribution of EMT to the faulty repair of fibrotic wounds might identify components of EMT signaling as common therapeutic targets for impaired healing in many tissues. Graphical Abstract Model for injury-triggered EMT activation in physiologic wound repair (left) and fibrotic wound healing (right).

  18. Wound repair: role of immune–epithelial interactions

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, G; Neumann, P-A; Sumagin, R; Denning, TL; Nusrat, A

    2016-01-01

    The epithelium serves as a highly selective barrier at mucosal surfaces. Upon injury, epithelial wound closure is orchestrated by a series of events that emanate from the epithelium itself as well as by the temporal recruitment of immune cells into the wound bed. Epithelial cells adjoining the wound flatten out, migrate, and proliferate to rapidly cover denuded surfaces and re-establish mucosal homeostasis. This process is highly regulated by proteins and lipids, proresolving mediators such as Annexin A1 protein and resolvins released into the epithelial milieu by the epithelium itself and infiltrating innate immune cells including neutrophils and macrophages. Failure to achieve these finely tuned processes is observed in chronic inflammatory diseases that are associated with non-healing wounds. An improved understanding of mechanisms that mediate repair is important in the development of therapeutics aimed to promote mucosal wound repair. PMID:26174765

  19. Effects of lipopolysaccharide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and the combination on lung alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacurari, M; May, I; Tchounwou, PB

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to induce lung fibrosis in animal models, however the underlying molecular factors/mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), MWCNT, and the combination of LPS and MWCNT on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-9, MMP-12), collagen 3A1 (Col3A1), and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. MMPs are proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix and play a role in lung fibrosis. A549 cells were exposed to LPS (1 ng/ml), MWCNT (20 μg/ml), and the combination and analyzed for paracellular permeability, TGFβ, Col3A1, MMP-9, MMP-12, NF-κB activation, and cell migration by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. LPS, the combination of LPS and MWCNT, and MWCNT only at the highest tested dose induced blue dextran extravation. LPS and MWCNT increased the expression of TGFβ and its downstream target gene Col3A, and MMP-9 and MMP-12 mRNA. MWCNT potently induced cell migration toward wound healing, whereas LPS slightly induced cell migration. Both, LPS and MWCNT, induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. Our results indicate that MWCNT activated alveolar epithelial cells to promote fibrogenesis, and that LPS differentially primes molecular factors involved in lung remodeling. These findings suggest a role of alveolar epithelial cells in fibrogenesis and also may aid in the design and development of tests for screening of fibrogenic agents. PMID:26880698

  20. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  1. Airway epithelial cell wound repair mediated by alpha-dystroglycan.

    PubMed

    White, S R; Wojcik, K R; Gruenert, D; Sun, S; Dorscheid, D R

    2001-02-01

    Dystroglycans (DGs) bind laminin matrix proteins in skeletal and cardiac muscle and are expressed in other nonmuscle tissues. However, their expression in airway epithelial cells has not been demonstrated. We examined expression of DGs in the human airway epithelial cell line 1HAEo(-), and in human primary airway epithelial cells. Expression of the common gene for alpha- and beta-DG was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase/ polymerase chain reaction in 1HAEo(-) cells. Protein expression of beta-DG was demonstrated by both Western blot and flow cytometry in cultured cells. Localization of alpha-DG, using both a monoclonal antibody and the alpha-DG binding lectin wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA), was to the cell membrane and nucleus. We then examined the function of DGs in modulating wound repair over laminin matrix. Blocking alpha-DG binding to laminin in 1HAEo(-) monolayers using either glycosyaminoglycans or WGA attenuated cell migration and spreading after mechanical injury. alpha-DG was not expressed in epithelial cells at the wound edge immediately after wound creation, but localized to the cell membrane in these cells within 12 h of injury. These data demonstrate the presence of DGs in airway epithelium. alpha-DG is dynamically expressed and serves as a lectin to bind laminin during airway epithelial cell repair.

  2. Coactivator-Associated Arginine Methyltransferase-1 Function in Alveolar Epithelial Senescence and Elastase-Induced Emphysema Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Rim S J; John-Schuster, Gerrit; Bohla, Alexander; Mutze, Kathrin; Burgstaller, Gerald; Bedford, Mark T; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Yildirim, Ali Ö

    2015-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an irreversible loss of lung function and is one of the most prevalent and severe diseases worldwide. A major feature of COPD is emphysema, which is the progressive loss of alveolar tissue. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase-1 (CARM1) regulates histone methylation and the transcription of genes involved in senescence, proliferation, and differentiation. Complete loss of CARM1 leads to disrupted differentiation and maturation of alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells. We thus hypothesized that CARM1 regulates the development and progression of emphysema. To address this, we investigated the contribution of CARM1 to alveolar rarefication using the mouse model of elastase-induced emphysema in vivo and small interfering (si)RNA-mediated knockdown in ATII-like LA4 cells in vitro. We demonstrate that emphysema progression in vivo is associated with a time-dependent down-regulation of CARM1. Importantly, elastase-treated CARM1 haploinsufficient mice show significantly increased airspace enlargement (52.5 ± 9.6 μm versus 38.8 ± 5.5 μm; P < 0.01) and lung compliance (2.8 ± 0.32 μl/cm H2O versus 2.4 ± 0.4 μl/cm H2O; P < 0.04) compared with controls. The knockdown of CARM1 in LA4 cells led to decreased sirtuin 1 expression (0.034 ± 0.003 versus 0.022 ± 0.001; P < 0.05) but increased expression of p16 (0.27 ± 0.013 versus 0.31 ± 0.010; P < 0.5) and p21 (0.81 ± 0.088 versus 1.28 ± 0.063; P < 0.01) and higher β-galactosidase-positive senescent cells (50.57 ± 7.36% versus 2.21 ± 0.34%; P < 0.001) compared with scrambled siRNA. We further demonstrated that CARM1 haploinsufficiency impairs transdifferentiation and wound healing (32.18 ± 0.9512% versus 8.769 ± 1.967%; P < 0.001) of alveolar epithelial cells. Overall, these results reveal a novel function of CARM1 in regulating emphysema development

  3. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Its Application in Alveolar Defect Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Jiawen, Si; Jianjun, Zhang; Jiewen, Dai; Dedong, Yu; Hongbo, Yu; Jun, Shi; Xudong, Wang; Shen, Steve G.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the detailed in vitro osteogenic differentiation process and in vivo bone regenerative property of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs). The in vitro osteogenic differentiation process of hAECs was evaluated by biochemical staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence. Next, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds alone or loaded with hAECs were implanted into the alveolar defects of rats. Micro-computed tomography evaluation and histologic studies were conducted. Our results validated the in vitro osteogenic capacity of hAECs by upregulation of Runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, collagen I, and osteopontin, with positive biochemical staining for osteoblasts. An epithelial-mesenchymal transformation process might be involved in the osteogenic differentiation of hAECs by increased expression of transforming growth factor-β1. Our data also demonstrated that in vivo implantation of hAECs loaded on β-TCP scaffolds, not only improved bone regeneration by direct participation, but also reduced the early host immune response to the scaffolds. The presented data indicate that hAECs possess proper osteogenic differentiation potential and a modulatory influence on the early tissue remodeling process, making these cells a potential source of progenitor cells for clinical restoration of the alveolar defect. PMID:25368378

  4. S-carboxymethylcysteine inhibits adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae to human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of respiratory infections that utilizes platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) for firm adherence to host cells. The mucolytic agent S-carboxymethylcysteine (S-CMC) has been shown to exert inhibitory effects against infection by several respiratory pathogens including S. pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, clinical studies have implicated the benefits of S-CMC in preventing exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is considered to be related to respiratory infections. In this study, to assess whether the potency of S-CMC is attributable to inhibition of pneumococcal adherence to host cells, an alveolar epithelial cell line stimulated with interleukin-1α was used as a model of inflamed epithelial cells. Despite upregulation of PAFR by inflammatory activation, treatment with S-CMC efficiently inhibited pneumococcal adherence to host epithelial cells. In order to gain insight into the inhibitory mechanism, the effects of S-CMC on PAFR expression were also investigated. Following treatment with S-CMC, PAFR expression was reduced at both mRNA and post-transcriptional levels. Interestingly, S-CMC was also effective in inhibiting pneumococcal adherence to cells transfected with PAFR small interfering RNAs. These results indicate S-CMC as a probable inhibitor targeting numerous epithelial receptors that interact with S. pneumoniae.

  5. The common anesthetic, sevoflurane, induces apoptosis in A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Juan; Liao, Da-Qing; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Jing; Luo, Nan-Fu; Gu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lung alveolar epithelial cells are the first barrier exposed to volatile anesthetics, such as sevoflurane, prior to reaching the targeted neuronal cells. Previously, the effects of volatile anesthetics on lung surfactant were studied primarily with physicochemical models and there has been little experimental data from cell cultures. Therefore it was investigated whether sevoflurane induces apoptosis of A549 lung epithelial cells. A549 cells were exposed to sevoflurane via a calibrated vaporizer with a 2 l/min flow in a gas‑tight chamber at 37˚C. The concentration of sevoflurane in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium was detected with gas chromatography. Untreated cells and cells treated with 2 µM daunorubicin hydrochloride (DRB) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Apoptosis factors, including the level of ATP, apoptotic‑bodies by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA damage and the level of caspase 3/7 were analyzed. Cells treated with sevoflurane showed a significant reduction in ATP compared with untreated cells. Effects in the DRB group were greater than in the sevoflurane group. The difference of TUNEL staining between the sevoflurane and untreated groups was statistically significant. DNA degradation was observed in the sevoflurane and DRB groups, however this was not observed in the untreated group. The sevoflurane and DRB groups induced increased caspase 3/7 activation compared with untreated cells. These results suggest that sevoflurane induces apoptosis in A549 cells. In conclusion, 5% sevoflurane induced apoptosis of A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells, which resulted in decreased cell viability, increased apoptotic bodies, impaired DNA integrality and increased levels of caspase 3/7.

  6. Sex-specific effects of sex steroids on alveolar epithelial Na(+) transport.

    PubMed

    Haase, Melanie; Laube, Mandy; Thome, Ulrich H

    2017-03-01

    Alveolar fluid clearance mediates perinatal lung transition to air breathing in newborn infants, which is accomplished by epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) and Na-K-ATPase. Male sex represents a major risk factor for developing respiratory distress, especially in preterm infants. We previously showed that male sex is associated with reduced epithelial Na(+) transport, possibly contributing to the sexual dimorphism in newborn respiratory distress. This study aimed to determine sex-specific effects of sex steroids on epithelial Na(+) transport. The effects of testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and progesterone on Na(+) transport and Na(+) channel expression were determined in fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells of male and female rat fetuses by Ussing chamber and mRNA expression analyses. DHT showed a minor effect only in male FDLE cells by decreasing epithelial Na(+) transport. However, flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, did not abolish the gender imbalance, and testosterone lacked any effect on Na(+) transport in male and female FDLE cells. In contrast, estradiol and progesterone increased Na(+) transport and Na(+) channel expression especially in females, and prevented the inhibiting effect of DHT in males. Estrogen receptor inhibition decreased Na(+) channel expression and eliminated the sex differences. In conclusion, female sex steroids stimulate Na(+) transport especially in females and prevent the inhibitory effect of DHT in males. The ineffectiveness of testosterone suggests that Na(+) transport is largely unaffected by androgens. Thus, the higher responsiveness of female cells to female sex steroids explains the higher Na(+) transport activity, possibly leading to a functional advantage in females.

  7. Environmental Particulate (PM2.5) Augments Stiffness-Induced Alveolar Epithelial Cell Mechanoactivation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta

    PubMed Central

    Dysart, Marilyn M.; Galvis, Boris R.; Russell, Armistead G.; Barker, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional pulmonary homeostasis and repair, including diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tumorigenesis have been increasing over the past decade, a fact that heavily implicates environmental influences. Several investigations have suggested that in response to increased transforming growth factor - beta (TGFβ) signaling, the alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cell undergoes phenotypic changes that may contribute to the complex pathobiology of PF. We have previously demonstrated that increased tissue stiffness associated with PF is a potent extracellular matrix (ECM) signal for epithelial cell activation of TGFβ. The work reported here explores the relationship between tissue stiffness and exposure to environmental stimuli in the activation of TGFβ. We hypothesized that exposure of ATII cells to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) will result in enhanced cell contractility, TGFβ activation, and subsequent changes to ATII cell phenotype. ATII cells were cultured on increasingly stiff substrates with or without addition of PM2.5. Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in increased activation of TGFβ, increased cell contractility, and elongation of ATII cells. Most notably, on 8 kPa substrates, a stiffness greater than normal but less than established fibrotic lung, addition of PM2.5 resulted in increased cortical cell stiffness, enhanced actin staining and cell elongation; a result not seen in the absence of PM2.5. Our work suggests that PM2.5 exposure additionally enhances the existing interaction between ECM stiffness and TGFβ that has been previously reported. Furthermore, we show that this additional enhancement is likely a consequence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased TGFβ signaling events. These results highlight the importance of both the micromechanical and biochemical environment in lung disease initiation and suggest that individuals in early stages of lung remodeling

  8. Combinations of differentiation markers distinguish subpopulations of alveolar epithelial cells in adult lung

    PubMed Central

    Marconett, Crystal N.; Juul, Nicholas; Wang, Hongjun; Liu, Yixin; Flodby, Per; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.; Minoo, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Distal lung epithelium is maintained by proliferation of alveolar type II (AT2) cells and, for some daughter AT2 cells, transdifferentiation into alveolar type I (AT1) cells. We investigated if subpopulations of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) exist that represent various stages in transdifferentiation from AT2 to AT1 cell phenotypes in normal adult lung and if they can be identified using combinations of cell-specific markers. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that, in distal rat and mouse lungs, ∼20–30% of NKX2.1+ (or thyroid transcription factor 1+) cells did not colocalize with pro-surfactant protein C (pro-SP-C), a highly specific AT2 cell marker. In distal rat lung, NKX2.1+ cells coexpressed either pro-SP-C or the AT1 cell marker homeodomain only protein x (HOPX). Not all HOPX+ cells colocalize with the AT1 cell marker aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and some AQP5+ cells were NKX2.1+. HOPX was expressed earlier than AQP5 during transdifferentiation in rat AEC primary culture, with robust expression of both by day 7. We speculate that NKX2.1 and pro-SP-C colocalize in AT2 cells, NKX2.1 and HOPX or AQP5 colocalize in intermediate or transitional cells, and HOPX and AQP5 are expressed without NKX2.1 in AT1 cells. These findings suggest marked heterogeneity among cells previously identified as exclusively AT1 or AT2 cells, implying the presence of subpopulations of intermediate or transitional AEC in normal adult lung. PMID:26545903

  9. Distribution characteristics of grepafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, in lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophage.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Sun, Jin; Tauchi, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Shigeko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Grepafloxacin (GPFX), a new quinolone antimicrobial agent, in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and the alveolar macrophage (AM) in rats, which are potential infection sites in respiratory tract infections. We also aimed to clarify the mechanism governing the transferability of GPFX into the alveolus compartment from a kinetic point of view. The AUC ratios of ELF/plasma and AM/plasma after the oral administration of GPFX were 5.69 +/- 1.00 and 352 +/- 57, respectively, which were several-fold greater than those of ciprofloxacin (CPFX). Pharmacokinetic analyses of time profiles of GPFX concentrations in ELF and AM revealed that the influx clearance from plasma to ELF across the alveolar barrier is 5-fold greater than the efflux clearance from ELF. In addition, the permeability of GPFX across the cultured AM cell membrane was 7-fold and 11-fold greater than that of levofloxacin (LVFX) and CPFX, respectively. The extent of intracellular binding to AM cells (expressed as a constant (alpha)) was the greatest for GPFX, followed by CPFX and LVFX. There was a significant correlation between the alpha value and the partitioning to the immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) column, which consists of phospholipid residues covalently bound to silica. These results suggest that GPFX is highly distributed in ELF and AM, and that the high transferability of GPFX into ELF may be attributable to the existence of asymmetrical transport across the alveolar barrier. In addition, it was suggested that both rapid permeability across the AM cell membrane and avid binding to the membrane phospholipids may be responsible for the high accumulation of GPFX in AM.

  10. Proteolysis of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 in alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, U J; Malek, S K; Liu, L; Li, H L

    1999-10-01

    Synaptobrevin-2, syntaxin-1, and SNAP-25 were identified in rat alveolar epithelial type II cells by Western blot analysis. Synaptobrevin-2 was localized in the lamellar bodies, and syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 were found in 0.4% Nonidet P40-soluble and -insoluble fractions, respectively, of the type II cells. When the isolated type II cells were stimulated for secretion with calcium ionophore A23187 or with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, these proteins were found to have been proteolyzed. Preincubation of cells with calpain inhibitor II (N-acetylleucylleucylmethionine), however, prevented the proteolysis. Treatment of the cell lysate with exogenous calpain resulted in a time-dependent decrease of these proteins. The data suggest that synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 are subject to proteolytic modification by activated calpain in intact type II cells stimulated for secretion.

  11. Sustained distribution of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in epithelial lining fluids on alveolar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Keita; Togami, Kohei; Yamamoto, Eri; Wang, Shujun; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Itagaki, Shirou; Chono, Sumio

    2016-10-01

    The distribution characteristics of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were examined in rats, and the ensuing mechanisms were investigated in the in vitro uptake and protein adsorption experiments. Nonmodified or PEGylated liposomes (particle size 100 nm) were aerosolized into rat lungs. PEGylated liposomes were distributed more sustainably in ELFs than nonmodified liposomes. Furthermore, the uptake of PEGylated liposomes by alveolar macrophages (AMs) was less than that of nonmodified liposomes. In further in vitro uptake experiments, nonmodified and PEGylated liposomes were opsonized with rat ELF components and then added to NR8383 cells as cultured rat AMs. The uptake of opsonized PEGylated liposomes by NR8383 cells was lower than that of opsonized nonmodified liposomes. Moreover, the protein absorption levels in opsonized PEGylated liposomes were lower than those in opsonized nonmodified liposomes. These findings suggest that sustained distributions of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in ELFs reflect evasion of liposomal opsonization with surfactant proteins and consequent reductions in uptake by AMs. These data indicate the potential of PEGylated liposomes as aerosol-based drug delivery system that target ELF for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  12. Oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; Aerts, C; Gressier, B; Gosset, P; Voisin, C

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of guinea pig alveolar epithelial type II cells to generate significant amounts of reactive oxygen species to inactivate alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI). Inactivation of alpha 1-PI was evaluated by its inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic elastase and was expressed as a percentage. The same experiments were performed in parallel with alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from the same animals and with MRC-5 fibroblasts. Both type II cells and AM released significant amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, whereas the fibroblasts did not. Unstimulated type II cells (0.5 +/- 2%), AM (1.2 +/- 1.5%), and fibroblasts (0.5 +/- 0.5%) were unable to inactivate alpha 1-PI. Addition of phorbol myristate acetate did not increase their ability to inactivate alpha 1-PI. In contrast, type II cells (79.7 +/- 7%) and AM (80.1 +/- 8%) dramatically inactivated alpha 1-PI in the presence of myeloperoxidase (25 mU/ml), whereas fibroblasts did not. Addition of catalase to the reaction significantly prevented the inactivation of alpha 1-PI. Western blot analysis of alpha 1-PI did not reveal a significant proteolysis of alpha 1-PI, which supports the hypothesis that, in the presence of neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase, type II cells may oxidatively inactivate alpha 1-PI.

  13. Influenza Virus Infects Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells of the Distal Lung: Impact on Fgfr2b-Driven Epithelial Repair

    PubMed Central

    Quantius, Jennifer; Schmoldt, Carole; Vazquez-Armendariz, Ana I.; Becker, Christin; El Agha, Elie; Wilhelm, Jochen; Morty, Rory E.; Vadász, István; Mayer, Konstantin; Gattenloehner, Stefan; Fink, Ludger; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Li, Xiaokun; Seeger, Werner; Lohmeyer, Juergen; Bellusci, Saverio; Herold, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Influenza Virus (IV) pneumonia is associated with severe damage of the lung epithelium and respiratory failure. Apart from efficient host defense, structural repair of the injured epithelium is crucial for survival of severe pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms underlying stem/progenitor cell mediated regenerative responses are not well characterized. In particular, the impact of IV infection on lung stem cells and their regenerative responses remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that a highly pathogenic IV infects various cell populations in the murine lung, but displays a strong tropism to an epithelial cell subset with high proliferative capacity, defined by the signature EpCamhighCD24lowintegrin(α6)high. This cell fraction expressed the stem cell antigen-1, highly enriched lung stem/progenitor cells previously characterized by the signature integrin(β4)+CD200+, and upregulated the p63/krt5 regeneration program after IV-induced injury. Using 3-dimensional organoid cultures derived from these epithelial stem/progenitor cells (EpiSPC), and in vivo infection models including transgenic mice, we reveal that their expansion, barrier renewal and outcome after IV-induced injury critically depended on Fgfr2b signaling. Importantly, IV infected EpiSPC exhibited severely impaired renewal capacity due to IV-induced blockade of β-catenin-dependent Fgfr2b signaling, evidenced by loss of alveolar tissue repair capacity after intrapulmonary EpiSPC transplantation in vivo. Intratracheal application of exogenous Fgf10, however, resulted in increased engagement of non-infected EpiSPC for tissue regeneration, demonstrated by improved proliferative potential, restoration of alveolar barrier function and increased survival following IV pneumonia. Together, these data suggest that tropism of IV to distal lung stem cell niches represents an important factor of pathogenicity and highlight impaired Fgfr2b signaling as underlying mechanism. Furthermore, increase of alveolar Fgf10

  14. Effect of cigarette smoke and dexamethasone on Hsp72 system of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gál, Krisztina; Cseh, Aron; Szalay, Balázs; Rusai, Krisztina; Vannay, Adám; Lukácsovits, József; Heemann, Uwe; Szabó, Attila J; Losonczy, György; Tamási, Lilla; Müller, Veronika

    2011-07-01

    Smoking is the leading risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Corticosteroids are abundantly used in these patients; however, the interaction of smoking and steroid treatment is not fully understood. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) play a central role in the maintenance of cell integrity, apoptosis and cellular steroid action. To better understand cigarette smoke-steroid interaction, we examined the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and/or dexamethasone (DEX) on changes of intracellular heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) in lung cells. Alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to increasing doses (0; 0.1; 1; and 10 μM/μl) of DEX in the medium in the absence(C) and presence of CSE. Apoptosis, necrosis, Hsp72 messenger-ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of cells were measured, and the role of Hsp72 on steroid effect examined. CSE reduced the number of viable cells by significantly increasing the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells. DEX dose-dependently decreased the ratio of apoptosis when CSE was administered, without change in necrosis. CSE - DEX co-treatment dose-dependently increased Hsp72 mRNA and protein expression, with the highest level measured in CSE + DEX (10) cells, while significantly lower levels were noted in all respective C groups. Pretreatment with Hsp72 silencing RNA confirmed that increased survival observed following DEX administration in CSE-treated cells was mainly mediated via the Hsp72 system. CSE significantly decreases cell survival by inducing apoptosis and necrosis. DEX significantly increases Hsp72 mRNA and protein expression only in the presence of CSE resulting in increased cellular protection and survival. DEX exerts its cell protective effects by decreasing apoptotic cell death via the Hsp72 system in CSE-treated alveolar epithelial cells.

  15. Male Sex is Associated with a Reduced Alveolar Epithelial Sodium Transport

    PubMed Central

    Kaltofen, Till; Haase, Melanie; Thome, Ulrich H.; Laube, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the most frequent pulmonary complication in preterm infants. RDS incidence differs between genders, which has been called the male disadvantage. Besides maturation of the surfactant system, Na+ transport driven alveolar fluid clearance is crucial for the prevention of RDS. Na+ transport is mediated by the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and the Na,K-ATPase, therefore potential differences in their expression or activity possibly contribute to the gender imbalance observed in RDS. Fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells of rat fetuses were separated by sex and analyzed regarding expression and activity of the Na+ transporters. Ussing chamber experiments showed a higher baseline short-circuit current (ISC) and amiloride-sensitive ΔISC in FDLE cells of female origin. In addition, maximal amiloride-sensitive ΔISC and maximal ouabain-sensitive ΔISC of female cells were higher when measured in the presence of a permeabilized basolateral or apical membrane, respectively. The number of FDLE cells per fetus recoverable during cell isolation was also significantly higher in females. In addition, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was lower in fetal and newborn female pups. Female derived FDLE cells had higher mRNA levels of the ENaC- and Na,K-ATPase subunits. Furthermore, estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA levels were higher in female cells, which might render female cells more responsive, while concentrations of placenta-derived sex steroids do not differ between both genders during fetal life. Inhibition of ER-β abolished the sex differences in Na+ transport and female cells were more responsive to estradiol stimulation. In conclusion, a higher alveolar Na+ transport, possibly attributable to a higher expression of hormone receptors in female FDLE cells, provides an explanation for the well known sex-related difference in RDS occurrence and outcome. PMID:26291531

  16. Asbestos causes apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells: role of iron-induced free radicals.

    PubMed

    Aljandali, A; Pollack, H; Yeldandi, A; Li, Y; Weitzman, S A; Kamp, D W

    2001-05-01

    Asbestos causes asbestosis and malignancies by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury by iron-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one important mechanism. To determine whether asbestos causes apoptosis in AECs, we exposed WI-26 (human type I-like cells), A549 (human type II-like cells), and rat alveolar type II cells to amosite asbestos and assessed apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, nuclear morphology, annexin V staining, DNA nucleosome formation, and caspase 3 activation. In contrast to control medium and TiO2, amosite asbestos and H2O2 each caused AEC apoptosis. A role for iron-catalyzed ROS was suggested by the finding that asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis and caspase 3 activation were each attenuated by either an iron chelator (phytic acid and deferoxamine) or a.OH scavenger (dimethyl-thiourea, salicylate, and sodium benzoate) but not by iron-loaded phytic acid. To determine whether asbestos causes apoptosis in vivo, rats received a single intratracheal instillation of amosite (5 mg) or normal saline solution, and apoptosis in epithelial cells in the bronchoalveolar duct regions was assessed by TUNEL staining. One week after exposure, amosite asbestos caused a 3-fold increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bronchoalveolar duct regions as compared with control (control, 2.1% +/- 0.35%; asbestos, 7.61% +/- 0.15%; n = 3). However, by 4 weeks the number of apoptotic cells was similar to control. We conclude that asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity may partly be caused by apoptosis in the lung epithelium that is mediated by iron-catalyzed ROS and caspase 3 activation.

  17. Influenza induces IL-8 and GM-CSF secretion by human alveolar epithelial cells through HGF/c-Met and TGF-α/EGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoko; Correll, Kelly; Zemans, Rachel L; Leslie, Christina C; Murphy, Robert C; Mason, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    The most severe complication of influenza is viral pneumonia, which can lead to the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) are the first cells that influenza virus encounters upon entering the alveolus. Infected epithelial cells produce cytokines that attract and activate neutrophils and macrophages, which in turn induce damage to the epithelial-endothelial barrier. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α)/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are well known to regulate repair of damaged alveolar epithelium by stimulating cell migration and proliferation. Recently, TGF-α/EGFR signaling has also been shown to regulate innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells. However, little is known about whether HGF/c-Met signaling alters the innate immune responses and whether the innate immune responses in AECs are regulated by HGF/c-Met and TGF-α/EGFR. We hypothesized that HGF/c-Met and TGF-α/EGFR would regulate innate immune responses to influenza A virus infection in human AECs. We found that recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) and rhTGF-α stimulated primary human AECs to secrete IL-8 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) strongly and IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 moderately. Influenza infection stimulated the secretion of IL-8 and GM-CSF by AECs plated on rat-tail collagen through EGFR activation likely by TGF-α released from AECs and through c-Met activated by HGF secreted from lung fibroblasts. HGF secretion by fibroblasts was stimulated by AEC production of prostaglandin E2 during influenza infection. We conclude that HGF/c-Met and TGF-α/EGFR signaling enhances the innate immune responses by human AECs during influenza infections.

  18. Cigarette smoke augments asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell injury: role of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Kamp, D W; Greenberger, M J; Sbalchierro, J S; Preusen, S E; Weitzman, S A

    1998-10-01

    Cigarette smoke augments asbestos-induced bronchogenic carcinoma by mechanisms that are not established. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury due to oxidant-induced DNA damage and depletion of glutathione (GSH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may be one important mechanism. We previously showed that amosite asbestos-induces hydroxyl radical production and DNA damage to cultured AEC and that phytic acid, an iron chelator, is protective. We hypothesized that whole cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) augment amosite asbestos-induced AEC injury by generating iron-induced free radicals that damage DNA and reduce cellular GSH and ATP levels. Asbestos or CSE each caused dose-dependent toxicity to AEC (WI-26 and rat alveolar type I-like cells) as assessed by 51chromium release. The combination of asbestos (5 microg/cm2) and CSE (0.O1-0.1%) caused synergistic injury whereas higher doses of each agent primarily had an additive toxic effect. Asbestos (5 microg/cm2) augmented CSE-induced (0.01-1.0%) AEC DNA damage over a 4 h exposure period as assessed by an alkaline unwinding, ethidium bromide fluorometric technique. These effects were synergistic in A549 cells and additive in WI-26 cells. Asbestos (5 microg/cm2) and CSE (0.5-1.0%) reduced A549 and WI-26 cell GSH levels as assessed spectrophotometrically and ATP levels as assessed by luciferin/luciferase chemiluminescence but a synergistic interaction was not detected. Phytic acid (500 microM) and catalase (100 microg/ml) each attenuated A549 cell DNA damage and depletion of ATP caused by asbestos and CSE. However, neither agent attenuated WI-26 cell DNA damage nor the reductions in GSH levels in WI-26 and A549 cells exposed to asbestos and CSE. We conclude that CSE enhance asbestos-induced DNA damage in cultured alveolar epithelial cells. These data provide additional support that asbestos and cigarette smoke are genotoxic to relevant target cells in the lung and that iron-induced free radicals may in part cause these effects.

  19. Nanomaterial interactions with and trafficking across the lung alveolar epithelial barrier: implications for health effects of air-pollution particles

    PubMed Central

    Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Fazllolahi, Farnoosh; Kim, Yong Ho; Sipos, Arnold; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the health effects of air-pollution particles suggest that injury may result from inhalation of airborne ultrafine particles (<100 nm in diameter). Engineered nanomaterials (<100 nm in at least one dimension) may also be harmful if inhaled. Nanomaterials deposited on the respiratory epithelial tract are thought to cross the air-blood barrier, especially via the expansive alveolar region, into the systemic circulation to reach end organs (e.g., myocardium, liver, pancreas, kidney, and spleen). Since ambient ultrafine particles are difficult to track, studies of defined engineered nanomaterials have been used to obtain valuable information on how nanomaterials interact with and traffic across the air-blood barrier of mammalian lungs. Since specific mechanistic information on how nanomaterials interact with the lung is difficult to obtain using in vivo or ex vivo lungs due to their complex anatomy, in vitro alveolar epithelial models have been of considerable value in determining nanomaterial-lung interactions. In this review, we provide information on mechanisms underlying lung alveolar epithelial injury caused by various nanomaterials and on nanomaterial trafficking across alveolar epithelium that may lead to end-organ injury. PMID:25568662

  20. Effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase on alveolar epithelial permeability in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Azghani, A.O.; Connelly, J.C.; Peterson, B.T.; Gray, L.D.; Collins, M.L.; Johnson, A.R. )

    1990-02-01

    Elastase-deficient mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are less virulent than the wild type and are easily cleared from the lungs of guinea pigs. The effect of P. aeruginosa elastase on lung epithelium, however, is not yet understood. We addressed the hypothesis that breach of the epithelial barrier by elastase from P. aeruginosa allows invading organisms and toxic substances to penetrate the interstitium. We measured the clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled albumin (molecular weight, 69,000) from the lungs of anesthetized guinea pigs with the aid of a gamma camera and a dedicated computer. Aerosols of the elastase (0.1 to 5 micrograms) increased the rate of clearance of labeled albumin from the lungs in proportion to the elastase dose. Electron microscopic studies using horseradish peroxidase as a tracer revealed that elastase interrupts intercellular tight junctions of the epithelial lining, thereby increasing the permeability to macromolecules. The amounts of elastase used in this report did not cause interstitial or alveolar edema, as determined by both postmortem extravascular lung water volume measurement and morphological examination. The data indicate that the elastase is a potentially important virulence factor in acute lung infection.

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis induces cytopathic effect on human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Membreve, Daile Meek C; Jacinto, Sonia D; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis is generally known to inhabit the genitourinary tract. However, several case reports with supporting molecular and immunological identifications have documented its occurrence in the respiratory tract of neonates and adults. In addition, the reports have documented that its occurrence is associated with respiratory failures. The medical significance or consequence of this association is unclear. Thus, to establish the possible outcome from the interaction of T. vaginalis with lung cells, the cytopathic effects of the parasites were evaluated using monolayer cultures of the human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The possible effect of association of T. vaginalis with A549 epithelial cells was analyzed using phase-contrast, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), crystal-violet and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assays were conducted for cytotoxicity testing. The results demonstrate that T. vaginalis: (1) adheres to A549 epithelial cells, suggesting a density-dependent parasite-cell association; (2) adherence on A549 is through flagella, membrane and axostyle; (3) causes cell detachment and cytotoxicity (50-72.4%) to A549 and this effect is a function of parasite density; and (4) induces apoptosis in A549 about 20% after 6 h of incubation. These observations indicate that T. vaginalis causes cytopathic effects on A549 cell. To date, this is the first report showing a possible interaction of T. vaginalis with the lung cells using A549 monolayer cultures. Further studies are recommended to completely elucidate this association.

  2. Cigarette smoke inhibits alveolar repair: a mechanism for the development of emphysema.

    PubMed

    Rennard, Stephen I; Togo, Shinsaku; Holz, Olaf

    2006-11-01

    Classically, emphysema has been believed to develop when mediators of tissue injury exceed protective mechanisms within the lung. Evidence also supports the concept that tissue destruction represents a balance between tissue injury and tissue repair. In this context, cigarette smoke is directly toxic to cells within the lung and can impair the repair functions of fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and mesenchymal cells. This may occur in the absence of overt cytotoxicity and may result from alteration of selected biochemical pathways. A variety of repair functions can be affected, including chemotaxis, proliferation, production of extracellular matrix, and remodeling of extracellular matrix. Finally, cigarette smoke can damage DNA but can also compromise apoptosis. As a result, DNA repair mechanisms can be initiated, leading to recovery of cells that potentially contain somatic cell mutations. This pathway may contribute not only to the development of cancer but to the persistent abnormalities in tissue structure that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate normal tissue repair and understanding the bases for altered tissue repair in the face of cigarette smoking offer new opportunities designed to address the structural alterations that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    PubMed

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2-5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  4. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    PubMed Central

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  5. Protandim does not influence alveolar epithelial permeability or intrapulmonary oxidative stress in human subjects with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Ellen L; McCord, Joe M; Bose, Swapan; Brown, Lou Ann S; House, Robert; Moss, Marc; Gaydos, Jeanette

    2012-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol abuse and dependence, have been linked to the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Prior clinical investigations suggested an association between AUDs and abnormal alveolar epithelial permeability mediated through pulmonary oxidative stress that may partially explain this relationship. We sought to determine if correcting pulmonary oxidative stress in the setting of AUDs would normalize alveolar epithelial permeability in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Protandim, a nutraceutical reported to enhance antioxidant activity. We randomized 30 otherwise healthy AUD subjects to receive directly observed inpatient oral therapy with either Protandim (1,350 mg/day) or placebo. Subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood sampling before study drug administration and after 7 days of therapy; all AUD subjects completed the study protocol without adverse events. BAL total protein was measured at each timepoint as an indicator of alveolar epithelial permeability. In subjects with AUDs, before study drug initiation, BAL total protein values were not significantly higher than in 11 concurrently enrolled controls (P = 0.07). Over the 7-day study period, AUD subjects did not exhibit a significant change in BAL total protein, regardless of their randomization to Protandim {n = 14, -2% [intraquartile range (IQR), -56-146%]} or to placebo [n = 16, 77% (IQR -20-290%); P = 0.19]. Additionally, among those with AUDs, no significant changes in BAL oxidative stress indexes, epithelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1β, or interleukin-10 were observed regardless of drug type received. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, decreased significantly over time among AUD subjects randomized to placebo (P < 0.01). These results suggest that Protandim for 7 days in individuals with AUDs who are newly abstinent does not alter alveolar epithelial

  6. Protandim does not influence alveolar epithelial permeability or intrapulmonary oxidative stress in human subjects with alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Joe M.; Bose, Swapan; Brown, Lou Ann S.; House, Robert; Moss, Marc; Gaydos, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol abuse and dependence, have been linked to the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Prior clinical investigations suggested an association between AUDs and abnormal alveolar epithelial permeability mediated through pulmonary oxidative stress that may partially explain this relationship. We sought to determine if correcting pulmonary oxidative stress in the setting of AUDs would normalize alveolar epithelial permeability in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Protandim, a nutraceutical reported to enhance antioxidant activity. We randomized 30 otherwise healthy AUD subjects to receive directly observed inpatient oral therapy with either Protandim (1,350 mg/day) or placebo. Subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood sampling before study drug administration and after 7 days of therapy; all AUD subjects completed the study protocol without adverse events. BAL total protein was measured at each timepoint as an indicator of alveolar epithelial permeability. In subjects with AUDs, before study drug initiation, BAL total protein values were not significantly higher than in 11 concurrently enrolled controls (P = 0.07). Over the 7-day study period, AUD subjects did not exhibit a significant change in BAL total protein, regardless of their randomization to Protandim {n = 14, −2% [intraquartile range (IQR), −56–146%]} or to placebo [n = 16, 77% (IQR −20–290%); P = 0.19]. Additionally, among those with AUDs, no significant changes in BAL oxidative stress indexes, epithelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1β, or interleukin-10 were observed regardless of drug type received. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, decreased significantly over time among AUD subjects randomized to placebo (P < 0.01). These results suggest that Protandim for 7 days in individuals with AUDs who are newly abstinent does not alter alveolar

  7. Mitochondria-targeted Ogg1 and aconitase-2 prevent oxidant-induced mitochondrial DNA damage in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Williams, David; Cheng, Yuan; Ridge, Karen; Schumacker, Paul T; Weitzman, Sigmund; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Kamp, David W

    2014-02-28

    Mitochondria-targeted human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (mt-hOgg1) and aconitase-2 (Aco-2) each reduce oxidant-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis, but it is unclear whether protection occurs by preventing AEC mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. Using quantitative PCR-based measurements of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage, mtDNA damage was preferentially noted in AEC after exposure to oxidative stress (e.g. amosite asbestos (5-25 μg/cm(2)) or H2O2 (100-250 μM)) for 24 h. Overexpression of wild-type mt-hOgg1 or mt-long α/β 317-323 hOgg1 mutant incapable of DNA repair (mt-hOgg1-Mut) each blocked A549 cell oxidant-induced mtDNA damage, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and intrinsic apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation and cleaved caspase-9. In contrast, compared with controls, knockdown of Ogg1 (using Ogg1 shRNA in A549 cells or primary alveolar type 2 cells from ogg1(-/-) mice) augmented mtDNA lesions and intrinsic apoptosis at base line, and these effects were increased further after exposure to oxidative stress. Notably, overexpression of Aco-2 reduced oxidant-induced mtDNA lesions, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and apoptosis, whereas siRNA for Aco-2 (siAco-2) enhanced mtDNA damage, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and apoptosis. Finally, siAco-2 attenuated the protective effects of mt-hOgg1-Mut but not wild-type mt-hOgg1 against oxidant-induced mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel role for mt-hOgg1 and Aco-2 in preserving AEC mtDNA integrity, thereby preventing oxidant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, p53 mitochondrial translocation, and intrinsic apoptosis. Furthermore, mt-hOgg1 chaperoning of Aco-2 in preventing oxidant-mediated mtDNA damage and apoptosis may afford an innovative target for the molecular events underlying oxidant-induced toxicity.

  8. Asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Kamp, David W; Liu, Gang; Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Mueller, Amanda; Lam, Anna P; Trejo, Humberto; Williams, David; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Baker, Margaret; Ridge, Karen; Chandel, Navdeep S; Beri, Rohinee

    2013-12-01

    Asbestos exposure results in pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) and malignancies (bronchogenic lung cancer and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis is important in the development of pulmonary fibrosis after exposure to an array of toxins, including asbestos. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptosis occur in AECs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease with similarities to asbestosis. Asbestos induces AEC intrinsic apoptosis, but the role of the ER is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether asbestos causes an AEC ER stress response that promotes apoptosis. Using human A549 and rat primary isolated alveolar type II cells, amosite asbestos fibers increased AEC mRNA and protein expression of ER stress proteins involved in the unfolded protein response, such as inositol-requiring kinase (IRE) 1 and X-box-binding protein-1, as well as ER Ca²(2+) release ,as assessed by a FURA-2 assay. Eukarion-134, a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, as well as overexpression of Bcl-XL in A549 cells each attenuate asbestos-induced AEC ER stress (IRE-1 and X-box-binding protein-1 protein expression; ER Ca²(2+) release) and apoptosis. Thapsigargin, a known ER stress inducer, augments AEC apoptosis, and eukarion-134 or Bcl-XL overexpression are protective. Finally, 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone that attenuates ER stress, blocks asbestos- and thapsigargin-induced AEC IRE-1 protein expression, but does not reduce ER Ca²(2+) release or apoptosis. These results show that asbestos triggers an AEC ER stress response and subsequent intrinsic apoptosis that is mediated in part by ER Ca²(2+) release.

  9. The mitochondria-regulated death pathway mediates asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep; Kamp, David W

    2003-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one important mechanism implicated. The two major pathways regulating apoptosis include (i) the mitochondrial death (intrinsic) pathway caused by DNA damage, and (ii) the plasma-membrane death receptor (extrinsic) pathway. However, it is unknown whether asbestos activates either death pathway in AEC. We determined whether asbestos triggers AEC mitochondrial dysfunction by exposing cells (A549 and rat alveolar type II) to amosite asbestos and assessing mitochondrial membrane potential changes (deltapsi(m)) using a fluorometric technique involving tetremethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and mitotracker green. Unlike inert particulates (titanium dioxide and glass beads), amosite asbestos caused dose- and time-dependent reductions in deltapsi(m). Asbestos-induced deltapsi(m) was associated with the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm as well as activation of caspase 9, a mitochondrial-activated caspase. In contrast, a lower level of caspase 8, the death receptor-activated caspase, was detected in asbestos-exposed AEC. An iron chelator (phytic acid or deferoxamine) or a hydroxyl radical scavenger (sodium benzoate) each blocked asbestos-induced reductions in deltapsi(m) and caspase 9 activation, suggesting a role for iron-derived ROS. Finally, Bcl-X(L), a mitochondrial antiapoptotic protein that prevents cell death by preserving the outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, blocked asbestos-induced decreases in A549 cell deltapsi(m) and reduced apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation. We conclude that asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis results from mitochondrial dysfunction, in part due to iron-derived ROS, which is followed by the release of cytochrome c and caspase 9 activation. Our findings suggest an important role for the mitochondria-regulated death pathway in the

  10. Autophagy protects type II alveolar epithelial cells from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xu-Guang; Ji, Tian-Xing; Xia, Yong; Ma, Yue-Yun

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► We investigated the protective effect of autophagy pathway against MTB infection. ► MTB-infected A549 cells had higher LDH release. ► Inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced the MTB-induced necrosis. ► Autophagy prevents apoptosis and promotes cell survival in infected cells. -- Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the autophagy signaling pathway against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in type II alveolar epithelial cells. An in vitro M. tuberculosis system was established using human A549 cells. Infection-induced changes in the expression of the autophagic marker LC3 were assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Morphological changes in autophagosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The function of the autophagy signaling pathway during infection was assessed by measuring the level of cell death and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the presence or absence of the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In addition, effects on LDH release were assessed after the siRNA-mediated knockdown of the essential autophagosomal structural membrane protein Atg5. LC3 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells (16888.76 ± 1576.34 vs. uninfected: 12744.29 ± 1089.37; P < 0.05). TEM revealed M.tuberculosis bacilli-containing compartments that were surrounded by double membranes characteristic of the autophagic process. M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells released more LDH (1.45 ± 0.12 vs. uninfected: 0.45 ± 0.04; P < 0.05). The inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced M.tuberculosis-induced necrosis (3-MA: 75 ± 5% vs. untreated: 15 ± 1%; P < 0.05) and LDH release (3-MA: 2.50 ± 0.24 vs. untreated: 0.45 ± 0.04; Atg5 knockdown: 3.19 ± 0.29 vs. untreated: 1.28 ± 0.11; P < 0.05). Our results indicate that autophagy signaling pathway prevents apoptosis in type II alveolar epithelial cells

  11. Collective epithelial migration drives kidney repair after acute injury.

    PubMed

    Palmyre, Aurélien; Lee, Jeongeun; Ryklin, Gennadiy; Camarata, Troy; Selig, Martin K; Duchemin, Anne-Laure; Nowak, Paul; Arnaout, M Amin; Drummond, Iain A; Vasilyev, Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and significant medical problem. Despite the kidney's remarkable regenerative capacity, the mortality rate for the AKI patients is high. Thus, there remains a need to better understand the cellular mechanisms of nephron repair in order to develop new strategies that would enhance the intrinsic ability of kidney tissue to regenerate. Here, using a novel, laser ablation-based, zebrafish model of AKI, we show that collective migration of kidney epithelial cells is a primary early response to acute injury. We also show that cell proliferation is a late response of regenerating kidney epithelia that follows cell migration during kidney repair. We propose a computational model that predicts this temporal relationship and suggests that cell stretch is a mechanical link between migration and proliferation, and present experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis. Overall, this study advances our understanding of kidney repair mechanisms by highlighting a primary role for collective cell migration, laying a foundation for new approaches to treatment of AKI.

  12. Efficient protection by cationized catalase against H2O2 injury in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Takayuki; Kawakami, Shigeru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2007-08-16

    Increasing evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide plays an important role in alveolar epithelial injury produced during many inflammatory lung diseases. In this study, the successful prevention of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced injury in primary cultured rabbit alveolar epithelial cells by cationized catalase is described. Cationized catalase was synthesized by direct chemical modification to enhance its association with alveolar epithelial cells. Cationized catalase exhibited a 22.3-fold higher cellular association at 2 h than native catalase, and incubation of cationized catalase with the cells produced a 2.19-fold intracellular catalase activity, which suggested that cationized catalase distributed both to the cell membrane and into the cell interior. Cationized catalase markedly suppressed H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury. In addition, electron spin resonance spectrometry analysis revealed that cationized catalase effectively eliminated H(2)O(2) produced in the medium by glucose plus glucose oxidase. On the other hand, polyethylene glycol-modified catalase (PEG-catalase) did not have any protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury although PEG-catalase exhibited a 2.49-fold higher cellular association at 2 h than native catalase. These results suggest that cationization of catalase is a promising strategy for the treatment of many of inflammatory lung diseases.

  13. Effect of P2X7 Receptor Knockout on AQP-5 Expression of Type I Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Georg; Bläsche, Robert; Hofmann, Falk; Augstein, Antje; Kasper, Michael; Barth, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    P2X7 receptors, ATP-gated cation channels, are specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiological function of this lung cell type, except a recently reported putative involvement in surfactant secretion, is unknown. In addition, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice show reduced inflammation and lung fibrosis after exposure with bleomycin. To elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor in alveolar epithelial type I cells we characterized the pulmonary phenotype of P2X7 receptor knockout mice by using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and real-time RT PCR. No pathomorphological signs of fibrosis were found. Results revealed, however, a remarkable loss of aquaporin-5 protein and mRNA in young knockout animals. Additional in vitro experiments with bleomycin treated precision cut lung slices showed a greater sensitivity of the P2X7 receptor knockout mice in terms of aquaporin-5 reduction as wild type animals. Finally, P2X7 receptor function was examined by using the alveolar epithelial cell lines E10 and MLE-12 for stimulation experiments with bleomycin. The in vitro activation of P2X7 receptor was connected with an increase of aquaporin-5, whereas the inhibition of the receptor with oxidized ATP resulted in down regulation of aquaporin-5. The early loss of aquaporin-5 which can be found in different pulmonary fibrosis models does not implicate a specific pathogenetic role during fibrogenesis. PMID:24941004

  14. Rv3351c, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene that affects bacterial growth and alveolar epithelial cell viability.

    PubMed

    Pavlicek, Rebecca L; Fine-Coulson, Kari; Gupta, Tuhina; Quinn, Frederick D; Posey, James E; Willby, Melisa; Castro-Garza, Jorge; Karls, Russell K

    2015-12-01

    Despite the interactions known to occur between various lower respiratory tract pathogens and alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), few reports examine factors influencing the interplay between Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and AECs during infection. Importantly, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the M. tuberculosis hbha and esxA gene products HBHA and ESAT6 directly or indirectly influence AEC survival. In this report, we identify Rv3351c as another M. tuberculosis gene that impacts the fate of both the pathogen and AEC host. Intracellular replication of an Rv3351c mutant in the human AEC type II pneumocyte cell line A549 was markedly reduced relative to the complemented mutant and parent strain. Deletion of Rv3351c diminished the release of lactate dehydrogenase and decreased uptake of trypan blue vital stain by host cells infected with M. tuberculosis bacilli, suggesting attenuated cytotoxic effects. Interestingly, an isogenic hbha mutant displayed reductions in AEC killing similar to those observed for the Rv3351c mutant. This opens the possibility that multiple M. tuberculosis gene products interact with AECs. We also observed that Rv3351c aids intracellular replication and survival of M. tuberculosis in macrophages. This places Rv3351c in the same standing as HBHA and ESAT6, which are important factors in AECs and macrophages. Defining the mechanism(s) by which Rv3351c functions to aid pathogen survival within the host may lead to new drug or vaccine targets.

  15. P53 mediates amosite asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell mitochondria-regulated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Surapureddi, Sailesh; Soberanes, Saul; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep; Kamp, David W

    2006-04-01

    Asbestos causes pulmonary toxicity in part by generating reactive oxygen species that cause DNA damage. We previously showed that the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) death pathway mediates alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) DNA damage and apoptosis. Because p53 regulates the DNA damage response in part by inducing intrinsic cell death, we determined whether p53-dependent transcriptional activity mediates asbestos-induced AEC mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. We show that inhibitors of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin and type 16-E6 protein) block asbestos-induced AEC mitochondrial membrane potential change (DeltaPsim), caspase 9 activation, and apoptosis. We demonstrate that asbestos activates p53 promoter activity, mRNA levels, protein expression, and Bax and p53 mitochondrial translocation. Further, pifithrin, E6, phytic acid, or rho(0)-A549 cells (cells incapable of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production) block asbestos-induced p53 activation. Finally, we show that asbestos augments p53 expression in cells at the bronchoalveolar duct junctions of rat lungs and that phytic acid prevents this. These data suggest that p53-dependent transcription pathways mediate asbestos-induced AEC mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. This suggests an important interactive effect between p53 and the mitochondria in the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity that may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer.

  16. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol on Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Alveolar Epithelial Cell Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Po-Len; Chong, Inn-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chen; Tsai, Jong-Rung; Wang, Hui-Min; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Hsiu-Lin

    2015-11-04

    Reducing oxidative stress is crucial to prevent hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R)-induced lung injury. Resveratrol has excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and this study investigated its role in H/R-induced type II pneumocyte dysfunction. H/R conditions increased expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β (142.3 ± 21.2%, P < 0.05) and IL-6 (301.9 ± 35.1%, P < 0.01) in a type II alveolar epithelial cell line (A549), while the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (64.6 ± 9.8%, P < 0.05) and surfactant proteins (SPs) decreased. However, resveratrol treatment effectively inhibited these effects. H/R significantly activated an inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, while resveratrol significantly inhibited H/R-induced NF-κB transcription activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing resveratrol-mediated reversal of H/R-induced inflammatory responses and dysfunction of type II pneumocyte cells in vitro. The effects of resveratrol were partially mediated by promoting SP expression and inhibiting inflammation with NF-κB pathway involvement. Therefore, our study provides new insights into mechanisms underlying the action of resveratrol in type II pneumocyte dysfunction.

  17. Regulation and function of the two-pore-domain (K2P) potassium channel Trek-1 in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Teng, Bin; Ghosh, Manik; West, Alina Nico; Makena, Patrudu; Gorantla, Vijay; Sinclair, Scott E; Waters, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Hyperoxia can lead to a myriad of deleterious effects in the lung including epithelial damage and diffuse inflammation. The specific mechanisms by which hyperoxia promotes these pathological changes are not completely understood. Activation of ion channels has been proposed as one of the mechanisms required for cell activation and mediator secretion. The two-pore-domain K(+) channel (K2P) Trek-1 has recently been described in lung epithelial cells, but its function remains elusive. In this study we hypothesized that hyperoxia affects expression of Trek-1 in alveolar epithelial cells and that Trek-1 is involved in regulation of cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. We found gene expression of several K2P channels in mouse alveolar epithelial cells (MLE-12), and expression of Trek-1 was significantly downregulated in cultured cells and lungs of mice exposed to hyperoxia. Similarly, proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cyclin D1 expression were downregulated by exposure to hyperoxia. We developed an MLE-12 cell line deficient in Trek-1 expression using shRNA and found that Trek-1 deficiency resulted in increased cell proliferation and upregulation of PCNA but not Cyclin D1. Furthermore, IL-6 and regulated on activation normal T-expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) secretion was decreased in Trek-1-deficient cells, whereas release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was increased. Release of KC/IL-8 was not affected by Trek-1 deficiency. Overall, deficiency of Trek-1 had a more pronounced effect on mediator secretion than exposure to hyperoxia. This is the first report suggesting that the K(+) channel Trek-1 could be involved in regulation of alveolar epithelial cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, but a direct association with hyperoxia-induced changes in Trek-1 levels remains elusive.

