Science.gov

Sample records for am-be pgnaa set-up

  1. Analysis of sewage sludge using an experimental prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (pgnaa) set-up with an am-be source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Redjem, F.; Beloudah, N.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental PGNAA set-up using a 1 Ci Am-Be source has been developed and used for analysis of bulk sewage sludge samples issued from a wastewater treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Algiers. The sample dimensions were optimized using thermal neutron flux calculations carried out with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo Code. A methodology is then proposed to perform quantitative analysis using the absolute method. For this, average thermal neutron flux inside the sludge samples is deduced using average thermal neutron flux in reference water samples and thermal flux measurements with the aid of a 3He neutron detector. The average absolute gamma detection efficiency is determined using the prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in a water sample. The gamma detection efficiency is normalized for sludge samples using gamma attenuation factors calculated with the MCNP5 code for water and sludge. Wet and dehydrated sludge samples were analyzed. Nutritive elements (Ca, N, P, K) and heavy metals elements like Cr and Mn were determined. For some elements, the PGNAA values were compared to those obtained using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) methods. Good agreement is observed between the different values. Heavy element concentrations are very high compared to normal values; this is related to the fact that the wastewater treatment plant is treating not only domestic but also industrial wastewater that is probably rejected by industries without removal of pollutant elements. The detection limits for almost all elements of interest are sufficiently low for the method to be well suited for such analysis.

  2. A new Am-Be PGNAA setup for element determination in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yongsheng, Ling; Wenbao, Jia; Daqian, Hei; Qing, Shan; Can, Cheng; Haojia, Zhang; Wenyu, Hou; Yanquan, He; Da, Chen

    2014-11-12

    A new prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup has been designed for element determination in aqueous solution with a 300 mCi (241)Am-Be neutron source and a 4in.×3in. (diameter×height) BGO detector, uncooled. A polyethylene cylindrical sample container approximately 40cm in outer radius and 80cm in height was used. To reduce the neutron dose in the detector, a block of 5cm thickness Li2CO3 was placed between the source and the detector for separation, but no gamma-blocker was used. By adjusting the position of the detector and optimizing the geometrical conditions of the setup, the element detection limit with a low activity neutron source was further improved. This methodology was checked by simulations with chlorine, mercury and cadmium determination and by experiments with chlorine determination in aqueous samples. The results show a good linear relationship between chlorine concentration and the count of its characteristic peak, and the detection limit of chlorine can reach 41.7mg/L with a collection time of 3600s for each spectrum. Additionally, a linear relationship was identified between mercury concentration and the count of its characteristic peak, but for cadmium, a non-linear relationship was observed in the simulations.

  3. The comparison of four neutron sources for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) in vivo detections of boron.

    PubMed

    Fantidis, J G; Nicolaou, G E; Potolias, C; Vordos, N; Bandekas, D V

    A Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system, incorporating an isotopic neutron source has been simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio different collimators and a filter were placed between the neutron source and the object. The effect of the positioning of the neutron beam and the detector relative to the object has been studied. In this work the optimisation procedure is demonstrated for boron. Monte Carlo calculations were carried out to compare the performance of the proposed PGNAA system using four different neutron sources ((241)Am/Be, (252)Cf, (241)Am/B, and DT neutron generator). Among the different systems the (252)Cf neutron based PGNAA system has the best performance.

  4. Setting up crowd science projects.

    PubMed

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-11-29

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or labour-intensive projects that would otherwise be unfeasible. So far, research on crowd science has mainly focused on analysing individual crowd science projects. In our research, we focus on the perspective of project initiators and explore how crowd science projects are set up. Based on multiple case study research, we discuss the objectives of crowd science projects and the strategies of their initiators for accessing volunteers. We also categorise the tasks allocated to volunteers and reflect on the issue of quality assurance as well as feedback mechanisms. With this article, we contribute to a better understanding of how crowd science projects are set up and how volunteers can contribute to science. We suggest that our findings are of practical relevance for initiators of crowd science projects, for science communication as well as for informed science policy making.

  5. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  6. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  7. Guide for SDEC Set up

    SciTech Connect

    Bibby, R; Guthrie, E

    2009-01-30

    The instrument has four collection vials that must be filled with ethylene glycol before operation. Each of the four vials should be labeled 1 through 4 and the empty weights recorded. Fill each vial with 80 mL of ethylene glycol and record the weight again. In order for the instrument to operate properly, the collection vials should always have less than 160 mL of total liquid in them. After completing a sample run, remove the collection vials, use a transfer pipette to remove any liquid that might still be on the air paddler, wipe off any condensation from the exterior of the collection vial and record weight. From the instrument, record the ending volume and the time of operation. The solution mixed in the scintillation vial will be 2 ml of a 95% to 50% ethylene glycol to water mixture. To determine the efficiency of counting at all of these concentrations, a series of vials should be set up that consist of 18 ml of Ultima Gold LLT cocktail mixed with standard, regular deionized water and ethylene glycol. The efficiency curve should be counted in the 'Low Level' count mode with the Luminescence Correction ON and the Color Quench Correction ON. Once the tSIE values are determined, chart the cpm against the tSIE numbers and find the best fit for the data. The resulting equation is to be used to converting tSIE values from the collection vials to efficiency. To determine the background cpm value of the ethylene glycol, count a 2 ml sample of ethylene glycol with 18 ml of Ultima Gold for 100 minutes. To determine the total activity of the sample, take two 2 ml aliquots of sample from the first vial and place in separate scintillation vials. Record the weight of each aliquot. Determine the percentage of total sample each aliquot represents by dividing the aliquot weight by the total solution weight from the vial. Also, determine the percentage of ethylene glycol in the sample by dividing the initial solution weight by the final solution weight and multiplying by 100

  8. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method.

    PubMed

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed

    2007-12-01

    The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources.

  9. A quality survey on different shielding configurations of gamma ray detector used with a portable PGNAA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, E.; Afarideh, H.; Davani, F. Abbasi; Ghal-Eh, N.

    2016-03-01

    The appropriate gamma-ray detector shielding configuration is critical for a precise prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement. The shielding material has to prevent the radiation damage to the detector crystal and it must produce less activation gamma rays, whether prompt or delayed, which may interfere the gamma ray spectrum of the sample. In this research, using common shielding materials, a number of combinations have been studies to form a 50 cm long shield for portable PGNAA system against both fast and slow neutrons as well as gamma rays emitted by 20Ci Am-Be source. The measurement results show that in contrast with conventional shadow cone in which the shielding material starts with 20 cm heavy metals such as iron and ends with 30 cm polymer materials, in portable PGNAA systems, the shielding material gives better results if it starts with about 40 cm borated polymer material and ends with an appropriate thickness (7 cm to 10 cm) of heavy metal such as tungsten.

  10. Benchmarking MCNP and TRIPOLI with PGNAA measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Perot, B.; Sikora, A.; Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Payan, E.; Kettler, J.; Kring, T.; Ma, J. L.

    2014-06-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache), the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), and the RWTH Aachen University (RWTH) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The design of an optimized measurement system and the assessment of its performances for realistic scenarios can be conveniently studied by numerical Monte Carlo simulation, provided the model and nuclear data offer a sufficient precision. Previous studies performed with MCNP have shown that when the nuclear data libraries lack of precision, relevant results can still be obtained by performing calculations in multiple steps (by first determining the radiative capture rate, and transporting the induced gamma toward the detector) and by injecting valid gamma-ray production data in-between [1]. In such cases, it is interesting to compare the results obtained with different codes. In the present paper, we propose to compare the MCNP and TRIPOLI codes with measurements obtained in MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), which is the new FZJ PGNAA facility [2]. The aim of the measurement campaign is to assess capture gamma rays of toxic elements that can be found in 200 L waste drums which are expected for geological repository.

  11. Advice on Setting up a STEM Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Setting up a STEM club can be the most daunting item that one faces on a department's development plan. Coupled with all the other demands that exist within teaching and learning, teachers can be easily forgiven for pushing this task further and further into the school year until it eventually becomes one of next year's "to-do" items.…

  12. Experience in setting up a PC cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua; Zhang, Mei

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we summary and present our thinking and experience in setting up a PC cluster, with a consideration that the described thinking and experience may be relevant to or useful for those who intend to buy a similar cluster in the near future.

  13. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  14. AmBe Waste Minimization Activities Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kent D. Abney; Zita V. Svitra; Michael R. Cisneros

    1999-05-01

    The CST-11 objective for the Radioactive Source Recovery Project is to evaluate a nitric acid-based flowsheet and alternatives for dissolution, separation, and recovery of americium from AmBe neutron source materials returned from private and governmental institutions. Specific tasks performed during FY97 and FY98 included the experimental investigation of material dissolution rate and efficiency as a function of time and temperature for nitric acid as compared to hydrochloric acid. Alkaline dissolution reaction conditions using sodium hydroxide and ammonium bifluoride were also investigated. In both the acidic and alkaline dissolution conditions, the objective was to effect an initial separation of the americium from the beryllium or vice versa. The process solution and remaining solids should also be amenable to further processing and purification schemes. This work was performed on actual AmBe neutron source material in order to demonstrate the feasibility of {sup 241}Am purification from dismantled neutron sources.

  15. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of explosives simulants and bulk material using DD/DT neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishnoi, S.; Sarkar, P. S.; Patel, T.; Adhikari, P. S.; Sinha, Amar

    2013-04-01

    Elemental characterization of low Z elements (C,H,Cl,Fe) inside bulk materials were performed using PGNAA technique. Samples having elemental composition similar to explosives were used for such experimentations using moderated DD neutrons as well as DT(14MeV) neutrons. We could observe characteristic prompt capture gamma rays of hydrogen (2.224MeV), nitrogen (10.83 MeV), chlorine (6.11 MeV) and Fe (6.02MeV and 7.63MeV) also (n,n'γ) prompt gamma signal (4.43MeV) of carbon. BGO detector has been used for gamma spectrum acquisition. These experimentations has been carried out for initial feasibility studies of detecting prompt gamma lines as a part of PGNAA technique based explosive detection system development. A detail description of experimental set up and procedure has been discussed in paper.

  16. Trappers set up trap for lizard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In hope of catching a large monitor lizard seen in the area, state-licensed animal trappers Dewey Kessler and James Dean (at left), with Gary Povitch (kneeling) of the U.S. Wildlife and Dan Turner (standing) set up a trap on KSC. The lizard has been spotted recently near S.R. 3, a route into the Center, by several area residents. Turner is a monitor expert. The lizard is not a native of the area, and possibly a released pet. Dean is working with the cooperation of KSC and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  17. Cost to Set up Common Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latora, Vito

    Complexity is a highly interdisciplinary science. Although there are drawbacks for researchers to work at the interface of different fields, such as the cost to set up common languages, and the risks associated with not being recognized by any of the well-established scientific communities, some of my recent work indicates that interdisciplinarity can be extremely rewarding. Drawing on large data sets on scientific production during several decades, we have shown that highly interdisciplinary scholars can outperform specialized ones, and that scientists can enhance their performance by seeking collaborators with expertise in various fields. My vision for complexity is based on the added value of its interdisciplinary nature. I list below three research directions that I am personally eager to explore, and that I think will be among the main challenges of complexity in the next 10 years...

  18. Research on PGNAA adaptive analysis method with BP neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ke-Xin; Yang, Jian-Bo; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Du, Hua; Zhang, Rui-Xue

    2016-11-01

    A new approach method to dealing with the puzzle of spectral analysis in prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is developed and demonstrated. It consists of utilizing BP neural network to PGNAA energy spectrum analysis which is based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, the main tasks which we will accomplish as follows: (1) Completing the MC simulation of PGNAA spectrum library, we respectively set mass fractions of element Si, Ca, Fe from 0.00 to 0.45 with a step of 0.05 and each sample is simulated using MCNP. (2) Establishing the BP model of adaptive quantitative analysis of PGNAA energy spectrum, we calculate peak areas of eight characteristic gamma rays that respectively correspond to eight elements in each individual of 1000 samples and that of the standard sample. (3) Verifying the viability of quantitative analysis of the adaptive algorithm where 68 samples were used successively. Results show that the precision when using neural network to calculate the content of each element is significantly higher than the MCLLS.

  19. INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN FOOTBALL CONFIGURATION. FIELD SEATING ROTATES TO ACCOMMODATE BASEBALL GAMES. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  1. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Small Business, Minneapolis, MN.

    This study guide is intended for use with the separately available entrepreneurship education text "How To Set Up Your Own Business." The guide includes student exercises that have been designed to accompany chapters dealing with the following topics: determining whether or not to set up a small business, doing market research, forecasting sales,…

  2. 9. VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST STERN OF JFK, SCAFFOLDING SET UP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST STERN OF JFK, SCAFFOLDING SET UP FOR REMOUNTING OF PROPELLERS. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Automatic set up of SHETRAN for catchments in Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Kilsby, Chris; Fowler, Hayley

    2014-05-01

    Physically-based spatially-distributed (PBSD) models may provide a robust framework for simulating catchment processes in ungauged catchments and under climatic variability. However, they are often overlooked in catchment studies in favour of their conceptual or lumped counterparts. This is because conceptual models are easy and rapid to set up, and can be finely tuned using historic data to give excellent simulation results. On the other hand PBSD models, such as SHETRAN developed at Newcastle University, require much more input data and take weeks or months to set up. To overcome these problems and to promote the use of SHETRAN, this project has set up an easy-to-use, accessible system of hydrological models across Great Britain to be used for both catchment scale studies and countrywide analysis of river flows under present and future conditions. An interface for this system has been developed to make the usually long and tedious setup of PBSD models quick and easy. A non-expert user can now set up a robust and reliable model for a catchment within Great Britain within 10 seconds, a process which would usually take weeks. The user can select a catchment from one of the 1457 boundaries identified in the National River Flow Archive, or they can upload their own catchment boundary as a shapefile. The system therefore has great flexibility for use in setting up models of gauged and ungauged catchments. PBSD models require a lot of data (DEM, geology, soil, land cover), often available in only an inappropriate format. The data behind this system is freely accessible under an academic licence and downloadable from various publicly funded bodies. These data layers have been converted into the correct format for use with SHETRAN, which is also freely available and is provided with every model set up.

  4. Setting Up Environments. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald; Stewart, Jay

    For use in conjunction with training videotapes illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide aims to help caregivers set up environments for infants and toddlers that promote young children's health, safety, and comfort, meet their developmental needs, and provide caregivers a comfortable and convenient place to work. Section 1…

  5. How To Set Up a Workplace Mentoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.

    This document provides background for those looking to establish workplace mentoring or buddy systems. It touches briefly on the other two legs of an effective workplace preparation program, which are orientation and on-the-job training. These six steps for setting up a mentoring system are described: recruitment, flexibility, training, written…

  6. A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai

    2009-01-01

    A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…

  7. Hands-on Science. Getting Set Up for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for getting organized and creating a classroom environment that promotes science learning for primary students. Teachers must first decide what topics they are going to cover and what materials they need. Next, they should determine how to organize the materials. Finally, they should identify and set up areas in the classroom…

  8. Brazilian gamma-neutron dosemeter: response to 241AmBe and 252Cf neutron sources.

    PubMed

    Souto, E B; Campos, L L

    2011-03-01

    With the aim of improving the monitoring of workers potentially exposed to neutron radiation in Brazil, the IPEN/CNEN-SP in association with PRO-RAD designed and developed a passive individual gamma-neutron mixed-field dosemeter calibrated to be used to (241)AmBe sources. To verify the dosimetry system response to different neutron spectra, prototypes were irradiated with a (252)Cf source and evaluated using the dose-calculation algorithm developed for (241)AmBe sources.

  9. Setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models

    PubMed Central

    Rojek, J.; Karlis, G.F.; Malinowski, L.J.; Beer, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, a methodology for setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models is proposed. The developed algorithm is applicable to discrete or coupled discrete/continuum modeling of underground excavation employing the discrete element method (DEM). Since the DEM works with contact forces rather than stresses there is a need for the conversion of pre-excavation stresses to contact forces for the DEM model. Different possibilities of setting up virgin stress conditions in the DEM model are reviewed and critically assessed. Finally, a new method to obtain a discrete element model with contact forces equivalent to given macroscopic virgin stresses is proposed. The test examples presented show that good results may be obtained regardless of the shape of the DEM domain. PMID:27087731

  10. Essential Requirements to Setting up an Aesthetic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Mukta; Britto, Gillian R

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetic dermatology is becoming a vital and popular branch of medicine. This article aims to guide dermatologists to set up a professional and ethical aesthetic practice. Dermatologists should have an integrated practice of clinical dermatology, dermatosurgery and cosmetic dermatology. Ethical practice is the gold standard for any medical field, especially with dermatologists, who should avoid doing unnecessary procedures. Proper patient counselling and addressing the patients’ concerns is imperative. PMID:25538440

  11. Results from Preliminary Checks on AmBe Neutron Source Number 71

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    1 2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON AMERICIUM -BERYLLIUM ...................... 1 3. METHOD...Background Information on Americium -Beryllium AmBe sources produce neutrons through the Be(,n) interaction, where an alpha particle (i.e. Helium nucleus...UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TN-1003 241Am95  237Np93 + 42 9Be4 + 42  12C6 +1n0 +  Americium -241 used in the AmBe source has a half-life of 432.2

  12. Setting up a kinase discovery and development project.

    PubMed

    Bollag, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of novel kinase inhibitors has matured rapidly over the last decade. Paramount to the successful development of kinase inhibitors is appropriate selectivity for validated targets. Many different approaches have been applied over the years, with varied results. There are currently thirteen different small molecule protein kinase inhibitors on the marketplace. Interestingly, a majority of these compounds lack precise selectivity for specific targets. This will change in the coming years, as technology for achieving improved selectivity becomes more widely applied. This chapter will focus on some of the critical considerations in setting up a kinase discovery and development project, citing examples particularly targeting the Raf kinases.

  13. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion: Set-Up and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Chantelle M.

    1999-01-01

    During the research period focus was placed upon set-up, installment, and operation of the IEC. While procurement of specific components was difficult, the IEC was on several occasions demonstrated to be practical and safe during operation. Over the course of the summer several different grids were tested and various modes were obtained. While hard data was not produced, the IEC did something more important, which was to become established here at Marshall and pave the way for future IEC systems to be built.

  14. New ESD Test Set-Up for Spacecraft Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daout, B.; Romero, C.; Pelissou, P.; Wolf, K.-F. J.

    2016-05-01

    The ESD test method according to ECSS-E-ST-20-07C [1] has shown weaknesses in reproducibility and reliability. We have previously shown that test results can vary from one test laboratory and setup to another [2], this entails developing an improved methodology and hardware to address the ECSS test shortcomings. In this paper, a new topology and a generator built using a pressurized high voltage relay, a compensation circuit and a bulk current injection (BCI) probe as a coupling device instead of the 20 cm wire described in the current ECSS standard are presented. The generator and the suggested test set-up have been evaluated in different configurations showing an improved reproducibility and a simpler testing procedure.

  15. Setting up a veterinary medicine skills lab in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m(2) under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare.

  16. Setting Up a Veterinary Medicine Skills Lab in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m² under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare. PMID:24872855

  17. On replacing Am-Be neutron sources in compensated porosity logging tools.

    PubMed

    Peeples, Cody R; Mickael, Medhat; Gardner, Robin P

    2010-01-01

    Authors explored the direct replacement of Am-Be neutron sources in neutron porosity logging tools through Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5. (252)Cf and electronic accelerator neutron sources based on the Deuterium-Tritium fusion reaction were considered. Between the sources, a tradeoff was noted between sensitivity to the presence of hydrogen and uncertainty due to counting statistics. It was concluded that both replacement sources as well as accelerator sources based on the Deuterium-Deuterium fusion reaction warrant further consideration as porosity log sources.

  18. AmBe Radiological Source Replacement Using Dense Plasma Focus Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Brian; Povilus, Alexander; Chapman, Steven; Podpaly, Yuri; Cooper, Christopher; Higginson, Drew; Link, Anthony; Schmidt, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a compact plasma gun that produces high energy ion beams up to several MeV through strong potential gradients formed from m=0 plasma instabilities. These ion beams can be used to replace radiological sources for a variety of applications. Americium-beryllium (AmBe) neutron sources are commonly used for oil well logging. An optimized DPF produces high energy helium ion beams of 2+ MeV which can interact with a beryllium target to produce neutrons. The alpha-Be interaction produces a neutron energy spectrum similar to the neutrons produced by the AmBe reaction. To demonstrate this concept experimentally a 2 kJ DPF is used to produce a beam of alpha particles which interacts with a beryllium target. We report on the improvements made to the DPF platform using He gas and the observation of 3.0 ×104 peak neutrons generated per shot. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Gondal, M. A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Isab, A. A.; Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53-3.68, 4.51, 5.27-5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  20. Response of a PGNAA setup for pozzolan-based cement concrete specimens.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Garwan, M A; Maslehuddin, M; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Raashid, M

    2010-01-01

    Pozzolanic materials are added to Portland cement concrete to increase its durability, particularly corrosion-resistance. In this study the elemental composition of a pozzolanic cement concrete was measured non-destructively utilizing an accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. The optimum size of the pozzolanic cement concrete specimen was obtained through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results were experimentally verified through the gamma-ray yield measurement from the pozzolanic cement concrete specimens as a function of their radii. The concentration of the pozzolanic material in the cement concrete specimens was evaluated by measuring gamma-ray yield for calcium and iron from pozzolanic cement concrete specimens containing 5-80 wt% pozzolan. A good agreement was noted between the experimental values and the Monte Carlo simulation results, indicating an excellent response of the KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup for pozzolan based concrete.

  1. Effect of silica fume addition on the PGNAA measurement of chlorine in concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Garwan, M A; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Raashid, M; Khateeb-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to Portland cement in concrete to prevent reinforcement steel corrosion in concrete. Further preventive measure against reinforcement steel corrosion require monitoring of chloride salts concentration in concrete using non-destructive techniques, such as the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. Due to interferences between gamma-rays from chlorine and calcium in PGNAA technique, detection limit of chlorine in concrete strongly depends upon calcium concentration in concrete. SF mainly contains silica and its addition to cement concrete reduces overall concentration of calcium in concrete. This may result in an improvement in detection limit of chlorine in SF-based concrete in PGNAA studies. Particularly for chlorine detection using 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays that strongly interfere with 6.42 MeV prompt gamma-rays from calcium. In this study, SF was added to Portland cement to prevent concrete reinforcement steel from corrosion. The chlorine concentration in SF cement concrete specimens containing 0.2-3.0 wt% chlorine was measured through yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV chlorine gamma-rays using PGNAA technique. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the gamma-ray yield calculated through the Monte Carlo simulations. Further the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SF cement concrete was calculated and compared with the MDC values of chlorine in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. The MDC of chlorine in SF-based concrete through 6.11 MeV, and 6.62 MeV chlorine gamma-rays was found to be improved as compared to those in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement.

  2. PGNAA system preliminary design and measurement of In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator for boron concentration measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zizhu; Chong, Yizheng; Chen, Xinru; Jin, Congjun; Yang, Lijun; Liu, Tong

    2015-12-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system has been recently developed at the 30-kW research reactor In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator (IHNI) in Beijing. Neutrons from the specially designed thermal neutron beam were used. The thermal flux of this beam is 3.08×10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) at a full reactor power of 30 kW. The PGNAA system consists of an n-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector of 40% efficiency, a digital spectrometer, and a shielding part. For both the detector shielding part and the neutron beam shielding part, the inner layer is composed of (6)Li2CO3 powder and the outer layer lead. The boron-10 sensitivity of the PGNAA system is approximately 2.5 cps/ppm. Two calibration curves were produced for the 1-10 ppm and 10-50 ppm samples. The measurement results of the control samples were in accordance with the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) results.

  3. Heavy metals detection in sediments using PGNAA method.

    PubMed

    Da-Qian, Hei; Wen-Bao, Jia; Zhou, Jiang; Can, Cheng; Jia-Tong, Li; Hong-Tao, Wang

    2016-06-01

    A prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis detection system was developed to detect the heavy metals in sediments by using an (241)Am-Be neutron source and BGO detector. The samples containing cadmium and mercury were used to test the performance of setup. The linear relationship between prompt gamma ray counts and the concentrations was studied. The results showed the counts of the prompt gamma rays from cadmium do not increase linearly with its concentrations, while the prompt gamma ray counts from Hg vary nearly linearly with the concentrations, due to the neutron self-shielding. Then a method was used to correct the effect and the non-linearly response was restored after the correction. And the minimum detectable concentration of Cd and Hg were 52.8 (at 8.484MeV) and 81.6 (at 5.967MeV) ppm, respectively.

  4. Progress in Development of Dense Plasma Focus Pinch for AmBe Radiological Source Replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falabella, Steve; Povilus, Alex; Schmidt, Andrea; Ellsworth, Jennifer; Link, Anthony; Sears, Jason; Higginson, Drew; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a compact plasma gun accelerator that can produce intense, high energy ion beams (multiple MeV). These ion beams could be used to replace radiological sources for a variety of applications. Using a 2kJ DPF with a helium gas fill, alpha particles are accelerated into a beryllium target in order to generate a neutron spectrum similar to an AmBe source. We report on initial observations of neutron yields for this system and efforts to optimize and improve repeatability of pinch performance. In particular, incorporating results from newly-developed kinetic LSP simulations, we demonstrated higher neutron yields by adjusting the geometry of the anode electrode. In addition, we present preliminary measurements for energy distributions of ions accelerated by the pinch. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work supported by US DOE/NA-22 Office of Non-proliferation Research and Development.

  5. Setting up and Running a School Library. Information Collection and Exchange Publication No. ED204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This book explains how teachers can set up and run a successful school library. In it you will find advice and information on how to: (1) set up a small library and build bookshelves; (2) select books for your library; (3) make a written record of your school's books, pamphlets and other library stock such as newspapers, magazines, audio tapes and…

  6. Overhauling and Regulating Schools Set Up by Migrants: The Reason for Overhaul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianzhong, Ding

    2004-01-01

    The article presents information on overhauling and regulating schools set up by migrants in the Pudong New District of China. As the number of migrants has risen sharply in the Pudong New District in recent years, so has the number of migrant children. An overall investigation of the fifty-nine schools set up by migrants was conducted and the…

  7. Research on the self-absorption corrections for PGNAA of large samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Bo; Liu, Zhi; Chang, Kang; Li, Rui

    2017-02-01

    When a large sample is analysed with the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) neutron self-shielding and gamma self-absorption affect the accuracy, the correction method for the detection efficiency of the relative H of each element in a large sample is described. The influences of the thickness and density of the cement samples on the H detection efficiency, as well as the impurities Fe2O3 and SiO2 on the prompt γ ray yield for each element in the cement samples, were studied. The phase functions for Ca, Fe, and Si on H with changes in sample thickness and density were provided to avoid complicated procedures for preparing the corresponding density or thickness scale for measuring samples under each density or thickness value and to present a simplified method for the measurement efficiency scale for prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis.

  8. A magnetic resonance-compatible experimental set-up for hyperthermia studies.

    PubMed

    Jayasundar, R; Hall, L D; Bleehen, N M

    1999-11-01

    This study presents the development and testing of an experimental set-up for simultaneous measurements of pH (intracellular by MR and extracellular by fibre-optic pH meter), tumour bio-energetics (by MR), and core/tumour temperatures (by thermocouples) in tumour-bearing mice. Potential sources of measurement errors when using these techniques concurrently in an MR set-up are discussed. Emphasis is placed on simple practical solutions to these problems.

  9. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Kettler, J.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-01

    The Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) [1]. The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  10. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    SciTech Connect

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Kettler, J.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-19

    The Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  11. Equipment set-up among Olympic sprint and slalom kayak paddlers.

    PubMed

    Ong, K B; Ackland, T R; Hume, P A; Ridge, B; Broad, E; Kerr, D A

    2005-01-01

    The anthropometry and equipment set-up for sprint (31 male; 11 female) and slalom (12 male; 12 female) kayak paddlers who competed at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney were measured in the 15 day period before competition. This paper provides normative data for equipment set-up in these sports, as well as information about differences in rigging and paddle dimensions between sprint and slalom kayak paddlers. These differences were consistent for both male and female athletes, with sprint paddlers seated higher and using longer paddles with longer, though narrower, blades (p < 0.0001). Among male sprint paddlers, only minor differences in equipment set-up were found between competitors ranked in the top 10 places compared to the rest of the field. Considering all male paddlers initially, then sprint paddlers alone, significant (p < 0.01) regression equations were developed for the prediction of foot bar distance (r2 = 0.482 and 0.589 respectively) and hand grip distance (r2 = 0.400 and 0.541 respectively). The process of fine tuning equipment set-up often requires hours of practice with subjective feedback from the athlete. The normative data presented in this paper should assist coaches with this process as their athletes evolve toward their individual optimum set-up.

  12. How to set up a GIS program at a Minority University/College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannel, S.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation provides detailed ideas on how to set up a GIS program and how to develop it for maximum benefits in the areas of education, research, and community outreach. We draw our experience from setting up the GIS program at Oglala Lakota College (OLC), Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota and work at the University of the Virgin Islands. GIS can be useful in many fields and is inexpensive to set up. Native Americans applied science in the past and now embrace GIS technology for everyday decision making. This presentation shows the wide range of GIS applications using OLC's GIS program as an example. We present our educational activities, research and community outreach. This presentation will give detailed advice of what works (and what doesn't) and to promote geospatial technology to other tribal or non-tribal colleges and universities.

  13. An attempt to decrease anisotropic emissions of neutrons from a cylindrical 241Am-Be-encapsulation source.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, M; Tanimura, Y; Yoshizawa, M

    2014-10-01

    An attempt to decrease the anisotropic emissions of neutrons from a cylindrical (241)Am-Be-encapsulated X3 source was conducted with Monte Carlo calculations and experiments. The influence of metal materials and shapes of the external casing to the anisotropy factor were focussed on. Results obtained by calculations using MCNP4C implied that a light and spherical-shaped external casing decreases the anisotropic emission of neutrons. Experimental results using the spherical-shaped aluminium protection case also revealed that the anisotropy factor was close to 1.0 with wide zenith angle ranges.

  14. Characterization of a Sealed Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) Source by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    James Sommers; Marcos Jimenez; Mary Adamic; Jeffrey Giglio; Kevin Carney

    2009-12-01

    Two Americium-Beryllium neutron sources were dismantled, sampled (sub-sampled) and analyzed via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Characteristics such as “age” since purification, actinide content, trace metal content and inter and intra source composition were determined. The “age” since purification of the two sources was determined to be 25.0 and 25.4 years, respectively. The systematic errors in the “age” determination were ± 4 % 2s. The amount and isotopic composition of U and Pu varied substantially between the sub-samples of Source 2 (n=8). This may be due to the physical means of sub-sampling or the way the source was manufactured. Source 1 was much more consistent in terms of content and isotopic composition (n=3 sub-samples). The Be-Am ratio varied greatly between the two sources. Source 1 had an Am-Be ratio of 6.3 ± 52 % (1s). Source 2 had an Am-Be ratio of 9.81 ± 3.5 % (1s). In addition, the trace element content between the samples varied greatly. Significant differences were determined between Source 1 and 2 for Sc, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba and W.

  15. Thermal-neutron cross sections and resonance integrals of 138Ba and 141Pr using Am-Be neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal-neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of 138Ba(n, γ)139Ba and 141Pr(n, γ)142Pr were measured by activation method using an isotopic Am-Be neutron source. The estimations were with respect to that of 55Mn(n, γ)56Mn and 197Au(n, γ)198Au reference monitors. The measured thermal-capture cross section of 138 Ba with respect to 55 Mn is 0.410±0.023 b and with respect to 197 Au is 0.386±0.019 b. The measured thermal-capture cross section of 141 Pr with respect to 55 Mn is 11.36±1.29 b and with respect to 197 Au is 10.43±1.14 b. The resonance integrals for 138 Ba are 0.380±0.033 b (55 Mn) and 0.364±0.027 b (197 Au) and for 141 Pr are 21.05±2.88 b (55 Mn) and 15.27±1.87 b (197 Au). The comparison between the present measurements and various reported values are discussed. The cross sections corresponding to the selected isotopes are measured using an Am-Be source facility for the first time.