  18. D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic, inhibits TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human alveolar epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    You, Jia; Wang, Jintao; Xie, Linshen; Zhu, Chengwen; Xiong, Jingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidences support that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and asthmatic airway remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is the only known substance that can resolve established pulmonary fibrotic nodules, and Apo A-I mimetic D-4F (a synthetic polypeptide consisting of 18 amino acids) plays an inhibitory role in murine asthmatic model. However, cellular mechanisms for such therapeutic effects of Apo A-I and D-4F remain to be elucidated. This study evaluated the effects of D-4F on TGF-β1 induced EMT in human type II alveolar epithelial cell line A549. A549 cells treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-β1 manifested distinct EMT, including fibroblastic morphological changes, down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and up-regulation of mesenchymal marker vimentin. These EMT related changes were all inhibited by D-4F in a concentration dependent manner. Transcriptional investigation demonstrated clearly that D-4F dose-dependently compensated for the reduced E-cadherin mRNA level and the increased vimentin mRNA level in TGF-β1 treated A549 cells. Translational analysis revealed that D-4F significantly reversed the TGF-β1 induced changes of E-cadherin and vimentin levels. These results suggested that D-4F inhibits TGF-β1 induced EMT in human alveolar epithelial cell. Given the functional similarities between D-4F and Apo A-I, it is speculated that D-4F and Apo A-I are able to exert possible anti-fibrotic and anti-asthmatic effects via inhibiting alveolar EMT, and D-4F may possess beneficial clinical potential for patients suffering from pulmonary fibrosis and asthma.

  19. Alcohol Causes Alveolar Epithelial Oxidative Stress by Inhibiting the Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)–Like 2–Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, J. Spencer; Fan, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use increases the risk of acute lung injury and pneumonia. Chronic alcohol ingestion causes oxidative stress within the alveolar space, including near depletion of glutathione (GSH), which impairs alveolar epithelial and macrophage function, in experimental animals and human subjects. However, the fundamental mechanism(s) by which alcohol induces such profound lung oxidative stress is unknown. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)–like 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive master transcription factor that regulates activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE). As the alveolar epithelium controls GSH levels within the alveolar space, we hypothesized that alcohol also decreases Nrf2 expression and/or activation within the alveolar epithelium. In this study, we determined that alcohol ingestion in vivo or direct alcohol exposure in vitro down-regulated the Nrf2–ARE pathway in lung epithelial cells, decreased the expression of antioxidant genes, and lowered intracellular GSH levels. RNA silencing of Nrf2 gene expression in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro decreased expression of these same antioxidant genes, and likewise lowered intracellular GSH levels, findings that mirrored the effects of alcohol. In contrast, treating alcohol-exposed alveolar epithelial cells in vitro with the Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane, preserved Nrf2 expression, ARE activation, intracellular GSH levels, and epithelial barrier function. These new experimental findings implicate down-regulation of the Nrf2–ARE signaling pathway as a fundamental mechanism by which alcohol causes profound oxidative stress and alveolar epithelial dysfunction, and suggest that treatments, such as sulforaphane, that activate this pathway could mitigate the pathophysiological consequences of alcohol on the lung and other organs. PMID:23306837

  20. Alcohol causes alveolar epithelial oxidative stress by inhibiting the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Spencer; Fan, Xian; Guidot, David M

    2013-04-01

    Excessive alcohol use increases the risk of acute lung injury and pneumonia. Chronic alcohol ingestion causes oxidative stress within the alveolar space, including near depletion of glutathione (GSH), which impairs alveolar epithelial and macrophage function, in experimental animals and human subjects. However, the fundamental mechanism(s) by which alcohol induces such profound lung oxidative stress is unknown. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive master transcription factor that regulates activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE). As the alveolar epithelium controls GSH levels within the alveolar space, we hypothesized that alcohol also decreases Nrf2 expression and/or activation within the alveolar epithelium. In this study, we determined that alcohol ingestion in vivo or direct alcohol exposure in vitro down-regulated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in lung epithelial cells, decreased the expression of antioxidant genes, and lowered intracellular GSH levels. RNA silencing of Nrf2 gene expression in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro decreased expression of these same antioxidant genes, and likewise lowered intracellular GSH levels, findings that mirrored the effects of alcohol. In contrast, treating alcohol-exposed alveolar epithelial cells in vitro with the Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane, preserved Nrf2 expression, ARE activation, intracellular GSH levels, and epithelial barrier function. These new experimental findings implicate down-regulation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway as a fundamental mechanism by which alcohol causes profound oxidative stress and alveolar epithelial dysfunction, and suggest that treatments, such as sulforaphane, that activate this pathway could mitigate the pathophysiological consequences of alcohol on the lung and other organs.

  1. Peptidoglycan-mediated IL-8 expression in human alveolar type II epithelial cells requires lipid raft formation and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Cheon, In Su; Woo, Sang Su; Kang, Seok-Seong; Im, Jintaek; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Chung, Dae Kyun; Park, Dong Ki; Han, Seung Hyun

    2008-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a major sepsis-causing Gram-positive bacterium, invades pulmonary epithelial cells and causes lung diseases. In the lung, alveolar type II epithelial cells play an important role in innate immunity by secreting chemokines and antimicrobial peptides upon bacterial infection whereas type I cells mainly function in gas-exchange. In this study, we investigated the ability of S. aureus peptidoglycan (PGN) to induce expression of a chemokine, IL-8, in a human alveolar type II epithelial cell line, A549. PGN induces IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Supplementation of soluble CD14 further enhanced the PGN-induced IL-8 expression. Interestingly, PGN-induced IL-8 expression was inhibited by nystatin, a specific inhibitor for lipid rafts, but not by chlorpromazine, a specific inhibitor for clathrin-coated pits. Furthermore, PGN-induced IL-8 expression was attenuated by inhibitors for MAP kinases such as ERK, p38 kinase, and JNK/SAPK, whereas no inhibitory effect was observed by inhibitors for reactive oxygen species or protein kinase C. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrates that PGN increased the DNA binding of the transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-kappaB while minimally, NF-IL6, all of which are involved in the transcription of IL-8. Taken together, these results suggest that PGN induces IL-8 expression in a CD14-enhanced manner in human alveolar type II epithelial cells, through the formation of lipid rafts and the activation of MAP kinases, which ultimately leads to activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB, and NF-IL6.

  2. Detection of alveolar epithelial injury by 99mTC-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scan following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Okudan, Berna; Han, Serdar; Baldemir, Makbule; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2004-10-01

    DTPA clearance rate is a reliable index of alveolar epithelial permeability, and is a highly sensitive marker of pulmonary epithelial damage, even of mild degree. In this study, 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was used to assesss the pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and to investigate the possible application of this permeability value as an indicator of early alveolar or interstitial changes in patients with blunt chest trauma. A total of 26 patients was chest trauma (4 female, 22 male, 31-80 yrs, mean age; 53+/-13 yrs) who were referred to the emergency department in our hospital participated in this tsudy. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was performed on the first and thirtieth days after trauma. Clearance half times (T1/2) were calculated by placing a mono-exponential fit on the curves. Penetration index (PI) was calculated on the first-minute image. On the first day, mean T1/2 value of the whole lung was 63+/-19 minutes (min), and thirtieth day mean T1/2 value was 67+/-21 min. On the first day, mean PI values of the lung and 30th day mean PI value were 0.60+/-0.05, and 0.63+/-0.05, respectively. Significant changes were observed in radioaerosol clearance and penetration indices. Following chest trauma, clearance of 99mTc-DTPA increased owing to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier. This increase in the epithelial permeability of the lung appears to be an early manifestation of lung disease that may lead to efficient therapy in the early phase.

  3. Role of β-catenin-regulated CCN matricellular proteins in epithelial repair after inflammatory lung injury

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Jazalle; Aschner, Yael; Briones, Natalie; Young, Scott K.; Lau, Lester F.; Kahn, Michael; Downey, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Repair of the lung epithelium after injury is integral to the pathogenesis and outcomes of diverse inflammatory lung diseases. We previously reported that β-catenin signaling promotes epithelial repair after inflammatory injury, but the β-catenin target genes that mediate this effect are unknown. Herein, we examined which β-catenin transcriptional coactivators and target genes promote epithelial repair after inflammatory injury. Transmigration of human neutrophils across cultured monolayers of human lung epithelial cells resulted in a fall in transepithelial resistance and the formation of discrete areas of epithelial denudation (“microinjury”), which repaired via cell spreading by 96 h. In mice treated with intratracheal (i.t.) LPS or keratinocyte chemokine, neutrophil emigration was associated with increased permeability of the lung epithelium, as determined by increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid albumin concentration, which decreased over 3–6 days. Activation of β-catenin/p300-dependent gene expression using the compound ICG-001 accelerated epithelial repair in vitro and in murine models. Neutrophil transmigration induced epithelial expression of the β-catenin/p300 target genes Wnt-induced secreted protein (WISP) 1 and cysteine-rich (Cyr) 61, as determined by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunostaining. Purified neutrophil elastase induced WISP1 upregulation in lung epithelial cells, as determined by qPCR. WISP1 expression increased in murine lungs after i.t. LPS, as determined by ELISA of the BAL fluid and qPCR of whole lung extracts. Finally, recombinant WISP1 and Cyr61 accelerated repair, and Cyr61-neutralizing antibodies delayed repair of the injured epithelium in vitro. We conclude that β-catenin/p300-dependent expression of WISP1 and Cyr61 is critical for epithelial repair and represents a potential therapeutic target to promote epithelial repair after inflammatory injury. PMID:23316072

  4. Penetration of Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin into the Alveolar Epithelial Lining Fluid of Rats with Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wentao; Yang, Deqing; Mei, Hekun; Zhao, Jin; Liang, Beibei; Bai, Nan; Chai, Dong; Cui, Junchang; Wang, Rui; Liu, Youning

    2017-04-01

    We determined the concentration-time profiles of ciprofloxacin and amikacin in serum and alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of rats with or without pulmonary fibrosis and investigated the effect of pulmonary fibrosis on the capacity for penetration of antimicrobials into the ELF of rats. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in rats with a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. After intravenous injection of ciprofloxacin or amikacin, blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected. Urea concentrations in serum and lavage fluid were determined using an enzymatic assay. Ciprofloxacin and amikacin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The mean ratio of ELF to plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin at each time point in the normal group did not significantly differ from that in the pulmonary fibrosis group. However, the ratio of the ciprofloxacin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) in ELF to the AUC0-24 in plasma was 1.02 in the normal group and 0.76 in the pulmonary fibrosis group. The mean ELF-to-plasma concentration ratios of amikacin at each time point in the normal group were higher than those in the pulmonary fibrosis group, reaching a statistically significant difference at 1, 2, and 4 h. The ratio of the AUC0-24 in ELF to the AUC0-24 in plasma was 0.49 in the normal group and 0.27 in the pulmonary fibrosis group. In conclusion, pulmonary fibrosis can influence the penetration of antimicrobials into the ELF of rats and may have a marked effect on the penetration of amikacin than that of ciprofloxacin.

  5. Altered surfactant homeostasis and alveolar epithelial cell stress in amiodarone-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mahavadi, Poornima; Henneke, Ingrid; Ruppert, Clemens; Knudsen, Lars; Venkatesan, Shalini; Liebisch, Gerhard; Chambers, Rachel C; Ochs, Matthias; Schmitz, Gerd; Vancheri, Carlo; Seeger, Werner; Korfei, Martina; Guenther, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Amiodarone (AD) is a highly efficient antiarrhythmic drug with potentially serious side effects. Severe pulmonary toxicity is reported in patients receiving AD even at low doses and may cause interstitial pneumonia as well as lung fibrosis. Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII) has been suggested to play an important role in this disease. In the current study, we aimed to establish a murine model of AD-induced lung fibrosis and analyze surfactant homeostasis, lysosomal, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this model. AD/vehicle was instilled intratracheally into C57BL/6 mice, which were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Extent of lung fibrosis development was assessed by trichrome staining and hydroxyproline measurement. Cytotoxicity was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Phospholipids (PLs) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Surfactant proteins (SP) and markers for apoptosis, lysosomal, and ER stress were studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. AECII morphology was evaluated by electron microscopy. Extensive lung fibrosis and AECII hyperplasia were observed in AD-treated mice already at day 7. Surfactant PL and SP accumulated in AECII over time. In parallel, induction of apoptosis, lysosomal, and ER stress was encountered in AECII of mice lungs and in MLE12 cells treated with AD. In vitro, siRNA-mediated knockdown of cathepsin D did not alter the AD-induced apoptotic response. Our data suggest that mice exposed to intratracheal AD develop severe pulmonary fibrosis, exhibit extensive surfactant alterations and cellular stress, but AD-induced AECII apoptosis is not mediated primarily via cathepsin D.

  6. Lactate as substrate for mitochondrial respiration in alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Lottes, Robyn G; Newton, Danforth A; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; Baatz, John E

    2015-05-01

    Because of the many energy-demanding functions they perform and their physical location in the lung, alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells have a rapid cellular metabolism and the potential to influence substrate availability and bioenergetics both locally in the lung and throughout the body. A thorough understanding of ATII cell metabolic function in the healthy lung is necessary for determining how metabolic changes may contribute to pulmonary disease pathogenesis; however, lung metabolism is poorly understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine lactate utilization by primary ATII cells and the ATII model cell line, MLE-15, and link lactate consumption directly to mitochondrial ATP generation. ATII cells cultured in lactate undergo mitochondrial respiration at near-maximal levels, two times the rates of those grown in glucose, and oxygen consumption under these conditions is directly linked to mitochondrial ATP generation. When both lactate and glucose are available as metabolic substrate, the presence of lactate alters glucose metabolism in ATII to favor reduced glycolytic function in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that lactate is used in addition to glucose when both substrates are available. Lactate use by ATII mitochondria is dependent on monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated import, and ATII cells express MCT1, the isoform that mediates lactate import by cells in other lactate-consuming tissues. The balance of lactate production and consumption may play an important role in the maintenance of healthy lung homeostasis, whereas disruption of lactate consumption by factors that impair mitochondrial metabolism, such as hypoxia, may contribute to lactic acid build-up in disease.

  7. Essential role for cathepsin D in bleomycin-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Rayford, Heather; Shu, Ruijie; Zhuang, Jiaju; Uhal, Bruce D

    2004-07-01

    Our earlier studies showed that bleomycin-induced apoptosis of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) requires the autocrine synthesis and proteolytic processing of angiotensinogen into ANG II and that inhibitors of ANG-converting enzyme (ACEis) block bleomycin-induced apoptosis (Li X, Zhang H, Soledad-Conrad V, Zhuang J, and Uhal BD. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284: L501-L507, 2003). Given the documented role of cathepsin D (CatD) in apoptosis of other cell types, we hypothesized that CatD might be the AEC enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensinogen into ANG I, the substrate for ACE. Primary cultures of rat type II AECs challenged with bleomycin in vitro showed upregulation and secretion of CatD enzymatic activity and immunoreactive protein but no increases in CatD mRNA. The aspartyl protease inhibitor pepstatin A, which completely blocked CatD enzymatic activity, inhibited bleomycin-induced nuclear fragmentation by 76% and reduced bleomycin-induced caspase-3 activation by 47%. Antisense oligonucleotides against CatD mRNA reduced CatD-immunoreactive protein and inhibited bleomycin-induced nuclear fragmentation by 48%. A purified fragment of angiotensinogen (F1-14) containing the CatD and ACE cleavage sites, when applied to unchallenged AEC in vitro, yielded mature ANG II peptide and induced apoptosis. The apoptosis induced by F1-14 was inhibited 96% by pepstatin A and 77% by neutralizing antibodies specific for CatD (both P < 0.001). These data indicate a critical role for CatD in bleomycin-induced apoptosis of cultured AEC and suggest that the role(s) of CatD in AEC apoptosis include the conversion of newly synthesized angiotensinogen to ANG II.

  8. Isolation and cultivation of metabolically competent alveolar epithelial cells from A/J mice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tanja; Chougule, Anil; Borlak, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    The A/J mouse strain is used in lung cancer studies. To enable mechanistic investigations the isolation and cultivation of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) is desirable. Based on four different protocols dispase digestion of lung tissue was best and yielded 9.3 ± 1.5 × 10(6) AECs. Of these 61 ± 13% and 43 ± 5% were positive for AP and NBT staining, respectively. Purification by discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation did not change this ratio; however, reduced the total cell yield to 4.4 ± 1.1 × 10(6) AECs. Flow cytometry of lectin bound AECs determined 91 ± 7% and 87 ± 5% as positive for Helix pomatia and Maclura pomifera to evidence type II pneumocytes. On day 3 in culture the ethoxyresorufin-O-demethylase activity was 251 ± 80 pmol/4 h × 1.5 × 10(6) and the production of androstenedione proceed at 243.5 ± 344.4 pmol/24 h × 1.5 × 10(6) AECs. However, 6-α, 6-β and 16-β-hydroxytestosterone were produced about 20-fold less as compared to androstenedione and the production of metabolites depended on the culture media supplemented with 2% mouse serum or 10% FCS. Finally, by RT-PCR expression of CYP genes was confirmed in lung tissue and AECs; a link between testosterone metabolism and CYP2A12, 3A16 and 2B9/10 expression was established. Taken collectively, AECs can be successfully isolated and cultured for six days while retaining metabolic competence.

  9. Mitochondrial-derived free radicals mediate asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep S; Kamp, David W

    2004-06-01

    Asbestos causes pulmonary toxicity by mechanisms that in part involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise source of ROS is unclear. We showed that asbestos induces alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by a mitochondrial-regulated death pathway. To determine whether mitochondrial-derived ROS are necessary for causing asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis, we utilized A549-rho(omicron) cells that lack mitochondrial DNA and a functional electron transport. As expected, antimycin, which induces an oxidative stress by blocking mitochondrial electron transport at complex III, increased dichlorofluoroscein (DCF) fluorescence in A549 cells but not in A549-rho(omicron) cells. Compared with A549 cells, rho(omicron) cells have less asbestos-induced ROS production, as assessed by DCF fluorescence, and reductions in total glutathione levels as well as less caspase-9 activation and apoptosis, as assessed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining and DNA fragmentation. A mitochondrial anion channel inhibitor that prevents ROS release from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm also blocked asbestos-induced A549 cell caspase-9 activation and apoptosis. Finally, a role for nonmitochondrial-derived ROS with exposure to high levels of asbestos (50 microg/cm(2)) was suggested by our findings that an iron chelator (phytic acid or deferoxamine) or a free radical scavenger (sodium benzoate) provided additional protection against asbestos-induced caspase-9 activation and DNA fragmentation in rho(omicron) cells. We conclude that asbestos fibers affect mitochondrial DNA and functional electron transport, resulting in mitochondrial-derived ROS production that in turn mediates AEC apoptosis. Nonmitochondrial-associated ROS may also contribute to AEC apoptosis, particularly with high levels of asbestos exposure.

  10. Involvement of Igf1r in Bronchiolar Epithelial Regeneration: Role during Repair Kinetics after Selective Club Cell Ablation

    PubMed Central

    López, Icíar P.; Piñeiro-Hermida, Sergio; Pais, Rosete S.; Torrens, Raquel; Hoeflich, Andreas; Pichel, José G.

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny. Immuno-localization revealed high expression levels of Igf1r (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor) in lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and smooth muscle. To further understand the role of Igf1r in pulmonary homeostasis, two distinct lung epithelial-specific Igf1r mutant mice were generated and studied. The lack of Igf1r disturbed airway epithelial differentiation in adult mice, and revealed enhanced proliferation and altered morphology in distal airway club cells. During recovery after naphthalene-induced club cell injury, the kinetics of terminal bronchiolar epithelium regeneration was hindered in Igf1r mutants, revealing increased proliferation and delayed differentiation of club and ciliated cells. Amid airway restoration, lungs of Igf1r deficient mice showed increased levels of Igf1, Insr, Igfbp3 and epithelial precursor markers, reduced amounts of Scgb1a1 protein, and alterations in IGF signaling mediators. These results support the role of Igf1r in controlling the kinetics of cell proliferation and differentiation during pulmonary airway epithelial regeneration after injury. PMID:27861515

  11. Hyperoxia Inhibits Nitric Oxide Treatment Effects in Alveolar Epithelial Cells via Effects on L-Type Amino Acid Transporter-1

    PubMed Central

    Brahmajothi, Mulugu V.; Tinch, Brian T.; Wempe, Michael F.; Endou, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The aims of this study were to determine hyperoxia effects on S-nitrosothiol (SNO) accumulation and L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) expression/function in alveolar epithelium and to determine whether hyperoxia impairs exogenous nitric oxide (NO) treatment effects in alveolar epithelium through effects on LAT1 expression and/or function. Results: SNO accumulation in vitro and in vivo after NO treatment was dependent on the LAT1 system transport. Hyperoxia (60% or 90%) impaired NO effects on SNO accumulation and soluble guanylyl cyclase activation in proportion to the magnitude of hyperoxia and the duration of exposure, up to 12 h, in type I-like (R3/1) and type II-like (L2) rat and human (A549) alveolar epithelial cells. LAT function, determined by sodium-independent 3H-leucine uptake, was impaired in a parallel manner. Hyperoxia impaired LAT1 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, determined by immunoblots and immunofluorescence, and in newborn rats exposed to 60% O2 for 4 days, determined by immunohistochemistry. Innovation: Despite significant preclinical evidence, inhaled NO has shown disappointing limitations in clinical applications. Our studies suggest an important explanation: oxidative stress, a common feature of diseases in which therapeutic NO would be considered, impairs LAT1 expression and function, blocking a major route for inhaled NO (iNO) action, that is, the uptake of S-nitrosocysteine via LAT1. Conclusions: SNO uptake after NO treatment is dependent on LAT1. Hyperoxia impairs SNO uptake and NO effects during NO exposure and impairs LAT system function and LAT1 expression. Effects on SNO formation and transport must be considered for rational optimization of NO-based therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1823–1836. PMID:25089378

  12. Cigarette Smoke Modulates Repair and Innate Immunity following Injury to Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Nadia M.; van der Vlugt, Luciën E. P. M.; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Taube, Christian; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and contributes to COPD development and progression by causing epithelial injury and inflammation. Whereas it is known that cigarette smoke (CS) may affect the innate immune function of airway epithelial cells and epithelial repair, this has so far not been explored in an integrated design using mucociliary differentiated airway epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of whole CS exposure on wound repair and the innate immune activity of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells, upon injury induced by disruption of epithelial barrier integrity or by mechanical wounding. Upon mechanical injury CS caused a delayed recovery in the epithelial barrier integrity and wound closure. Furthermore CS enhanced innate immune responses, as demonstrated by increased expression of the antimicrobial protein RNase 7. These differential effects on epithelial repair and innate immunity were both mediated by CS-induced oxidative stress. Overall, our findings demonstrate modulation of wound repair and innate immune responses of injured airway epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD development and progression. PMID:27829065

  13. Effect of cigarette smoke extract on P-glycoprotein function in primary cultured and newly developed alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Naka, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishimoto, Saori; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-12-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function in the distal lung is unclear. In this study, we first examined the expression and function of P-gp and the effect of CSE in rat primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells. The expression of P-gp protein was observed in type I-like cells, but not in type II cells. In type I-like cells, rhodamine 123 (Rho123) accumulation was enhanced by various P-gp inhibitors such as verapamil and cyclosporine A. In addition, the expression of P-gp mRNAs, mdr1a and mdr1b, as well as P-gp activity increased along with the transdifferentiation. When type I-like cells were co-incubated with CSE, P-gp activity was suppressed. Next, we attempted to clarify the effect of CSE on P-gp function in human-derived cultured alveolar epithelial cells. For this purpose, we isolated an A549 clone (A549/P-gp) expressing P-gp, because P-gp expression in native A549 cells was negligible. In A549/P-gp cells, P-gp was functionally expressed, and the inhibitory effect of CSE on P-gp was observed. These results suggested that smoking would directly suppress P-gp activity, and that A549/P-gp cell line should be a useful model to further study the effect of xenobiotics on P-gp function in the alveolar epithelial cells.

  14. Effect of laser phototherapy on human alveolar bone repair: micro tomographic and histomorphometrical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romão, Marcia M. A.; Marques, Márcia M.; Cortes, Arthur R. G.; Horliana, Anna C. R. T.; Moreira, Maria S.; Lascala, Cesar A.

    2015-06-01

    The immediate dental implant placement in the molars region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between the alveolar crest thickness and the dental implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair thus could accelerate the implant placement. Twenty patients were selected for the study. Ten patients were submitted to LPT with GaAlAs diode laser (808nm) during molar extraction, immediately after, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 7 days. The irradiations were applied in contact and punctual mode (100mW, 0.04cm2, 0.75J/cm2, 30s per point, 3J per point). The control group (n=10) received the same treatment; however with the power of the laser off. Forty days later samples of the tissue formed inside the sockets were obtained for further microtomography (microCTs) and histomorphometry analyses. Data were compared by the Student t test, whereas those from the different microCT parameters were compared by the Pearson correlation test (p<0.05). The relative bone volume, as well as area was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the lased than the control group. In the control group there were negative correlations between number and thickness, and between number and separation of trabecula (p<0.01). Between thickness and separation of trabecula the correlation was positive (p<0.01). The laser group showed significant negative correlation between the number and the thickness of trabecula (p<0.01). LPT accelerated bone repair. By the Pearson correlation test it was possible to infer that the lased group presented a more homogeneous trabecular configuration, which would allow earlier dental implant placement.

  15. Construction of p66Shc gene interfering lentivirus vectors and its effects on alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis induced by hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Dong, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Shuai; Li, Qing-Ping; Kang, Lan; Lei, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Lin; Zhai, Xue-Song

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to observe the inhibitive effects of p66Shc gene interfering lentivirus vectors on the expression of p66Shc, and to explore its effects on alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis induced by hyperoxia. Methods The gene sequences were cloned into the pLenR-GPH-shRNA lentiviral vector, which was selected by Genebank searches. The pLenR-GPH-shRNA and lentiviral vector packaging plasmid mix were cotransfected into 293T cells to package lentiviral particles. Culture virus supernatant was harvested, and then the virus titer was determined by serial dilution assay. A549 cells were transduced with the constructed lentiviral vectors, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to evaluate p66Shc expression. This study is divided into a control group, a hyperoxia group, an A549-p66ShcshRNA hyperoxia group, and a negative lentivirus group. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry after 24 hours; the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and caspase-9 were detected by immunohistochemistry assay. The production of reactive oxygen species and cellular mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined by fluorescence microscopy. Results We successfully established the p66Shc gene interfering lentivirus vectors, A549-p66ShcshRNA. The A549-p66ShcshRNA was transfected into alveolar epithelial cells, and the inhibitive effects on the expression of p66Shc were observed. Both RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated downregulation of p66Shc expression in A549 cells. In the A549-p66ShcshRNA hyperoxia group, we found dampened oxidative stress. A549-p66ShcshRNA can cause p66Shc gene silencing, reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, reduce membrane potential decrease, reduce the apoptosis of A549 cells, and reduce alveolar epithelial cell injury, while the lentiviral empty vector group had no such changes. Conclusion p66Shc gene interfering lentivirus vector can affect the

  16. Macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung alveolar epithelial cells via PGE2, PGD2, and HGF

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2016-01-01

    Apoptotic cell clearance results in the release of growth factors and the action of signaling molecules involved in tissue homeostasis maintenance. Here, we investigated whether and how macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit the TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Treatment with conditioned medium derived from macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells, but not viable or necrotic cells, inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, including loss of E-cadherin, synthesis of N-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin, and induction of EMT-activating transcription factors, such as Snail1/2, Zeb1/2, and Twist1. Exposure of macrophages to cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors (NS-398 and COX-2 siRNA) or RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitors (Y-27632 and RhoA siRNA) and LA-4 cells to antagonists of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP4 [AH-23848]), PGD2 receptors (DP1 [BW-A868C] and DP2 [BAY-u3405]), or the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met (PHA-665752), reversed EMT inhibition by the conditioned medium. Additionally, we found that apoptotic cell instillation inhibited bleomycin-mediated EMT in primary mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells in vivo. Our data suggest a new model for epithelial cell homeostasis, by which the anti-EMT programming of macrophages by apoptotic cells may control the progressive fibrotic reaction via the production of potent paracrine EMT inhibitors. PMID:26875548

  17. TREK-1 Regulates Cytokine Secretion from Cultured Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Independently of Cytoskeletal Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Roan, Esra; Teng, Bin; Waters, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background TREK-1 deficient alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) secrete less IL-6, more MCP-1, and contain less F-actin. Whether these alterations in cytokine secretion and F-actin content are related remains unknown. We now hypothesized that cytokine secretion from TREK-1-deficient AECs was regulated by cytoskeletal rearrangements. Methods We determined F-actin and α-tubulin contents of control, TREK-1-deficient and TREK-1-overexpressing human A549 cells by confocal microscopy and western blotting, and measured IL-6 and MCP-1 levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results Cytochalasin D decreased the F-actin content of control cells. Jasplakinolide increased the F-actin content of TREK-1 deficient cells, similar to the effect of TREK-1 overexpression in control cells. Treatment of control and TREK-1 deficient cells with TNF-α, a strong stimulus for IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion, had no effect on F-actin structures. The combination of TNF-α+cytochalasin D or TNF-α+jasplakinolide had no additional effect on the F-actin content or architecture when compared to cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide alone. Although TREK-1 deficient AECs contained less F-actin at baseline, quantified biochemically, they contained more α-tubulin. Exposure to nocodazole disrupted α-tubulin filaments in control and TREK-1 deficient cells, but left the overall amount of α-tubulin unchanged. Although TNF-α had no effect on the F-actin or α-tubulin contents, it increased IL-6 and MCP-1 production and secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells. IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions from control and TREK-1 deficient cells after TNF-α+jasplakinolide or TNF-α+nocodazole treatment was similar to the effect of TNF-α alone. Interestingly, cytochalasin D decreased TNF-α-induced IL-6 but not MCP-1 secretion from control but not TREK-1 deficient cells. Conclusion Although cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide and nocodazole altered the F-actin and α-tubulin structures of control and TREK-1 deficient AEC, the

  18. Quorum-sensing inhibition abrogates the deleterious impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on airway epithelial repair.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Manon; Bilodeau, Claudia; Maillé, Émilie; LaFayette, Shantelle L; McKay, Geoffrey A; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Beaudoin, Trevor; Desrosiers, Martin-Yvon; Rousseau, Simon; Nguyen, Dao; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections are associated with progressive epithelial damage and lung function decline. In addition to its role in tissue injury, the persistent presence of P. aeruginosa-secreted products may also affect epithelial repair ability, raising the need for new antivirulence therapies. The purpose of our study was to better understand the outcomes of P. aeruginosa exoproducts exposure on airway epithelial repair processes to identify a strategy to counteract their deleterious effect. We found that P. aeruginosa exoproducts significantly decreased wound healing, migration, and proliferation rates, and impaired the ability of directional migration of primary non-cystic fibrosis (CF) human airway epithelial cells. Impact of exoproducts was inhibited after mutations in P. aeruginosa genes that encoded for the quorum-sensing (QS) transcriptional regulator, LasR, and the elastase, LasB, whereas impact was restored by LasB induction in ΔlasR mutants. P. aeruginosa purified elastase also induced a significant decrease in non-CF epithelial repair, whereas protease inhibition with phosphoramidon prevented the effect of P. aeruginosa exoproducts. Furthermore, treatment of P. aeruginosa cultures with 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a QS inhibitor, abrogated the negative impact of P. aeruginosa exoproducts on airway epithelial repair. Finally, we confirmed our findings in human airway epithelial cells from patients with CF, a disease featuring P. aeruginosa chronic respiratory infection. These data demonstrate that secreted proteases under the control of the LasR QS system impair airway epithelial repair and that QS inhibitors could be of benefit to counteract the deleterious effect of P. aeruginosa in infected patients.-Ruffin, M., Bilodeau, C., Maillé, É., LaFayette, S. L., McKay, G. A., Trinh, N. T. N., Beaudoin, T., Desrosiers, M.-Y., Rousseau, S., Nguyen, D., Brochiero, E. Quorum-sensing inhibition abrogates the deleterious impact

  19. Green tea polyphenol blocks h(2)o(2)-induced interleukin-8 production from human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Isowa, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takashi; Liu, Mingyao; Wada, Hiromi

    2002-06-07

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung transplants. Reactive oxygen species may stimulate the production of neutrophil chemotactic factors such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), from alveolar epithelial cells, causing recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the reperfused tissue. Green tea polyphenol has potent anti-oxidative activities and anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing cytokine production. In the present study, we found that green tea polyphenol significantly inhibited IL-8 production induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549 line). It has been shown that mitogen activated protein kinases, such as Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and p44/42, could mediate IL-8 production from a variety of cell types. We further investigated the effect of green tea polyphenol on these protein kinases, and demonstrated that H(2)O(2)-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 but not p44/42 was inhibited by green tea polyphenol in A549 cells. We speculate that green tea polyphenol may inhibit H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 production from A549 cells through inactivation of JNK and p38.

  20. M2 polarized macrophages induced by CSE promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of alveolar basal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao; Shi, Hengfei; Qi, Yue; Zhang, Weiyun; Dong, Ping

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoking plays an important role in the genesis of lung cancer, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are believed to accelerate the process. We therefore sought to clarify the relationship between cigarette smoking, TAMs and tumorigenesis. We treated macrophages (THP-1) with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and found that the mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α decreased, while TGF-β mRNA levels increased. CSE significantly inhibited the phagocytic ability of macrophages, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of FITC-dextran internalization. JAK2/STAT3 was significantly activated by CSE, as determined by Western blot analysis. When the scavenger receptor CD163, a specific marker of M2 macrophages, was analyzed by flow cytometry, its expression was significantly increased. After inducing M2 polarization of THP-1 cells, we co-cultured macrophages and alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549). The proliferation of A549 cells was detected by the MTT assay and cell cycle analysis, while their migration and invasion were detected by scratch wound assay and transwell assay. The results showed that the proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 cells were significantly promoted by M2 macrophages but were slightly inhibited by CSE. In conclusion, we demonstrated that macrophage M2 polarization induced by CSE promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of alveolar basal epithelial cells.

  1. Epithelial repair is inhibited by an alpha(1,6)-fucose binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Adam, Elizabeth C; Holgate, Stephen T; Lackie, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    The effective repair of damage to the airway epithelium is essential to maintain the ability to exclude airborne particulates and protect against potential pathogens. Carbohydrates on the cell surface have an important role in cell-cell and cell substrate interactions. Using a model of repair with airway epithelial-derived cells of the 16HBE 14o(-) cell line, we have examined the effect of the Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), which binds very selectively to alpha(1,6)-linked fucose residues. Addition of unconjugated or FITC-labeled AAL reduced the rate of epithelial repair to approximately one-third of control values as measured by image analysis while cell viability was maintained. Pulse labeling with AAL-FITC for 30 min followed by incubation in AAL-free medium caused similar inhibition of repair but could be reversed by addition of fucose up to 7 h after AAL removal. By confocal microscopy, AAL binding was found to be on the apical, but not basolateral, surfaces of cells, and internalization of the labeled lectin was seen. Preincubation of the lectin with fucose prevented this effect. Ulex europeaus I lectin, which is also fucose specific, resulted in similar binding to the cells and internalization, but it did not affect the speed of the repair process. We conclude that alpha(1,6)-fucose binding sites play an important role in epithelial repair. Better understanding of this process will provide a deeper insight into the crucial mechanisms of epithelial repair.

  2. Hypotonic shock modulates Na(+) current via a Cl(-) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent mechanism in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, André; Tessier, Marie-Claude; Tatur, Sabina; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Berthiaume, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells are involved in Na(+) absorption via the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), an important process for maintaining an appropriate volume of liquid lining the respiratory epithelium and for lung oedema clearance. Here, we investigated how a 20% hypotonic shock modulates the ionic current in these cells. Polarized alveolar epithelial cells isolated from rat lungs were cultured on permeant filters and their electrophysiological properties recorded. A 20% bilateral hypotonic shock induced an immediate, but transient 52% rise in total transepithelial current and a 67% increase in the amiloride-sensitive current mediated by ENaC. Amiloride pre-treatment decreased the current rise after hypotonic shock, showing that ENaC current is involved in this response. Since Cl(-) transport is modulated by hypotonic shock, its contribution to the basal and hypotonic-induced transepithelial current was also assessed. Apical NPPB, a broad Cl(-) channel inhibitor and basolateral DIOA a potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC) inhibitor reduced the total and ENaC currents, showing that transcellular Cl(-) transport plays a major role in that process. During hypotonic shock, a basolateral Cl(-) influx, partly inhibited by NPPB is essential for the hypotonic-induced current rise. Hypotonic shock promoted apical ATP secretion and increased intracellular Ca(2+). While apyrase, an ATP scavenger, did not inhibit the hypotonic shock current response, W7 a calmodulin antagonist completely prevented the hypotonic current rise. These results indicate that a basolateral Cl(-) influx as well as Ca(2+)/calmodulin, but not ATP, are involved in the acute transepithelial current rise elicited by hypotonic shock.

  3. Elastolytic activity and alveolar epithelial type-1 cell damage after chronic LPS inhalation: Effects of dexamethasone and rolipram

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Frederick J. . E-mail: JohnsonFJ@Cardiff.ac.uk; Reynolds, Lucy J.; Toward, Toby J.

    2005-09-15

    This study investigated whether a correlation between leukocyte-derived elastolytic activity, alveolar epithelial type-1 cell damage, and leukocyte infiltration of the airways existed in guinea-pigs chronically exposed to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The airway pathology of this model, notably the neutrophilia, resembles chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effect of the corticosteroid, dexamethasone, or the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4)-inhibitor, rolipram, on these features was studied. Conscious guinea-pigs were exposed for 1 h to single or repeated (nine) doses of LPS (30 {mu}g ml{sup -1}). Dexamethasone (20 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) or rolipram (1 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) was administered 24 and 0.5 h before the first exposure and daily thereafter. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was removed and elastolytic activity determined as the elastase-like release of Congo Red from impregnated elastin. The presence of the specific epithelial cell type-1 protein (40-42 kDa) RT1{sub 40} in BALF was identified by Western blotting using a rat monoclonal antibody and semi-quantified by dot-blot analysis. The antibody was found to identify guinea-pig RT1{sub 40}. BALF inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and macrophages, and elastolytic activity were increased in chronic LPS-exposed guinea-pigs, the latter by 90%. Chronic LPS exposure also increased (10.5-fold) RT1{sub 40} levels, indicating significant alveolar epithelial type-1 cell damage. Dexamethasone or rolipram treatment reduced the influx of inflammatory cells, the elastolytic activity (by 40% and 38%, respectively), and RT1{sub 40} levels (by 50% and 57%, respectively). In conclusion, chronic LPS-exposed guinea-pigs, like COPD, exhibit elastolytic lung damage. This was prevented by a PDE4 inhibitor and supports their development for suppressing this leukocyte-mediated pathology.

  4. REGULATION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGES AND AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN RESPONSE TO AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: FURTHER MECHANISTIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to better understand how ambient air particulate matter (PM) affect lung health, the two main airway cell types likely to interact with inhaled particles, alveolar macrophages (AM) and airway epithelial cells have been exposed to particles in vitro and followed for endp...

  5. Cytotoxicity and inflammation in human alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to occupational levels of gold and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachand, George D.; Allen, Amy; Bachand, Marlene; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Seagrave, Jean Clare; Brozik, Susan M.

    2012-10-01

    While inhalation represents one of the most likely routes of exposure, the toxicity and response of nanoparticles at concentrations expected from such an exposure are not well understood. Here we characterized the in vitro response of human A549 adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to gold (AuNP) and silver (AgNP) nanoparticles at levels approximating an occupational exposure. Changes in neither oxidative stress nor cytotoxicity were significantly affected by exposure to AgNPs and AuNPs, regardless of NP type (Ag vs. Au), concentration, surface ligand (citrate or tannic acid), or size. An inflammatory response was, however, observed in response to 20 nm AgNPs and 20 nm AuNPs, where significant differences in the release of interleukin (IL)-8 but not IL-6 were observed. Additional data demonstrated that increased IL-8 secretion was strongly dependent on both nanoparticle size and concentration. Overall these data suggest that, while not acutely toxic, occupational exposure to AuNPs and AgNPs may trigger a significant inflammatory response in alveolar epithelium. Moreover, the differential responses in IL-8 and IL-6 secretion suggest that NPs may induce a response pathway that is distinct from those commonly elicited by allergens and pathogens.

  6. Staining histological lung sections with Sudan Black B or Sudan III for automated identification of alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jan Philipp; Pedersen, Lars; Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells produce, store and secrete pulmonary surfactant and serve as progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium. They are thus an interesting target in wide fields of pulmonary research. Stereological methods allow their quantification based on measurements on histological sections. A proper AE2 cell quantification, however, requires a method of tissue processing that results in little tissue shrinkage during processing. It was recently shown that a primary fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde, postfixation with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate and embedding in glycol methacrylate fulfills this requirement. However, a proper quantification, furthermore, requires a secure identification of the cells under the microscope. Classical approaches using routine stainings, high magnifications and systematic uniform random sampling can result in a tedious counting procedure. In this article we show that Sudan Black B and Sudan III staining in combination with the previously described "low shrinkage method" of tissue processing result in good staining of lamellar bodies of AE2 cells (their storing organelles of surfactant) and thus provide a good signal of AE2 cells, which allows their easy and secure identification even at rather low magnifications. We further show that this signal enables automated detection of AE2 cells by image analysis, which should make this method a suitable staining method for the recently developed and more efficient proportionator sampling.

  7. Inflammation and the Intestinal Barrier: Leukocyte–Epithelial Cell Interactions, Cell Junction Remodeling, and Mucosal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Luissint, Anny-Claude; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal tract is lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells that forms a dynamic, permeable barrier allowing for selective absorption of nutrients, while restricting access to pathogens and food-borne antigens. Precise regulation of epithelial barrier function is therefore required for maintaining mucosal homeostasis and depends, in part, on barrier-forming elements within the epithelium and a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the mucosa. Pathologic states, such as inflammatory bowel disease, are associated with a leaky epithelial barrier, resulting in excessive exposure to microbial antigens, recruitment of leukocytes, release of soluble mediators, and ultimately mucosal damage. An inflammatory microenvironment affects epithelial barrier properties and mucosal homeostasis by altering the structure and function of epithelial intercellular junctions through direct and indirect mechanisms. We review our current understanding of complex interactions between the intestinal epithelium and immune cells, with a focus on pathologic mucosal inflammation and mechanisms of epithelial repair. We discuss leukocyte–epithelial interactions, as well as inflammatory mediators that affect the epithelial barrier and mucosal repair. Increased knowledge of communication networks between the epithelium and immune system will lead to tissue-specific strategies for treating pathologic intestinal inflammation. PMID:27436072

  8. Ulinastatin post-treatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats and human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunpeng; Che, Wen; Zhao, Mingyan

    2017-01-01

    Ulinastatin (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been suggested to modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the development of ALI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether UTI attenuates ALI through the inhibition of HMGB1 expression and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. ALI was induced in male rats by the intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg). UTI was administered intraperitoneally 30 min following exposure to LPS. A549 alveolar epithelial cells were incubated with LPS in the presence or absence of UTI. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the changes in the expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The results revealed that UTI significantly protected the animals from LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the decrease in the lung wet to dry weight ratio, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages and myeloperoxidase activity, associated with reduced lung histological damage. We also found that UTI post-treatment markedly inhibited the release of HMGB1 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, UTI significantly inhibited the LPS-induced increase in TLR2/4 protein expression and NF-κB activation in lung tissues. In vitro, UTI markedly inhibited the expression of TLR2/4 and the activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated A549 alveolar epithelial cells. The findings of our study indicate that UTI attenuates LPS-induced ALI through the inhibition of HMGB1 expression in rats. These benefits are associated with the inhibition of the activation of the TLR2/4-NF-κB pathway by UTI. PMID:27959396

  9. Mechanisms of suppression of alveolar epithelial cell GM-CSF expression in the setting of hyperoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Anne; Vollbrecht, Timothy; Mir-Kasimov, Mustafa; McManus, Michael; Wilcoxen, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary expression of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is critically important for normal functional maturation of alveolar macrophages. We found previously that lung GM-CSF is dramatically suppressed in mice exposed to hyperoxia. Alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) are a major source of GM-CSF in the peripheral lung, and in vivo hyperoxia resulted in greatly reduced expression of GM-CSF protein by AEC ex vivo. We now explore the mechanisms responsible for this effect, using primary cultures of murine AEC exposed to hyperoxia in vitro. Exposure of AEC to 80% oxygen/5% CO2 for 48 h did not induce overt toxicity, but resulted in significantly decreased GM-CSF protein and mRNA expression compared with cells in normoxia. Similar effects were seen when AEC were stressed with serum deprivation, an alternative inducer of oxidative stress. The effects in AEC were opposite those in a murine lung epithelial cell line (MLE-12 cells), in which hyperoxia induced GM-CSF expression. Both hyperoxia and serum deprivation resulted in increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in AEC. Hyperoxia and serum deprivation induced significantly accelerated turnover of GM-CSF mRNA. Treatment of AEC with catalase during oxidative stress preserved GM-CSF protein and mRNA and was associated with stabilization of GM-CSF mRNA. We conclude that hyperoxia-induced suppression of AEC GM-CSF expression is a function of ROS-induced destabilization of GM-CSF mRNA. We speculate that AEC oxidative stress results in significantly impaired pulmonary innate immune defense due to effects on local GM-CSF expression in the lung. PMID:20034963

  10. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway mediates chrysotile asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    LI, PENG; LIU, TIE; KAMP, DAVID W.; LIN, ZIYING; WANG, YAHONG; LI, DONGHONG; YANG, LAWEI; HE, HUIJUAN; LIU, GANG

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chrysotile asbestos exposure is associated with an increased risk of mortality in combination with pulmonary diseases including lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis. Multiple mechanisms by which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, however the role of apoptosis in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) has not yet been fully explored. Accumulating evidence implicates AEC apoptosis as a crucial event in the development of both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asbestosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chrysotile asbestos induces mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) AEC apoptosis and, if so, whether this induction occurs via the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Human A549 bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells with alveolar epithelial type II-like features were used. The present study showed that chrysotile asbestos induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in A549 cell viability, which was accompanied by the activation of the MAPK c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not the MAPKs extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Chrysotile asbestos was also shown to induce intrinsic AEC apoptosis, as evidenced by the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Bak, alongside the activation of caspase-9, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and the release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked chrysotile asbestos-induced JNK activation and subsequent apoptosis, as assessed by both caspase-9 cleavage and PARP activation. The results of the present study demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos induces intrinsic AEC apoptosis by a JNK-dependent mechanism, and suggests a potential novel target for the modulation of chrysotile asbestos-associated lung diseases. PMID:25530474

  11. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway mediates chrysotile asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Lin, Ziying; Wang, Yahong; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; He, Huijuan; Liu, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to chrysotile asbestos exposure is associated with an increased risk of mortality in combination with pulmonary diseases including lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis. Multiple mechanisms by which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, however the role of apoptosis in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) has not yet been fully explored. Accumulating evidence implicates AEC apoptosis as a crucial event in the development of both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asbestosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chrysotile asbestos induces mitochondria‑regulated (intrinsic) AEC apoptosis and, if so, whether this induction occurs via the activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK). Human A549 bronchoalveolar carcinoma‑derived cells with alveolar epithelial type II‑like features were used. The present study showed that chrysotile asbestos induced a dose‑ and time‑dependent decrease in A549 cell viability, which was accompanied by the activation of the MAPK c‑Jun N‑terminal kinases (JNK), but not the MAPKs extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Chrysotile asbestos was also shown to induce intrinsic AEC apoptosis, as evidenced by the upregulation of the pro‑apoptotic genes Bax and Bak, alongside the activation of caspase‑9, poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP), and the release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked chrysotile asbestos‑induced JNK activation and subsequent apoptosis, as assessed by both caspase‑9 cleavage and PARP activation. The results of the present study demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos induces intrinsic AEC apoptosis by a JNK‑dependent mechanism, and suggests a potential novel target for the modulation of chrysotile asbestos‑associated lung diseases.

  12. Cytoskeletal re-arrangement in TGF-β1-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition studied by atomic force microscopy and high-content analysis.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Stephen T; Medina, Carlos; Davies, Anthony M; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Associated with this phenotypic transition is the acquisition of an elongated cell morphology and establishment of stress fibers. The extent to which these EMT-associated changes influence cellular mechanics is unclear. We assessed the biomechanical properties of alveolar epithelial cells (A549) following exposure to TGF-β1. Using atomic force microscopy, changes in cell stiffness and surface membrane features were determined. Stimulation with TGF-β1 gave rise to a significant increase in stiffness, which was augmented by a collagen I matrix. Additionally, TGF-β1-treated cells exhibited a rougher surface profile with notable protrusions. Simultaneous quantitative examination of the morphological attributes of stimulated cells using an image-based high-content analysis system revealed dramatic alterations in cell shape, F-actin content and distribution. Together, these investigations point to a strong correlation between the cytoskeletal-associated cellular architecture and the mechanical dynamics of alveolar epithelial cells undergoing EMT. From the Clinical Editor: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Using atomic force microscopy, the authors demonstrate a strong correlation between the cytoskeletal-associated cellular architecture and the mechanical dynamics of alveolar epithelial cells undergoing mesenchymal transition.

  13. Arsenic upregulates MMP-9 and inhibits wound repair in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Colin E; Liguori, Andrew E; Zong, Yue; Lantz, R Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L; Boitano, Scott

    2008-08-01

    As part of the innate immune defense, the polarized conducting lung epithelium acts as a barrier to keep particulates carried in respiration from underlying tissue. Arsenic is a metalloid toxicant that can affect the lung via inhalation or ingestion. We have recently shown that chronic exposure of mice or humans to arsenic (10-50 ppb) in drinking water alters bronchiolar lavage or sputum proteins consistent with reduced epithelial cell migration and wound repair in the airway. In this report, we used an in vitro model to examine effects of acute exposure of arsenic (15-290 ppb) on conducting airway lung epithelium. We found that arsenic at concentrations as low as 30 ppb inhibits reformation of the epithelial monolayer following scrape wounds of monolayer cultures. In an effort to understand functional contributions to epithelial wound repair altered by arsenic, we showed that acute arsenic exposure increases activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an important protease in lung function. Furthermore, inhibition of MMP-9 in arsenic-treated cells improved wound repair. We propose that arsenic in the airway can alter the airway epithelial barrier by restricting proper wound repair in part through the upregulation of MMP-9 by lung epithelial cells.

  14. XB130 promotes bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation in airway epithelial repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Toba, Hiroaki; Wang, Yingchun; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Cho, Hae-Ra; Liu, Hongmei; Lira, Alonso; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) is essential for epithelial repair. XB130 is a novel adaptor protein involved in the regulation of epithelial cell survival, proliferation and migration through the PI3K/Akt pathway. To determine the role of XB130 in airway epithelial injury repair and regeneration, a naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury model was used with XB130 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. In XB130 KO mice, at days 7 and 14, small airway epithelium repair was significantly delayed with fewer number of Club cells (previously called Clara cells). CCSP (Club cell secreted protein) mRNA expression was also significantly lower in KO mice at day 7. At day 5, there were significantly fewer proliferative epithelial cells in the KO group, and the number of BASCs significantly increased in WT mice but not in KO mice. At day 7, phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and the p85α subunit of PI3K was observed in airway epithelial cells in WT mice, but to a much lesser extent in KO mice. Microarray data also suggest that PI3K/Akt-related signals were regulated differently in KO and WT mice. An inhibitory mechanism for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression was suggested in KO mice. XB130 is involved in bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation, likely through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26360608

  15. Human amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold in the repair of spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting-gang; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Ai-hua; Lu, Hua; Miao, Zong-ning; Zhao, Peng; Hui, Guo-zhen; Wu, Wei-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate. We hypothesized that amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffolds would be conducive to the repair of spinal cord injury. To test this, we isolated and cultured amniotic epithelial cells, and constructed complexes of these cells and silk fibroin scaffolds. Implantation of the cell-scaffold complex into a rat model of spinal cord injury resulted in a smaller glial scar in the damaged cord tissue than in model rats that received a blank scaffold, or amniotic epithelial cells alone. In addition to a milder local immunological reaction, the rats showed less inflammatory cell infiltration at the transplant site, milder host-versus-graft reaction, and a marked improvement in motor function. These findings confirm that the transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold can promote the repair of spinal cord injury. Silk fibroin scaffold can provide a good nerve regeneration microenvironment for amniotic epithelial cells. PMID:27904501

  16. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

  17. The verapamil transporter expressed in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) does not interact with β2-receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Johanna J; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

      Affinity of different organs for verapamil is highly variable and organ-specific. For example, the drug exhibits high levels of accumulation in lung tissues. A transporter recognising verapamil as a substrate has previously been identified in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and in rat retinal capillary endothelial (TR-iBRB2) cells. This transporter is distinct from any of the cloned organic cation transporters. Therefore, we hypothesised that the verapamil transporter is also functionally expressed in the human respiratory mucosa. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that this transporter interacts with pulmonary administered cationic drugs such as β2-agonists. The uptake of [(3)H]verapamil was studied in A549 human alveolar epithelial cell monolayers at different times and concentrations. The influence of extracellular proton concentration and various organic cations on verapamil uptake was determined. Verapamil uptake into A549 cells was time- and concentration-dependent, sensitive to pH and had a Km value of 39.8 ± 8.2 µM. Verapamil uptake was also sensitive to inhibition by amantadine, quinidine and pyrilamine, but insensitive to other typical modulators of organic cation and choline transporters. Whilst we demonstrated functional activity of the elusive verapamil transporter at the lung epithelium, our data suggest that this transporter does not interact with β2-agonists at therapeutic concentrations.

  18. Asbestos fibre length-dependent detachment injury to alveolar epithelial cells in vitro: role of a fibronectin-binding receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, K.; Miller, B. G.; Sara, E.; Slight, J.; Brown, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    A short and a long fibre sample of amosite asbestos were tested for their effects on cells of the human Type 2 alveolar epithelial cell-line A549 in vitro. The long amosite sample was found to cause a rapid detachment of the epithelial cells live from their substratum. At the highest dose, on average 28% of the cells present were detached in this way. Studies on the mechanism of the detachment injury showed that it did not involve oxidants since it was not ameliorated by scavengers of active oxygen species. Neither was the effect reduced by treatment of the fibres with the iron chelator Desferal. Treatments reported to increase the interaction between fibres and cells, serum and poly-L-lysine, did not influence the detachment injury, nor did lung lining fluid. Conversely, the fibronectin tripeptide RGD alone could cause detachment which suggested that a fibronectin-binding integrin was involved. This receptor could be reduced in activity by long fibre exposure, leading to detachment. The detaching effect of fibre could be mimicked by the protein kinase C activator PMA, and so the second messenger system of the cell could also be involved. This type of injury could be important in the pathology associated with exposure to long fibres. PMID:8392859

  19. IL-8 inhibits cAMP-stimulated alveolar epithelial fluid transport via a GRK2/PI3K-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Jérémie; McNicholas, Carmel M.; Carles, Michel; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Houseman, Benjamin T.; Dickinson, Dale A.; Iles, Karen E.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Matthay, Michael A.; Pittet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Patients with acute lung injury (ALI) who retain maximal alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) have better clinical outcomes. Experimental and small clinical studies have shown that β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists enhance AFC via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. However, two multicenter phase 3 clinical trials failed to show that β2AR agonists provide a survival advantage in patients with ALI. We hypothesized that IL-8, an important mediator of ALI, directly antagonizes the alveolar epithelial response to β2AR agonists. Short-circuit current and whole-cell patch-clamping experiments revealed that IL-8 or its rat analog CINC-1 decreases by 50% β2AR agonist-stimulated vectorial Cl− and net fluid transport across rat and human alveolar epithelial type II cells via a reduction in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activity and biosynthesis. This reduction was mediated by heterologous β2AR desensitization and down-regulation (50%) via the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)/PI3K signaling pathway. Inhibition of CINC-1 restored β2AR agonist-stimulated AFC in an experimental model of ALI in rats. Finally, consistent with the experimental results, high pulmonary edema fluid levels of IL-8 (>4000 pg/ml) were associated with impaired AFC in patients with ALI. These results demonstrate a novel role for IL-8 in inhibiting β2AR agonist-stimulated alveolar epithelial fluid transport via GRK2/PI3K-dependent mechanisms.—Roux, J., McNicholas, C. M., Carles, M., Goolaerts, A., Houseman, B. T., Dickinson, D. A., Iles, K. E., Ware, L. B., Matthay, M. A., Pittet, J.-F. IL-8 inhibits cAMP-stimulated alveolar epithelial fluid transport via a GRK2/PI3K-dependent mechanism. PMID:23221335

  20. Role of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide induced by intermittent hypoxia in airway epithelial wound repair in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Satoshi; Sato, Atsuyasu; Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Satooka, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Koichi; Tanimura, Kazuya; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Muro, Shigeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-05-15

    The airway epithelium acts as a frontline barrier against various environmental insults and its repair process after airway injury is critical for the lung homeostasis restoration. Recently, the role of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as transcription-independent damage signaling has been highlighted in the wound repair process. Both conditions of continuous hypoxia and intermittent hypoxia (IH) induce ROS. Although IH is important in clinical settings, the roles of IH-induced ROS in the airway repair process have not been investigated. In this study, we firstly showed that IH induced mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and significantly decreased bronchial epithelial cell migration, prevented by catalase treatment in a wound scratch assay. RhoA activity was higher during repair process in the IH condition compared to in the normoxic condition, resulting in the cellular morphological changes shown by immunofluorescence staining: round cells, reduced central stress fiber numbers, pronounced cortical actin filament distributions, and punctate focal adhesions. These phenotypes were replicated by exogenous H2O2 treatment under the normoxic condition. Our findings confirmed the transcription-independent role of IH-induced intracellular ROS in the bronchial epithelial cell repair process and might have significant implications for impaired bronchial epithelial cell regeneration.

  1. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by glass fibers on human alveolar epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Ledda, Caterina; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Renis, Marcella; Ferrante, Margherita; Cardile, Venera

    2015-04-01

    Man-made vitreous fibers have been widely used as insulation material as asbestos substitutes; however their morphology and composition raises concerns. In 1988 the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified fiberglass, rock wool, slag wool, and ceramic fibers as Group 2B, i.e. possibly carcinogenic to humans. In 2002 it reassigned fiberglass, rock and slag wool, and continuous glass filaments to Group 3, not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this study was to verify the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects and oxidative stress production induced by in vitro exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells A549 to glass fibers with a predominant diameter <3 μm (97%) and length >5 μm (93%). A549 cells were incubated with 5, 50, or 100 μg/ml (2.1, 21, and 42 μg/cm(2), respectively) of glass fibers for 72 h. Cytotoxicity and DNA damage were tested by the MTT and the Comet assay, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by Western blotting, production of nitric oxide (NO) with Griess reagent, and concentration of reactive oxygen species by fluorescent quantitative analysis with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The results showed that glass fiber exposure significantly reduced cell viability and increased DNA damage and oxidative stress production in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that glass fibers exert cytotoxic and genotoxic effects related to increased oxidative stress on the human alveolar cell line A549.

  2. Rat respiratory coronavirus infection: replication in airway and alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C. Joel; Manzer, Rizwan; Miura, Tanya A.; Groshong, Steve D.; Ito, Yoko; Travanty, Emily A.; Leete, Jennifer; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The rat coronavirus sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) causes respiratory infection and provides a system for investigating respiratory coronaviruses in a natural host. A viral suspension in the form of a microspray aerosol was delivered by intratracheal instillation into the distal lung of 6–8-week-old Fischer 344 rats. SDAV inoculation produced a 7 % body weight loss over a 5 day period that was followed by recovery over the next 7 days. SDAV caused focal lesions in the lung, which were most severe on day 4 post-inoculation (p.i.). Immunofluorescent staining showed that four cell types supported SDAV virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, namely Clara cells, ciliated cells in the bronchial airway and alveolar type I and type II cells in the lung parenchyma. In bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) a neutrophil influx increased the population of neutrophils to 45 % compared with 6 % of the cells in control samples on day 2 after mock inoculation. Virus infection induced an increase in surfactant protein SP-D levels in BALF of infected rats on days 4 and 8 p.i. that subsided by day 12. The concentrations of chemokines MCP-1, LIX and CINC-1 in BALF increased on day 4 p.i., but returned to control levels by day 8. Intratracheal instillation of rats with SDAV coronavirus caused an acute, self-limited infection that is a useful model for studying the early events of the innate immune response to respiratory coronavirus infections in lungs of the natural virus host. PMID:19741068

  3. Tracking translocation of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) across alveolar epithelial monolayers in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joel M.; Derk, Raymond; Wang, Liying; Godleski, John; Kobzik, Lester; Brain, Joseph; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the fate of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the lungs. Inhalation exposure and subsequent translocation of ENMs across the epithelial lining layer of the lung might contribute to clearance, toxic effects or both. To allow precise quantitation of translocation across lung epithelial cells, we developed a method for tracking industrially-relevant metal oxide ENMs in vitro using neutron activation. The versatility and sensitivity of the proposed In Vitro Epithelial Translocation (INVET) system was demonstrated using a variety of industry relevant ENMs including CeO2 of various primary particle diameter, ZnO, and SiO2-coated-CeO2 and ZnO particles. ENMs were neutron activated, forming gamma emitting isotopes 141Ce and 65Zn respectively. Calu-3 lung epithelial cells cultured to confluency on transwell inserts were exposed to neutron-activated ENM dispersions at sub-lethal doses to investigate the link between ENM properties and translocation potential. The effects of ENM exposure on monolayer integrity was monitored by various methods. ENM translocation across the cellular monolayer was assessed by gamma spectrometry following 2, 4 and 24 hours of exposure. Our results demonstrate that ENMs translocated in small amounts (e.g. <0.01% of the delivered dose at 24 h), predominantly via transcellular pathways without compromising monolayer integrity or disrupting tight junctions. It was also demonstrated that the delivery of particles in suspension to cells in culture is proportional to translocation, emphasizing the importance of accurate dosimetry when comparing ENM-cellular interactions for large panels of materials. The reported INVET system for tracking industrially relevant ENMs while accounting for dosimetry can be a valuable tool for investigating nano-bio interactions in the future. PMID:24479615

  4. Tracking translocation of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) across alveolar epithelial monolayers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel M; Derk, Raymond; Wang, Liying; Godleski, John; Kobzik, Lester; Brain, Joseph; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Relatively little is known about the fate of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the lungs that can be used to convert administered doses to delivered doses. Inhalation exposure and subsequent translocation of ENMs across the epithelial lining layer of the lung might contribute to clearance, toxic effects or both. To allow precise quantitation of translocation across lung epithelial cells, we developed a method for tracking industrially relevant metal oxide ENMs in vitro using neutron activation. The versatility and sensitivity of the proposed in vitro epithelial translocation (INVET) system was demonstrated using a variety of industry relevant ENMs including CeO2 of various primary particle diameter, ZnO, and SiO2-coated CeO2 and ZnO particles. ENMs were neutron activated, forming gamma emitting isotopes (141)Ce and (65)Zn, respectively. Calu-3 lung epithelial cells cultured to confluency on transwell inserts were exposed to neutron-activated ENM dispersions at sub-lethal doses to investigate the link between ENM properties and translocation potential. The effects of ENM exposure on monolayer integrity was monitored by various methods. ENM translocation across the cellular monolayer was assessed by gamma spectrometry following 2, 4 and 24 h of exposure. Our results demonstrate that ENMs translocated in small amounts (e.g. <0.01% of the delivered dose at 24 h), predominantly via transcellular pathways without compromising monolayer integrity or disrupting tight junctions. It was also demonstrated that the delivery of particles in suspension to cells in culture is proportional to translocation, emphasizing the importance of accurate dosimetry when comparing ENM-cellular interactions for large panels of materials. The reported INVET system for tracking industrially relevant ENMs while accounting for dosimetry can be a valuable tool for investigating nano-bio interactions in the future.

  5. Wound repair and anti-oxidative capacity is regulated by ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi; Liu, Hui-jun; Xiang, Yang; Tan, Yu-rong; Zhu, Xiao-lin; Qin, Xiao-qun

    2010-08-01

    Integrin beta 4 (ITGB4) is a structural adhesion molecule which engages in maintaining the integrity of airway epithelial cells. Its specific cytomembrane structural feature strongly indicates that ITGB4 may engage in many signaling pathways and physiologic processes. However, in addition to adhesion, the specific biologic significance of ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells is almost unknown. In this article, we investigated the expression and functional properties of ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14O-cells) and primary rat tracheal epithelial cells (RTE cells) were used to determine ITGB4 expression under ozone tress or mechanical damage, respectively. An ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged asthma model was used to investigate ITGB4 expression after antigen exposure in vivo. In addition, an ITGB4 overexpression vector and ITGB4 silence virus vector were constructed and transfected into RTE cells. Then, wound repair ability and anti-oxidation capacity was evaluated. Our results demonstrated that, on the edge of mechanically wounded cell areas, ITGB4 expression was increased after mechanical injury. After ozone stress, upregulation expression of ITGB4 was also detected. In the OVA-challenged asthma model, ITGB4 expression was decreased on airway epithelial cells accompanying with structural disruption and damage of anti-oxidation capacity. Besides, our study revealed that upregulation of ITGB4 promotes wound repair ability and anti-oxidative ability, while such abilities were blocked when ITGB4 was silenced. Taken together, these results showed that ITGB4 was a new interesting molecule involved in the regulation of wound repair and anti-oxidation processes for airway epithelial cells.

  6. Conditioned media from mesenchymal stromal cells restore sodium transport and preserve epithelial permeability in an in vitro model of acute alveolar injury.

    PubMed

    Goolaerts, Arnaud; Pellan-Randrianarison, Nadia; Larghero, Jérôme; Vanneaux, Valérie; Uzunhan, Yurdagül; Gille, Thomas; Dard, Nicolas; Planès, Carole; Matthay, Michael A; Clerici, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or their media (MSC-M) were reported to reverse acute lung injury (ALI)-induced decrease of alveolar fluid clearance. To determine the mechanisms by which MSC-M exert their beneficial effects, an in vitro model of alveolar epithelial injury was created by exposing primary rat alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to hypoxia (3% O2) plus cytomix, a combination of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. MSC-M were collected from human MSCs exposed for 12 h to either normoxia (MSC-M) or to hypoxia plus cytomix (HCYT-MSC-M). This latter condition was used to model the effect of alveolar inflammation and hypoxia on paracrine secretion of MSCs in the injured lung. Comparison of paracrine soluble factors in MSC media showed that the IL-1 receptor antagonist and prostaglandin E2 were markedly increased while keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) was twofold lower in HCYT-MSC-M compared with MSC-M. In AECs, hypoxia plus cytomix increased protein permeability, reduced amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current (AS-Isc), and also decreased the number of α-epithelial sodium channel (α-ENaC) subunits in the apical membrane. To test the effects of MSC media, MSC-M and HCYT-MSC-M were added for an additional 12 h to AECs exposed to hypoxia plus cytomix. MSC-M and HCYT-MSC-M completely restored epithelial permeability to normal. MSC-M, but not HCYT-MSC-M, significantly prevented the hypoxia plus cytomix-induced decrease of ENaC activity and restored apical α-ENaC channels. Interestingly, KGF-deprived MSC-M were unable to restore amiloride-sensitive sodium transport, indicating a possible role for KGF in the beneficial effect of MSC-M. These results indicate that MSC-M may be a preferable therapeutic option for ALI.

  7. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, a component of tobacco smoke, modulates mediator release from human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Proulx, L I; Gaudreault, M; Turmel, V; Augusto, L A; Castonguay, A; Bissonnette, E Y

    2005-04-01

    Respiratory epithelial cells are known to contribute to immune responses through the release of mediators. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco carcinogen, on respiratory epithelial cells and to compare two metabolic pathways, alpha-methylhydroxylation and alpha-methylenehydroxylation, involved in these effects using selective precursors, 4-(acetoxy-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridil)-1-butanone (NNKOAc) and N-nitroso (acetoxymethyl) methylamine (NDMAOAc), respectively. Human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cell lines, BEAS-2B and A549, respectively, were treated with NNK, NNKOAc and NDMAOAc for 24 h with and without tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and mediators released in cell-free supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). NNK significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in both cell types. Similar results were observed with primary bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. Although NNK increased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production by A549 cells, its immunomodulatory effects were not mediated by PGE(2) according to the results with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. NNKOAc mimicked NNK effects, whereas NDMAOAc significantly inhibited IL-8 production in BEAS-2B cells and MCP-1 in both cell types. These results demonstrate that NNK and its reactive metabolites have immunosuppressive effects on respiratory epithelial cells, which could contribute to the increased respiratory infections observed in smokers and the development and/or the progression of lung cancer.

  8. Phagosomal pH and glass fiber dissolution in cultured nasal epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N F

    1994-01-01

    The dissolution rate of glass fibers has been shown to be pH sensitive using in vitro lung fluid simulant models. The current study investigated whether there is a difference in phagosomal pH (ppH) between rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and rat nasal epithelial cells (RNEC) and whether such a difference would influence the dissolution of glass fibers. The ppH was measured in cultured AM and RNEC using flow cytometric, fluorescence-emission rationing techniques with fluorescein-labeled, amorphous silica particles. Glass fiber dissolution was determined in AM and RNEC cultured for 3 weeks with fast dissolving glass fibers (GF-A) or slow dissolving ones (GF-B). The mean diameters of GF-A were 2.7 microns and of GF-B, 2.6 microns, the average length of both fibers was approximately 22 to 25 microns. Dissolution was monitored by measuring the length and diameter of intracellular fibers and estimating the volume, assuming a cylindrical morphology. The ppH of AM was 5.2 to 5.8, and the ppH of RNEC was 7.0 to 7.5. The GF-A dissolved more slowly in RNEC than in AM, and no dissolution was evident in either cell type with GF-B. The volume loss with GF-A after a 3-week culture with AM was 66% compared to 45% for cultured RNEC. These results are different from those obtained using in vitro lung fluid-simulant models where dissolution is faster at higher pH. This difference suggests that dissolution rates of glass fibers in AM should not be applied to the dissolution of fibers in epithelial cells. Images Figure 1. a Figure 1. b Figure 2. a Figure 2. b Figure 3. a Figure 3. b PMID:7882965

  9. Analysis of airway epithelial regeneration and repair following endobronchial brush biopsy in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, B; Baker, A; Tennant, P; Smith, S H; Shaw, D J; McLachlan, G; Collie, D D S

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the fundamental processes involved in repairing the airway wall following injury is fundamental to understanding the way in which these processes are perturbed during disease pathology. Indeed complex diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have at their core evidence of airway wall remodeling processes that play a crucial functional role in these diseases. The authors sought to understand the dynamic cellular events that occur during bronchial airway epithelial repair in sheep. The injury was induced by endobronchial brush biopsy (BBr), a process that causes epithelial débridement and induces a consequential repair process. In addition, the current experimental protocol allowed for the time-dependent changes in airway wall morphology to be studied both within and between animals. The initial débridement was followed by evidence of dedifferentiation in the intact epithelium at the wound margins, followed by proliferation of cells both within the epithelium and in the deeper wall structures, notably in association with the submucosal glands and smooth muscle bundles. Seven days after injury, although the airway wall was thickened at the site of damage, the epithelial layer was intact, with evidence of redifferentiation. These studies, in demonstrating broad agreement with previous studies in small animals, indicate the wider relevance of this system as a comparative model and should provide a solid basis upon which to further characterize the critical cellular and molecular interactions that underlie both effective restitution and pathological repair.

  10. Procyanidin A2 Modulates IL-4-Induced CCL26 Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Sara L.; Kruger, Marlena C.; Sawyer, Gregory M.; Hurst, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease that is partly sustained by the chemokine eotaxin-3 (CCL26), which extends eosinophil migration into tissues long after allergen exposure. Modulation of CCL26 could represent a means to mitigate airway inflammation. Here we evaluated procyanidin A2 as a means of modulating CCL26 production and investigated interactions with the known inflammation modulator, Interferon γ (IFNγ). We used the human lung epithelial cell line A549 and optimized the conditions for inducing CCL26. Cells were exposed to a range of procyanidin A2 or IFNγ concentrations for varied lengths of time prior to an inflammatory insult of interleukin-4 (IL-4) for 24 h. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure CCL26 production. Exposing cells to 5 μM procyanidin A2 (prior to IL-4) reduced CCL26 production by 35% compared with control. Greatest inhibition by procyanidin A2 was seen with a 2 h exposure prior to IL-4, whereas IFNγ inhibition was greatest at 24 h. Concomitant incubation of procyanidin A2 and IFNγ did not extend the inhibitory efficacy of procyanidin A2. These data provide evidence that procyanidin A2 can modulate IL-4-induced CCL26 production by A549 lung epithelial cells and that it does so in a manner that is different from IFNγ. PMID:27845745

  11. Effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of hyperoxia-exposed type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from premature rat.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huaping; Chang, Liwen; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Hanchu

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in A-EC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 micromol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 micromol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 micromol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  12. Isolation and characterization of lung resident mesenchymal stem cells capable of differentiating into alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xuemin; Sun, Zhaorui; Cui, Di; Xu, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Huiming; Wang, Lihui; Qian, Weiping; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-04-01

    Controversies and risks continue to be reported about exogenous mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies. In contrast with employing exogenous stem cells, making use of lung resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) could be advantageous. Our study sought to isolate the LR-MSCs and explore their potential to differentiate into alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII cells). Total lung cells were first precultured, from which the Sca-1(+) CD45(-) CD31(-) population was purified using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). By these methods, it would seem that the Sca-1(+) CD45(-) CD31(-) cells were LR-MSCs. Similar to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), these cells express Sca-1, CD29, CD90, CD44 and CD106, but not CD31 or CD45. They share the same gene expression file with the BM-MSCs and have a similar DNA content during long-term culturing. Furthermore, they could be serially passaged with all these properties being sustained. Above all, LR-MSCs could differentiate into ATII cells when co-cultured with ATII cells in a trans-well system. These findings demonstrated that the Sca-1(+) CD45(-) CD31(-) cells appear to be LR-MSCs that can differentiate into ATII cells. This approach may hold promise for their use in the treatment of lung disease.

  13. Expression and Biological Activity of ABCA1 in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Sandra R.; Tao, Jian-Qin; Yu, Kevin J.; Borok, Zea; Crandall, Edward D.; Collins, Heidi L.; Rothblat, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms used by alveolar type I pneumocytes for maintenance of the lipid homeostasis necessary to sustain these large squamous cells are unknown. The processes may involve the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transport protein shown to be crucial in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)–mediated mobilization of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid. Immunohistochemical data demonstrated the presence of ABCA1 in lung type I and type II cells and in cultured pneumocytes. Type II cells isolated from rat lungs and cultured for 5 days in 10% serum trans-differentiated toward cells with a type I–like phenotype which reacted with the type I cell–specific monoclonal antibody VIIIB2. Upon incubation of the type I–like pneumocytes with agents that up-regulate the ABCA1 gene (9-cis-retinoic acid [9cRA] and 22-hydroxycholesterol [22-OH, 9cRA/22-OH]), ABCA1 protein levels were enhanced to maximum levels after 8 to 16 hours and remained elevated for 24 hours. In the presence of apoA-I and 9cRA/22-OH, efflux of radioactive phospholipid and cholesterol from pneumocytes was stimulated 3- to 20-fold, respectively, over controls. Lipid efflux was inhibited by Probucol. Sucrose density gradient analysis of the media from stimulated cells incubated with apoA-I identified heterogeneous lipid particles that isolated at a density between 1.063 and 1.210 g/ml, with low or high apoA-I content. Thus, pneumocytes with markers for the type I phenotype contained functional ABCA1 protein, released lipid to apoA-I protein, and were capable of producing particles resembling nascent high-density lipoprotein, indicating an important role for ABCA1 in the maintenance of lung lipid homeostasis. PMID:17884990

  14. Histological studies on the effects of tooth brushing on repair of alveolar bone after periodontal osseous surgery in the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Agematsu, H; Watanabe, H; Fukayama, M; Yamamoto, H; Kanazawa, T; Kishiro, H; Miake, K

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of tooth brushing on repair of alveolar bone after periodontal osseous surgery in the labial alveolar bone of rat incisor. The surgery was performed on 24 Wistar rats divided into 2 groups: the experimental group, which was subjected to tooth brushing, and the control group, which was not. In the experimental group, daily tooth brushing was initiated at 4 weeks after surgery. The rats were sacrificed after 1 or 2 weeks of tooth brushing. Microradiographic, light and fluorescence microscopic examinations were made of sections of the alveolar bone and its surrounding tissue. After 1 week of tooth brushing, callus with a low degree of mineralization and with large, irregularly arranged, young osteocytes appeared in the superficial layer and crest portion of alveolar bone in the brushing region. Numerous blood vessels had invaded the callus. In this region, the height of osteoblasts on the callus surface increased. At the alveolar crest region, the callus was approximately 3 times thicker than in the superficial region. After 2 weeks of tooth brushing, modification had occurred in the callus; this region had evolved into developed bone with a compact matrix. These findings suggest that the intermittent mechanical stress of tooth brushing is useful in activating the cells of the alveolar periosteum and in stimulating bone formation.

  15. Paracrine influence of human perivascular cells on the proliferation of adenocarcinoma alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunbi; Na, Sunghun; An, Borim; Yang, Se-Ran; Kim, Woo Jin; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Han, Eun-Taek; Park, Won Sun; Lee, Chang-Min; Lee, Ji Yoon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the crosstalk mechanisms between perivascular cells (PVCs) and cancer cells might be beneficial in preventing cancer development and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the paracrine influence of PVCs derived from human umbilical cords on the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and erythroleukemia cells (TF-1α and K562) in vitro using Transwell® co-culture systems. PVCs promoted the proliferation of A549 cells without inducing morphological changes, but had no effect on the proliferation of TF-1α and K562 cells. To identify the factors secreted from PVCs, conditioned media harvested from PVC cultures were analyzed by antibody arrays. We identified a set of cytokines, including persephin (PSPN), a neurotrophic factor, and a key regulator of oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. Supplementation with PSPN significantly increased the proliferation of A549 cells. These results suggested that PVCs produced a differential effect on the proliferation of cancer cells in a cell-type dependent manner. Further, secretome analyses of PVCs and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms could facilitate the discovery of therapeutic target(s) for lung cancer. PMID:28280409

  16. Overexpression of sICAM-1 in the Alveolar Epithelial Space Results in an Exaggerated Inflammatory Response and Early Death in Gram Negative Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A sizeable body of data demonstrates that membrane ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) plays a significant role in host defense in a site-specific fashion. On the pulmonary vascular endothelium, mICAM-1 is necessary for normal leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation. On alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), we have shown previously that the presence of normal mICAM-1 is essential for optimal alveolar macrophage (AM) function. We have also shown that ICAM-1 is present in the alveolar space as a soluble protein that is likely produced through cleavage of mICAM-1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is abundantly present in the alveolar lining fluid of the normal lung and could be generated by proteolytic cleavage of mICAM-1, which is highly expressed on type I AECs. Although a growing body of data suggesting that intravascular sICAM-1 has functional effects, little is known about sICAM-1 in the alveolus. We hypothesized that sICAM-1 in the alveolar space modulates the innate immune response and alters the response to pulmonary infection. Methods Using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse (SPC-sICAM-1) that constitutively overexpresses sICAM-1 in the distal lung, and compared the responses of wild-type and SPC-sICAM-1 mice following intranasal inoculation with K. pneumoniae. Results SPC-sICAM-1 mice demonstrated increased mortality and increased systemic dissemination of organisms compared with wild-type mice. We also found that inflammatory responses were significantly increased in SPC-sICAM-1 mice compared with wild-type mice but there were no difference in lung CFU between groups. Conclusions We conclude that alveolar sICAM-1 modulates pulmonary inflammation. Manipulating ICAM-1 interactions therapeutically may modulate the host response to Gram negative pulmonary infections. PMID:21247482

  17. IL-22 is essential for lung epithelial repair following influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Derek A; Scheller, Erich V; Mandalapu, Sivanarayana; McHugh, Kevin J; Enelow, Richard I; Fattman, Cheryl L; Kolls, Jay K; Alcorn, John F

    2013-04-01

    Influenza infection is widespread in the United States and the world. Despite low mortality rates due to infection, morbidity is common and little is known about the molecular events involved in recovery. Influenza infection results in persistent distal lung remodeling, and the mechanism(s) involved are poorly understood. Recently IL-22 has been found to mediate epithelial repair. We propose that IL-22 is critical for recovery of normal lung function and architecture after influenza infection. Wild-type and IL-22(-/-) mice were infected with influenza A PR8/34 H1N1 and were followed up for up to 21 days post infection. IL-22 receptor was localized to the airway epithelium in naive mice but was expressed at the sites of parenchymal lung remodeling induced by influenza infection. IL-22(-/-) mice displayed exacerbated lung injury compared with wild-type mice, which correlated with decreased lung function 21 days post infection. Epithelial metaplasia was observed in wild-type mice but was not evident in IL-22(-/-) animals that were characterized with an increased fibrotic phenotype. Gene expression analysis revealed aberrant expression of epithelial genes involved in repair processes, among changes in several other biological processes. These data indicate that IL-22 is required for normal lung repair after influenza infection. IL-22 represents a novel pathway involved in interstitial lung disease.

  18. Annexin A1–containing extracellular vesicles and polymeric nanoparticles promote epithelial wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Kamaly, Nazila; Quiros, Miguel; Nishio, Hikaru; Jones, Hefin R.; Sumagin, Ronen; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Alam, Ashfaqul; Fredman, Gabrielle; Argyris, Ioannis; Rijcken, Emile; Kusters, Dennis; Reutelingsperger, Chris; Perretti, Mauro; Parkos, Charles A.; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Neish, Andrew S.; Nusrat, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial restitution is an essential process that is required to repair barrier function at mucosal surfaces following injury. Prolonged breaches in epithelial barrier function result in inflammation and further damage; therefore, a better understanding of the epithelial restitution process has potential for improving the development of therapeutics. In this work, we demonstrate that endogenous annexin A1 (ANXA1) is released as a component of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from intestinal epithelial cells, and these ANXA1-containing EVs activate wound repair circuits. Compared with healthy controls, patients with active inflammatory bowel disease had elevated levels of secreted ANXA1-containing EVs in sera, indicating that ANXA1-containing EVs are systemically distributed in response to the inflammatory process and could potentially serve as a biomarker of intestinal mucosal inflammation. Local intestinal delivery of an exogenous ANXA1 mimetic peptide (Ac2-26) encapsulated within targeted polymeric nanoparticles (Ac2-26 Col IV NPs) accelerated healing of murine colonic wounds after biopsy-induced injury. Moreover, one-time systemic administration of Ac2-26 Col IV NPs accelerated recovery following experimentally induced colitis. Together, our results suggest that local delivery of proresolving peptides encapsulated within nanoparticles may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for clinical situations characterized by chronic mucosal injury, such as is seen in patients with IBD. PMID:25664854

  19. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SALAS, JUAN; MORÁN, ANDREA; SUAZO, IVÁN

    2013-01-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H2O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H2O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H2O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects. PMID:24250728

  20. Differential regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by hydrogen peroxide and flagellin in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Noriko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Toku, Seikichi; Kakinohana, Manabu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-02-05

    In previous studies, we found that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by flagellin induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) through activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in cultured alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Our studies strongly suggested that MAPKAPK-2 phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Ser1047. It has been reported that phosphorylation of Ser1047 after treatment with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced the internalization of EGFR. In the present study, we first found that treatment of A549 cells with hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of MAPKAPK-2 and phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 within 30 min. This was different from flagellin treatment because hydrogen peroxide treatment induced the phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1173 as well as Ser1047, indicating the activation of EGFR. We also found that KN93, an inhibitor of CaM kinase II, inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 through inhibition of the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we examined the internalization of EGFR by three different methods. Flow cytometry with an antibody against the extracellular domain of EGFR and biotinylation of cell surface proteins revealed that flagellin, but not hydrogen peroxide, decreased the amount of cell-surface EGFR. In addition, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by EGF treatment was reduced by flagellin pre-treatment. These results strongly suggested that hydrogen peroxide activated the p38 MAPK pathway via activation of CaM kinase II and that flagellin and hydrogen peroxide regulate the functions of EGFR by different mechanisms.

  1. Nano-biointeractions of PEGylated and bare reduced graphene oxide on lung alveolar epithelial cells: A comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reshma, S C; Syama, S; Mohanan, P V

    2016-04-01

    Graphene and its derivatives have garnered significant scientific interest and have potential use in nano-electronics as well as biomedicine. However the undesirable biological consequence, especially upon inhalation of the particle, requires further investigations. This study aimed to elucidate the nano-biointeractions of PEGylated reduced graphene oxide (PrGO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with that of lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Both nanomaterials showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability and alteration of cell morphology after 24h. Upon intracellular uptake of PrGO, it elicited oxidative stress mediated apoptosis in the cells by inducing ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inflammatory response by NF-κB activation. Conversely, rGO was found to scavenge ROS efficiently except at high dose after 24h. It was found that ROS at high dose of rGO prompted loss of MMP. rGO was found to adhere to the cell membrane, where it is assumed to bind to cell surface Toll like receptors (TLRs) thereby activating NF-κB mediated inflammatory response. All these events culminated in an increase in apoptosis of A549 cells after 24h of rGO exposure. It was also noticed that both the nanomaterials did not initiate lysosomal pathway but instead activated mitochondria mediated apoptosis. This study highlights the possible adverse toxic effect of PrGO and rGO upon inhalation and persistence of these particles in the lungs. Further research is required to comprehend the biological response of PrGO and rGO so as to advance its biomedical application and safety.

  2. The Role of Alveolar Epithelial Cells in Initiating and Shaping Pulmonary Immune Responses: Communication between Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chuquimia, Olga D.; Petursdottir, Dagbjort H.; Rahman, Muhammad J.; Hartl, Katharina; Singh, Mahavir; Fernández, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells have been recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. However, more recently, other cells in the lungs such as alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) have been found to play important roles in the defense and pathogenesis of infection. In the present study we first compared AEC with pulmonary macrophages (PuM) isolated from mice in their ability to internalize and control Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) growth and their capacity as APCs. AEC were able to internalize and control bacterial growth as well as present antigen to primed T cells. Secondly, we compared both cell types in their capacity to secrete cytokines and chemokines upon stimulation with various molecules including mycobacterial products. Activated PuM and AEC displayed different patterns of secretion. Finally, we analyzed the profile of response of AEC to diverse stimuli. AEC responded to both microbial and internal stimuli exemplified by TLR ligands and IFNs, respectively. The response included synthesis by AEC of several factors, known to have various effects in other cells. Interestingly, TNF could stimulate the production of CCL2/MCP-1. Since MCP-1 plays a role in the recruitment of monocytes and macrophages to sites of infection and macrophages are the main producers of TNF, we speculate that both cell types can stimulate each other. Also, another cell-cell interaction was suggested when IFNs (produced mainly by lymphocytes) were able to induce expression of chemokines (IP-10 and RANTES) by AEC involved in the recruitment of circulating lymphocytes to areas of injury, inflammation, or viral infection. In the current paper we confirm previous data on the capacity of AEC regarding internalization of mycobacteria and their role as APC, and extend the knowledge of AEC as a multifunctional cell type by assessing the secretion of a broad array of factors in response to several different types of stimuli. PMID:22393384

  3. Mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to the metals in combustion-generated particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Baluce, Barbara; Bertuccio, Maria; Picerno, Isa; Di Pietro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Previously a significant mitochondrial impairment was identified in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to metals adsorbed to combustion-generated particulate matter (PM). Due to the critical role of mitochondria in apoptosis, the aim of this study was to investigate the pro-apoptotic potential of metals present in oil fly ash (OFA). A549 cells were exposed to water-soluble components of an OFA sample, containing vanadium [V(IV)], iron [Fe(III)], and nickel [Ni(II)] (68.8, 110.4, and 18 μM, respectively). Experiments were also performed using individual metal solutions. Apoptosis was detected and the mitochondrial role was assessed by a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK). To determine whether the presence of impaired mitochondria in unexposed daughter cells increased apoptosis, an in vitro model was developed that allowed determination of effects until the third cell generation. To specifically examine the toxicity of vanadium (V), that characterize the airborne pollutant examined in this study, p53involvement and metabolic impairment through changes in HIF-1α and Glut-1 expression were determined. OFA and individual metal solutions produced significant apoptosis in the progeny of exposed cells, triggering the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In apoptosis induced by poorly genotoxic metal V, p53 did not play a significant role. However, V exposure increased nuclear translocation of HIF-1α and expression of the Glut-1 receptor, indicating metabolic impairment due to metal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Overall, these results improve our knowledge of the pathogenic role that airborne metals and in particular V exerted in respiratory epithelium.

  4. Regulation of interleukin-6 secretion by the two-pore-domain potassium channel Trek-1 in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Teng, Bin; Ghosh, Manik; Lim, Keng Gat; Tigyi, Gabor; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-02-15

    We recently proposed a role for the two-pore-domain K(+) (K2P) channel Trek-1 in the regulation of cytokine release from mouse alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) by demonstrating decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion from Trek-1-deficient cells, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which Trek-1 decreases IL-6 secretion. We hypothesized that Trek-1 regulates tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced IL-6 release via NF-κB-, p38-, and PKC-dependent pathways. We found that Trek-1 deficiency decreased IL-6 secretion from mouse and human AECs at both transcriptional and translational levels. While NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation was unchanged, p38 phosphorylation was decreased in Trek-1-deficient cells, and pharmacological inhibition of p38 decreased IL-6 secretion in control but not Trek-1-deficient cells. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of PKC also decreased IL-6 release, and we found decreased phosphorylation of the isoforms PKC/PKDμ (Ser(744/748)), PKCθ, PKCδ, PKCα/βII, and PKCζ/λ, but not PKC/PKDμ (Ser(916)) in Trek-1-deficient AECs. Phosphorylation of PKCθ, a Ca(2+)-independent isoform, was intact in control cells but impaired in Trek-1-deficient cells. Furthermore, TNF-α did not elevate the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in control or Trek-1-deficient cells, and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) did not impair IL-6 release. In summary, we report the expression of Trek-1 in human AECs and propose that Trek-1 deficiency may alter both IL-6 translation and transcription in AECs without affecting Ca(2+) signaling. The results of this study identify Trek-1 as a new potential target for the development of novel treatment strategies against acute lung injury.

  5. The 2-pore domain potassium channel TREK-1 regulates stretch-induced detachment of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roan, Esra; Waters, Christopher M; Teng, Bin; Ghosh, Manik; Schwingshackl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome remains challenging partially because the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. While inflammation and loss of barrier function are associated with disease progression, our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms associated with ventilator-associated lung injury is incomplete. In this line of thinking, we recently showed that changes in the F-actin content and deformability of AECs lead to cell detachment with mechanical stretch. Elsewhere, we discovered that cytokine secretion and proliferation were regulated in part by the stretch-activated 2-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channel TREK-1 in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). As such, the aim of the current study was to determine whether TREK-1 regulated the mechanobiology of AECs through cytoskeletal remodeling and cell detachment. Using a TREK-1-deficient human AEC line (A549), we examined the cytoskeleton by confocal microscopy and quantified differences in the F-actin content. We used nano-indentation with an atomic force microscope to measure the deformability of cells and detachment assays to quantify the level of injury in our monolayers. We found a decrease in F-actin and an increase in deformability in TREK-1 deficient cells compared to control cells. Although total vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) levels remained unchanged, focal adhesions appeared to be less prominent and phosphorylation of FAK at the Tyr(925) residue was greater in TREK-1 deficient cells. TREK-1 deficient cells have less F-actin and are more deformable making them more resistant to stretch-induced injury.

  6. Asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis: role of mitochondrial dysfunction caused by iron-derived free radicals.

    PubMed

    Kamp, David W; Panduri, Vij ayalakshmi; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep

    2002-01-01

    Asbestos causes asbestosis and malignancies by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury by iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one important mechanism implicated. We previously showed that iron-catalyzed ROS in part mediate asbestos-inducedAEC DNA damage and apoptosis. Mitochondria have a critical role in regulating apoptosis after exposure to agents causing DNA damage but their role in regulating asbestos-induced apoptosis is unknown. To determine whether asbestos causes AEC mitochondrial dysfunction, we exposed A549 cells to amosite asbestos and assessed mitochondrial membrane potential changes (delta(psi)m) using a fluorometric technique involving tetremethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and mitotracker green. We show that amosite asbestos, but not an inert particulate, titanium dioxide, reduces delta(psi)m after a 4 h exposure period. Further, the delta(psi)m after 4 h was inversely proportional to the levels of apoptosis noted at 24 h as assessed by nuclear morphology as well as by DNA nucleosome formation. A role for iron-derived ROS was suggested by the finding that phytic acid, an iron chelator, blocked asbestos-induced reductions in A549 cell delta(psi)m and attenuated apoptosis. Finally, overexpression of Bcl-xl, an anti-apoptotic protein that localizes to the mitochondria, prevented asbestos-induced decreases in A549 cell delta(psi)m after 4 h and diminished apoptosis. We conclude that asbestos alters AEC mitochondrial function in part by generating iron-derived ROS, which in turn can result in apoptosis. This suggests that the mitochondrial death pathway is important in regulating pulmonary toxicity from asbestos.

  7. Aerosolized ZnO nanoparticles induce toxicity in alveolar type II epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yumei; Williams, Nolann G.; Tolic, Ana; Chrisler, William B.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Maddux, Bettye L.; Pounds, Joel G.; Laskin, Alexander; Orr, Galya

    2012-01-20

    The majority of in vitro studies characterizing the impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cells that line the respiratory tract were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in suspension. This approach introduces processes that are unlikely to occur during inhaled NP exposures in vivo, such as the shedding of toxic doses of dissolved ions. ZnO NPs are used extensively and pose significant sources for human exposure. Exposures to airborne ZnO NPs can induce adverse effects, but the relevance of the dissolved Zn2+ to the observed effects in vivo is still unclear. Our goal was to mimic in vivo exposures to airborne NPs and decipher the contribution of the intact NP from the contribution of the dissolved ions to airborne ZnO NP toxicity. We established the exposure of alveolar type II epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI), and compared the impact of aerosolized ZnO NPs and NPs in suspension at the same cellular doses, measured as the number of particles per cell. By evaluating membrane integrity and cell viability 6 and 24 hours post exposure we found that aerosolized NPs induced toxicity at the ALI at doses that were in the same order of magnitude as doses required to induce toxicity in submersed cultures. In addition, distinct patterns of oxidative stress were observed in the two exposure systems. These observations unravel the ability of airborne ZnO NPs to induce toxicity without the contribution of dissolved Zn2+ and suggest distinct mechanisms at the ALI and in submersed cultures.

  8. Alveolar epithelial cells are critical in protection of the respiratory tract by secretion of factors able to modulate the activity of pulmonary macrophages and directly control bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Chuquimia, Olga D; Petursdottir, Dagbjort H; Periolo, Natalia; Fernández, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium is a physical and functional barrier actively involved in the clearance of environmental agents. The alveolar compartment is lined with membranous pneumocytes, known as type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC I), and granular pneumocytes, type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II). AEC II are responsible for epithelial reparation upon injury and ion transport and are very active immunologically, contributing to lung defense by secreting antimicrobial factors. AEC II also secrete a broad variety of factors, such as cytokines and chemokines, involved in activation and differentiation of immune cells and are able to present antigen to specific T cells. Another cell type important in lung defense is the pulmonary macrophage (PuM). Considering the architecture of the alveoli, a good communication between the external and the internal compartments is crucial to mount effective responses. Our hypothesis is that being in the interface, AEC may play an important role in transmitting signals from the external to the internal compartment and in modulating the activity of PuM. For this, we collected supernatants from AEC unstimulated or stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These AEC-conditioned media were used in various setups to test for the effects on a number of macrophage functions: (i) migration, (ii) phagocytosis and intracellular control of bacterial growth, and (iii) phenotypic changes and morphology. Finally, we tested the direct effect of AEC-conditioned media on bacterial growth. We found that AEC-secreted factors had a dual effect, on one hand controlling bacterial growth and on the other hand increasing macrophage activity.

  9. Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Puchelle, Edith; Zahm, Jean-Marie; Tournier, Jean-Marie; Coraux, Christelle

    2006-11-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbations are generally associated with several causes, including pollutants, viruses, bacteria that are responsible for an excess of inflammatory mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines released by activated epithelial and inflammatory cells. The normal response of the airway surface epithelium to injury includes a succession of cellular events, varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium then has to repair and regenerate to restore its functions, through several mechanisms, including basal cell spreading and migration, followed by proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. In COPD, the remodeling of the airway epithelium, such as squamous metaplasia and mucous hyperplasia that occur during injury, may considerably disturb the innate immune functions of the airway epithelium. In vitro and in vivo models of airway epithelial wound repair and regeneration allow the study of the spatiotemporal modulation of cellular and molecular interaction factors-namely, the proinflammatory cytokines, the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, and the intercellular adhesion molecules. These factors may be markedly altered during exacerbation periods of COPD and their dysregulation may induce remodeling of the airway mucosa and a leakiness of the airway surface epithelium. More knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration may pave the way to cytoprotective and regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional, well-differentiated airway epithelium in COPD.

  10. Neutrophil-derived JAML Inhibits Repair of Intestinal Epithelial Injury During Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Dominique A.; Sumagin, Ronen; McCall, Ingrid C.; Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp A.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Brazil, Jennifer C.; Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Denning, Timothy L.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil transepithelial migration (TEM) during acute inflammation is associated with mucosal injury. Using models of acute mucosal injury in-vitro and in-vivo, we describe a new mechanism by which neutrophils infiltrating the intestinal mucosa disrupt epithelial homeostasis. We report that junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) is cleaved from neutrophil surface by zinc-metalloproteases during TEM. Neutrophil-derived soluble JAML bound to the epithelial tight junction protein coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) resulting in compromised barrier and inhibition of wound repair, through decreased epithelial proliferation. The deleterious effects of JAML on barrier and wound repair were reversed with an anti-JAML mAb that inhibits JAML-CAR binding. Thus, JAML released from transmigrating neutrophils across inflamed epithelia can promote recruitment of leukocytes and aid in clearance of invading microorganisms. However, sustained release of JAML under pathologic conditions associated with persistence of large numbers of infiltrated neutrophil would compromise intestinal barrier and inhibit mucosal healing. Targeting JAML-CAR interactions may thus improve mucosal healing responses under conditions of dysregulated neutrophil recruitment. PMID:24621992

  11. Gap Junctional Coupling is Essential for Epithelial Repair in the Avian Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Regina; Forge, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The loss of auditory hair cells triggers repair responses within the population of nonsensory supporting cells. When hair cells are irreversibly lost from the mammalian cochlea, supporting cells expand to fill the resulting lesions in the sensory epithelium, an initial repair process that is dependent on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). In the chicken cochlea (the basilar papilla or BP), dying hair cells are extruded from the epithelium and supporting cells expand to fill the lesions and then replace hair cells via mitotic and/or conversion mechanisms. Here, we investigated the involvement of GJIC in the initial epithelial repair process in the aminoglycoside-damaged BP. Gentamicin-induced hair cell loss was associated with a decrease of chicken connexin43 (cCx43) immunofluorescence, yet cCx30-labeled gap junction plaques remained. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments confirmed that the GJIC remained robust in gentamicin-damaged explants, but regionally asymmetric coupling was no longer evident. Dye injections in slice preparations from undamaged BP explants identified cell types with characteristic morphologies along the neural-abneural axis, but these were electrophysiologically indistinct. In gentamicin-damaged BP, supporting cells expanded to fill space formerly occupied by hair cells and displayed more variable electrophysiological phenotypes. When GJIC was inhibited during the aminoglycoside damage paradigm, the epithelial repair response halted. Dying hair cells were retained within the sensory epithelium and supporting cells remained unexpanded. These observations suggest that repair of the auditory epithelium shares common mechanisms across vertebrate species and emphasize the importance of functional gap junctions in maintaining a homeostatic environment permissive for subsequent hair cell regeneration. PMID:25429127

  12. Induction and repair of DNA strand breaks in bovine lens epithelial cells after high LET irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, C.; Heilmann, J.; Rink, H.

    The lens epithelium is the initiation site for the development of radiation induced cataracts. While in the cortex and nucleus radiation interacts with proteins, experimental results from cultured lenses and lens epithelial cells demonstrate mutagenic and cytotoxic effects in the epithelium. It is suggested that incorrectly repaired DNA damage may be lethal in terms of cellular reproduction and also may initiate the development of mutations or transformations in surviving cells. The occurrence of such genetically modified cells may lead to lens opacification. For a quantitative risk estimation for astronauts and space travelers it is necessary to know the radiation's relative biological effectiveness (RBE), because cosmic rays differ significantly from X-rays. RBEs for the induction of DNA strand breaks and the efficiency of repair of these breaks were measured in cultured diploid bovine lens epithelial cells exposed to different LET irradiations. Irradiations were performed either with 300 kV X-rays or at the UNILAC accelerator at GSI. Accelerated ions from Z=8 (O) to Z=92 (U) were used. For strand break measurements hydroxyapatite chromatography of alka-line unwound DNA (overall strand breaks) and non-denaturing filter elution technique (double strand breaks) were applied. Experiments showed that DNA damage occurs as a function of dose, of kinetic energy and of LET. For particles having the same LET the severity of the DNA damage increases with dose. For a given particle dose, as the LET rises, the numbers of DNA strand breaks increase to a maximum and then reach a plateau or decrease. Repair kinetics depend on the fluence (irradiation dose). At any LET value, repair is much slower after heavy ion exposure than after X-irradiation. For ions with an LET of less than 10,000 keV/μm more than 90 percent of the strand breaks induced are repaired within 24 hours. At higher particle fluences, especially for low energetic particles with a very high local density of

  13. The voltage-activated hydrogen ion conductance in rat alveolar epithelial cells is determined by the pH gradient

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Voltage-activated H+ currents were studied in rat alveolar epithelial cells using tight-seal whole-cell voltage clamp recording and highly buffered, EGTA-containing solutions. Under these conditions, the tail current reversal potential, Vrev, was close to the Nernst potential, EH, varying 52 mV/U pH over four delta pH units (delta pH = pHo - pHi). This result indicates that H+ channels are extremely selective, PH/PTMA > 10(7), and that both internal and external pH, pHi, and pHo, were well controlled. The H+ current amplitude was practically constant at any fixed delta pH, in spite of up to 100-fold symmetrical changes in H+ concentration. Thus, the rate-limiting step in H+ permeation is pH independent, must be localized to the channel (entry, permeation, or exit), and is not bulk diffusion limitation. The instantaneous current- voltage relationship exhibited distinct outward rectification at symmetrical pH, suggesting asymmetry in the permeation pathway. Sigmoid activation kinetics and biexponential decay of tail currents near threshold potentials indicate that H+ channels pass through at least two closed states before opening. The steady state H+ conductance, gH, as well as activation and deactivation kinetic parameters were all shifted along the voltage axis by approximately 40 mV/U pH by changes in pHi or pHo, with the exception of the fast component of tail currents which was shifted less if at all. The threshold potential at which H+ currents were detectably activated can be described empirically as approximately 20-40(pHo-pHi) mV. If internal and external protons regulate the voltage dependence of gH gating at separate sites, then they must be equally effective. A simpler interpretation is that gating is controlled by the pH gradient, delta pH. We propose a simple general model to account for the observed delta pH dependence. Protonation at an externally accessible site stabilizes the closed channel conformation. Deprotonation of this site permits a

  14. Effects of Bisphenol A Metabolite 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene on Lung Function and Type 2 Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Su, Chin-Chuan; Lee, Kuan-I; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is recognized as a major pollutant worldwide. 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is a major active metabolite of BPA. The epidemiological and animal studies have reported that BPA is harmful to lung function. The role of MBP in lung dysfunction after BPA exposure still remains unclear. This study investigated whether MBP would induce lung alveolar cell damage and evaluated the role of MBP in the BPA exposure-induced lung dysfunction. An in vitro type 2 alveolar epithelial cell (L2) model and an ex vivo isolated reperfused rat lung model were used to determine the effects of BPA or MBP on cell growth and lung function. MBP, but not BPA, dose-dependently increased the mean artery pressure (Pa), pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc), pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and wet/dry weight ratio in isolated reperfused rat lungs. MBP significantly reduced cell viability and induced caspases-3/7 cleavage and apoptosis and increased AMP-activated protein kinas (AMPK) phosphorylation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related molecules expression in L2 cells, which could be reversed by AMPK-siRNA transfection. These findings demonstrated for the first time that MBP exposure induced type 2 alveolar cell apoptosis and lung dysfunction through an AMPK-regulated ER stress signaling pathway. PMID:27982077

  15. Alteration in Intrapulmonary Pharmacokinetics of Aerosolized Model Compounds Due to Disruption of the Alveolar Epithelial Barriers Following Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Chono, Sumio; Tada, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a lethal lung disease that is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and a change in lung structure. In this study, intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of aerosolized model compounds were evaluated using rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Aerosol formulations of indocyanine green, 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF), and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FD; 4.4, 10, 70, and 250 kDa) were administered to rat lungs using a MicroSprayer. Indocyanine green fluorescence signals were significantly weaker in fibrotic lungs than in control lungs and 6-CF and FD concentrations in the plasma of pulmonary fibrotic animals were markedly higher than in the plasma of control animals. Moreover, disrupted epithelial tight junctions, including claudins-1, -3, and -5, were observed in pulmonary fibrotic lesions using immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, destruction of tight junctions on model alveolar epithelial cells (NCI-H441) by transforming growth factor-β1 treatment enhanced the permeability of 6-CF and FDs through NCI-H441 cell monolayers. These results indicate that aerosolized drugs are easily distributed into the plasma after leakage through damaged tight junctions of alveolar epithelium. Therefore, the development of delivery systems for anti-fibrotic agents to improve intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics may be necessary for effective idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis therapy.

  16. Modeling pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis by epithelial deletion of the Npt2b sodium phosphate cotransporter reveals putative biomarkers and strategies for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Atsushi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos M.; Amlal, Hassane; Uehara, Yasuaki; Gardner, Jason C.; LaSance, Kathleen; Pitstick, Lori B.; Bridges, James P.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; McGraw, Dennis W.; Woods, Jason C.; Sabbagh, Yves; Schiavi, Susan C.; Altinişik, Göksel; Jakopović, Marko; Inoue, Yoshikazu; McCormack, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, autosomal recessive lung disorder associated with progressive accumulation of calcium phosphate microliths. Inactivating mutations in SLC34A2, which encodes the NPT2b sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, has been proposed as a cause of PAM. We show that epithelial deletion of Npt2b in mice results in a progressive pulmonary process characterized by diffuse alveolar microlith accumulation, radio-graphic opacification, restrictive physiology, inflammation, fibrosis, and an unexpected alveolar phospholipidosis. Cytokine and surfactant protein elevations in the alveolar lavage and serum of PAM mice and confirmed in serum from PAM patients identify serum MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) and SP-D (surfactant protein D) as potential biomarkers. Microliths introduced by adoptive transfer into the lungs of wild-type mice produce marked macrophagerich inflammation and elevation of serum MCP-1 that peaks at 1 week and resolves at 1 month, concomitant with clearance of stones. Microliths isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage readily dissolve in EDTA, and therapeutic whole-lung EDTA lavage reduces the burden of stones in the lungs. A low-phosphate diet prevents microlith formation in young animals and reduces lung injury on the basis of reduction in serum SP-D. The burden of pulmonary calcium deposits in established PAM is also diminished within 4 weeks by a low-phosphate diet challenge. These data support a causative role for Npt2b in the pathogenesis of PAM and the use of the PAM mouse model as a preclinical platform for the development of biomarkers and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26560359

  17. Induction and repair of DNA strand breaks in bovine lens epithelial cells after high LET irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, C.; Heilmann, J.; Rink, H.