  16. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  17. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  18. Setting up Targeted Research Interviews: A Primer for Students and New Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noy, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes key strategic considerations for setting up targeted research interviews, including human subjects and Institutional Review Board requirements, approaching respondents, the medium of contact, using technology, cultural conceptions of time and commitment, using networks, wading through bureaucracies, and watching for warning…

  19. Setting up spaces for collaboration in industry between researchers from the natural and social sciences.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Policy makers call upon researchers from the natural and social sciences to collaborate for the responsible development and deployment of innovations. Collaborations are projected to enhance both the technical quality of innovations, and the extent to which relevant social and ethical considerations are integrated into their development. This could make these innovations more socially robust and responsible, particularly in new and emerging scientific and technological fields, such as synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Some researchers from both fields have embarked on collaborative research activities, using various Technology Assessment approaches and Socio-Technical Integration Research activities such as Midstream Modulation. Still, practical experience of collaborations in industry is limited, while much may be expected from industry in terms of socially responsible innovation development. Experience in and guidelines on how to set up and manage such collaborations are not easily available. Having carried out various collaborative research activities in industry ourselves, we aim to share in this paper our experiences in setting up and working in such collaborations. We highlight the possibilities and boundaries in setting up and managing collaborations, and discuss how we have experienced the emergence of 'collaborative spaces.' Hopefully our findings can facilitate and encourage others to set up collaborative research endeavours.

  20. Set up and Operation of Video Cassette Recorders or "...How Do I Work This Thing???"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Designed to assist Alaskans in making optimum use of the LearnAlaska TV transmitter network, this booklet provides instructions for the operation and maintenance of videocassette recorders (VCRs). After a brief introduction, which lists state film library addresses for ordering an accompanying videocassette entitled "Set Up & Operation…

  1. Setting Up a Library: How To Begin or Begin Again. CSLA Guide No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth S.

    Designed as a simple how-to guide, this handbook presents guidelines for setting up a church or synagogue library or revitalizing an existing one. The first of 10 sections, "Begin with a Purpose," advocates thinking about the goals of the library and putting them in writing. It includes two brief sample mission statements. The second, "Establish…

  2. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Study Guide Keyed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Small Business, Minneapolis, MN.

    This study guide, which includes the answers to student exercises included in it, is intended for use with the separately available entrepreneurship education text "How To Set Up Your Own Business." The guide includes student exercises and answers that have been designed to accompany chapters dealing with the following topics: deciding whether or…

  3. Students' Errors in Setting up Difference Quotients and Connections to Their Conceptions of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Although finding the limits of the difference quotients in the definitions of the derivative is troubling for many students, a difficulty that preceded this confusion was observed: students were not able to correctly set up the difference quotients as required in the definitions. The purpose of this study is to uncover student errors in setting up…

  4. A Guide To Setting Up a Creative Art Experiences Program for Older Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Jane E.

    This guide is intended to help agencies serving older adults with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities in setting up a relatively inexpensive creative art program. The first section presents a rationale for creative art experiences for this population and then provides specific information on program development, including…

  5. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  6. Setting up a Library BBS: A Step-by-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gene; Mitchell, Chris

    1987-01-01

    Setting up a public library bulletin board system is described as a way to attract young adult users as well as to foster awareness and use of electronic information media. Step-by-step guidelines cover hardware needed, including modems, types of software available, designing the system's contents, and maintenance and security. (EM)

  7. Campaigns by Parents to Set Up New Schools in England: Issues and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Hazel; West, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of parents in the planning and setting up of new secondary schools in the context of proposals to extend the right of parents in relation to new schools. The research focused on 15 parent campaigns that had recently taken place or were ongoing: seven aimed to obtain new schools and eight to prevent new schools being…

  8. Response function measurements of an NE102A organic scintillator using an 241Am-Be source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Aksoy, A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Coban, A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Ohali, M. A.; Al-Jalal, M. A.

    1994-07-01

    The response function of a 125 mm diameter NE102A organic scintillation detector has been measured over the 2.7-14.8 MeV neutron energy range. The detector response function was derived from the light output for monoenergetic neutrons and gamma rays. The light output of the detector for monoenergetic neutrons was measured by selecting narrowgates in the time-of-flight (TOF) spectrum for a 241Am-Be neutron source. In order to provide check points on the data, the detector light output was also measured for monoenergetic neutrons from the D(d, n) and T(d, n) reactions. The response function of the NE102A detector is in good agreement (within 1-5%) with the published data of Cecil et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 161 (1979) 439].

  9. An Am/Be neutron source and its use in integral tests of differential neutron reaction cross-section data.

    PubMed

    Uddin, M S; Zaman, M R; Hossain, S M; Spahn, I; Sudár, S; Qaim, S M

    2010-09-01

    An Am/Be neutron source, installed recently at the Rajshahi University, is described. Neutron flux mapping was done using the nuclear reactions (197)Au(n,gamma)(198)Au, (113)In(n,gamma)(114m)In, (115)In(n,n'gamma)(115m)In and (58)Ni(n,p)(58)Co. An approximate validation of the neutron spectral shape was done using five neutron threshold detectors and the iterative unfolding code SULSA. Integral cross sections of the reactions (54)Fe(n,p)(54)Mn, (59)Co(n,p)(59)Fe and (92)Mo(n,p)(92m)Nb were measured with fast neutrons (E(n)>1.5MeV) and compared with data calculated using the neutron spectral distribution and the excitation function of each reaction given in data libraries: an agreement within +/-6% was found.

  10. Setting up and using the autopatcher for automated intracellular neural recording in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B.; Holst, Gregory L.; Wickersham, Ian R.; Singer, Annabelle C.; Franzesi, Giovanni Talei; McKinnon, Michael L.; Forest, Craig R.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2016-01-01

    Whole cell patch clamping in vivo is an important neuroscience technique that uniquely provides access to both supra-threshold spiking and sub-threshold synaptic events of single neurons in the brain. This article describes how to set up and use the autopatcher, a robot for automatically obtaining high yield and high quality whole cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. Following this protocol, a functional experimental rig for automated whole cell patch clamping can be set up in one week. High quality surgical preparation of mice takes approximately 1 hour, and each autopatching experiment can be carried out over periods lasting several hours. Autopatching should enable in vivo intracellular investigations to be accessible by a significant number of neuroscience labs, and enable labs already doing in vivo patch clamp to scale up their efforts by reducing training time for new lab members and increasing experimental durations by handling mentally intensive tasks automatically. PMID:26938115

  11. Development of a grinding-specific performance test set-up.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C G; Larsen, B H; Andresen, E L; de Zee, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a performance test set-up for America's Cup grinders. The test set-up had to mimic the on-boat grinding activity and be capable of collecting data for analysis and evaluation of grinding performance. This study included a literature-based analysis of grinding demands and a test protocol developed to accommodate the necessary physiological loads. This study resulted in a test protocol consisting of 10 intervals of 20 revolutions each interspersed with active resting periods of 50 s. The 20 revolutions are a combination of both forward and backward grinding and an exponentially rising resistance. A custom-made grinding ergometer was developed with computer-controlled resistance and capable of collecting data during the test. The data collected can be used to find measures of grinding performance such as peak power, time to complete and the decline in repeated grinding performance.

  12. Setting up a Grid: A Guide for Beginners by a Beginner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Clara

    2003-01-01

    A simple compute grid can be constructed for under $ 1,000 with 5 computers on a LAN for the purpose of video compression from captured digital video to MPEG file format. The process for setting up this grid will be covered in detail, including the required operating systems and hardware, the required globus software, and the required video capture and compression software. Pitfalls encountered will be discussed, and the approximate timeline for a motivated but uninformed beginner. The installation, configuration, and operation of additional software that is needed test, measure and otherwise verify that the grid components are functioning as "advertised", will also be presented. This is a true life account for setting up a grid based on instructions in Chapters 9 and 10 of Introduction to Grid Computing with Globus.

  13. Air fluorescence efficiency measurements for AIRWATCH based mission: Experimental set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Celi, F.; Fazio, G.; Giarrusso, S.; La Rosa, G.; Mangano, A.; Bonanno, G.; Cosentino, R.; Di Benedetto, R.; Scuderi, S.; Richiusa, G.; Gregorio, A.

    1998-06-15

    In the framework of the AIRWATCH project we present an experimental set-up to measure the efficiency of the UV fluorescence production of the air using hard X-ray stimulus. The measures will be carried out at different pressure and temperature to emulate the same condition of the upper layers of the atmosphere where X-ray and gamma ray photons of Gamma Ray Bursts are absorbed.

  14. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  15. Detection and dosimetry studies on the response of silicon diodes to an 241Am-Be source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfi, Y.; Zaki Dizaji, H.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2014-06-01

    Silicon diode detectors show potential for the development of an active personal dosimeter for neutron and photon radiation. Photons interact with the constituents of the diode detector and produce electrons. Fast neutrons interact with the constituents of the diode detector and converter, producing recoil nuclei and causing (n,α) and (n,p) reactions. These photon- and neutron-induced charged particles contribute to the response of diode detectors. In this work, a silicon pin diode was used as a detector to produce pulses created by photon and neutron. A polyethylene fast neutron converter was used as a recoil proton source in front of the detector. The total registered photon and neutron efficiency and the partial contributions of the efficiency, due to interactions with the diode and converter, were calculated. The results show that the efficiency of the converter-diode is a function of the incident photon and neutron energy. The optimized thicknesses of the converter for neutron detection and neutron dosimetry were found to be 1 mm and 0.1 mm respectively. The neutron records caused by the (n,α) and (n,p) reactions were negligible. The photon records were strongly dependent upon the energy and the depletion layer of the diode. The photons and neutrons efficiency of the diode-based dosimeter was calculated by the MCNPX code, and the results were in good agreement with experimental results for photons and neutrons from an 241Am-Be source.

  16. HPGe detector shielding optimization with MCNPX for the MEDINA PGNAA cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Mauerhofer, E.; Collot, J.

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste repositories must guarantee the non-toxicity of the waste in the long term, not only regarding radioactivity but also regarding other environmental contamination such as toxic chemicals. Analytical methods already exist for chemical characterization (ICP-MS, ICP-AES...) but they are based on test sampling. A possible alternative, for waste packages with an appropriate gamma radiation level, is to use Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA), a non-destructive measurement technique sensitive to several toxic chemicals. In view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France, collaboration between the CEA Cadarache (France) and the Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany) was initiated a few years ago. FZJ holds a PGNAA graphite cell called MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), allowing the characterization of 225 L drums. Fast neutrons are emitted from a D-T pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator and thermalized in graphite to induced radiative captures in the waste materials. Prompt capture gamma rays are detected using a 104% relative efficiency n-type HPGe. However, HPGe crystal is sensitive to fast neutron damage and to thermal neutron activation. A thermal neutron shield made of lithium fluorine and lithium carbonate is already used around the detector. In order to further decrease the current of fast and thermal neutrons coming into the crystal without penalizing MEDINA sensitivity (by decreasing the thermal neutron flux and neutron die away time of the cell, the gamma detection efficiency, or increasing the gamma background), some configurations based on easy-to-implement modifications of MEDINA have been simulated with MCNPX with a model of the cell already validated by experiments. Results show that fast and thermal neutron incoming current in the HPGe could easily be reduced by about a factor of 2 by additional quantities of graphite and by replacing lithium carbonate by lithium

  17. A practical tutorial to set up NMR diffusometry equipment: application to liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, M

    2014-10-01

    NMR diffusometry is nowadays a well-established and powerful technique to investigate molecular translation in fluid materials. Standard NMR diffusometry approaches are based on pulsed field gradients generated by specific hardware and specially designed NMR probes. Here, we present an alternative set-up that exploits the static gradient present in the fringe field of any commercial superconducting magnet. This stray field diffusometry technique can be particularly useful to study diffusional processes in fast-relaxing and slow-diffusing systems, such as thermotropic liquid crystals, ionic liquids and polymer melts.

  18. DESIGN NOTE: A measurement set-up for photoconductivity decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarkiewicz, T.; Kuta, S.

    1998-06-01

    Measurements of photoconductivity decay from the steady state for samples of amorphous silicon and silicon-carbon alloys were carried out using the experimental set-up with a Pockels cell as a light chopper. The developed electronic switching circuit allows measurements of decay times ranging down to microseconds. The advantage of the adopted method of light switching is that one can easily control the light intensity and photon energy. From knowledge of the photoconductivity decay time and the value of the steady state photoconductivity for a given sample, the carrier drift mobility can be calculated.

  19. Setting up robotic surgery in gynaecology: the experience of the Strasbourg teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sananès, N; Garbin, O; Hummel, M; Youssef, C; Vizitiu, R; Lemaho, D; Rottenberg, D; Diemunsch, P; Wattiez, A

    2011-06-01

    Teleoperated surgical robots could provide a genuine breakthrough in laparoscopy and it is for this reason that the development of robot-assisted laparoscopy is one of the priorities of the Strasbourg University Hospitals' strategic plan. The hospitals purchased a da Vinci S(®) robot in June 2006 and Strasbourg has, in IRCAD, one of the few robotic surgery training centres in the world. Our experience has, however, revealed the difficulties involved in setting up robotic surgery, the first of which are organizational issues. This prospective work was carried out between December 2007 and September 2008, primarily to examine the possibility of setting up robotic surgery on a regular basis for gynaecological surgical procedures at the Strasbourg University Hospitals. We maintained a "logbook" in which we prospectively noted all the resources implemented in setting up the robotic surgery service. The project was divided into two phases: the preparatory phase up until the first hysterectomy and then the second phase with the organization of subsequent hysterectomies. The first surgical procedure took 5 months to organize, and followed 25 interviews, 10 meetings, 53 telephone conversations and 48 e-mails with a total of 40 correspondents. The project was presented to seven separate groups, including the hospital medical commission, the gynaecology unit committee and the surgical staff. Fifteen members of the medical and paramedical team attended a two-day training course. Preparing the gynaecology department for robotic surgery required freeing up 8.5 days of "physician time" and 12.5 days of "nurse time". In the following five months, we performed five hysterectomies. Preparation for each procedure involved on average 5 interviews, 19 telephone conversations and 11 e-mails. The biggest obstacle was obtaining an operating slot, as on average it required 18 days, four telephone calls and four e-mails to be assigned a slot in the operating theatre schedule, which is

  20. Setting up a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for a healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Du, Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    WLAN can help the medical professionals to improve their working efficiency and reduce medical errors. In this paper, the important issues of deploying WLAN in hospitals are discussed. It gives a comprehensive overview of how to set up the mobility, Quality of Service (QoS) and security of the WLAN for a healthcare system. IEEE 802.11e standard and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ACT (HIPAA) regulations are discussed and some suggestions are given to meet the specific requirements of a healthcare environment.

  1. Load test set-up for the Airmass Sunburst Ultra-Light Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, Daniel W.; Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to set up, instrument, and test a Sunburst Ultra-Light aircraft. The intentions of the project were that the aircraft would need to be suspended from the test stand, leveled in the stand, the strain gauges tested and wired to the test equipment, and finally, the aircraft would be destroyed to obtain the failing loads. All jobs were completed, except for the destruction of the aircraft. This notebook shows the group's progress as these tasks were completed, and the following section attempts to explain the photographs in the notebook.

  2. Experimental set-up for three PHOEBUS type large-area heliostats at the PSA

    SciTech Connect

    Haeger, M.; Schiel, W.; Romero, M.; Schmitz-Goeb, M.

    1995-11-01

    Three large-area heliostat prototypes are being erected at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria by Spanish and German industry. The objective is to demonstrate their technical and economical suitability for a PHOEBUS power tower plant. The two different heliostat designs including two 100 ml glass/metal faceted heliostats and one 150 m{sup 2} stressed membrane heliostat are tested at a representative distance of 485 m to the PSA`s CESA tower. The paper introduces the heliostat designs and test set-up, such as location, targets, flux measurement, data acquisition and control.

  3. The regional commission for medical accidents and nosocomial infections set up by French law.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, C; Piercecchi-Marti, M D; Pelissier-Alicot, A L; Cianfarani, F; Leonetti, G

    2005-07-01

    The regional commission for conciliation and compensation for medical accidents, iatrogenic diseases and nosocomial infections (commission régionale de conciliation et d'indemnisation des accidents médicaux, affections iatrogènes et infections nosocomiales, CRCI) offers victims of such events the possibility of obtaining compensation without recourse to legal proceedings. We suggest various points of view about this commission set up by the French law no. 2002-303 of 4 March 2002: the composition, role and competence of the CRCI; the place of the expert's report; the opinion pronounced by the CRCI and its outcome, the compensation of victims and, finally, interaction with other procedures.

  4. Setting up a Nuchal Translucency Clinic: What Radiologists Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Onyeacholem, Ifeanyi; Kleiner, Beth; Hull, Andrew D; Chibuk, Jason; Romine, Lorene; Anton, Tracy; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to discuss the process of setting up a nuchal translucency (NT) screening clinic in clinical practice, how to interpret the information in combination with other clinical tests, what to do if abnormal results are obtained, and to illustrate some of the fetal anomalies that are associated with an increased NT. The NT was initially implemented to predict the likelihood of a fetus with Down syndrome. Maternal age can be combined with fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry (free β-hCG and PAPP-A) at 11 to 14 weeks to identify about 90% of affected fetuses. Setting up a clinic to perform the NT screening requires certified physicians and certified sonographers. Certification can be obtained for both physicians and sonographers through Nuchal Translucency Quality Review and Fetal Medicine Foundation. Cell-free DNA testing is now altering what our patients are choosing to evaluate fetuses at risk for chromosomal anomalies and congenital anomalies. Common pitfalls to performing, interpreting, and conveying results of the NT are illustrated in this article. Nasal bone measurement, fetal anatomy examination and fetal echocardiography are tools that add sensitivity to the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Examples of fetal anomalies discovered during the NT screening are also illustrated. Screening for obstetric complications is an additional benefit to the NT clinic.

  5. Setting up of teeth in the neutral zone and its effect on speech.

    PubMed

    Al-Magaleh, Wafa'a Radwan; Swelem, Amal Ali; Shohdi, Sahar Saad; Mawsouf, Nadia Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Rational goals for denture construction are basically directed at the restoration of esthetics and masticatory function and the healthy preservation of the remaining natural tissues. Little concern has been given to the perfection and optimization of the phonetic quality of denture users. However, insertion of prosthodontic restorations may lead to speech defects. Most such defects are mild but, nevertheless, can be a source of concern to the patient. For the dental practitioner, there are few guidelines for designing a prosthetic restoration with maximum phonetic success. One of these guidelines involves the setting up of teeth within the neutral zone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, subjectively and objectively, the effect on speech of setting up teeth in the neutral zone. Three groups were examined: group I (control) included 10 completely dentulous subjects, group II included 10 completely edentulous patients with conventional dentures, and group III included the same 10 edentulous patients with neutral zone dentures. Subjective assessment included patient satisfaction. Objective assessment included duration taken for recitation of Al-Fateha and acoustic analysis. Subjectively, patients were more satisfied with their neutral zone dentures. Objectively, speech produced with the neutral zone dentures was closer to normal than speech with conventional dentures.

  6. A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.

  7. Test set up description and performances for HAWAII-2RG detector characterization at ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; ter Haar, J.; de Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Butler, B.; Smit, H.; van der Luijt, C.; Martin, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame work of the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision program, the Euclid mission has the objective to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies will be observed in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths by an imaging and spectroscopic channel. For the Near Infrared Spectrometer instrument (NISP), the state-of-the-art HAWAII-2RG detectors will be used, associated with the SIDECAR ASIC readout electronic which will perform the image frame acquisitions. To characterize and validate the performance of these detectors, a test bench has been designed, tested and validated. This publication describes the pre-tests performed to build the set up dedicated to dark current measurements and tests requiring reasonably uniform light levels (such as for conversion gain measurements). Successful cryogenic and vacuum tests on commercial LEDs and photodiodes are shown. An optimized feed through in stainless steel with a V-groove to pot the flex cable connecting the SIDECAR ASIC to the room temperature board (JADE2) has been designed and tested. The test set up for quantum efficiency measurements consisting of a lamp, a monochromator, an integrating sphere and set of cold filters, and which is currently under construction will ensure a uniform illumination across the detector with variations lower than 2%. A dedicated spot projector for intra-pixel measurements has been designed and built to reach a spot diameter of 5 μm at 920nm with 2nm of bandwidth [1].

  8. A new mechatronic set-up and technique for investigation of firearms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel

    2016-12-01

    Since ancient times, mankind has manifested interest in the development and improvement of weapons, either for military or hunting purposes. Today, in competition with these legal practices, the number of those who commit crimes by non-compliance with the regime of weapons and ammunition has increased exponentially. This is why the technology and methods employed in the area of judicial ballistics, requires constant research and continuous learning. The present paper advances a new experimental set-up and its corresponding methodology, meant to measure the force deployed by the firing pin. The new experimental set-up and procedure consists of a mechatronic structure, based on a piezoelectric force transducer, which allows to measure, in-situ, the force produced by the firing pin when it is deployed. The obtained information can further be used to establish a correspondence between this force and the imprint left on the firing cap. This correspondence furthers the possibility of elaborating a model that would permit ballistic experts to correctly identify a smoothbore weapon.

  9. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2013-12-23

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  10. Characterization of neutron flux spectra in the irradiation sites of a 37 GBq 241Am-Be isotopic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, Haluk; Budak, Mustafa Guray; Karadag, Mustafa; Yüksel, Alptuğ Özer

    2014-11-01

    For the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, an irradiation unit with a 37 GBq 241Am-Be neutron source was installed at Institute of Nuclear Sciences of Ankara University. Design and configuration properties of the irradiation unit are described. It has two different sample irradiation positions, one is called site #1 having a pneumatic sample transfer system and the other is site #2 having a location for manual use. In order to characterize neutron flux spectra in the irradiation sites, the measurement results were obtained for thermal (Фth) and epithermal neutron fluxes (Фepi), thermal to epithermal flux ratio (f) and epithermal spectrum shaping factors (α) by employing cadmium ratios of gold (Au) and molybdenum (Mo) monitors. The activities produced in these foils were measured by using a p-type, 44.8% relative efficiency HPGe well detector. For the measured γ-rays, self-absorption and true coincidence summing effects were taken into account. Additionally, thermal neutron self-shielding and resonance neutron self-shielding effects were taken into account in the measured results. For characterization of site #1, the required parameters were found to be Фth = (2.11 ± 0.05) × 103 n cm-2 s-1, Фepi = (3.32 ± 0.17) × 101 n cm-2 s-1, f = 63.6 ± 1.5, α = 0.045 ± 0.009, respectively. Similarly, those parameters were measured in site #2 as Фth = (1.49 ± 0.04) × 103 n cm-2 s-1, Фepi = (2.93 ± 0.15) × 101 n cm-2 s-1, f = 50.9 ± 1.3 and α = 0.038 ± 0.008. The results for f-values indicate that good thermalization of fast neutrons on the order of 98% was achieved in both sample irradiation sites. This is because an optimum combination of water and paraffin moderator is used in the present configuration. In addition, the shielding requirements are met by using natural boron oxide powder (5.5 cm) and boron loaded paraffin layers against neutrons, and a 15 cm thick lead bricks against gamma-rays from source and its

  11. FTIR free-jet set-up for the high resolution spectroscopic investigation of condensable species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, R.; Bonnamy, A.; Benidar, A.; Decroi, M.; Boissoles, J.

    2002-05-01

    An existing experimental set-up combining Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and free-jet cooling has been modified significantly to allow high resolution studies of the spectrum of monomer species which are liquid under standard conditions. Evaporation of the liquid samples is controlled by a condenser apparatus which is described. A supersonic planar expansion issuing from a narrow aperture is preferred for its very high cooling rate. Such an expansion, probed with a pitot tube, has a zone of limited temperature gradient close to the nozzle exit. The continuum isentropic model appears well suited to describing the thermodynamic properties of the flow up to a high number of nozzle diameters downstream. High resolution spectra of benzene and methanol have been recorded in the 3 µm wavelength range, and their analysis demonstrates a well defined rotational temperature in the 20-25 K range.

  12. Setting up of a low temperature in-situ ion implantation and channeling facility at Kalpakkam

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaravel, B.; Saravanan, K.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nair, K. G. M.

    2011-07-15

    A simple low temperature ion implantation and ion channeling facility has been set up. Low temperatures upto 70 K has been obtained on a goniometer sample holder by connecting to a continuous flow Helium cryostat with a copper braid. Charge integration is carried out with a transmission Faraday cup with 10 mm diameter aperture and four Faraday cups for performing ion implantation and an electron suppressed 1.5 mm aperture with a TEM grid of 60% beam transmission for ion beam analysis. Typical low temperature ion implantation and channeling experiments have been carried out. Stabilization at intermediate temperatures by controlling the heater at the sample holder and improvement of the achievable lowest temperature by having liquid nitrogen cooled heat shield are in progress.

  13. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Buendía, A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; García-Hernandez, M.; and others

    2015-01-15

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi{sub 2}Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  14. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Galvis, J A; Herrera, E; Guillamón, I; Azpeitia, J; Luccas, R F; Munuera, C; Cuenca, M; Higuera, J A; Díaz, N; Pazos, M; García-Hernandez, M; Buendía, A; Vieira, S; Suderow, H

    2015-01-01

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi2Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  15. Set up of cutoff thresholds for kinship determination using SNP loci.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sohee; Shin, Eun Soon; Yu, Hyung Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Seo, Hee Jin; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Soong Deok

    2017-03-08

    The usefulness of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for kinship testing has been demonstrated in many case works, and suggested as a promising marker for relationship identification. For interpreting results based on the calculation of the likelihood ratio (LR) in kinship testing, it is important to prepare cutoffs for respective relatives which are dependent on genetic relatedness. For this, analysis using true pedigree data is significant and reliable as it reflects the actual frequencies of markers in the population. In this study, the kinship index was explored through 1209 parent-child pairs, 1373 full sibling pairs, and 247 uncle-nephew pairs using 136 SNP loci. The cutoffs for LR were set up using different numbers of SNP loci with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. It is expected that this study can support the application of SNP loci-based kinship testing for various relationships.

  16. Resistive wall modes in the setting-up phase of a reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, P.; Barrick, G. ); Robertson, S. )

    1990-12-01

    Resistive wall modes during the setting-up phase of a reversed field pinch have been investigated in an experiment (Reversatron II (IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. {bold PS}-{bold 16}, 667 (1988))) operated without a conducting shell. The time for the vertical field to penetrate the vacuum chamber (4 {mu}sec) is much shorter than the rise time of the plasma current (100 {mu}sec). The discharges, when compared to discharges in the same device with a conducting shell, have a greater resistance and lower plasma current. Magnetic probes indicate the growth of a strong {vert bar}{ital n}{vert bar}=6 helical kink resonant with the field on axis.

  17. Juvenile obsessive compulsive disorder in a paediatric dentistry set-up.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ruchi; Shigli, Anand L; Thakur, Gagan; Jain, Upendra

    2015-06-11

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder comprising uncontrollable thought processes and repetitive, ritualised behaviours that one feels compelled to perform. If an individual has OCD, he/she probably realises that his/her obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours are irrational but would still feel unable to resist them. Since a pedodontist's association with the child patient and parents is established at quite an early age, they should make good use of the opportunity to diagnose psychological disorders in child patients as well as adolescents. Prompt diagnosis in such cases would enable timely medical intervention and hence help in achieving a more cooperative dental patient to ensure instillation of a positive dental attitude. This endeavour highlights a case of a 10-year-old boy who had reported to a private dental set-up with dental problems and was concurrently diagnosed for OCD.

  18. Error control in the set-up of stereo camera systems for 3d animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.; Creato, C.; Del Castello, L.; Giardina, I.; Melillo, S.; Parisi, L.; Viale, M.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of animal systems is the key to the comprehension of collective behavior. Experimental data collected via a stereo camera system allow the reconstruction of the 3d trajectories of each individual in the group. Trajectories can then be used to compute some quantities of interest to better understand collective motion, such as velocities, distances between individuals and correlation functions. The reliability of the retrieved trajectories is strictly related to the accuracy of the 3d reconstruction. In this paper, we perform a careful analysis of the most significant errors affecting 3d reconstruction, showing how the accuracy depends on the camera system set-up and on the precision of the calibration parameters.

  19. Specific heat measurement set-up for quench condensed thin superconducting films.

    PubMed

    Poran, Shachaf; Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Gérardin, Anne; Frydman, Aviad; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We present a set-up designed for the measurement of specific heat of very thin or ultra-thin quench condensed superconducting films. In an ultra-high vacuum chamber, materials of interest can be thermally evaporated directly on a silicon membrane regulated in temperature from 1.4 K to 10 K. On this membrane, a heater and a thermometer are lithographically fabricated, allowing the measurement of heat capacity of the quench condensed layers. This apparatus permits the simultaneous thermal and electrical characterization of successively deposited layers in situ without exposing the deposited materials to room temperature or atmospheric conditions, both being irreversibly harmful to the samples. This system can be used to study specific heat signatures of phase transitions through the superconductor to insulator transition of quench condensed films.

  20. Setting up your own business. Facing the future as an entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Brent, N J

    1990-01-01

    Other areas of setting up and running a business also are important to explore, especially if the business plans to use employees. You will become an employer, and you must be familiar with rules and regulations that include areas such as the employee's right to a safe workplace, worker's compensation laws, unemployment compensation laws and tax liabilities, antidiscrimination laws, and wage and tax laws. If independent contractors are going to be used, you must recognize that well-developed contracts are a necessity. If you are going to market a new product, consult with an attorney whose practice concentrates in trademark and patent law before the product is shared with others. Being well informed about the proposed business venture, not only before its establishment but as it develops and grows, can help you be in the best position to have a successful business.

  1. The experimental set-up of the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Nicoletto, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Toniolo, N.; Torresi, D.; Tortone, G.; Anastasio, A.; Bettini, M.; Cassese, C.; Castellani, L.; Corti, D.; Costa, L.; De Fazio, B.; Galet, G.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Molini, P.; Pontoriere, G.; Rocco, R.; Romoli, M.; Roscilli, L.; Sandoli, M.; Stroe, L.; Tessaro, M.; Zatti, P. G.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the experimental set-up of the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) in-flight facility EXOTIC consisting of: (a) two position-sensitive Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs), dedicated to the event-by-event tracking of the produced RIBs and to time of flight measurements and (b) the new high-granularity compact telescope array EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System), designed for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments employing low-energy light RIBs. EXPADES consists of eight ΔE -Eres telescopes arranged in a cylindrical configuration around the target. Each telescope is made up of two Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) with a thickness of 40/60 μm and 300 μm for the ΔE and Eres layer, respectively. Additionally, eight ionization chambers were constructed to be used as an alternative ΔE stage or, in conjunction with the entire DSSSD array, to build up more complex triple telescopes. New low-noise multi-channel charge-sensitive preamplifiers and spectroscopy amplifiers, associated with constant fraction discriminators, peak-and-hold and Time to Amplitude Converter circuits were developed for the electronic readout of the ΔE stage. Application Specific Integrated Circuit-based electronics was employed for the treatment of the Eres signals. An 8-channel, 12-bit multi-sampling 50 MHz Analog to Digital Converter, a Trigger Supervisor Board for handling the trigger signals of the whole experimental set-up and an ad hoc data acquisition system were also developed. The performance of the PPACs, EXPADES and of the associated electronics was obtained offline with standard α calibration sources and in-beam by measuring the scattering process for the systems 17O+58Ni and 17O+208Pb at incident energies around their respective Coulomb barriers and, successively, during the first experimental runs with the RIBs of the EXOTIC facility.