    The lens epithelium is the initiation site for the development of radiation induced cataracts. Radiation in the cortex and nucleus interacts with proteins, while in the epithelium, experimental results reveal mutagenic and cytotoxic effects. It is suggested that incorrectly repaired DNA damage may be lethal in terms of cellular reproduction and also may initiate the development of mutations or transformations in surviving cells. The occurrence of such genetically modified cells may lead to lens opacification. For a quantitative risk estimation for astronauts and space travelers it is necessary to know the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), because the spacial and temporal distribution of initial physical damage induced by cosmic radiation differ significantly from that of X-rays. RBEs for the induction of DNA strand breaks and the efficiency of repair of these breaks were measured in cultured diploid bovine lens epithelial cells exposed to different LET irradiation to either 300 kV X-rays or to heavy ions at the UNILAC accelerator at GSI. Accelerated ions from Z=8 (O) to Z=92 (U) were used. Strand breaks were measured by hydroxyapatite chromatography of alkaline unwound DNA (overall strand breaks). Results showed that DNA damage occurs as a function of dose, of kinetic energy and of LET. For particles having the same LET the severity of the DNA damage increases with dose. For a given particle dose, as the LET rises, the numbers of DNA strand breaks increase to a maximum and then reach a plateau or decrease. Repair kinetics depend on the fluence (irradiation dose). At any LET value, repair is much slower after heavy ion exposure than after X-irradiation. For ions with an LET of less than 10,000 keV μ -1 more than 90 percent of the strand breaks induced are repaired within 24 hours. At higher particle fluences, especially for low energetic particles with a very high local density of energy deposition within the particle track, a higher proportion of non

  18. Induction and repair of DNA strand breaks in bovine lens epithelial cells after high LET irradiation.

    PubMed

    Baumstark-Khan, C; Heilmann, J; Rink, H

    2003-01-01

    The lens epithelium is the initiation site for the development of radiation induced cataracts. Radiation in the cortex and nucleus interacts with proteins, while in the epithelium, experimental results reveal mutagenic and cytotoxic effects. It is suggested that incorrectly repaired DNA damage may be lethal in terms of cellular reproduction and also may initiate the development of mutations or transformations in surviving cells. The occurrence of such genetically modified cells may lead to lens opacification. For a quantitative risk estimation for astronauts and space travelers it is necessary to know the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), because the spacial and temporal distribution of initial physical damage induced by cosmic radiation differ significantly from that of X-rays. RBEs for the induction of DNA strand breaks and the efficiency of repair of these breaks were measured in cultured diploid bovine lens epithelial cells exposed to different LET irradiation to either 300 kV X-rays or to heavy ions at the UNILAC accelerator at GSI. Accelerated ions from Z=8 (O) to Z=92 (U) were used. Strand breaks were measured by hydroxyapatite chromatography of alkaline unwound DNA (overall strand breaks). Results showed that DNA damage occurs as a function of dose, of kinetic energy and of LET. For particles having the same LET the severity of the DNA damage increases with dose. For a given particle dose, as the LET rises, the numbers of DNA strand breaks increase to a maximum and then reach a plateau or decrease. Repair kinetics depend on the fluence (irradiation dose). At any LET value, repair is much slower after heavy ion exposure than after X-irradiation. For ions with an LET of less than 10,000 keV micrometers-1 more than 90 percent of the strand breaks induced are repaired within 24 hours. At higher particle fluences, especially for low energetic particles with a very high local density of energy deposition within the particle track, a higher proportion of

  19. Establishment of a Clinically Relevant Ex Vivo Mock Cataract Surgery Model for Investigating Epithelial Wound Repair in a Native Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Janice L; Bleaken, Brigid M; Wolff, Iris M; Menko, A Sue

    2015-06-05

    The major impediment to understanding how an epithelial tissue executes wound repair is the limited availability of models in which it is possible to follow and manipulate the wound response ex vivo in an environment that closely mimics that of epithelial tissue injury in vivo. This issue was addressed by creating a clinically relevant epithelial ex vivo injury-repair model based on cataract surgery. In this culture model, the response of the lens epithelium to wounding can be followed live in the cells' native microenvironment, and the molecular mediators of wound repair easily manipulated during the repair process. To prepare the cultures, lenses are removed from the eye and a small incision is made in the anterior of the lens from which the inner mass of lens fiber cells is removed. This procedure creates a circular wound on the posterior lens capsule, the thick basement membrane that surrounds the lens. This wound area where the fiber cells were attached is located just adjacent to a continuous monolayer of lens epithelial cells that remains linked to the lens capsule during the surgical procedure. The wounded epithelium, the cell type from which fiber cells are derived during development, responds to the injury of fiber cell removal by moving collectively across the wound area, led by a population of vimentin-rich repair cells whose mesenchymal progenitors are endogenous to the lens. These properties are typical of a normal epithelial wound healing response. In this model, as in vivo, wound repair is dependent on signals supplied by the endogenous environment that is uniquely maintained in this ex vivo culture system, providing an ideal opportunity for discovery of the mechanisms that regulate repair of an epithelium following wounding.

  20. Lost after translation: insights from pulmonary surfactant for understanding the role of alveolar epithelial dysfunction and cellular quality control in fibrotic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Nureki, Shin-Ichi; Beers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Dating back nearly 35 years ago to the Witschi hypothesis, epithelial cell dysfunction and abnormal wound healing have reemerged as central concepts in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in adults and in interstitial lung disease in children. Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells represent a metabolically active compartment in the distal air spaces responsible for pulmonary surfactant biosynthesis and function as a progenitor population required for maintenance of alveolar integrity. Rare mutations in surfactant system components have provided new clues to understanding broader questions regarding the role of AT2 cell dysfunction in the pathophysiology of fibrotic lung diseases. Drawing on data generated from a variety of model systems expressing disease-related surfactant component mutations [surfactant proteins A and C (SP-A and SP-C); the lipid transporter ABCA3], this review will examine the concept of epithelial dysfunction in fibrotic lung disease, provide an update on AT2 cell and surfactant biology, summarize cellular responses to mutant surfactant components [including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intrinsic apoptosis], and examine quality control pathways (unfolded protein response, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, macroautophagy) that can be utilized to restore AT2 homeostasis. This integrated response and its derangement will be placed in the context of cell stress and quality control signatures found in patients with familial or sporadic IPF as well as non-surfactant-related AT2 cell dysfunction syndromes associated with a fibrotic lung phenotype. Finally, the need for targeted therapeutic strategies for pulmonary fibrosis that address epithelial ER stress, its downstream signaling, and cell quality control are discussed. PMID:26186947

  1. Lost after translation: insights from pulmonary surfactant for understanding the role of alveolar epithelial dysfunction and cellular quality control in fibrotic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mulugeta, Surafel; Nureki, Shin-Ichi; Beers, Michael F

    2015-09-15

    Dating back nearly 35 years ago to the Witschi hypothesis, epithelial cell dysfunction and abnormal wound healing have reemerged as central concepts in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in adults and in interstitial lung disease in children. Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells represent a metabolically active compartment in the distal air spaces responsible for pulmonary surfactant biosynthesis and function as a progenitor population required for maintenance of alveolar integrity. Rare mutations in surfactant system components have provided new clues to understanding broader questions regarding the role of AT2 cell dysfunction in the pathophysiology of fibrotic lung diseases. Drawing on data generated from a variety of model systems expressing disease-related surfactant component mutations [surfactant proteins A and C (SP-A and SP-C); the lipid transporter ABCA3], this review will examine the concept of epithelial dysfunction in fibrotic lung disease, provide an update on AT2 cell and surfactant biology, summarize cellular responses to mutant surfactant components [including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intrinsic apoptosis], and examine quality control pathways (unfolded protein response, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, macroautophagy) that can be utilized to restore AT2 homeostasis. This integrated response and its derangement will be placed in the context of cell stress and quality control signatures found in patients with familial or sporadic IPF as well as non-surfactant-related AT2 cell dysfunction syndromes associated with a fibrotic lung phenotype. Finally, the need for targeted therapeutic strategies for pulmonary fibrosis that address epithelial ER stress, its downstream signaling, and cell quality control are discussed.

  2. Classic IL-6R signalling is dispensable for intestinal epithelial proliferation and repair

    PubMed Central

    Aden, K; Breuer, A; Rehman, A; Geese, H; Tran, F; Sommer, J; Waetzig, G H; Reinheimer, T M; Schreiber, S; Rose-John, S; Scheller, J; Rosenstiel, P

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by disturbed cytokine signalling in the mucosa. Inhibition of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 pathway is a promising new therapeutic strategy, but safety concerns arise as IL-6 signalling also contributes to epithelial repair of the intestinal mucosa. To which extent IL-6 classic or trans-signalling contributes to intestinal repair remains elusive. We tested the influence of IL-6 classic signalling on intestinal repair and proliferation. Whereas IL-6 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in the colonic cancer cell lines, primary non-malignant intestinal organoids did not respond to IL-6 classic signalling. Mice deficient in intestinal IL-6R (IL-6RΔIEC mice) did not display increased susceptibility to acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In the azoxymethane DSS model IL-6RΔIEC mice were not protected from inflammation-induced carcinogenesis but showed comparable tumor load to wild-type mice. These data indicate that classic signalling is not the major pathway to transduce IL-6 stimuli into the intestinal epithelium. PMID:27869785

  3. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M; Fodah, Ramy A; Warawa, Jonathan M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2015-01-15

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium.

  4. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M.; Fodah, Ramy A.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. PMID:25398987

  5. IN VITRO LUNG ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS - MODULATION BY EXPOSURE TO TNF-ALPHA, IL-BETA, OR IFN-GAMMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO LUNG ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS - MODULATION BY EXPOSURE TO TNF , IL-1 , OR IFN .

    JA Dye, KE Peoples*, CL Hayes?. US EPA, ORD, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, RTP, NC, *HHMI-SRI, NCSU, Raleigh, NC...

  6. A Human Espophageal Epithelial Cell Model for Study of Radiation Induced Cancer and DNA Damage Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    For cancer risk assessment in astronauts and for countermeasure development, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and how these mechanisms are influenced by exposure to the types of radiation found in space. We are developing an in vitro model system for the study of radiation-induced initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma, a type of cancer found to have a significant enhancement in incidence in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. Here we present the results of our preliminary characterization of both normal and hTERT immortalized esophageal epithelial cells grown in 2-dimensional culture. We analyzed DNA repair capacity by measuring the kinetics of formation and loss of - H2AX foci following radiation exposure. Additionally, we analyzed induction of chromosomal aberrations using 3-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Data were generated using both low LET (gamma rays) and high LET ions (1000 MeV/nucleon iron).

  7. Morphologic Damage of Rat Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells Induced by Bile Acids Could Be Ameliorated by Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibitor Z-Guggulsterone In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaowei; Hou, Xusheng; Wu, Wenyu; Nie, Lei; Tian, Yinghong; Lu, Yanmeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether bile acids (BAs) affect respiratory functions through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) expressed in the lungs and to explore the possible mechanisms of BAs-induced respiratory disorder. Methods. Primary cultured alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECIIs) of rat were treated with different concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in the presence or absence of FXR inhibitor Z-guggulsterone (GS). Then, expression of FXR in nuclei of AECIIs was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. And ultrastructural changes of the cells were observed under transmission electron microscope and analyzed by Image-Pro Plus software. Results. Morphologic damage of AECIIs was exhibited in high BAs group in vitro, with high-level expression of FXR, while FXR inhibitor GS could attenuate the cytotoxicity of BAs to AECIIs. Conclusions. FXR expression was related to the morphologic damage of AECIIs induced by BAs, thus influencing respiratory functions. PMID:27340672

  8. Mycoplasma bovis isolates recovered from cattle and bison (Bison bison) show differential in vitro effects on PBMC proliferation, alveolar macrophage apoptosis and invasion of epithelial and immune cells.

    PubMed

    Suleman, Muhammad; Prysliak, Tracy; Clarke, Kyle; Burrage, Pat; Windeyer, Claire; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2016-04-15

    In the last few years, several outbreaks of pneumonia, systemically disseminated infection, and high mortality associated with Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in North American bison (Bison bison) have been reported in Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nebraska, New Mexico, Montana, North Dakota, and Kansas. M. bovis causes Chronic Pneumonia and Polyarthritis Syndrome (CPPS) in young, stressed calves in intensively-managed feedlots. M. bovis is not classified as a primary pathogen in cattle, but in bison it appears to be a primary causative agent with rapid progression of disease with fatal outcomes and an average 20% mature herd mortality. Thus, there is a possibility that M. bovis isolates from cattle and bison differ in their pathogenicity. Hence, we decided to compare selected cattle isolates to several bison isolates obtained from clinical cases. We show differences in modulation of PBMC proliferation, invasion of trachea and lung epithelial cells, along with modulation of apoptosis and survival in alveolar macrophages. We concluded that some bison isolates showed less inhibition of cattle and bison PBMC proliferation, were not able to suppress alveolar macrophage apoptosis as efficiently as cattle isolates, and were more or less invasive than the cattle isolate in various cells. These findings provide evidence about the differential properties of M. bovis isolated from the two species and has helped in the selection of bison isolates for genomic sequencing.

  9. Salvianolic acid B improves bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into alveolar epithelial cells type I via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yang, Jingxian; Gao, Xi; Xu, Dan; Niu, Dongge; Li, Jinglin; Wen, Qingping

    2015-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is among the most common causes of mortality in intensive care units. Previous studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may attenuate pulmonary edema. In addition, alveolar epithelial cells type I (ATI) are involved in reducing the alveolar edema in response to ALI. However, the mechanism involved in improving the efficiency of differentiation of MSCs into ATI remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI and the activities of the Wnt signaling pathways were investigated. The BMSCs were supplemented with conditioned medium (CM). The groups were as follows: i) CM group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM; ii) lithium chloride (LiCl) group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 5 mM LiCl; iii) Sal B group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 10 mM Sal B. The samples were collected and assessed on days 7 and 14. It was revealed that aquaporin (AQP)-5 and T1α were expressed in BMSCs, and induction with LiCl or Sal B increased the expression of AQP-5 and T1α. Furthermore, the Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a signaling pathways were activated during the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI. In conclusion, it was suggested that the promotive effects of Sal B on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI occurred through the activation of Wnt signaling pathways.

  10. Mapping differential cellular protein response of mouse alveolar epithelial cells to multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a function of atomic layer deposition coating.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Gina M; Taylor, Alexia J; Hussain, Salik; Dandley, Erinn C; Griffith, Emily H; Garantziotis, Stavros; Parsons, Gregory N; Bonner, James C; Bereman, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a prototypical engineered nanomaterial, have been increasingly manufactured for a variety of novel applications over the past two decades. However, since CNTs possess fiber-like shape and cause pulmonary fibrosis in rodents, there is concern that mass production of CNTs will lead to occupational exposure and associated pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to use contemporary proteomics to investigate the mechanisms of cellular response in E10 mouse alveolar epithelial cells in vitro after exposure to multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) that were functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is a method used to generate highly uniform and conformal nanoscale thin-film coatings of metals to enhance novel conductive properties of CNTs. We hypothesized that specific types of metal oxide coatings applied to the surface of MWCNTs by ALD would determine distinct proteomic profiles in mouse alveolar epithelial cells in vitro that could be used to predict oxidative stress and pulmonary inflammation. Uncoated (U)-MWCNTs were functionalized by ALD with zinc oxide (ZnO) to yield Z-MWCNTs or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) to yield A-MWCNTs. Significant differential protein expression was found in the following critical pathways: mTOR/eIF4/p70S6K signaling and Nrf-2 mediated oxidative stress response increased following exposure to Z-MWCNTs, interleukin-1 signaling increased following U-MWCNT exposure, and inhibition of angiogenesis by thrombospondin-1, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction increased following A-MWCNT exposure. This study demonstrates that specific types of metal oxide thin film coatings applied by ALD produce distinct cellular and biochemical responses related to lung inflammation and fibrosis compared to uncoated MWCNT exposure in vitro.

  11. Pulmonary toxicity of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl: nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cell necrosis and alveolar damage in the mouse, rat, and hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, P.J.; Haschek, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) was administered ip to young female BALB/c mice (120 mg MMT/kg), S/A albino rats (5 mg MMT/kg), or LV/sub 6//LAK Syrian hamsters (180 mg MMT/kg). This administration resulted in lung cell damage followed by cellular proliferation, which was quantified by measuring increases in thymidine incorporation into DNA (mouse, rat, and hamster) and by labeling indices (LI) determined from cell kinetic studies (mouse and rat). Thymidine incorporation into pulmonary DNA was significantly elevated within 1 to 2 days following MMT treatment in all three species, with peak incorporation occurring on Day 2 in the rat and hamster, and Day 4 in the mouse. Both bronchiolar and parenchymal LI were elevated at this time. Alveolar damage and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cell necrosis were evident within 1 day of injection. This finding was followed by type II epithelial and Clara cell proliferation. Ultrastructurally, in the mouse, mitochondrial swelling and degeneration preceded Clara cell necrosis. Bronchiolar damage was most severe in the mouse, whereas parenchymal damage was most severe in the rat. These results suggest that the mouse, rat, and hamster have different susceptibilities to MMT-induced injury.

  12. BRCA1/FANCD2/BRG1-Driven DNA Repair Stabilizes the Differentiation State of Human Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Bierie, Brian; Li, Andrew G; Pathania, Shailja; Toomire, Kimberly; Dimitrov, Stoil D; Liu, Ben; Gelman, Rebecca; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Feunteun, Jean; Polyak, Kornelia; Livingston, David M

    2016-07-21

    An abnormal differentiation state is common in BRCA1-deficient mammary epithelial cells, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report a convergence between DNA repair and normal, cultured human mammary epithelial (HME) cell differentiation. Surprisingly, depleting BRCA1 or FANCD2 (Fanconi anemia [FA] proteins) or BRG1, a mSWI/SNF subunit, caused HME cells to undergo spontaneous epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and aberrant differentiation. This also occurred when wild-type HMEs were exposed to chemicals that generate DNA interstrand crosslinks (repaired by FA proteins), but not in response to double-strand breaks. Suppressed expression of ΔNP63 also occurred in each of these settings, an effect that links DNA damage to the aberrant differentiation outcome. Taken together with somatic breast cancer genome data, these results point to a breakdown in a BRCA/FA-mSWI/SNF-ΔNP63-mediated DNA repair and differentiation maintenance process in mammary epithelial cells that may contribute to sporadic breast cancer development.

  13. A novel bioabsorbable composite membrane of Polyactive 70/30 and bioactive glass number 13--93 in repair of experimental maxillary alveolar cleft defects.

    PubMed

    Puumanen, K; Kellomäki, M; Ritsilä, V; Böhling, T; Törmälä, P; Waris, T; Ashammakhi, N

    2005-10-01

    A novel bioabsorbable composite membrane of polyethylene oxide terephthalate and polybutylene terephthalate copolymer (Polyactive 70/30) combined with bioactive glass No. 13--93 was tested in the repair of experimental maxillary alveolar cleft defects. In this pilot study, the possible ability of the membrane to promote bone formation by guided tissue regeneration was investigated. Standard alveolar defects were made bilaterally in the maxilla of 12 growing rabbits and were filled with autogenous bone grafts. The test defect was covered with the composite membrane and the other defect was left uncovered to serve as a control. The follow-up time was 10 weeks. Radiological, histological, and histomorphometric evaluations were performed. Radiologically, no statistically significant differences between test and control defects at 10 weeks were found. Histologically, the membrane enhanced osteogenic activity locally at the membrane-bone interface. Swelling of the membrane was observed. Histomorphometrically, no significant promotion of bone formation by the membrane was observed. The composite membrane was found to be biocompatible and surgically easy to use, but its osteopromotive effect was limited in this experimental cleft model. Further studies are necessary to assess its suitability for reconstructive surgical applications.

  14. A human esophageal epithelial cell model for study of radiation induced cancer and DNA repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    For cancer risk assessment in astronauts and for countermeasure development, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and how these mechanisms are influenced by exposure to the types of radiation found in space. We are developing an in vitro model system for the study of radiation-induced initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma. Development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is associated with radiation exposure, as revealed by the significant enhanced in incidence rates for this type of cancer in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. It is also associated with poor nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies, which are also important issues for long duration spaceflight. The possible synergies between nutritional issues and radiation exposure are unknown. Here we present the results of preliminary characterization of both normal and hTERT-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells grown in 2-dimensional culture. We analyzed DNA repair capacity by measuring the kinetics of formation and loss of gamma-H2AX foci following radiation exposure. Additionally, we analyzed induction of chromosomal aberrations using 3-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Data were generated using both low LET (gamma rays) and high LET ions (1000 MeV/nucleon iron.

  15. Genetic Screen in Drosophila melanogaster Uncovers a Novel Set of Genes Required for Embryonic Epithelial Repair

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Isabel; Geiger, Jennifer A.; Santos, Ana Catarina; Carlos, Vanessa; Jacinto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The wound healing response is an essential mechanism to maintain the integrity of epithelia and protect all organisms from the surrounding milieu. In the “purse-string” mechanism of wound closure, an injured epithelial sheet cinches its hole closed via an intercellular contractile actomyosin cable. This process is conserved across species and utilized by both embryonic as well as adult tissues, but remains poorly understood at the cellular level. In an effort to identify new players involved in purse-string wound closure we developed a wounding strategy suitable for screening large numbers of Drosophila embryos. Using this methodology, we observe wound healing defects in Jun-related antigen (encoding DJUN) and scab (encoding Drosophila αPS3 integrin) mutants and performed a forward genetics screen on the basis of insertional mutagenesis by transposons that led to the identification of 30 lethal insertional mutants with defects in embryonic epithelia repair. One of the mutants identified is an insertion in the karst locus, which encodes Drosophila βHeavy-spectrin. We show βHeavy-spectrin (βH) localization to the wound edges where it presumably exerts an essential function to bring the wound to normal closure. PMID:19884309

  16. DA-Raf-Mediated Suppression of the Ras--ERK Pathway Is Essential for TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Alveolar Epithelial Type 2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Takano, Kazunori; Hatano, Masahiko; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Endo, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Myofibroblasts play critical roles in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by depositing components of extracellular matrix. One source of lung myofibroblasts is thought to be alveolar epithelial type 2 cells that undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Rat RLE-6TN alveolar epithelial type 2 cells treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are converted into myofibroblasts through EMT. TGF-β induces both canonical Smad signaling and non-canonical signaling, including the Ras-induced ERK pathway (Raf-MEK-ERK). However, the signaling mechanisms regulating TGF-β1-induced EMT are not fully understood. Here, we show that the Ras-ERK pathway negatively regulates TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells and that DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf), a splicing isoform of A-Raf and a dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway, plays an essential role in EMT. Stimulation of the cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which activated the ERK pathway, prominently suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT. An inhibitor of MEK, but not an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, rescued the TGF-β1-treated cells from the suppression of EMT by FGF2. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of a component of the Ras-ERK pathway, i.e., H-Ras, B-Raf, or MEK1, interfered with EMT. Knockdown of DA-Raf expression with siRNAs facilitated the activity of MEK and ERK, which were only weakly and transiently activated by TGF-β1. Although DA-Raf knockdown abrogated TGF-β1-induced EMT, the abrogation of EMT was reversed by the addition of the MEK inhibitor. Furthermore, DA-Raf knockdown impaired the TGF-β1-induced nuclear translocation of Smad2, which mediates the transcription required for EMT. These results imply that intrinsic DA-Raf exerts essential functions for EMT by antagonizing the TGF-β1-induced Ras-ERK pathway in RLE-6TN cells.

  17. miR-34 miRNAs Regulate Cellular Senescence in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Disayabutr, Supparerk; Kim, Eun Kyung; Cha, Seung-Ick; Green, Gary; Naikawadi, Ram P.; Jones, Kirk D.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Schroeder, Aaron; Matthay, Michael A.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Erle, David J.; Collard, Harold R.; Wolters, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include genetic predisposition, activation of the unfolded protein response, telomere attrition, and cellular senescence. The mechanisms leading to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as regulators of cellular senescence. Senescence markers including p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) activity were measured in type II AECs from IPF lungs and unused donor lungs. miRNAs were quantified in type II AECs using gene expression arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Molecular markers of senescence (p16, p21, and p53) were elevated in IPF type II AECs. SA-βgal activity was detected in a greater percentage in type II AECs isolated from IPF patients (23.1%) compared to patients with other interstitial lung diseases (1.2%) or normal controls (0.8%). The relative levels of senescence-associated miRNAs miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c, but not miR-20a, miR-29c, or miR-let-7f were significantly higher in type II AECs from IPF patients. Overexpression of miR-34a, miR-34b, or miR-34c in lung epithelial cells was associated with higher SA-βgal activity (27.8%, 35.1%, and 38.2%, respectively) relative to control treated cells (8.8%). Targets of miR-34 miRNAs, including E2F1, c-Myc, and cyclin E2, were lower in IPF type II AECs. These results show that markers of senescence are uniquely elevated in IPF type II AECs and suggest that the miR-34 family of miRNAs regulate senescence in IPF type II AECs. PMID:27362652

  18. Wnt3a mitigates acute lung injury by reducing P2X7 receptor-mediated alveolar epithelial type I cell death

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Y; Mishra, A; Weng, T; Chintagari, N R; Wang, Y; Zhao, C; Huang, C; Liu, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, and loss of the alveolar–capillary barrier. We have previously shown that P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a cell death receptor, is specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial type I cells (AEC I). In this study, we hypothesized that P2X7R-mediated purinergic signaling and its interaction with Wnt/β-catenin signaling contributes to AEC I death. We examined the effect of P2X7R agonist 2′-3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and Wnt agonist Wnt3a on AEC I death in vitro and in vivo. We also assessed the therapeutic potential of Wnt3a in a clinically relevant ALI model of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in ventilated mice. We found that the activation of P2X7R by BzATP caused the death of AEC I by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling through stimulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and proteasome. On the other hand, the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Wnt3a, GSK-3β inhibitor, or proteasome inhibitor blocked the P2X7R-mediated cell death. More importantly, Wnt3a attenuated the AEC I damage caused by intratracheal instillation of BzATP in rats or LPS in ventilated mice. Our results suggest that Wnt3a overrides the effect of P2X7R on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent the AEC I death and restrict the severity of ALI. PMID:24922070

  19. RAGE/NF-κB pathway mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in alveolar type I epithelial cells isolated from neonate rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhong; Wu, Rong; Zhao, Sai; Cheng, Huaipin; Ji, Ping; Yu, Min; Tian, Zhaofang

    2014-10-01

    Alveolar type I epithelial cells (AECIs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGEs) is expressed at a high basal level in AECIs, and its soluble isoform is suggested as a marker of AECI injury. However, the molecular mechanism by which RAGE mediates inflammatory injury in AECIs remains elusive. In this study, we established lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in AECIs isolated from neonate rats as the experimental model and investigated the role of RAGE/NF-κB signaling in mediating inflammatory response in AECIs. We found that LPS increased RAGE expression and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in AECIs in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of RAGE significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β levels in conditioned medium of AECIs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that NF-κB activation was increased in AECIs treated by LPS. However, knockdown of RAGE inhibited both basic and LPS-induced NF-κB activity in AECIs. Finally, NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) significantly reduced LPS-induced upregulation of RAGE expression at both protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in AECIs. Our results suggest that RAGE mediates inflammatory response in AECIs via activating NF-κB, and RAGE/NF-κB pathway presents potential target for the prevention and therapy of acute lung injury.

  20. RIG-I and TLR3 are both required for maximum interferon induction by influenza virus in human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenxin; Zhang, Wei; Duggan, Elizabeth S; Booth, J Leland; Zou, Ming-Hui; Metcalf, Jordan P

    2015-08-01

    Pattern recognition receptors, such as retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I), Toll-like receptors 3 and 7 (TLR3 and 7), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing protein 2 (NOD2), play important roles in the recognition of influenza A virus (IAV), but their role in interferon (IFN) induction is still unclear, particularly in human lung. We investigated IFN induction by IAV in the A549 cell line as well as in primary human alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). TLR3/7, NOD2, RIG-I, and IFN expression levels were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA in cells infected with IAV PR8. We found that TLR7 and NOD2 were not involved in IFN induction by IAV in these cells. Neither RIG-I nor TLR3 siRNA alone completely blocked IFN induction. However, double knockdown of RIG-I and TLR3 completely inhibited IFN induction by influenza. Thus, signaling through both RIG-I and TLR3 is important for IFN induction by IAV in human lung AEC.

  1. Understanding the developmental pathways pulmonary fibroblasts may follow during alveolar regeneration.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Although pulmonary alveolar interstitial fibroblasts are less specialized than their epithelial and endothelial neighbors, they play essential roles during development and in response to lung injury. At birth, they must adapt to the sudden mechanical changes imposed by the onset of respiration and to a higher ambient oxygen concentration. In diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and interstitial fibrosis, their adaptive responses are overwhelmed leading to compromised gas-exchange function. Thus, although fibroblasts do not directly participate in gas-exchange, they are essential for creating and maintaining an optimal environment at the alveolar epithelial-endothelial interface. This review summarizes new information and concepts about the ontogeny differentiation, and function of alveolar fibroblasts. Alveolar development will be emphasized, because the development of strategies to evoke alveolar repair and regeneration hinges on thoroughly understanding the way that resident fibroblasts populate specific locations in which extracellular matrix must be produced and remodeled. Other recent reviews have described the disruption that diseases cause to the fibroblast niche and so my objective is to illustrate how the unique developmental origins and differentiation pathways could be harnessed favorably to augment certain fibroblast subpopulations and to optimize the conditions for alveolar regeneration.

  2. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  3. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica A.; Smith, Jordan N.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Orr, Galya

    2013-12-02

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn2+, together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. In conclusion, together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes

  4. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    DOE PAGES

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; ...

    2013-12-02

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn2+, together with organelle-specificmore » fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. In conclusion, together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.« less

  5. Key Role of MicroRNA in the Regulation of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Expression in Murine Alveolar Epithelial Cells during Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Anne; Mir-Kasimov, Mustafa; Baker, Jessica; Rowley, Jesse; Paine, Robert

    2014-01-01

    GM-CSF is an endogenous pulmonary cytokine produced by normal alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) that is a key defender of the alveolar space. AEC GM-CSF expression is suppressed by oxidative stress through alternations in mRNA turnover, an effect that is reversed by treatment with recombinant GM-CSF. We hypothesized that specific microRNA (miRNA) would play a key role in AEC GM-CSF regulation. A genome-wide miRNA microarray identified 19 candidate miRNA altered in primary AEC during oxidative stress with reversal by treatment with GM-CSF. Three of these miRNA (miR 133a, miR 133a*, and miR 133b) are also predicted to bind the GM-CSF 3′-untranslated region (UTR). PCR for the mature miRNA confirmed induction during oxidative stress that was reversed by treatment with GM-CSF. Experiments using a GM-CSF 3′-UTR reporter construct demonstrated that miR133a and miR133b effects on GM-CSF expression are through interactions with the GM-CSF 3′-UTR. Using lentiviral transduction of specific mimics and inhibitors in primary murine AEC, we determined that miR133a and miR133b suppress GM-CSF expression and that their inhibition both reverses oxidant-induced suppression of GM-CSF expression and increases basal expression of GM-CSF in cells in normoxia. In contrast, these miRNAs are not active in regulation of GM-CSF expression in murine EL4 T cells. Thus, members of the miR133 family play key roles in regulation of GM-CSF expression through effects on mRNA turnover in AEC during oxidative stress. Increased understanding of GM-CSF gene regulation may provide novel miRNA-based interventions to augment pulmonary innate immune defense in lung injury. PMID:24371146

  6. The role of Scgb1a1+ Clara cells in the long-term maintenance and repair of lung airway, but not alveolar, epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, Emma L; Okubo, Tadashi; Xue, Yan; Brass, David M; Auten, Richard L; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Fan; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2009-06-05

    To directly test the contribution of Scgb1a1(+) Clara cells to postnatal growth, homeostasis, and repair of lung epithelium, we generated a Scgb1a1-CreER "knockin" mouse for lineage-tracing these cells. Under all conditions tested, the majority of Clara cells in the bronchioles both self-renews and generates ciliated cells. In the trachea, Clara cells give rise to ciliated cells but do not self-renew extensively. Nevertheless, they can contribute to tracheal repair. In the postnatal mouse lung, it has been proposed that bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) which coexpress Scgb1a1 (Secretoglobin1a1) and SftpC (Surfactant Protein C), contribute descendants to both bronchioles and alveoli. The putative BASCs were lineage labeled in our studies. However, we find no evidence for the function of a special BASC population during postnatal growth, adult homeostasis, or repair. Rather, our results support a model in which the trachea, bronchioles, and alveoli are maintained by distinct populations of epithelial progenitor cells.

  7. Regulation of cytokine production in human alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells in response to ambient air pollution particles: Further mechanistic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Susanne; Mundandhara, Sailaja; Devlin, Robert B.; Madden, Michael . E-mail: madden.michael@epa.gov

    2005-09-01

    In order to better understand how ambient air particulate matter (PM) affect lung health, the two main airway cell types likely to interact with inhaled particles, alveolar macrophages (AM) and airway epithelial cells have been exposed to particles in vitro and followed for endpoints of inflammation, and oxidant stress. Separation of Chapel Hill PM 10 into fine and coarse size particles revealed that the main proinflammatory response (TNF, IL-6, COX-2) in AM was driven by material present in the coarse PM, containing 90-95% of the stimulatory material in PM10. The particles did not affect expression of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), a sensitive marker of oxidant stress. Primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) also responded to the coarse fraction with higher levels of IL-8 and COX-2, than induced by fine or ultrafine PM. All size PM induced oxidant stress in NHBE, while fine PM induced the highest levels of HO-1 expression. The production of cytokines in AM by both coarse and fine particles was blocked by the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist E5531 involved in the recognition of LPS and Gram negative bacteria. The NHBE were found to recognize coarse and fine PM through TLR2, a receptor with preference for recognition of Gram positive bacteria. Compared to ambient PM, diesel PM induced only a minimal cytokine response in both AM and NHBE. Instead, diesel suppressed LPS-induced TNF and IL-8 release in AM. Both coarse and fine ambient air PM were also found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF release while silica, volcanic ash or carbon black had no inhibitory effect. Diesel particles did not affect cytokine mRNA induction nor protein accumulation but interfered with the release of cytokine from the cells. Ambient coarse and fine PM, on the other hand, inhibited both mRNA induction and protein production. Exposure to coarse and fine PM decreased the expression of TLR4 in the macrophages. Particle-induced decrease in TLR4 and hyporesponsiveness to LPS

  8. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M; Baker, Sandy T; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L; Wolfson, Marla R

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation-6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung.

  9. Effect of irradiation/bone marrow transplantation on alveolar epithelial type II cells is aggravated in surfactant protein D deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Madsen, Jens; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Schneider, Jan Philipp; Schipke, Julia; Lutz, Dennis; Birkelbach, Bastian; Knudsen, Lars; Botto, Marina; Ochs, Matthias; Clark, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation (BM-Tx) is a frequent therapeutic intervention causing pathology to the lung. Although alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells are essential for lung function and are damaged by irradiation, the long-term consequences of irradiation and BM-Tx are not well characterized. In addition, it is unknown whether surfactant protein D (SP-D) influences the response of AE2 cells to the injurious events. Therefore, wildtype (WT) and SP-D(-/-) mice were subjected to a myeloablative whole body irradiation dose of 8 Gy and subsequent BM-Tx and compared with age- and sex-matched untreated controls. AE2 cell changes were investigated quantitatively by design-based stereology. Compared with WT, untreated SP-D(-/-) mice showed a higher number of larger sized AE2 cells and a greater amount of surfactant-storing lamellar bodies. Irradiation and BM-Tx induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy in WT and SP-D(-/-) mice as well as the formation of giant lamellar bodies. The experimentally induced alterations were more severe in the SP-D(-/-) than in the WT mice, particularly with respect to the surfactant-storing lamellar bodies which were sometimes extremely enlarged in SP-D(-/-) mice. In conclusion, irradiation and BM-Tx have profound long-term effects on AE2 cells and their lamellar bodies. These data may explain some of the clinical pulmonary consequences of this procedure. The data should also be taken into account when BM-Tx is used as an experimental procedure to investigate the impact of bone marrow-derived cells for the phenotype of a specific genotype in the mouse.

  10. Carbocisteine attenuates TNF-α-induced inflammation in human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro through suppressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Guan, Wei-jie; Huang, Rong-quan; Xie, Yan-qing; Zheng, Jin-ping; Zhu, Shao-xuan; Chen, Mao; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We previously proven that carbocisteine, a conventional mucolytic drug, remarkably reduced the rate of acute exacerbations and improved the quality of life in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of carbocisteine in human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL). Carbocisteine was administered either 24 h prior to or after TNF-α exposure. The cytokine release and expression were measured using ELISA and qRT-PCR. Activation of NF-κB was analyzed with Western blotting, immunofluorescence assay and luciferase reporter gene assay. The expression of ERK1/2 MAPK signaling proteins was assessed with Western blotting. Results: Carbocisteine (10, 100, 1000 μmol/L), administered either before or after TNF-α exposure, dose-dependently suppressed TNF-α-induced inflammation in A549 cells, as evidenced by diminished release of IL-6 and IL-8, and diminished mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. Furthermore, pretreatment with carbocisteine significantly decreased TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK1/2 MAPK, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 subunit in A549 cells. In an NF-κB luciferase reporter system, pretreatment with carbocisteine dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Conclusion: Carbocisteine effectively suppresses TNF-α-induced inflammation in A549 cells via suppressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26997568

  11. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest are induced in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells exposed to fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Cao, Ji-Yu; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Chen, Dao-Jun; Che, Zhen; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a linkage between morbidity and mortality and particulate matter (PM), particularly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that can readily penetrate into the lungs and are therefore more likely to increase the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the compositions of cooking oil fume (COF)-derived PM2.5, which is the major source of indoor pollution in China. Furthermore, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest induced by COF-derived PM2.5 in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II cells) were also detected. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a radical scavenger, was used to identify the role of oxidative stress in the abovementioned processes. Our results suggested that compositions of COF-derived PM2.5 are obviously different to PM2.5 derived from other sources, and COF-derived PM2.5 led to cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and G0/G1 cell arrest in primary fetal AEC II cells. Furthermore, the results also showed that COF-derived PM2.5 induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, which is indicated by the increased expression of ER stress-related apoptotic markers, namely GRP78 and caspase-12. Besides, the induction of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest was reversed by pretreatment with NAC. These findings strongly suggested that COF-derived PM2.5-induced toxicity in primary fetal AEC II cells is mediated by increased oxidative stress, accompanied by ER stress which results in apoptosis.

  12. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M.; Baker, Sandy T.; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L.; Wolfson, Marla R.

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation—6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung. PMID:26999050

  13. Curcumin induces glutathione biosynthesis and inhibits NF-kappaB activation and interleukin-8 release in alveolar epithelial cells: mechanism of free radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saibal K; McClure, Danny; Jimenez, Luis A; Megson, Ian L; Rahman, Irfan

    2005-01-01

    Oxidants and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activate transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which is involved in the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin-8 (IL-8). Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a naturally occurring flavonoid present in the spice turmeric, which has a long traditional use as a chemotherapeutic agent for many diseases. We hypothesize that curcumin may possess both antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties by increasing the glutathione levels and inhibiting oxidant- and cytokine-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 release from cultured alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Treatment of A549 cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 100 microM) and TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) significantly increased NF-kappaB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, as well as IL-8 release. Curcumin inhibited both H2O2- and TNF-alpha-mediated activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1, and IL-8 release. Furthermore, an increased level of GSH and glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit mRNA expression was observed in curcumin-treated cells as compared with untreated cells. Curcumin interacted directly with superoxide anion (O2*-) and hydroxyl radical (*OH) as shown by electron paramagnetic resonance, quenching the interaction of the radicals with the spin trap, Tempone-H. This suggests that curcumin has multiple properties: as an oxygen radical scavenger, antioxidant through modulation of glutathione levels, and antiinflammatory agent through inhibition of IL-8 release in lung cells.

  14. Regulation of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 secretion by the Two-Pore-Domain Potassium (K2P) channel TREK-1 in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Teng, Bin; Ghosh, Manik; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    We recently proposed a role for the 2-pore-domain K(+) (K2P) channel TREK-1 in the regulation of cytokine release from alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) by demonstrating decreased IL-6 secretion from TREK-1 deficient cells, but the effects of altered TREK-1 expression on other inflammatory mediators remain poorly understood. We now examined the role of TREK-1 in TNF-α-induced MCP-1 release from human A549 cells. We hypothesized that TREK-1 regulates TNF-α-induced MCP-1 secretion via c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)- and protein kinase-C (PKC)-dependent pathways. In contrast to IL-6 secretion, we found that TREK-1 deficiency resulted in increased MCP-1 production and secretion, although baseline MCP-1 gene expression was unchanged in TREK-1 deficient cells. In contrast to TREK-1 deficient AECs, overexpression of MCP-1 had no effect on MCP-1 secretion. Phosphorylation of JNK1/2/3 was increased in TREK-1 deficient cells upon TNF-α stimulation, but pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2/3 decreased MCP-1 release from both control and TREK-1 deficient cells. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of PKC decreased MCP-1 secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells, suggesting that alterations in JNK and PKC signaling pathways were unlikely the cause for the increased MCP-1 secretion from TREK-1 deficient cells. Furthermore, MCP-1 secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells was independent of extracellular Ca(2+) but sensitive to inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) reuptake mechanisms. In summary, we report for the first time that TREK-1 deficiency in human AECs resulted in increased MCP-1 production and secretion, and this effect appeared unrelated to alterations in JNK-, PKC- or Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathways in TREK-1 deficient cells.

  15. C22-bronchial and T7-alveolar epithelial cell lines of the immortomouse are excellent murine cell culture model systems to study pulmonary peroxisome biology and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Srikanth; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Alam, Mohammad Rashedul; Oruqaj, Gani; Stamme, Cordula; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-03-01

    In pulmonary research, temperature-sensitive immortalized cell lines derived from the lung of the "immortomouse" (H-2k(b)-tsA58 transgenic mouse), such as C22 club cells and T7 alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECII), are frequently used cell culture models to study CC10 metabolism and surfactant synthesis. Even though peroxisomes are highly abundant in club cells and AECII and might fulfill important metabolic functions therein, these organelles have never been investigated in C22 and T7 cells. Therefore, we have characterized the peroxisomal compartment and its associated gene transcription in these cell lines. Our results show that peroxisomes are highly abundant in C22 and T7 cells, harboring a common set of enzymes, however, exhibiting specific differences in protein composition and gene expression patterns, similar to the ones observed in club cells and AECII in situ in the lung. C22 cells contain a lower number of larger peroxisomes, whereas T7 cells possess more numerous tubular peroxisomes, reflected also by higher levels of PEX11 proteins. Moreover, C22 cells harbor relatively higher amounts of catalase and antioxidative enzymes in distinct subcellular compartments, whereas T7 cells exhibit higher levels of ABCD3 and plasmalogen synthesizing enzymes as well as nuclear receptors of the PPAR family. This study suggest that the C22 and T7 cell lines of the immortomouse lung are useful models to study the regulation and metabolic function of the peroxisomal compartment and its alterations by paracrine factors in club cells and AECII.

  16. The Role of Alveolar Epithelial Type II-Like Cells in Uptake of Structurally Different Antigens and in Polarisation of Local Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Akgün, Johnnie; Schabussova, Irma; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozakova, Hana; Kundi, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Background Our previous studies on intranasal tolerance induction demonstrated reduction of allergic responses with different allergen constructs. The underlying mechanisms varied depending on their conformation or size. Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the uptake of two structurally different allergen molecules within the respiratory tract following intranasal application. Methods The three-dimensional Bet v 1 (Bv1-Protein) and the T cell epitope peptide of Bet v 1 (Bv1-Peptide) were labelled with 5,6-Carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and their uptake was investigated in lung cells and cells of the nasal associated lymphoid tissue from naive and sensitised BALB/c mice. Phenotypic characterisation of FAM+ lung cells after antigen incubation in vitro and after intranasal application was performed by flow cytometry. Impact of Bv1-Protein and Bv1-Peptide on cytokine profiles and gene expression in vivo or in an alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell line were assessed in mono- and co-cultures with monocytes using ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. Results Both antigens were taken up preferably by ATII-like cells (ATII-LCs) in naive mice, and by macrophages in sensitised mice. After intranasal application, Bv1-Peptide was taken up faster and more efficiently than Bv1-Protein. In vivo and in vitro experiments revealed that Bv1-Protein induced the transcription of thymic stromal lymphopoietin mRNA while Bv1-Peptide induced the transcription of IL-10 and MCP1 mRNA in ATII-LCs. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Both tested antigens were taken up by ATII-LCs under steady state conditions and induced different polarisation of the immune responses. These data may have an important impact for the generation of novel and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic tools targeting the respiratory mucosa. PMID:25894334

  17. Low-level laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and maturation of keratinocytes during epithelial wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Felipe F.; Simões, Alyne; Corrêa, Luciana; Aranha, Ana Cecília C.; Giudice, Fernanda S.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Sousa, Suzana C.O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been extensively employed to improve epithelial wound healing, though the exact response of epithelium maturation and stratification after LLLT is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to assess the in vitro growth and differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs) and in vivo wound healing response when treated with LLLT. Human KCs (HaCaT cells) showed an enhanced proliferation with all the employed laser energy densities (3, 6 and 12 J/cm2, 660nm, 100mW), together with an increased expression of Cyclin D1. Moreover, the immunoexpression of proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation (p63, CK10, CK14) all indicated a faster maturation of the migrating KCs in the LLLT-treated wounds. In that way, an improved epithelial healing was promoted by LLLT with the employed parameters; this improvement was confirmed by changes in the expression of several proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation. PMID:25411997

  18. Alveolar type II cell-fibroblast interactions, synthesis and secretion of surfactant and type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M; Bhandari, R; Hamilton, G; Chan, Y C; Powell, J T

    1993-06-01

    During alveolar development and alveolar repair close contacts are established between fibroblasts and lung epithelial cells through gaps in the basement membrane. Using co-culture systems we have investigated whether these close contacts influence synthesis and secretion of the principal surfactant apoprotein (SP-A) by cultured rat lung alveolar type II cells and the synthesis and secretion of type I collagen by fibroblasts. The alveolar type II cells remained cuboidal and grew in colonies on fibroblast feeder layers and on Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts but were progressively more flattened on fixed fibroblast monolayers and plastic. Alveolar type II cells cultured on plastic released almost all their SP-A into the medium by 4 days. Alveolar type II cells cultured on viable fibroblasts or Matrigel-coated inserts above fibroblasts accumulated SP-A in the medium at a constant rate for the first 4 days, and probably recycle SP-A by endocytosis. The amount of mRNA for SP-A was very low after 4 days of culture of alveolar type II cells on plastic, Matrigel-coated inserts or fixed fibroblast monolayers: relatively, the amount of mRNA for SP-A was increased 4-fold after culture of alveolar type II cells on viable fibroblasts. Co-culture of alveolar type II cells with confluent human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 2- to 3-fold the secretion of collagen type I into the culture medium, even after the fibroblasts' growth had been arrested with mitomycin C. Collagen secretion, by fibroblasts, also was stimulated 2-fold by conditioned medium from alveolar type II cells cultured on Matrigel. The amount of mRNA for type I collagen increased only modestly when fibroblasts were cultured in this conditioned medium. This stimulation of type I collagen secretion diminished as the conditioned medium was diluted out, but at high dilutions further stimulation occurred, indicating that a factor that inhibited collagen secretion also was being diluted out. The conditioned medium

  19. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate-Induced ICAM-1 Expression via NADPH Oxidase/ROS-Dependent NF-κB Cascade on Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Cho, Rou-Ling; Wang, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is frequently correlated with the lung inflammation. In lung injury, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, bioactive sphingolipid metabolite), participate gene regulation of adhesion molecule in inflammation progression and aggravate tissue damage. To investigate the transduction mechanisms of the S1P in pulmonary epithelium, we demonstrated that exposure of HPAEpiCs (human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells) to S1P significantly induces ICAM-1 expression leading to increase monocyte adhesion on the surface of HPAEpiCs. These phenomena were effectively attenuated by pretreatments with series of inhibitors such as Rottlerin (PKCδ), PF431396 (PYK2), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), apocynin (NADPH oxidase), Edaravone (ROS), and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB). Consistently, knockdown with siRNA transfection of PKCδ, PYK2, p47phox, and p65 exhibited the same results. Pretreatment with both Gq-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2A) and Gi/o-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2) also blocked the upregulation of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA induced by S1P. We observed that S1P induced PYK2 activation via a Gq-coupled receptor/PKCδ-dependent pathway. In addition, S1P induced NADPH oxidase activation and intracellular ROS generation, which were also reduced by Rottlerin or PF431396. We demonstrated that S1P induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in HPAEpiCs. Activated NF-κB was blocked by Rottlerin, PF431396, APO, DPI, or Edaravone. Besides, the results of monocyte adhesion assay indicated that S1P-induced ICAM-1 expression on HPAEpiCs can enhance the monocyte attachments. In the S1P-treated mice, we found that the levels of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA in the lung fractions, the pulmonary hematoma and leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were enhanced through a PKCδ/PYK2/NADPH oxidase/ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway. We concluded that S1P-accelerated lung damage is due to the ICAM-1 induction associated with

  20. Curcumin modulates the effect of histone modification on the expression of chemokines by type II alveolar epithelial cells in a rat COPD model

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lixing; Li, Chengye; Wang, Jian; Guo, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that histone modification has a positive impact on various aspects associated with the progression of COPD. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) suppresses proinflammatory gene expression through deacetylation of core histones. Objective To investigate the effect of histone modification on the expression of chemokines in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II) in a rat COPD model and regulation of HDAC2 expression by curcumin in comparison with corticosteroid. Materials and methods The rat COPD model was established by cigarette smoke exposure and confirmed by histology and pathophysioloy. AEC II were isolated and cultured in vitro from the COPD models and control animals. The cells were treated with curcumin, corticosteroid, or trichostatin A, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2α (MIP-2α) was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of HDAC2 was measured by Western blot. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to detect H3/H4 acetylation and H3K9 methylation in the promoter region of three kinds of chemokine genes (IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-2α). Results Compared to the control group, the mRNAs of MCP-1, IL-8, and MIP-2α were upregulated 4.48-fold, 3.14-fold, and 2.83-fold, respectively, in the AEC II from COPD model. The protein expression of HDAC2 in the AEC II from COPD model was significantly lower than from the control group (P<0.05). The decreased expression of HDAC2 was negatively correlated with the increased expression of IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-2α mRNAs (all P<0.05). The level of H3/H4 acetylation was higher but H3K9 methylation in the promoter region of chemokine genes was lower in the cells from COPD model than from the control group (all P<0.05). Curcumin downregulated the expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and MIP-2α, and the expression was further enhanced in the presence of

  1. An uptake of cationized ferritin by alveolar type I cells in airway-instilled goat lung: distribution of anionic sites on the epithelial surface.

    PubMed

    Atwal, O S; Viel, L; Minhas, K J

    1990-07-01

    The present study has investigated ultrastructural localization of anionic sites on the luminal surface of the alveolar epithelium of goat lung by direct airway instillation of cationized ferritin (CF) in the cranial lobe of the right lung through a bronchoscope. The cationic probe decorated preferentially the luminal plasmalemmal vesicles and plasmalemma proper of alveolar type I cell. This indicated the presence of highly charged anionic microdomains at these binding sites. The ligand was internalized in the free plasmalemmal vesicles of alveolar type I cell within 2 min. Heavy decoration of vesicles at 5 min of perfusion indicated that the amount of CF internalization increased with its concentration in the alveoli. It is suggested that exposure of alveolar surface to several gases of ruminal-origin induces changes in the surface charge of luminal plasmalemma of alveolar type I cells. The significance of these anionic plasmalemmal sites is discussed in relation to the adjustment of osmotic pressure gradient across the alveolar-capillary membrane of the ruminant lung.

  2. Dclk1 Deletion in Tuft Cells Results in Impaired Epithelial Repair After Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stanley A.; Li, Linheng; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2013-01-01

    The role of Dclk1+ tuft cells in the replacement of intestinal epithelia and reestablishing the epithelial barrier after severe genotoxic insult is completely unknown. Successful restoration requires precise coordination between the cells within each crypt subunit. While the mechanisms that control this response remain largely uncertain, the radiation model remains an exceptional surrogate for stem cell-associated crypt loss. Following the creation of Dclk1-intestinal-epithelial-deficient Villin-Cre;Dclk1flox/flox mice, widespread gene expression changes were detected in isolated intestinal epithelia during homeostasis. While the number of surviving crypts were unaffected, Villin-Cre;Dclk1flox/flox mice failed to maintain tight junctions and died at ~5d, where Dclk1flox/flox mice lived until day 10 following radiation injury. These findings suggest that Dclk1 plays a functional role critical in the epithelial restorative response. PMID:24123696

  3. Lung alveolar epithelium and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Corvol, Harriet; Flamein, Florence; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Guillot, Loic

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a group of lung disorders characterized by various levels of inflammation and fibrosis. The current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of ILD strongly suggests a central role of the alveolar epithelium. Following injury, alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may actively participate in the restoration of a normal alveolar architecture through a coordinated process of re-epithelialization, or in the development of fibrosis through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Complex networks orchestrate EMT leading to changes in cell architecture and behaviour, loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal properties. In the lung, AECs themselves may serve as a source of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. This review covers recent knowledge on the role of alveolar epithelium in the pathogenesis of ILD. The mechanisms underlying disease progression are discussed, with a main focus on the apoptotic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the developmental pathway.

  4. Defective DNA single-strand break repair is responsible for senescence and neoplastic escape of epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nassour, Joe; Martien, Sébastien; Martin, Nathalie; Deruy, Emeric; Tomellini, Elisa; Malaquin, Nicolas; Bouali, Fatima; Sabatier, Laure; Wernert, Nicolas; Pinte, Sébastien; Gilson, Eric; Pourtier, Albin; Pluquet, Olivier; Abbadie, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristic of senescence is its stability which relies on the persistence of DNA damage. We show that unlike fibroblasts, senescent epithelial cells do not activate an ATM-or ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR), but accumulate oxidative-stress-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs). These breaks remain unrepaired because of a decrease in PARP1 expression and activity. This leads to the formation of abnormally large and persistent XRCC1 foci that engage a signalling cascade involving the p38MAPK and leading to p16 upregulation and cell cycle arrest. Importantly, the default in SSB repair also leads to the emergence of post-senescent transformed and mutated precancerous cells. In human-aged skin, XRCC1 foci accumulate in the epidermal cells in correlation with a decline of PARP1, whereas DDR foci accumulate mainly in dermal fibroblasts. These findings point SSBs as a DNA damage encountered by epithelial cells with aging which could fuel the very first steps of carcinogenesis. PMID:26822533

  5. Faster DNA Repair of Ultraviolet-Induced Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers and Lower Sensitivity to Apoptosis in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells than in Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Justin D.; Bastien, Nathalie; Gendron, Sébastien P.; Rochette, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Absorption of UV rays by DNA generates the formation of mutagenic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6–4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP). These damages are the major cause of skin cancer because in turn, they can lead to signature UV mutations. The eye is exposed to UV light, but the cornea is orders of magnitude less prone to UV-induced cancer. In an attempt to shed light on this paradox, we compared cells of the corneal epithelium and the epidermis for UVB-induced DNA damage frequency, repair and cell death sensitivity. We found similar CPD levels but a 4-time faster UVB-induced CPD, but not 6-4PP, repair and lower UV-induced apoptosis sensitivity in corneal epithelial cells than epidermal. We then investigated levels of DDB2, a UV-induced DNA damage recognition protein mostly impacting CPD repair, XPC, essential for the repair of both CPD and 6-4PP and p53 a protein upstream of the genotoxic stress response. We found more DDB2, XPC and p53 in corneal epithelial cells than in epidermal cells. According to our results analyzing the protein stability of DDB2 and XPC, the higher level of DDB2 and XPC in corneal epithelial cells is most likely due to an increased stability of the protein. Taken together, our results show that corneal epithelial cells have a better efficiency to repair UV-induced mutagenic CPD. On the other hand, they are less prone to UV-induced apoptosis, which could be related to the fact that since the repair is more efficient in the HCEC, the need to eliminate highly damaged cells by apoptosis is reduced. PMID:27611318

  6. Drosophila Imaginal Discs as a Model of Epithelial Wound Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Bolton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Significance: The Drosophila larval imaginal discs, which form the adult fly during metamorphosis, are an established model system for the study of epithelial tissue damage. The disc proper is a simple columnar epithelium, but it contains complex patterning and cell-fate specification, and is genetically tractable. These features enable unbiased genetic screens to identify genes involved in all aspects of the wound response, from sensing damage to wound closure, initiation of regeneration, and re-establishment of proper cell fates. Identification of the genes that facilitate epithelial wound closure and regeneration will enable development of more sophisticated wound treatments for clinical use. Recent Advances: Imaginal disc epithelia can be damaged in many different ways, including fragmentation, induction of cell death, and irradiation. Recent work has demonstrated that the tissue's response to damage varies depending on how the wound was induced. Here, we summarize the different responses activated in these epithelial tissues after the different types of damage. Critical Issues: These studies highlight that not all wounds elicit the same response from the surrounding tissue. A complete understanding of the various wound-healing mechanisms in Drosophila will be a first step in understanding how to manage damaged human tissues and optimize healing in different clinical contexts. Future Directions: Further work is necessary to understand the similarities and differences among an epithelial tissue's responses to different insults. Ongoing studies will identify the genes and pathways employed by injured imaginal discs. Thus, work in this genetically tractable system complements work in more conventional wound-healing models. PMID:27274435

  7. Nucleotide excision repair is reduced in oral epithelial tissues compared with skin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David; Paniker, Lakshmi; Godar, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to internal tissues for diagnostic, therapeutic and cosmetic procedures has increased dramatically over the past decade. The greatest increase in UVR exposure of internal tissues occurs in the cosmetic industry where it is combined with oxidizing agents for teeth whitening, often in conjunction with indoor tanning. To address potential carcinogenic risks of these procedures, we analyzed the formation and repair of the DNA photoproducts associated with the signature mutations of UVR. Radioimmunoassay was used to quantify the induction and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts in DNA purified from three reconstructed tissues, EpiDerm(TM) , EpiGingival(TM) and EpiOral(TM) . We observed comparable levels of DNA damage in all tissues immediately after UVR exposure. In contrast, repair was significantly reduced in both oral tissues compared with EpiDerm(TM) . Our data suggest that UVR exposure of oral tissues can result in accumulation of DNA damage and increase the risk for carcinoma and melanoma of the mouth. Because NER is a broad-spectrum defense against DNA damage caused by a variety of agents in addition to UVR, our data suggest that the relatively low NER efficiency observed in oral tissues may have wide-ranging consequences in this highly exposed environment.

  8. Neutrophil transmigration triggers repair of the lung epithelium via beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Zemans, Rachel L; Briones, Natalie; Campbell, Megan; McClendon, Jazalle; Young, Scott K; Suzuki, Tomoko; Yang, Ivana V; De Langhe, Stijn; Reynolds, Susan D; Mason, Robert J; Kahn, Michael; Henson, Peter M; Colgan, Sean P; Downey, Gregory P

    2011-09-20

    Injury to the epithelium is integral to the pathogenesis of many inflammatory lung diseases, and epithelial repair is a critical determinant of clinical outcome. However, the signaling pathways regulating such repair are incompletely understood. We used in vitro and in vivo models to define these pathways. Human neutrophils were induced to transmigrate across monolayers of human lung epithelial cells in the physiological basolateral-to-apical direction. This allowed study of the neutrophil contribution not only to the initial epithelial injury, but also to its repair, as manifested by restoration of transepithelial resistance and reepithelialization of the denuded epithelium. Microarray analysis of epithelial gene expression revealed that neutrophil transmigration activated β-catenin signaling, and this was verified by real-time PCR, nuclear translocation of β-catenin, and TOPFlash reporter activity. Leukocyte elastase, likely via cleavage of E-cadherin, was required for activation of β-catenin signaling in response to neutrophil transmigration. Knockdown of β-catenin using shRNA delayed epithelial repair. In mice treated with intratracheal LPS or keratinocyte chemokine, neutrophil emigration resulted in activation of β-catenin signaling in alveolar type II epithelial cells, as demonstrated by cyclin D1 expression and/or reporter activity in TOPGAL mice. Attenuation of β-catenin signaling by IQ-1 inhibited alveolar type II epithelial cell proliferation in response to neutrophil migration induced by intratracheal keratinocyte chemokine. We conclude that β-catenin signaling is activated in lung epithelial cells during neutrophil transmigration, likely via elastase-mediated cleavage of E-cadherin, and regulates epithelial repair. This pathway represents a potential therapeutic target to accelerate physiological recovery in inflammatory lung diseases.

  9. Bax-induced apoptosis shortens the life span of DNA repair defect Ku70-knockout mice by inducing emphysema.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Shigemi; Palmer, James; Bates, Adam; Poventud-Fuentes, Izmarie; Wong, Kelvin; Ngo, Justine; Matsuyama, Mieko

    2016-06-01

    Cells with DNA damage undergo apoptosis or cellular senescence if the damage cannot be repaired. Recent studies highlight that cellular senescence plays a major role in aging. However, age-associated diseases, including emphysema and neurodegenerative disorders, are caused by apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells and neurons, respectively. Therefore, enhanced apoptosis also promotes aging and shortens the life span depending on the cell type. Recently, we reported that ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(-) (/) (-) and ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/) (-) mice showed significantly extended life span in comparison with ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/+) mice. Ku70 is essential for non-homologous end joining pathway for DNA double strand break repair, and Bax plays an important role in apoptosis. Our study suggests that Bax-induced apoptosis has a significant impact on shortening the life span of ku70(-) (/) (-) mice, which are defective in one of DNA repair pathways. The lung alveolar space gradually enlarges during aging, both in mouse and human, and this age-dependent change results in the decrease of respiration capacity during aging that can lead to emphysema in more severe cases. We found that emphysema occurred in ku70(-) (/) (-) mice at the age of three-months old, and that Bax deficiency was able to suppress it. These results suggest that Bax-mediated apoptosis induces emphysema in ku70(-) (/) (-) mice. We also found that the number of cells, including bronchiolar epithelial cells and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, shows a higher DNA double strand break damage response in ku70 KO mouse lung than in wild type. Recent studies suggest that non-homologous end joining activity decreases with increased age in mouse and rat model. Together, we hypothesize that the decline of Ku70-dependent DNA repair activity in lung alveolar epithelial cells is one of the causes of age-dependent decline of lung function resulting from excess Bax-mediated apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells (and their

  10. Function and repair of dental enamel - Potential role of epithelial transport processes of ameloblasts.

    PubMed

    Varga, Gábor; Kerémi, Beáta; Bori, Erzsébet; Földes, Anna

    2015-07-01

    The hardest mammalian tissue, dental enamel is produced by ameloblasts, which are electrolyte-transporting epithelial cells. Although the end product is very different, they show many similarities to transporting epithelia of the pancreas, salivary glands and kidney. Enamel is produced in a multi-step epithelial secretory process that features biomineralization which is an interplay of secreted ameloblast specific proteins and the time-specific transport of minerals, protons and bicarbonate. First, "secretory" ameloblasts form the entire thickness of the enamel layer, but with low mineral content. Then they differentiate into "maturation" ameloblasts, which remove organic matrix from the enamel and in turn further build up hydroxyapatite crystals. The protons generated by hydroxyapatite formation need to be buffered, otherwise enamel will not attain full mineralization. Buffering requires a tight pH regulation and secretion of bicarbonate by ameloblasts. The whole process has been the focus of many immunohistochemical and gene knock-out studies, but, perhaps surprisingly, no functional data existed for mineral ion transport by ameloblasts. However, recent studies including ours provided a better insight for molecular mechanism of mineral formation. The secretory regulation is not completely known as yet, but its significance is crucial. Impairing regulation retards or prevents completion of enamel mineralization and results in the development of hypomineralized enamel that easily erodes after dental eruption. Factors that impair this function are fluoride and disruption of pH regulators. Revealing these factors may eventually lead to the treatment of enamel hypomineralization related to genetic or environmentally induced malformation.

  11. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Parrot, A; Fartoukh, M; Cadranel, J

    2015-04-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage occurs relatively rarely and is a therapeutic emergency because it can quickly lead to acute respiratory failure, which can be fatal. Hemoptysis associated with anemia and pulmonary infiltrates suggest the diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage, but may be absent in one third of cases including patients in respiratory distress. The diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage is based on the findings of a bronchoalveolar lavage. The causes are numerous. It is important to identify alveolar hemorrhage due to sepsis, then separate an autoimmune cause (vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, connective tissue disease and Goodpasture's syndrome) with the search for autoantibodies and biopsies from readily accessible organs, from a non-immune cause, performing echocardiography. Lung biopsy should be necessary only in exceptional cases. If the hemorrhage has an immune cause, treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide may be started. The indications for treatment with rituximab are beginning to be established (forms that are not severe and refractory forms). The benefit of plasma exchange is unquestionable in Goodpasture's syndrome. In patients with an immune disease that can lead to an alveolar hemorrhage, removing any source of infection is the first priority.

  12. Reduction of DNA mismatch repair protein expression in airway epithelial cells of premenopausal women chronically exposed to biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Dutta, Anindita; Chowdhury, Saswati; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. This study examined whether chronic inhalation of biomass smoke causes change in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in the airway cells. For this, airway cells exfoliated in sputum were collected from 72 premenopausal nonsmoking rural women (median age 34 years) who cooked with biomass (wood, dung, crop residues) and 68 control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for the past 5 years or more. The levels of particulate matters with diameters less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5) in indoor air were measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in airway cells were measured by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Immunocytochemical assay revealed lower percentage of airway epithelial cells expressing MMR proteins mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) in biomass-using women compared to LPG-using controls. Women who cooked with biomass had 6.7 times higher level of urinary t,t-MA, twofold increase in ROS generation, and 31 % depletion of SOD. Indoor air of biomass-using households had three times more particulate matters than that of controls. ROS, urinary t,t-MA, and particulate pollution in biomass-using kitchen had negative correlation, while SOD showed positive correlation with MSH2 and MLH1 expression. It appears that chronic exposure to biomass smoke reduces MMR response in airway epithelial cells, and oxidative stress plays an important role in the process.

  13. Pulmonary administration of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor is a curative treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by alveolar regeneration.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Michiko; Oiso, Yuki; Sakai, Hitomi; Motomura, Tomoki; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2015-09-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an intractable pulmonary disease, causing widespread and irreversible alveoli collapse. The discovery of a low-molecular-weight compound that induces regeneration of pulmonary alveoli is of utmost urgency to cure intractable pulmonary diseases such as COPD. However, a practically useful compound for regenerating pulmonary alveoli is yet to be reported. Previously, we have elucidated that Akt phosphorylation is involved in a differentiation-inducing molecular mechanism of human alveolar epithelial stem cells, which play a role in regenerating pulmonary alveoli. In the present study, we directed our attention to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling and examined whether PI3K inhibitors display the pulmonary alveolus regeneration. Three PI3K inhibitors with different PI3K subtype specificities (Wortmannin, AS605240, PIK-75 hydrochloride) were tested for the differentiation-inducing effect on human alveolar epithelial stem cells, and Wortmannin demonstrated the most potent differentiation-inducing activity. We evaluated Akt phosphorylation in pulmonary tissues of an elastase-induced murine COPD model and found that Akt phosphorylation in the pulmonary tissue was enhanced in the murine COPD model compared with normal mice. Then, the alveolus-repairing effect of pulmonary administration of Wortmannin to murine COPD model was evaluated using X-ray CT analysis and hematoxylin-eosin staining. As a result, alveolar damages were repaired in the Wortmannin-administered group to a similar level of normal mice. Furthermore, pulmonary administration of Wortmannin induced a significant recovery of the respiratory function, compared to the control group. These results indicate that Wortmannin is capable of inducing differentiation of human alveolar epithelial stem cells and represents a promising drug candidate for curative treatment of pulmonary alveolar destruction in COPD.

  14. Macrophage recruitment and epithelial repair following hair cell injury in the mouse utricle.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Hirose, Keiko; Rubel, Edwin W; Warchol, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The sensory organs of the inner ear possess resident populations of macrophages, but the function of those cells is poorly understood. In many tissues, macrophages participate in the removal of cellular debris after injury and can also promote tissue repair. The present study examined injury-evoked macrophage activity in the mouse utricle. Experiments used transgenic mice in which the gene for the human diphtheria toxin receptor (huDTR) was inserted under regulation of the Pou4f3 promoter. Hair cells in such mice can be selectively lesioned by systemic treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT). In order to visualize macrophages, Pou4f3-huDTR mice were crossed with a second transgenic line, in which one or both copies of the gene for the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 were replaced with a gene for GFP. Such mice expressed GFP in all macrophages, and mice that were CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) lacked the necessary receptor for fractalkine signaling. Treatment with DT resulted in the death of ∼70% of utricular hair cells within 7 days, which was accompanied by increased numbers of macrophages within the utricular sensory epithelium. Many of these macrophages appeared to be actively engulfing hair cell debris, indicating that macrophages participate in the process of 'corpse removal' in the mammalian vestibular organs. However, we observed no apparent differences in injury-evoked macrophage numbers in the utricles of CX3CR1(+/GFP) mice vs. CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice, suggesting that fractalkine signaling is not necessary for macrophage recruitment in these sensory organs. Finally, we found that repair of sensory epithelia at short times after DT-induced hair cell lesions was mediated by relatively thin cables of F-actin. After 56 days recovery, however, all cell-cell junctions were characterized by very thick actin cables.

  15. Comparative studies of induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks in X-irradiated alveolar macrophages and resting peripheral blood lymphocytes using constant-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chukhlovin, A; Dahm-Daphi, J; Gercken, G; Zander, A R; Dikomey, E

    1995-08-01

    Induction and repair of X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) was compared for normal broncho-alveolar macrophages and human peripheral blood lymphocytes, using CHO cells as a reference cell model. The cells, upon their separation, were processed in a similar manner. After X-irradiation, cell lysis and proteinase K treatment, the DNA samples were subjected to constant-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) followed by fluorimetric densitometry for quantification of released DNA. Induction of dsbs after X-ray doses of 5-100 Gy was found to show no gross differences for all cell systems used. Repair of dsbs was studied after X-ray dose of 60 Gy for up to 24 h after irradiation. The repair curves obtained proved to be similar for bronchoalveolar macrophages and CHO cells (97% of all dsbs rejoined after 24 h). However, in blood lymphocytes from normal subjects and from bone marrow recipients, dsb repair proceeded rapidly only for 0.5-1 h post-irradiation, being followed by the gradual degradation of DNA at longer intervals. The kinetics of DNA degradation correlated with cytological features of pyknosis and necrosis.

  16. Isolation and Quantitative Estimation of Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black Particles Ingested by Lung Epithelial Cells and Alveolar Macrophages In Vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new procedure for isolating and estimating ingested carbonaceous diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or carbon black (CB) particles by lung epithelial cells and macrophages is described. Cells were incubated with DEP or CB to examine cell-particle interaction and ingestion. After va...

  17. Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A.; Islam, Mohammad N.; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-02-01

    The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.

  18. Drug Transporter Protein Quantification of Immortalized Human Lung Cell Lines Derived from Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), Bronchiolar-Alveolar Cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and Alveolar Type II-like Cells (A549) by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Matsumaru, Takehisa; Yamamura, Norio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug transport in the human lung is an important issue in pulmonary drug discovery and development. For this purpose, there is an increasing interest in immortalized lung cell lines as alternatives to primary cultured lung cells. We recently reported the protein expression in human lung tissues and pulmonary epithelial cells in primary culture, (Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) whereas comprehensive quantification of protein expressions in immortalized lung cell lines is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the drug transporter protein expression of five commercially available immortalized lung cell lines derived from tracheobronchial cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), bronchiolar-alveolar cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and alveolar type II cells (A549), by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches. Among transporters detected, breast cancer-resistance protein in Calu-3, NCI-H292, NCI-H441, and A549 and OCTN2 in BEAS2-B showed the highest protein expression. Compared with data from our previous study,(Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) NCI-H441 was the most similar with primary lung cells from all regions in terms of protein expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1). In conclusion, the protein expression profiles of transporters in five immortalized lung cell lines were determined, and these findings may contribute to a better understanding of drug transport in immortalized lung cell lines.

  19. TRIM72 modulates caveolar endocytosis in repair of lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nagre, Nagaraja; Wang, Shaohua; Kellett, Thomas; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Deng, Jing; Nishi, Miyuki; Shilo, Konstantin; Oeckler, Richard A; Yalowich, Jack C; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Christman, John; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell injury is a major feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, in particular when in conjunction with ventilation therapies. Previously we showed [Kim SC, Kellett T, Wang S, Nishi M, Nagre N, Zhou B, Flodby P, Shilo K, Ghadiali SN, Takeshima H, Hubmayr RD, Zhao X. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 307: L449-L459, 2014.] that tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) is essential for amending alveolar epithelial cell injury. Here, we posit that TRIM72 improves cellular integrity through its interaction with caveolin 1 (Cav1). Our data show that, in primary type I alveolar epithelial cells, lack of TRIM72 led to significant reduction of Cav1 at the plasma membrane, accompanied by marked attenuation of caveolar endocytosis. Meanwhile, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TRIM72 selectively increases caveolar endocytosis in rat lung epithelial cells, suggesting a functional association between these two. Further coimmunoprecipitation assays show that deletion of either functional domain of TRIM72, i.e., RING, B-box, coiled-coil, or PRY-SPRY, abolishes the physical interaction between TRIM72 and Cav1, suggesting that all theoretical domains of TRIM72 are required to forge a strong interaction between these two molecules. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that injurious ventilation-induced lung cell death was significantly increased in knockout (KO) TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) lungs compared with wild-type controls and was particularly pronounced in double KO mutants. Apoptosis was accompanied by accentuation of gross lung injury manifestations in the TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) mice. Our data show that TRIM72 directly and indirectly modulates caveolar endocytosis, an essential process involved in repair of lung epithelial cells through removal of plasma membrane wounds. Given TRIM72's role in endomembrane trafficking and cell repair, we consider this molecule an attractive therapeutic target for patients with injured lungs.

  20. Wnt5a through Noncanonical Wnt/JNK or Wnt/PKC Signaling Contributes to the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shixia; Dong, Liang; Liu, Le; Yang, Yi; Guo, Fengmei; Lu, Xiaomin; He, Hongli; Chen, Qihong; Hu, Shuling; Qiu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial (AT II) cells is critical for reepithelization and recovery in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and Wnt signaling was considered to be the underlying mechanisms. In our previous study, we found that canonical Wnt pathway promoted the differentiation of MSCs into AT II cells, however the role of the noncanonical Wnt pathway in this process is unclear. It was disclosed in this study that noncanonical Wnt signaling in mouse bone marrow–derived MSCs (mMSCs) was activated during the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells in a modified co-culture system with murine lung epithelial-12 cells and small airway growth media. The levels of surfactant protein (SP) C, SPB and SPD, the specific markers of AT II cells, increased in mMSCs when Wnt5a was added to activate noncanonical Wnt signaling, while pretreatment with JNK or PKC inhibitors reversed the promotion of Wnt5a. The differentiation rate of mMSCs also depends on their abilities to accumulate and survive in inflammatory tissue. We found that the Wnt5a supplement promoted the vertical and horizontal migration of mMSCs, ameliorated the cell death and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax induced by H2O2. The effect of Wnt5a on the migration of mMSCs and their survival after H2O2 exposure were partially inhibited with PKC or JNK blockers. In conclusion, Wnt5a through Wnt/JNK signaling alone or both Wnt/JNK and Wnt/PKC signaling promoted the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells and the migration of mMSCs; through Wnt/PKC signaling, Wnt5a increased the survival of mMSCs after H2O2 exposure in vitro. PMID:24658098

  1. Hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS induces death of alveolar epithelial L2 cells that is associated with cellular shrinkage, transgelin expression and myosin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yusuke; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Noritake, Kanako; Aki, Toshihiko; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gaseous molecule that causes death to humans exposed to high concentrations. H2S is absorbed into the body through the alveolar epithelium and other tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the molecular mechanism underling acute lung injury caused by the inhalation of high concentrations of H2S. Rat lung epithelium-derived L2 cells were exposed to a H2S donor, NaHS, at concentrations of 2-4 mM for 1-6 hr. NaHS caused shrinkage and death of the cells without caspase activation. An actin-binding protein, transgelin, was identified as one of the NaHS-inducible proteins in the cells. NaHS increased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, indicating that actomyosin-mediated cellular contractility and/or motility could be increased after NaHS exposure. The administration of ML-7, a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, accelerated cell death after NaHS exposure. Based on these data, we conclude that the increase in MLC phosphorylation in response to NaHS exposure is a cellular protective reaction against NaHS toxicity. Enhancements in smooth muscle cell properties such as transgelin expression and actomyosin-mediated contractility/motility might be involved in cell survival after NaHS exposure.

  2. Temporal Transcriptional Response during Infection of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells with Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) Supports a General Host Suppression and Bacterial Uptake by Macropinocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bradburne, Christopher E.; Verhoeven, Anne B.; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Chaudhry, Saira A.; Chang, Eddie L.; Thach, Dzung C.; Bailey, Charles L.; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of Francisella tularensis, one of the most infectious microbes known. We wanted to study the kinetics of the initial and early interactions between bacterium and host cells in the lung. To do this, we examined the infection of A549 airway epithelial cells with the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis. A549 cells were infected and analyzed for global transcriptional response at multiple time points up to 16 h following infection. At 15 min and 2 h, a strong transcriptional response was observed including cytoskeletal rearrangement, intracellular transport, and interferon signaling. However, at later time points (6 and 16 h), very little differential gene expression was observed, indicating a general suppression of the host response consistent with other reported cell lines and murine tissues. Genes for macropinocytosis and actin/cytoskeleton rearrangement were highly up-regulated and common to the 15 min and 2 h time points, suggesting the use of this method for bacterial entry into cells. We demonstrate macropinocytosis through the uptake of FITC-dextran and amiloride inhibition of Francisella LVS uptake. Our results suggest that macropinocytosis is a potential mechanism of intracellular entry by LVS and that the host cell response is suppressed during the first 2–6 h of infection. These results suggest that the attenuated Francisella LVS induces significant host cell signaling at very early time points after the bacteria's interaction with the cell. PMID:23322778

  3. Noncanonical WNT-5A signaling impairs endogenous lung repair in COPD.

    PubMed

    Baarsma, Hoeke A; Skronska-Wasek, Wioletta; Mutze, Kathrin; Ciolek, Florian; Wagner, Darcy E; John-Schuster, Gerrit; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Günther, Andreas; Bracke, Ken R; Dagouassat, Maylis; Boczkowski, Jorge; Brusselle, Guy G; Smits, Ron; Eickelberg, Oliver; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Königshoff, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. One main pathological feature of COPD is the loss of functional alveolar tissue without adequate repair (emphysema), yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Reduced WNT-β-catenin signaling is linked to impaired lung repair in COPD; however, the factors responsible for attenuating this pathway remain to be elucidated. Here, we identify a canonical to noncanonical WNT signaling shift contributing to COPD pathogenesis. We demonstrate enhanced expression of noncanonical WNT-5A in two experimental models of COPD and increased posttranslationally modified WNT-5A in human COPD tissue specimens. WNT-5A was increased in primary lung fibroblasts from COPD patients and induced by COPD-related stimuli, such as TGF-β, cigarette smoke (CS), and cellular senescence. Functionally, mature WNT-5A attenuated canonical WNT-driven alveolar epithelial cell wound healing and transdifferentiation in vitro. Lung-specific WNT-5A overexpression exacerbated airspace enlargement in elastase-induced emphysema in vivo. Accordingly, inhibition of WNT-5A in vivo attenuated lung tissue destruction, improved lung function, and restored expression of β-catenin-driven target genes and alveolar epithelial cell markers in the elastase, as well as in CS-induced models of COPD. We thus identify a novel essential mechanism involved in impaired mesenchymal-epithelial cross talk in COPD pathogenesis, which is amenable to therapy.

  4. Adipokine adiponectin is a potential protector to human bronchial epithelial cell for regulating proliferation, wound repair and apoptosis: comparison with leptin and resistin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Lin; Qin, Xiao Qun; Xiang, Yang; Tan, Yu Rong; Qu, Xiang Pin; Liu, Hui Jun

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological data indicate an increasing incidence of asthma in the obese individuals recent decades, while very little is known about the possible association between them. Here, we compared the roles of adipocyte-derived factors, including leptin, adiponectin and resistin on proliferation, wound repair and apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The results showed that exogenous globular adiponectin (gAd) promoted proliferation, cell-cycle and wound repair of HBECs. This effect may be relevant to Ca(2+)/calmodulin signal pathway. Besides, gAd inhibited apoptosis induced by ozone and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of HBECs via regulated adipoR1 and reactive oxygen species. No effects of leptin or resistin on proliferation, wound repair and apoptosis of HBECs were detectable. These data indicate that airway epithelium is the direct target of gAd which plays an important role in protecting HBECs from mechanical or oxidant injuries and may have therapeutic implications in the treatment of asthma.

  5. Collagen based film with well epithelial and stromal regeneration as corneal repair materials: Improving mechanical property by crosslinking with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Li, Weichang; Long, Kai; Wang, Lin; Liu, Sa; Wang, Yingjun; Ren, Li

    2015-10-01

    Corneal disease can lead to vision loss. It has become the second greatest cause of blindness in the world, and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. This paper presents the crosslinked collagen (Col)-citric acid (CA) films developed by making use of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The results showed that the Col-CA films had necessary optical performance, water content. The collagenase resistance of CA crosslinked films was superior to that of EDC crosslinked films. And CA5 film (Col:CA:EDC:NHS=60:3:10:10) had the best mechanical properties. Cell experiments showed that CA5 film was non-cytotoxic and human corneal epithelial cells could proliferate well on the films. Lamellar keratoplasty showed that the CA5 film could be sutured in the rabbit eyes and was epithelialized completely in about 10 days, and the transparency was restored quickly in 30±5 days. No inflammation and corneal neovascularization were observed at 6 months. Corneal stroma had been repaired; stromal cells and neo-stroma could be seen in the area of operation from the hematoxylin-eosin stained histologic sections and anterior segment optical coherence tomography images. These results indicated that Col-CA films were highly promising biomaterials that could be used in corneal tissue engineering and a variety of other tissue engineering applications.

  6. Cadmium Induced Cell Apoptosis, DNA Damage, Decreased DNA Repair Capacity, and Genomic Instability during Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Haibai; Huang, Qinhai; Wang, Min; Lei, Yixiong

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds are well-known human carcinogens, but the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis are not entirely understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of DNA damage in cadmium-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We analyzed cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression, genomic instability, and the sequence of exons in DNA repair genes in several kinds of cells. These cells consisted of untreated control cells, cells in the fifth, 15th, and 35th passage of cadmium-treated cells, and tumorigenic cells from nude mice using flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, comet assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and sequence analysis. We observed a progressive increase in cell population of the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the rate of apoptosis, DNA damage, and cadmium-induced apoptotic morphological changes in cerebral cortical neurons during malignant transformation. Gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of cell proliferation (PCNA), cell cycle (CyclinD1), pro-apoptotic activity (Bax), and DNA damage of the checkpoint genes ATM, ATR, Chk1, Chk2, Cdc25A. Decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and the DNA repair genes hMSH2, hMLH1, ERCC1, ERCC2, and hOGG1 was observed. RAPD-PCR revealed genomic instability in cadmium-exposed cells, and sequence analysis showed mutation of exons in hMSH2, ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1 in tumorigenic cells. This study suggests that Cadmium can increase cell apoptosis and DNA damage, decrease DNA repair capacity, and cause mutations, and genomic instability leading to malignant transformation. This process could be a viable mechanism for cadmium-induced cancers. PMID:24046522

  7. TNF-α-Induced cPLA2 Expression via NADPH Oxidase/Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent NF-κB Cascade on Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wei-Ning; Cho, Rou-Ling; Wang, Chen-yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and then enhancing the synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) in inflammatory diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α induced cPLA2 expression were not fully defined in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). We found that TNF-α-stimulated increases in cPLA2 mRNA (5.2 folds) and protein (3.9 folds) expression, promoter activity (4.3 folds), and PGE2 secretion (4.7 folds) in HPAEpiCs, determined by Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity assay and PGE2 ELISA kit. These TNF-α-mediated responses were abrogated by the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], ROS [N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC)], NF-κB (Bay11-7082) and transfection with siRNA of ASK1, p47phox, TRAF2, NIK, IKKα, IKKβ, or p65. TNF-α markedly stimulated NADPH oxidase activation and ROS including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production which were inhibited by pretreatment with a TNFR1 neutralizing antibody, APO, DPI or transfection with siRNA of TRAF2, ASK1, or p47phox. In addition, TNF-α also stimulated p47phox phosphorylation and translocation in a time-dependent manner. On the other hand, TNF-α induced TNFR1, TRAF2, ASK1, and p47phox complex formation in HPAEpiCs, which were attenuated by a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. We found that pretreatment with NAC, DPI, or APO also attenuated the TNF-α-stimulated IKKα/β and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB (p65) translocation, and NF-κB promoter activity in HPAEpiCs. Finally, we observed that TNF-α-stimulated NADPH oxidase activation and ROS generation activates NF-κB through the NIK/IKKα/β pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrated that in HPAEpiCs, up-regulation of cPLA2 by TNF-α is, at least in part, mediated through the cooperation of TNFR1, TRAF2, ASK1, and NADPH oxidase leading to ROS generation and ultimately activates NF-κB pathway. PMID:27932980

  8. Lung epithelial tip progenitors integrate glucocorticoid- and STAT3-mediated signals to control progeny fate

    PubMed Central

    Laresgoiti, Usua; Rao, Chandrika; Brady, Jane L.; Richardson, Rachel V.; Batchen, Emma J.; Chapman, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient alveolar gas exchange capacity is a major contributor to lung disease. During lung development, a population of distal epithelial progenitors first produce bronchiolar-fated and subsequently alveolar-fated progeny. The mechanisms controlling this bronchiolar-to-alveolar developmental transition remain largely unknown. We developed a novel grafting assay to test if lung epithelial progenitors are intrinsically programmed or if alveolar cell identity is determined by environmental factors. These experiments revealed that embryonic lung epithelial identity is extrinsically determined. We show that both glucocorticoid and STAT3 signalling can control the timing of alveolar initiation, but that neither pathway is absolutely required for alveolar fate specification; rather, glucocorticoid receptor and STAT3 work in parallel to promote alveolar differentiation. Thus, developmental acquisition of lung alveolar fate is a robust process controlled by at least two independent extrinsic signalling inputs. Further elucidation of these pathways might provide therapeutic opportunities for restoring alveolar capacity. PMID:27578791

  9. Treatment related toxicity in BRCA1-associated epithelial ovarian cancer – is DNA repairing impairment associated with more adverse events?

    PubMed Central

    Budryk, Magdalena; Nowara, Elżbieta; Starzyczny-Słota, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study The presence of BRCA germline mutations in patients with ovarian cancer has been shown to have predictive and prognostic significance, including increased platinum-sensitivity. The aim of the study was to evaluate if patients with BRCA1-associated ovarian cancer have more treatment related adverse events and, if so, does it have impact on chemotherapy outcomes. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of 172 patients with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer, treated in Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch between 2007 and 2013. Ninety-six of these patients have known BRCA mutation status – 21 patients were BRCA1(+) and 75 BRCA1(–). Analysed treatment related adverse events (AE’s) were: haematological toxicity, nausea/vomiting, neuropathy and mucositis. Results Grade 3–4 haematological AE’s were significantly more common among BRCA1(+) patients (OR = 3.86; 95% CI: 1.14–13.23; p = 0.02). There was no association between BRCA1 mutation status and neuropathy (p = 0.73) or nausea/vomiting (p = 0.91). Occurrence of above mentioned AE’s has no significant association with PFS (p = 0.75, 0.64, 0.97 respectively) and OS (p = 0.64, 0.69, 0.73 respectively). Conclusions Among patients with BRCA1-associated epithelial ovarian cancer we observed significantly more grade 3–4 haematological complications after chemotherapy. However, occurrence of AE’s did not correlate with better outcomes in this subgroup.

  10. Arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, inhibits p53, represses DNA repair, and triggers DNA damage response in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Shan; Lee, Ka-Wo; Huang, Jau-Ling; Liu, Yu-Sen; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Kuo, Wen-Rei; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Lin, Chang-Shen; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2008-07-30

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer declared that areca nut was carcinogenic to human. Areca nut is the main component of betel quid (BQ), which is commonly consumed in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that BQ chewing is a predominant risk factor for oral and pharyngeal cancers. It has been known that areca nut is genotoxic to human epithelial cells. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying areca nut-associated genotoxicity are not fully understood. Here we showed that arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, might contribute to oral carcinogenesis through inhibiting p53 and DNA repair. We found, on the biological aspect, that arecoline could induce gamma-H2AX phosphorylation, a sensitive DNA damage marker, in KB, HEp-2, and 293 cells, suggesting that DNA damages were elicited by arecoline. This phenomenon was supported by the observations of arecoline-induced hyperphosphorylation of ATM, Nbs1, Chk1/2, p53, and Cdc25C, as well as G2/M cell cycle arrest, indicating that a cellular DNA damage response was activated. To explore the possible mechanism accounting for arecoline-elicited DNA damages, we found that arecoline could inhibit p53 by its expression and transactivation function. As a result, the expression of p53-regulated p21(WAF1) and the p53-activated DNA repair were repressed by arecoline. Finally, we showed that p53 mRNA transcripts were frequently down-regulated in BQ-associated oral cancer, suggesting that arecoline-mediated p53 inhibition might play a role in BQ-associated tumorigenesis.

  11. Pulmonary administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to the lungs induces alveolar regeneration in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Michiko; Hirokawa, Mai; Abe, Kaori; Kumagai, Harumi; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2016-07-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disease with several causes, including smoking, and no curative therapeutic agent is available, particularly for destructive alveolar lesions. In this study, we investigated the differentiation-inducing effect on undifferentiated lung cells (Calu-6) and the alveolar regenerative effect of the active vitamin 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VD3) with the ultimate goal of developing a novel curative drug for COPD. First, the differentiation-inducing effect of VD3 on Calu-6 cells was evaluated. Treatment with VD3 increased the proportions of type I alveolar epithelial (AT-I) and type II alveolar epithelial (AT-II) cells constituting alveoli in a concentration- and treatment time-dependent manner, demonstrating the potent differentiation-inducing activity of VD3 on Calu-6 cells. We thus administered VD3 topically to the mice lung using a previously developed intrapulmonary administration via self-inhalation method. To evaluate the alveolus-repairing effect of VD3, we administered VD3 intrapulmonarily to elastase-induced COPD model mice and computed the mean distance between the alveolar walls as an index of the extent of alveolar injury. Results showed significant decreases in the alveolar wall distance in groups of mice that received 0.01, 0.1, and 1μg/kg of intrapulmonary VD3, revealing excellent alveolus-regenerating effect of VD3. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of VD3 on improving respiratory function using a respiratory function analyzer. Lung elasticity and respiratory competence [forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1 s %] are reduced in COPD, reflecting advanced emphysematous changes. In elastase-induced COPD model mice, although lung elasticity and respiratory competence were reduced, VD3 administered intrapulmonarily twice weekly for 2weeks recovered tissue elastance and forced expiratory volume in 0.05s to the forced vital capacity, which are indicators of lung elasticity and respiratory

  12. The Rho pathway mediates transition to an alveolar type I cell phenotype during static stretch of alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Cherie D; Varghese, Linda S; Gonzales, Linda W.; Margulies, Susan S.; Guttentag, Susan H.

    2011-01-01

    Stretch is an essential mechanism for lung growth and development. Animal models in which fetal lungs have been chronically over- or under-distended demonstrate a disrupted mix of type II and type I cells, with static overdistention typically promoting a type I cell phenotype. The Rho GTPase family, key regulators of cytoskeletal signaling, are known to mediate cellular differentiation in response to stretch in other organs. Using a well-described model of alveolar epithelial cell differentiation and a validated stretch device, we investigated the effects of supraphysiologic stretch on human fetal lung (HFL) alveolar epithelial cell phenotype. Static stretch applied to epithelial cells suppressed type II cell markers (SP-B and Pepsinogen C, PGC), and induced type I cell markers (Caveolin-1, Claudin 7 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, PAI-1) as predicted. Static stretch was also associated with Rho A activation. Furthermore, the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 decreased Rho A activation, and blunted the stretch-induced changes in alveolar epithelial cell marker expression. Together these data provide further evidence that mechanical stimulation of the cytoskeleton and Rho activation are key upstream events in mechanotransduction-associated alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:20220547

  13. Vascular and epithelial damage in the lung of the mouse after X rays or neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Law, M.P.; Ahier, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The response of the lung was studied in CFLP mice after exposure of the whole thorax to X rays (250 kVp) or cyclotron neutrons (16 MeV deuterons on Be, mean energy 7.5 MeV). To measure blood volume and leakage of plasma proteins, 51Cr-labeled red blood cells and 125I-albumin were injected intravenously and 24 h later lungs were lavaged via the trachea. Radioactivities in lung tissue and lavage fluid were determined to estimate the accumulation of albumin in the interstitial and alveolar spaces indicating damage to blood vessels and alveolar epithelium respectively. Function of type II pneumonocytes was assessed by the amounts of surfactant (assayed as lipid phosphorous) released into the lavage fluid. During the first 6 weeks, lavage protein and surfactant were increased, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) being unity. During pneumonitis at 12-24 weeks, surfactant levels were normal, blood volume was decreased, and both interstitial and alveolar albumin were increased. Albumin levels then decreased. At late times after exposure (42-64 weeks) alveolar albumin returned to normal but interstitial albumin was still slightly elevated. Values of RBE for changes in blood volume and interstitial and alveolar albumin at 15 weeks and for changes in blood volume and interstitial albumin at 46 weeks were 1.4, comparable with that for animal survival at 180 days. The results indicate that surfactant production is not critical for animal survival. They suggest that changes in blood vessels and alveolar epithelium occur during acute pneumonitis; epithelial repair follows but some vascular damage may persist. The time course of the changes in albumin levels did not correlate with increases in collagen biosynthesis which have been observed as early as 1 month after exposure and persist for up to 1 year.

  14. Loss of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha in the lung alveolar epithelium of mice leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation in cobalt-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Proper, Steven P; Saini, Yogesh; Greenwood, Krista K; Bramble, Lori A; Downing, Nathaniel J; Harkema, Jack R; Lapres, John J

    2014-02-01

    Hard metal lung disease (HMLD) is an occupational lung disease specific to inhalation of cobalt-containing particles whose mechanism is largely unknown. Cobalt is a known hypoxia mimic and stabilizer of the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Previous work revealed that though HIF1α contrib utes to cobalt toxicity in vitro, loss of HIF1α in the alveolar epithelial cells does not provide in vivo protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation. HIF1α and HIF2α show unique tissue expression profiles, and HIF2α is known to be the predominant HIF mRNA isoform in the adult lung. Thus, if HIF2α activation by cobalt contributes to pathophysiology of HMLD, we hypothesized that loss of HIF2α in lung epithelium would provide protection from cobalt-induced inflammation. Mice with HIF2α-deficiency in Club and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATIIs) (HIF2α(Δ/Δ)) were exposed to cobalt (60 µg/day) or saline using a subacute occupational exposure model. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity, cytokines, qRT-PCR, and histopathology were analyzed. Results show that loss of HIF2α leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation and increased goblet cell metaplasia. Additionally, control mice demonstrated a mild recovery from cobalt-induced lung injury compared with HIF2α(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a role for epithelial HIF2α in repair mechanisms. The expression of important cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10, displayed significant differences following cobalt exposure when HIF2α(Δ/Δ) and control mice were compared. In summary, our data suggest that although loss of HIF2α does not afford protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation, epithelial HIF2α signaling does play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and repair response in the lung.

  15. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher H; Catallo, W James; Wilson, Vincent L; Mitchell, James B

    2009-10-01

    1,3-Butadiene, an important petrochemical, is commonly burned off when excess amounts need to be destroyed. This combustion process produces butadiene soot (BDS), which is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates ranging in size from <1 microm to 1 mm. An organic extract of BDS is both cytotoxic and genotoxic to normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Based on the oxidizing potential of BDS, we hypothesized that an organic extract of this particulate matter would (1) cause enzyme inactivation due to protein amino acid oxidation and (2) induce oxidative DNA damage in NHBE cells. Thus, our aims were to determine the effect of butadiene soot ethanol extract (BSEE) on both enzyme activity and the expression of proteins involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Catalase was found to be sensitive to BDS as catalase activity was potently diminished in the presence of BSEE. Using Western analysis, both the alpha isoform of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (alpha-hOGG1) and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE-1) were shown to be significantly overexpressed as compared to untreated controls after exposure of NHBE cells to BSEE. Our results indicate that BSEE is capable of effectively inactivating the antioxidant enzyme catalase, presumably via oxidation of protein amino acids. The presence of oxidized biomolecules may partially explain the extranuclear fluorescence that is detected when NHBE cells are treated with an organic extract of BDS. Overexpression of both alpha-hOGG1 and APE-1 proteins following treatment of NHBE cells with BSEE suggests that this mixture causes oxidative DNA damage.

  16. Chloride transport-driven alveolar fluid secretion is a major contributor to cardiogenic lung edema.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Esther A; Kaestle-Gembardt, Stefanie M; Vadász, István; Wang, Liming; Neye, Nils; Chupin, Cécile Julie Adrienne; Rozowsky, Simon; Ruehl, Ramona; Tabuchi, Arata; Schulz, Holger; Kapus, Andras; Morty, Rory E; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2013-06-18

    Alveolar fluid clearance driven by active epithelial Na(+) and secondary Cl(-) absorption counteracts edema formation in the intact lung. Recently, we showed that impairment of alveolar fluid clearance because of inhibition of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) promotes cardiogenic lung edema. Concomitantly, we observed a reversal of alveolar fluid clearance, suggesting that reversed transepithelial ion transport may promote lung edema by driving active alveolar fluid secretion. We, therefore, hypothesized that alveolar ion and fluid secretion may constitute a pathomechanism in lung edema and aimed to identify underlying molecular pathways. In isolated perfused lungs, alveolar fluid clearance and secretion were determined by a double-indicator dilution technique. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion and alveolar Cl(-) influx were quantified by radionuclide tracing and alveolar Cl(-) imaging, respectively. Elevated hydrostatic pressure induced ouabain-sensitive alveolar fluid secretion that coincided with transepithelial Cl(-) secretion and alveolar Cl(-) influx. Inhibition of either cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) or Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC) blocked alveolar fluid secretion, and lungs of CFTR(-/-) mice were protected from hydrostatic edema. Inhibition of ENaC by amiloride reproduced alveolar fluid and Cl(-) secretion that were again CFTR-, NKCC-, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-dependent. Our findings show a reversal of transepithelial Cl(-) and fluid flux from absorptive to secretory mode at hydrostatic stress. Alveolar Cl(-) and fluid secretion are triggered by ENaC inhibition and mediated by NKCC and CFTR. Our results characterize an innovative mechanism of cardiogenic edema formation and identify NKCC1 as a unique therapeutic target in cardiogenic lung edema.

  17. Alveolar edema fluid clearance and acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Berthiaume, Yves; Matthay, Michael A

    2007-12-15

    Although lung-protective ventilation strategies have substantially reduced mortality of acute lung injury patients there is still a need for new therapies that can further decrease mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Studies of epithelial ion and fluid transport across the distal pulmonary epithelia have provided important new concepts regarding potential new therapies for acute lung injury. Overall, there is convincing evidence that the alveolar epithelium is not only a tight epithelial barrier that resists the movement of edema fluid into the alveoli, but it is also actively involved in the transport of ions and solutes, a process that is essential for edema fluid clearance and the resolution of acute lung injury. The objective of this article is to consider some areas of recent progress in the field of alveolar fluid transport under normal and pathologic conditions. Vectorial ion transport across the alveolar and distal airway epithelia is the primary determinant of alveolar fluid clearance. The general paradigm is that active Na(+) and Cl(-) transport drives net alveolar fluid clearance, as demonstrated in several different species, including the human lung. Although these transport processes can be impaired in severe lung injury, multiple experimental studies suggest that upregulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) transport might be an effective therapy in acute lung injury. We will review mechanisms involved in pharmacological modulation of ion transport in lung injury with a special focus on the use of beta-adrenergic agonists which has generated considerable interest and is a promising therapy for clinical acute lung injury.

  18. Role of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez in the development, maintenance and regeneration of periodontal ligament tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jimin; Gronthos, Stan; Bartold, P Mark

    2013-10-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease that results in damage to the tooth-supporting tissues, potentially leading to tooth loss. Periodontal tissue regeneration is a complex process that involves the collaboration of two hard tissues (cementum and alveolar bone) and two soft tissues (gingiva and periodontal ligament). To date, no periodontal-regenerative procedures provide predictable clinical outcomes. To understand the rational basis of regenerative procedures, a better understanding of the events associated with the formation of periodontal components will help to establish reliable strategies for clinical practice. An important aspect of this is the role of the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in periodontal development and that of its descendants, the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, in the maintenance of the periodontium. An important structure during tooth root development, the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath is not only a barrier between the dental follicle and dental papilla cells but is also involved in determining the shape, size and number of roots and in the development of dentin and cementum, and may act as a source of mesenchymal progenitor cells for cementoblasts. In adulthood, the epithelial cell rests of Malassez are the only odontogenic epithelial population in the periodontal ligament. Although there is no general agreement on the functions of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, accumulating evidence suggests that the putative roles of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez in adult periodontal ligament include maintaining periodontal ligament homeostasis to prevent ankylosis and maintain periodontal ligament space, to prevent root resorption, to serve as a target during periodontal ligament innervation and to contribute to cementum repair. Recently, ovine epithelial cell rests of Malassez cells have been shown to harbor clonogenic epithelial stem-cell populations that demonstrate similar properties to mesenchymal stromal

  19. An estimation of mechanical stress on alveolar walls during repetitive alveolar reopening and closure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-Long; Song, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Zhao-Yan; Zhang, Su; Chen, Ya-Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Alveolar overdistension and mechanical stresses generated by repetitive opening and closing of small airways and alveoli have been widely recognized as two primary mechanistic factors that may contribute to the development of ventilator-induced lung injury. A long-duration exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to even small, shear stresses could lead to the changes in cytoskeleton and the production of inflammatory mediators. In this paper, we have made an attempt to estimate in situ the magnitudes of mechanical stresses exerted on the alveolar walls during repetitive alveolar reopening by using a tape-peeling model of McEwan and Taylor (35). To this end, we first speculate the possible ranges of capillary number (Ca) ≡ μU/γ (a dimensionless combination of surface tension γ, fluid viscosity μ, and alveolar opening velocity U) during in vivo alveolar opening. Subsequent calculations show that increasing respiratory rate or inflation rate serves to increase the values of mechanical stresses. For a normal lung, the predicted maximum shear stresses are <15 dyn/cm(2) at all respiratory rates, whereas for a lung with elevated surface tension or viscosity, the maximum shear stress will notably increase, even at a slow respiratory rate. Similarly, the increased pressure gradients in the case of elevated surface or viscosity may lead to a pressure drop >300 dyn/cm(2) across a cell, possibly inducing epithelial hydraulic cracks. In addition, we have conceived of a geometrical model of alveolar opening to make a prediction of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) required to splint open a collapsed alveolus, which as shown by our results, covers a wide range of pressures, from several centimeters to dozens of centimeters of water, strongly depending on the underlying pulmonary conditions. The establishment of adequate regional ventilation-to-perfusion ratios may prevent recruited alveoli from reabsorption atelectasis and accordingly, reduce the required levels of

  20. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Sabalys, Gintautas

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies. Results In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement. Conclusions The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management. PMID:24421983

  1. Regulation of Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Mice with Pneumonia by Peptidases and Trans-Alveolar Flux

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Wilfred W.; Xu, Xiang; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Le, Catherine; McDonald, Donald M.; Caughey, George H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes lung epithelial repair after injury. Because prior studies established that human neutrophil proteases inactivate HGF in vitro, we predicted that HGF levels decrease in lungs infiltrated with neutrophils and that injury is less severe in lungs lacking HGF-inactivating proteases. After establishing that mouse neutrophil elastase cleaves mouse HGF in vitro, we tested our predictions in vivo by examining lung pathology and HGF in mice infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis, which causes neutrophilic tracheobronchitis and pneumonia. Unexpectedly, pneumonia severity was similar in wild type and dipeptidylpeptidase I-deficient (Dppi-/-) mice lacking neutrophil serine protease activity. To assess how this finding related to our prediction that Dppi-activated proteases regulate HGF levels, we measured HGF in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue from Dppi+/+ and Dppi-/- mice. Contrary to prediction, HGF levels were higher in lavage fluid from infected mice. However, serum and tissue concentrations were not different in infected and uninfected mice, and HGF lung transcript levels did not change. Increased HGF correlated with increased albumin in lavage fluid from infected mice, and immunostaining failed to detect increased lung tissue expression of HGF in infected mice. These findings are consistent with trans-alveolar flux rather than local production as the source of increased HGF in lavage fluid. However, levels of intact HGF from infected mice, normalized for albumin concentration, were two-fold higher in Dppi-/- versus Dppi+/+ lavage fluid, suggesting regulation by Dppi-activated proteases. Consistent with the presence of active HGF, increased expression of activated receptor c-Met was observed in infected tissues. These data suggest that HGF entering alveoli from the bloodstream during pneumonia compensates for destruction by Dppi-activated inflammatory proteases to allow HGF to contribute to epithelial repair. PMID

  2. Poloxamer 188 Facilitates the Repair of Alveolus Resident Cells in Ventilator-injured Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Plataki, Maria; Lee, Yang D.; Rasmussen, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Wounded alveolus resident cells are identified in human and experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome models. Poloxamer 188 (P188) is an amphiphilic macromolecule shown to have plasma membrane–sealing properties in various cell types. Objectives: To investigate whether P188 (1) protects alveolus resident cells from necrosis and (2) is associated with reduced ventilator-induced lung injury in live rats, isolated perfused rat lungs, and scratch and stretch–wounded alveolar epithelial cells. Methods: Seventy-four live rats and 18 isolated perfused rat lungs were ventilated with injurious or protective strategies while infused with P188 or control solution. Alveolar epithelial cell monolayers were subjected to scratch or stretch wounding in the presence or absence of P188. Measurements and Main Results: P188 was associated with fewer mortally wounded alveolar cells in live rats and isolated perfused lungs. In vitro, P188 reduced the number of injured and necrotic cells, suggesting that P188 promotes cell repair and renders plasma membranes more resilient to deforming stress. The enhanced cell survival was accompanied by improvement in conventional measures of lung injury (peak airway pressure, wet-to-dry weight ratio) only in the ex vivo–perfused lung preparation and not in the live animal model. Conclusions: P188 facilitates plasma membrane repair in alveolus resident cells, but has no salutary effects on lung mechanics or vascular barrier properties in live animals. This discordance may have pathophysiological significance for the interdependence of different injury mechanisms and therapeutic implications regarding the benefits of prolonging the life of stress-activated cells. PMID:21778295

  3. Effects of ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener on potassium transport and alveolar fluid clearance in the resected human lung.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, T; Takahashi, K; Ohya, N; Nakada, T; Matthay, M A

    1998-07-01

    Since the effect of an ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) opener on the function of alveolar epithelial cells is unknown, the effect of YM934, a newly synthesized KATP channel opener, on potassium influx into the alveolar spaces and alveolar fluid clearance was determined in the resected human lung. An isosmolar albumin solution with a low potassium concentration was instilled into the distal airspaces of resected human lungs. Alveolar fluid clearance was measured by the progressive increase in alveolar protein concentration. Net potassium transport was measured by the change in potassium concentration and alveolar fluid volume. YM934 (10(-4) M) increased net influx of potassium by 140% into the alveolar spaces and also increased alveolar fluid clearance by 60% in the experiments with a potassium concentration of 0.3 mEq/1. Glibenclamide (10(-4) M), a KATP channel blocker, inhibited the YM934-increased influx of potassium transport and the increase in alveolar fluid clearance. Also amiloride (10(-5) M), an inhibitors of apical sodium uptake, blocked the YM934 stimulated increase in net alveolar fluid clearance. These results indicate that a KATP channel opener can effect potassium transport and net vectorial fluid movement across the human alveolar epithelium.