  2. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Lauret, J.; Lauret, J.; Chaloupka, P.; Jakl, P.; Kapitan, J.; Zerola, M.

    2010-05-28

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called 'Golias'. It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  3. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloupka, Petr; Jakl, Pavel; Kapitán, Jan; Zerola, Michal; Lauret, Jérôme; STAR Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations' experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called "Golias". It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  4. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Asish, K; Suresh, Varun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs), presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. Methods: This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected. The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. Results: The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI), separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. Conclusion: The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians. PMID:27013749

  5. Setting up of a cerebral visual impairment clinic for children: Challenges and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Swetha Sara

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the setting up of a cerebral visual impairment (CVI) clinic in a tertiary care hospital in South India and to describe the spectrum of cases seen. Materials and Methods: The CVI clinic, set up in February 2011, receives interdisciplinary input from a core team involving a pediatrician, neurologist, psychiatrist, occupational therapist, pediatric ophthalmologist, and an optometrist. All children, <18 years of age, with cerebral palsy (CP), learning disability, autism, neurodegenerative diseases, and brain trauma are referred to the clinic for functional vision assessment and opinion for further management. Results: One thousand four hundred and seventy-eight patients were seen in the CVI clinic from February 2011 to September 2015. Eighty-five percent of the patients were from different parts of India. In the clinic, 61% had CP, 28% had seizure disorders, autism was seen in 9.5%, and learning disability, neurodegenerative conditions, and brain injury together constituted 1.5%. Most of the children (45%) had moderate CP. Forty percent of CVI was due to birth asphyxia, but about 20% did not have any known cause for CVI. Seventy percent of patients, who came back for follow-up, were carrying out the habilitation strategies suggested. Conclusions: Average attendance of over 300 new patients a year suggests a definite need for CVI clinics in the country. These children need specialized care to handle their complex needs. Although difficult to coordinate, an interdisciplinary team including the support groups and voluntary organizations is needed to facilitate the successful implementation of such specialized service. PMID:28300737

  6. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has already a large impact on the availability of water resources. Many regions in South-East Asia are assumed to receive less water in the future, dramatically impacting the production of the most important staple food: rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is the primary food source for nearly half of the World's population, and is the only cereal that can grow under wetland conditions. Especially anaerobic (flooded) rice fields require high amounts of water but also have higher yields than aerobic produced rice. In the past different methods were developed to reduce the water use in rice paddies, like alternative wetting and drying or the use of mixed cropping systems with aerobic (non-flooded) rice and alternative crops such as maize. A more detailed understanding of water and nutrient cycling in rice-based cropping systems is needed to reduce water use, and requires the investigation of hydrological and biochemical processes as well as transport dynamics at the field scale. New developments in analytical devices permit monitoring parameters at high temporal resolutions and at acceptable costs without much necessary maintenance or analysis over longer periods. Here we present a new type of automatic sampling set-up that facilitates in situ analysis of hydrometric information, stable water isotopes and nitrate concentrations in spatially differentiated agricultural fields. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The whole system is maintained with special developed software for remote control of the system via internet. We

  7. The design of a multisource americium-beryllium (Am-Be) neutron irradiation facility using MCNP for the neutronic performance calculation.

    PubMed

    Sogbadji, R B M; Abrefah, R G; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Odoi, H C; Attakorah-Birinkorang, S

    2014-08-01

    The americium-beryllium neutron irradiation facility at the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI), Ghana, was re-designed with four 20 Ci sources using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code to investigate the maximum amount of flux that is produced by the combined sources. The results were compared with a single source Am-Be irradiation facility. The main objective was to enable us to harness the maximum amount of flux for the optimization of neutron activation analysis and to enable smaller sample sized samples to be irradiated. Using MCNP for the design construction and neutronic performance calculation, it was realized that the single-source Am-Be design produced a thermal neutron flux of (1.8±0.0007)×10(6) n/cm(2)s and the four-source Am-Be design produced a thermal neutron flux of (5.4±0.0007)×10(6) n/cm(2)s which is a factor of 3.5 fold increase compared to the single-source Am-Be design. The criticality effective, k(eff), of the single-source and the four-source Am-Be designs were found to be 0.00115±0.0008 and 0.00143±0.0008, respectively.

  8. ESTIMATION OF NEUTRON SCATTER CORRECTION FOR CALIBRATION OF PERSONNEL DOSIMETER AND DOSERATEMETER AGAINST 241Am-Be SOURCE-MONTE CARLO SIMULATION AND MEASUREMENTS.

    PubMed

    Dawn, Sandipan; Bakshi, A K; Sathian, Deepa; Selvam, T Palani

    2016-10-07

    Neutron scatter contributions as a function of distance along the transverse axis of (241)Am-Be source were estimated by three different methods such as shadow cone, semi-empirical and Monte Carlo. The Monte Carlo-based FLUKA code was used to simulate the existing room used for the calibration of CR-39 detector as well as LB6411 doseratemeter for selected distances from (241)Am-Be source. The modified (241)Am-Be spectra at different irradiation geometries such as at different source detector distances, behind the shadow cone, at the surface of the water phantom were also evaluated using Monte Carlo calculations. Neutron scatter contributions, estimated using three different methods compare reasonably well. It is proposed to use the scattering correction factors estimated through Monte Carlo simulation and other methods for the calibration of CR-39 detector and doseratemeter at 0.75 and 1 m distance from the source.

  9. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  10. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work.

  11. Margin evaluation of translational and rotational set-up errors in intensity modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Shan, Guo-Ping; Liu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Bin-Bing

    2016-01-01

    A clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin recipes was routinely used to ensure dose was actually delivered to target for all (most) patients. Currently used margin recipes were associated with only translational set-up errors in radiotherapy. However, when set-up errors extended to six-degree (6D) scope (three translational and three rotational set-up errors), margin recipe should be re-evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate dosimetric changes of targets (both CTV and PTV) coverage when 6D set-up errors were introduced and testify the practicability of currently used margin recipe in radiotherapy. A total number of 105 cone beam computer tomography scans for ten patients with cervical cancer were derived prior to treatment delivery and 6D set-up errors were acquired with image registration tools. Target coverage was evaluated retrospectively for 6D set-up errors introduced plan with 6 mm CTV to PTV margin. Target coverage of PTV showed significant decreases (3.3 %) in set-up errors introduced plans compared with original plans. But CTV coverage was not susceptible to these set-up errors. A tendency of coverage decrease for PTV along with distance away from treatment was testified, from -0.2 to -6.2 %. However, CTV seems changed less, from -0.2 to -0.8 %. The result indicate that a CTV to PTV margin of 6 mm was sufficient to take into account 6D set-up errors for most patients with cervical cancer. Future research suggests a smaller margin to further improve both tumor coverage and organs at risk sparing.

  12. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis set up for electronic sputtering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Sugathan, P.; Chaudhary, G. K.; Barua, P.

    2006-04-01

    Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) set up with a large solid angle (greater than or similar to 4.8 msr) Delta E - E position-sensitive telescope detector is developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre as a dedicated facility for the study of electronic sputtering of thin films under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The detector consists of a gas ionization chamber (Delta E ) and a solid-state surface barrier detector ( E ) housed in a same assembly. The electronic sputtering yield (atoms/ion) is determined by analyzing on-line fluence-dependent ERDA data obtained from a variety of thin films. Large erosion (> 10 5 atoms/ion) of carbon from a-C:H by 150 MeV Ag 13+ ions, evolution of nitrogen (greater than or similar to 880 atoms/ion) from copper nitride and depletion of oxygen (greater than or similar to 1000 atoms/ion) from copper oxide film under 200 MeV Au 15+ ion impact are studied and reported in this work. The electronic sputtering of these materials is discussed on the basis of the thermal spike model of SHI and solid interaction.

  13. A set up of a modern analytical laboratory for wastewaters from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Natalia; Dahl, Olli

    2007-08-01

    The introduction of analytical techniques allowing rapid, selective, sensitive, and reliable determination of aqueous pollutants is of crucial importance for the protection of the environment. This critical review summarizes the advanced analytical techniques suggested over the last ten years together with already established methods, and evaluates whether they are fit for wastewater quality assessment considering the area of application, interferences, limit of detection, calibration function, and precision. The key parameters of wastewater quality assessment are: total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), organochlorines (AOX), nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and toxicity. Chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, photocatalytic oxidation with semiconductor nanofilms and atomic emission spectrometry, optical fibre sensors and chemiluminescence, amperometric mediated biosensors and microbial fuel cells, respirometry and bioluminescence measurements are just part of the proposed wastewater analyst's toolkit. The diversity of fundamental phenomena and the captivating elegance of interdisciplinary applications involved in the development of wastewater analytical techniques should attract the interest of a wide scientific audience including analytical chemists, chemical physicists, microbiologists and environmentalists. To conclude, we suggest a laboratory set up for the analysis of wastewaters from the pulp and paper industry.

  14. Validation of a calibration set-up for radiosondes to fulfil GRUAN requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairanen, H.; Heinonen, M.; Högström, R.

    2015-10-01

    Interest in the precise measurement of water vapour in the upper-air is growing along with the consciousness of climate change. Because better knowledge of high altitude humidity levels improves the accuracy of climate models and weather forecasts, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) is putting more effort into the quality of these measurements. The GCOS established the Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) and set the requirements for its measurements accuracy and traceability to the International System of Units (SI). To fulfil these requirements, improved radiosondes and methods to calibrate them are being developed. This paper presents a new calibration system for radiosondes based on mixing air flows from two independent dew-point generators. The system operates in the air temperature range down to  -80 °C. Our results show that the new calibration set-up is able to provide calibrations for radionsondes at the uncertainty level of 2% in terms of the water vapour mixing ratio as required by GRUAN. A complete calibration covering the whole temperature and humidity range lasts less than three days. Additionally, the apparatus provides an option to characterize the behaviour of a radiosonde in changing temperatures and water vapour concentrations.

  15. Simulating the X-Ray Image Contrast to Set-Up Techniques with Desired Flaw Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides simulation data of previous work by the author in developing a model for estimating detectability of crack-like flaws in radiography. The methodology is being developed to help in implementation of NASA Special x-ray radiography qualification, but is generically applicable to radiography. The paper describes a method for characterizing X-ray detector resolution for crack detection. Applicability of ASTM E 2737 resolution requirements to the model are also discussed. The paper describes a model for simulating the detector resolution. A computer calculator application, discussed here, also performs predicted contrast and signal-to-noise ratio calculations. Results of various simulation runs in calculating x-ray flaw size parameter and image contrast for varying input parameters such as crack depth, crack width, part thickness, x-ray angle, part-to-detector distance, part-to-source distance, source sizes, and detector sensitivity and resolution are given as 3D surfaces. These results demonstrate effect of the input parameters on the flaw size parameter and the simulated image contrast of the crack. These simulations demonstrate utility of the flaw size parameter model in setting up x-ray techniques that provide desired flaw detectability in radiography. The method is applicable to film radiography, computed radiography, and digital radiography.

  16. Ultra-sensitive γ-ray spectroscopy set-up for investigating primordial lithium problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Gustavino, C.; Trezzi, D.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; DiLeva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.

    2016-07-01

    To precisely determine BBN 6Li production, the cross-section of the nuclear reaction 2H(α, γ)6Li must be directly measured within the astrophysical energy range of 30-400 keV. This measure requires an ultra-low γ-ray background in the experimental set-up. We have realized the conditions matching these very strict requirements at LUNA, the deep underground accelerator laboratory active in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy: the γ-ray spectrometer background has been reduced down to reach unmatched low levels, comparable to the good ones experienced in dedicated off-line underground ultra low γ counting rate. We present and discuss the γ-ray background reduction reached in the HpGe spectrometer, where most of the remaining γ-ray background seen in the spectra are coming from the energetic deuterons scattered in the gas target by the α beam. Thanks to the low neutron environmental background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3 MeV neutrons on HpGe detectors has been studied in details and the results are presented and discussed.

  17. Set-up and methods for SiPM Photo-Detection Efficiency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, G.; Acerbi, F.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Paternoster, G.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a compact set-up and three different methods to measure the Photo-Detection Efficiency (PDE) of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are presented. The methods, based on either continuous or pulsed light illumination, are discussed in detail and compared in terms of measurement precision and time. For the SiPM, these methods have the feature of minimizing the effect of both the primary and correlated noise on the PDE estimation. The PDE of SiPMs (produced at FBK, Trento, Italy) was measured in a range from UV to NIR, obtaining similar results with all the methods. Furthermore, the advantages of measuring, when possible, the PDE of SPADs (of the same technology and with the same layout of a single SiPM cell) instead of larger devices are also discussed and a direct comparison between measurement results is shown. Using a SPAD, it is possible to reduce the measurement complexity and uncertainty since the correlated noise sources are reduced with respect to the SiPM case.

  18. A set-up for a biased electrode experiment in ADITYA Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhyani, Pravesh; Ghosh, Joydeep; Sathyanarayana, K.; Praveenlal, V. E.; Gautam, Pramila; Shah, Minsha; Tanna, R. L.; Kumar, Pintu; Chavda, C.; Patel, N. C.; Panchal, V.; Gupta, C. N.; Jadeja, K. A.; Bhatt, S. B.; Kumar, S.; Raju, D.; Atrey, P. K.; Joisa, S.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental set-up to investigate the effect of a biased electrode introduced in the edge region on ADITYA tokamak discharges is presented. A specially designed double-bellow mechanical assembly is fabricated for controlling the electrode location as well as its exposed length inside the plasma. The cylindrical molybdenum electrode is powered by a capacitor-bank based pulsed power supply (PPS) using a semiconductor controlled rectifier (SCR) as a switch with forced commutation. A Langmuir probe array for radial profile measurements of plasma potential and density is fabricated and installed. Standard results of improvement of global confinement have been obtained using a biased electrode. In addition to that, in this paper we show for the first time that the same biasing system can be used to avoid disruptions through stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Real time disruption control experiments have also been carried out by triggering the bias-voltage on the electrode automatically when the Mirnov probe signal exceeds a preset threshold value using a uniquely designed electronic comparator circuit. Most of the results related to the improved confinement and disruption mitigation are obtained in case of the electrode tip being kept at ~3 cm inside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) with an exposed length of ~20 mm in typical discharges of ADITYA tokamak.

  19. [Set up of a protocol for heparin use in special patients].

    PubMed

    Manresa Ramón, N; Nájera Pérez, Ma D; Page del Pozo, Ma Ángeles; Sánchez Martínez, I; Sánchez Catalicio, Ma del M; Roldán Schilling, V

    2014-04-01

    Low-molecular weight (LMW) heparins bring a series of advantages as compared to non-fractionated heparin (NFH), such as safety, efficacy, bioavailability, fewer monitoring, and persistent anti-coagulant response. There exist, however, a concern about their use in particular patients that may require a special control, such as those with renal failure, age over 75 years, obesity, and pregnancy. The aim of this study was the set up between the department of Pharmacy, Hematology, and Internal Medicine of a consensus protocol for the follow-up ad monitoring of LMWH in patients requiring a special control. For this purpose, we carried out a bibliographical review of the different heparins used under de above mentioned conditions. Based on the evidence available and the consensus among the members of the working group, we established a protocol that contained recommendations on prophylaxis, management and monitoring by means of the determination of anti-Xa factor. Besides, we included some clues on the therapeutic figures of anti-Xa and administration schedules for obtaining anti-Xa values within the range. Enoxaparin was the selected heparin given the evidence and its availability at our center.

  20. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center: New Facility Set-up

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yamada, Satoru; Yusa, Ken; Tashiro, Mutsumi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Torikai, Kota; Yoshida, Yukari; Kitada, Yoko; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Takayoshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep-seated tumors compared with conventional X-ray therapy. In addition, carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or X-ray beams. C-ion RT for the first patient at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center (GHMC) was initiated in March of 2010. The major specifications of the facility were determined based on the experience of clinical treatments at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), with the size and cost being reduced to one-third of those at NIRS. The currently indicated sites of cancer treatment at GHMC are lung, prostate, head and neck, liver, rectum, bone and soft tissue. Between March 2010 and July 2011, a total of 177 patients were treated at GHMC although a total of 100 patients was the design specification during the period in considering the optimal machine performance. In the present article, we introduce the facility set-up of GHMC, including the facility design, treatment planning systems, and clinical preparations. PMID:24213124

  1. A simple, low-cost and fast Peltier thermoregulation set-up for electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Corrèges, P; Bugnard, E; Millerin, C; Masiero, A; Andrivet, J P; Bloc, A; Dunant, Y

    1998-09-01

    Most of the parameters recorded in electrophysiology are strongly temperature dependent. In order to control temperature fluctuations we have built a system that ensures an accurate thermoregulation of the recording chamber. Temperature of physiological preparations can be changed relatively quickly (about 8 degrees C/min) and with a good accuracy (+/- 0.5 degrees C) without inducing thermal oscillations. Contrary to other thermoregulating devices, the temperature regulation is not carried out through the perfused medium but directly at the bottom of the chamber where a 3-cm2 Peltier element has been placed. The element is driven by a dedicated electronic device which controls the amount and the direction of the current flowing across the Peltier thermocouple. All construction details and the appropriate electrical circuits are provided. Using this home-made device, the steady-state chamber temperature could be precisely monitored with a resolution of +/- 0.1 degrees C in a range of 0-40 degrees C. This set-up was tested in experiments designed to evaluate the temperature dependence of synaptic transmission in the Torpedo nerve electroplate synapses and of calcium currents recorded from isolated nerve cells. This low-cost method is suitable for a wide range of applications.

  2. Influence of the set-up on the recording of diffractive optical elements into photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, S.; Fernández, R.; Márquez, A.; Neipp, C.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2014-05-01

    Photopolymers are often used as a base of holographic memories displays. Recently the capacity of photopolymers to record diffractive optical elements (DOE's) has been demonstrated. To fabricate diffractive optical elements we use a hybrid setup that is composed by three different parts: LCD, optical system and the recording material. The DOE pattern is introduced by a liquid crystal display (LCD) working in the amplitude only mode to work as a master to project optically the DOE onto the recording material. The main advantage of this display is that permit us modify the DOE automatically, we use the electronics of the video projector to send the voltage to the pixels of the LCD. The LCD is used in the amplitude-mostly modulation regime by proper orientation of the external polarizers (P); then the pattern is imaged onto the material with an increased spatial frequency (a demagnifying factor of 2) by the optical system. The use of the LCD allows us to change DOE recorded in the photopolymer without moving any mechanical part of the set-up. A diaphragm is placed in the focal plane of the relay lens so as to eliminate the diffraction orders produced by the pixelation of the LCD. It can be expected that the final pattern imaged onto the recording material will be low filtered due to the finite aperture of the imaging system and especially due to the filtering process produced by the diaphragm. In this work we analyze the effect of the visibility achieved with the LCD and the high frequency cut-off due to the diaphragm in the final DOE recorded into the photopolymer. To simulate the recording we have used the fitted values parameters obtained for PVA/AA based photopolymers and the 3 dimensional models presented in previous works.

  3. Bushmeat genetics: setting up a reference framework for the DNA typing of African forest bushmeat.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Njiokou, Flobert; Olayemi, Ayodeji; Pagani, Paolo; Dufour, Sylvain; Danquah, Emmanuel; Nutsuakor, Mac Elikem K; Ngua, Gabriel; Missoup, Alain-Didier; Tedesco, Pablo A; Dernat, Rémy; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-05-01

    The bushmeat trade in tropical Africa represents illegal, unsustainable off-takes of millions of tons of wild game - mostly mammals - per year. We sequenced four mitochondrial gene fragments (cyt b, COI, 12S, 16S) in >300 bushmeat items representing nine mammalian orders and 59 morphological species from five western and central African countries (Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea). Our objectives were to assess the efficiency of cross-species PCR amplification and to evaluate the usefulness of our multilocus approach for reliable bushmeat species identification. We provide a straightforward amplification protocol using a single 'universal' primer pair per gene that generally yielded >90% PCR success rates across orders and was robust to different types of meat preprocessing and DNA extraction protocols. For taxonomic identification, we set up a decision pipeline combining similarity- and tree-based approaches with an assessment of taxonomic expertise and coverage of the GENBANK database. Our multilocus approach permitted us to: (i) adjust for existing taxonomic gaps in GENBANK databases, (ii) assign to the species level 67% of the morphological species hypotheses and (iii) successfully identify samples with uncertain taxonomic attribution (preprocessed carcasses and cryptic lineages). High levels of genetic polymorphism across genes and taxa, together with the excellent resolution observed among species-level clusters (neighbour-joining trees and Klee diagrams) advocate the usefulness of our markers for bushmeat DNA typing. We formalize our DNA typing decision pipeline through an expert-curated query database - DNA BUSHMEAT - that shall permit the automated identification of African forest bushmeat items.

  4. Investigations in quantum games using EPR-type set-ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2006-04-01

    Research in quantum games has flourished during recent years. However, it seems that opinion remains divided about their true quantum character and content. For example, one argument says that quantum games are nothing but 'disguised' classical games and that to quantize a game is equivalent to replacing the original game by a different classical game. The present thesis contributes towards the ongoing debate about quantum nature of quantum games by developing two approaches addressing the related issues. Both approaches take Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-type experiments as the underlying physical set-ups to play two-player quantum games. In the first approach, the players' strategies are unit vectors in their respective planes, with the knowledge of coordinate axes being shared between them. Players perform measurements in an EPR-type setting and their payoffs are defined as functions of the correlations, i.e. without reference to classical or quantum mechanics. Classical bimatrix games are reproduced if the input states are classical and perfectly anti-correlated, as for a classical correlation game. However, for a quantum correlation game, with an entangled singlet state as input, qualitatively different solutions are obtained. The second approach uses the result that when the predictions of a Local Hidden Variable (LHV) model are made to violate the Bell inequalities the result is that some probability measures assume negative values. With the requirement that classical games result when the predictions of a LHV model do not violate the Bell inequalities, our analysis looks at the impact which the emergence of negative probabilities has on the solutions of two-player games which are physically implemented using the EPR-type experiments.

  5. Comparing para-rowing set-ups on an ergometer using kinematic movement patterns of able-bodied rowers.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B; Eger, T; Merritt, T; Godwin, A

    2017-04-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the biomechanics of able-bodied rowing, few studies have been completed with para-rowing set-ups. The purpose of this research was to provide benchmark data for handle kinetics and joint kinematics for able-bodied athletes rowing in para- rowing set-ups on an indoor ergometer. Able-bodied varsity rowers performed maximal trials in three para-rowing set-ups; Legs, Trunk and Arms (LTA), Trunk and Arms (TA) and Arms and Shoulders (AS) rowing. The handle force kinetics of the LTA stroke were comparable to the values for able-bodied literature. Lumbar flexion at the catch, extension at the finish and total range of motion were, however, greater than values in the literature for able-bodied athletes in the LTA set-up. Additionally, rowers in TA and AS set-ups utilised more extreme ranges of motion for lumbar flexion, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction than the LTA set-up. This study provides the first biomechanical values of the para-rowing strokes for researchers, coaches and athletes to use while promoting the safest training programmes possible for para-rowing.

  6. Different sedimentological and thermal evolution of three north-pyrenean basins during their set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelalou, Roman; Nalpas, Thierry; Bousquet, Romain; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2015-04-01

    out to be good places where to study the evolution of passive margin analogue and also to be a good example where the sediments were metamorphosed during the basin set up.

  7. Influence of experimental set-up on the infiltration characteristics during managed aquifer recharge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Vanzella de Melo, Julio Augusto; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    The main focus during operation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is on clogging processes, specifically on the changes of infiltration capacities and degradation of infiltrated organic substances including vadose zone oxygen dynamics. Lab scale experiments are one opportunity to understand and characterize these processes under different drying and wetting cycles and infiltration rates. However, the multitude of assumptions and scale-related limitations of downscale investigations often lead to over- or underestimations, rendering their results useless when translated to field-like conditions. Therefore, the specific objective of this investigation is to compare the results obtained from two different experimental set-ups with different scales: a 3D, rectangular shaped, stainless steel lysimeter (1.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 m) with an infiltration basin installed in the centre of its surface and a 1D soil column (1m, ᴓ 0.15 m) with the infiltration over the complete column surface. The study focuses on the influence of the experimental setup conditions on the soil clogging, water flow pattern, oxygen dynamics and degradation of organic substances. The results should allow making statements about the suitability of these lab experiments for the investigation of processes taking place in the unsaturated soil zone during operation of MAR. Both experimental units were packed with the same soil and equipped with tensiometers, TDR-probes, oxygen probes and suction cups in two depths for the estimation of spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture, oxygen and infiltrated substances. The lysimeter and the column were placed inside of a fully automatic climate tent, which facilitates the exact control of air temperature and humidity. The first results confirm that both infiltration units are suitable to simulate the clogging and the oxidation of easily degradable organic substances. However, the velocity of water transport is higher in the column compared with the lysimeter

  8. In vitro investigations of repulsion during laser lithotripsy using a pendulum set-up.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Ronald; Haseke, Nicolas; Pongratz, Thomas; Hecht, Volkmar; Tilki, Derya; Stief, Christian G; Bader, Markus Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy is a commonly used technique to treat ureteral calculi.The type of energy source used is one of the main influences of retrograd calculi propulsion. Using a momentum pendulum under-water set-up the induced momentum and the initial velocity were investigated. Pulsed laser light from three different clinically available laser systems, including a Ho:YAG laser, a frequency-doubled double-pulse (second harmonic generation, SHG) Nd:YAG laser and a flash-lamp pumped dye (FLPD) laser, were transmitted via flexible fibres of different core diameter to the front of the pendulum sinker. Single pulses at variable pulse energy, according to the clinical laser parameter settings, were applied to the target sinker, thus causing a repulsion-induced deflection which was documented by video recording. The maximum deflection was determined. Solving the differential equation of a pendulum gives the initial velocity, the laser-induced momentum and the efficiency of momentum transfer. The induced deflection as well as the starting velocity of the two short-duration pulsed laser systems (SHG Nd:YAG, FLPD) were similar (s (max) = 2-3.6 cm and v (0) = 150-200 mm/s, respectively), whereas both values were lower using the Ho:YAG laser with a long pulse duration (s (max) = 0.9--1.6 cm and v (0) = 60-105 mm/s, respectively). The momentum I induced by the Ho:YAG laser was only 50% and its transfer efficacy η (Repuls) was reduced to less than 5% of the values of the two short-pulsed laser systems. This investigation clearly showed the variable parts and amounts of repulsion using different pulsed lasers in an objective and reproducible manner. The momentum transfer efficiency could be determined without any physical friction problems. Further investigations are needed to compare stone fragmentation techniques with respect to laser repulsion and its clinical impact.

  9. Determination of europium content in Li2SiO3(Eu) by neutron activation analysis using Am-Be neutron source.

    PubMed

    Naik, Yeshwant; Tapase, Anant Shamrao; Mhatre, Amol; Datrik, Chandrashekhar; Tawade, Nilesh; Kumar, Umesh; Naik, Haladhara

    2016-12-01

    Circulardiscs of Li2SiO3 doped with europium were prepared and a new activation procedure for the neutron dose estimation in a breeder blanket of fusion reactor is described. The amount of europium in the disc was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) using an isotopic neutron source. The average neutron absorption cross section for the reaction was calculated using neutron distribution of the Am-Be source and available neutron absorption cross section data for the (151)Eu(n,γ)(152m)Eu reaction, which was used for estimation of europium in the pallet. The cross section of the elements varies with neutron energy, and the flux of the neutrons in each energy range seen by the nuclei under investigation also varies. Neutron distribution spectrum of the Am-Be source was worked out prior to NAA and the effective fractional flux for the nuclear reaction considered for the flux estimation was also determined.

  10. Standardisation of water-moderated 241Am-Be neutron source using De Pangher neutron long counter: experimental and Monte Carlo modelling.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Shobha; Kumari, Sujatha; Singh, Yashoda; Sathian, V; Mahant, A K; Sharma, D N

    2012-02-01

    A convenient neutron source is made for calibration of neutron survey instruments and personal dosimeters that are used in various nuclear installations such as fuel reprocessing, waste management, fuel fabrication and oil and well logging facilities, etc. This source consists of a bare (241)Am-Be neutron source placed at the centre of a 15-cm radius stainless steel spherical shell filled with distilled water. This paper describes the standardisation of the source at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, using De Pangher neutron long counter both experimentally and using the Monte Carlo simulation. The ratio of neutron yield of water moderated to the bare (241)Am-Be neutron source was found to be 0.573. From the simulation, the neutron-fluence-weighted average energy of water-moderated (241)Am-Be source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.25 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 3.55 MeV) was found to be nearly the same as that of a (252)Cf source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.1 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 2.3 MeV). This source can be used for calibration in addition to (252)Cf, to study the variation in response of neutron monitoring instruments.

  11. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer: the sensitivity of plan objectives and constraints to set-up uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploquin, Nicolas; Song, William; Lau, Harold; Dunscombe, Peter

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of set-up uncertainty on compliance with the objectives and constraints of an intensity modulated radiation therapy protocol for early stage cancer of the oropharynx. As the convolution approach to the quantitative study of set-up uncertainties cannot accommodate either surface contours or internal inhomogeneities, both of which are highly relevant to sites in the head and neck, we have employed the more resource intensive direct simulation method. The impact of both systematic (variable from 0 to 6 mm) and random (fixed at 2 mm) set-up uncertainties on compliance with the criteria of the RTOG H-0022 protocol has been examined for eight geometrically complex structures: CTV66 (gross tumour volume and palpable lymph nodes suspicious for metastases), CTV54 (lymph node groups or surgical neck levels at risk of subclinical metastases), glottic larynx, spinal cord, brainstem, mandible and left and right parotids. In a probability-based approach, both dose-volume histograms and equivalent uniform doses were used to describe the dose distributions achieved by plans for two patients, in the presence of set-up uncertainty. The equivalent uniform dose is defined to be that dose which, when delivered uniformly to the organ of interest, will lead to the same response as the non-uniform dose under consideration. For systematic set-up uncertainties greater than 2 mm and 5 mm respectively, coverage of the CTV66 and CTV54 could be significantly compromised. Directional sensitivity was observed in both cases. Most organs at risk (except the glottic larynx which did not comply under static conditions) continued to meet the dose constraints up to 4 mm systematic uncertainty for both plans. The exception was the contra lateral parotid gland, which this protocol is specifically designed to protect. Sensitivity to systematic set-up uncertainty of 2 mm was observed for this organ at risk in both clinical plans.

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  17. Setting up a Low-Cost Lab Management System for a Multi-Purpose Computing Laboratory Using Virtualisation Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Heng Ngee; Lee, Yeow Leong; Tan, Wee Kiat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a generic computer laboratory equipped with 52 workstations is set up for teaching IT-related courses and other general purpose usage. The authors have successfully constructed a lab management system based on decentralised, client-side software virtualisation technology using Linux and free software tools from VMware that…

  18. IRMA-2 at SOLEIL: a set-up for magnetic and coherent scattering of polarized soft x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, M.; Popescu, H.; Gaudemer, R.; Jaouen, N.; Avila, A.; Delaunay, R.; Fortuna, F.; Maier, U.; Spezzani, C.

    2013-03-01

    We have designed, built and tested a new instrument for soft x-ray scattering experiments. IRMA-2 is a UHV set-up for elastic and coherent scattering experiments developed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron. Applications will be in the field of solid state physics, with emphasis on the investigation of the magnetic properties of artificially structured materials.

  19. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages…

  20. A comparison of {sup 252}Cf and 14-MeV neutron excitation to identify chemical warfare agents by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, A.J.; Harlow, B.D.; Edwards, A.J.; Krebs, K.M.; Jones, J.L.; Yoon, W.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Since 1992, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectrometry (PINS) system has been widely used for the nondestructive assessment of munitions suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, such as the nerve agent sarin. PINS is a {sup 252}Cf-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. The standard PINS system employs a partially moderated 5-{micro}g {sup 252}Cf source emitting 10{sup 7} n/s to excite the atomic nuclei inside the item under test. The chemical elements inside the item are revealed by their characteristic gamma-ray spectrum, measured by a high-resolution high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The system computer then infers the fill compound or mixture from the elemental data extracted from the gamma-ray spectrum. Reliable PINS assessments can be completed in as little as 100 s for favorable cases such as white phosphorus smoke munitions, but normally, a 1000 to 3000 live-second counting interval is required. To improve PINS throughput when hundreds or more munitions must be assessed, they are evaluating the possible advantages of 14-MeV neutron excitation over their current radioisotopic source.