  4. Gamma delta T Cells Are Necessary for Platelet and Neutrophil Accumulation in Limbal Vessels and Efficient Epithelial Repair after Corneal Abrasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corneal epithelial abrasion in C57BL/6 mice induces an inflammatory response, with peak accumulation of neutrophils in the corneal stroma within 12 hours. Platelets localize in the limbal vessels throughout the same time course as neutrophils and contribute to wound healing because antibody-dependen...

  5. The H2S-generating enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase play a role in vascular development during normal lung alveolarization.

    PubMed

    Madurga, Alicia; Golec, Anita; Pozarska, Agnieszka; Ishii, Isao; Mižíková, Ivana; Nardiello, Claudio; Vadász, István; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Reichenberger, Frank; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Seeger, Werner; Morty, Rory E

    2015-10-01

    The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging as a mediator of lung physiology and disease. Recent studies revealed that H2S administration limited perturbations to lung structure in experimental animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), partially restoring alveolarization, limiting pulmonary hypertension, limiting inflammation, and promoting epithelial repair. No studies have addressed roles for endogenous H2S in lung development. H2S is endogenously generated by cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs) and cystathionine γ-lyase (Cth). We demonstrate here that the expression of Cbs and Cth in mouse lungs is dynamically regulated during lung alveolarization and that alveolarization is blunted in Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mouse pups, where a 50% reduction in the total number of alveoli was observed, without any impact on septal thickness. Laser-capture microdissection and immunofluorescence staining indicated that Cbs and Cth were expressed in the airway epithelium and lung vessels. Loss of Cbs and Cth led to a 100-500% increase in the muscularization of small- and medium-sized lung vessels, which was accompanied by increased vessel wall thickness, and an apparent decrease in lung vascular supply. Ablation of Cbs expression using small interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibition of Cth using propargylglycine in lung endothelial cells limited angiogenic capacity, causing a 30-40% decrease in tube length and a 50% decrease in number of tubes formed. In contrast, exogenous administration of H2S with GYY4137 promoted endothelial tube formation. These data confirm a key role for the H2S-generating enzymes Cbs and Cth in pulmonary vascular development and homeostasis and in lung alveolarization.

  6. Disease-Associated Neisseria meningitidis Isolates Inhibit Wound Repair in Respiratory Epithelial Cells in a Type IV Pilus-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of meningococcal disease. Onset of meningococcal disease can be extremely rapid and can kill within a matter of hours. However, although a much-feared pathogen, Neisseria meningitidis is frequently found in the nasopharyngeal mucosae of healthy carriers. The bacterial factors that distinguish disease- from carriage-associated meningococci are incompletely understood. Evidence suggesting that disruptions to the nasopharynx may increase the risk of acquiring meningococcal disease led us to evaluate the ability of disease- and carriage-associated meningococcal isolates to inhibit cell migration, using an in vitro assay for wound repair. We found that disease-associated isolates in our collection inhibited wound closure, while carriage-associated isolates were more variable, with many isolates not inhibiting wound repair at all. For isolates selected for further study, we found that actin morphology, such as presence of lamellipodia, correlated with cell migration. We demonstrated that multiple meningococcal virulence factors, including the type IV pili, are dispensable for inhibition of wound repair. Inhibition of wound repair was also shown to be an active process, i.e., requiring live bacteria undergoing active protein synthesis. PMID:25225250

  7. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kevan; Dell, Sharon; Birken, Catherine; Al-Saleh, Suhail

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is often asymptomatic despite significant changes in chest imaging. Diagnosis is often made when patients become symptomatic in adulthood. There are still no proven treatments, but earlier diagnosis may allow for evaluation of preventative strategies that could improve outcome. It is an important diagnosis to consider in children who have marked radiographic findings with no or very mild symptoms or physical findings. Diagnosis can be made with imaging alone but may necessitate lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. PMID:27445543

  8. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horatti; Srinivas, G Vijay; Kiresur, Mohammad Asif

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant neoplasm of skeletal muscle origin, is the most common soft tissue sarcoma seen in childhood and adolescence. The most frequent site is the head and neck accounting for 40% of all cases and other involved sites are genitourinary tract, retroperitoneum, and to a lesser extent, the extremities. RMS is relatively uncommon in the oral cavity and the involvement of the jaws is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 50-year-old female with oral RMS involving maxillary alveolar region with clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:27194887

  9. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  10. Meningocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplasia repair; Spinal dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... If your child has hydrocephalus, a shunt (plastic tube) will be put in the child's brain to ...

  11. Megalin mediates transepithelial albumin clearance from the alveolar space of intact rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Buchäckert, Yasmin; Rummel, Sebastian; Vohwinkel, Christine U; Gabrielli, Nieves M; Grzesik, Benno A; Mayer, Konstantin; Herold, Susanne; Morty, Rory E; Seeger, Werner; Vadász, István

    2012-10-15

    The alveolo-capillary barrier is effectively impermeable to large solutes such as proteins. A hallmark of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is the accumulation of protein-rich oedema fluid in the distal airspaces. Excess protein must be cleared from the alveolar space for recovery; however, the mechanisms of protein clearance remain incompletely understood. In intact rabbit lungs 29.8 ± 2.2% of the radio-labelled alveolar albumin was transported to the vascular compartment at 37°C within 120 min, as assessed by real-time measurement of 125I-albumin clearance from the alveolar space. At 4°C or 22°C significantly lower albumin clearance (3.7 ± 0.4 or 16.2 ± 1.1%, respectively) was observed. Deposition of a 1000-fold molar excess of unlabelled albumin into the alveolar space or inhibition of cytoskeletal rearrangement or clathrin-dependent endocytosis largely inhibited the transport of 125I-albumin to the vasculature, while administration of unlabelled albumin to the vascular space had no effect on albumin clearance. Furthermore, albumin uptake capacity was measured as about 0.37 mg ml−1 in cultured rat lung epithelial monolayers, further highlighting the (patho)physiological relevance of active alveolar epithelial protein transport. Moreover, gene silencing and pharmacological inhibition of the multi-ligand receptor megalin resulted in significantly decreased albumin binding and uptake in monolayers of primary alveolar type II and type I-like and cultured lung epithelial cells. Our data indicate that clearance of albumin from the distal air spaces is facilitated by an active, high-capacity, megalin-mediated transport process across the alveolar epithelium. Further understanding of this mechanism is of clinical importance, since an inability to clear excess protein from the alveolar space is associated with poor outcome in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  12. p120-Catenin Expressed in Alveolar Type II Cells Is Essential for the Regulation of Lung Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Chignalia, Andreia Z.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Albert B.; Mehta, Dolly; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Malik, Asrar B.; Liu, Yuru

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the lung alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the gas exchange and is important for immune regulation. Alveolar epithelial barrier is composed of flat type I cells, which make up approximately 95% of the gas-exchange surface, and cuboidal type II cells, which secrete surfactants and modulate lung immunity. p120-catenin (p120; gene symbol CTNND1) is an important component of adherens junctions of epithelial cells; however, its function in lung alveolar epithelial barrier has not been addressed in genetic models. Here, we created an inducible type II cell–specific p120-knockout mouse (p120EKO). The mutant lungs showed chronic inflammation, and the alveolar epithelial barrier was leaky to 125I-albumin tracer compared to wild type. The mutant lungs also demonstrated marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and activation of NF-κB. Intracellular adhesion molecule 1, Toll-like receptor 4, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were all up-regulated. p120EKO lungs showed increased expression of the surfactant proteins Sp-B, Sp-C, and Sp-D, and displayed severe inflammation after pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with wild type. In p120-deficient type II cell monolayers, we observed reduced transepithelial resistance compared to control, consistent with formation of defective adherens junctions. Thus, although type II cells constitute only 5% of the alveolar surface area, p120 expressed in these cells plays a critical role in regulating the innate immunity of the entire lung. PMID:25773174

  13. Protection of pulmonary epithelial cells from oxidative stress by hMYH adenine glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Ted M; Rinne, Mikael L; Xu, Yi; Chen, Xian Ming; Kelley, Mark R

    2004-01-01

    Background Oxygen toxicity is a major cause of lung injury. The base excision repair pathway is one of the most important cellular protection mechanisms that responds to oxidative DNA damage. Lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes include hOgg1, hMYH, hNTH and hMTH. Methods The above lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes were expressed in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) using the pSF91.1 retroviral vector. Cells were exposed to a 95% oxygen environment, ionizing radiation (IR), or H2O2. Cell growth analysis was performed under non-toxic conditions. Western blot analysis was performed to verify over-expression and assess endogenous expression under toxic and non-toxic conditions. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student's t test with significance being accepted for p < 0.05. Results Cell killing assays demonstrated cells over-expressing hMYH had improved survival to both increased oxygen and IR. Cell growth analysis of A549 cells under non-toxic conditions revealed cells over-expressing hMYH also grow at a slower rate. Western blot analysis demonstrated over-expression of each individual gene and did not result in altered endogenous expression of the others. However, it was observed that O2 toxicity did lead to a reduced endogenous expression of hNTH in A549 cells. Conclusion Increased expression of the DNA glycosylase repair enzyme hMYH in A549 cells exposed to O2 and IR leads to improvements in cell survival. DNA repair through the base excision repair pathway may provide an alternative way to offset the damaging effects of O2 and its metabolites. PMID:15450125

  14. The development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Hernandez, Belinda J.; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Narvaez del Pilar, Odemaris; Vila-Ellis, Lisandra; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Evans, Scott E.; Ostrin, Edwin J.; Chen, Jichao

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover >95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal development is required for alveolar angiogenesis. Notably, a majority of AT1 cells proliferate upon ectopic SOX2 expression and undergo stage-dependent cell fate reprogramming. These results provide evidence that AT1 cells have both structural and signaling roles in alveolar maturation and can exit their terminally differentiated non-proliferative state. Our findings suggest that AT1 cells might be a new target in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases associated with premature birth. PMID:26586225

  15. Effect of exogenous surfactants on viability and DNA synthesis in A549, immortalized mouse type II and isolated rat alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In mechanically ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), exogenous surfactant application has been demonstrated both to decrease DNA-synthesis but also and paradoxically to increase epithelial cell proliferation. However, the effect of exogenous surfactant has not been studied directly on alveolar type II cells (ATII cells), a key cell type responsible for alveolar function and repair. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two commercially available surfactant preparations on ATII cell viability and DNA synthesis. Methods Curosurf® and Alveofact® were applied to two ATII cell lines (human A549 and mouse iMATII cells) and to primary rat ATII cells for periods of up to 24 h. Cell viability was measured using the redox indicator resazurin and DNA synthesis was measured using BrdU incorporation. Results Curosurf® resulted in slightly decreased cell viability in all cell culture models. However, DNA synthesis was increased in A549 and rat ATII cells but decreased in iMATII cells. Alveofact® exhibited the opposite effects on A549 cells and had very mild effects on the other two cell models. Conclusion This study showed that commercially available exogenous surfactants used to treat preterm infants with RDS can have profound effects on cell viability and DNA synthesis. PMID:21324208

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the spontaneous release of superoxide radical by alveolar macrophages in vitro in asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Harkin, T. )

    1991-08-01

    Asbestosis is characterized by an alveolar macrophage alveolitis with injury and fibrosis of the lower respiratory tract. Alveolar macrophages recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage spontaneously release exaggerated amounts of oxidants including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide that may mediate alveolar epithelial cell injury. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a normally occurring adrenal androgen that inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the pentose phosphate shunt necessary for NADPH generation and superoxide anion formation. In this regard, the authors hypothesized that DHEA may reduce asbestos-induced oxidant release. DHEA added in vitro to alveolar macrophages lavaged from 11 nonsmoking asbestos workers significantly reduced superoxide anion release. DHEA is an antioxidant and potential anticarcinogenic agent that may have a therapeutic role in reducing the increased oxidant burden in asbestos-induced alveolitis of the lower respiratory tract.

  17. Emergency management of alveolar osteitis.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Patients with urgent dental problems who present to emergency departments (EDs) during weekday office hours are usually referred to their dentists, often after being provided with analgesia. Outside these hours, however, ED professionals may have to provide treatment before referral. One dental emergency with which patients may present but of which ED staff are unlikely to have experience is alveolar osteitis, a painful condition that occurs usually after tooth extraction. This article defines alveolar osteitis and describes management in an ED.

  18. Involvement of p53 mutation and mismatch repair proteins dysregulation in NNK-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Zhang, Shuilian; Huang, Xiaobin; Chen, Kailin; Shen, Jing; Wang, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is essential for normal cellular functions and cell survival. Its instability can cause genetic aberrations and is considered as a hallmark of most cancers. To investigate the carcinogenesis process induced by tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK, we studied the dynamic changes of two important protectors of genome integrity, p53 and MMR system, in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells after NNK exposure. Our results showed that the expression of MLH1, one of the important MMR proteins, was decreased early and maintained the downregulation during the transformation in a histone modification involved and DNA methylation-independent manner. Another MMR protein PMS2 also displayed a declined expression while being in a later stage of transformation. Moreover, we conducted p53 mutation analysis and revealed a mutation at codon 273 which led to the replacement of arginine by histidine. With the mutation, DNA damage-induced activation of p53 was significantly impaired. We further reintroduced the wild-type p53 into the transformed cells, and the malignant proliferation can be abrogated by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings indicate that p53 and MMR system play an important role in the initiation and progression of NNK-induced transformation, and p53 could be a potential therapeutic target for tobacco-related cancers.

  19. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J.; Doran, Peter P.

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  20. Pulmonary Administration of GW0742, a High-Affinity Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist, Repairs Collapsed Alveoli in an Elastase-Induced Mouse Model of Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Chihiro; Horiguchi, Michiko; Akita, Tomomi; Oiso, Yuki; Abe, Kaori; Motomura, Tomoki; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a disease in which lung alveoli are irreversibly damaged, thus compromising lung function. Our previous study revealed that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces the differentiation of human lung alveolar epithelial type 2 progenitor cells and repairs the alveoli of emphysema model mice. ATRA also reportedly has the ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ. A selective PPARβ/δ ligand has been reported to induce the differentiation of human keratinocytes during wound repair. Here, we demonstrate that treatment using a high-affinity PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742, reverses the lung tissue damage induced by elastase in emphysema-model mice and improves respiratory function. Mice treated with elastase, which collapsed their alveoli, were then treated with either 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in saline (control group) or GW0742 (1.0 mg/kg twice a week) by pulmonary administration. Treatment with GW0742 for 2 weeks increased the in vivo expression of surfactant proteins A and D, which are known alveolar type II epithelial cell markers. GW0742 treatment also shortened the average distance between alveolar walls in the lungs of emphysema model mice, compared with a control group treated with 10% DMSO in saline. Treatment with GW0742 for 3 weeks also improved tissue elastance (cm H2O/mL), as well as the ratio of the forced expiratory volume in the first 0.05 s to the forced vital capacity (FEV 0.05/FVC). In each of these experiments, GW0742 treatment reversed the damage caused by elastase. In conclusion, PPARβ/δ agonists are potential therapeutic agents for pulmonary emphysema.

  1. Increased oxidative DNA damage and decreased expression of base excision repair proteins in airway epithelial cells of women who cook with biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Saha, Hirak; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether biomass burning causes oxidative DNA damage and alters the expression of DNA base excision repair (BER) proteins in airway cells, sputum samples were collected from 80 premenopausal rural biomass-users and 70 age-matched control women who cooked with liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control the airway cells of biomass-users showed increased DNA damage in alkaline comet assay. Biomass-users showed higher percentage of cells expressing oxidative DNA damage marker 8-oxoguanine and lower percentages of BER proteins OGG1 and APE1 by immunocytochemical staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was doubled and level of superoxide dismutase was depleted significantly among biomass-users. The concentrations of particulate matters were higher in biomass-using households which positively correlated with ROS generation and negatively with BER proteins expressions. ROS generation was positively correlated with 8-oxoguanine and negatively with BER proteins suggesting cooking with biomass is a risk for genotoxicity among rural women in their child-bearing age.

  2. Association Between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hormone Metabolism and DNA Repair Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results from Two Australian Studies and an Additional Validation Set

    PubMed Central

    Beesley, Jonathan; Jordan, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J.; Kjaer, Suzanne Kruger; Hogdall, Estrid; DiCioccio, Richard A.; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Although some high-risk ovarian cancer genes have been identified, it is likely that common low penetrance alleles exist that confer some increase in ovarian cancer risk. We have genotyped nine putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis (SRD5A2, CYP19A1, HSB17B1, and HSD17B4) and DNA repair (XRCC2, XRCC3, BRCA2, and RAD52) using two Australian ovarian cancer case-control studies, comprising a total of 1,466 cases and 1,821 controls of Caucasian origin. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using logistic regression. The only SNP we found to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in both of these two studies was SRD5A2 V89L (rs523349), which showed a significant trend of increasing risk per rare allele (P = 0.00002). We then genotyped another SNP in this gene (rs632148; r2 = 0.945 with V89L) in an attempt to validate this finding in an independent set of 1,479 cases and 2,452 controls from United Kingdom, United States, and Denmark. There was no association between rs632148 and ovarian cancer risk in the validation samples, and overall, there was no significant heterogeneity between the results of the five studies. Further analyses of SNPs in this gene are therefore warranted to determine whether SRD5A2 plays a role in ovarian cancer predisposition. PMID:18086758

  3. Cell death, remodeling, and repair in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Henson, Peter M; Vandivier, R William; Douglas, Ivor S

    2006-11-01

    Apoptotic cells can be detected in the parenchyma and airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in greater numbers than seen in normal lungs or those from smokers without COPD. Implications include more apoptosis and/or decreased clearance of apoptotic cells. Both epithelial and endothelial cells become apoptotic. What role does the apoptosis play in the emphysema or small airway alterations seen in COPD? In simple terms, loss of cells by apoptosis would be expected to accompany, or perhaps initiate, the overall tissue destruction normally believed responsible. Indeed, direct induction of apoptosis in pulmonary endothelial or epithelial cells in rodents is accompanied by emphysematous changes. On the other hand, apoptotic cells are normally removed from tissues rapidly with minimal tissue response, to be followed by cell replacement to maintain homeostasis. The presence of detectable apoptotic cells, therefore, may imply defects in these clearance mechanisms, and, in keeping with this hypothesis, there is increasing evidence for such defects in patients with COPD. Mice with abnormalities in apoptotic cell removal also tend to develop spontaneous "emphysema." A reconciling hypothesis is that recognition of apoptotic cells not only leads to removal but also, normally, to signals for cell replacement. If this latter response is lacking in COPD-susceptible smokers, defects in normal alveolar or small airway repair could significantly contribute to the structural disruption. The concept puts emphasis on defective repair as well as initial injury (i.e., persistent alteration of dynamic tissue homeostasis, as a key contributor to COPD), with, it is hoped, additional approaches for mitigation.

  4. Leukocytes in chemotactic-fragment-induced lung inflammation. Vascular emigration and alveolar surface migration.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J. O.

    1980-01-01

    Lung inflammation was induced in rabbits by intratracheal injections of chemotactic fragments obtained from zymosan-activated serum (CF-ZAS), and the route of vascular emigration and alveolar surface interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes migrating into the lung was characterized by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron-microscopic examination. Leukocytes migrated from capillaries and venules into the alveolar wall interstitium by adherence to the vascular endothelium and migration through the endothelial intracellular junction to attain a position between a reapposed endothelial cell junction and the vascular basement membrane. The cells then migrated into the interstitium through a narrow opening in the basement membrane. Leukocyte entrance into the alveolar space from the interstitium appeared to occur through small openings in the epithelial basement membrane at or near the Type I epithelial intercellular junction. Once in the alveolus, PMNs and macrophages demonstrated surface adherence and spreading along with evidence of migration, pseudopod extension, interalveolar pore transit, and retraction fiber formation. This study indicates the leukocyte influx into the alveolus in acute chemotactic-factor-induced inflammation is via a continuum of migrational activity, beginning at the pulmonary capillary endothelial surface and persisting on the alveolar epithelial surface. Images Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 9 PMID:7435538

  5. Resveratrol mediated cell death in cigarette smoke transformed breast epithelial cells is through induction of p21Waf1/Cip1 and inhibition of long patch base excision repair pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Siddharth, Sumit; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2014-03-15

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor for the development and progression of different cancers including mammary tumor in women. Resveratrol (Res) is a promising natural chemotherapeutic agent that regulates many cellular targets including p21, a cip/kip family of cyclin kinase inhibitors involved in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and blocking of DNA replication and repair. We have recently shown that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from commercially available Indian cigarette can cause neoplastic transformation of normal breast epithelial MCF-10A cell. Here we studied the mechanism of Res mediated apoptosis in CSC transformed (MCF-10A-Tr) cells in vitro and in vivo. Res mediated apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent event. It increased the p21 protein expression in MCF-10A-Tr cells and MCF-10A-Tr cells-mediated tumors in xenograft mice. Res treatment reduced the tumor size(s) and expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. PI3K, AKT, NFκB) in solid tumor. The expressions of cell cycle regulatory (Cyclins, CDC-2, CDC-6, etc.), BER associated (Pol-β, Pol-δ, Pol-ε, Pol-η, RPA, Fen-1, DNA-Ligase-I, etc.) proteins and LP-BER activity decreased in MCF-10A-Tr cells but remain significantly unaltered in isogenic p21 null MCF-10A-Tr cells after Res treatment. Interestingly, no significant changes were noted in SP-BER activity in both the cell lines after Res exposure. Finally, it was observed that increased p21 blocks the LP-BER in MCF-10A-Tr cells by increasing its interaction with PCNA via competing with Fen-1 after Res treatment. Thus, Res caused apoptosis in CSC-induced cancer cells by reduction of LP-BER activity and this phenomenon largely depends on p21. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (Res) caused reduction of MCF-10A-Tr cell growth by inducing apoptosis. • Res caused cell cycle arrest and DNA damage in p21 dependent manner. • Res mediated LP-BER reduction in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent phenomenon. • Res inhibits BER and PI

  6. Resveratrol mediated cell death in cigarette smoke transformed breast epithelial cells is through induction of p21Waf1/Cip1 and inhibition of long patch base excision repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Siddharth, Sumit; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2014-03-15

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor for the development and progression of different cancers including mammary tumor in women. Resveratrol (Res) is a promising natural chemotherapeutic agent that regulates many cellular targets including p21, a cip/kip family of cyclin kinase inhibitors involved in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and blocking of DNA replication and repair. We have recently shown that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from commercially available Indian cigarette can cause neoplastic transformation of normal breast epithelial MCF-10A cell. Here we studied the mechanism of Res mediated apoptosis in CSC transformed (MCF-10A-Tr) cells in vitro and in vivo. Res mediated apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent event. It increased the p21 protein expression in MCF-10A-Tr cells and MCF-10A-Tr cells-mediated tumors in xenograft mice. Res treatment reduced the tumor size(s) and expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. PI3K, AKT, NFκB) in solid tumor. The expressions of cell cycle regulatory (Cyclins, CDC-2, CDC-6, etc.), BER associated (Pol-β, Pol-δ, Pol-ε, Pol-η, RPA, Fen-1, DNA-Ligase-I, etc.) proteins and LP-BER activity decreased in MCF-10A-Tr cells but remain significantly unaltered in isogenic p21 null MCF-10A-Tr cells after Res treatment. Interestingly, no significant changes were noted in SP-BER activity in both the cell lines after Res exposure. Finally, it was observed that increased p21 blocks the LP-BER in MCF-10A-Tr cells by increasing its interaction with PCNA via competing with Fen-1 after Res treatment. Thus, Res caused apoptosis in CSC-induced cancer cells by reduction of LP-BER activity and this phenomenon largely depends on p21.

  7. Chronic alcohol ingestion changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium.

    PubMed

    Downs, Charles A; Trac, David; Brewer, Elizabeth M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2013-01-01

    Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC). The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox) may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM) function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  8. Primary diffuse alveolar septal amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Poh, S C; Tjia, T S; Seah, H C

    1975-01-01

    The case is reported of a 61-year-old man with primary diffuse alveolar septal pulmonary amyloidosis. Amyloid infiltration of the heart and other organs was also observed. The clinical findings and laboratory investigations reveal features characteristic of defective gas transfer with pulmonary oedema due to left ventricular failure from myocardial involvement. Images PMID:1179316

  9. Cigarette smoke exposure aggravates air space enlargement and alveolar cell apoptosis in Smad3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Laszlo; Farkas, Daniela; Warburton, David; Gauldie, Jack; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin R; Voelkel, Norbert F; Kolb, Martin

    2011-10-01

    The concept of genetic susceptibility factors predisposing cigarette smokers to develop emphysema stems from the clinical observation that only a fraction of smokers develop clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether Smad3 knockout mice, which develop spontaneous air space enlargement after birth because of a defect in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, develop enhanced alveolar cell apoptosis and air space enlargement following cigarette smoke exposure. We investigated Smad3(-/-) and Smad3(+/+) mice at different adult ages and determined air space enlargement, alveolar cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, laser-capture microdissection and real-time PCR were used to measure compartment-specific gene expression. We then compared the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on Smad3(-/-) and littermate controls. Smad3 knockout resulted in the development of air space enlargement in the adult mouse and was associated with decreased alveolar VEGF levels and activity and increased alveolar cell apoptosis. Cigarette smoke exposure aggravated air space enlargement and alveolar cell apoptosis. We also found increased Smad2 protein expression and phosphorylation, which was enhanced following cigarette smoke exposure, in Smad3-knockout animals. Double immunofluorescence analysis revealed that endothelial apoptosis started before epithelial apoptosis. Our data indicate that balanced TGF-β signaling is not only important for regulation of extracellular matrix turnover, but also for alveolar cell homeostasis. Impaired signaling via the Smad3 pathway results in alveolar cell apoptosis and alveolar destruction, likely via increased Smad2 and reduced VEGF expression and might represent a predisposition for accelerated development of emphysema due to cigarette smoke exposure.

  10. Multi-walled carbon nanotube length as a critical determinant of bioreactivity with primary human pulmonary alveolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Berhanu, Deborah; Misra, Superb K.; Thorley, Andrew J.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) length is suggested to critically determine their pulmonary toxicity. This stems from in vitro and in vivo rodent studies and in vitro human studies using cell lines (typically cancerous). There is little data using primary human lung cells. We addressed this knowledge gap, using highly relevant, primary human alveolar cell models exposed to precisely synthesized and thoroughly characterized MWCNTs. In this work, transformed human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells (TT1), primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cells (ATII) and alveolar macrophages (AM) were treated with increasing concentrations of MWCNTs before measuring cytotoxicity, inflammatory mediator release and MAP kinase signalling. Strikingly, we observed that short MWCNTs (~0.6 µm in length) induced significantly greater responses from the epithelial cells, whilst AM were particularly susceptible to long MWCNTs (~20 µm). These differences in the pattern of mediator release were associated with alternative profiles of JNK, p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinase signal transduction within each cell type. This study, using highly relevant target human alveolar cells and well defined and characterized MWCNTs, shows marked cellular responses to the MWCNTs that vary according to the target cell type, as well as the aspect ratio of the MWCNT. PMID:25780270

  11. Epithelial cell-extracellular matrix interactions and stem cells in airway epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Coraux, Christelle; Roux, Jacqueline; Jolly, Thomas; Birembaut, Philippe

    2008-08-15

    In healthy subjects, the respiratory epithelium forms a continuous lining to the airways and to the environment, and plays a unique role as a barrier against external deleterious agents to protect the airways from the insults. In respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, or asthma, the airway epithelium is frequently remodeled and injured, leading to the impairment of its defense functions. The rapid restoration of the epithelial barrier is crucial for these patients. The complete regeneration of the airway epithelium is a complex phenomenon, including not only the epithelial wound repair but also the epithelial differentiation to reconstitute a fully well differentiated and functional epithelium. The regeneration implies two partners: the epithelial stem/progenitor cells and factors able to regulate this process. Among these factors, epithelial cells-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a crucial role. The secretion of a provisional ECM, the cell-ECM relationships through epithelial receptors, and the remodeling of the ECM by proteases (mainly matrix metalloproteinases) contribute not only to airway epithelial repair by modulating epithelial cell migration and proliferation, but also to the differentiation of repairing cells leading to the complete restoration of the wounded epithelium. A better characterization of resident stem cells and of effectors of the regeneration process is an essential prerequisite to propose new regenerative therapeutics to patients suffering from infectious/inflammatory respiratory diseases.

  12. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  13. Ozone exposure during the early postnatal period alters the timing and pattern of alveolar growth and development in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Avdalovic, Mark V; Tyler, Nancy K; Putney, Lei; Nishio, Susie J; Quesenberry, Sherri; Singh, Parmjit J; Miller, Lisa A; Schelegle, Edward S; Plopper, Charles G; Vu, Thiennu; Hyde, Dallas M

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to oxidant air pollutants in early childhood, with ozone as the key oxidant, has been linked to significant decrements in pulmonary function in young adults and exacerbation of airway remodeling in asthma. Development of lung parenchyma in rhesus monkeys is rapid during the first 2 years of life (comparable to the first 6 years in humans). Our hypothesis is that ozone inhalation during infancy alters alveolar morphogenesis. We exposed infant rhesus monkeys biweekly to 5, 8 hr/day, cycles of 0.5 ppm ozone with or without house dust mite allergen from 1 to 3 or 1 to 6 months of age. Monkeys were necropsied at 3 and 6 months of age. A morphometric approach was used to quantify changes in alveolar volume and number, the distribution of alveolar size, and capillary surface density per alveolar septa. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure the relative difference in gene expression over time. Monkeys exposed to ozone alone or ozone combined with allergen had statistically larger alveoli that were less in number at 3 months of age. Alveolar capillary surface density was also decreased in the ozone exposed groups at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, the alveolar number was similar between treatment groups and was associated with a significant rise in alveolar number from 3 to 6 months of age in the ozone exposed groups. This increase in alveolar number was not associated with any significant increase in microvascular growth as measured by morphometry or changes in angiogenic gene expression. Inhalation of ozone during infancy alters the appearance and timing of alveolar growth and maturation. Understanding the mechanism involved with this altered alveolar growth may provide insight into the parenchymal injury and repair process that is involved with chronic lung diseases such as severe asthma and COPD.

  14. [Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Study of pulmonary circulation].

    PubMed

    Orea Tejeda, A; Atencio, C; Sandoval, J; Lupi Herrera, E

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown etiology which consists of alveolar deposit of calcium microspheres. We report the procedures for the diagnosis of this disease, as well as the hemodynamic features of the pulmonary circulation. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and cor pulmonale were documented. The active and passive factors involved in PAH are analyzed. We conclude that alveolar hypoxia and estructural vascular changes play a major role in the genesis of PAH.

  15. [Persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP)].

    PubMed

    Warnsinck, C J; Koutris, M; Shemesh, H; Lobbezoo, F

    2015-02-01

    Dento-alveolar pain is common in the orofacial area. Persistent dento-alveolar pain could be experienced without an identifiable etiology with poor response to existing treatments. Confusion about the diagnosis and classification of persistent dento-alveolar pain (PDAP) disorders could explain the difficulties in treatment and unfavorable prognosis. Recently, initial steps were made to improve the taxonomy and diagnostic criteria for PDAP in order to improve clinical research and care.

  16. Epigenetic and Transcriptomic Regulation of Lung Repair during Recovery from Influenza Infection.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Derek A; Robinson, Keven M; Chen, Kong; McHugh, Kevin J; Clay, Michelle E; Huang, Grace T; Benos, Panayiotis V; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W; Kolls, Jay K; Anathy, Vikas; Alcorn, John F

    2017-02-09

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza is a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most people infected with influenza virus display mild-to-moderate disease phenotypes and recover within a few weeks. Influenza is known to cause persistent alveolitis in animal models; however, little is known about the molecular pathways involved in this phenotype. We challenged C57BL/6 mice with influenza A/PR/8/34 and examined lung pathologic processes and inflammation, as well as transcriptomic and epigenetic changes at 21 to 60 days after infection. Influenza induced persistent parenchymal lung inflammation, alveolar epithelial metaplasia, and epithelial endoplasmic reticulum stress that were evident after the clearance of virus and resolution of morbidity. Influenza infection induced robust changes in the lung transcriptome, including a significant impact on inflammatory and extracellular matrix protein expression. Despite the robust changes in lung gene expression, preceding influenza (21 days) did not exacerbate secondary Staphylococcus aureus infection. Finally, we examined the impact of influenza on miRNA expression in the lung and found an increase in miR-155. miR-155 knockout mice recovered from influenza infection faster than controls and had decreased lung inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data illuminate the dynamic molecular changes in the lung in the weeks after influenza infection and characterize the repair process, identifying a novel role for miR-155.

  17. KGF-2 targets alveolar epithelia and capillary endothelia to reduce high altitude pulmonary oedema in rats

    PubMed Central

    She, Jun; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Shen, Jun; Bi, Jing; Tong, Lin; Gao, Lei; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2012-01-01

    High altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) severely affects non-acclimatized individuals and is characterized by alveolar flooding with protein- rich oedema as a consequence of blood-gas barrier disruption. Limited choice for prophylactic treatment warrants effective therapy against HAPE. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) has shown efficiency in preventing alveolar epithelial cell DNA damages in vitro. In the current study, the effects of KGF-2 intratracheal instillation on mortality, lung liquid balance and lung histology were evaluated in our previously developed rat model of HAPE. We found that pre-treatment with KGF-2 (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased mortality, improved oxygenation and reduced lung wet-to-dry weight ratio by preventing alveolar-capillary barrier disruption demonstrated by histological examination and increasing alveolar fluid clearance up to 150%. In addition, KGF-2 significantly inhibited decrease of transendothelial permeability after exposure to hypoxia, accompanied by a 10-fold increase of Akt activity and inhibited apoptosis in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, demonstrating attenuated endothelial apoptosis might contribute to reduction of endothelial permeability. These results showed the efficacy of KGF-2 on inhibition of endothelial cell apoptosis, preservation of alveolar-capillary barrier integrity and promotion of pulmonary oedema absorption in HAPE. Thus, KGF-2 may represent a potential drug candidate for the prevention of HAPE. PMID:22568566

  18. A critical role for fibroblast growth factor-7 during early alveolar formation in the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Padela, Sanna; Yi, Man; Cabacungan, Judy; Shek, Samuel; Belcastro, Rosetta; Masood, Azhar; Jankov, Robert P; Tanswell, A Keith

    2008-03-01

    Mesenchymal cell-derived FGF-7 (fibroblast growth factor-7) induces proliferation in both epithelial and endothelial cells. We found FGF-7 to be expressed in the lungs of neonatal rats from birth to d 14 of age. A role for FGF-7 in early postnatal lung growth and alveolar formation, by an action on type II pneumocytes, has been excluded by the work of others. However, a role through an action of FGF-7 on other cell types has not been excluded. We used intraperitoneal injections of neutralizing antibodies on d 3, 4, and 5 of life to inhibit binding of FGF-7 to its receptors, and assessed alveolar formation on d 6 of life. This intervention inhibited DNA synthesis in, and number of, alveoli-forming secondary crests, resulting in a significantly reduced alveolar number. This failure of alveolar formation was associated with a reduction in the number of small blood vessels in the lung periphery. We conclude that FGF-7, most likely through its effect on the vascular bed, is required for normal early postnatal alveolar formation from secondary crests.

  19. Stress preconditioning attenuates oxidative injury to the alveolar epithelium of the lung following haemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, J F; Lu, L N; Geiser, T; Lee, H; Matthay, M A; Welch, W J

    2002-01-01

    Inhibition of cAMP-dependent stimulation of vectorial fluid transport across the alveolar epithelium following haemorrhagic shock is mediated by reactive nitrogen species released within the airspaces of the lung. We tested here the hypothesis that the prior activation of the cellular heat shock or stress response, via exposure to either heat or geldanamycin, would attenuate the release of airspace nitric oxide (NO) responsible for the shock-mediated failure of the alveolar epithelium to respond to catecholamines in rats. Rats were haemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 30–35 mmHg for 60 min, and then resuscitated with a 4 % albumin solution. Alveolar fluid clearance was measured by change in concentration of a protein solution instilled into the airspaces 5 h after the onset of haemorrhage. Stress preconditioning restored the cAMP-mediated upregulation of alveolar liquid clearance after haemorrhage. The protective effect of stress preconditioning was mediated in part by a decrease in the expression of iNOS in the lung. Specifically, stress preconditioning decreased the production of nitrite by endotoxin-stimulated alveolar macrophages removed from haemorrhaged rats or by A549 and rat alveolar epithelial type II cell monolayers stimulated with cytomix (a mixture of TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ) for 24 h. In summary, these results provide the first in vivo evidence that stress preconditioning restores a normal fluid transport capacity of the alveolar epithelium in the early phase following haemorrhagic shock by attenuating NO-mediated oxidative stress to the lung epithelium. PMID:11790821

  20. Spectral Analysis of Word-Initial Alveolar and Velar Plosives Produced by Iranian Children with Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshghi, Marziye; Zajac, David J.; Bijankhan, Mahmood; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Spectral moment analysis (SMA) was used to describe voiceless alveolar and velar stop-plosive production in Persian-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP). Participants included 11 children with bilateral CLP who were undergoing maxillary expansion and 20 children without any type of orofacial clefts. Four of the children with…

  1. Preclinical validation and imaging of Wnt-induced repair in human 3D lung tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Franziska E; Vierkotten, Sarah; Wagner, Darcy E; Burgstaller, Gerald; Costa, Rita; Koch, Ina; Lindner, Michael; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a progressive loss of lung tissue. Inducing repair processes within the adult diseased lung is of major interest and Wnt/β-catenin signalling represents a promising target for lung repair. However, the translation of novel therapeutic targets from model systems into clinical use remains a major challenge.We generated murine and patient-derived three-dimensional (3D) ex vivo lung tissue cultures (LTCs), which closely mimic the 3D lung microenvironment in vivo. Using two well-known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and CHIR 99021 (CT), we determined Wnt/β-catenin-driven lung repair processes in high spatiotemporal resolution using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, (immuno)histological assessment, and four-dimensional confocal live tissue imaging.Viable 3D-LTCs exhibited preserved lung structure and function for up to 5 days. We demonstrate successful Wnt/β-catenin signal activation in murine and patient-derived 3D-LTCs from COPD patients. Wnt/β-catenin signalling led to increased alveolar epithelial cell marker expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression, as well as altered macrophage activity and elastin remodelling. Importantly, induction of surfactant protein C significantly correlated with disease stage (per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in patient-derived 3D-LTCs.Patient-derived 3D-LTCs represent a valuable tool to analyse potential targets and drugs for lung repair. Enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling attenuated pathological features of patient-derived COPD 3D-LTCs.

  2. A comparison of the antigen-presenting capabilities of class II MHC-expressing human lung epithelial and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, A C; Zhang, J G; Moy, J V; Ali, S; Kirby, J A

    1997-01-01

    Human lung alveolar epithelial cells constitutively express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Human lung microvascular endothelial and small airway epithelial cells can be induced to express class II MHC by stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. The levels of class II MHC on lung epithelial and endothelial cells were comparable to those seen on an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-cell line. However, the costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 were not expressed. The ability of the class II MHC expressing human lung parenchymal cells to present alloantigen to CD4+ T lymphocytes was investigated. Freshly isolated human alveolar epithelial cells (type II pneumocytes) and monolayers of interferon-gamma-stimulated small airway epithelial and lung microvascular endothelial cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD4+ T lymphocytes and proliferation determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. A clear difference was observed between effects of the epithelial and endothelial cells on CD4+ T-lymphocyte activation. Alveolar and small airway epithelial cells failed to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic CD4+ T lymphocytes whereas lung microvascular endothelial cells did stimulate proliferation. This difference could not be explained by the levels of class II MHC or the lack of B7-1 and B7-2 solely. Microvascular endothelial cells, and not alveolar or small airway epithelial cells, possess B7-independent costimulatory pathways. PMID:9301537

  3. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies diverse roles of epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Takako; Sridharan, Anusha; Du, Yina; Guo, Minzhe; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Perl, Anne-Karina T.; Funari, Vincent A.; Gokey, Jason J.; Stripp, Barry R.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by airway remodeling, inflammation, alveolar destruction, and fibrosis. We utilized single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to identify epithelial cell types and associated biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Transcriptomic analysis of normal human lung epithelial cells defined gene expression patterns associated with highly differentiated alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, indicated by enrichment of RNAs critical for surfactant homeostasis. In contrast, scRNA-seq of IPF cells identified 3 distinct subsets of epithelial cell types with characteristics of conducting airway basal and goblet cells and an additional atypical transitional cell that contributes to pathological processes in IPF. Individual IPF cells frequently coexpressed alveolar type 1 (AT1), AT2, and conducting airway selective markers, demonstrating “indeterminate” states of differentiation not seen in normal lung development. Pathway analysis predicted aberrant activation of canonical signaling via TGF-β, HIPPO/YAP, P53, WNT, and AKT/PI3K. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy identified the disruption of alveolar structure and loss of the normal proximal-peripheral differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. scRNA-seq analyses identified loss of normal epithelial cell identities and unique contributions of epithelial cells to the pathogenesis of IPF. The present study provides a rich data source to further explore lung health and disease. PMID:27942595

  4. The Systemic Inflammation of Alveolar Hypoxia Is Initiated by Alveolar Macrophage–Borne Mediator(s)

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jie; Wood, John G.; Blanco, Victor Gustavo; Gonzalez, Norberto C.

    2009-01-01

    Alveolar hypoxia produces widespread systemic inflammation in rats. The inflammation appears to be triggered by activation of mast cells by a mediator released from alveolar macrophages, not by the reduced systemic partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). If this is correct, the following should apply: (1) neither mast cells nor tissue macrophages should be directly activated by hypoxia; and (2) mast cells should be activated when in contact with hypoxic alveolar macrophages, but not with hypoxic tissue macrophages. We sought here to determine whether hypoxia activates isolated alveolar macrophages, peritoneal macrophages, and peritoneal mast cells, and to study the response of the microcirculation to supernatants of these cultures. Rat mesenteric microcirculation intravital microscopy was combined with primary cultures of alveolar macrophages, peritoneal macrophages, and peritoneal mast cells. Supernatant of hypoxic alveolar macrophages, but not of hypoxic peritoneal macrophages, produced inflammation in mesentery. Hypoxia induced a respiratory burst in alveolar, but not peritoneal macrophages. Cultured peritoneal mast cells did not degranulate with hypoxia. Immersion of mast cells in supernatant of hypoxic alveolar macrophages, but not in supernatant of hypoxic peritoneal macrophages, induced mast cell degranulation. Hypoxia induced release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a mast cell secretagogue, from alveolar, but not peritoneal macrophages or mast cells. We conclude that a mediator released by hypoxic alveolar macrophages activates mast cells and triggers systemic inflammation. Reduced systemic PO2 and activation of tissue macrophages do not play a role in this phenomenon. The inflammation could contribute to systemic effects of diseases featuring alveolar hypoxia. PMID:19244200

  5. Enhanced rifampicin delivery to alveolar macrophages by solid lipid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Junlan; Li, Yanzhen; Yang, Likai; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed at developing a drug delivery system targeting the densest site of tuberculosis infection, the alveolar macrophages (AMs). Rifampicin (RFP)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (RFP-SLNs) with an average size of 829.6 ± 16.1 nm were prepared by a modified lipid film hydration method. The cytotoxicity of RFP-SLNs to AMs and alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECs) was examined using MTT assays. The viability of AMs and AECs was above 80 % after treatment with RFP-SLNs, which showed low toxicity to both AMs and AECs. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy was employed to observe the interaction between RFP-SLNs and both AMs and AECs. After incubating the cells with RFP-SLNs for 2 h, the fluorescent intensity in AMs was more and remained longer (from 0.5 to 12 h) when compared with that in AECs (from 0.5 to 8 h). In vitro uptake characteristics of RFP-SLNs in AMs and AECs were also investigated by detection of intracellular RFP by High performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that RFP-SLNs delivered markedly higher RFP into AMs (691.7 ng/mg in cultured AMs, 662.6 ng/mg in primary AMs) than that into AECs (319.2 ng/mg in cultured AECs, 287.2 ng/mg in primary AECs). Subsequently, in vivo delivery efficiency and the selectivity of RFP-SLNs were further verified in Sprague-Dawley rats. Under pulmonary administration of RFP-SLNs, the amount of RFP in AMs was significantly higher than that in AECs at each time point. Our results demonstrated that solid lipid nanoparticles are a promising strategy for the delivery of rifampicin to alveolar macrophages selectively.

  6. Reaction of alveolar macrophages to inhaled metal aerosols.

    PubMed Central

    Camner, P; Johansson, A

    1992-01-01

    For more than a decade we have exposed rabbits to different metals, usually in soluble form, and investigated the effects on the lungs. The metal concentrations have been around 1 mg/m3,i.e., not more than a factor of 10 above occupational threshold limit values. The exposure periods have been 1-8 months (6 hr/day, 5 days/week). We have studied especially the morphology and function of alveolar macrophages (AM), the morphology of alveolar type I and type II epithelial cells, and analyzed lung phospholipids. Several metals produce specific, complex effects. For example, metallic and soluble nickel (NiCl2) increase both number and size of the type II cells, increase the production of surfactant, and affect morphology and function of AM. Cobalt (CoCl2) induces a different effect on type II cells from nickel, causing the formation of nodules in these cells. Trivalent chromium [Cr(NO3)3] does not affect either type II cells or the amount of surfactant significantly, but markedly affects AM. The administered metals affect AM both directly and indirectly. For example, nickel induces an increased production of surfactant, resulting in overfed AM with an increased metabolic activity. However, nickel also induces a direct decrease in the release of lysozyme activity by AM. Our results emphasize the complexity of the effects on the lungs of inhaled agents, which can act both directly and indirectly on AM. PMID:1396456

  7. Dynamic regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α expression in alveolar fibroblasts during realveolarization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leiling; Acciani, Thomas; Le Cras, Tim; Lutzko, Carolyn; Perl, Anne-Karina T

    2012-10-01

    Although the importance of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α signaling during normal alveogenesis is known, it is unclear whether this signaling pathway can regulate realveolarization in the adult lung. During alveolar development, PDGFR-α-expressing cells induce α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and differentiate to interstitial myofibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates myofibroblast differentiation during alveolarization, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activation antagonizes myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibrosis. Using left lung pneumonectomy, the roles of FGF and PPAR-γ signaling in differentiation of myofibroblasts from PDGFR-α-positive precursors during compensatory lung growth were assessed. FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling was inhibited by conditionally activating a soluble dominant-negative FGFR2 transgene. PPAR-γ signaling was activated by administration of rosiglitazone. Changes in α-SMA and PDGFR-α protein expression were assessed in PDGFR-α-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry demonstrated that the cell ratio and expression levels of PDGFR-α-GFP changed dynamically during alveolar regeneration and that α-SMA expression was induced in a subset of PDGFR-α-GFP cells. Expression of a dominant-negative FGFR2 and administration of rosiglitazone inhibited induction of α-SMA in PDGFR-α-positive fibroblasts and formation of new septae. Changes in gene expression of epithelial and mesenchymal signaling molecules were assessed after left lobe pneumonectomy, and results demonstrated that inhibition of FGFR2 signaling and increase in PPAR-γ signaling altered the expression of Shh, FGF, Wnt, and Bmp4, genes that are also important for epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during early lung development. Our data demonstrate for the first time that a comparable epithelial

  8. An improved method for the isolation of rat alveolar type II lung cells: Use in the Comet assay to determine DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a cause of serious diseases, including lung cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and heart disease. DNA damage is thought to be one of the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke (CS) initiates disease in the lung. Indeed, CS induced DNA damage can be measured in vitro and in vivo. The potential of the Comet assay to measure DNA damage in isolated rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II) was explored as a means to include a genotoxicity end-point in rodent sub-chronic inhalation studies. In this study, published AEC II isolation methods were improved to yield viable cells suitable for use in the Comet assay. The improved method reduced the level of basal DNA damage and DNA repair in isolated AEC II. CS induced DNA damage could also be quantified in isolated cells following a single or 5 days CS exposure. In conclusion, the Comet assay has the potential to determine CS or other aerosol induced DNA damage in AEC II isolated from rodents used in sub-chronic inhalation studies.

  9. Oral administration of aflatoxin G₁ induces chronic alveolar inflammation associated with lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunping; Shen, Haitao; Yi, Li; Shao, Peilu; Soulika, Athena M; Meng, Xinxing; Xing, Lingxiao; Yan, Xia; Zhang, Xianghong

    2015-02-03

    Our previous studies showed oral gavage of aflatoxin G₁ (AFG₁) induced lung adenocarcinoma in NIH mice. We recently found that a single intratracheal administration of AFG₁ caused chronic inflammatory changes in rat alveolar septum. Here, we examine whether oral gavage of AFG₁ induces chronic lung inflammation and how it contributes to carcinogenesis. We evaluated chronic lung inflammatory responses in Balb/c mice after oral gavage of AFG₁ for 1, 3 and 6 months. Inflammatory responses were heightened in the lung alveolar septum, 3 and 6 months after AFG₁ treatment, evidenced by increased macrophages and lymphocytes infiltration, up-regulation of NF-κB and p-STAT3, and cytokines production. High expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), two established markers of oxidative stress, were detected in alveolar epithelium of AFG₁-treated mice. Promoted alveolar type II cell (AT-II) proliferation in alveolar epithelium and angiogenesis, as well as increased COX-2 expression were also observed in lung tissues of AFG₁-treated mice. Furthermore, we prolonged survival of the mice in the above model for another 6 months to examine the contribution of AFG₁-induced chronic inflammation to lung tumorigenesis. Twelve months later, we observed that AFG₁ induced alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice. Up-regulation of NF-κB, p-STAT3, and COX-2 was also induced in lung adenocarcinoma, thus establishing a link between AFG₁-induced chronic inflammation and lung tumorigenesis. This is the first study to show that oral administration of AFG₁ could induce chronic lung inflammation, which may provide a pro-tumor microenvironment to contribute to lung tumorigenesis.

  10. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3.

  11. Predictors of alveolar air leaks.

    PubMed

    Loran, David B; Woodside, Kenneth J; Cerfolio, Robert J; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2002-08-01

    Persistent air leaks are caused by the failure of the postoperative lung to achieve a configuration that is physiologically amenable to healing. The raw pulmonary surface caused by the dissection of the fissure often is separated from the pleura, and the air leak fails to close. Additionally, higher air flow thorough an alveolar-pleural fistula seems to keep the fistula open. Other factors that interfere with wound healing, such as steroid use, diabetes, or malnutrition, can result in persistence of the leak. A thoracic surgeon can minimize the incidence of air leak through meticulous surgical technique and can identify patients in whom the balance of risks (Table 1) and benefits warrant operative intervention based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology.

  12. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  13. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Conclusion: This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages. PMID:25885503

  14. Evolutionary Conserved Role of c-Jun-N-Terminal Kinase in CO2-Induced Epithelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Vadász, István; Dada, Laura A.; Briva, Arturo; Helenius, Iiro Taneli; Sharabi, Kfir; Welch, Lynn C.; Kelly, Aileen M.; Grzesik, Benno A.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Liu, Jing; Seeger, Werner; Beitel, Greg J.; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated CO2 levels (hypercapnia) occur in patients with respiratory diseases and impair alveolar epithelial integrity, in part, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function. Here, we examined the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in CO2 signaling in mammalian alveolar epithelial cells as well as in diptera, nematodes and rodent lungs. In alveolar epithelial cells, elevated CO2 levels rapidly induced activation of JNK leading to downregulation of Na,K-ATPase and alveolar epithelial dysfunction. Hypercapnia-induced activation of JNK required AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase C-ζ leading to subsequent phosphorylation of JNK at Ser-129. Importantly, elevated CO2 levels also caused a rapid and prominent activation of JNK in Drosophila S2 cells and in C. elegans. Paralleling the results with mammalian epithelial cells, RNAi against Drosophila JNK fully prevented CO2-induced downregulation of Na,K-ATPase in Drosophila S2 cells. The importance and specificity of JNK CO2 signaling was additionally demonstrated by the ability of mutations in the C. elegans JNK homologs, jnk-1 and kgb-2 to partially rescue the hypercapnia-induced fertility defects but not the pharyngeal pumping defects. Together, these data provide evidence that deleterious effects of hypercapnia are mediated by JNK which plays an evolutionary conserved, specific role in CO2 signaling in mammals, diptera and nematodes. PMID:23056407

  15. Molecular mechanisms of asbestos-induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Beri, Rohinee; Mueller, Amanda; Kamp, David W

    2010-11-05

    Asbestos causes pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) and malignancies (bronchogenic lung cancer and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence show that alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis is a crucial initiating and perpetuating event in the development of pulmonary fibrosis following exposure to a wide variety of noxious stimuli, including asbestos. We review the important molecular mechanisms underlying asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis. Specifically, we focus on the role of asbestos in augmenting AEC apoptosis by the mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways that result from the production of iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage. We summarize emerging evidence implicating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in AEC apoptosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a disease with similarities to asbestosis. Finally, we discuss a recent finding that a mitochondrial oxidative DNA repair enzyme (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase; Ogg1) acts as a mitochondrial aconitase chaperone protein to prevent oxidant (asbestos and H(2)O(2))-induced AEC mitochondrial dysfunction and intrinsic apoptosis. The coupling of mitochondrial Ogg1 to mitochondrial aconitase is a novel mechanism linking metabolism to mitochondrial DNA that may be important in the pathophysiologic events resulting in oxidant-induced toxicity as seen in tumors, aging, and respiratory disorders (e.g. asbestosis, IPF). Collectively, these studies are illuminating the molecular basis of AEC apoptosis following asbestos exposure that may prove useful for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Importantly, the asbestos paradigm is elucidating pathophysiologic insights into other more common pulmonary diseases, such as IPF and lung cancer, for which better therapy is required.

  16. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    regeneration using our approach with an acellular nerve allograft to be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. An ongoing large animal ...be clinically acceptable for use in the animal studies in Aim 2. The anatomy of HAM is shown pictorially in Figure 7. In vivo, the epithelial...product. Given that the large animal studies with large caliber nerves in Aim 3 will use AxoGuard we feel that the single layer SIS material is totally

  17. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    approach with an acellular nerve allograft to be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. An ongoing large animal validation study...the animal studies in Aim 2. The anatomy of HAM is shown pictorially in Figure 7. In vivo, the epithelial layer is in contact with the amniotic...AxoGuard and Oasis SIS products are manufactured by Cook Medical. AxoGuard is simply a multi-layered SIS product. Given that the large animal studies with

  18. Lysosomal acid lipase over-expression disrupts lamellar body genesis and alveolar structure in the lung.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Qin, Yulin; Li, Huimin; Wu, Renliang; Yan, Cong; Du, Hong

    2007-12-01

    The functional role of neutral lipids in the lung is poorly understood. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a critical enzyme in hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides to generate free fatty acids and cholesterol in lysosomes. Human LAL was over-expressed in a doxycycline-controlled system in mouse respiratory epithelial cells to accelerate intracellular neutral lipid degradation and perturb the surfactant homeostasis in the lung. In this animal system, neutral lipid concentrations of pulmonary surfactant were reduced in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in association with decrease of surfactant protein C (SP-C) gene expression. The size and the number of lamellar bodies in alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT II cells) were significantly reduced accordingly. The number of macrophages required for surfactant recycling in BALF was also significantly reduced. As a result of these combinatory effects, emphysema of the alveolar structure was observed. Taken together, neutral lipid homeostasis is essential for maintenance of lamellar body genesis and the alveolar structure in the lung.

  19. Toward therapeutic pulmonary alveolar regeneration in humans.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Donald; Massaro, Gloria Decarlo

    2006-11-01

    In humans, age results in loss of pulmonary alveoli; menopause accelerates loss of diffusing capacity, an index of alveolar surface area; and disease (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) results in loss of alveoli. Thus, an important goal for investigators is to generate knowledge that allows induction of pulmonary alveolar regeneration in humans. Our enthusiasm for this goal and our assessment of its feasibility are based on work in several laboratories over the last decade that has disproved the notion that pulmonary alveoli are incapable of regeneration, and on the growing evidence that signals that regulate programs of alveolar turnover (loss and regeneration) are conserved from rodents to humans. We review animal models of alveolar loss and regeneration and their conservation during evolution, and hence their relevance to humans.

  20. Flotillin-involved uptake of silica nanoparticles and responses of an alveolar-capillary barrier in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Jennifer; Hermanns, Maria I; Bantz, Christoph; Utech, Stefanie; Koshkina, Olga; Maskos, Michael; Brochhausen, Christoph; Pohl, Christine; Fuchs, Sabine; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2013-06-01

    Drug and gene delivery via nanoparticles across biological barriers such as the alveolar-capillary barrier of the lung constitutes an interesting and increasingly relevant field in nanomedicine. Nevertheless, potential hazardous effects of nanoparticles (NPs) as well as their cellular and systemic fate should be thoroughly examined. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of amorphous silica NPs (Sicastar) and (poly)organosiloxane NPs (AmOrSil) on the viability and the inflammatory response as well as on the cellular uptake mechanisms and fate in cells of the alveolar barrier. For this purpose, the alveolar epithelial cell line (NCI H441) and microvascular endothelial cell line (ISO-HAS-1) were used in an experimental set up resembling the alveolar-capillary barrier of the lung. In terms of IL-8 and sICAM Sicastar resulted in harmful effects at higher concentrations (60 μg/ml) in conventional monocultures but not in the coculture, whereas AmOrSil showed no significant effects. Immunofluorescence counterstaining of endosomal structures in NP-incubated cells showed no evidence for a clathrin- or caveolae-mediated uptake mechanism. However, NPs were enclosed in flotillin-1 and -2 marked vesicles in both cell types. Flotillins appear to play a role in cellular uptake or trafficking mechanisms of NPs and are discussed as indicators for clathrin- or caveolae-independent uptake mechanisms. In addition, we examined the transport of NPs across this in vitro model of the alveolar-capillary barrier forming a tight barrier with a transepithelial electrical resistance of 560±8 Ω cm(2). H441 in coculture with endothelial cells took up much less NPs compared to monocultures. Moreover, coculturing prevented the transport of NP from the epithelial compartment to the endothelial layer on the bottom of the filter insert. This supports the relevance of coculture models, which favour a differentiated and polarised epithelial layer as in vitro test systems for

  1. Annexin A1: Shifting the balance towards resolution and repair

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Giovanna; Nusrat, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial barriers play an important role in regulating mucosal homeostasis. Upon injury, the epithelium and immune cells orchestrate repair mechanisms that re-establish homeostasis. This process is highly regulated by protein and lipid mediators such as Annexin A1. In this review, we focus on the pro-repair properties of Annexin A1. PMID:27232634

  2. Galectin-7 is important for normal uterine repair following menstruation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jemma; Yap, Joanne; Gamage, Thillini; Salamonsen, Lois; Dimitriadis, Evdokia; Menkhorst, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Menstruation involves the shedding of the functional layer of the endometrium in the absence of pregnancy. At sites where tissue shedding is complete, re-epithelialization of the tissue is essential for repair and termination of bleeding. The complement of growth factors that mediate post-menstrual endometrial repair are yet to be completely elucidated. Galectins regulate many cell functions important for post-menstrual repair, such as cell adhesion and migration. Galectin-7 has a well characterized role in re-epithelialization and wound healing. We hypothesized that galectin-7 would be important in re-epithelialization during post-menstrual repair. We aimed to identify endometrial expression of galectin-7 in women undergoing normal endometrial repair and in women with amenorrhoea who do not experience endometrial breakdown and repair, and to determine whether galectin-7 enhances endometrial re-epithelialization in vitro. Galectin-7 immunolocalized to the endometrial luminal and glandular epithelium during the late secretory and menstrual phases, and to decidualized stroma in regions exhibiting tissue breakdown. Immunostaining intensity was significantly reduced in the endometrium of women with amenorrhoea compared with normally cycling woman. ELISA identified galectin-7 in menstrual fluid at significantly elevated levels compared with matched peripheral plasma. Exogenous galectin-7 (2.5 µg/ml) significantly enhanced endometrial epithelial wound repair in vitro; this was abrogated by inhibition of integrin binding. Galectin-7 elevated epithelial expression of extracellular matrix-related molecules likely involved in repair including β-catenin, contactin and TGF-β1. In conclusion, galectin-7 is produced by the premenstrual and menstrual endometrium, where it accumulates in menstrual fluid and likely acts as a paracrine factor to facilitate post-menstrual endometrial re-epithelialization.

  3. Free radical generation induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung epithelium via a TGF-β1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gorowiec, Marta R; Borthwick, Lee A; Parker, Sean M; Kirby, John A; Saretzki, Gabriele C; Fisher, Andrew J

    2012-03-15

    Fibrotic remodelling of lung parenchymal and airway compartments is the major contributor to life-threatening organ dysfunction in chronic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Since transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is believed to play a key role in disease pathogenesis and markers of oxidative stress are also commonly detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from such patients we sought to investigate whether both factors might be interrelated. Here we investigated the hypothesis that oxidative stress to the lung epithelium promotes fibrotic repair by driving epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the augmentation of TGF-β1. We show that in response to 400μM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) A549 cells, used a model for alveolar epithelium, and human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) undergo EMT displaying morphology changes, decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and ZO-1), increased expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin) as well as increased secretion of extracelluar matrix components. The same oxidative stress also promotes expression of TGF-β1. Inhibition of TGF-β1 signalling as well as treatment with antioxidants such as phenyl tert-butylnitrone (PBN) and superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) prevent the oxidative stress driven EMT-like changes described above. Interventions also inhibited EMT-like changes. This study identifies a link between oxidative stress, TGF-β1 and EMT in lung epithelium and highlights the potential for antioxidant therapies to limit EMT and its potential contribution to chronic lung disease.

  4. Airway epithelial IL-15 transforms monocytes into dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Regamey, Nicolas; Obregon, Carolina; Ferrari-Lacraz, Sylvie; van Leer, Coretta; Chanson, Marc; Nicod, Laurent P; Geiser, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    IL-15 has recently been shown to induce the differentiation of functional dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood monocytes. Since DCs lay in close proximity to epithelial cells in the airway mucosa, we investigated whether airway epithelial cells release IL-15 in response to inflammatory stimuli and thereby induce differentiation and maturation of DCs. Alveolar (A549) and bronchial (BEAS-2B) epithelial cells produced IL-15 spontaneously and in a time- and dose-dependent manner after stimulation with IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha. Airway epithelial cell supernatants induced an increase of IL-15Ralpha gene expression in ex vivo monocytes, and stimulated DCs enhanced their IL-15Ralpha gene expression up to 300-fold. Airway epithelial cell-conditioned media induced the differentiation of ex vivo monocytes into partially mature DCs (HLA-DR+, DC-SIGN+, CD14+, CD80-, CD83+, CD86+, CCR3+, CCR6(+), CCR7-). Based on their phenotypic (CD123+, BDCA2+, BDCA4+, BDCA1(-), CD1a-) and functional properties (limited maturation upon stimulation with LPS and limited capacity to induce T cell proliferation), these DCs resembled plasmacytoid DCs. The effects of airway epithelial cell supernatants were largely blocked by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to IL-15. Thus, our results demonstrate that airway epithelial cell-conditioned media have the capacity to differentiate monocytes into functional DCs, a process substantially mediated by epithelial-derived IL-15.

  5. Dental materials for cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Faiza; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham; Muhammad, Nawshad; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    Numerous bone and soft tissue grafting techniques are followed to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP) defects. In addition to the gold standard surgical interventions involving the use of autogenous grafts, various allogenic and xenogenic graft materials are available for bone regeneration. In an attempt to discover minimally invasive and cost effective treatments for cleft repair, an exceptional growth in synthetic biomedical graft materials have occurred. This study gives an overview of the use of dental materials to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP). The eligibility criteria for this review were case studies, clinical trials and retrospective studies on the use of various types of dental materials in surgical repair of cleft palate defects. Any data available on the surgical interventions to repair alveolar or palatal cleft, with natural or synthetic graft materials was included in this review. Those datasets with long term clinical follow-up results were referred to as particularly relevant. The results provide encouraging evidence in favor of dental and other related biomedical materials to fill the gaps in clefts of lip and palate. The review presents the various bones and soft tissue replacement strategies currently used, tested or explored for the repair of cleft defects. There was little available data on the use of synthetic materials in cleft repair which was a limitation of this study. In conclusion although clinical trials on the use of synthetic materials are currently underway the uses of autologous implants are the preferred treatment methods to date.

  6. Hydrothorax with alveolar-pleural fistula mimicking re-expansion pulmonary edema during liver transplantation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of an alveolar-pleural fistula with hepatic hydrothorax in a patient undergoing orthotropic liver transplantation, which was detected by drainage of transudate through an endotracheal tube during operation. A standard endotracheal tube was changed to a double-lumen tube to provide differential lung ventilation. The patient was diagnosed with an alveolar-pleural fistula by direct vision of an air leak during positive-pressure ventilation through a diaphragmatic incision. There was still a concern about worsening his ventilation due to persistent aspiration of pleural effusion towards the ipsilateral lung during the remaining operation period. Surgeon repaired the defect on the exposed lung surface via diaphragmatic opening. Anesthesiologists should consider an alveolar-pleural fistula as a possible differential diagnosis with re-expansion pulmonary edema when transudate emanating from the endotracheal tube is obtained in patients with massive hydrothorax. PMID:25844139

  7. Cigarette smoke extract induces apoptosis of rat alveolar Type II cells via the PLTP/TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Liao, Ke; Cui-Zhao, Lv; Qiang-Wen, Fu; Feng-Zeng, Xue; Ping-Wu, Feng; Liang-Guo, Shu; Juan-Chen, Ya

    2015-09-01

    Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may play a role in apoptosis. In the present study, the effect of the novel function of PLTP in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and the possible mechanism were examined. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air and cigarette smoke (n=10/exposure) for 6h/day on 3 consecutive days, then the lungs were sectioned and examined. To investigate effects on alveolar epithelial cells, rat alveolar epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) were treated with different concentrations of CSE for various times. siRNA for PLTP was transfected into cells and an inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) type I receptor was administered prior to CSE exposure. Apoptosis was measured, and mRNA expression of PLTP and TGF-β1 and protein levels of PLTP, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 were analyzed. The results showed that apoptosis, as well as expression of PLTP, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 were all significantly increased after CSE stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 induced by CSE could be partly abrogated by knockdown of PLTP. The expression of PLTP showed no significant change as a result of TGF-β1 receptor inhibition, while cleaved caspase-3 showed a remarkable reduction. PLTP may act as an upstream signal molecule of the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway and is likely to be involved in CSE-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

  8. Eardrum repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ossicular fixation - surgery Images Eardrum repair - series References Adams ME, El-Kashlan HK. Tympanoplasty and ossiculoplasty. In: ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  9. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... is excellent. However, another hydrocele may form over time, or if there was also a hernia present. Alternative Names Hydrocelectomy Images Hydrocele repair - series References Aiken JJ, Oldham KT. Inguinal hernias. In: ...

  10. Basement Membrane Mimics of Biofunctionalized Nanofibers for a Bipolar-Cultured Human Primary Alveolar-Capillary Barrier Model.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Akihiro; Singh, Smriti; Wessling, Matthias; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Möller, Martin

    2017-03-13

    In vitro reconstruction of an alveolar barrier for modeling normal lung functions and pathological events serve as reproducible, high-throughput pharmaceutical platforms for drug discovery, diagnosis, and regenerative medicine. Despite much effort, the reconstruction of organ-level alveolar barrier functions has failed due to the lack of structural similarity to the natural basement membrane, functionalization with specific ligands for alveolar cell function, the use of primary cells and biodegradability. Here we report a bipolar cultured alveolar-capillary barrier model of human primary cells supported by a basement membrane mimics of fully synthetic bifunctional nanofibers. One-step electrospinning process using a bioresorbable polyester and multifunctional star-shaped polyethylene glycols (sPEG) enables the fabrication of an ultrathin nanofiber mesh with interconnected pores. The nanofiber mesh possessed mechanical stability against cyclic expansion as seen in the lung in vivo. The sPEGs as an additive provide biofunctionality to fibers through the conjugation of peptide to the nanofibers and hydrophilization to prevent unspecific protein adsorption. Biofunctionalized nanofiber meshes facilitated bipolar cultivation of endothelial and epithelial cells with fundamental alveolar functionality and showed higher permeability for molecules compared to microporous films. This nanofiber mesh for a bipolar cultured barrier have the potential to promote growth of an organ-level barrier model for modeling pathological conditions and evaluating drug efficacy, environmental pollutants, and nanotoxicology.

  11. Host-derived extracellular RNA promotes adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to endothelial and epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewicz, Dariusz; Bergmann, Simone; Didiasova, Miroslava; Giaimo, Benedetto Daniele; Borggrefe, Tilman; Mieth, Maren; Hocke, Andreas C.; Lochnit, Guenter; Schaefer, Liliana; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Preissner, Klaus T.; Wygrecka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The infection process involves bacterial cell surface receptors, which interact with host extracellular matrix components to facilitate colonization and dissemination of bacteria. Here, we investigated the role of host-derived extracellular RNA (eRNA) in the process of pneumococcal alveolar epithelial cell infection. Our study demonstrates that eRNA dose-dependently increased S. pneumoniae invasion of alveolar epithelial cells. Extracellular enolase (Eno), a plasminogen (Plg) receptor, was identified as a novel eRNA-binding protein on S. pneumoniae surface, and six Eno eRNA-binding sites including a C-terminal 15 amino acid motif containing lysine residue 434 were characterized. Although the substitution of lysine 434 for glycine (K434G) markedly diminished the binding of eRNA to Eno, the adherence to and internalization into alveolar epithelial cells of S. pneumoniae strain carrying the C-terminal lysine deletion and the mutation of internal Plg-binding motif were only marginally impaired. Accordingly, using a mass spectrometric approach, we identified seven novel eRNA-binding proteins in pneumococcal cell wall. Given the high number of eRNA-interacting proteins on pneumococci, treatment with RNase1 completely inhibited eRNA-mediated pneumococcal alveolar epithelial cell infection. Our data support further efforts to employ RNAse1 as an antimicrobial agent to combat pneumococcal infectious diseases. PMID:27892961

  12. Characteristics and pharmacological regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and epithelial Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial Na(+) transport participates in control of various body functions and conditions: e.g., homeostasis of body fluid content influencing blood pressure, control of amounts of fluids covering the apical surface of alveolar epithelial cells at appropriate levels for normal gas exchange, and prevention of bacterial/viral infection. Epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is mediated by the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via Epithelial Na(+) Channel (ENaC) located at the apical membrane, and the extrusion step of Na(+) across the basolateral membrane via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase located at the basolateral membrane. The rate-limiting step of the epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is generally recognized to be the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via ENaC. Thus, up-/down-regulation of ENaC essentially participates in regulatory systems of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. Amount of ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport is determined by the number of ENaCs located at the apical membrane, activity (open probability) of individual ENaC located at the apical membrane, single channel conductance of ENaC located at the apical membrane, and driving force for the Na(+) entry via ENaCs across the apical membrane. In the present review article, I discuss the characteristics of ENaC and how these factors are regulated.

  13. Volumetric Analysis of Alveolar Bone Defect Using Three-Dimensional-Printed Models Versus Computer-Aided Engineering.

    PubMed

    Du, Fengzhou; Li, Binghang; Yin, Ningbei; Cao, Yilin; Wang, Yongqian

    2017-03-01

    Knowing the volume of a graft is essential in repairing alveolar bone defects. This study investigates the 2 advanced preoperative volume measurement methods: three-dimensional (3D) printing and computer-aided engineering (CAE). Ten unilateral alveolar cleft patients were enrolled in this study. Their computed tomographic data were sent to 3D printing and CAE software. A simulated graft was used on the 3D-printed model, and the graft volume was measured by water displacement. The volume calculated by CAE software used mirror-reverses technique. The authors compared the actual volumes of the simulated grafts with the CAE software-derived volumes. The average volume of the simulated bone grafts by 3D-printed models was 1.52 mL, higher than the mean volume of 1.47 calculated by CAE software. The difference between the 2 volumes was from -0.18 to 0.42 mL. The paired Student t test showed no statistically significant difference between the volumes derived from the 2 methods. This study demonstrated that the mirror-reversed technique by CAE software is as accurate as the simulated operation on 3D-printed models in unilateral alveolar cleft patients. These findings further validate the use of 3D printing and CAE technique in alveolar defect repairing.

  14. A New Device for Alveolar Bone Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Omar; Pérez, Daniel; Páramo, Viviana; Falcón, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    We present a retrospective review of a new technique for the transportation of alveolar bone using a Hyrax device modified by the principal author (O.A.V.). There were seven patients (five males and two females), including five patients with cleft palate and lip diagnosis, one patient with a high-speed gunshot wound, and one patient with facial trauma sequel due to mandibular fracture. They were all treated with an alveolar bone transportation technique (ABT) through the use of the modified Hyrax device (VEGAX). Before surgery, distraction osteogenesis of the bifocal type was performed on four patients, and the trifocal type was performed on the other three patients. However, in one case, direct dental anchorage was not used, only orthodontic appliances. In all the cases, new bone formation and gingival tissue around the defect were obtained, posterior to the alveolar distraction process; no complications were observed in any patient. In one case, two teeth involved in the disk of the ABT were extracted, due to a previous condition of periodontal disease. The alveolar bone transport with the VEGAX device is an accessible technique for almost every patient with alveolar defects due to diverse causes. In all the presented cases, predictability and success were demonstrated. PMID:22655120

  15. Epithelial restitution and wound healing in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Andreas; Dignass, Axel U

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. The mucosal epithelium of the alimentary tract constitutes a key element of the mucosal barrier to a broad spectrum of deleterious substances present within the intestinal lumen including bacterial microorganisms, various dietary factors, gastrointestinal secretory products and drugs. In addition, this mucosal barrier can be disturbed in the course of various intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. Fortunately, the integrity of the gastrointestinal surface epithelium is rapidly reestablished even after extensive destruction. Rapid resealing of the epithelial barrier following injuries is accomplished by a process termed epithelial restitution, followed by more delayed mechanisms of epithelial wound healing including increased epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial cell differentiation. Restitution of the intestinal surface epithelium is modulated by a range of highly divergent factors among them a broad spectrum of structurally distinct regulatory peptides, variously described as growth factors or cytokines. Several regulatory peptide factors act from the basolateral site of the epithelial surface and enhance epithelial cell restitution through TGF-β-dependent pathways. In contrast, members of the trefoil factor family (TFF peptides) appear to stimulate epithelial restitution in conjunction with mucin glycoproteins through a TGF-β-independent mechanism from the apical site of the intestinal epithelium. In addition, a number of other peptide molecules like extracellular matrix factors and blood clotting factors and also non-peptide molecules including phospholipids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), adenine nucleotides, trace elements and pharmacological agents modulate intestinal epithelial repair mechanisms. Repeated damage and injury of the intestinal surface are key features of various intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel

  16. Beta1-adrenoceptor stimulation by high-dose terbutaline downregulates terbutaline-stimulated alveolar fluid clearance in ex vivo rat lung.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, T; Tuchihara, C; Ishigaki, M; Osanai, K; Nambu, Y; Toga, H; Takahashi, K; Ohya, N; Inoue, M; Matthay, M A

    2001-01-01

    Because high-dose terbutaline and isoproterenol (10(-3) M), beta2-adrenergic agonists, failed to increase alveolar fluid clearance, the mechanisms responsible for this effect were examined in ex vivo rat lungs. An isosmolar 5% albumin solution with Evans blue dye was instilled into the distal airspaces in isolated rat lungs that were then inflated with 100% oxygen at an airway pressure of 8 cm H2O in a 37 degrees C incubator. Alveolar fluid clearance was measured by the progressive increase in dye concentrations over 1 hour. The results indicated that: (1) although 10(-5) M terbutaline or isoproterenol increased alveolar fluid clearance, 10(-3) M terbutaline or isoproterenol did not; (2) both concentrations of terbutaline (10(-5), 10(-3) M) increased intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in cultured type II alveolar epithelial cells; (3) instillation of atenolol, a selective beta1-adrenergic antagonist, in the presence of either 10(-3) M terbutaline or isoproterenol was associated with an increase in alveolar fluid clearance. These results suggested that beta1-adrenoceptor stimulation prevented the normal response to a beta2-adrenergic agonist. To further test this hypothesis, a selective beta1-adrenergic agonist, denopamine, was administered; these results showed that (4) 10(-3) M denopamine, a selective beta1-adrenergic agonist, inhibited the increase in alveolar fluid clearance in the presence of 10(-5) M terbutaline; (5) hypoxia for 2 hours did not alter the effects of terbutaline on alveolar fluid clearance. The mechanism for the inability of the alveolar epithelium to respond to high-dose terbutaline or isoproterenol with the normal upregulation of alveolar fluid clearance in ex vivo rats lungs appears to be mediated by beta1-adrenoceptor stimulation that subsequently suppresses the beta2-adrenergic response.

  17. When is an Alveolar Type 2 Cell an Alveolar Type 2 Cell? A Conundrum for Lung Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Beers, Michael F; Moodley, Yuben

    2017-03-22

    Generating mature, differentiated, adult lung cells from pluripotent cells such as induced pluripotent cells (iPS) and embryonic stem cells (ES) offers the hope of both generating disease specific in vitro models and creating definitive and personalized therapies for a host of debilitating lung parenchymal and airway diseases. With the goal of advancing lung regenerative medicine, several groups have developed and reported on protocols utilizing either defined media, co-culture with mesenchymal components, or sequential treatments mimicking lung development, to obtain distal lung epithelial cells from stem cell precursors. However, there remains significant controversy about the degree of differentiation of these cells compared to their primary counterparts coupled with a lack of consistency or uniformity in assessing the resultant phenotypes. Given the inevitable, exponential expansion of these approaches and the probable but yet to emerge 2nd and higher generation techniques to create such assets, we were prompted to pose the question: "What makes a lung epithelial cell a lung epithelial cell?" and more specifically for this Perspective "What are the minimum features that constitute an alveolar type II epithelial cell (AT2)". In addressing this, we summarize a body of work spanning nearly five decades amassed by a series of "lung epithelial cell biology pioneers" which carefully describes well characterized molecular, functional, and morphological features critical for discriminate assessment of an AT2 phenotype. Armed with this we propose a series of core criteria to assist the field in confirming that cells obtained following a differentiating protocol are indeed mature and functional AT2 epithelial cells.

  18. Technical note: Isolation and characterization of porcine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dahanayaka, S; Rezaei, R; Porter, W W; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Bazer, F W; Hou, Y Q; Wu, Z L; Wu, G

    2015-11-01

    Within the mammary gland, functional synthesis of milk is performed by its epithelial (alveolar) cells. The availability of a stable mammary epithelial cell line is essential for biochemical studies to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nutritional regulation of lactation. Therefore, porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) were isolated from mammary glands of a 9-mo-old nonpregnant and nonlactating gilt and cultured to establish a nonimmortalized cell line. These cells were characterized by expression of cytokeratin-18 (an intermediate filament specific for epithelial cells), β-casein (a specific marker for mammary epithelial cells), and α-lactalbumin. In culture, the PMEC doubled in number every 24 h and maintained a cobblestone morphology, typical for cultured epithelial cells, for at least 15 passages. Addition of 0.2 to 2 μg/mL prolactin to culture medium for 3 d induced the production of β-casein and α-lactalbumin by PMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we have successfully developed a useful PMEC line for future studies of cellular and molecular regulation of milk synthesis by mammary epithelial cells of the sow.

  19. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  20. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  1. Ultrastructural findings in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). II: Pathomorphological changes of the terminal airways and the alveolar region.

    PubMed

    Kaup, F J; Drommer, W; Damsch, S; Deegen, E

    1990-09-01

    Extensive light and electron microscope studies (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) of the bronchioles and alveolar region, in 28 horses suffering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and eight control horses, revealed good correlation between clinical severity and morphological changes. In the bronchiolar epithelium the non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells, in particular, showed ultrastructural alterations and, even in the mild stages of disease, these presented degenerative changes and lack of differentiation. Together with loss of granulation in the Clara cells and metaplasia of the goblet cells, cells were seen with unusual intracytoplasmic lamellar inclusion, the number of which increased sharply with clinical severity. The focal changes in the alveolar region were necrosis of type I epithelial cells, alveolar fibrosis of varying degrees with type II epithelial transformation and emphysema or hyperinflation, with an increase in Kohn's pores. Some horse also showed morphological signs of interference with the surfactant system, in the form of marked cysts with lamellar structure. The alveolar changes were mostly in the peribronchiolar region and were, therefore, interpreted as reactive processes. No conclusions as to the aetiology of equine COPD can be derived from these morphological investigations.

  2. Remodeling of alveolar septa after murine pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Wagner, Willi L.; Bennett, Robert D.; Ackermann, Maximilian; Valenzuela, Cristian D.; Belle, Janeil; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.

    2015-01-01

    In most mammals, removing one lung (pneumonectomy) results in the compensatory growth of the remaining lung. In mice, stereological observations have demonstrated an increase in the number of mature alveoli; however, anatomic evidence of the early phases of alveolar growth has remained elusive. To identify changes in the lung microstructure associated with neoalveolarization, we used tissue histology, electron microscopy, and synchrotron imaging to examine the configuration of the alveolar duct after murine pneumonectomy. Systematic histological examination of the cardiac lobe demonstrated no change in the relative frequency of dihedral angle components (Ends, Bends, and Junctions) (P > 0.05), but a significant decrease in the length of a subset of septal ends (“E”). Septal retraction, observed in 20–30% of the alveolar ducts, was maximal on day 3 after pneumonectomy (P < 0.01) and returned to baseline levels within 3 wk. Consistent with septal retraction, the postpneumonectomy alveolar duct diameter ratio (Dout:Din) was significantly lower 3 days after pneumonectomy compared to all controls except for the detergent-treated lung (P < 0.001). To identify clumped capillaries predicted by septal retraction, vascular casting, analyzed by both scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron imaging, demonstrated matted capillaries that were most prominent 3 days after pneumonectomy. Numerical simulations suggested that septal retraction could reflect increased surface tension within the alveolar duct, resulting in a new equilibrium at a higher total energy and lower surface area. The spatial and temporal association of these microstructural changes with postpneumonectomy lung growth suggests that these changes represent an early phase of alveolar duct remodeling. PMID:26078396

  3. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  4. Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.

    2007-11-10

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

  5. Lung Transplant Recipient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, M. Frances; Abdelrazek, Hesham; Patel, Vipul J.; Walia, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a progressive lung disease characterized by accumulated surfactant-like lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli and distal bronchioles. This accumulation is the result of impaired clearance by alveolar macrophages. PAP has been described in 11 solid organ transplant recipients, 9 of whom were treated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. We report a case of a lung transplant recipient treated with prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and tacrolimus who ultimately developed PAP, which worsened when MMF was replaced with everolimus. PMID:27213073

  6. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with diffuse alveolar damage.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-S; Chen, T-L; Tzen, C-Y; Lin, F-J; Peng, M-J; Wu, C-L; Chen, P-J

    2002-09-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with myositis is defined by the presence of interstitial changes on radiographic examination. The reported prevalence of ILD varies from 0% to nearly 50%. However, only rarely has the pathological pattern of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) associated with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) been reported. We report five patients with IIM (one with dermatomyositis, one with polymyositis, and three with amyopathic dermatomyositis) and respiratory failure. Four underwent open lung biopsy with pathological proof of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Despite intensive immunosuppressive therapy, all of them died. In addition to the case reports, we discuss DAD in patients with IIM.

  7. Nitric Oxide and Airway Epithelial Barrier Function: Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins and Epithelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nels; Greul, Anne-Katrin; Hristova, Milena; Bove, Peter F.; Kasahara, David I.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Acute airway inflammation is associated with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO•) and altered airway epithelial barrier function, suggesting a role of NO• or its metabolites in epithelial permeability. While high concentrations of S-nitrosothiols disrupted transepithelial resistance (TER) and increased permeability in 16HBE14o- cells, no significant barrier disruption was observed by NONOates, in spite of altered distribution and expression of some TJ proteins. Barrier disruption of mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell monolayers in response to inflammatory cytokines was independent of NOS2, based on similar effects in MTE cells from NOS2-/- mice and a lack of effect of the NOS2-inhibitor 1400W. Cell pre-incubation with LPS protected MTE cells from TER loss and increased permeability by H2O2, which was independent of NOS2. However, NOS2 was found to contribute to epithelial wound repair and TER recovery after mechanical injury. Overall, our results demonstrate that epithelial NOS2 is not responsible for epithelial barrier dysfunction during inflammation, but may contribute to restoration of epithelial integrity. PMID:19100237

  8. Epithelial stem cells and intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawna; Barker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian intestine is comprised of an epithelial layer that serves multiple functions in order to maintain digestive activity as well as intestinal homeostasis. This epithelial layer contains highly proliferative stem cells which facilitate its characteristic rapid regeneration. How these stem cells contribute to tissue repair and normal homeostasis are actively studied, and while we have a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cellular locations that underlie stem cell regulation in this tissue, much still remains undiscovered. This review describes epithelial stem cells in both intestinal and non-intestinal tissues, as well as the strategies that have been used to further characterize the cells. Through a discussion of the current understanding of intestinal self-renewal and tissue regeneration in response to injury, we focus on how dysregulation of critical signaling pathways results in potentially oncogenic aberrations, and highlight issues that should be addressed in order for effective intestinal cancer therapies to be devised.

  9. Alveolar Macrophages Are a Prominent but Nonessential Target for Murine Cytomegalovirus Infecting the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Lawler, Clara; Oliveira, Martha T.; Davis-Poynter, Nick

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) infect the lungs and cause pathological damage there in immunocompromised hosts. How lung infection starts is unknown. Inhaled murine CMV (MCMV) directly infected alveolar macrophages (AMs) and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) but not type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC1s). In contrast, herpes simplex virus 1 infected AEC1s and murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infected AEC1s via AMs. MCMV-infected AMs prominently expressed viral reporter genes from a human CMV IE1 promoter; but most IE1-positive cells were AEC2s, and CD11c-cre mice, which express cre in AMs, switched the fluorochrome expression of <5% of floxed MCMV in the lungs. In contrast, CD11C-cre mice exhibited fluorochrome switching in >90% of floxed MuHV-4 in the lungs and 50% of floxed MCMV in the blood. AM depletion increased MCMV titers in the lung during the acute phase of infection. Thus, the influence of AMs was more restrictive than permissive. Circulating monocytes entered infected lungs in large numbers and became infected, but not directly; infection occurred mainly via AEC2s. Mice infected with an MCMV mutant lacking its m131/m129 chemokine homolog, which promotes macrophage infection, showed levels of lung infection equivalent to those of wild-type MCMV-infected mice. The level of lung infiltration by Gr-1-positive cells infected with the MCMV m131/m129-null mutant was modestly different from that for wild-type MCMV-infected lungs. These results are consistent with myeloid cells mainly disseminating MCMV from the lungs, whereas AEC2s provide local amplification. IMPORTANCE Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) chronically and systemically infect most mammals. Human CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but causes lung disease in people with poor immune function. As human infection is hard to analyze, studies with related animal viruses provide important insights. We show that murine CMV has two targets in the lungs: macrophages and surfactant-secreting epithelial cells

  10. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  11. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  12. Outboard Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack

    This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

  13. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  14. Does High Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption Prevent HAPE in Individuals with Exaggerated Pulmonary Hypertension in Hypoxia?

    PubMed

    Betz, Theresa; Dehnert, Christoph; Bärtsch, Peter; Schommer, Kai; Mairbäurl, Heimo

    2015-12-01

    An exaggerated increase in pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PAsP) is a highlight of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). However, the incidence of HAPE at 4559 m was much lower in altitude-naïve individuals with exaggerated pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in normobaric hypoxia than in known HAPE-susceptibles, indicating that elevated PAsP alone is insufficient to induce HAPE. A decreased nasal potential difference (NPD) has been found in HAPE-susceptibles, where, based on animal models, NPD serves as surrogate of alveolar epithelial ion transport. We hypothesize that those HAPE-resistant individuals with high HPV may be protected by elevated alveolar Na and fluid reabsorption, which might be detected as increased NPD. To test this hypothesis, we measured NPD in normoxia of subjects who were phenotyped in previous studies as high altitude tolerant (controls), known HAPE-susceptibles with high HPV (HP+HAPE), as well as individuals with high HPV but without HAPE (HP-no-HAPE) at 4559 m. NPD and amiloride-sensitive NPD were lower in HP+HAPE than in controls, whereas HP-no-HAPE were not different from either group. There were no differences in Cl-transport between groups. Our results show low nasal ion transport in HAPE but higher transport in those individuals with the highest HPV but without HAPE. This indicates that in some individuals with high PAsP at high altitude high alveolar fluid reabsorption might protect them from HAPE.

  15. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Young Do

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  16. Teaching Alveolar Ventilation with Simple, Inexpensive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    When teaching and learning about alveolar ventilation with our class of 300 first-year medical students, we use four simple, inexpensive "models." The models, which encourage research-oriented learning and help our students to understand complex ideas, are distributed to the students before class. The students anticipate something new every day,…

  17. Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis differ in affinity for human osteoblasts and alveolar cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shrabanti; Dlamini, Muyalo G; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Ashiru, Olubisi T; Sturm, A Willem; Moodley, Prashini

    2016-01-01

    Although the lung is the primary site of infection of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is capable of causing infection at other sites. In 5-10 % such extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is located in bone tissue of the spine. It is unknown whether host or microbial factors are responsible for the site where extra-pulmonary tuberculosis manifests itself. One MDR isolate belonging to strain F28, one susceptible F11 and one isolate each of susceptible, MDR and XDR F15/LAM4/KZN were cultured in Middlebrook 7H9 media. Human osteoblasts (SaOS-2) and human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to these different isolates of M. tuberculosis and invasion capacity and intra-cellular multiplication rates were established. Mouse macrophage (MHS) cells exposed to M. tuberculosis H37Rv served as control. The invasion capacity of F15/LAM4/KZN representatives increased with the level of resistance. The F28 MDR strain showed similar invasion capacity as the XDR F15/LAM4/KZN for pulmonary epthelial cells, whilst the fully susceptible F11 strain displayed a propensity for osteoblasts. The differences observed may in part explain why certain strains are able to cause infection at specific extra-pulmonary sites. We postulated that the development of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis depends on the ability of the microbe to pass effectively through the alveolar epithelial lining and its affinity for cells other than those in pulmonary tissue.

  18. Jamming dynamics of stretch-induced surfactant release by alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Arnab; Arold, Stephen P; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Suki, Béla

    2012-03-01

    Secretion of pulmonary surfactant by alveolar epithelial type II cells is vital for the reduction of interfacial surface tension, thus preventing lung collapse. To study secretion dynamics, rat alveolar epithelial type II cells were cultured on elastic membranes and cyclically stretched. The amounts of phosphatidylcholine, the primary lipid component of surfactant, inside and outside the cells, were measured using radiolabeled choline. During and immediately after stretch, cells secreted less surfactant than unstretched cells; however, stretched cells secreted significantly more surfactant than unstretched cells after an extended lag period. We developed a model based on the hypothesis that stretching leads to jamming of surfactant traffic escaping the cell, similar to vehicular traffic jams. In the model, stretch increases surfactant transport from the interior to the exterior of the cell. This transport is mediated by a surface layer with a finite capacity due to the limited number of fusion pores through which secretion occurs. When the amount of surfactant in the surface layer approaches this capacity, interference among lamellar bodies carrying surfactant reduces the rate of secretion, effectively creating a jam. When the stretch stops, the jam takes an extended time to clear, and subsequently the amount of secreted surfactant increases. We solved the model analytically and show that its dynamics are consistent with experimental observations, implying that surfactant secretion is a fundamentally nonlinear process with memory representing collective behavior at the level of single cells. Our results thus highlight the importance of a jamming dynamics in stretch-induced cellular secretory processes.

  19. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  20. Alveolar Bone Fracture: Pathognomonic Sign for Clinical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gutmacher, Zvi; Peled, Eli; Norman, Doron; Lin, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Dental injuries, especially luxation and avulsion, are common. Dental trauma can cause alveolar bone fracture that can lead to tooth loss and malocclusion. Single tooth alveolar bone fractures are difficult to identify unless it protrudes through the overlying mucosa and can be visualized. Pain, malocclusion, and tooth mobility provide signs of suspected alveolar bone fractures. Integrity of the proximate alveolar bone should be examined for fractures where avulsion, luxation, or other tooth trauma is detected. Any suggestion of alveolar fractures should be further investigated with an appropriate radiograph. Summary: This case report shows a pathognomonic sign that detects and diagnosis single tooth alveolar bone fractures, i.e., a localized hematoma crossing the attached gingiva from the free gingival margin to the vestibular mucosa. This should serve as a warning for localized alveolar bone fracture. A visualized hematoma and gentle, careful palpation may help detect covered fractures when the overlying mucosa is not perforated.

  1. Alveolar progenitor cells develop in mouse mammary glands independent of pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brian W; Boulanger, Corinne A; Smith, Gilbert H

    2007-09-01

    We have previously described pluripotent, parity-induced mammary epithelial cells (PI-MEC) marked by Rosa26-lacZ expression in the mammary glands of parous females. PI-MEC act as lobule-limited epithelial stem/progenitor cells. To determine whether parity is necessary to generate PI-MEC, we incubated mammary explant cultures from virgin mice in vitro with insulin alone (I), hydrocortisone alone (H), prolactin alone (Prl), or a combination of these lactogenic hormones (IHPrl). Insulin alone activated the WAP-Cre gene. Hydrocortisone and prolactin alone did not. Any combination of hormones that included insulin was effective. Only I, H and Prl together were able to induce secretory differentiation and milk protein synthesis. In addition, EGF, IGF-2 and IGF-1 added individually produced activated (lacZ(+)) PI-MEC in explant cultures. Neither estrogen nor progesterone induced WAP-Cre expression in the explants. None of these positive initiators of WAP-Cre expression in PI-MEC were effective in mammospheres or two-dimensional cultures of mammary epithelium, indicating the indispensability of epithelial-stromal interaction in PI-MEC activation. Like PI-MEC, lacZ(+) cells from virgin explants proliferated and contributed progeny to mammospheres in vitro and to epithelial outgrowths in vivo after transplantation. LacZ(+) cells induced in virgin mouse mammary explants were multipotent (like PI-MEC) in impregnated hosts producing lacZ(+) mammary alveolar structures comprised of both myoepithelial and luminal progeny. These data demonstrate PI-MEC, a mammary epithelial sub-population of lobule-limited progenitor cells, are present in nulliparous female mice before parity and, like the PI-MEC observed following parity, are capable of proliferation, self-renewal and the capacity to produce progeny of diverse epithelial cell fates.

  2. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 moderates airway re-epithelialization by regulating matrilysin activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter; McGuire, John K; Hackman, Robert C; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Black, Roy A; Poindexter, Kurt; Yan, Wei; Liu, Phillip; Chen, Ann J; Parks, William C; Madtes, David K

    2008-05-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the histopathological finding in chronic lung allograft rejection. Mounting evidence suggests that epithelial damage drives the development of airway fibrosis in OB. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 expression increases in lung allografts and is associated with the onset of allograft rejection. Furthermore, in a mouse model of OB, airway obliteration is reduced in TIMP-1-deficient mice. Matrilysin (matrix metallproteinase-7) is essential for airway epithelial repair and is required for the re-epithelialization of airway wounds by facilitating cell migration; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether TIMP-1 inhibits re-epithelialization through matrilysin. We found that TIMP-1 and matrilysin co-localized in the epithelium of human lungs with OB and both co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated in wounded primary airway epithelial cultures. TIMP-1-deficient cultures migrated faster, and epithelial cells spread to a greater extent compared with wild-type cultures. TIMP-1 also inhibited matrilysin-mediated cell migration and spreading in vitro. In vivo, TIMP-1 deficiency enhanced airway re-epithelialization after naphthalene injury. Furthermore, TIMP-1 and matrilysin co-localized in airway epithelial cells adjacent to the wound edge. Our data demonstrate that TIMP-1 interacts with matrix metalloproteinases and regulates matrilysin activity during airway epithelial repair. Furthermore, we speculate that TIMP-1 overexpression restricts airway re-epithelialization by inhibiting matrilysin activity, contributing to a stereotypic injury response that promotes airway fibrosis via bronchiole airway epithelial damage and obliteration.

  3. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Moderates Airway Re-Epithelialization by Regulating Matrilysin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peter; McGuire, John K.; Hackman, Robert C.; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Black, Roy A.; Poindexter, Kurt; Yan, Wei; Liu, Phillip; Chen, Ann J.; Parks, William C.; Madtes, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the histopathological finding in chronic lung allograft rejection. Mounting evidence suggests that epithelial damage drives the development of airway fibrosis in OB. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 expression increases in lung allografts and is associated with the onset of allograft rejection. Furthermore, in a mouse model of OB, airway obliteration is reduced in TIMP-1-deficient mice. Matrilysin (matrix metallproteinase-7) is essential for airway epithelial repair and is required for the re-epithelialization of airway wounds by facilitating cell migration; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether TIMP-1 inhibits re-epithelialization through matrilysin. We found that TIMP-1 and matrilysin co-localized in the epithelium of human lungs with OB and both co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated in wounded primary airway epithelial cultures. TIMP-1-deficient cultures migrated faster, and epithelial cells spread to a greater extent compared with wild-type cultures. TIMP-1 also inhibited matrilysin-mediated cell migration and spreading in vitro. In vivo, TIMP-1 deficiency enhanced airway re-epithelialization after naphthalene injury. Furthermore, TIMP-1 and matrilysin co-localized in airway epithelial cells adjacent to the wound edge. Our data demonstrate that TIMP-1 interacts with matrix metalloproteinases and regulates matrilysin activity during airway epithelial repair. Furthermore, we speculate that TIMP-1 overexpression restricts airway re-epithelialization by inhibiting matrilysin activity, contributing to a stereotypic injury response that promotes airway fibrosis via bronchiole airway epithelial damage and obliteration. PMID:18385523

  4. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-03-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal.

  5. CD45/CD11b Positive Subsets of Adult Lung Anchorage-Independent Cells Harness Epithelial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Yakov; Sen, Namita; Levantini, Elena; Keller, Steven; Ingenito, Edward P; Ciner, Aaron; Sackstein, Robert; Shapiro, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory growth is mediated by multiple cell types that interact during organ repair. To elucidate the relationship between the stem/progenitor cells that proliferate or differentiate and the somatic cells of lung, we utilized a novel ex vivo pneumoexplant system. Applying this technique, we identified a sustained culture of repopulating adult progenitors in the form of free floating anchorage-independent cells (AICs). AICs did not express integrin proteins α5, β3, and β7, and constituted 37% of the total culture at day 14, yielding a mixed yet conserved population that recapitulated RNA expression patterns of the healthy lung. AICs exhibited rapid proliferation manifested by a marked 60-fold increase in cell numbers by day 21. Over 50% of the AIC population was cKit+ or double-positive for CD45+ and CD11b+ antigenic determinants, consistent with cells of hematopoietic origin. The latter subset was found to be enriched with prosurfactant protein-C and SCGB1A1 expressing putative stem cells and with aquaporin-5 producing cells, characteristic of terminally differentiated alveolar epithelial type-1 pneumocytes. AICs undergo remodeling to form a cellular lining at the air/gel interface, and TGFβ1 treatment modifies protein expression, implying direct-differentiation of this population. These data confirm the active participation of clonogenic hematopietic stem cells in a mammalian model of lung repair and validate mixed stem/somatic cell cultures, which embrace sustained cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation, for use in studies of compensatory pulmonary growth. PMID:22585451

  6. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis for implant site development.

    PubMed

    Batal, Hussam S; Cottrell, David A

    2004-02-01

    Alveolar distraction osteogenesis can be a valuable tool for implant site development. Simultaneous regeneration of hard and soft tissue and an overall decrease in treatment time compared with other methods of site preparation can be an advantage. The authors advocate the concept of "prosthetically driven alveolar distraction." Surgical planning should begin with visualization of the final restoration to determine the volume and position of the soft and hard tissue deficiency. Surgical guides will help the surgeon determine the vector of distraction. Adherence to surgical principles to avoid damage to adjacent vital structures and maintain vascular supply to the transport segment is necessary for success. Bone grafting may be necessary before or after distraction to increase the surgical success of the procedure. Close follow-up is needed to verify the appropriate distraction vector and volume. Patient management and acceptance should be considered in distractor design and placement.

  7. Dephasing and diffusion on the alveolar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschle, L. R.; Kurz, F. T.; Kampf, T.; Wagner, W. L.; Duerr, J.; Stiller, W.; Konietzke, P.; Wünnemann, F.; Mall, M. A.; Wielpütz, M. O.; Schlemmer, H. P.; Ziener, C. H.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a surface model of spin dephasing in lung tissue that includes both susceptibility and diffusion effects to provide a closed-form solution of the Bloch-Torrey equation on the alveolar surface. The nonlocal susceptibility effects of the model are validated against numerical simulations of spin dephasing in a realistic lung tissue geometry acquired from synchotron-based μ CT data sets of mouse lung tissue, and against simulations in the well-known Wigner-Seitz model geometry. The free induction decay is obtained in dependence on microscopic tissue parameters and agrees very well with in vivo lung measurements at 1.5 Tesla to allow a quantification of the local mean alveolar radius. Our results are therefore potentially relevant for the clinical diagnosis and therapy of pulmonary diseases.

  8. Rare lung diseases II: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Juvet, Stephen C; Hwang, David; Waddell, Thomas K; Downey, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, leading to macrophage and neutrophil dysfunction. This has spurred new therapeutic approaches to this disorder. The discussion of PAP will begin with a case report, then will highlight the classification of PAP and review recent insights into the pathogenesis of PAP. The approach to therapy and the prognosis of PAP will also be discussed. PMID:18551202

  9. Treatment of Adult Primary Alveolar Proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Portal, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant-like lipoproteinaceous material in the distal air spaces and terminal bronchi, which may lead to impaired gas exchange. This accumulation of surfactant is due to decreased clearance by the alveolar macrophages. Its primary, most common form, is currently considered an autoimmune disease. Better knowledge of the causes of PAP have led to the emergence of alternatives to whole lung lavage, although this is still considered the treatment of choice. Most studies are case series, often with limited patient numbers, so the level of evidence is low. Since the severity of presentation and clinical course are variable, not all patients will require treatment. Due to the low level of evidence, some objective criteria based on expert opinion have been arbitrarily proposed in an attempt to define in which patients it is best to initiate treatment.

  10. Endoscopic sensing of alveolar pH

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, D.; Tanner, M. G.; McAughtrie, S.; Yu, F.; Mills, B.; Choudhary, T. R.; Seth, S.; Craven, T. H.; Stone, J. M.; Mati, I. K.; Campbell, C. J.; Bradley, M.; Williams, C. K. I.; Dhaliwal, K.; Birks, T. A.; Thomson, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0.07 pH units in the respiratory acini of an ex vivo ovine lung model. We also demonstrate that alveolar pH changes in response to ventilation. PMID:28101415

  11. [Alveolar haemorrhage following a cannabis water pipe].

    PubMed

    Moatemri, Z; Zaibi, H; Dabboussi, S; Mhamedi, S; Aichaouia, C; Khadhraoui, M; Cheikh, R

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory toxicity of cannabis is well-known today particularly with the new consumption patterns. We report the case of a 25-year-old man admitted for haemoptysis, with unfavourable outcome and acute respiratory failure. Various explorations concluded to acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Etiological assessment was initially negative. Outcome was favourable during hospitalization, authorizing the discharge of our patient. Two days later, alveolar haemorrhage recur, with positive toxicological tests for cannabis and the patient admits smoking cannabis by plastic "bang". We illustrate, through this case, the severity of respiratory complications caused by new methods of using cannabis, particularly with plastic 'bang', hence the need to insist of the importance of supported withdrawal and to inform young people how these techniques are serious.ssss.

  12. Identification of mouse mammary epithelial cells by immunofluorescence with rabbit and guinea pig antikeratin antisera.

    PubMed Central

    Asch, B B; Burstein, N A; Vidrich, A; Sun, T T

    1981-01-01

    Few markers are available to identify the three types of mammary epithelial cells--ductal, alveolar, and myoepithelial--especially in pathological conditions and in cell cultures. We have used antisera to human keratins in immunofluorescence to facilitate the identification of the three mouse mammary epithelial cell types. In frozen tissue sections and primary cell cultures, a rabbit antikeratin antiserum specifically stained cytoplasmic filaments in all three types of epithelial cells. A guinea pig antiserum against the same keratin preparation, however, reacted preferentially with filaments in myoepithelial cells and readily detected this cell type in normal, dysplastic, and malignant mammary tissues and cell cultures. Neither antisera reacted with fibroblasts or any other mesenchymal cells. The combined use of the two antikeratin antisera thereby permits rapid surveys of tissue sections and cultures for the localization of not only all epithelial cells but also the subpopulation of myoepithelial cells. Moreover, when mammary cultures established from late-pregnant or lactating mice were stained simultaneously with guinea pig antikeratin and rabbit anticasein antisera, three populations of epithelial cells were mutually exclusive: those stained by anticasein antiserum, those stained by guinea pig antikeratin antiserum, and those stained by neither, consistent with properties of alveolar, myoepithelial, and ductal cells, respectively. These antisera thus offer a tool for studying different epithelial cell types during mammary development, tumorigenesis, and malignant progression. Images PMID:6170984

  13. [Alveolar hemorrhage associated with intestinal inflammatory disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Rabec, C; Barcat, J; Rey, D

    2003-06-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is characterized by diffuse bleeding into alveolar spaces. Three histopathological patterns may be seen: 1) pulmonary capillaritis due to immunological aggression to the membrane, 2) diffuse alveolar damage within the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 3) and "bland" DAH without alveolar or capillary damage. In the first two groups, pulmonary damage usually occurs within the context of a systemic disease. In the last, injury is usually found only in the lung, an entity called pulmonary hemosiderosis. We present a case of DAH with neither capillaritis nor diffuse alveolar damage in association with inflammatory bowel disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. The case is interesting both because the association has not yet been described in the literature and because the presence of alveolar bleeding without evident tissue damage within the context of known autoimmune diseases may extend the field to include a new pathophysiological mechanism of pulmonary hemorrhage.

  14. Mast cells in the human alveolar wall: an electronmicroscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Guz, A

    1981-01-01

    Mast cells were identified by electronmicroscopy in the alveolar wall of the lung in 20 subjects (10 normal, 10 abnormal). A quantitative and qualitative study was made of the mast cells. In the normal lung there was an average concentration of 350 mast cells/mm2 of alveolar wall and in the abnormal 523/mm2. Mast cells occupied approximately 1.6-2.1% of the area of the alveolar wall. There was marked variation in the structure of the mast cell granules but no differences between those in the normal and abnormal lungs. There was evidence that constant degranulation of mast cells may be occurring in the lung. The role that alveolar mast cells may play in the vasoconstrictor response to alveolar hypoxia is discussed. It is suggested that the tachypnoea present in asthma may partly be due to release of mediators from sensitised mast cells within the alveolar wall. Images PMID:7328180

  15. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  16. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  17. Heterozygous Vangl2(Looptail) mice reveal novel roles for the planar cell polarity pathway in adult lung homeostasis and repair.

    PubMed

    Poobalasingam, Thanushiyan; Yates, Laura L; Walker, Simone A; Pereira, Miguel; Gross, Nina Y; Ali, Akmol; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pekkanen, Juha; Papakrivopoulou, Eugenia; Long, David A; Griffiths, Mark; Wagner, Darcy; Königshoff, Melanie; Hind, Matthew; Minelli, Cosetta; Lloyd, Clare M; Dean, Charlotte H

    2017-02-24

    Lung diseases impose a huge economic and health burden worldwide. A key aspect of several adult lung diseases, such as Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and Chronic Obstructive pulmonary Disease (COPD), including emphysema, is aberrant tissue repair, which leads to an accumulation of damage and impaired respiratory function. Currently, there are few effective treatments available for these diseases and their incidence is rising.The Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway is critical for the embryonic development of many organs, including kidney and lung. We have previously shown that perturbation of the PCP pathway impairs tissue morphogenesis, which disrupts the number and shape of epithelial tubes formed within these organs during embryogenesis. However, very little is known about the role of the PCP pathway beyond birth, partly due to the perinatal lethality of many PCP mouse mutant lines.Here we have investigated heterozygous Looptail (Lp) mice, in which a single copy of the core PCP gene, Vangl2, is disrupted. We show that these mice are viable but display severe airspace enlargement and impaired adult lung function. Underlying these defects, we find that Vangl2(Lp/+) lungs exhibit altered distribution of actin microfilaments and abnormal regulation of the actin modifying protein cofilin. In addition, we show that Vangl2(Lp/+) lungs exhibit many of the hallmarks of tissue damage including an altered macrophage population, abnormal elastin deposition and elevated levels of the elastin-modifying enzyme, Mmp12, all of which are observed in the lung disease, emphysema.In vitro, VANGL2 disruption impairs directed cell migration and reduces the rate of repair following scratch wounding of human alveolar epithelial cells. Moreover, using population data from a birth cohort of young adults, all aged 31, we found evidence of an interactive effect between VANGL2 and smoking (a tissue damaging insult) on lung function. Finally, we show that that PCP genes VANGL2 and

  18. Vascularization of the gray whale palate (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus): soft tissue evidence for an alveolar source of blood to baleen.