  1. Assessment of the neutron emission anisotropy factor of a sealed AmBe source by means of measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreti, S.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron emission anisotropy factor of a sealed Americium-Beryllium source is experimentally determined and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The measurements were done at the Italian Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations using a long counter neutron detector and a "X.3" type AmBe sealed neutron source. Experimental data are compared to simulations performed with the MCNP code where the precise structure of the source is taken into account starting from its technical design. The contributions of the single structural parts are described to point out the effective sources of the emission anisotropy.

  2. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  3. Superconducting quantum interference devices based set-up for probing current noise and correlations in three-terminal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, A. H.; Kaviraj, B.; Coupiac, O.; Lefloch, F.

    2012-11-15

    We have implemented a new experimental set-up for precise measurements of current fluctuations in three-terminal devices. The system operates at very low temperatures (30 mK) and is equipped with three superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as low noise current amplifiers. A SQUID input coil is connected to each terminal of a sample allowing the acquisition of time-dependent current everywhere in the circuit. From these traces, we can measure the current mean value, the noise, and cross-correlations between different branches of a device. In this paper, we present calibration results of noise and cross-correlations obtained using low impedance macroscopic resistors. From these results, we can extract the noise level of the set-up and show that there are no intrinsic correlations due to the measurement scheme. We also studied noise and correlations as a function of a dc current and estimated the electronic temperature of various macroscopic resistors.

  4. Real-time digital holographic interferometry set-up for phase gradient study in dynamic phase objects using spatial modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Adrian; Schiopu, Paul; Logofatu, Petre C.

    2016-12-01

    A fully digital experimental set-up for real-time digital acquisition and digital optical reconstruction of holographic sequences is presented: a He-Ne laser, a CCD camera and a Phase Only Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) area are part of the set-up. CCD registering and SLM projector are working simultaneously. Using a custom made software of our own, real-time Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) "fringe motion pictures" can be performed by subtracting consecutive frames from a reference one and instantly displaying the differences on the SLM illuminated with a playback wave. Phase variations of the objects can be visualized in real-time by observing the interference fringe pattern evolution.

  5. Study of di-electron production in quasi-free n-p interactions at HADES set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerusalimov, A. P.; Lykasov, G. I.

    2015-11-01

    The study of e+e--pairs production in n-p interactions was carried out at HADES set-up due to irradiation of proton target by deuteron beam at Tkind = 2.5 AGeV. The momentum and angular distributions of proton-spectator an effective masses of e+e--pairs were satisfactory described by a sum of various reactions of quasi-free n-p and p-p interactions.

  6. Evaluation of RSA set-up from a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for 3D joint kinematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; SIGNORELLI, CECILIA; BONTEMPI, MARCO; RUSSO, ALESSANDRO; ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; MARCACCI, MAURILIO; BRAGONZONI, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose dinamic roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), a technique currently based only on customized radiographic equipment, has been shown to be a very accurate method for detecting three-dimensional (3D) joint motion. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of an innovative RSA set-up for in vivo knee kinematic analysis, using a biplane fluoroscopic image system. To this end, the Authors describe the set-up as well as a possible protocol for clinical knee joint evaluation. The accuracy of the kinematic measurements is assessed. Methods the Authors evaluated the accuracy of 3D kinematic analysis of the knee in a new RSA set-up, based on a commercial biplane fluoroscopy system integrated into the clinical environment. The study was organized in three main phases: an in vitro test under static conditions, an in vitro test under dynamic conditions reproducing a flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), and an in vivo analysis of the flexion-extension ROM. For each test, the following were calculated, as an indication of the tracking accuracy: mean, minimum, maximum values and standard deviation of the error of rigid body fitting. Results in terms of rigid body fitting, in vivo test errors were found to be 0.10±0.05 mm. Phantom tests in static and kinematic conditions showed precision levels, for translations and rotations, of below 0.1 mm/0.2° and below 0.5 mm/0.3° respectively for all directions. Conclusions the results of this study suggest that kinematic RSA can be successfully performed using a standard clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for the acquisition of slow movements of the lower limb. Clinical relevance a kinematic RSA set-up using a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system is potentially applicable and provides a useful method for obtaining better characterization of joint biomechanics. PMID:27602352

  7. Cone beam CT with zonal filters for simultaneous dose reduction, improved target contrast and automated set-up in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Marchant, T E; Amer, A M

    2006-05-07

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) using a zonal filter is introduced. The aims are reduced concomitant imaging dose to the patient, simultaneous control of body scatter for improved image quality in the tumour target zone and preserved set-up detail for radiotherapy. Aluminium transmission diaphragms added to the CBCT x-ray tube of the Elekta Synergytrade mark linear accelerator produced an unattenuated beam for a central "target zone" and a partially attenuated beam for an outer "set-up zone". Imaging doses and contrast noise ratios (CNR) were measured in a test phantom for transmission diaphragms 12 and 24 mm thick, for 5 and 10 cm long target zones. The effect on automatic registration of zonal CBCT to conventional CT was assessed relative to full-field and lead-collimated images of an anthropomorphic phantom. Doses along the axis of rotation were reduced by up to 50% in both target and set-up zones, and weighted dose (two thirds surface dose plus one third central dose) was reduced by 10-20% for a 10 cm long target zone. CNR increased by up to 15% in zonally filtered CBCT images compared to full-field images. Automatic image registration remained as robust as that with full-field images and was superior to CBCT coned down using lead-collimation. Zonal CBCT significantly reduces imaging dose and is expected to benefit radiotherapy through improved target contrast, required to assess target coverage, and wide-field edge detail, needed for robust automatic measurement of patient set-up error.

  8. The effect of systematic set-up deviations on the absorbed dose distribution for left-sided breast cancer treated with respiratory gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, A.; Ceberg, S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to investigate interfraction set-up uncertainties for patients treated with respiratory gating for left-sided breast cancer, 2) to investigate the effect of the inter-fraction set-up on the absorbed dose-distribution for the target and organs at risk (OARs) and 3) optimize the set-up correction strategy. By acquiring multiple set-up images the systematic set-up deviation was evaluated. The effect of the systematic set-up deviation on the absorbed dose distribution was evaluated by 1) simulation in the treatment planning system and 2) measurements with a biplanar diode array. The set-up deviations could be decreased using a no action level correction strategy. Not using the clinically implemented adaptive maximum likelihood factor for the gating patients resulted in better set-up. When the uncorrected set-up deviations were simulated the average mean absorbed dose was increased from 1.38 to 2.21 Gy for the heart, 4.17 to 8.86 Gy to the left anterior descending coronary artery and 5.80 to 7.64 Gy to the left lung. Respiratory gating can induce systematic set-up deviations which would result in increased mean absorbed dose to the OARs if not corrected for and should therefore be corrected for by an appropriate correction strategy.

  9. International key comparison of measurements of neutron source emission rate (1999-2005): CCRI(III)-K9.AmBe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N. J.; Jones, L. N.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Q.; Chen, X.; Luo, H.; Rong, C.; Králik, M.; Park, H.; Choi, K. O.; Pereira, W. W.; da Fonseca, E. S.; Cassette, P.; Dewey, M. S.; Moiseev, N. N.; Kharitonov, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Section III (neutron measurements) of the Comité Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, CCRI, conducted a key comparison of primary measurements of the neutron emission rate of an 241Am-Be(α,n) radionuclide source. A single 241Am-Be(α,n) source was circulated to all the participants between 1999 and 2005. Eight laboratories participated—the CIAE (China), CMI (Czech Republic), KRISS (Republic of Korea), LNMRI (Brazil), LNE-LNHB (France), NIST (USA), NPL (UK) and the VNIIM (Russian Federation)—with the NPL making their measurements at the start and repeating them near the end of the exercise to verify the stability of the source. Each laboratory reported the emission rate into 4π sr together with a detailed uncertainty budget. All participants used the manganese bath technique, with the VNIIM also making measurements using an associated particle technique. The CMI, KRISS, VNIIM, and later the NPL, also measured the anisotropy of the source although this was not a formal part of the comparison. The first draft report was released in May 2006 and having been discussed and modified by the participants and subsequently reviewed by the CCRI(III), the present paper is now the final report of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section III, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  10. Estimation of low-level neutron dose-equivalent rate by using extrapolation method for a curie level Am-Be neutron source.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xu, Jiayun; Zhang, Jie

    2014-10-22

    Neutron radiation protection is an important research area because of the strong radiation biological effect of neutron field. The radiation dose of neutron is closely related to the neutron energy, and the connected relationship is a complex function of energy. For the low-level neutron radiation field (e.g. the Am-Be source), the commonly used commercial neutron dosimeter cannot always reflect the low-level dose rate, which is restricted by its own sensitivity limit and measuring range. In this paper, the intensity distribution of neutron field caused by a curie level Am-Be neutron source was investigated by measuring the count rates obtained through a (3)He proportional counter at different locations around the source. The results indicate that the count rates outside of the source room are negligible compared with the count rates measured in the source room. In the source room, (3)He proportional counter and neutron dosimeter were used to measure the count rates and dose rates respectively at different distances to the source. The results indicate that both the count rates and dose rates decrease exponentially with the increasing distance, and the dose rates measured by a commercial dosimeter are in good agreement with the results calculated by the Geant4 simulation within the inherent errors recommended by ICRP and IEC. Further studies presented in this paper indicate that the low-level neutron dose equivalent rates in the source room increase exponentially with the increasing low-energy neutron count rates when the source is lifted from the shield with different radiation intensities. Based on this relationship as well as the count rates measured at larger distance to the source, the dose rates can be calculated approximately by the extrapolation method. This principle can be used to estimate the low level neutron dose values in the source room which cannot be measured directly by a commercial dosimeter.

  11. Breast movement during normal and deep breathing, respiratory training and set up errors: implications for external beam partial breast irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S; Dinshaw, K A; Kamble, R; Sarin, R

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate interfraction and intrafraction breast movement and to study the effect of respiratory training on respiratory indices. Five patients were immobilized in supine position in a vacuum bag and three-dimensional set up errors, respiratory movement of the breast during normal and deep breathing, tidal volume and breath hold time were recorded. All patients underwent respiratory training and all the respiratory indices were re-evaluated at the end of training. Cumulative maximum movement error (CMME) was calculated by adding directional maximum set up error and maximum post training movement during normal breathing. The mean set up deviation was 1.3 mm (SD +/- 0.5 mm), 1.3 mm (SD +/- 0.3 mm) and 4.4 mm (SD +/- 2.6 mm) in the mediolateral, superoinferior and anteroposterior dimensions. Pre-training mean of the maximum marker movement during normal breathing was 1.07 mm, 1.94 mm and 1.86 mm in the mediolateral, superoinferior and anteroposterior dimensions. During deep breathing these values were 2 mm, 5.5 mm and 4.8 mm. While respiratory training had negligible effect on breast movement during normal breathing, it resulted in a modest reduction during deep breathing (p = 0.2). The mean CMME recorded for these patients was 3.4 mm, 4.5 mm and 7.1 mm in the mediolateral, superoinferior and anteroposterior dimension. Respiratory training also resulted in an increase in breath hold time from a mean of 31 s to 44 s (p = 0.04) and tidal volume from a mean of 560 cm(3) to 1160 cm(3) (p = 0.04). With patients immobilized in the vacuum bag the CMMEs are relatively less. Individualized directional margins may aid in reduction of planning target volume (PTV).

  12. Totomatix: a novel automatic set-up to control diurnal, diel and long-term plant nitrate nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques; Huanosto Magaña, Ruth; Fabre, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Stand-alone nutritional set-ups are useful tools to grow plants at defined nutrient availabilities and to measure nutrient uptake rates continuously, in particular that for nitrate. Their use is essential when the measurements are meant to cover long time periods. These complex systems have, however, important drawbacks, including poor long-term reliability and low precision at high nitrate concentration. This explains why the information dealing with diel dynamics of nitrate uptake rate is scarce and concerns mainly young plants grown at low nitrate concentration. Scope The novel system detailed in this paper has been developed to allow versatile use in growth rooms, greenhouses or open fields at nitrate concentrations ranging from a few micro- to several millimoles per litres. The system controls, at set frequencies, the solution nitrate concentration, pH and volumes. Nitrate concentration is measured by spectral deconvolution of UV spectra. The main advantages of the set-up are its low maintenance (weekly basis), an ability to diagnose interference or erroneous analyses and high precision of nitrate concentration measurements (0·025 % at 3 mm). The paper details the precision of diurnal nitrate uptake rate measurements, which reveals sensitivity to solution volume at low nitrate concentration, whereas at high concentration, it is mostly sensitive to the precision of volume estimates. Conclusions This novel set-up allows us to measure and characterize the dynamics of plant nitrate nutrition at high temporal resolution (minutes to hours) over long-term experiments (up to 1 year). It is reliable and also offers a novel method to regulate up to seven N treatments by adjusting the daily uptake of test plants relative to controls, in variable environments such as open fields and glasshouses. PMID:21985796

  13. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  14. Study of MOSFET Low Frequency Noise Source Fluctuation Using a New Fully Programmable Test Set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochereau, K.; Blanc, C.; Marin, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we aim to demonstrate the huge spread that can be seen on flicker (1/f) noise figures of advanced MOS devices. In order to do so, we set up a new fully programmable test bench including low frequency noise (1Hz-few Mhz) measurement capability. Once all the hurdles we faced during measurement optimization have been overpassed, we show indeed 1/f noise dispersion over wafer is far larger than simple drive current one. We introduce the first steps of a global study of noise source fluctuation that has still to be led.

  15. Novel design and optimisation of a nitritation/anammox set-up for ammonium removal from filtrate of digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, Yury; Kallistova, Anna; Kevbrina, Marina; Dorofeev, Alexander; Agarev, Anton; Mardanov, Andrey; Ravin, Nikolay; Kozlov, Michail; Pimenov, Nikolay

    2017-04-05

    Although the anammox process is extensively applied for the treatment of NH4-rich wastewater, new technical solutions overcoming the operational difficulties remain an important task. An innovative design of anammox-based set-up was employed to improve sludge settling under high ammonium load. The set-up included a completely mixed bioreactor with suspended and immobilised activated sludge. To prevent sludge flotation, recycled suspended sludge was additionally treated in an aerated tank at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of 1.5 ± 0.2 mg/l followed by processing in a flow-homogeniser. Introduction of these elements resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in total nitrogen removal efficiency (TNRE). The bioreactor achieved maximal TNRE of 86% corresponding to total nitrogen removal rate of 0.77 kg N/m3/d under defined optimal conditions: temperature of 35 ± 2°C, DO of 0.6 ± 0.2 mg/l, hydraulic retention time of 12 h, and dose of suspended sludge of 1.5 ± 0.1 g total suspended solids (TSS)/l. A weakly attached sludge was first described as a technologically important factor. Suspended, weakly and firmly attached sludge exhibited the highest heterotrophic, nitrifying, and anammox activities, respectively. New probes were constructed to detect anammox bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Probe for Candidatus 'Jettenia' could be recommended for widespread use.

  16. Quantitative analysis of sit to stand movement: experimental set-up definition and application to healthy and hemiplegic adults.

    PubMed

    Galli, M; Cimolin, V; Crivellini, M; Campanini, I

    2008-07-01

    Rising from a chair or sit to stand (STS) is a movement with a great clinical interest: it is meaningful in order to evaluate motor control and stability in patients with functional limitations. STS requires some skills, as coordination between trunk and lower limbs movements, correction of muscles strength, control of equilibrium and stability and it is often considered into clinical evaluation scales of different pathologies. In literature, although some studies are focused on STS, the essential functions of standing up are not well standardized and uniformly defined: for this reason its application in clinical centres is difficult. In this study an experimental set-up for acquisition of STS movement which is suitable for clinical applications has been proposed: first, it was studied in healthy subjects, to define a normative database of this specific motor task, then in pathological subjects (adults with hemiplegia), to quantify their functional limitation, using quantitative kinematic and kinetic parameters. The results showed that this experimental set-up is effective both in healthy and in pathological subjects; some significant parameters were identified and calculated in order to characterise and quantify the functional limitation of patients.

  17. To Set Up Norms for Drug Safety and Inspection: To Guarantee Administrative Sufficiency and Avoid Regulators from Being Wrongly Punished.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Qingsheng; Dong, Zuojun; Shao, Mingli

    2015-09-01

    Currently, as there is no systematic norm or standard for drug safety and inspection, it cannot be judged whether the regulatory authority or regulators have fulfilled their administrative responsibilities entirely or not, when a drug safety-related incident occurs. And there is a probability that some may even be wrongly punished. In this study, we have analyzed the risk of not having appropriate norms in place and also put forward recommendations for the government or the regulatory authorities to set up norms to be fulfilled for drug safety and inspection issues. This, on one hand, could provide a basic guideline for the regulatory authorities and regulators to improve their professional levels and administrative acumen and on the other hand, it could also provide a baseline for society to judge whether the regulatory authorities and regulators have fulfilled their responsibilities correctly and thereby also help prevent regulators from being mistakenly punished. This study proposes that a systematic and functional norm for drug safety and inspection could be set up relating to the determination of the responsibilities of regulatory authorities and scope of various inspections, number and frequency of inspections, number and qualifications of regulators, handling of inspection results, inspection records, and disciplinary codes for inspectors. This study also puts forward suggestions on who should be responsible for drafting the norms and what are the factors that need to be considered while formulating the norms.

  18. A dynamic method based on the specific substrate uptake rate to set up a feeding strategy for Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is one of the most important host organisms for the recombinant production of proteins in industrial biotechnology. To date, strain specific parameters, which are needed to set up feeding profiles for fed batch cultivations, are determined by time-consuming continuous cultures or consecutive fed batch cultivations, operated at different parameter sets. Results Here, we developed a novel approach based on fast and easy to do batch cultivations with methanol pulses enabling a more rapid determination of the strain specific parameters specific substrate uptake rate qs, specific productivity qp and the adaption time (Δtimeadapt) of the culture to methanol. Based on qs, an innovative feeding strategy to increase the productivity of a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain was developed. Higher specific substrate uptake rates resulted in increased specific productivity, which also showed a time dependent trajectory. A dynamic feeding strategy, where the setpoints for qs were increased stepwise until a qs max of 2.0 mmol·g-1·h-1 resulted in the highest specific productivity of 11 U·g-1·h-1. Conclusions Our strategy describes a novel and fast approach to determine strain specific parameters of a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain to set up feeding profiles solely based on the specific substrate uptake rate. This approach is generic and will allow application to other products and other hosts. PMID:21371310

  19. Parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon display based optical set-up for the generation of polarization spatial distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Irene; Lizana, Angel; Zheng, Xuejie; Peinado, Alba; Ramírez, Claudio; Martínez, Jose Luis; Márquez, Andrés.; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Liquid Crystals on Silicon (LCOS) displays are a type of LCDs that work in reflection. Such devices, due to the double pass that the light beam performs through the LC cells, lead to larger phase modulation than transmissive LCDs with the same thickness. By taking advantage of this modulation capability exhibited by LCOS displays, we propose a new experimental set-up which is able to provide customized state of polarization spatial distributions just by means of a single LCOS display. To this aim, a double reflection on different halves of the display is properly performed. This fact is achieved by including a compact optical system that steers the light and performs a proper polarization plane rotation. The set-up has been experimentally implemented and some experimental concerns are discussed. The suitability of the system is provided by generating different experimental spatial distributions of polarization. In this regard, well-known polarization distributions, as axial, azimuthal or spiral linear polarization patterns are here provided. Based on the excellent results obtained, the suitability of the system to generate different spatially variant distributions of polarization is validated.

  20. Beam patterns in an optical parametric oscillator set-up employing walk-off compensating beta barium borate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaucikas, M.; Warren, M.; Michailovas, A.; Antanavicius, R.; van Thor, J. J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the investigation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) set-up based on two beta barium borate (BBO) crystals, where the interplay between the crystal orientations, cut angles and air dispersion substantially influenced the OPO performance, and especially the angular spectrum of the output beam. Theory suggests that if two BBO crystals are used in this type of design, they should be of different cuts. This paper aims to provide an experimental manifestation of this fact. Furthermore, it has been shown that air dispersion produces similar effects and should be taken into account. An x-ray crystallographic indexing of the crystals was performed as an independent test of the above conclusions.

  1. Do you think you have what it takes to set up a long-term video monitoring unit?

    PubMed

    Smith, Sheila L

    2006-03-01

    The single most important factor when setting up a long-term video monitoring unit is research. Research all vendors by traveling to other sites and calling other facilities. Considerations with equipment include the server, acquisition units, review units, cameras, software, and monitors as well as other factors including Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliance. Research customer support including both field and telephone support. Involve your Clinical Engineering Department in your investigations. Be sure to obtain warranty information. Researching placement of the equipment is essential. Communication with numerous groups is vital. Administration, engineers, clinical engineering, physicians, infection control, environmental services, house supervisors, security, and all involved parties should be involved in the planning.

  2. Setting up a Neuroscience Stroke and Rehabilitation Centre in Brunei Darussalam by a transcontinental on-site and telemedical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Meyding-Lamadé, U; Bassa, B; Craemer, E; Jacobi, C; Chan, C; Hacke, W; Kress, B

    2017-02-01

    Due to the world-wide aging population, there is a need for specialist neurological knowledge, treatment and care. Stroke treatment is effective in reducing mortality and disability, but it is still not available in many areas of the world. We describe the set-up process of a specialized Neuroscience, Stroke and Rehabilitation Centre in Brunei Darussalam (BNSRC) in cooperation with a German hospital. This study details the setup of a stroke-, neurological intensive care- and neurorehabilitation unit, laboratories and a telemedical network to perform all evidence-based stroke treatments. All neurological on-site services and the telemedical network were successfully established within a short time. After setup, 1386 inpatients and 1803 outpatients with stroke and stroke mimics were treated. All evidence-based stroke treatments including thrombolysis and hemicraniectomy could be performed. It is possible to establish evidence-based modern stroke treatment within a short time period by a transcontinental on-site and telemedical cooperation.

  3. Comparison of different statistical methods for estimation of extreme sea levels with wave set-up contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergadallan, Xavier; Bernardara, Pietro; Benoit, Michel; Andreewsky, Marc; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the probability of occurrence of extreme sea levels is a central issue for the protection of the coast. Return periods of sea level with wave set-up contribution are estimated here in one site : Cherbourg in France in the English Channel. The methodology follows two steps : the first one is computation of joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level, the second one is interpretation of that joint probabilities to assess a sea level for a given return period. Two different approaches were evaluated to compute joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level : the first one is multivariate extreme values distributions of logistic type in which all components of the variables become large simultaneously, the second one is conditional approach for multivariate extreme values in which only one component of the variables have to be large. Two different methods were applied to estimate sea level with wave set-up contribution for a given return period : Monte-Carlo simulation in which estimation is more accurate but needs higher calculation time and classical ocean engineering design contours of type inverse-FORM in which the method is simpler and allows more complex estimation of wave setup part (wave propagation to the coast for example). We compare results from the two different approaches with the two different methods. To be able to use both Monte-Carlo simulation and design contours methods, wave setup is estimated with an simple empirical formula. We show advantages of the conditional approach compared to the multivariate extreme values approach when extreme sea-level occurs when either surge or wave height is large. We discuss the validity of the ocean engineering design contours method which is an alternative when computation of sea levels is too complex to use Monte-Carlo simulation method.

  4. High temperature measurement set-up for the electro-mechanical characterization of robust thin film systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, S.; Friedberger, A.; Seidel, H.; Schmid, U.

    2014-01-01

    Due to economic and environmental requirements there is a strong need both to increase the efficiency and to monitor the actual status of gas turbines, rocket engines and deep drilling systems. For these applications, micromachined pressure sensors based on a robust substrate material (e.g. sapphire) as well as strain gauges made of platinum for long-term stable operation are regarded as most promising to withstand harsh environments such as high temperature levels, aggressive media and/or high pressure loads. For pre-evaluation purposes, a novel, custom-built measurement set-up is presented allowing the determination of electro-mechanical thin film properties up to 850 °C. Key components of the measurement set-up are the one-sided clamped beam made of Al2O3 ceramics which is deflected by a quartz rod and a high precision encoder-controlled dc motor to drive the quartz rod. The specific arrangement of the infrared halogen heaters in combination with the gold coated quartz half shells ensures a high degree of temperature homogeneity along the beam axis. When exposed to tensile as well as compressive load conditions, the corresponding gauge factor values of 1 µm thick platinum thin films show a good comparison at room temperature and in the temperature range from 600 up to 850 °C where the effects originating from grain boundaries or from the film surfaces are negligible. Between 150 and 600 °C, however, a strong deviation in the gauge factor determination depending on the mechanical load condition is observed, which is attributed to the gliding of adjacent grains.

  5. Controls on Water Storage, Mixing and Release in a Nested Catchment Set-up with Clean and Mixed Physiographic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, L.; McDonnell, J.; Hissler, C.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Klaus, J.

    2015-12-01

    With catchment water storage being only rarely determined, storage dynamics remain largely unknown to date. However, storage bears considerable potential for catchment inter-comparison exercises, as well as it is likely to have an important role in regulating catchment functions. Catchment comparisons across a wide range of environments and scales will help to increase our understanding of relationships between storage dynamics and catchment processes. With respect to the potential of catchment storage for bringing new momentum to catchment classification and catchment processes understanding we currently investigate spatial and temporal variability of dynamic storage in a nested catchment set-up (16 catchments) of the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe), covering a wide range of geological settings, catchment areas, contrasted landuse, and hydro-meteorological and tracer series. We define catchment storage as the total amount of water stored in a control volume, delimited by the catchment's topographical boundaries and depth of saturated and unsaturated zones. Complementary storage assessments (via input-output dynamics of natural tracers, geographical sounding, groundwater level measurements, soil moisture measurements, hydrometry) are carried out for comparison purposes. In our nested catchment set-up we have (1) assessed dependencies between geology, catchment permeability and winter runoff coefficients, (2) calculated water balance derived catchment storage and mixing potential and quantified how dynamic storage differs between catchments and scales, and (3) examined how stream baseflow dD (as a proxy for baseflow transit time) and integrated flow measures (like the flow duration curve) relate to bedrock geology. Catchments with higher bedrock permeability exhibited larger storage capacities and eventually lower average winter runoff coefficients. Over a time-span of 11 years, all catchments re-produced the same winter runoff coefficients year after year

  6. Tally modifying of MCNP and post processing of pile-up simulation with time convolution method in PGNAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar Mowlavi, Ali; Koohi-Fayegh, Rahim

    2005-11-01

    Time convolution method has been employed for pile-up simulation in prompt gamma neutron activation analysis with an Am-Be neutron source and a 137Cs gamma source. A TALLYX subroutine has been written to design a new tally in the MCNP code. This tally records gamma particle information for the detector cell into an output file to be processed later. The times at which the particles are emitted by the source have been randomly generated following an exponential decay time distribution. A time convolution program was written to process the data produced and simulate more realistic pile-up. This method can be applied in optimization studies.

  7. Linking mathematics with engineering applications at an early stage - implementation, experimental set-up and evaluation of a pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooch, Aeneas; Junker, Philipp; Härterich, Jörg; Hackl, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Too difficult, too abstract, too theoretical - many first-year engineering students complain about their mathematics courses. The project MathePraxis aims to resolve this disaffection. It links mathematical methods as they are taught in the first semesters with practical problems from engineering applications - and thereby shall give first-year engineering students a vivid and convincing impression of where they will need mathematics in their later working life. But since real applications usually require more than basic mathematics and first-year engineering students typically are not experienced with construction, mensuration and the use of engineering software, such an approach is hard to realise. In this article, we show that it is possible. We report on the implementation of MathePraxis at Ruhr-Universität Bochum. We describe the set-up and the implementation of a course on designing a mass damper which combines basic mathematical techniques with an impressive experiment. In an accompanying evaluation, we have examined the students' motivation relating to mathematics. This opens up new perspectives how to address the need for a more practically oriented mathematical education in engineering sciences.

  8. A simplified edge illumination set-up for quantitative phase contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation at clinical doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Mariaconcetta; Rigon, Luigi; Lopez, Frances C. M.; Chen, Rongchang; Dreossi, Diego; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Longo, Renata

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the first study of x-ray phase contrast imaging based on a simple implementation of the edge illumination method (EIXPCi) in the field of mammography with synchrotron radiation. A simplified EIXPCi set-up was utilized to study a possible application in mammography at clinical doses. Moreover, through a novel algorithm capable of separating and quantifying absorption and phase perturbations of images acquired in EIXPCi modality, it is possible to extract quantitative information on breast images, allowing an accurate tissue identification. The study was carried out at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy), where a mastectomy specimen was investigated with the EIXPCi technique. The sample was exposed at three different energies suitable for mammography with synchrotron radiation in order to test the validity of the novel algorithm in extracting values of linear attenuation coefficients integrated over the sample thickness. It is demonstrated that the quantitative data are in good agreement with the theoretical values of linear attenuation coefficients calculated on the hypothesis of the breast with a given composition. The results are promising and encourage the current efforts to apply the method in mammography with synchrotron radiation.

  9. Set up of a cardiovascular simulator: application to the evaluation of the dynamical behavior of atheroma plaques in human arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brum, J.; Bia, D.; Benech, N.; Balay, G.; Armentano, R.; Negreira, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work a circulating loop capable of mimicking the physiological pressure and flow conditions inside a vessel is set up. The circulating loop consists of an artificial heart coupled to a perfusion line made of polyethylene and silicon. The artificial heart is driven by a pneumatic pump which provides the desired heart rate, pressure values and length of the systolic and diastolic period of each cycle. To measure the changes in diameter of the segment under study, an ultrasonic probe in pulse eco mode is used. For pressure monitoring a pressure sensor is positioned inside the sample. Pressure-diameter loops were obtained for characterization of the dynamical properties of the arterial wall. In vitro measurements were made on three different conduits: 1) Calibrated tubes made of latex: these phantoms were characterized by the presented method, 2) Non-atherosclerotic human carotid arteries obtained from donors and 3) Atherosclerotic human carotid arteries with atheroma plaques. In the three cases, under physiological simulated conditions, the mechanical properties of the conduit were obtained. We conclude that atheroma plaques were successfully detected and its dynamical properties characterized. This method could be used in the experimental and clinical field to characterize the effects of atheroma plaques on the arterial wall biomechanics.

  10. TWINNING between Institutions in developed and less developed countries: an ideal way to set-up an astrophysics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-03-01

    It is very difficult to start from scratch a new Astrophysics program in a country with very little or no researchers in the field. In 2007, we began to set-up an Astrophysics program by TWINNING the Université de Ouagadougou with the Université de Montréal in Canada, the Université de Provence in France and the University of Cape Town in South Africa. Already, courses are given at the undergraduate and Master levels and a teaching Observatory has been built. A 1m research telescope was also moved from the La Silla Observatory in Chile to Burkina Faso and the infrastructure is being built at the moment on mount Djaogari in the north-eastern part of the country. In the meantime, 6 students are doing their PhD in Astrophysics overseas (Canada, France and South Africa) and will become the core of the research group at the Université de Ouagadougou. An engineer is also doing his PhD in Astronomical Instrumentation to help with the maintenance of the equipment on the Research Telescope.

  11. Novel Set-Up for Low-Disturbance Sampling of Volatile and Non-volatile Compounds from Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Elisabeth J; Pauls, Gerhard; Rillig, Matthias C; Hansson, Bill S; Hilker, Monika; Reinecke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on rhizosphere chemicals are carried out in substrate-free set-ups or in artificial substrates using sampling methods that require an air flow and may thus cause disturbance to the rhizosphere. Our study aimed to develop a simplified and inexpensive system that allows analysis of rhizosphere chemicals at experimentally less disturbed conditions. We designed a mesocosm in which volatile rhizosphere chemicals were sampled passively (by diffusion) without air- and water flow on polydimethylsiloxane-(PDMS) tubes. Dandelion (Taraxacum sect. ruderalia) was used as model plant; roots were left undamaged. Fifteen volatiles were retrieved from the sorptive material by thermal desorption for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, three sugars were collected from the rhizosphere substrate by aqueous extraction and derivatized prior to GC/MS analysis. In order to study how the quantity of detected rhizosphere compounds depends on the type of soil or substrate, we determined the matrix-dependent recovery of synthetic rhizosphere chemicals. Furthermore, we compared sorption of volatiles on PDMS tubes with and without direct contact to the substrate. The results show that the newly designed mesocosm is suitable for low-invasive extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from rhizospheres. We further highlight how strongly the type of substrate and contact of PDMS tubes to the substrate affect the detectability of compounds from rhizospheres.

  12. The upgraded external-beam PIXE/PIGE set-up at LABEC for very fast measurements on aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Mochi, D.; Nava, S.; Carraresi, L.

    2014-01-01

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence, an external beam facility is fully dedicated to measurements of elemental composition of atmospheric aerosol. The experimental set-up hitherto used for this kind of applications has been upgraded with the replacement of a traditional Si(Li) detector for the detection of medium-high Z elements with a silicon drift detector (SDD) with a big active area (80 mm2) and 450 μm thickness, with the aim of obtaining better minimum detection limits (MDL) and reduce measuring times. The Upilex extraction window has been replaced by a more resistant one (Si3N4). A comparison between the old Si(Li) and the new SDD for aerosol samples collected on different substrata like Teflon, Kapton and Nuclepore evidenced the better performances of the SDD. It allows obtaining better results (higher counting statistics, lower MDLs) even in shorter measuring times, thus allowing very fast analysis of both daily and hourly samples.

  13. Set-up of debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Preliminary results and first experiences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Claudia; Moya, Jose; Chevalier, Guillaume; Raïmat, Carles; Luis-Fonseca, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Direct observations of debris flows in the field by monitoring stations are of great importance to improve understandings of triggering, flow behaviour and accumulation of debris flows. Upon the knowledge of the authors, in Europe debris-flow monitoring stations are only situated in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland), while no test site is located in a catchment affected by Mediterranean climate. In 2005, the first monitoring system was set up by GEOBRUGG IBERICA SA in the Erill catchment, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. A flexible ring net VX160-H4 with load-cells was installed together with a video camera and four geophones. In addition, a meteorological station completed the instrumentation. During 2009, the monitoring of two additional catchments has been set up; Senet in the Axial Pyrenees and Ensija in the Pre-Pyrenees. Four geophones and one ultrasonic device are installed along the torrent in order to determine the flow velocity and flow depth/discharge of the events. As in Erill, a meteorological station completes the devices and measures rainfall and temperature. The main objective of the three monitoring stations is to get some insights on how the Mediterranean climate influences the critical rainfall for debris-flow initiation. The flow behaviour of debris flows is another major goal, while the Erill test site focuses basically on the effectiveness of flexible ring nets. In addition, the Erill installation also acts as protection for the village located on the fan. The calibration, installation and analysis during the testing phase showed that a correct implementation of the different sensors is not an easy task and needs knowledge in geophysics, electronics, telecommunications etc. Especially geophones and ultrasonic devices need special attentions. Geophone outputs are strongly affected by the type of underground and the distance to the torrent, while the measures of the ultrasonic sensor clearly depend on the temperature. To simplify the data storage

  14. Decompression induced bubble dynamics on ex vivo fat and muscle tissue surfaces with a new experimental set up.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Evgenidis, Sotiris; Eckersley, Robert J; Mesimeris, Thodoris; Balestra, Costantino; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Tang, Meng-Xing; Karapantsios, Thodoris D

    2015-05-01

    Vascular gas bubbles are routinely observed after scuba dives using ultrasound imaging, however the precise formation mechanism and site of these bubbles are still debated and growth from decompression in vivo has not been extensively studied, due in part to imaging difficulties. An experimental set-up was developed for optical recording of bubble growth and density on tissue surface area during hyperbaric decompression. Muscle and fat tissues (rabbits, ex vivo) were covered with nitrogen saturated distilled water and decompression experiments performed, from 3 to 0bar, at a rate of 1bar/min. Pictures were automatically acquired every 5s from the start of the decompression for 1h with a resolution of 1.75μm. A custom MatLab analysis code implementing a circular Hough transform was written and shown to be able to track bubble growth sequences including bubble center, radius, contact line and contact angles over time. Bubble density, nucleation threshold and detachment size, as well as coalescence behavior, were shown significantly different for muscle and fat tissues surfaces, whereas growth rates after a critical size were governed by diffusion as expected. Heterogeneous nucleation was observed from preferential sites on the tissue substrate, where the bubbles grow, detach and new bubbles form in turn. No new nucleation sites were observed after the first 10min post decompression start so bubble density did not vary after this point in the experiment. In addition, a competition for dissolved gas between adjacent multiple bubbles was demonstrated in increased delay times as well as slower growth rates for non-isolated bubbles.

  15. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Fassi, Aurora; Zaffino, Paolo; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Depauw, Nicolas; Seco, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  16. Organizational development trajectory of a large academic radiotherapy department set up similarly to a prospective clinical trial: the MAASTRO experience

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, L; Dekker, A; Hermanns, E; Houben, R; Govers, M; van Merode, F; Lambin, P

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To simultaneously improve patient care processes and clinical research activities by starting a hypothesis-driven reorganization trajectory mimicking the rigorous methodology of a prospective clinical trial. Methods: The design of this reorganization trajectory was based on the model of a prospective trial. It consisted of (1) listing problems and analysing their potential causes, (2) defining interventions, (3) defining end points and (4) measuring the effect of the interventions (i.e. at baseline and after 1 and 2 years). The primary end point for patient care was the number of organizational root causes of incidents/near incidents; for clinical research, it was the number of patients in trials. There were several secondary end points. We analysed the data using two sample z-tests, χ2 test, a Mann–Whitney U test and the one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. Results: The number of organizational root causes was reduced by 27% (p < 0.001). There was no effect on the percentage of patients included in trials. Conclusion: The reorganizational trajectory was successful for the primary end point of patient care and had no effect on clinical research. Some confounding events hampered our ability to draw strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the transparency of this approach can give medical professionals more confidence in moving forward with other organizational changes in the same way. Advances in knowledge: This article is novel because managerial interventions were set up similarly to a prospective clinical trial. This study is the first of its kind in radiotherapy, and this approach can contribute to discussions about the effectiveness of managerial interventions. PMID:25679320

  17. A new set-up for in-situ probing of radiation effects in materials and electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, M.; Felizardo, M.; Catarino, N.; Alves, L.C.; Cruz, C.; Alves, E.; Lorenz, K.

    2015-07-01

    The micro-probe facility installed at the Van de Graff accelerator at CTN/IST permits simultaneous measurements of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Iono-Luminescence (IL). Here we present a recent up-grade of the measurement chamber allowing improved optical sensitivity in IL measurements and opening the possibility to perform simultaneously electrical measurements. Combinations of all these characterization techniques make this setup a powerful tool to characterize and modify different materials with spatial resolution. In particular, it can be used to study radiation effects in different materials and electronic devices in-situ. IL is a luminescence technique that uses the ion beam as the excitation source. Compared with other luminescence techniques with spatial resolution like Cathodoluminescence, this technique has the advantage to probe deeper regions of the sample, several microns below the surface. The same ion beam used to produce luminescence, can create a high density of defects, in a controllable way and the new set-up allows monitoring optical and electrical properties in realtime. In this work we combine IL with I-V curve measurements to assess the response of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to proton irradiation. Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN are emerging materials for applications in high power electronics and are considered for radiation resistant electronics. We will present a systematic study of the changes in IL and conductivity in Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN samples with the energy of the ion beam and with the time of exposure. In particular, it was observed that during the irradiation some luminescence bands related with intrinsic point defects decrease while other new bands appear. Simulations using the SRIM code were used to determine the depth profiles of ionization and displacement events, helping to correlate the optical and electrical response of the materials with certain radiation effects

  18. Solid-phase microextraction set-up for the analysis of liver volatolome to detect livestock exposure to micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Jihéne; Ratel, Jérémy; Abouelkaram, Said; Mercier, Frédéric; Travel, Angelique; Baéza, Elisabeth; Jondreville, Catherine; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Dubreil, Estelle; Mompelat, Sophie; Verdon, Eric; Inthavong, Chanthadary; Guérin, Thierry; Rutledge, Douglas N; Engel, Erwan

    2017-03-07

    Weights Analysis - ComDim) showed that the liver volatolome could reveal dietary exposure of broilers to a group of environmental pollutants (PCBs), a veterinary treatment (monensin), and a pesticide (deltamethrin), thus confirming the usefulness of this analytical set-up.

  19. The Interaction Between Dynamics and Chemistry of Ozone in the Set-up Phase of the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Margitan, J. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Hoppel, K.; Sen, B.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and evolution of the stratospheric ozone (O3) distribution at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are examined for the late summer and fall seasons of 1999. This time period sets the O3 initial condition for the SOLVE/THESEO field mission performed during winter 1999-2000. In situ and satellite data are used along with a three-dimensional model of chemistry and transport (CTM) to determine the key processes that control the distribution of O3 in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. O3 in the vortex at the beginning of the winter season is found to be nearly constant from 500 to above 800 K with a value at 3 ppmv +/- approx. 10%. Values outside the vortex are up to a factor of 2 higher and increase significantly with potential temperature. The seasonal time series of data from POAM shows that relatively low O3 mixing ratios, which characterize the vortex in late fall, are already present at high latitudes at the end of summer before the vortex circulation sets up. Analysis of the CTM output shows that the minimum O3 and increase in variance in late summer are the result of: 1) stirring of polar concentric O3 gradients by nascent wave-driven transport, and 2) an acceleration of net photochemical loss with decreasing solar illumination. The segregation of low O3 mixing ratios into the vortex as the circulation strengthens through the fall suggests a possible feedback role between O3 chemistry and the vortex formation dynamics. Trajectory calculations from O3 sample points early in the fall, however, show only a weak correlation between initial O3 mixing ratio and potential vorticity later in the season consistent with order-of-magnitude calculations for the relative importance of O3 in the fall radiative balance at high latitudes. The possible connection between O3 chemistry and the dynamics of vortex formation does suggest that these feedbacks and sensitivities need to be better understood in order to make confident predictions of the recovery

  20. Dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry: system set-up and its application on a lobed jet mixing flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Saga, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasuki, M.

    The technical basis and system set-up of a dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) system, which can obtain the flow velocity (all three components) fields at two spatially separated planes simultaneously, is summarized. The simultaneous measurements were achieved by using two sets of double-pulsed Nd:Yag lasers with additional optics to illuminate the objective fluid flow with two orthogonally linearly polarized laser sheets at two spatially separated planes, as proposed by Kaehler and Kompenhans in 1999. The light scattered by the tracer particles illuminated by laser sheets with orthogonal linear polarization were separated by using polarizing beam-splitter cubes, then recorded by high-resolution CCD cameras. A three-dimensional in-situ calibration procedure was used to determine the relationships between the 2-D image planes and three-dimensional object fields for both position mapping and velocity three-component reconstruction. Unlike conventional two-component PIV systems or single-plane stereoscopic PIV systems, which can only get one-component of vorticity vectors, the present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system can provide all the three components of the vorticity vectors and various auto-correlation and cross-correlation coefficients of flow variables instantaneously and simultaneously. The present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was applied to measure an air jet mixing flow exhausted from a lobed nozzle. Various vortex structures in the lobed jet mixing flow were revealed quantitatively and instantaneously. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system, the measurement results were compared with the simultaneous measurement results of a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. It was found that both the instantaneous data and ensemble-averaged values of the stereoscopic PIV measurement results and the LDV measurement results agree well. For the ensemble-averaged values of the out

  1. Feasibility Study for The Setting Up of a Safety System for Monitoring CO2 Storage at Prinos Field, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Lymperopoulos, Panagiotis; Tasianas, Alexandros; Shariatipour, Seyed

    2016-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in subsurface geological structures can mitigate global warming. A comprehensive safety and monitoring system for CO2 storage has been undertaken for the Prinos hydrocarbon field, offshore northern Greece; a system which can prevent any possible leakage of CO2. This paper presents various monitoring strategies of CO2 subsurface movement in the Prinos reservoir, the results of a simulation of a CO2 leak through a well, an environmental risk assessment study related to the potential leakage of CO2 from the seafloor and an overall economic insight of the system. The results of the simulation of the CO2 leak have shown that CO2 reaches the seabed in the form of gas approximately 13.7 years, from the beginning of injection. From that point onwards the amount of CO2 reaching the seabed increases until it reaches a peak at around 32.9 years. During the injection period, the CO2 plume develops only within the reservoir. During the post-injection period, the CO2 reaches the seabed and develops side branches. These correspond to preferential lateral flow pathways of the CO2 and are more extensive for the dissolved CO2 than for the saturated CO2 gas. For the environmental risk assessment, we set up a model, using ArcGIS software, based on the use of data regarding the speeds of the winds and currents encountered in the region. We also made assumptions related to the flow rate of CO2. Results show that after a period of 10 days from the start of CO2 leakage the CO2 has reached halfway to the continental shores where the “Natura” protected areas are located. CO2 leakage modelling results show CO2 to be initially flowing along a preferential flow direction, which is towards the NE. However, 5 days after the start of leakage of CO2, the CO2 is also flowing towards the ENE. The consequences of a potential CO2 leak are considered spatially limited and the ecosystem is itself capable of recovering. We have tried to determine the costs necessary for the

  2. Set-up and calibration of an indoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassu, T.; Seeger, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rainfall simulation is one of the most prevalent methods used in soil erosion studies on agricultural land. In-situ simulators have been used to relate soil surface characteristics and management to runoff generation, infiltration and erosion, eg. the influence of different cultivation systems, and to parameterise erosion models. Laboratory rainfall simulators have been used to determine the impact of the soil surface characteristics such as micro-topography, surface roughness, and soil chemistry on infiltration and erosion rates, and to elucidate the processes involved. The purpose of the following study is to demonstrate the set-up and the calibration of a large indoor, nozzle-type rainfall simulator (RS) for soil erosion, surface runoff and rill development studies. This RS is part of the Kraijenhoff van de Leur Laboratory for Water and Sediment Dynamics in Wageningen University. The rainfall simulator consists from a 6 m long and 2,5 m wide plot, with metal lateral frame and one open side. Infiltration can be collected in different segments. The plot can be inclined up to 15.5° slope. From 3,85 m height above the plot 2 Lechler nozzles 460.788 are sprinkling the water onto the surface with constant intensity. A Zehnder HMP 450 pump provides the constant water supply. An automatic pressure switch on the pump keeps the pressure constant during the experiments. The flow rate is controlled for each nozzle by independent valves. Additionally, solenoid valves are mounted at each nozzle to interrupt water flow. The flow is monitored for each nozzle with flow meters and can be recorded within the computer network. For calibration of the RS we measured the rainfall distribution with 60 gauges equally distributed over the plot during 15 minutes for each nozzle independently and for a combination of 2 identical nozzles. The rainfall energy was recorded on the same grid by measuring drop size distribution and fall velocity with a laser disdrometer. We applied 2 different

  3. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) with the SOFIA set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatillon, A.; Taïeb, J.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Grente, L.; Bélier, G.; Laurent, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.; Audouin, L.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Farget, F.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Lindberg, S.; Löher, B.; Nociforo, C.; Paradela, C.; Pietri, S.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Rodrìguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Törnqvist, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Yan, Y.

    2016-03-01

    SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin) is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f) electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) reactions.

  4. The set-up for forward scattered particle detection at the external microbeam facility of the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Czelusniak, C.; Fedi, M. E.; Gueli, A. M.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years some new implementations and upgrades have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence, enriching the existing PIXE, PIGE, BS, IBIL set-up with complementary techniques, when possible allowing for simultaneous multi-technique analyses. We developed a system, compatible with the existing set-up, for the out-of-vacuum detection of the forward scattered particles. This system makes feasible the external-STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) and external-FS (Forward Scattering), now both available at our beamline. Test measurements are shortly presented.

  5. The Setting-up of Multi-Site School Collaboratives: The Benefits of This Organizational Reform in Terms of Networking Opportunities and Their Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Denise

    2015-01-01

    This article, which is set within the Maltese education scenario of unfolding decentralization through the setting-up of multi-site school collaboratives (legally termed "colleges") via a policy mandate, explores a particular aspect of this reform--that of "networking". This is examined in terms of the potential for…

  6. The Objective Borderline Method (OBM): A Probability-Based Model for Setting up an Objective Pass/Fail Cut-Off Score in Medical Programme Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Turner, Rolf; Poole, Phillippa; Wilkinson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The decision to pass or fail a medical student is a "high stakes" one. The aim of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of a new objective standard-setting method for determining the pass/fail cut-off score from borderline grades. Three methods for setting up pass/fail cut-off scores were compared: the…

  7. SU-E-T-258: Development of a New Patient Set-Up Monitoring System Using Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) Sensor for the Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new patient set-up monitoring system using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors that can confirm pressure of contact surface and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on develop the patient set-up monitoring system to compensate for the limitation of existing optical based monitoring system, so the developed system can inform motion in the radiation therapy. The set-up monitoring system was designed consisting of sensor units (FSR sensor), signal conditioning devices (USB cable/interface electronics), a control PC, and a developed analysis software. The sensor unit was made by attaching FSR sensor and dispersing pressure sponge to prevent error which is caused by concentrating specific point. Measured signal from the FSR sensor was sampled to arduino mega 2560 microcontroller, transferred to control PC by using serial communication. The measured data went through normalization process. The normalized data was displayed through the developed graphic user interface (GUI) software. The software was designed to display a single sensor unit intensity (maximum 16 sensors) and display 2D pressure distribution (using 16 sensors) according to the purpose. Results: Changes of pressure value according to motion was confirmed by the developed set-up monitoring system. Very small movement such as little physical change in appearance can be confirmed using a single unit and using 2D pressure distribution. Also, the set-up monitoring system can observe in real time. Conclusion: In this study, we developed the new set-up monitoring system using FSR sensor. Especially, we expect that the new set-up monitoring system is suitable for motion monitoring of blind area that is hard to confirm existing optical system and compensate existing optical based monitoring system. As a further study, an integrated system will be constructed through correlation of existing optical monitoring system. This work was supported by

  8. The influence of the IMRT QA set-up error on the 2D and 3D gamma evaluation method as obtained by using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Hee; Cho, Min-Seok; Suh, Tae Suk

    2015-11-01

    The phantom-alignment error is one of the factors affecting delivery quality assurance (QA) accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Accordingly, a possibility of inadequate use of spatial information in gamma evaluation may exist for patient-specific IMRT QA. The influence of the phantom-alignment error on gamma evaluation can be demonstrated experimentally by using the gamma passing rate and the gamma value. However, such experimental methods have a limitation regarding the intrinsic verification of the influence of the phantom set-up error because experimentally measuring the phantom-alignment error accurately is impossible. To overcome this limitation, we aimed to verify the effect of the phantom set-up error within the gamma evaluation formula by using a Monte Carlo simulation. Artificial phantom set-up errors were simulated, and the concept of the true point (TP) was used to represent the actual coordinates of the measurement point for the mathematical modeling of these effects on the gamma. Using dose distributions acquired from the Monte Carlo simulation, performed gamma evaluations in 2D and 3D. The results of the gamma evaluations and the dose difference at the TP were classified to verify the degrees of dose reflection at the TP. The 2D and the 3D gamma errors were defined by comparing gamma values between the case of the imposed phantom set-up error and the TP in order to investigate the effect of the set-up error on the gamma value. According to the results for gamma errors, the 3D gamma evaluation reflected the dose at the TP better than the 2D one. Moreover, the gamma passing rates were higher for 3D than for 2D, as is widely known. Thus, the 3D gamma evaluation can increase the precision of patient-specific IMRT QA by applying stringent acceptance criteria and setting a reasonable action level for the 3D gamma passing rate.

  9. Development of a new in-air micro-PIXE set-up with in-vacuum charge measurements in Atomki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Zs.; Huszánk, R.; Csedreki, L.; Dani, J.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.

    2015-11-01

    A new external microbeam set-up has recently been installed as the extension of the existing microprobe system at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications of Atomki, Debrecen, Hungary. The external beam set-up, based on the system of Oxford Microbeams (OM), is equipped with two X-ray detectors for PIXE analysis, a digital microscope, two alignment lasers and a precision XYZ stage for easy and reproducible positioning of the sample. Exit windows with different thicknesses and of different materials can be used according to the actual demands, currently silicon-nitride (Si3N4) film with 200 nm thickness is employed in our laboratory. The first application was demonstrated in the field of archaeometry, on Bronze Age hoards from Hungary.

  10. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Analysis of the Precision of Patient Set-Up, and Fidelity of the Delivered Dose Distribution in Proton Therapy of Ocular Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, A; Carpenter, K; Shih, HA

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify daily set-up variations in fractionated proton therapy of ocular melanomas, and to assess the effect on the fidelity of delivered distribution to the plan. Methods: In a typical five-fraction course, daily set-up is achieved by matching the position of fiducial markers in orthogonal radiographs to the images generated by treatment planning program. A patient maintains the required gaze direction voluntarily, without the aid of fixation devices. Confirmation radiographs are acquired to assess intrafractional changes. For this study, daily radiographs were analyzed to determine the daily iso-center position and apparent gaze direction, which were then transferred to the planning system to calculate the dose delivered in individual fractions, and accumulated dose for the entire course. Dose-volume metrics were compared between the planned and accumulated distributions for the tumor and organs at risk, for representative cases that varied by location within the ocular globe. Results: The analysis of the first set of cases (3 posterior, 3 transequatorial and 4 anterior tumors) revealed varying dose deviation patterns, depending on the tumor location. For anterior and posterior tumors, the largest dose increases were observed in the lens and ciliary body, while for the equatorial tumors, macula, optic nerve and disk, were most often affected. The iso-center position error was below 1.3 mm (95%-confidence interval), and the standard deviation of daily polar and azimuthal gaze set-up were 1.5 and 3 degrees, respectively. Conclusion: We quantified interfractional and intrafractional set-up variation, and estimated their effect on the delivered dose for representative cases. Current safety margins are sufficient to maintain the target coverage, however, the dose delivered to critical structures often deviates from the plan. The ongoing analysis will further explore the patterns of dose deviation, and may help to identify particular treatment scenarios

  11. High-Quality Genome Sequence of Bacillus vireti DSM 15602T for Setting Up Phylogenomics for the Genomic Taxonomy of Bacillus-Like Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Hong; Wang, Jie-Ping; Che, Jian-Mei; Chen, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus vireti DSM 15602T is a Gram-negative, spore-forming, and facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Here, we report the 5.309-Mb draft genome sequence of B. vireti DSM 15602T, which will provide useful information for setting up phylogenomics for the genomic taxonomy of Bacillus-like bacteria, as well as for the functional gene mining and application of B. vireti. PMID:26251494

  12. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-05: Correct Or Not to Correct for Rotational Patient Set-Up Errors in Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Briscoe, M; Ploquin, N; Voroney, JP

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of patient rotation in stereotactic radiation therapy and establish a threshold where rotational patient set-up errors have a significant impact on target coverage. Methods: To simulate rotational patient set-up errors, a Matlab code was created to rotate the patient dose distribution around the treatment isocentre, located centrally in the lesion, while keeping the structure contours in the original locations on the CT and MRI. Rotations of 1°, 3°, and 5° for each of the pitch, roll, and yaw, as well as simultaneous rotations of 1°, 3°, and 5° around all three axes were applied to two types of brain lesions: brain metastasis and acoustic neuroma. In order to analyze multiple tumour shapes, these plans included small spherical (metastasis), elliptical (acoustic neuroma), and large irregular (metastasis) tumour structures. Dose-volume histograms and planning target volumes were compared between the planned patient positions and those with simulated rotational set-up errors. The RTOG conformity index for patient rotation was also investigated. Results: Examining the tumour volumes that received 80% of the prescription dose in the planned and rotated patient positions showed decreases in prescription dose coverage of up to 2.3%. Conformity indices for treatments with simulated rotational errors showed decreases of up to 3% compared to the original plan. For irregular lesions, degradation of 1% of the target coverage can be seen for rotations as low as 3°. Conclusions: This data shows that for elliptical or spherical targets, rotational patient set-up errors less than 3° around any or all axes do not have a significant impact on the dose delivered to the target volume or the conformity index of the plan. However the same rotational errors would have an impact on plans for irregular tumours.

  13. Setting up a Prospective Thyroid Biobank for Translational Research: Practical Approach of a Single Institution (2004-2009, Pasteur Hospital, Nice, France).

    PubMed

    Lassalle, Sandra; Hofman, Véronique; Ilie, Marius; Butori, Catherine; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Gaziello, Marie Clotilde; Selva, Eric; Gavric-Tanga, Virginie; Guevara, Nicolas; Castillo, Laurent; Santini, José; Chabannon, Christian; Hofman, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In the last few years, conditions for setting up a human biobank in France have been upgraded by taking into account (1) the new laws and regulations that integrate the ethical and societal dimension of biobanking and delineate the risks for patients associated with the procurement of human cells and tissues, (2) the increasing request by scientists for human samples with proven biological quality and sophisticated sets of annotations, including information produced through the evergrowing use of molecular biology in pathology, and (3) establishment of procedures concerning the safety of the personnel working with biological products. For this purpose, health authorities and national research institutes in France have provided significant support for the set up of biobanks. The present work was conducted to describe how we set up a biobank targeting diseases of a specific organ (thyroid gland), with the aim of rapidly developing translational research projects. The prospective experience of a single institution (Pasteur Hospital, Nice, France) over a 6-year period (2004-2009) is presented from the practical point of view of a surgical pathology laboratory. We describe different procedures required to obtain high-quality thyroid biological resources and clinical annotations. The procedures were established for the management of biological products obtained from 1454 patients who underwent thyroid surgery. The preanalytical steps leading to the storage of frozen specimens were carried out in parallel with diagnostic procedures. As the number of international networks for research programs using biological products is steadily increasing, it is crucial to harmonize the procedures used by biobanks. In this regard, the described thyroid biobank has been set up using criteria established by the French National Cancer Institute (Institut National du Cancer) to guarantee the quality of different collections stored in biobanks.

  14. Validation of an air-liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C. R.; Ameer, S. S.; Ludvigsson, L.; Ali, N.; Alhamdow, A.; Messing, M. E.; Pagels, J.; Gudmundsson, A.; Bohgard, M.; Sanfins, E.; Kåredal, M.; Broberg, K.; Rissler, J.

    2016-04-01

    Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air-liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50-150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles <10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air-liquid interface of 0.4-10.7, 0.9-46.6, and 0.1-1.4 µg/cm2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus mesonae FJAT-13985T (=DSM 25968T) for Setting Up Phylogenomics in Genomic Taxonomy of the Bacillus-Like Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-hong; Zhu, Yu-jing; Wang, Jie-ping; Che, Jian-mei; Chen, Qian-qian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus mesonae FJAT-13985T is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, and aerobic bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. mesonae FJAT-13985T with 5,807,726 bp, which will provide useful information for setting up phylogenomics in the genomic taxonomy of the Bacillus-like bacteria, as well as for the functional gene mining and application of B. mesonae FJAT-13985T. PMID:27313309

  16. Interview: Setting up NICE International.

    PubMed

    Chalkidou, Kalipso

    2012-03-01

    Kalipso Chalkidou is the founding director of the NICE's international program helping governments build technical and institutional capacity for using evidence to inform health policy. She is interested in how comparative effectiveness evidence, combined with local expertise and local institutions, can drive scientific and legitimate healthcare resource allocation decisions. She has been involved in the Chinese rural health reform and also in national health reform projects in Colombia, Turkey and the Middle East, working with the World Bank, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Department For International Development (DFID) and the Inter-American Development Bank, as well as national governments. She holds a doctorate on the molecular biology of prostate cancer from the University of Newcastle (UK), an MD with Honors from the University of Athens (Greece) and is an honorary senior lecturer at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK), a senior advisor on international policy at the Center for Medical Technology Policy (MD, USA) and a visiting faculty member at the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute for Bioethics (MD, USA). Between 2007 and 2008, she spent a year at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health as a Harkness Fellow in Health Policy and Practice, studying how comparative effectiveness research can inform policy and US government drug pricing policies.

  17. Law sets up oceans commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In an anticipated move, U.S. President Bill Clinton on August 7 signed into law the Oceans Act of 2000.The bipartisan legislation, which takes effect on January 20,2001, establishes a commission on ocean policy to examine federal ocean policy and environmental and economic trends affecting oceans and coasts.The act—which grew out of a call issued by Clinton at the National Oceans Conference in Monterey, California in 1998—requires the commission to submit recommendations to Congress and the president within 18 months of its appointment, and for the President to submit proposals to Congress about the use and stewardship of ocean and coastal resources.

  18. [Testing the efficacy of disinfectants during drinking water treatment. A new experimental set-up at the German EPA (Umweltbundesamt - UBA)].

    PubMed

    Grützmacher, G; Bartel, H; Althoff, H W; Clemen, S

    2007-03-01

    A set-up for experiments in the flow-through mode was constructed in order to test the efficacy of substances used for disinfecting water during drinking water treatment. A flow-through mode - in contrast to experiments under stationary conditions (so-called batch experiments) - was chosen, because this experimental design allows experiments to be carried out under constant conditions for an extended time (up to one week) and because efficacy testing is possible repeatedly, simultaneously and under exactly the same conditions for short (about 0.5 min) and also longer (about 47 min) contact times. With this experimental design the effect of biofilms along the inner pipe surfaces can be included in the observations. The construction of the experimental set-up is based on experience with laboratory flow-through systems that were installed by the UBA's drinking water department (formerly Institute for Water-, Soil- and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) Institute) for testing disinfection with chlorine. In the first step, a test pipe for the simulation of a water works situation was installed. Water of different qualities can be mixed in large volumes beforehand so that the experimental procedure can be run with constant water quality for a minimum of one week. The kinetics of the disinfection reaction can be observed by extracting samples from eight sampling ports situated along the test pipe. In order to assign exact residence times to each of the sampling ports, tracer experiments were performed prior to testing disinfectant efficacy. This paper gives the technical details of the experimental set-up and presents the results of the tracer experiments to provide an introduction with respect to its potential.

  19. Swell-generated Set-up and Infragravity Wave Propagation Over a Fringing Coral Reef: Implications for Wave-driven Inundation of Atoll Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheriton, O. M.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Quataert, E.; van Dongeren, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands is comprised of 1156 islands on 29 low-lying atolls with a mean elevation of 2 m that are susceptible to sea-level rise and often subjected to overwash during large wave events. A 6-month deployment of wave and tide gauges across two shore-normal sections of north-facing coral reef on the Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll was conducted during 2013-2014 to quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on the fringing coral reef. Wave heights and periods on the reef flat were strongly correlated to the water levels. On the fore reef, the majority of wave energy was concentrated in the incident band (5-25 s); due to breaking at the reef crest, however, the wave energy over the reef flat was dominated by infragravity-band (25-250 s) motions. Two large wave events with heights of 6-8 m at 15 s over the fore reef were observed. During these events, infragravity-band wave heights exceeded the incident band wave heights and approximately 1.0 m of set-up was established over the innermost reef flat. This set-up enabled the propagation of large waves across the reef flat, reaching maximum heights of nearly 2 m on the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach. XBEACH models of the instrument transects were able to replicate the incident waves, infragravity waves, and wave-driven set-up across the reef when the hydrodynamic roughness of the reef was correctly parameterized. These events led to more than 3 m of wave-driven run-up and inundation of the island that drove substantial morphological change to the beach face.