    PubMed

    Ekdale, Eric G; Deméré, Thomas A; Berta, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    The origin of baleen in mysticetes heralded a major transition during cetacean evolution. Extant mysticetes are edentulous in adulthood, but rudimentary teeth develop in utero within open maxillary and mandibular alveolar grooves. The teeth are resorbed prenatally and the alveolar grooves close as baleen germ develops. Arteries supplying blood to highly vascularized epithelial tissue from which baleen develops pass through lateral nutrient foramina in the area of the embryonic alveolar grooves and rudimentary teeth. Those vessels are hypothesized to be branches of the superior alveolar artery, but branches of the greater palatine arteries may play a role in the baleen vascularization. Through a combination of latex injection, CT, and traditional dissection of the palate of a neonatal gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), we confirm that the baleen receives blood from vessels within the superior alveolar canal via the lateral foramina. The greater palatine artery is restricted to its own passage with no connections to the baleen. This study has implications for the presence of baleen in extinct taxa by identifying the vessels and bony canals that supply blood to the epithelium from which baleen develops. The results indicate that the lateral foramina in edentulous mysticete fossils are bony correlates for the presence of baleen, and the results can be used to help identify bony canals and foramina that have been used to reconstruct baleen in extinct mysticetes that retained teeth in adulthood. Further comparisons are made with mammals that also possess oral keratin structures, including ruminants, ornithorhynchid monotremes, and sirenians.

  19. TGFβ signaling in lung epithelium regulates bleomycin-induced alveolar injury and fibroblast recruitment.

    PubMed

    Degryse, Amber L; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Xu, Xiaochuan C; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Jones, Brittany R; Boomershine, Chad S; Ortiz, Camila; Sherrill, Taylor P; McMahon, Frank B; Gleaves, Linda A; Blackwell, Timothy S; Lawson, William E

    2011-06-01

    The response of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to lung injury plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanisms by which AECs regulate fibrotic processes are not well defined. We aimed to elucidate how transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling in lung epithelium impacts lung fibrosis in the intratracheal bleomycin model. Mice with selective deficiency of TGFβ receptor 2 (TGFβR2) in lung epithelium were generated and crossed to cell fate reporter mice that express β-galactosidase (β-gal) in cells of lung epithelial lineage. Mice were given intratracheal bleomycin (0.08 U), and the following parameters were assessed: AEC death by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end labeling assay, inflammation by total and differential cell counts from bronchoalveolar lavage, fibrosis by scoring of trichrome-stained lung sections, and total lung collagen content. Mice with lung epithelial deficiency of TGFβR2 had improved AEC survival, despite greater lung inflammation, after bleomycin administration. At 3 wk after bleomycin administration, mice with epithelial TGFβR2 deficiency showed a significantly attenuated fibrotic response in the lungs, as determined by semiquantitatve scoring and total collagen content. The reduction in lung fibrosis in these mice was associated with a marked decrease in the lung fibroblast population, both total lung fibroblasts and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-derived (S100A4(+)/β-gal(+)) fibroblasts. Attenuation of TGFβ signaling in lung epithelium provides protection from bleomycin-induced fibrosis, indicating a critical role for the epithelium in transducing the profibrotic effects of this cytokine.

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  1. The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase for interstitial remodeling of alveolar septa in surfactant protein D-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N.; Massa, Christopher B.; Birkelbach, Bastian; Guo, Chang-Jiang; Scott, Pamela; Haenni, Beat; Beers, Michael F.; Ochs, Matthias; Gow, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) modulates the lung's immune system. Its absence leads to NOS2-independent alveolar lipoproteinosis and NOS2-dependent chronic inflammation, which is critical for early emphysematous remodeling. With aging, SP-D knockout mice develop an additional interstitial fibrotic component. We hypothesize that this age-related interstitial septal wall remodeling is mediated by NOS2. Using invasive pulmonary function testing such as the forced oscillation technique and quasistatic pressure-volume perturbation and design-based stereology, we compared 29-wk-old SP-D knockout (Sftpd−/−) mice, SP-D/NOS2 double-knockout (DiNOS) mice, and wild-type mice (WT). Structural changes, including alveolar epithelial surface area, distribution of septal wall thickness, and volumes of septal wall components (alveolar epithelium, interstitial tissue, and endothelium) were quantified. Twenty-nine-week-old Sftpd−/− mice had preserved lung mechanics at the organ level, whereas elastance was increased in DiNOS. Airspace enlargement and loss of surface area of alveolar epithelium coexist with increased septal wall thickness in Sftpd−/− mice. These changes were reduced in DiNOS, and compared with Sftpd−/− mice a decrease in volumes of interstitial tissue and alveolar epithelium was found. To understand the effects of lung pathology on measured lung mechanics, structural data were used to inform a computational model, simulating lung mechanics as a function of airspace derecruitment, septal wall destruction (loss of surface area), and septal wall thickening. In conclusion, NOS2 mediates remodeling of septal walls, resulting in deposition of interstitial tissue in Sftpd−/−. Forward modeling linking structure and lung mechanics describes the complex mechanical properties by parenchymatous destruction (emphysema), interstitial remodeling (septal wall thickening), and altered recruitability of acinar airspaces. PMID:26320150

  2. The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase for interstitial remodeling of alveolar septa in surfactant protein D-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lars; Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Massa, Christopher B; Birkelbach, Bastian; Guo, Chang-Jiang; Scott, Pamela; Haenni, Beat; Beers, Michael F; Ochs, Matthias; Gow, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) modulates the lung's immune system. Its absence leads to NOS2-independent alveolar lipoproteinosis and NOS2-dependent chronic inflammation, which is critical for early emphysematous remodeling. With aging, SP-D knockout mice develop an additional interstitial fibrotic component. We hypothesize that this age-related interstitial septal wall remodeling is mediated by NOS2. Using invasive pulmonary function testing such as the forced oscillation technique and quasistatic pressure-volume perturbation and design-based stereology, we compared 29-wk-old SP-D knockout (Sftpd(-/-)) mice, SP-D/NOS2 double-knockout (DiNOS) mice, and wild-type mice (WT). Structural changes, including alveolar epithelial surface area, distribution of septal wall thickness, and volumes of septal wall components (alveolar epithelium, interstitial tissue, and endothelium) were quantified. Twenty-nine-week-old Sftpd(-/-) mice had preserved lung mechanics at the organ level, whereas elastance was increased in DiNOS. Airspace enlargement and loss of surface area of alveolar epithelium coexist with increased septal wall thickness in Sftpd(-/-) mice. These changes were reduced in DiNOS, and compared with Sftpd(-/-) mice a decrease in volumes of interstitial tissue and alveolar epithelium was found. To understand the effects of lung pathology on measured lung mechanics, structural data were used to inform a computational model, simulating lung mechanics as a function of airspace derecruitment, septal wall destruction (loss of surface area), and septal wall thickening. In conclusion, NOS2 mediates remodeling of septal walls, resulting in deposition of interstitial tissue in Sftpd(-/-). Forward modeling linking structure and lung mechanics describes the complex mechanical properties by parenchymatous destruction (emphysema), interstitial remodeling (septal wall thickening), and altered recruitability of acinar airspaces.

  3. Mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Fishel, Richard

    2015-10-30

    Highly conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS) are the fundamental components of mismatch repair (MMR). After decades of debate, it appears clear that the MSH proteins initiate MMR by recognizing a mismatch and forming multiple extremely stable ATP-bound sliding clamps that diffuse without hydrolysis along the adjacent DNA. The function(s) of MLH/PMS proteins is less clear, although they too bind ATP and are targeted to MMR by MSH sliding clamps. Structural analysis combined with recent real-time single molecule and cellular imaging technologies are providing new and detailed insight into the thermal-driven motions that animate the complete MMR mechanism.

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YA-LEI; ZHU, RONG-TAO; SUN, YU-LING

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the result of a sustained wound healing response to sustained chronic liver injury, which includes viral, alcoholic and autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatic regeneration is the dominant outcome of liver damage. The outcomes of successful repair are the replacement of dead epithelial cells with healthy epithelial cells, and reconstruction of the normal hepatic structure and function. Prevention of the development of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may control and even reverse liver fibrosis. EMT is a critical process for an epithelial cell to undergo a conversion to a mesenchymal phenotype, and is believed to be an inflammation-induced response, which may have a central role in liver fibrosis. The origin of fibrogenic cells in liver fibrosis remains controversial. Numerous studies have investigated the origin of all fibrogenic cells within the liver and the mechanism of the signaling pathways that lead to the activation of EMT programs during numerous chronic liver diseases. The present study aimed to summarize the evidence to explain the possible role of EMT in liver fibrosis. PMID:26998262

  5. Differential Expression of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Proteins in Breast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    DNA-PK in human breast tissues by immuno-histochemistry and extended these studies to two other components of the NHEJ repair pathway, XRCC4 and DNA ... ligase IV, as well as other DNA repair components including NBS 1 and MRE11. In contrast to the original report, 90% of the epithelial cells in normal

  6. Differential Expression of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Proteins in Breast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    DNA-PK in human breast tissues by immuno-histochemistry and extended these studies to two other components of the NHEJ repair pathway, XRCC4 and DNA ... ligase IV, as well as other DNA repair components including NBSl and MRE11. In contrast to the original report, 90% of the epithelial cells in normal

  7. DNA repair in ischemic acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Pressly, Jeffrey D; Park, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury leading to an induction of oxidative stress, cellular dysfunction, and loss of renal function. DNA damage, including oxidative base modifications and physical DNA strand breaks, is a consequence of renal IRI. Like many other organs in the body, a redundant and highly conserved set of endogenous repair pathways have evolved to selectively recognize the various types of cellular DNA damage and combat its negative effects on cell viability. Severe damage to the DNA, however, can trigger cell death and elimination of the injured tubular epithelial cells. In this minireview, we summarize the state of the current field of DNA damage and repair in the kidney and provide some expected and, in some cases, unexpected effects of IRI on DNA damage and repair in the kidney. These findings may be applicable to other forms of acute kidney injury and could provide new opportunities for renal research.

  8. Macrophages in tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Thomas A.; Vannella, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory monocytes and resident tissue macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. Following tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, with uncontrolled inflammatory mediator and growth factor production, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contributing to a state of persistent injury, which may lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue regenerating phenotypes following injury, and highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically. PMID:26982353

  9. Decompression of inferior alveolar nerve: case report.

    PubMed

    Marques, Tiago Miguel Santos; Gomes, Joana Marques

    2011-01-01

    Paresthesia as a result of mechanical trauma is one of the most frequent sensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. This case report describes surgical treatment for paresthesia caused by a compressive phenomenon within the mandibular canal. The cause of the compression, a broken instrument left in the patient's mouth during previous endodontic therapy, was identified during routine radiography and computed tomography. Once the foreign object was removed by surgery, the paresthesia resolved quickly. This case highlights the potential for an iatrogenic mechanical cause of paresthesia.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Gingival Tissue and Alveolar Bone during Alveolar Bone Healing*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee-Young; Kwon, Joseph; Kook, Min-Suk; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun; Sohn, Sungoh; Jung, Seunggon; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue regeneration is orchestrated by the surrounding supporting tissues and involves the build-up of osteogenic cells, which orchestrate remodeling/healing through the expression of numerous mediators and signaling molecules. Periodontal regeneration models have proven useful for studying the interaction and communication between alveolar bone and supporting soft tissue. We applied a quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare proteins with altered expression in gingival soft tissue and alveolar bone following tooth extraction. For target identification and validation, hard and soft tissue were extracted from mini-pigs at the indicated times after tooth extraction. From triplicate experiments, 56 proteins in soft tissue and 27 proteins in alveolar bone were found to be differentially expressed before and after tooth extraction. The expression of 21 of those proteins was altered in both soft tissue and bone. Comparison of the activated networks in soft tissue and alveolar bone highlighted their distinct responsibilities in bone and tissue healing. Moreover, we found that there is crosstalk between identified proteins in soft tissue and alveolar bone with respect to cellular assembly, organization, and communication. Among these proteins, we examined in detail the expression patterns and associated networks of ATP5B and fibronectin 1. ATP5B is involved in nucleic acid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, and neurological disease, and fibronectin 1 is involved in cellular assembly, organization, and maintenance. Collectively, our findings indicate that bone regeneration is accompanied by a profound interaction among networks regulating cellular resources, and they provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the healing of periodontal tissue after tooth extraction. PMID:23824910

  11. Pulmonary epithelial CCR3 promotes LPS-induced lung inflammation by mediating release of IL-8.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Dong, Chunling; Wang, Guifang; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Xiangdong; Bai, Chunxue

    2011-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 from pulmonary epithelial cells has been suggested to play an important role in the airway inflammation, although the mechanism remains unclear. We envisioned a possibility that pulmonary epithelial CCR3 could be involved in secretion and regulation of IL-8 and promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation. Human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and alveolar type II epithelial cell line A549 were used to test role of CCR3 in production of IL-8 at cellular level. In vivo studies were performed on C57/BL6 mice instilled intratracheally with LPS in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). The activity of a CCR3-specific inhibitor (SB-328437) was measured in both in vitro and in vivo systems. We found that expression of CCR3 in NCI-H292 and A549 cells were increased by 23% and 16%, respectively, 24 h after the challenge with LPS. LPS increased the expression of CCR3 in NCI-H292 and A549 cells in a time-dependent manner, which was inhibited significantly by SB-328437. SB-328437 also diminished neutrophil recruitment in alveolar airspaces and improved LPS-induced ALI and production of IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results suggest that pulmonary epithelial CCR3 be involved in progression of LPS-induced lung inflammation by mediating release of IL-8. CCR3 in pulmonary epithelia may be an attractive target for development of therapies for ALI.

  12. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  13. Estrogen regulates pulmonary alveolar formation, loss, and regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Donald; Massaro, Gloria Decarlo

    2004-12-01

    Lung tissue elastic recoil and the dimension and number of pulmonary gas-exchange units (alveoli) are major determinants of gas-exchange function. Loss of gas-exchange function accelerates after menopause in the healthy aged and is progressively lost in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The latter, a disease of midlife and later, though more common in men than in women, is a disease to which women smokers and never smokers may be more susceptible than men; it is characterized by diminished lung tissue elastic recoil and presently irremediable alveolar loss. Ovariectomy in sexually immature rats diminishes the formation of alveoli, and estrogen prevents the diminution. In the present work, we found that estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta, the only recognized mammalian estrogen receptors, are required for the formation of a full complement of alveoli in female mice. However, only the absence of estrogen receptor-beta diminishes lung elastic tissue recoil. Furthermore, ovariectomy in adult mice results, within 3 wk, in loss of alveoli and of alveolar surface area without a change of lung volume. Estrogen replacement, after alveolar loss, induces alveolar regeneration, reversing the architectural effects of ovariectomy. These studies 1) reveal estrogen receptors regulate alveolar size and number in a nonredundant manner, 2) show estrogen is required for maintenance of already formed alveoli and induces alveolar regeneration after their loss in adult ovariectomized mice, and 3) offer the possibility estrogen can slow alveolar loss and induce alveolar regeneration in women with COPD.

  14. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  15. [The in vivo penetration of erythromycin into alveolar macrophages].

    PubMed

    Carré, P; Piva, F; Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B

    1990-01-01

    In order to appreciate the in vivo penetration of erythromycin the alveolar spaces a broncho-alveolar lavage was carried out in 24 guinea pigs, 30 minutes, 1 hour 30 minutes and three hours after a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mgms. of erythromycin. The erythromycin dose was assessed by a microbiological method in the alveolar macrophages and the supernatant of the broncho-alveolar lavage liquid. The intramacrophage concentrations of erythromycin were 3.9, 11.5 and 12 times higher than the serum concentrations at 30 minutes, 1 hour 30 and three hours respectively. The concentrations in the broncho-alveolar lavage liquid was always higher than the serum concentrations tacking account of the different dilutions estimated with relation to the glucose concentrations. At 30 minutes, 1 hour 30 minutes and three hours the alveolar macrophages contained 1.9; 7.6 and 6 times more erythromycin respectively than the lavage supernatant. From the first half hour of its administration the erythromycin was concentrated in the alveolar spaces, in particular within the macrophages. Already noted in vitro, this rapidity of erythromycin concentration in vivo in alveolar macrophages appears to be one of the reasons to explain its activity against micro-organisms developing within macrophages.

  16. Relative effects of asbestos and wollastonite on alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pailes, W H; Judy, D J; Resnick, H; Castranova, V

    1984-01-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages were exposed in culture to chrysotile asbestos, wollastonite, or latex, and the effects on various biochemical and physiological parameters related to cellular viability and fibrogenicity were determined. Exposure of alveolar macrophages to asbestos, wollastonite, or latex for 3 d has no effect on oxygen consumption or cellular volume. However, treatment of alveolar macrophages with as little as 25 micrograms asbestos/ml for 1 d increases lysosomal enzyme release and decreases membrane integrity, i.e., decreases trypan blue exclusion and increases leakage of cytosolic enzymes. In contrast, exposure of alveolar macrophages to wollastonite or latex at 250 micrograms/ml does not induce lysosomal enzyme release or alter membrane integrity even after 3 d of exposure in culture. These data suggest that chrysotile asbestos damages rabbit alveolar macrophages, while wollastonite, a potential substitute for asbestos, is far less cytotoxic.

  17. Decreased IGF Type 1 Receptor Signaling in Mammary Epithelium during Pregnancy Leads to Reduced Proliferation, Alveolar Differentiation, and Expression of Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhaoyu; Shushanov, Sain; LeRoith, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The IGFs and the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are essential mediators of normal mammary gland development in mice. IGF-I and the IGF-1R have demonstrated functions in formation and proliferation of terminal end buds and in ductal outgrowth and branching during puberty. To study the functions of IGF-1R during pregnancy and lactation, we established transgenic mouse lines expressing a human dominant-negative kinase dead IGF-1R (dnhIGF-1R) under the control of the whey acidic protein promoter. We provide evidence that the IGF-1R pathway is necessary for normal epithelial proliferation and alveolar formation during pregnancy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the whey acidic protein-dnhIGF-1R transgene causes a delay in alveolar differentiation including lipid droplet formation, lumen expansion, and β-casein protein expression. Analysis of IGF-1R signaling pathways showed a decrease in P-IGF-1R and P-Akt resulting from expression of the dnhIGF-1R. We further demonstrate that disruption of the IGF-1R decreases mammary epithelial cell expression of the signaling intermediates insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2. No alterations were observed in downstream signaling targets of prolactin and progesterone, suggesting that activation of the IGF-1R may directly regulate expression of IRS-1/2 during alveolar development and differentiation. These data show that IGF-1R signaling is necessary for normal alveolar proliferation and differentiation, in part, through induction of signaling intermediates that mediate alveolar development. PMID:21628386

  18. Metabolic reduction of chromium by alveolar macrophages and its relationships to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Petrilli, F L; Rossi, G A; Camoirano, A; Romano, M; Serra, D; Bennicelli, C; De Flora, A; De Flora, S

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 47 individuals, reduced hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and decreased its mutagenicity. Their specific activity--mostly mediated by cytosolic, enzyme-catalyzed mechanisms--was significantly higher than in corresponding preparations of mixed-cell populations from human peripheral lung parenchyma or bronchial tree, or from rat lung or liver. At equivalent number of PAM, Cr(VI) reduction, total protein, and some oxidoreductase activities were significantly increased in smokers. No appreciable variation could be detected between lung cancer and noncancer patients. In rats, the Cr(VI)-reducing activity of PAM preparations was induced by Aroclor 1254. Thus, alveolar macrophages provide crucial defense mechanisms not only by phagocytizing metals, but also by metabolically reducing Cr(VI). The epithelial-lining fluid (ELF) also displayed some Cr(VI) reduction. Together with already investigated metabolic processes occurring inside lung cells, these mechanisms are expected to determine thresholds in the pulmonary carcinogenicity of chromium. PMID:2423559

  19. Interleukin-33 and RANK-L Interplay in the Alveolar Bone Loss Associated to Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Lapérine, Olivier; Cloitre, Alexandra; Caillon, Jocelyne; Huck, Olivier; Bugueno, Isaac Maximiliano; Pilet, Paul; Sourice, Sophie; Le Tilly, Elodie; Palmer, Gaby; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Geoffroy, Valérie; Guicheux, Jérôme; Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Lesclous, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Periodontitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin that results in alveolar bone destruction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the main periopathogens, initiates an inflammatory cascade by host immune cells thereby increasing recruitment and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, through enhanced production of the crucial osteoclastogenic factor, RANK-L. Antibodies directed against some cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) failed to exhibit convincing therapeutic effect in CP. It has been suggested that IL-33, could be of interest in CP. Objective the present study aims to analyze whether and how IL-33 and RANK-L and/or their interplay are involved in the bone destruction associated to CP. Material and Methods mRNAs and protein expressions of IL-33 and RANK-L were analyzed in healthy and CP human gingival samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT-qPCR. Murine experimental periodontitis (EP) was induced using Pg infected ligature and Pg free ligature around the first maxillary molar. Alveolar bone loss was recorded by μCT. Mouse gingival explants were stimulated for 24 hours with IL-33 and RANK-L mRNA expression investigated by RT-qPCR. Human oral epithelial cells were infected by Pg for 6, 12; 24 hours and IL-33 and RANK-L mRNA expressions were analyzed by RT-qPCR. Results IL-33 is overexpressed in gingival epithelial cells in human affected by CP as in the murine EP. In human as in murine gingival cells, RANK-L was independently induced by Pg and IL-33. We also showed that the Pg-dependent RANK-L expression in gingival epithelial cells occured earlier than that of IL-33. Conclusion Our results evidence that IL-33 overexpression in gingival epithelial cells is associated with CP and may trigger RANK-L expression in addition to a direct effect of Pg. Finally, IL-33 may act as an extracellular alarmin (danger signal) showing proinflammatory properties in CP perpetuating bone resorption induced by Pg infection

  20. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  1. Epithelial cell extrusion: Pathways and pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gudipaty, Swapna Aravind; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2016-05-19

    To remove dying or unwanted cells from an epithelium while preserving the barrier function of the layer, epithelia use a unique process called cell extrusion. To extrude, the cell fated to die emits the lipid Sphingosine 1 Phosphate (S1P), which binds the G-protein-coupled receptor Sphingosine 1 Phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) in the neighboring cells that activates Rho-mediated contraction of an actomyosin ring circumferentially and basally. This contraction acts to squeeze the cell out apically while drawing together neighboring cells and preventing any gaps to the epithelial barrier. Epithelia can extrude out cells targeted to die by apoptotic stimuli to repair the barrier in the face of death or extrude live cells to promote cell death when epithelial cells become too crowded. Indeed, because epithelial cells naturally turn over by cell death and division at some of the highest rates in the body, epithelia depend on crowding-induced live cell extrusion to preserve constant cell numbers. If extrusion is defective, epithelial cells rapidly lose contact inhibition and form masses. Additionally, because epithelia act as the first line of defense in innate immunity, preservation of this barrier is critical for preventing pathogens from invading the body. Given its role in controlling constant cell numbers and maintaining barrier function, a number of different pathologies can result when extrusion is disrupted. Here, we review mechanisms and signaling pathways that control epithelial extrusion and discuss how defects in these mechanisms can lead to multiple diseases. We also discuss tactics pathogens have devised to hijack the extrusion process to infect and colonize epithelia.

  2. The Expression of Water and Ion Channels in Diffuse Alveolar Damage Is Not Dependent on DAD Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Del Carlo Bernardi, Fabiola; Alves de Araujo, Priscila; Mauad, Thais; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aquaporins and ion channels are membrane proteins that facilitate the rapid movement of water and solutes across biological membranes. Experimental and in vitro studies reported that the function of these channels and pulmonary edema resolution are impaired in acute lung injury (ALI). Although current evidence indicates that alveolar fluid clearance is impaired in patients with ALI/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), few human studies have addressed the alterations in pulmonary channels in this clinical condition. Additionally, it is not known whether the primary cause of DAD is a relevant variable for the channel dysfunction. Methods Autopsied lungs of 43 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to DAD of three different etiologies, non-pulmonary sepsis, H1N1 viral infection and leptospirosis, were compared to 18 normal lungs. We quantified the expression of aquaporin (AQP) 1, AQP3, AQP5, epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and sodium potassium ATPase (Na-K-ATPase) in the alveolar septum using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Results The DAD group presented with increased expression of AQP3, AQP5 and Na-K-ATPase and decreased expression of ENaC compared to controls. However, there was no difference in protein expression within the DAD groups of different etiologies. Conclusion Water and ion channels are altered in patients with ARF due to DAD. The cause of DAD does not seem to influence the level of impairment of these channels. PMID:27835672

  3. Inhibitory effects of French pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, on alveolar bone resorption and on the osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Toyama, Toshizo; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Sugiyama, Shuta; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il; Hamada, Nobushiro

    2015-02-01

    Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) is a standardized bark extract from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). We examined the inhibitory effects of PYC on alveolar bone resorption, which is a characteristic feature of periodontitis, induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and osteoclast differentiation. In rat periodontitis model, rats were divided into four groups: group A served as the non-infected control, group B was infected orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, group C was administered PYC in the diet (0.025%: w/w), and group D was infected with P. gingivalis and administered PYC. Administration of PYC along with P. gingivalis infection significantly reduced alveolar bone resorption. Treatment of P. gingivalis with 1 µg/ml PYC reduced the number of viable bacterial cells. Addition of PYC to epithelial cells inhibited adhesion and invasion by P. gingivalis. The effect of PYC on osteoclast formation was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. PYC treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Addition of PYC (1-100 µg/ml) to purified osteoclasts culture induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that PYC may prevent alveolar bone resorption through its antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis and by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, PYC may be useful as a therapeutic and preventative agent for bone diseases such as periodontitis.

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  6. Regulation of epithelial sodium channels by cGMP/PKGII

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Hong-Guang; Chen, Lan; Han, Dong-Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Wei-Feng; Wei, Shi-Peng; Fang, Xiao-Hui; Gu, Xiu; Matalon, Sadis; Ji, Hong-Long

    2009-01-01

    Airway and alveolar fluid clearance is mainly governed by vectorial salt movement via apically located rate-limiting Na+ channels (ENaC) and basolateral Na+/K+-ATPases. ENaC is regulated by a spectrum of protein kinases, i.e. protein kinase A (PKA), C (PKC), and G (PKG). However, the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of ENaC by cGMP/PKG remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we studied the pharmacological responses of native epithelial Na+ channels in human Clara cells and human αβγδ ENaCs expressed in oocytes to cGMP. 8-pCPT-cGMP increased amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current (Isc) across H441 monolayers and heterologously expressed αβγδ ENaC activity in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, 8-pCPT-cGMP (a PKGII activator) but not 8-Br-cGMP (a PKGI activator) increased amiloride-sensitive whole cell currents in H441 cells in the presence of CFTRinh-172 and diltiazem. In all cases, the cGMP-activated Na+ channel activity was inhibited by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMP, a specific PKGII inhibitor. This was substantiated by the evidence that PKGII was the sole isoform expressed in H441 cells at the protein level. Importantly, intratracheal instillation of 8-pCPT-cGMP in BALB/c mice increased amiloride-sensitive alveolar fluid clearance by ∼30%, consistent with the in vitro results. We therefore conclude that PKGII is an activator of lung epithelial Na+ channels, which may expedite the resolution of oedematous fluid in alveolar sacs. PMID:19359370

  7. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W Michael; Das, Mita

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases.

  8. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases. PMID:24500281

  9. Rapamycin regulates connective tissue growth factor expression of lung epithelial cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuefeng; Wan, Xuan; Geng, Jing; Li, Fei; Yang, Ting; Dai, Huaping

    2013-09-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains largely unknown. It is believed that IPF is mainly driven by activated alveolar epithelial cells that have a compromised migration capacity, and that also produce substances (such as connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) that contribute to fibroblast activation and matrix protein accumulation. Because the mechanisms regulating these processes are unclear, the aim of this study was to determine the role of rapamycin in regulating epithelial cell migration and CTGF expression. Transformed epithelial cell line A549 and normal human pulmonary alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in regular medium or medium containing rapamycin. Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine CTGF mRNA expression. Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for detecting CTGF protein. Wound healing and migration assays were used to determine the cell migration potential. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor (TβRI) inhibitor, SB431542 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 were used to determine rapamycin's mechanism of action. It was found that treatment of A549 and normal human alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells with rapamycin significantly promoted basal or TGF-β1 induced CTGF expression. LY294002, not SB431542 attenuated the promotional effect of rapamycin on CTGF expression. Cell mobility was not affected by rapamycin in wound healing and migration assays. These data suggest rapamycin has a profibrotic effect in vitro and underscore the potential of combined therapeutic approach with PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for the treatment of animal or human lung fibrosis.

  10. Epithelial Myeloid-differentiation Factor 88 is Dispensable During Klebsiella Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Anas, Adam A; Claushuis, Theodora A M; Mohan, Rajiv A; Christoffels, Vincent M; Aidinis, Vassilis; Florquin, Sandrine; Van't Veer, Cornelis; Hou, Baidong; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-02-10

    Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia. Previous studies have documented an important role for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by myeloid cells in the recognition of K. pneumoniae and the initiation of a protective immune response. Lung epithelial cells also express TLRs and can participate in innate immune defense. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the common TLR adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 in lung epithelium during host defense against K. pneumoniae induced pneumonia. For this we first crossed mice expressing cre recombinase under the control of the surfactant protein C (SftpCcre) or the club cell 10Kd (CC10cre) promoter with reporter mice to show that SftpCcre mice mainly express cre in type II alveolar cells, while CC10cre mice express cre almost exclusively in bronchiolar epithelial cells. We then generated mice with cell targeted deletion of MyD88 in type II alveolar (SftpCcre-MyD88-lox) and bronchiolar epithelial (CC10cre-MyD88-lox) cells, and infected them with K. pneumoniae via the airways. Bacterial growth and dissemination were not affected by the loss of MyD88 in SftpCcre-MyD88-lox or CC10cre-MyD88-lox mice compared to control littermates. Furthermore, inflammatory responses induced by K. pneumoniae in the lung were not dependent on MyD88 expression in type II alveolar or bronchiolar epithelial cells. These results indicate that MyD88 expression in two distinct lung epithelial cell types does not contribute to host defense during pneumonia caused by a common human gram-negative pathogen.

  11. Arterial hypertension perpetuates alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros Vanderlei, Janine Montenegro Toscano Moura; Messora, Michel Reis; Fernandes, Patrícia Garani; Novaes, Arthur B; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; de Moraes Grisi, Marcio Fernando; Scombatti de Souza, Sergio Luis; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Antoniali, Cristina; Taba, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the impact of hypertension on the progression of periodontitis (PD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether hypertension affects PD by enhancing bone loss even after the stimulus for PD induction is removed. Ligature-induced PD was created on the first mandibular molars of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (Wistar Kyoto-WKY). The animals were assigned to non-ligated controls (C) and PD groups: WKY-C, WKY-PD, SHR-C, and SHR-PD. After 10 days, five animals of each group were killed and the ligatures of the other animals were removed. On the 21st day (11 days without PD induced), the remaining animals were killed. The jaws were defleshed and the amount of bone loss was measured. After 10 days, the PD groups showed more bone loss than its controls (P < .05); SHR-PD = 0.72 ± 0.05 mm, SHR-C = 0.39 ± 0.04 mm, WKY-PD = 0.75 ± 0.04 mm, and WKY-C = 0.56 ± 0.04 mm. The cumulative bone loss on day 21 (0.94 ± 0.13 mm) was significantly worse than on day 10 only in SHR-PD group (P < .05). The final bone loss differences between PD and C groups accounted for 102% (SHR) and 26% (WKY) increase in comparison with the initial control levels. Hypertension is associated with progressive alveolar bone loss even when the stimulus for PD induction is removed and it may be speculated that host condition perpetuates alveolar bone loss.

  12. Respiratory epithelial cell expression of human transforming growth factor-alpha induces lung fibrosis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Korfhagen, T R; Swantz, R J; Wert, S E; McCarty, J M; Kerlakian, C B; Glasser, S W; Whitsett, J A

    1994-01-01

    Increased production of EGF or TGF-alpha by the respiratory epithelial cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of various forms of lung injury. Growth factors and cytokines are thought to act locally, via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms, to stimulate cell proliferation and matrix deposition by interstitial lung cells resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. To test whether TGF-alpha mediates pulmonary fibrotic responses, we have generated transgenic mice expressing human TGF-alpha under control of regulatory regions of the human surfactant protein C (SP-C) gene. Human TGF-alpha mRNA was expressed in pulmonary epithelial cells in the lungs of the transgenic mice. Adult mice bearing the SP-C-TGF-alpha transgene developed severe pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrotic lesions were observed in peribronchial, peribronchiolar, and perivascular regions, as well as subjacent to pleural surfaces. Lesions consisted of fibrous tissue that included groups of epithelial cells expressing endogenous SP-C mRNA, consistent with their identification as distal respiratory epithelial cells. Peripheral fibrotic regions consisted of thickened pleura associated with extensive collagen deposition. Alveolar architecture was disrupted in the transgenic mice with loss of alveoli in the lung parenchyma. Pulmonary epithelial cell expression of TGF-alpha in transgenic mice disrupts alveolar morphogenesis and produces fibrotic lesions mediated by paracrine signaling between respiratory epithelial and interstitial cells of the lung. Images PMID:8163670

  13. Impairment of phagocytic functions of alveolar macrophages by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; van Bree, L.; van Iwaarden, J.F.; van Golde, L.M.; Verhoef, J. )

    1990-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhibited phagocytosis and superoxide anion production by rat alveolar macrophages. The inhibition was irreversible and concentration and exposure time dependent. The potential relationship between H2O2-induced biochemical perturbations and impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytic functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophage viability and Fc receptor binding capacity were not affected by H2O2. There was probably no correlation between a H2O2-induced rise in cytosolic (Ca2+) ((Ca2+)i) and the impairment of phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, as was suggested by the following findings. First, the H2O2-induced rise in (Ca2+)i could be inhibited by chelation of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the H2O2-induced impairment of phagocytosis could not. Second, the H2O2-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was reversible, whereas the impairment of phagocytosis was not. And finally, a rise in (Ca2+)i by incubation of alveolar macrophages with the calcium ionophore A23187 did not affect phagocytosis. Various experiments suggested that ATP depletion may play an important role in the H2O2 toxicity for alveolar macrophages. Comparable concentrations of H2O2 caused an irreversible decrease both in cellular ATP and in phagocytosis and superoxide production by alveolar macrophages. In addition, time course of ATP depletion and induction of impaired alveolar macrophage function were similar. In view of the fact that the strong oxidant H2O2 may react with a large variety of biological substances, possible other toxic lesions may not be excluded as underlying mechanism for H2O2-induced inhibition of phagocytic functions of alveolar macrophages.

  14. CD8(+) T cells responding to alveolar self-antigen lack CD25 expression and fail to precipitate autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Tosiek, Milena J; Bader, Sophie R; Gruber, Achim D; Buer, Jan; Gereke, Marcus; Bruder, Dunja

    2012-12-01

    Although the contribution of CD8(+) T cells to the pathogenesis of noncommunicable lung diseases has become increasingly appreciated, our knowledge about the mechanisms controlling self-reactive CD8(+) T cells in the respiratory tract remains largely elusive. The outcome of the encounter between pulmonary self-antigen and naive CD8(+) T cells, in the presence or absence of inflammation, was traced after adoptive transfer of fluorescence-labeled CD8(+) T cells specific for the neo-self-antigen influenza A hemagglutinin into transgenic mice expressing hemagglutinin specifically in alveolar type II epithelial cells in order: to study the outcome of alveolar antigen encounter in the steady state and under inflammatory conditions; to define the phenotype and fate of CD8(+) T cells primed in the respiratory tract; and, finally, to correlate these findings with the onset of autoimmunity in the lung. We found that CD8(+) T cells remain ignorant in the steady state, whereas transient proliferation of self-reactive CD8(+) T cells is induced by forced maturation or licensing of dendritic cells, increases in the antigenic threshold, and targeted release of alveolar self-antigen by epithelial injury. However, these cells fail to acquire effector functions, lack the expression of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor CD25, and do not precipitate autoimmunity in the lung. We conclude that inadvertent activation of CD8(+) T cells in the lung is prevented in the absence of "danger signals," whereas tissue damage after infection or noninfectious inflammation creates an environment that allows the priming of previously ignorant T cells. Failure in effector cell differentiation after abortive priming, however, precludes the establishment of self-perpetuating autoimmunity in the lung.

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells are Readily Recoverable from Lung Tissue, but not the Alveolar Space, in Healthy Humans.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K A; Yerkovich, S T; Chen, T; McQualter, J L; Hopkins, P M-A; Wells, C A; Chambers, D C

    2016-10-01

    Stromal support is critical for lung homeostasis and the maintenance of an effective epithelial barrier. Despite this, previous studies have found a positive association between the number of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from the alveolar compartment and human lung diseases associated with epithelial dysfunction. We hypothesised that bronchoalveolar lavage derived MSCs (BAL-MSCs) are dysfunctional and distinct from resident lung tissue MSCs (LT-MSCs). In this study, we comprehensively interrogated the phenotype and transcriptome of human BAL-MSCs and LT-MSCs. We found that MSCs were rarely recoverable from the alveolar space in healthy humans, but could be readily isolated from lung transplant recipients by bronchoalveolar lavage. BAL-MSCs exhibited a CD90(Hi) , CD73(Hi) , CD45(Neg) , CD105(Lo) immunophenotype and were bipotent, lacking adipogenic potential. In contrast, MSCs were readily recoverable from healthy human lung tissue and were CD90(Hi or Lo) , CD73(Hi) , CD45(Neg) , CD105(Int) and had full tri-lineage potential. Transcriptional profiling of the two populations confirmed their status as bona fide MSCs and revealed a high degree of similarity between each other and the archetypal bone-marrow MSC. 105 genes were differentially expressed; 76 of which were increased in BAL-MSCs including genes involved in fibroblast activation, extracellular matrix deposition and tissue remodelling. Finally, we found the fibroblast markers collagen 1A1 and α-smooth muscle actin were increased in BAL-MSCs. Our data suggests that in healthy humans, lung MSCs reside within the tissue, but in disease can differentiate to acquire a profibrotic phenotype and migrate from their in-tissue niche into the alveolar space. Stem Cells 2016;34:2548-2558.

  16. All-trans retinoic acid results in irregular repair of septa and fails to inhibit proinflammatory macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seifart, C; Muyal, J P; Plagens, A; Yildirim, A Ö; Kohse, K; Grau, V; Sandu, S; Reinke, C; Tschernig, T; Vogelmeier, C; Fehrenbach, H

    2011-08-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is controversially discussed in emphysema therapy. We re-evaluated ATRA in the elastase model and hypothesised that beneficial effects should be reflected by increased alveolar surface area, elastin expression and downregulation of inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Emphysema was induced by porcine pancreatic elastase versus saline in Sprague-Dawley rats. On days 26-37, rats received daily intraperitoneal injections with ATRA (500 μg · kg(-1) body weight) versus olive oil. Lungs were removed at day 38. Rat alveolar epithelial L2 cells were incubated with/without elastase followed by ATRA- or vehicle-treatment, respectively. ATRA only partially ameliorated structural defects. Alveolar walls exhibited irregular architecture: increased arithmetic mean thickness, reduction in surface coverage by alveolar epithelial cells type II. ATRA only partially restored reduced soluble elastin. It tended to increase the ratio of ED1(+):ED2(+) macrophages. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells exhibited a proinflammatory state and high expression of interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, tumour necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in emphysema, with ATRA exerting only few effects. MMP-7 was highly induced by ATRA in healthy but not in emphysematous lungs. ATRA reduced both MMP-2 and TIMP-1 activity in BAL fluid of emphysematous lungs. ATRA-therapy may bear the risk of unwanted side-effects on alveolar septal architecture in emphysematous lungs.

  17. Mck2-dependent infection of alveolar macrophages promotes replication of MCMV in nodular inflammatory foci of the neonatal lung.

    PubMed

    Stahl, F R; Keyser, K A; Heller, K; Bischoff, Y; Halle, S; Wagner, K; Messerle, M; Förster, R

    2015-01-01

    Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) shows a worldwide high prevalence with only immunocompromised individuals or newborns to become symptomatic. The host's constitution and the pathogen's virulence determine whether disease occurs after infection. Mouse CMV (MCMV) is an appreciated pathogen for in vivo investigation of host-pathogen interactions. It has recently been reported that a single base pair deletion can spontaneously occur in the open reading frame of MCMV-encoded chemokine 2 (MCK2), preventing the expression of the full-length gene product. To study the consequences of this mutation, we compared the Mck2-defective reporter virus MCMV-3D with the newly generated repaired Mck2(+) mutant MCMV-3DR. Compared with MCMV-3D, neonatal mice infected with MCMV-3DR showed severe viral disease after lung infection. Viral disease coincided with high viral activity in multiple organs and increased virus replication in previously described nodular inflammatory foci (NIF) in the lung. Notably, MCMV-3DR showed tropism for alveolar macrophages in vitro and in vivo, whereas MCMV-3D did not infect this cell type. Moreover, in vivo depletion of alveolar macrophages reduced MCMV-3DR replication in the lung. We proposed an Mck2-mediated mechanism by which MCMV exploits alveolar macrophages to increase replication upon first encounter with the host's lung mucosa.

  18. A Suspected Case of an Alveolar Haemorrhage Caused by Dasatinib

    PubMed Central

    Sakoda, Yoritake; Arimori, Yojiro; Ueno, Masakatsu; Matsumoto, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    A 39-year-old man treated with dasatinib for chronic myelogenous leukaemia presented to our hospital with haemoptysis, coughing, and dyspnoea. Chest radiography and computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacities and a crazy-paving pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage was not performed due to serious hypoxemia and bleeding. Significant bleeding from the peripheral bronchi led to a diagnosis of an alveolar haemorrhage. Dasatinib-induced alveolar haemorrhaging was suspected based on the clinical findings. His condition improved immediately after dasatinib withdrawal and initiation of steroid therapy. Reports of alveolar haemorrhaging induced by dasatinib are rare. As such, this is considered an important case. PMID:28090053

  19. In vitro study of gas effects on alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; Voisin, C

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the biological effects of gas pollutants on alveolar macrophages several in vitro systems have been developed. We described here an original method of cell culture in aerobiosis, which permitted direct contact between the atmosphere and the target cells. We studied the long term (24 h) and short term (30 min) effects of NO2 on alveolar macrophages. Our results demonstrated that exposure of alveolar macrophages to gas pollutants may be responsible for either cell injury or cell activation associated with the release of various bioactive mediators (superoxide anion, neutrophil chemotactic activity). Cell culture in aerobiosis opens new ways for the research on the biological effects of gas pollutants.

  20. Induction of human alveolar epithelial cell growth factor receptors by dendrimeric nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    Although nonviral dendrimeric nanostructures have been widely used as gene delivery systems, key questions about target cells responses to these nanostructures are yet to be answered. Here, we report the responsiveness of A431 and A549 cells upon treatment with polypropylenimine diaminobutane (DAB) dendrimers nanosystems. Complexation of DAB dendrimers with DNA reduced the zeta potential of nanostructures, but increased their size. Fluorescence microscopy revealed high transfection efficiency in both cell lines treated with DAB dendrimers with induced cytotoxicity evidenced by MTT assay. The A549 cells showed upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signalling biomolecule Akt kinase upon treatment with DAB dendrimers, while no changes were observed in A431 cells. Based on our findings, the biological impacts of these nanosystems appeared to be cell dependent. Thus, the biological responses of target cells should be taken into account when these nanostructures are used as gene delivery system.

  1. The antiproliferative effect of Moringa oleifera crude aqueous leaf extract on cancerous human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of lung cancer is expected to increase due to increases in exposure to airborne pollutants and cigarette smoke. Moringa oleifera (MO), a medicinal plant found mainly in Asia and South Africa is used in the traditional treatment of various ailments including cancer. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO leaf extract (MOE) in cancerous A549 lung cells. Methods A crude aqueous leaf extract was prepared and the cells were treated with 166.7 μg/ml MOE (IC50) for 24 h and assayed for oxidative stress (TBARS and Glutathione assays), DNA fragmentation (comet assay) and caspase (3/7 and 9) activity. In addition, the expression of Nrf2, p53, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of Nrf2 and p53 was assessed using qPCR. Results A significant increase in reactive oxygen species with a concomitant decrease in intracellular glutathione levels (p < 0.001) in MOE treated A549 cells was observed. MOE showed a significant reduction in Nrf2 protein expression (1.89-fold, p < 0.05) and mRNA expression (1.44-fold). A higher level of DNA fragmentation (p < 0.0001) was seen in the MOE treated cells. MOE’s pro-apoptotic action was confirmed by the significant increase in p53 protein expression (1.02-fold, p < 0.05), p53 mRNA expression (1.59-fold), caspase-9 (1.28-fold, p < 0.05), caspase-3/7 (1.52-fold) activities and an enhanced expression of Smac/DIABLO. MOE also caused the cleavage and activation of PARP-1 into 89 KDa and 24 KDa fragments (p < 0.0001). Conclusion MOE exerts antiproliferative effects in A549 lung cells by increasing oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis. PMID:24041017

  2. INTERACTIONS OF THE NANO-SIZED CARBONACEOUS PARTICLES WITH LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS AND ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human beings especially in urban areas are exposed to automobile exhaust from truck or car diesel engines. The bulk of the suspended particles in diesel exhaust (diesel exhaust particulate, DEP) is below 100 nm in size and comprises a carbonaceous core on which a variety of organ...

  3. Comparative toxicity of 24 manufactured nanoparticles in human alveolar epithelial and macrophage cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Lanone, Sophie; Rogerieux, Françoise; Geys, Jorina; Dupont, Aurélie; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Boczkowski, Jorge; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Hoet, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background A critical issue with nanomaterials is the clear understanding of their potential toxicity. We evaluated the toxic effect of 24 nanoparticles of similar equivalent spherical diameter and various elemental compositions on 2 human pulmonary cell lines: A549 and THP-1. A secondary aim was to elaborate a generic experimental set-up that would allow the rapid screening of cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles. We therefore compared 2 cytotoxicity assays (MTT and Neutral Red) and analyzed 2 time points (3 and 24 hours) for each cell type and nanoparticle. When possible, TC50 (Toxic Concentration 50 i.e. nanoparticle concentration inducing 50% cell mortality) was calculated. Results The use of MTT assay on THP-1 cells exposed for 24 hours appears to be the most sensitive experimental design to assess the cytotoxic effect of one nanoparticle. With this experimental set-up, Copper- and Zinc-based nanoparticles appear to be the most toxic. Titania, Alumina, Ceria and Zirconia-based nanoparticles show moderate toxicity, and no toxicity was observed for Tungsten Carbide. No correlation between cytotoxicity and equivalent spherical diameter or specific surface area was found. Conclusion Our study clearly highlights the difference of sensitivity between cell types and cytotoxicity assays that has to be carefully taken into account when assessing nanoparticles toxicity. PMID:19405955

  4. Lung endothelial cells strengthen, but brain endothelial cells weaken barrier properties of a human alveolar epithelium cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Winfried; Samwer, Fabian; Kunzmann, Steffen; Muellenbach, Ralf M; Wirth, Michael; Speer, Christian P; Roewer, Norbert; Förster, Carola Y

    2012-11-01

    The blood-air barrier in the lung consists of the alveolar epithelium, the underlying capillary endothelium, their basement membranes and the interstitial space between the cell layers. Little is known about the interactions between the alveolar and the blood compartment. The aim of the present study was to gain first insights into the possible interplay between these two neighbored cell layers. We established an in vitro Transwell model of the alveolar epithelium based on human cell line H441 and investigated the influence of conditioned medium obtained from human lung endothelial cell line HPMEC-ST1.6R on the barrier properties of the H441 layers. As control for tissue specificity H441 layers were exposed to conditioned medium from human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Addition of dexamethasone was necessary to obtain stable H441 cell layers. Moreover, dexamethasone increased expression of cell type I markers (caveolin-1, RAGE) and cell type II marker SP-B, whereas decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in a concentration dependent manner. Soluble factors obtained from the lung endothelial cell line increased the barrier significantly proven by TEER values and fluorescein permeability on the functional level and by the differential expression of tight junctional proteins on the molecular level. In contrast to this, soluble factors derived from brain endothelial cells weakened the barrier significantly. In conclusion, soluble factors from lung endothelial cells can strengthen the alveolar epithelium barrier in vitro, which suggests communication between endothelial and epithelial cells regulating the integrity of the blood-air barrier.

  5. Interaction of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus with lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Osherov, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic environmental mold that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals and poses a life-threatening risk for severely immunocompromised patients. Infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores (conidia) into the lungs. The initial point of contact between the fungus and the host is a monolayer of lung epithelial cells. Understanding how these cells react to fungal contact is crucial to elucidating the pathobiology of Aspergillus-related disease states. The experimental systems, both in vitro and in vivo, used to study these interactions, are described. Distinction is made between bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. The experimental findings suggest that lung epithelial cells are more than just “innocent bystanders” or a purely physical barrier against infection. They can be better described as an active extension of our innate immune system, operating as a surveillance mechanism that can specifically identify fungal spores and activate an offensive response to block infection. This response includes the internalization of adherent conidia and the release of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and reactive oxygen species. In the case of allergy, lung epithelial cells can dampen an over-reactive immune response by releasing anti-inflammatory compounds such as kinurenine. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the interaction of A. fumigatus with lung epithelial cells. A better understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and lung epithelial cells has therapeutic implications, as stimulation or inhibition of the epithelial response may alter disease outcome. PMID:23055997

  6. Forces driving epithelial wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Jim H.; Gupta, Mukund; Colombelli, Julien; Muñoz, José J.; Brodland, G. Wayne; Ladoux, Benoit; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental feature of multicellular organisms is their ability to self-repair wounds through the movement of epithelial cells into the damaged area. This collective cellular movement is commonly attributed to a combination of cell crawling and “purse-string” contraction of a supracellular actomyosin ring. Here we show by direct experimental measurement that these two mechanisms are insufficient to explain force patterns observed during wound closure. At early stages of the process, leading actin protrusions generate traction forces that point away from the wound, showing that wound closure is initially driven by cell crawling. At later stages, we observed unanticipated patterns of traction forces pointing towards the wound. Such patterns have strong force components that are both radial and tangential to the wound. We show that these force components arise from tensions transmitted by a heterogeneous actomyosin ring to the underlying substrate through focal adhesions. The structural and mechanical organization reported here provides cells with a mechanism to close the wound by cooperatively compressing the underlying substrate. PMID:27340423

  7. Forces driving epithelial wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugués, Agustí; Anon, Ester; Conte, Vito; Veldhuis, Jim H.; Gupta, Mukund; Colombelli, Julien; Muñoz, José J.; Brodland, G. Wayne; Ladoux, Benoit; Trepat, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    A fundamental feature of multicellular organisms is their ability to self-repair wounds through the movement of epithelial cells into the damaged area. This collective cellular movement is commonly attributed to a combination of cell crawling and `purse-string’ contraction of a supracellular actomyosin ring. Here we show by direct experimental measurement that these two mechanisms are insufficient to explain force patterns observed during wound closure. At early stages of the process, leading actin protrusions generate traction forces that point away from the wound, showing that wound closure is initially driven by cell crawling. At later stages, we observed unanticipated patterns of traction forces pointing towards the wound. Such patterns have strong force components that are both radial and tangential to the wound. We show that these force components arise from tensions transmitted by a heterogeneous actomyosin ring to the underlying substrate through focal adhesions. The structural and mechanical organization reported here provides cells with a mechanism to close the wound by cooperatively compressing the underlying substrate.

  8. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C.; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  9. Wound re-epithelialization: modulating keratinocyte migration in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Raja; Sivamani, K; Garcia, Miki Shirakawa; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2007-05-01

    An essential feature of a healed wound is the restoration of an intact epidermal barrier through wound epithelialization, also known as re-epithelialization. The directed migration of keratinocytes is critical to wound epithelialization and defects in this function are associated with the clinical phenotype of chronic non-healing wounds. A complex balance of signaling factors and surface proteins are expressed and regulated in a temporospatial manner that promote keratinocyte motility and survival to activate wound re-epithelialization. The majority of this review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate keratinocyte migration in the re-epithelialization process. This includes a review of cell attachments via desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and integrins, the expression of keratins, the role of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, eicosanoids, oxygen tension, antimicrobial peptides, and matrix metalloproteinases. Also reviewed are recently emerging novel mediators of keratinocyte motility including the role of electric fields, and signaling via the acetylcholine and beta-adrenergic receptors. These multiple regulators impact the ability of keratinocytes to migrate from the wound edge or other epidermal reservoirs to efficiently re-epithelialize a breach in the integrity of the epidermis. New discoveries will continue to uncover the elegant network of events that result in restoration of epidermal integrity and complete the wound repair process.

  10. Inguinal hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... This repair can be done with open or laparoscopic surgery. You and your surgeon can discuss which type ... the repair, the cuts are stitched closed. In laparoscopic surgery: The surgeon makes three to five small cuts ...

  11. Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some hernia repairs are performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope. If your surgeon has ... in the abdominal wall (muscle) using small incisions, telescopes and a patch (mesh). Laparoscopic repair offers a ...

  12. Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  13. Protective effect and mechanism of hydrogen treatment on lung epithelial barrier dysfunction in rats with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, L-D; Wu, X-Y; Tao, B-D; Wang, N; Zhang, J