  20. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous

  1. SU-C-204-06: Surface Imaging for the Set-Up of Proton Post-Mastectomy Chestwall Irradiation: Gated Images Vs Non Gated Images

    SciTech Connect

    Batin, E; Depauw, N; MacDonald, S; Lu, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Historically, the set-up for proton post-mastectomy chestwall irradiation at our institution started with positioning the patient using tattoos and lasers. One or more rounds of orthogonal X-rays at gantry 0° and beamline X-ray at treatment gantry angle were then taken to finalize the set-up position. As chestwall targets are shallow and superficial, surface imaging is a promising tool for set-up and needs to be investigated Methods: The orthogonal imaging was entirely replaced by AlignRT™ (ART) images. The beamline X-Ray image is kept as a confirmation, based primarily on three opaque markers placed on skin surface instead of bony anatomy. In the first phase of the process, ART gated images were used to set-up the patient and the same specific point of the breathing curve was used every day. The moves (translations and rotations) computed for each point of the breathing curve during the first five fractions were analyzed for ten patients. During a second phase of the study, ART gated images were replaced by ART non-gated images combined with real-time monitoring. In both cases, ART images were acquired just before treatment to access the patient position compare to the non-gated CT. Results: The average difference between the maximum move and the minimum move depending on the chosen breathing curve point was less than 1.7 mm for all translations and less than 0.7° for all rotations. The average position discrepancy over the course of treatment obtained by ART non gated images combined to real-time monitoring taken before treatment to the planning CT were smaller than the average position discrepancy obtained using ART gated images. The X-Ray validation images show similar results with both ART imaging process. Conclusion: The use of ART non gated images combined with real time imaging allows positioning post-mastectomy chestwall patients in less than 3 mm / 1°.

  2. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens.

    PubMed

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  3. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens

    PubMed Central

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget. PMID:25589866

  4. Characterization of Fe sites in Fe-zeolites by FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed NO: are the spectra obtained in static vacuum and dynamic flow set-ups comparable?

    PubMed

    Berlier, Gloria; Lamberti, Carlo; Rivallan, Mickaël; Mul, Guido

    2010-01-14

    The present paper shows a direct comparison of IR spectra of adsorbed NO on two catalyst systems (Fe-silicalite and Fe-ZSM-5), recorded in a flow-through cell (in operando, where NO is carried by an excess of inert gas) and static cell (in situ, where a given pure NO equilibrium pressure is dosed). A progressive NO poly-adsorption is observed in the static cell upon increasing the NO equilibrium pressure (from Fe(2+)...(NO)(2) to Fe(2+)...(NO)(3)), while predominantly Fe(2+)...NO adducts are observed in the flow-through cell. By comparing literature spectra, it is shown that these spectral differences are intrinsically inherent to the two different experimental approaches. The two experimental set-ups are able to observe preferentially only a part of the total Fe species present on Fe-zeolites. Water contamination experiments employing different experimental conditions (order of dosage, co-dosage, different NO/H(2)O ratios) did not reproduce in the static environment the IR spectra collected with the dynamic set-up. The spectral differences could have a thermodynamic origin and be related to different adsorption enthalpies of mono- and di-nitrosyl complexes of the two Fe(2+) families and to the different NO partial pressure adopted in the two experimental configurations. These considerations have important consequences for the conclusions reached by different research groups on the structure of active Fe sites.

  5. SU-E-T-367: Evaluate the Dosimetric Impacts On Patient Specific Treatment Plans Due to Set Up Uncertainties During LINAC Annual QA and Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, V; Wang, B; Shi, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact on patient’s specific treatment plans due to set up uncertainties during LINAC commission and annual QA and to determine the maximum set up uncertainty allowance range. Methods: A 60×60×60 cm{sup 3} solid water cube was created in Varian Eclipse TPS. Beam data profiles (crossline and diagonal) and PDDs for field sizes ranging from 2×2 cm{sup 2} to 40×40 cm{sup 2} were simulated. Three main uncertainty scenarios were purposely introduced for gantry position tilts (0–5°), source axis distance changes (100–105 cm), and iso-center position shifts (0–5 mm) during the simulation. A gamma analysis was used to compare the correct simulated profiles with the profiles for each scenario. Two static IMRT treatment plans (H&N and GYN) with tumors at 5 cm and 15 cm depths were compared using similar set up uncertainties. Results: A gamma analysis using ±3%/±3mm with 90% passing rate criteria is included to show the passing rate for each scenario. Crossline and diagonal profiles showed a gamma passing rating of ≥ 90% at depth ≤10 cm for these scenarios: gantry tilted from 0–5°, SAD changed from 100–105 cm, and iso-center shifted ≤ 4 mm. From 10 to 20 cm depths, all three scenarios failed with gamma passing ≤ 90% excepted for diagonal profiles at Gantry =2°, SAD =1 cm, and iso-center =1 mm off center. Diagonal profiles showed a higher gamma passing rating compared to crossline profiles for all three scenarios. PDD differences also increased as depth increased. For patient’s specific treatment plans, maximum uncertainties allowed to obtain a ≥90% gamma passing rating are: gantry tilts ±1 degree, SAD shifts ±2 cm, and iso-center moves ±3 mm. Conclusion: This study validated AAPM TG 142 recommendations on the mechanical and dosimetry uncertainties and provided proofs on maximum acceptance tolerances for LINAC annual QA and commission.

  6. A simple recipe for setting up the flux equations of cyclic and linear reaction schemes of ion transport with a high number of states: The arrow scheme.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ulf-Peter; Rauh, Oliver; Schroeder, Indra

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of flux equations or current-voltage relationships in reaction kinetic models with a high number of states can be very cumbersome. Here, a recipe based on an arrow scheme is presented, which yields a straightforward access to the minimum form of the flux equations and the occupation probability of the involved states in cyclic and linear reaction schemes. This is extremely simple for cyclic schemes without branches. If branches are involved, the effort of setting up the equations is a little bit higher. However, also here a straightforward recipe making use of so-called reserve factors is provided for implementing the branches into the cyclic scheme, thus enabling also a simple treatment of such cases.

  7. A simple recipe for setting up the flux equations of cyclic and linear reaction schemes of ion transport with a high number of states: The arrow scheme

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulf-Peter; Rauh, Oliver; Schroeder, Indra

    2016-01-01

    abstract The calculation of flux equations or current-voltage relationships in reaction kinetic models with a high number of states can be very cumbersome. Here, a recipe based on an arrow scheme is presented, which yields a straightforward access to the minimum form of the flux equations and the occupation probability of the involved states in cyclic and linear reaction schemes. This is extremely simple for cyclic schemes without branches. If branches are involved, the effort of setting up the equations is a little bit higher. However, also here a straightforward recipe making use of so-called reserve factors is provided for implementing the branches into the cyclic scheme, thus enabling also a simple treatment of such cases. PMID:26646356

  8. A new small-angle X-ray scattering set-up on the crystallography beamline I711 at MAX-lab.

    PubMed

    Knaapila, M; Svensson, C; Barauskas, J; Zackrisson, M; Nielsen, S S; Toft, K N; Vestergaard, B; Arleth, L; Olsson, U; Pedersen, J S; Cerenius, Y

    2009-07-01

    A small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) set-up has recently been developed at beamline I711 at the MAX II storage ring in Lund (Sweden). An overview of the required modifications is presented here together with a number of application examples. The accessible q range in a SAXS experiment is 0.009-0.3 A(-1) for the standard set-up but depends on the sample-to-detector distance, detector offset, beamstop size and wavelength. The SAXS camera has been designed to have a low background and has three collinear slit sets for collimating the incident beam. The standard beam size is about 0.37 mm x 0.37 mm (full width at half-maximum) at the sample position, with a flux of 4 x 10(10) photons s(-1) and lambda = 1.1 A. The vacuum is of the order of 0.05 mbar in the unbroken beam path from the first slits until the exit window in front of the detector. A large sample chamber with a number of lead-throughs allows different sample environments to be mounted. This station is used for measurements on weakly scattering proteins in solutions and also for colloids, polymers and other nanoscale structures. A special application supported by the beamline is the effort to establish a micro-fluidic sample environment for structural analysis of samples that are only available in limited quantities. Overall, this work demonstrates how a cost-effective SAXS station can be constructed on a multipurpose beamline.

  9. Experimental Set Up of P300 Based Brain Computer Interface Using a Bioamplifier and BCI2000 System for Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeongseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain computer interface (BCI) is one of the most promising technologies for helping people with neurological disorders. Most current BCI systems are relatively expensive and difficult to set up. Therefore, we developed a P300-based BCI system with a cheap bioamplifier and open source software. The purpose of this study was to describe the setup process of the system and preliminary experimental results. Methods Ten spinal cord-injured patients were recruited. We used a sixteen-channel EEG(KT88-1016, Contec, China) and BCI2000 software (Wadsworth center, NY, USA). Subjects were asked to spell a 5-character word using the P300-based BCI system with 10 minutes of training. EEG data were acquired during the experiment. After subjects spelled the word for ten trials, the spelling accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) were obtained in each patients. Results All subjects performed the experiment without difficulty. The mean accuracy was 59.4±22.8%. The spelling accuracy reversely correlated with the age. Younger subjects spelled with higher accuracy than older subjects (p=0.018). However, sex, injury level, time since injury and ASIA scale were not correlated with the accuracy. The mean of ITR was 2.26±1.22 bit/min. Conclusion This study showed that a BCI system can be set up inexpensively with a low-price bioamplifier and open-source software. The spelling accuracy was moderately achieved with our system. P300-based BCI is useful in young patients, but modification is necessary in old patients who have low ability of recognition and concentration. PMID:26512264

  10. Detection performance assessment of hand-held mine detection systems in a procurement process: test set-up for MDs and MD/GPRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoolderman, Arnold J.; Roosenboom, Jacques H. J.

    2005-06-01

    The Engineers Centre of Expertise of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA) has conducted a study on countermine in peace operations. This study, finished in 2002, concluded that the final solution to countermine will depend in the first place on better detection of buried low-metal mines, e.g. by direct detection of the explosive components in mines. Until such detection systems are available, intermediate solutions are necessary in order to assure freedom of movement in peace operations. Because countermine operations consist of a number of different activities (area preparation, detection, clearance, etc) and the suitability of the different types of available equipment depends on the scenario, the toolbox concept for countermine equipment was adopted. In 2003 a procurement process was started in order to fill this toolbox with commercial-off-the-shelf and military-off-the-shelf equipment. The paper gives a concise description of the study on countermine operations and the procurement process, and subsequently focuses on the set-up of the tests that were conducted in the framework of the procurement of hand-held mine detection systems, like metal detectors and dual-sensor mine detectors. Programs of requirements for these systems were drawn up, aiming at systems for general use and special purpose systems. Blind tests to check the compliancy to the detection performance requirements were designed and conducted in the short timeframe that was available in the procurement process. These tests are discussed in this paper, including the set-up of the test lanes, the targets used and their depths, and the role of the operator. The tests of the capability of the detectors to discriminate small targets adjacent to large targets were conducted according the guidelines of the CEN Workshop Agreement on metal detector tests. Although the results of the tests are commercially confidential, conclusions and lessons learned from the execution of these tests are presented.

  11. Fluorescence multi-scale endoscopy and its applications in the study and diagnosis of gastro-intestinal diseases: set-up design and software implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Arranz, Alicia; Fresno, Manuel; Desco, Manuel; Mahmood, Umar; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopy is frequently used in the diagnosis of several gastro-intestinal pathologies as Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis or colorectal cancer. It has great potential as a non-invasive screening technique capable of detecting suspicious alterations in the intestinal mucosa, such as inflammatory processes. However, these early lesions usually cannot be detected with conventional endoscopes, due to lack of cellular detail and the absence of specific markers. Due to this lack of specificity, the development of new endoscopy technologies, which are able to show microscopic changes in the mucosa structure, are necessary. We here present a confocal endomicroscope, which in combination with a wide field fluorescence endoscope offers fast and specific macroscopic information through the use of activatable probes and a detailed analysis at cellular level of the possible altered tissue areas. This multi-modal and multi-scale imaging module, compatible with commercial endoscopes, combines near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) measurements (enabling specific imaging of markers of disease and prognosis) and confocal endomicroscopy making use of a fiber bundle, providing a cellular level resolution. The system will be used in animal models exhibiting gastro-intestinal diseases in order to analyze the use of potential diagnostic markers in colorectal cancer. In this work, we present in detail the set-up design and the software implementation in order to obtain simultaneous RGB/NIRF measurements and short confocal scanning times.

  12. Validation of an original incubator set-up for the exposure of human astrocyte cells to X-band microwaves in a GTEM-chamber.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Del Moral, A; Pérez-Castejón, C; Llorente, M; Vera, A; Azanza, M J

    2011-09-01

    A current concern about the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is increasing with the wide spread use of X-band microwaves (MW, 8-10 GHz range). Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) field flat transmission lines are currently being used for experimental exposure of biological samples to high frequency EMF. Experiments carried out on human cells in culture require optimal growing temperature conditions, i.e. 37 °C, 5% CO2 in a humidified atmosphere. The aim of our work has been: i) to built up an original incubator set-up, the so called GTEM-incubator, for exposure of human cells in culture to MW inside a GTEM-chamber, under optimal growing physical conditions; ii) to make the validation of the GTEM-incubator by growing cell samples inside the non-energized GTEM-chamber (test sample) comparing the results with the ones obtained from cell samples grown inside a standard incubator (control samples). The features for comparison were: cell morphology, expression and distribution of cytoskeleton proteins, genotoxicity, viability and cell cycle progression. Any variation in any of the studied parameters would allow for detecting any possible failure or misconception in our GTEM-incubator working test. The results obtained in control and test incubators showed non-significant differences in the development of both cell populations for any of the studied parameters. Thereby our GTEM-incubator is considered valid for our purposes of human cell exposures to X-band MW.

  13. Cold test with a benchtop set-up for fluidized bed reactor using quartz sand to simulate gasification of coal cokes by concentrated solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Tadaaki; Kodama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of internal circulation of a mixture of coal-coke particles and quartz sand on the fluidization state in a fluidized bed reactor are investigated by a cold test with a benchtop set-up in order to design 10-30 kWth scale prototype windowed fluidized-bed reactor. Firstly, a basic relationship between pressure loss of inlet gas and gas velocity was experimentally examined using quartz sand with different particle sizes by a small-scale quartz tube with a distributor at ambient pressure and temperature. Based on the results, an appropriate particle range of quartz sand and layer height/layer diameter ratio (L/D ratio) was determined for a design of the fluidized bed reactor. Secondly, a windowed reactor mock-up was designed and fabricated for solar coke gasification using quartz sand as a bed material. The pressure loss between the inlet and outlet gases was examined, and descending cokes and sand particles on the sidewall of the reactor was observed in the reactor mock-up. The moving velocity and distance of descending particles/sands from the top to bottom of fluidized bed were measured by the visual observation of the colored tracer particles on outside wall of the reactor.

  14. A Controlled Design of Aligned and Random Nanofibers for 3D Bi-functionalized Nerve Conduits Fabricated via a Novel Electrospinning Set-up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong In; Hwang, Tae In; Aguilar, Ludwig Erik; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-01-01

    Scaffolds made of aligned nanofibers are favorable for nerve regeneration due to their superior nerve cell attachment and proliferation. However, it is challenging not only to produce a neat mat or a conduit form with aligned nanofibers but also to use these for surgical applications as a nerve guide conduit due to their insufficient mechanical strength. Furthermore, no studies have been reported on the fabrication of aligned nanofibers and randomly-oriented nanofibers on the same mat. In this study, we have successfully produced a mat with both aligned and randomly-oriented nanofibers by using a novel electrospinning set up. A new conduit with a highly-aligned electrospun mat is produced with this modified electrospinning method, and this proposed conduit with favorable features, such as selective permeability, hydrophilicity and nerve growth directional steering, were fabricated as nerve guide conduits (NGCs). The inner surface of the nerve conduit is covered with highly aligned electrospun nanofibers and is able to enhance the proliferation of neural cells. The central part of the tube is double-coated with randomly-oriented nanofibers over the aligned nanofibers, strengthening the weak mechanical strength of the aligned nanofibers. PMID:27021221

  15. Raman spectroscopy at mantle pressure and temperature conditions experimental set-up and the example of CaTiO3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Philippe; Fiquet, Guillaume; Daniel, Isabelle; Reynard, Bruno

    1993-09-01

    We present a new experimental set-up for studying minerals by Raman spectroscopy in situ at simultaneously high pressures (up to 35 GPa) and high temperatures (up to 2000 K). High pressures are generated with a diamond anvil cell, and local sample heating is obtained by focussing the beam of a CO2 laser on the pressurized sample through a type IIa diamond. The Raman spectrum and the thermal emission of the sample are collected on the same 2-micron-sized heated area, whereas the pressure can be measured simultaneously anywhere in the pressure chamber. Temperature in the central part of the heated spot is estimated from the thermal emission curves. Pressures are obtained by the classical fluorescence technique. Raman spectra of CaTiO3 perovskite, analog of MgSiO3-perovskite, are presented at temperatures up to 1700 K at a pressure of 12 GPa. These data are compared with high temperature Raman data at ambient pressure. The spectral changes upon heating observed in both series of experiments are discussed.

  16. Set-up of an experimental procedure for the measurement of thermal transmittances via infrared thermography on lab-made prototype walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelli, Antonio; Aversa, Patrizia; Luprano, Vincenza Anna Maria

    2016-11-01

    In this paper an experimental set-up measurement for the evaluation of the thermal transmittance of opaque elements has been developed. It is based on infrared thermography and it is suggested as alternative to the standard approach set by the ISO 9869:1994 based on heat flow meter (HFM) measurement which is widely accepted by scientific audience. The proposed method has been designed in order to overcome the following restrictions of HFM method: long measuring times (about 72 h), weather conditions as constant as possible and at least a difference of 10-15 °C between the temperatures of internal and external sides of walls. In this work, the alternative method proposed is widely described and applied on lab-made prototype walls: the results are encouraging, showing discrepancies with theoretical U-values, determined in accordance with international standard ISO 6946:2007, in the range -3.5 to 2.9%. The thermal transmittances were also calculated with a commercial software based on finite element analysis; the obtained results were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Moreover, the simulations pointed out that the values obtained on lab-made prototype walls are similar to those associated with partition walls which separate rooms with different environmental conditions.

  17. Experimental illumination of natural habitat--an experimental set-up to assess the direct and indirect ecological consequences of artificial light of different spectral composition.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, Kamiel; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Donners, Maurice; Gienapp, Phillip; Huigens, Martinus E; Slaterus, Roy; Berendse, Frank; Visser, Marcel E; Veenendaal, Elmar

    2015-05-05

    Artificial night-time illumination of natural habitats has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Generally, studies that assess the impact of artificial light on various species in the wild make use of existing illumination and are therefore correlative. Moreover, studies mostly focus on short-term consequences at the individual level, rather than long-term consequences at the population and community level-thereby ignoring possible unknown cascading effects in ecosystems. The recent change to LED lighting has opened up the exciting possibility to use light with a custom spectral composition, thereby potentially reducing the negative impact of artificial light. We describe here a large-scale, ecosystem-wide study where we experimentally illuminate forest-edge habitat with different spectral composition, replicated eight times. Monitoring of species is being performed according to rigid protocols, in part using a citizen-science-based approach, and automated where possible. Simultaneously, we specifically look at alterations in behaviour, such as changes in activity, and daily and seasonal timing. In our set-up, we have so far observed that experimental lights facilitate foraging activity of pipistrelle bats, suppress activity of wood mice and have effects on birds at the community level, which vary with spectral composition. Thus far, we have not observed effects on moth populations, but these and many other effects may surface only after a longer period of time.

  18. Awareness assessment of harmful effects of mercury in a health care set-up in India: A survey-based study.

    PubMed

    Halder, Nabanita; Peshin, Sharda Shah; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Mercury, one of the most toxic heavy metals, is ubiquitous in environment. The adverse health impact of mercury on living organisms is well known. The health care facilities are one of the important sources of mercury release into the atmosphere as mercury items are extensively used in hospitals. To assess the awareness about mercury toxicity and the knowledge of proper handling and disposal of mercury-containing items in health care set-up, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out amongst doctors (n = 835), nurses (n = 610) and technicians (n = 393) in government hospitals, corporate hospitals and primary health care centres in the Indian states of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. The study was conducted using a tool-containing pretested structured multiple-choice questionnaire. Analysis of the results using STATA 11.1 software highlighted that overall awareness was more in corporate sector. However, percentage range of knowledge of respondents irrespective of health care sector was only between 20 and 40%. Despite the commitment of various hospitals to be mercury free, mercury containing-thermometer/sphygmomanometer are still preferred by health professionals. The likely reasons are availability, affordability, accuracy and convenience in use. There is an urgent need for source reduction, recycling and waste minimization. Emphasis must be laid on mercury alternative products, education and training of health personnel and public at large, about correct handling and proper clean up of spills.

  19. Proton induced γ-ray emission yields for the analysis of light elements in aerosol samples in an external beam set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Portarena, S.

    2010-05-01

    The PIXE technique is a reliable tool for the characterisation of thin aerosol samples, but it can underestimate the lightest measurable elements, like Na, Mg, Al, Si and P, owing to the absorption of their X-rays inside the sample. The PIGE technique is a valid help to determine corrections for such effect: in order to perform PIGE measurements relative to thin reference standards in an external beam set-up, we measured, at the external beam facility of the Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory in Florence, the γ-ray yields as a function of the proton beam energy for the reactions 19F(p,p'γ) 19F ( Eγ = 110 and 197 keV), 23Na(p,p'γ) 23Na ( Eγ = 440 keV) and 27Al(p,p'γ) 27Al ( Eγ = 843 and 1013 keV), in the proton energy range from 3 to 5 MeV. The measured yields are shown, and the determined most suitable energies for performing PIGE quantification of Na and Al are reported, together with the corresponding minimum detection limits (MDLs). The results of some test on PIGE accuracy and an evaluation of self-absorption effects in PIXE measurements on thin aerosol samples are also presented.

  20. Experimental illumination of natural habitat—an experimental set-up to assess the direct and indirect ecological consequences of artificial light of different spectral composition

    PubMed Central

    Spoelstra, Kamiel; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Donners, Maurice; Gienapp, Phillip; Huigens, Martinus E.; Slaterus, Roy; Berendse, Frank; Visser, Marcel E.; Veenendaal, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Artificial night-time illumination of natural habitats has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Generally, studies that assess the impact of artificial light on various species in the wild make use of existing illumination and are therefore correlative. Moreover, studies mostly focus on short-term consequences at the individual level, rather than long-term consequences at the population and community level—thereby ignoring possible unknown cascading effects in ecosystems. The recent change to LED lighting has opened up the exciting possibility to use light with a custom spectral composition, thereby potentially reducing the negative impact of artificial light. We describe here a large-scale, ecosystem-wide study where we experimentally illuminate forest-edge habitat with different spectral composition, replicated eight times. Monitoring of species is being performed according to rigid protocols, in part using a citizen-science-based approach, and automated where possible. Simultaneously, we specifically look at alterations in behaviour, such as changes in activity, and daily and seasonal timing. In our set-up, we have so far observed that experimental lights facilitate foraging activity of pipistrelle bats, suppress activity of wood mice and have effects on birds at the community level, which vary with spectral composition. Thus far, we have not observed effects on moth populations, but these and many other effects may surface only after a longer period of time. PMID:25780241

  1. Measurement of maximum skin dose in interventional radiology and cardiology and challenges in the set-up of European alert thresholds.

    PubMed

    Farah, J; Trianni, A; Carinou, E; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Clairand, I; Dabin, J; De Angelis, C; Domienik, J; Jarvinen, H; Kopec, R; Majer, M; Malchair, F; Negri, A; Novák, L; Siiskonen, T; Vanhavere, F; Knežević, Ž

    2015-04-01

    To help operators acknowledge patient dose during interventional procedures, EURADOS WG-12 focused on measuring patient skin dose using XR-RV3 gafchromic films, thermoluminescent detector (TLD) pellets or 2D TL foils and on investigating possible correlation to the on-line dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time, Kerma-area product (KAP) and cumulative air Kerma at reference point (CK). The study aims at defining non-centre-specific European alert thresholds for skin dose in three interventional procedures: chemoembolization of the liver (CE), neuroembolization (NE) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Skin dose values of >3 Gy (ICRP threshold for skin injuries) were indeed measured in these procedures confirming the need for dose indicators that correlate with maximum skin dose (MSD). However, although MSD showed fairly good correlation with KAP and CK, several limitations were identified challenging the set-up of non-centre-specific European alert thresholds. This paper presents preliminary results of this wide European measurement campaign and focuses on the main challenges in the definition of European alert thresholds.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Mixed-Mode Interlaminar Fracture of Carbon-Polyester Laminated Woven Composite by Using Arcan Set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Mohammad Hossein; Choupani, Naghdali; Shameli, Moharram

    2011-12-01

    Composite materials are widely used in marine, aerospace and automobile industries. These materials are often subjected to defects and damages from both in-service and manufacturing process. Delamination is the most important of these defects. This paper reports investigation of mixed-mode fracture toughness in carbon-polyester composite by using numerical and experimental methods. All tests were performed by Arcan set-up. By changing the loading angle, α, from 0° to 90° at 15° intervals, mode-I, mixed-mode and mode-II fracture data were obtained. Correction factors for various conditions were obtained by using ABAQUS software. Effects of the crack length and the loading angle on fracture were also studied. The interaction j-integral method was used to separate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors at the crack tip under different loading conditions. As the result, it can be seen that the shearing mode interlaminar fracture toughness is larger than the opening mode interlaminar fracture toughness. This means that interlaminar cracked specimen is tougher in shear loading condition and weaker in tensile loading condition.

  3. A novel 15N tracer approach for the quantification of N2 and N2O emissions from soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Dannenmann, Michael; Meier, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro-ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification has received great interest by biogeochemists in the last decades, the magnitude of N2lossesand related N2:N2O ratios from soils still are largely unknown due to methodical constraints. We present a novel 15N tracer approach, based on a previous developed tracer method to study denitrification in pure bacterial cultures which was modified for the use on soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up. The method uses a background air in the incubation vessels that is replaced with a helium-oxygen gas mixture with a 50-fold reduced N2 background (2 % v/v). This method allows for a direct and sensitive quantification of the N2 and N2O emissions from the soil with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry after 15N labelling of denitrification N substrates and minimises the sensitivity to the intrusion of atmospheric N2 at the same time. The incubation set up was used to determine the influence of different soil moisture levels on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture soil in Queensland/Australia. The soil was labelled with an equivalent of 50 μg-N per gram dry soil by broadcast application of KNO3solution (4 at.% 15N) and incubated for 3 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. The headspace of the incubation vessel was sampled automatically over 12hrs each day and 3 samples (0, 6, and 12 hrs after incubation start) of headspace gas analysed for N2 and N2O with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (DELTA V Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany(. In addition, the soil was analysed for 15N NO3- and NH4+ using the 15N diffusion method, which enabled us to obtain a complete N balance. The method proved to be highly sensitive for N2 and N2O emissions detecting N2O emissions ranging from 20 to 627 μN kg

  4. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesinger, R.; Schade, U.; Kleber, Ch.; Schreiner, M.

    2014-06-15

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  5. SU-E-J-172: Bio-Physical Effects of Patients Set-Up Errors According to Whole Breast Irradiation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Suh, T; Park, S; Kim, M; Lee, M; Park, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The dose-related effects of patient setup errors on biophysical indices were evaluated for conventional wedge (CW) and field-in-field (FIF) whole breast irradiation techniques. Methods: The treatment plans for 10 patients receiving whole left breast irradiation were retrospectively selected. Radiobiological and physical effects caused by dose variations were evaluated by shifting the isocenters and gantry angles of the treatment plans. Dose-volume histograms of the planning target volume (PTV), heart, and lungs were generated, and conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were determined. Results: For “isocenter shift plan” with posterior direction, the D95 of the PTV decreased by approximately 15% and the TCP of the PTV decreased by approximately 50% for the FIF technique and by 40% for the CW; however, the NTCPs of the lungs and heart increased by about 13% and 1%, respectively, for both techniques. Increasing the gantry angle decreased the TCPs of the PTV by 24.4% (CW) and by 34% (FIF). The NTCPs for the two techniques differed by only 3%. In case of CW, the CIs and HIs were much higher than that of the FIF in all cases. It had a significant difference between two techniques (p<0.01). According to our results, however, the FIF had more sensitive response by set up errors rather than CW in bio-physical aspects. Conclusions: The radiobiological-based analysis can detect significant dosimetric errors then, can provide a practical patient quality assurance method to guide the radiobiological and physical effects.

  6. Non-contact test set-up for aeroelasticity in a rotating turbomachine combining a novel acoustic excitation system with tip-timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, O.; Montgomery, M.; Mittelbach, M.; Seume, J. R.

    2014-03-01

    Due to trends in aero-design, aeroelasticity becomes increasingly important in modern turbomachines. Design requirements of turbomachines lead to the development of high aspect ratio blades and blade integral disc designs (blisks), which are especially prone to complex modes of vibration. Therefore, experimental investigations yielding high quality data are required for improving the understanding of aeroelastic effects in turbomachines. One possibility to achieve high quality data is to excite and measure blade vibrations in turbomachines. The major requirement for blade excitation and blade vibration measurements is to minimize interference with the aeroelastic effects to be investigated. Thus in this paper, a non-contact—and thus low interference—experimental set-up for exciting and measuring blade vibrations is proposed and shown to work. A novel acoustic system excites rotor blade vibrations, which are measured with an optical tip-timing system. By performing measurements in an axial compressor, the potential of the acoustic excitation method for investigating aeroelastic effects is explored. The basic principle of this method is described and proven through the analysis of blade responses at different acoustic excitation frequencies and at different rotational speeds. To verify the accuracy of the tip-timing system, amplitudes measured by tip-timing are compared with strain gage measurements. They are found to agree well. Two approaches to vary the nodal diameter (ND) of the excited vibration mode by controlling the acoustic excitation are presented. By combining the different excitable acoustic modes with a phase-lag control, each ND of the investigated 30 blade rotor can be excited individually. This feature of the present acoustic excitation system is of great benefit to aeroelastic investigations and represents one of the main advantages over other excitation methods proposed in the past. In future studies, the acoustic excitation method will be used

  7. Lessons learned from setting up the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the resource-constrained context of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V.; Afenyadu, Godwin Y.; Findley, Sally E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The present time reflects a period of intense effort to get the most out of public health interventions, with an emphasis on health systems reform and implementation research. Population health approaches to determine which combinations are better at achieving the goals of improved health and well-being are needed to provide a ready response to the need for timely and real-world piloting of promising interventions. Objective This paper describes the steps needed to establish a population health surveillance site in order to share the lessons learned from our experience launching the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in a relatively isolated, rural district in Zamfara, northern Nigeria, where strict Muslim observance of gender separation and seclusion of women must be respected by any survey operation. Discussion Key to the successful launch of the Nahuche HDSS was the leadership's determination, stakeholder participation, support from state and local government areas authorities, technical support from the INDEPTH Network, and international academic partners. Solid funding from our partner health systems development programme during the launch period was also essential, and provided a base from which to secure long-term sustainable funding. Perhaps the most difficult challenges were the adaptations needed in order to conduct the requisite routine population surveillance in the communities, where strict Muslim observance of gender separation and seclusion of women, especially young women, required recruitment of female interviewers, which was in turn difficult due to low female literacy levels. Local community leaders were key in overcoming the population's apprehension of the fieldwork and modern medicine, in general. Continuous engagement and sensitisation of all stakeholders was a critical step in ensuring sustainability. While the experiences of setting up a new HDSS site may vary globally, the experiences in northern Nigeria

  8. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesinger, R.; Schade, U.; Kleber, Ch.; Schreiner, M.

    2014-06-01

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  9. "helix Nebula - the Science Cloud", a European Science Driven Cross-Domain Initiative Implemented in via AN Active Ppp Set-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengert, W.; Mondon, E.; Bégin, M. E.; Ferrer, M.; Vallois, F.; DelaMar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Helix Nebula, a European science cross-domain initiative building on an active PPP, is aiming to implement the concept of an open science commons[1] while using a cloud hybrid model[2] as the proposed implementation solution. This approach allows leveraging and merging of complementary data intensive Earth Science disciplines (e.g. instrumentation[3] and modeling), without introducing significant changes in the contributors' operational set-up. Considering the seamless integration with life-science (e.g. EMBL), scientific exploitation of meteorological, climate, and Earth Observation data and models open an enormous potential for new big data science. The work of Helix Nebula has shown that is it feasible to interoperate publicly funded infrastructures, such as EGI [5] and GEANT [6], with commercial cloud services. Such hybrid systems are in the interest of the existing users of publicly funded infrastructures and funding agencies because they will provide "freedom and choice" over the type of computing resources to be consumed and the manner in which they can be obtained. But to offer such freedom and choice across a spectrum of suppliers, various issues such as intellectual property, legal responsibility, service quality agreements and related issues need to be addressed. Finding solutions to these issues is one of the goals of the Helix Nebula initiative. [1] http://www.egi.eu/news-and-media/publications/OpenScienceCommons_v3.pdf [2] http://www.helix-nebula.eu/events/towards-the-european-open-science-cloud [3] e.g. https://sentinel.esa.int/web/sentinel/sentinel-data-access [5] http://www.egi.eu/ [6] http://www.geant.net/

  10. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, R; Schade, U; Kleber, Ch; Schreiner, M

    2014-06-01

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  11. Development of an Educational Game to Set Up Surgical Instruments on the Mayo Stand or Back Table: Applied Research in Production Technology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Existing research suggests that digital games can be used effectively for educational purposes at any level of training. Perioperative nursing educators can use games to complement curricula, in guidance and staff development programs, to foster team collaboration, and to give support to critical thinking in nursing practice because it is a complex environment. Objective To describe the process of developing an educational game to set up surgical instruments on the Mayo stand or back table as a resource to assist the instructor in surgical instrumentation training for students and nursing health professionals in continued education. Methods The study was characterized by applied research in production technology. It included the phases of analysis and design, development, and evaluation. The objectives of the educational game were developed through Bloom’s taxonomy. Parallel to the physical development of the educational game, a proposed model for the use of digital elements in educational game activities was applied to develop the game content. Results The development of the game called “Playing with Tweezers” was carried out in 3 phases and was evaluated by 15 participants, comprising students and professional experts in various areas of knowledge such as nursing, information technology, and education. An environment was created with an initial screen, menu buttons containing the rules of the game, and virtual tour modes for learning and assessment. Conclusions The “digital” nursing student needs engagement, stimulation, reality, and entertainment, not just readings. “Playing with Tweezers” is an example of educational gaming as an innovative teaching strategy in nursing that encourages the strategy of involving the use of educational games to support theoretical or practical classroom teaching. Thus, the teacher does not work with only 1 type of teaching methodology, but with a combination of different methodologies. In addition, we

  12. [Setting-up an epidemiological monitoring system of mortality by trauma in children under 15 years of age in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Lasbeur, L; Thélot, B

    2014-11-01

    In metropolitan France in 2009, trauma was the leading cause of death among children under 15 years of age: 459 deaths (source CépiDc), with 236 deaths by home and leisure injuries (HLI). These rough mortality data do not describe the circumstances of the trauma responsible for the death. The "Fatal home and leisure injury among children under 15 years old-MAC-15" feasibility study was set up in 2009 in France in the following regions: Île-de-France, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The main objective of the survey was to understand exactly how these accidents occurred and determine their risk factors. Its secondary objectives were to test the feasibility and analyze the possibility of extending and/or scaling up the monitoring of these deaths. Case reporting was made through death certificates, contacts with regional health agencies, and media surveillance. A detailed record was completed by the medical certifier. In 2009, 76 HLI-related deaths in under 15-year-old children were identified by the survey in the three regions. The victims were mostly boys. The most common cause of death was drowning, followed by suffocation, falls, and fires. The survey contributed to precisely determining the risk factors of HLIs in children and, most often, to identifying the cause responsible for the fatal accident. The feasibility conclusions of this survey are positive, data collection is effective and practicable, and its quality and exhaustiveness were demonstrated. Implementation of the "detailed analyses of the deaths by trauma among children under 15 years old" survey is proposed. This survey will be extended to all deaths by trauma among children in Metropolitan France.

  13. Thermal neutron capture cross-section and resonance integral measurements of 139La(n, γ)140La and 140Ce(n, γ)141Ce using a Am-Be neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal neutron capture cross-sections and resonance integrals of 139La(n, γ)140La and 140Ce (n, γ)141Ce are measured with respect to reference reactions 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 55Mn(n, γ)56Mn using the neutron activation technique. Measurements are carried out using neutrons from an Am-Be source located inside a concrete bunker. Two different methods are used for determining self-shielding factors of activation foils as well as for finding the epithermal neutron spectrum shape factor. For 139 La with reference to 197 Au and 55 Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 9.24 ± 0.25 b and 9.28 ± 0.37 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 12.18 ± 0.67 b and 11.81 ± 0.94 b, respectively. For 140 Ce with reference to 197 Au and 55 Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 0.44 ± 0.01 b and 0.44 ± 0.02 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 0.55 ± 0.03 b and 0.54 ± 0.04 b, respectively. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements and evaluations. Presently estimated values confirm the established 139La(n, γ)140La cross-sections. The presently measured thermal capture cross-section 140Ce(n, γ)141Ce , though lower than the evaluated data, is having higher accuracy compared to previous measurements with large uncertainties. The resonance integral measured is higher (like most previous measurements) than most evaluations requiring a revision of the evaluated data.

  14. Sensitivity study of the UHI in the city of Szeged (Hungary) to different offline simulation set-ups using SURFEX/TEB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsebeházi, Gabriella; Hamdi, Rafiq; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    Urbanised areas modify the local climate due to the physical properties of surface subjects and their morphology. The urban effect on local climate and regional climate change interact, resulting in more serious climate change impacts (e.g., more heatwave events) over cities. Majority of people are now living in cities and thus, affected by these enhanced changes. Therefore, targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies in cities are of high importance. Regional climate models (RCMs) are sufficient tools for estimating future climate change of an area in detail, although most of them cannot represent the urban climate characteristics, because their spatial resolution is too coarse (in general 10-50 km) and they do not use a specific urban parametrization over urbanized areas. To describe the interactions between the urban surface and atmosphere on few km spatial scale, we use the externalised SURFEX land surface scheme including the TEB urban canopy model in offline mode (i.e. the interaction is only one-way). The driving atmospheric conditions highly influence the impact results, thus the good quality of these data is particularly essential. The overall aim of our research is to understand the behaviour of the impact model and its interaction with the forcing coming from the atmospheric model in order to reduce the biases, which can lead to qualified impact studies of climate change over urban areas. As a preliminary test, several short (few-day) 1 km resolution simulations are carried out over a domain covering a Hungarian town, Szeged, which is located at the flat southern part of Hungary. The atmospheric forcing is provided by ALARO (a new version of the limited-area model of the ARPEGE-IFS system running at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) applied over Hungary. The focal point of our investigations is the ability of SURFEX to simulate the diurnal evolution and spatial pattern of urban heat island (UHI). Different offline simulation set-ups have

  15. Accuracy and efficiency of an infrared based positioning and tracking system for patient set-up and monitoring in image guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jing; Xu, Gongming; Pei, Xi; Cao, Ruifen; Hu, Liqin; Wu, Yican

    2015-03-01

    An infrared based positioning and tracking (IPT) system was introduced and its accuracy and efficiency for patient setup and monitoring were tested for daily radiotherapy treatment. The IPT system consists of a pair of floor mounted infrared stereoscopic cameras, passive infrared markers and tools used for acquiring localization information as well as a custom controlled software which can perform the positioning and tracking functions. The evaluation of IPT system characteristics was conducted based on the AAPM 147 task report. Experiments on spatial drift and reproducibility as well as static and dynamic localization accuracy were carried out to test the efficiency of the IPT system. Measurements of known translational (up to 55.0 mm) set-up errors in three dimensions have been performed on a calibration phantom. The accuracy of positioning was evaluated on an anthropomorphic phantom with five markers attached to the surface; the precision of the tracking ability was investigated through a sinusoidal motion platform. For the monitoring of the respiration, three volunteers contributed to the breathing testing in real time. The spatial drift of the IPT system was 0.65 mm within 60 min to be stable. The reproducibility of position variations were between 0.01 and 0.04 mm. The standard deviation of static marker localization was 0.26 mm. The repositioning accuracy was 0.19 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.53 mm in the left/right (L/R), superior/inferior (S/I) and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions, respectively. The measured dynamic accuracy was 0.57 mm and discrepancies measured for the respiratory motion tracking was better than 1 mm. The overall positioning accuracy of the IPT system was within 2 mm. In conclusion, the IPT system is an accurate and effective tool for assisting patient positioning in the treatment room. The characteristics of the IPT system can successfully meet the needs for real time external marker tracking and patient positioning as well as respiration

  16. Polymerization of rod-like macromolecular monomers studied by stopped-flow, multiangle light scattering: set-up, data processing, and application to fibrin formation.

    PubMed Central

    Bernocco, S; Ferri, F; Profumo, A; Cuniberti, C; Rocco, M

    2000-01-01

    Many biological supramolecular structures are formed by polymerization of macromolecular monomers. Light scattering techniques can provide structural information from such systems, if suitable procedures are used to collect the data and then to extract the relevant parameters. We present an experimental set-up in which a commercial multiangle laser light scattering photometer is linked to a stopped-flow mixer, allowing, in principle, the time-resolved extrapolation of the weight-average molecular weight M(w) and of the z-average square radius of gyration (z) of the polymers from Zimm-like plots. However, if elongated structures are formed as the polymerization proceeds, curved plots rapidly arise, from which M(w) and (z) cannot be recovered by linear fitting. To verify the correctness of a polynomial fitting procedure, polydisperse collections of rod-like or worm-like particles of different lengths, generated at various stages during bifunctional polycondensations of rod-like macromolecular monomers, were considered. Then, the angular dependence of their time-averaged scattered intensity was calculated in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation, with random and systematic noise also added to the data. For relatively narrow size distributions, a third-degree polynomial fitting gave satisfactory results across a broad range of conversion degrees, yielding M(w) and (z) values within 2% and no greater than 10-20%, respectively, of the calculated values. When more broad size distributions were analyzed, the procedure still performed well for semiflexible polymers, but started to seriously underestimate both M(w) and (z) when rigid rod-like particles were analyzed, even at relatively low conversion degrees. The data were also analyzed in the framework of the Casassa approximation, from which the mass per unit length of the polymers can be derived. These procedures were applied to a set of data taken on the early stages of the thrombin

  17. Farm Level--Setting Up and Using the Tripod Level, Staking Out Foundations, Differential Leveling, and Staking Out Fence Lines. Student Materials. V.A. III. V-E-1, V-E-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by individuals enrolled in vocational agricultural classes, these student materials deal with setting up and using a tripod level, staking out foundations, differential leveling, and staking out fence lines. Topics covered in the unit are different kinds of tripod levels, the parts of a tripod level, transporting a tripod level,…

  18. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  19. Reliable set-up for in-loop ¹¹C-carboxylations using Grignard reactions for the preparation of [carbonyl-¹¹C]WAY-100635 and [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO.

    PubMed

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Ungersboeck, Johanna; Haeusler, Daniela; Nics, Lukas; Philippe, Cecile; Mitterhauser, Markus; Willeit, Matthaeus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Karanikas, Georgios; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    Aim of this work was the implementation of a generalized in-loop synthesis for (11)C-carboxylations and subsequent (11)C-acylations on the TRACERlab FxC Pro platform. The set-up was tested using [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635 and, for the first time, [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO. Its general applicability could be demonstrated and both [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635 and [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO were prepared with high reliability and satisfying outcome.

  20. Setting up Uncertified Teachers to Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    A study of new teachers with science degrees but little or no training in education found that coaches who spent time in their classrooms provided the most effective support for new teachers. Science methods courses provided by a university also were very helpful for the new teacher. But academic mentors for science content and teacher mentors who…

  1. Setting up Conditions for Negotiation in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Bennett, William; Mendez, Claudia Aguirre; Hand, Brian

    2010-01-01

    When using an argument based inquiry approach like the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, argumentation between peers and with a teacher will provide great opportunities for students to experience negotiation of meaning in relation to science content. However, students do not automatically engage in dialogue and argumentation with…

  2. NSF Sets Up Regional Instrument Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains the aims behind the first six regional facilities that are being established at universities that already have strong state-of-the art programs in the areas of their grants. Gives a brief look at the facilities and what each has to offer. (GA)

  3. Setting up an acute pain management service.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Eric S; Baratta, Jaime L; Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2014-12-01

    Successful implementation of an acute pain management service involves a team approach in which team members have clearly defined roles. Clinical protocols are designed to help address common problems and prevent errors. As the complexity of surgery and patients' diseases continues to increase, current knowledge of new analgesic medications, acute pain literature, and skills in regional anesthesia techniques is imperative. Emphasizing a multimodal approach can improve analgesia and decrease opioid-related side effects.

  4. Setting Up a Preventive Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Michael J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steps of a preventive maintenance program are to determine what equipment will fall within the program; to determine what tasks are necessary to perform the required maintenance, and the frequency of each task; and to build a workable schedule. (Author/MLF)

  5. Setting up a CFO Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the importance of a solid relationship with the head of finance is critical to success, both for the IT department and the institution as a whole. Never has this been truer than in today's bleak economy, as CFOs become increasingly cautious about initiatives that involve significant expense, yet information technology can help…

  6. Calculator program set up for film coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Gracey, J.O.; Teter, D.L.

    1982-11-15

    Describes a mechanized computation scheme for the film coefficients used in heat transfer calculations designed for the Texas Instruments TI-59 programmable calculator. Presents tables showing application conditions (small diagram included) and the corresponding heat transfer equations for 10 heat flow situations; symbols used; user instructions, a complete film coefficient program; and storage assignments. Example problem and corresponding printout are given.

  7. Assessment of three-dimensional set-up errors using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) during image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) on helical tomotherapy (HT).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tejpal; Upasani, Maheshkumar; Master, Zubin; Patil, Anita; Phurailatpam, Reena; Nojin, Siji; Kannan, Sadhana; Godasastri, Jayant; Jalali, Rakesh

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess three-dimensional (3D) set-up errors using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) during image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for supine craniospinal irradiation (CSI) on helical tomotherapy (HT). Patients were immobilized in a customized 4-clamp thermoplastic head mask with or without whole-body vacuum cradle. Set-up was based primarily on a set of cranial fiducial markers. MVCT scans were acquired and co-registered with planning scan separately at three different levels (brain, upper, and lower spine) at every fraction. Only translational displacements were analysed, wherein positive sign denotes deviation in anterior, left, and superior direction; while negative sign denotes deviation in posterior, right, and inferior direction. Mean displacements, systematic, and random errors of the study population were calculated at all three levels separately. Local residual uncertainty of the upper and lower spine was also derived assuming perfect co-registration of the skull. Set-up margins for clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) were derived at these three levels separately using published margin recipes. Data from 1868 co-registrations in 674 fractions on 33 patients was included. The mean displacements in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions were -1.21, -1.36, and 1.38 mm; -1.25, -0.34, and 0.65 mm; and -1.47, -2.78, and 0.22 mm for the brain; upper spine; and lumbar spine respectively. The corresponding 3D vector of displacement was 2.28; 1.45; and 3.15 mm respectively. There was a distinct systematic trend towards increasing inaccuracy from the brain towards the lower spine. Using Stroom's formula, the minimum recommended CTV to PTV margins in absence of daily image-guidance were 6.5; 7.0; and 9.5 mm for the brain; upper spine; and lower spine respectively. This increased to 7.5; 8.5; and 11.5 mm using van Herk's formula. Subset and sensitivity analyses

  8. Adaptation of the pseudo-metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor technique to ultrathin silicon-on-insulator wafers characterization: Improved set-up, measurement procedure, parameter extraction, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Daele, W.; Malaquin, C.; Baumel, N.; Kononchuk, O.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2013-10-01

    This paper revisits and adapts of the pseudo-MOSFET (Ψ-MOSFET) characterization technique for advanced fully depleted silicon on insulator (FDSOI) wafers. We review the current challenges for standard Ψ-MOSFET set-up on ultra-thin body (12 nm) over ultra-thin buried oxide (25 nm BOX) and propose a novel set-up enabling the technique on FDSOI structures. This novel configuration embeds 4 probes with large tip radius (100-200 μm) and low pressure to avoid oxide damage. Compared with previous 4-point probe measurements, we introduce a simplified and faster methodology together with an adapted Y-function. The models for parameters extraction are revisited and calibrated through systematic measurements of SOI wafers with variable film thickness. We propose an in-depth analysis of the FDSOI structure through comparison of experimental data, TCAD (Technology Computed Aided Design) simulations, and analytical modeling. TCAD simulations are used to unify previously reported thickness-dependent analytical models by analyzing the BOX/substrate potential and the electrical field in ultrathin films. Our updated analytical models are used to explain the results and to extract correct electrical parameters such as low-field electron and hole mobility, subthreshold slope, and film/BOX interface traps density.

  9. Mathematical and numerical models for transfer of low-density lipoproteins through the arterial walls: a new methodology for the model set up with applications to the study of disturbed lumenal flow.

    PubMed

    Prosi, M; Zunino, P; Perktold, K; Quarteroni, A

    2005-04-01

    In this work we introduce and discuss several mathematical models, based on partial differential equations, devised to study the coupled transport of macromolecules as low-density lipoproteins in the blood stream and in the arterial walls. These models are accurate provided that a suitable set of physical parameters characterizing the physical properties of the molecules and of the wall layers are available. Here we turn our attention on this aspect, and propose a new methodology to compute the physical parameters needed for the model set up, starting from available in vivo measurements. Then, we focus on the study of the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins in vascular districts featuring a highly disturbed flow. Our results demonstrate that mathematical models whose set up procedure benefits from an experimental feedback provide reliable information not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively. Their application to geometrically perturbed vascular districts (as for example a severe stenosis) shows that geometrical parameters such as curvature and variations of the lumenal section strongly influence the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins within the wall. For instance, in a stenotic segment with 75% area constriction, the LDL concentration at the lumenal side of the wall is about 10% higher than for the undisturbed segment.

  10. Further considerations for the setting up of a low background whole-body counter for internal dosimetry at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Carlsbad, NM, USA: transmitted photon component.

    PubMed

    Pillalamarri, Ila; Jagam, P

    2015-04-01

    One of the further considerations in the present work, while setting up a low background whole-body counter (WBC) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to reduce the background in the energy region of interest <100 keV. The goal of the present work is to determine the adequacy of a chamber located underground at WIPP of dimensions 1.83 m × 1.22 m at the base, 1.83 m high, with 15 cm thick pre-world-war II steel shielding. The objective of the present work is to estimate the transmitted photon flux into this chamber for setting up the low background WBC. The transmitted photon flux is simulated with the GEANT code for an incident photon flux consisting only of 1461 keV photons. The results are discussed with respect to a detector of choice for detecting <50 mBq emitting photons in the energy region <100 keV.

  11. Effect of galactooligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 on growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, microbial community structure, and metabolite production in an in vitro colonic model set up with human or pig microbiota.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Rafael C R; Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Borst, Wendy; Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk; Gutiérrez, Odette P; Maathuis, Annet J H; de Melo Franco, Bernadette D G; De Martinis, Elaine C P; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Venema, Koen; Saad, Susana M I; Smidt, Hauke

    2013-04-01

    A validated in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2), set up with human or pig faeces, was used to evaluate the impact of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, administered alone (i), in the presence of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (ii), and co-administered with probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) (iii) on GOS degradation, microbial growth (L. amylovorus, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and total bacteria) and metabolite production. High performance anion exchange chromatography revealed that GOS degradation was more pronounced in TIM-2 inoculated with pig faeces than with human faeces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected a more complex Lactobacillus spp. community in pig faecal material than in human faecal inoculum. According to 16S rRNA gene-targeted qPCR, GOS stimulated the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in faecal material from both materials. The cumulative production of short chain fatty acids and ammonia was higher (P < 0.05) for pig than for human faeces. However, lactate accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) in the human model and increased after co-administration with GOS and Bb-12. This study reinforced the notion that differences in microbiota composition between target host organisms need to be considered when animal data are extrapolated to human, as is often done with pre- and probiotic intervention studies.

  12. Community and connectivity: summary of a community based monitoring program set up to assess the movement of nutrients and sediments into the Great Barrier Reef during high flow events.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M; Waterhouse, J; Brodie, J

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) system encompasses the largest system of corals and related life forms anywhere in the world. The health of this extensive system, particularly the inshore area, is dependent on the relationship between the GBR and adjacent coastal catchments. The major impact of agricultural practices on the GBR is the degradation of water quality in receiving (rivers) waters, caused by increased inputs of nutrients, suspended sediments and other pollutants. For the past three years, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) has been involved with the co-ordination of a river-monitoring program, specifically targeting the sampling of rivers during flood events. Representative sites were set up along two North Queensland rivers, the Russell-Mulgrave and Barron Rivers. This monitoring program is run in conjunction with the Queensland Department of Natural Resources' Waterwatch program. The program involves intensive sampling of first flush, extreme flow and post flood conditions over the two rivers. Extreme flow conditions are sampled over a limited time span (48 hours) with trained volunteers at 4-hour intervals. Concentrations measured in the flood events are dependent on land use characteristic, and extent of flow. Concentrations of dissolved and particulate nutrients are higher if the extreme flow event is part of the first flush cycle. Concentrations of DIN and DIP measured before, during and after a major flood event suggest that there is a large storage of inorganic material within the Barron and Russell-Mulgrave agricultural subcatchments that move over a period of days, and perhaps weeks. This program created a forum in which GBRMPA liased with the Barron and Russell-Mulgrave community about the connectivity existing between the river and the Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

  13. A new set-up for simultaneous high-precision measurements of CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 on small ice core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenk, Theo Manuel; Rubino, Mauro; Etheridge, David; Ciobanu, Viorela Gabriela; Blunier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Palaeoatmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods. Additional analytical resources with high analytical precision and throughput are thus desirable to extend the existing datasets. Moreover, consistent measurements derived by independent laboratories and a variety of analytical systems help to further increase confidence in the global CO2 palaeo-reconstructions. Here, we describe our new set-up for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and atmospheric δ13C and δ18O-CO2 in air extracted from ice core samples. The centrepiece of the system is a newly designed needle cracker for the mechanical release of air entrapped in ice core samples of 8-13 g operated at -45 °C. The small sample size allows for high resolution and replicate sampling schemes. In our method, CO2 is cryogenically and chromatographically separated from the bulk air and its isotopic composition subsequently determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In combination with thermal conductivity measurement of the bulk air, the CO2 mixing ratio is calculated. The analytical precision determined from standard air sample measurements over ice is ±1.9 ppm for CO2 and ±0.09 ‰ for δ13C. In a laboratory intercomparison study with CSIRO (Aspendale, Australia), good agreement between CO2 and δ13C results is found for Law Dome ice core samples. Replicate analysis of these samples resulted in a pooled standard deviation of 2.0 ppm for CO2 and 0.11 ‰ for δ13C. These numbers are good, though they are rather conservative estimates of the overall analytical precision achieved for single ice sample measurements. Facilitated by the small sample requirement

  14. Challenges in Setting up Cross-Institutional Virtual Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Approved in 1999 by the Swiss Parliament, the Swiss Virtual Campus (SVC) project debuted in 2000 with the goal of promoting an information society in Switzerland. The University of Geneva has been actively involved with building the SVC and the European virtual campus e-LERU, a two-year project in which eight European countries partnered to…

  15. Setting Up a Public Use Local Area Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Eric; Thulstrup, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    Describes a public use microcomputer cluster at the University of Maine, Orono. Various network topologies, hardware and software options, installation problems, system management, and performance are discussed. (MES)

  16. Setting up a clinical psychology service for commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clare; Petrak, Jenny

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to provide what we believe to be the first report of the establishment of a clinical psychology service to provide accessible psychological assessment, intervention and crisis support, integrated within an existing East London sexual health clinical and outreach service for commercial sex workers (CSWs). Data are presented on referral patterns, demographics, presenting issues to clinical psychology, interventions and outcomes for the first year of the service. Women presented with a range of psychosocial needs. Psychological interventions included direct therapy, signposting to other services and consultation with staff. We concluded that this flexible model of service provision improves access to mental health services within the context of a specialist sexual health and outreach service for CSWs. The provision of a named, female clinical psychologist who provides both the clinical sessions and attends outreach has been an important factor in developing trust and familiarity, leading to better uptake of the clinical psychology service.

  17. Setting up a Free School: Successful Proposers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Craven, Barrie; Tooley, James

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 Academies Act was significant in introducing Free Schools to the English education system. Opening up funding to new, non-profit entrants on the basis of demand, the policy has aroused support and controversy on political, philosophical and practical educational grounds with implications for social justice in terms of equity and freedom.…

  18. SETTING UP A LABORATORY AB INITIO IN A REMOTE LOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, OH has operated a pilot plant approximately 5 kilometers from its main research facility. Originally, this Tet and Evaluation (T&E) facility was sited to be adjacent to the City of Cincinnati's...

  19. Setting Up Computer Workstations in Classrooms and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Explains the benefits of computer workstations in schools and describes various components, including projection tools such as LCD (liquid crystal display) projectors, printers, Internet connections, tape drives, digitizers, scanners, laserdisc players, and CD-i (interactive) players. (LRW)

  20. How to set up and use a Twitter account professionally.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, Meriel; Jones, Ray

    2016-11-02

    Rationale and key points This article encourages nurses to use Twitter to engage in professional discussions, share information and raise awareness of alternative views to enhance practice and patient care. Twitter is an online social media service that enables users to send and read 140-character messages called tweets. » Twitter is free and accessible across multiple platforms and devices, providing immediate contact with professionals, organisations and the public worldwide. » Many healthcare professionals use Twitter to share ideas and information. » Responsible use of Twitter creates opportunities to access information, discuss issues and challenge misconceptions to support professional nursing behaviours. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you could develop your use of Twitter for professional learning and interaction with healthcare professionals and others. 2. How you could support a colleague to use Twitter for the first time.

  1. Setting Up Participatory Research: A Discussion of the Initial Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Anne; McMillan, Jane; Cummins, Lorraine; Thompson, Agnes; Forsyth, Watson; McLellan, James; Snot, Linda; Fraser, Anne; Fraser, Mary; Fulton, Charity; McGrindel, Elizabeth; Gillies, Lorraine; LeFort, Shelley; Miller, Gail; Whitehall, John; Wilson, John; Smith, Janet; Wright, David

    2003-01-01

    A participatory research project was designed to teach eight British adults with learning disabilities about keeping healthy. The development of the project, the recruitment of the participants, and the involvement of the participants in the project are discussed, along with the role of researchers and support workers in participatory research.…

  2. Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2009-01-01

    Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)--what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the…

  3. It's COWANBUNGA Time: Setting up Shop in a Foreign Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Ruth B.; Chung, Ed

    2008-01-01

    What happens to business negotiations when culture gets in the way? Participants are about to find out. This game is an international negotiation simulation for the classroom. Participants learn, through role-playing and observation, how cross-cultural differences complicate international business negotiations. Students are formed into pairs of…

  4. PARP1 orchestrates epigenetic events setting up chromatin domains.

    PubMed

    Ciccarone, Fabio; Zampieri, Michele; Caiafa, Paola

    2017-03-01

    Epigenetic events include reversible modifications of DNA and histone tails driving chromatin organization and thus transcription. The epigenetic regulation is a highly integrated process underlying the plasticity of the genomic information both in the context of complex physiological and pathological processes. The global regulatory aspects of epigenetic events are largely unknown. PARylation and PARP1 are recently emerging as multi-level regulatory effectors that modulate the topology of chromatin by orchestrating very different processes. This review focuses in particular on the role of PARP1 in epigenetics, trying to build a comprehensive perspective of its involvement in the regulation of epigenetic modifications of histones and DNA, contextualizing it in the global organization of chromatin domains in the nucleus.

  5. Setting Up a Preventive Maintenance Program: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Michael J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines how a good preventive maintenance program can be scheduled and followed up to insure that the inspections have been performed. Both manually operated and computerized preventive maintenance programs are discussed. (MLF)

  6. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  7. Setting up microbiological water reuse guidelines for the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Bahri, A; Brissaud, F

    2004-01-01

    Water reuse is a widespread practice in most Mediterranean countries. Some countries have no wastewater treatment facilities and direct reuse of raw wastewater is occurring while others have a well-established national reuse policy. Water reuse microbiological standards, when existing, significantly differ from one country to another. Some countries have adopted regulations close to the California's Water Recycling Criteria whereas other countries have chosen criteria based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. California standards are technologically based requirements aimed at eliminating the presence of pathogens. The WHO guidelines relied on epidemiological evidences though few were available. Their revision on the basis of new epidemiological investigations and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) provided by Blumenthal et al., together with added QMRA data, helped proposing Mediterranean guidelines. Acceptable annual risks related to bathing and potable water drinking were taken as benchmarks. This proposal is designed to protect individuals against realistic maximum exposures and to provide minimum and affordable requirements which should constitute the basis of water reuse regulations in every country of the region. Inadequacies of the actual knowledge do not allow a definitive position regarding the guideline limits; other scientific and technical basis are still required.

  8. Setting up the Interactive Educational Process in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponomariova, Olga Nikolaevna; Vasin?, Olga Nikolaevna

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the opportunities in the interactive teaching in higher education. The study presents the methodological approach of understanding the notions of "teaching technology" and "interactive teaching methods". The originality of the study consists in the authors' definition of the situation in "the…

  9. Setting-Up a Fireball Detection Station at UCM Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocana, F.; Zamorano, J.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Izquierdo, J.; Manjavacas, E.; Ramirez-Moreta, P.; Ponce, R.

    2011-01-01

    UCM Observatory is the urban teaching observatory of Universidad Complutense de Madrid. In 2010 a fully-equipped fireball detection station has been completed as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN). The station is quasi-automatic and covers the whole sky with 6 cameras during night and day with a plate scale of ~7 arcmin/pixel. We introduce here the Fireball Research Group, its facilities and some results of our first 2 years of activity.

  10. The Setting Up of a Resources Centre. 3: Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Adam H., Ed.

    Assembled to aid educators and administrators in Scotland in selecting and applying appropriate information retrieval systems in learning resources centers, this collection contains an introductory essay and four articles on the characteristics and features of some basic information retrieval systems. The articles include (1) a discussion of the…

  11. Alternative approaches to setting up donor cows for superstimulation.

    PubMed

    Bó, G A; Guerrero, D C; Adams, G P

    2008-01-01

    Protocols that controlled follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, as they permitted the initiation of superstimulatory treatments at a self-appointed time. However, the most commonly used approach for synchronization of follicular wave emergence involved estradiol, which cannot be used in many countries. Therefore, alternative treatments are required. Mechanical removal of the dominant follicle by ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration was effective, but required the use of specialized equipment and trained technical staff, which made it difficult to utilize in the field. Exogenous GnRH or pLH have also been used to induce ovulation of a dominant follicle, synchronizing follicular wave emergence, but their efficacy was dependent on the stage of the dominant follicle at treatment; thus, the emergence of the ensuing follicular wave may be too variable for superstimulation. An alternative approach could be initiating treatments at the time of emergence of the first follicular wave, but the need to synchronize ovulation may be a disadvantage in groups of donors at random stages of the estrous cycle. The final alternative may be to use FSH or eCG to initiate a new wave, without regard to the presence of a dominant follicle, followed by superstimulatory treatment at a predetermined time. All alternatives need to be thoroughly investigated in order to confirm their utility in the superstimulation of donor cows, regardless of the stage of the estrous cycle and without compromising ova/embryo production.

  12. SETTING UP FARM RECORDS TO PROVIDE FOR ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON FARM RECORD ANALYSIS FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO PROVIDE TEXTUAL MATERIAL FOR STUDENTS ON THE PURPOSES OF RECORDS, ANALYSIS MEASURES, INVENTORIES, DEPRECIATION SCHEDULES, FINANCIAL TRANSACTION…

  13. Setting-up tension in the style of Marantaceae.

    PubMed

    Pischtschan, E; Classen-Bockhoff, R

    2008-07-01

    The Marantaceae stand out from other plant families through their unique style movement which is combined with a highly derived form of secondary pollen presentation. Although known for a long time, the mechanism underlying the movement is not yet understood. In this paper, we report an investigation into the biomechanical principles of this movement. For the first time we experimentally confirm that, in Maranta noctiflora, longitudinal growth of the maturing style within the 'straitjacket' of the hooded staminode involves both arresting of the style before tripping and building up of potential for the movement. The longer the style grows in relation to the enclosing hooded staminode, the more does its capacity for curling increase. We distinguish between the basic tension that a growing style builds up normally, even when the hooded staminode is removed beforehand, and the induced tension which comes about only under the pressure of a too short hooded staminode and which enables the movement. The results of our investigations are discussed in relation to previous interpretations, ranging from biomechanical to electrophysiological mechanisms.

  14. Determination of neutron flux distribution in an Am-Be irradiator using the MCNP.

    PubMed

    Shtejer-Diaz, K; Zamboni, C B; Zahn, G S; Zevallos-Chávez, J Y

    2003-10-01

    A neutron irradiator has been assembled at IPEN facilities to perform qualitative-quantitative analysis of many materials using thermal and fast neutrons outside the nuclear reactor premises. To establish the prototype specifications, the neutron flux distribution and the absorbed dose rates were calculated using the MCNP computer code. These theoretical predictions then allow one to discuss the optimum irradiator design and its performance.

  15. PGNAA of human arthritic synovium for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Binello, E.; Yanch, J.C.; Shortkroff, S.

    1997-12-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), is a proposed new therapy modality for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease afflicting the joints. The synovium, which is the membrane lining the joint, becomes inflamed and represents the target tissue for therapy. When a joint is unresponsive to drug treatment, physical removal of the synovium, termed synovectomy, becomes necessary. Existing options include surgery and radiation synovectomy. BNCS has advantages over these options in that it is noninvasive and does not require the administration of radioactive substances. Previous studies have shown that the uptake of {sup 10}B by human arthritic synovium ex vivo is high, ranging from 194 to 545 ppm with an unenriched boron compound. While tissue samples remain viable up to 1 week, ex vivo conditions do not accurately reflect those in vivo. This paper presents results from experiments assessing the washout of boron from the tissue and examines the implications for in vivo studies.

  16. NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications

    PubMed

    Gardner; El; Zheng; Hayden; Mayo

    2000-10-01

    When NaI detectors are used in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis devices, they are activated by neutrons that penetrate the detector. While thermal neutron filters like boron or lithium can be used to reduce this activation, it can never be completely eliminated by this approach since high energy neutrons can penetrate the detector and thermalize inside it. This activation results in the emission of prompt gamma rays from both the I and Na and the production of the radioisotopes 128I and 24Na that subsequently decay and emit their characteristic beta particles and gamma rays. The resulting three spectra represent a background for this measurement. An experimental method for obtaining these three spectra is described and results are reported for 2" x 2", 5" x 5", 6" x 6", and 1" x 6" NaI detectors using the thermal neutron beam of the NCSU PULSTAR nuclear reactor. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation programs have been developed and used for simulating these spectra. Good results have been obtained by the Monte Carlo method for the two radioisotope spectra, and it is anticipated that good results will also be obtained for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum when the I and Na coincidence schemes are known.

  17. The Response of an Albedo Neutron Dosimeter to Moderated AmBe and 252(Cf) Neutron Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) are situated on each side of a cad- mium disc as illustrated in Fig. 1 (a). Since the Navy uses detectors held in dental...exposure, or loss or gain of stored thermoluminescence signal after exposure, were necessary. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ii The results of the experiments to...Falk, "A Personnel Neutron Dosimeter Using Lithium Fluoride Thermoluminescent Dosim- eters," Report No. RFP-1581, Dow Chemical Co., Golden CO (1971

  18. GEO vs. LEO Space Telecommunication Systems Commercial Set Up, Finance &Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisel, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    Space-based commercial telecommunication systems - especially in GEO - still represent the big volume segment in commercial space and probably will do so for a while. Although such end-to-end systems both in GEO and LEO are using satellites, ground stations, and service centers, etc., their commercial genesis differs significantly. Based on existing and planned space telecommunication businesses, this paper deals with prime characteristics of commercial GEO and LEO systems and their differences. In a tutorial way the stages of development of both LEO- and GEO-type business ventures are presented. The entire commercial development path is covered (concept, business plan, financing, partnership, growth, etc.). Focus is to understand what drives space telecommunication business and what it takes to start such new commercial space ventures. The perspective given is also based on the author's longstanding background in space commercialization and experiences made as a venture capitalist.

  19. Setting up an Asbestos Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Covers steps a buidling's O&M plan should including: appointing an asbestos program manager, inspecting the building, developing a plan, and if necessary selecting and implementing larger repair or abatement projects.

  20. Quality initiatives: planning, setting up, and carrying out radiology process improvement projects.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Eric P; Szklaruk, Janio; Puthooran, Leejo; Stone, Danna; Stevens, Brian L; Modaro, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    In the coming decades, those who provide radiologic imaging services will be increasingly challenged by the economic, demographic, and political forces affecting healthcare to improve their efficiency, enhance the value of their services, and achieve greater customer satisfaction. It is essential that radiologists master and consistently apply basic process improvement skills that have allowed professionals in many other fields to thrive in a competitive environment. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of process improvement from the perspective of a radiologic imaging practice by describing their experience in conducting a process improvement project: to increase the daily volume of body magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed at their institution. The first step in any process improvement project is to identify and prioritize opportunities for improvement in the work process. Next, an effective project team must be formed that includes representatives of all participants in the process. An achievable aim must be formulated, appropriate measures selected, and baseline data collected to determine the effects of subsequent efforts to achieve the aim. Each aspect of the process in question is then analyzed by using appropriate tools (eg, flowcharts, fishbone diagrams, Pareto diagrams) to identify opportunities for beneficial change. Plans for change are then established and implemented with regular measurements and review followed by necessary adjustments in course. These so-called PDSA (planning, doing, studying, and acting) cycles are repeated until the aim is achieved or modified and the project closed.

  1. Setting Up a Grid-CERT: Experiences of an Academic CSIRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Grid computing has often been heralded as the next logical step after the worldwide web. Users of grids can access dynamic resources such as computer storage and use the computing resources of computers under the umbrella of a virtual organisation. Although grid computing is often compared to the worldwide web, it is vastly more complex…

  2. Careers Using Languages: How to Set up a Conference for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, York St John University (YSJU) has run an annual one-day "Careers using Languages" conference for schools in Yorkshire and Humberside. It has the aim of demonstrating to school students the opportunities in life that speaking a foreign language opens up as well as showing how they will be able to offer an added bonus to their…

  3. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  4. Two Ways to Set Up Wireless Hotspot: Comparing Apples and Oranges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutch, Andrew; Ventura, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Every place has it--coffee shops, bookstores, universities ... and now libraries are offering wireless Internet access too. At the Waterford Township Public Library (Waterford, Michigan), Andrew Mutch created a wide-open wireless network using Public IP open source software. About 20 miles away, at the Novi Public Library (Novi, Michigan), Karen…

  5. Setting up a Rayleigh Scattering Based Flow Measuring System in a Large Nozzle Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Gomez, Carlos R.

    2002-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering based air density measurement system has been built in a large nozzle testing facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The technique depends on the light scattering by gas molecules present in air; no artificial seeding is required. Light from a single mode, continuous wave laser was transmitted to the nozzle facility by optical fiber, and light scattered by gas molecules, at various points along the laser beam, is collected and measured by photon-counting electronics. By placing the laser beam and collection optics on synchronized traversing units, the point measurement technique is made effective for surveying density variation over a cross-section of the nozzle plume. Various difficulties associated with dust particles, stray light, high noise level and vibration are discussed. Finally, a limited amount of data from an underexpanded jet are presented and compared with expected variations to validate the technique.

  6. Tokyo story. A British nurse is setting up an infection control service in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Michael

    Tokyo is an amazing capital city, just as you would expect: tall buildings, bright lights, overcrowded and fast paced. Japan was a bit of a culture shock at first, but things have settled down since I learned a few key Japanese phrases for such questions as 'Can I have... ?' and 'Where is... ?' There are many places to visit in this city of almost 15 million people. Getting around is straightforward, as there is an efficient underground system with the station names in English as well as Japanese. The trains are on time and fully air-conditioned, but during rush hours it can get very uncomfortable with so many people squashed inside the carriages. The food ranges from inexpensive pavement cafes serving batter-fried octopus to exclusive sushi restaurants. Every type of food is available in the many restaurants, but I enjoy trying traditional Japanese dishes. The food is always fresh, well presented and tasty. Some of the more unusual dishes include raw horse, raw eggs, sea urchins and live fish. I have been taken to a karaoke bar by my work colleagues and it was great, but very different from what I had expected. You only sing to the people you are with and there are a number of rooms in the bar, depending on how many of you there are, which reduces the public humiliation factor.

  7. Micro-foundations for macroeconomics: New set-up based on statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Modern macroeconomics is built on "micro foundations." Namely, optimization of micro agent such as consumer and firm is explicitly analyzed in model. Toward this goal, standard model presumes "the representative" consumer/firm, and analyzes its behavior in detail. However, the macroeconomy consists of 107 consumers and 106 firms. For the purpose of analyzing such macro system, it is meaningless to pursue the micro behavior in detail. In this respect, there is no essential difference between economics and physics. The method of statistical physics can be usefully applied to the macroeconomy, and provides Keynesian economics with correct micro-foundations.

  8. Setting up a liquid crystal phase screen to simulate atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Michael K.; Seward, Anthony J.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Rha, Jungtae; Jimenez, Ray

    2000-11-01

    Phase screens are often used to simulate atmospheric turbulence in systems designed to test adaptive optics techniques. This paper presents the design and implementation of a dynamic phase screen using a simple and inexpensive twisted nematic liquid crystal display taken from a video projector and placed in a pupil plane. The details of the optical system layout, the system alignment procedure, and the operating parameters of the liquid crystal display are discussed. Examples of turbulence (having strength and statistics similar to measured values of atmospheric turbulence in a variety of scenarios) are written to the phase screen, and the effects of the turbulence on image quality are measured and presented.

  9. Reducing set-up uncertainty in the Elekta Stereotactic Body Frame using Stealthstation software.

    PubMed

    Hinson, William H; Kearns, William T; Ellis, Thomas L; Sprinkle, Denise; Cullen, Tim; Smith, Phillip G; Stieber, Volker W

    2007-06-01

    The Elekta Stereotactic Body Frame (SBF) is a device which allows extracranial targets to be localized and irradiated in a stereotactic coordinate system. Errors of positioning of the body relative to the frame are indirectly estimated by image fusion of multiple CT scans. A novel repositioning methodology, based on neurosurgical Stealth technology, is presented whereby accurate patient repositioning is directly confirmed before treatment delivery. Repositioning was performed on four extracranial stereotactic radiosurgery patients and a radiotherapy simulation phantom. The setup error was quantitatively measured by fiducial localization. A confirmatory CT scan was performed and the resulting image set registered to the initial scan to quantify shifts in the GTV isocenter. Alignment confirmation using Stealth took between 5 and 10 minutes. For the phantom studies, a reproducibly of 0.6 mm accuracy of phantom-to-SBF alignment was measured. The results on four actual patients showed setup errors of 1.5 mm or less. Using the Stealth Station process, rapid confirmation of alignment on the treatment table is possible.

  10. Throttle control linkage for internal combustion engines and method of set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, S.S.; Williams, N.E.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes throttle control linkage for an internal combustion engine having a pivotally-mounted injector lever for movement between a first predetermined position and a second predetermined position to control a fuel injector pump; It comprises: a throttle control lever mounted for movement between a first predetermined position and a second predetermined position; a pivotally-mounted bellcrank having an arcuate slot formed therein; first linkage means operatively connected between the arcuate slot and the pivotally-mounted injector lever; the arcuate slot formed along a predetermined radius from the connection of the second linkage means on the pivotally-mounted injector lever when the throttle control lever and the pivotally-mounted injector lever are positioned in the first predetermined position.

  11. [The setting up of an integrated veterinary business approach in dairying].

    PubMed

    Swinkels, J M; de Veer, J; Jorritsma, H

    1998-06-15

    In addition to the continuous provision of veterinary care, another important aspect of a veterinarian's work is his or her advisory function in farm management. Too few veterinarians fulfil this function. This can only be done successfully if the dairy farmer and veterinarian solve a number of problems. An integrated management plan incorporation a step-by-step approach should make this possible.

  12. Districts Weigh Benefits and Drawbacks of Setting Up Student E-Mail Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Some school districts hoping to improve communication and student engagement in learning are taking a step many educators still view warily: providing students with their own e-mail accounts. However, making e-mail a regular part of students' school lives raises a host of concerns about inappropriate use. In addition, many teachers doubt that the…

  13. Methodology to set up nozzle-to-substrate gap for high resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehong; Park, Ji-Woon; Nasrabadi, Ali Mohamadi; Hwang, Jungho

    2016-09-01

    Several efforts have been made for the prediction of jet diameter in electrohydrodynamic jet printing; however, not much attention has been paid to the jet length, which is the distance from the cone apex to the location where the jet is unstable and is broken into atomized droplets. In this study, we measured both the cone length and the jet length using a high-speed camera, and measured the line pattern width with an optical microscope to investigate the effects of cone length and jet length on the pattern quality. Measurements were carried out with variations in nozzle diameter, flow rate, and applied voltage. The pattern width was theoretically predicted for the case when the nozzle-to-substrate distance was more than the cone length, and smaller than the summation of the cone and jet lengths (which is the case when there is no jet breakup).

  14. A Fully Immersive Set-Up for Remote Interaction and Neurorehabilitation Based on Virtual Body Ownership

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Solazzi, Massimiliano; Steptoe, William; Oyekoya, Oyewole; Frisoli, Antonio; Weyrich, Tim; Steed, Anthony; Tecchia, Franco; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2012-01-01

    Although telerehabilitation systems represent one of the most technologically appealing clinical solutions for the immediate future, they still present limitations that prevent their standardization. Here we propose an integrated approach that includes three key and novel factors: (a) fully immersive virtual environments, including virtual body representation and ownership; (b) multimodal interaction with remote people and virtual objects including haptic interaction; and (c) a physical representation of the patient at the hospital through embodiment agents (e.g., as a physical robot). The importance of secure and rapid communication between the nodes is also stressed and an example implemented solution is described. Finally, we discuss the proposed approach with reference to the existing literature and systems. PMID:22787454

  15. A new training set-up for trans-apical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Kalejs, Martins; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl

    2009-06-01

    Trans-apical aortic valve replacement (AVR) is a new and rapidly growing therapy. However, there are only few training opportunities. The objective of our work is to build an appropriate artificial model of the heart that can replace the use of animals for surgical training in trans-apical AVR procedures. To reduce the necessity for fluoroscopy, we pursued the goal of building a translucent model of the heart that has nature-like dimensions. A simplified 3D model of a human heart with its aortic root was created in silico using the SolidWorks Computer-Aided Design (CAD) program. This heart model was printed using a rapid prototyping system developed by the Fab@Home project and dip-coated two times with dispersion silicone. The translucency of the heart model allows the perception of the deployment area of the valved-stent without using heavy imaging support. The final model was then placed in a human manikin for surgical training on trans-apical AVR procedure. Trans-apical AVR with all the necessary steps (puncture, wiring, catheterization, ballooning etc.) can be realized repeatedly in this setting.

  16. Setting up a Cold Gas Propulsion System on the Microscope Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Y.; Chesta, E.; Dubois, J. B.; Pouilloux, B.; Prieur, P.; Tirolien, T.; Bellouard, E.; Omaly, P.; Pillet, N.

    2008-08-01

    The paper presents a new design of the small satellite MICROSCOPE, based on an adaptation of a cold gas micro-propulsion to the drag-free system. The scientific mission of this satellite is to perform the first test in space of the "Equivalence Principle"(EP) with an accuracy two orders magnitude than what it has even been achieved. The baseline version of the satellite has been initially designed with the Electrical Propulsion System (EPS) developed by ESA for future high-precision drag-free spacecrafts as LISA and DARWIN. The development schedule of this complex system, bas on Caesium field-emission electric propulsion (FEEP) technology, has experienced important delay since the MICROSCOPE project has been decided in 2004 by CNES as an opprotunity mission in the fram of the MYRIADE program. Internal CNES studies have been recently performed to find an alternative propulsion system complaint with the mission performances. The cold gas propulsion system developed by ESA for the GAIA project has been selected for detailed studies. Finally these studies have shown that a backup solution using a cold gas propulsion system could be realistic. This paper summarises the layout studies and presents in details the analyses of the compliance of this propulsion with the MICROSCOPE mission.

  17. Setting up the On-Site Marriage and Family Therapy Clinical Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Ghafoori, Bita

    2009-01-01

    The first clinical training experience or practicum for graduate students in a Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) program is one of the most important aspects of the entire training program. After a year-long journey through textbook and classroom knowledge, students have the opportunity to finally apply their skills to real life environments with…

  18. Setting up a Tissue Bank in India: The Tata Memorial Hospital Experience.

    PubMed

    Gajiwala, A L

    2003-01-01

    In India, the procurement of tissues for transplantation is governed by the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994. However, although this law exists, it is primarily applied to organ transplantation and rules and regulations that are specific to tissue banking have yet to be developed.The Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) Tissue Bank was started in 1988 as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) programme to promote the use of ionising radiation for the sterilisation of biological tissues. It represents the Government of India within this project and was the first such facility in the country. It is registered with the Health Services Maharashtra State and provides lyophilised amnion, dura mater, skin and bone that have been terminally sterilised with exposure to 25 kGy of gamma radiation from a Cobalt 60 source. These are obtained either from cadavers or live donors.To date the TMH Tissue Bank has provided 6328 allografts for use as biological dressings or in various reconstructive procedures.The TMH Tissue Bank has helped initiate a Tissue Bank at the Defence Laboratory (DL), Jodhpur. At present these are the only two Banks in the country using radiation for terminal sterilisation of banked tissues.The availability of safe, clinically useful and cost effective grafts have resulted in changes in surgical treatment with a concomitant increase in demand for grafts and an interest in developing more tissue banks. The availability of donor tissue however, continues to be a major limitation.

  19. Experimental set up for the irradiation of biological samples and nuclear track detectors with UV C

    PubMed Central

    Portu, Agustina Mariana; Rossini, Andrés Eugenio; Gadan, Mario Alberto; Bernaola, Omar Alberto; Thorp, Silvia Inés; Curotto, Paula; Pozzi, Emiliano César Cayetano; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis; Martin, Gisela Saint

    2016-01-01

    Aim In this work we present a methodology to produce an “imprint” of cells cultivated on a polycarbonate detector by exposure of the detector to UV C radiation. Background The distribution and concentration of 10B atoms in tissue samples coming from BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) protocols can be determined through the quantification and analysis of the tracks forming its autoradiography image on a nuclear track detector. The location of boron atoms in the cell structure could be known more accurately by the simultaneous observation of the nuclear tracks and the sample image on the detector. Materials and Methods A UV C irradiator was constructed. The irradiance was measured along the lamp direction and at different distances. Melanoma cells were cultured on polycarbonate foils, incubated with borophenylalanine, irradiated with thermal neutrons and exposed to UV C radiation. The samples were chemically attacked with a KOH solution. Results A uniform irradiation field was established to expose the detector foils to UV C light. Cells could be seeded on the polycarbonate surface. Both imprints from cells and nuclear tracks were obtained after chemical etching. Conclusions It is possible to yield cellular imprints in polycarbonate. The nuclear tracks were mostly present inside the cells, indicating a preferential boron uptake. PMID:26933396

  20. QuickSet: Multimodal Interaction for Simulation Set-up and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    multimodal interfaces, agent architecture, gesture recognition , speech recognition, natural language processing, distributed interactive simulation...450 words. It produces a single most likely interpretation of an utterance. Gesture recognition agent: OGI’s gesture recognition agent processes all... gesture recognition agents, and produces a unified multimodal interpretation. 21 QuickSet Brokered Architecture More detail on the architecture and

  1. Set-up of a new TDCR counter at IRA-METAS.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude; Caffari, Yvan; Cassette, Philippe; Bochud, François

    2015-03-01

    A triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) counter was recently constructed at IRA-METAS for liquid scintillation based primary activity standardisations. A description of its optical chamber, efficiency change tools, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and electronics is given. This TDCR system was validated by measuring several standard solutions of beta emitters including (45)Ca, (14)C, (63)Ni and (3)H. The activity concentrations, obtained from these measurements and efficiencies computed with a FORTRAN code we developed for symmetric and asymmetric PMTs, agree with the certified values within uncertainties.

  2. Experiments in Cold Atom Optics at ARL I: Introduction to Atom Chip Set-up

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    optics. A pair of coils in an anti- Helmholtz configuration generate the quadrapole trapping fields. While two pairs of coils in Helmhotz configuration...order to trap the atoms an inhomogeneous magnetic field is applied via a pair of coils in an anti- Helmholtz configuration. Atoms that drift away...in an anti- Helmholtz configuration. The current is adjusted in these coils until the overlap between the laser beams and the magnetic field minimum

  3. Boron neutron capture irradiation: setting up a clinical programme in Nice.

    PubMed

    Pignol, J P; Chauvel, P; Paquis, P; Courdi, A; Iborra-Brassart, N; Lonjon, M; Lebrun-Frenay, C; Frenay, M; Grellier, P; Chatel, M; Hérault, J; Bensadoun, R J; Milano, G; Nepveu, F; Patau, J P; Demard, F; Breteau, N

    1996-01-01

    Neutron capture irradiation aims to selectively destroy tumor cells using 10B(n,alpha)7Li nuclear reactions produced within themselves. Following the capture reaction, an alpha particle and a, 7Li ion are emitted. Carrying an energy of 2.79 MeV, they destroy all molecular structures along their path close to 10 microns. These captures, used exclusively with a 'slow' neutron irradiation, provide a neutron capture therapy (BNCT). If they are used in addition to a fast neutron beam irradiation, they provide a neutron capture potentiation (NCP). The Centre Antoine-Lacassagne in Nice is actively involved in the European Demonstration Project for BNCT of grade IV glioblastomas (GBM) after surgical excision and BSH administration. Taking into account the preliminary results obtained in Japan, work on an 'epithermal' neutron target compatible with various cyclotron beams is in progress to facilitate further developments of this technique. For NCP, thermalized neutron yield has been measured in phantoms irradiated in the fast neutron beam of the biomedical cyclotron in Nice. A thermal peak appears after 5 cm depth in the tissues, delayed after the fast neutron peak at 1.8 cm depth. Thus, a physical overdosage of 10% may be obtained if 100 ppm of 10B are assumed in the tissues. Our results using CAL 58 GBM cell line demonstrate a dose modification factor (DMF) of 1.19 when 100 ppm of boric acid are added to the growth medium. Thus for the particles, issued from neutron capture, a biological efficiency at least twice that of fast neutrons can be derived. These results, compared with historical data on fast neutron irradiation of glioblastoma, suggest that a therapeutic window may be obtained for GBM.

  4. Set-up for broadband Fourier-transform multidimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Al Haddad, A; Chauvet, A; Ojeda, J; Arrell, C; van Mourik, F; Auböck, G; Chergui, M

    2015-02-01

    We present a compact passively phase-stabilized ultra-broadband 2D Fourier transform setup. A gas (argon)-filled hollow core fiber pumped by an amplified Ti:Al2O3 laser is used as a light source providing spectral range spanning from 420 to 900 nm. Sub-10-fs pulses were obtained using a deformable mirror-based pulse shaper. We probe the nonlinear response of Rhodamine 101 using 90 nm bandwidth and resolve vibrational coherences of 150 fs period in the ground state.

  5. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Mohammad, M. Malek; Jaafari, E.; Mobashery, A.

    2015-03-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2-10.8 μm tunable CO2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl-methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution.

  6. Supervised exercise therapy: it does work, but how to set up a program?

    PubMed

    Hageman, David; van den Houten, Marijn M; Spruijt, Steffie; Gommans, Lindy N; Scheltinga, Marc R; Teijink, Joep A

    2017-04-01

    Intermittent claudication (IC) is a manifestation of peripheral arterial disease. IC has a high prevalence in the older population, is closely associated with other expressions of atherosclerotic disease and often co-exists in multimorbid patients. Treatment of IC should address reduction of cardiovascular risk and improvement of functional capacity and health-related quality of life (QoL). As recommended by contemporary international guidelines, the first-line treatment includes supervised exercise therapy (SET). In several randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews, SET is compared with usual care, placebo, walking advice and endovascular revascularization. The evidence supporting the efficacy of SET programs to alleviate claudication symptoms is robust. SET improves walking distance and health-related QoL and appears to be the most cost-effective treatment for IC. Nevertheless, only few of all newly diagnosed IC patients worldwide receive this safe, efficient and structured treatment. Worldwide implementation of structured SET programs is seriously impeded by outdated arguments favoring an invasive intervention, absence of a network of specialized physical therapists providing standardized SET and lack of awareness and/or knowledge of the importance of SET by referring physicians. Besides, misguiding financial incentives and lack of reimbursement hamper actual use of SET programs. In the Netherlands, a national integrated care network (ClaudicatioNet) was launched in 2011 to combat treatment shortcomings and stimulate cohesion and collaboration between stakeholders. This care intervention has resulted in optimized quality of care for all patients with IC.

  7. Trying to set up the flavanolic phases during grape seed ripening: A spectral and chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Heredia, Francisco J; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Grape seeds were collected in ten different dates and classified in seven groups according to their individual hyperspectral imaging characteristics. Proanthocyanidin composition was studied using HPLC-MS for oligomers and acid catalyzed cleavage for polymers characterization. The combination of both analysis provided a complete description of the flavanols. Chemometric analysis was performed to summarize the analytical results. None of the considered variables presented statistical differences among all groups. From one to five groups were found for each variable, while three was the most frequent value, consequently three putative stages might be considered the real number of different analytical stages since it is the number of statistically significant groups for the majority of the compounds. This classification could be considered as the first step to optimize the use of seeds in winemaking to minimize the gap between sugar and phenolic maturities, consequence of the global climate change, mainly observed in warm climate.

  8. "Set Up to Fail": Institutional Racism and the Sabotage of School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dianne L.; Clark, Menthia P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from two previous studies are reanalyzed using the lens of institutional racism to examine district decisions that undermined, or sabotaged, improvement efforts at schools attended by students of color. Opportunities to rectify the sabotage were available but not pursued. A model portrays the interaction between decision-maker intent,…

  9. In-air PIXE set-up for automatic analysis of historical document inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Simčič, Jure; Rupnik, Zdravko; Uršič, Mitja; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Strlič, Matija

    2004-06-01

    The iron gall inks were one of the writing materials mostly applied in historical documents of the western civilization. Due to the ink corrosive character, the documents are faced with a danger of being seriously, and in some cases also irreversibly changed. The elemental composition of the inks is an important information for taking the adequate conservation action [Project InkCor, http://www.infosrvr.nuk.uni-lj.si/jana/Inkcor/index.htm, and references within]. Here, the in-air PIXE analysis offers an indispensable tool due to its sensitivity and almost non-destructive character. An experimental approach developed for precise and automatic analysis of documents at Jožef Stefan Institute Tandetron accelerator is presented. The selected documents were mounted, one at the time, on the positioning board and the chosen ink spots on the sample were irradiated by 1.7 MeV protons. The data acquisition on the selected ink spots is done automatically throughout the measuring pattern determined prior to the measurement. The chemical elements identified in the documents ranged from Si to Pb, and between them the significant iron gall ink components like Fe, S, K, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni were deduced with precision of ±10%. The measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated documents.

  10. Digital dental photography. Part 7: extra-oral set-ups.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irfan

    2009-08-08

    This part of our series specifically addresses extra-oral dental photography consisting of portraiture and dental laboratory pictures. Portraiture, which is achieved using three types of illumination, natural daylight, bi-lateral camera mounted flashes (as for intra-oral images) or studio flashes, can be further divided into full face and dento-facial compositions. These are necessary for various dental disciples including evaluation of aesthetics, orthodontics and oral surgery facial profile assessment. Dental laboratory photography includes documentation of plaster casts and indirect prostheses.

  11. STS-35 Payload Specialist Parise sets up SAREX on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise enters data into the payload and general support computer (PGSC) in preparation for Earth communication via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The SAREX equipment is secured to the middeck starboard sleep station. SAREX provided radio transmissions between ground based amateur radio operators around the world and Parise, a licensed amateur radio operator. The experiment enabled students to communicate with an astronaut in space, as Parise (call-sign WA4SIR) devoted some of his off-duty time to that purpose. Displayed on the forward lockers beside Parise is a AMSAT (Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation) / ARRL (American Radio Relay League) banner. Food items and checklists are attached to the lockers. In locker position MF43G, the Development Test Objective (DTO) Trash Compaction and Retention System Demonstration extended duration orbiter (EDO) compactor is visible.

  12. Microbiota and pathogen 'pas de deux': setting up and breaking down barriers to intestinal infection.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Elizabeth S; Kendall, Melissa M

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiota plays essential roles in human health and disease. In this review, we focus on the role of the intestinal microbiota in promoting resistance to infection by bacterial pathogens as well as how pathogens overcome this barrier. We discuss how the resident microbiota restricts growth and colonization of invading pathogens by limiting availability of nutrients and through generation of a hostile environment. Additionally, we examine how microbiota-derived signaling molecules interfere with bacterial virulence. In turn, we discuss how pathogens exploit non-competitive metabolites to replicate in vivo as well as to precisely control virulence and cause disease. This bacterial two step of creating and overcoming challenges important in preventing and establishing infection highlights the complexities of elucidating interactions between the commensal bacteria and pathogens. Better understanding of microbiota-pathogen interplay will have significant implications for developing novel therapeutics to treat infectious diseases.

  13. Set up an Arc Welding Code with Enthalpy Method in Upwind Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Je-Ee.

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a numerical code with enthalpy method in upwind scheme is proposed to estimate the distribution of thermal stress in the molten pool, which is primarily determined by the type of the input power and travel speed of heating source. To predict the cracker deficit inside the workpiece, a simulated program satisfying the diagonal domination and Scarborough criterion provides a stable iteration. Meantime, an experimental performance, operated by robot arm "DR-400" to provide a steady and continuous arc welding, was also conducted to verify the simulated result. By surveying the consistence of molten pool bounded by contrast shade and simulated melting contour on the surface of workpiece, the validity of model proposed to predict the thermal cracker has been successfully identified.

  14. The implementation of tissue banking experiences for setting up a cGMP cell manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, Babak; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Larijani, Bagher; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Aghayan, Hamid Reza

    2012-12-01

    Cell manufacturing for clinical applications is a unique form of biologics manufacturing that relies on maintenance of stringent work practices designed to ensure product consistency and prevent contamination by microorganisms or by another patient's cells. More extensive, prolonged laboratory processes involve greater risk of complications and possibly adverse events for the recipient, and so the need for control is correspondingly greater. To minimize the associate risks of cell manufacturing adhering to international quality standards is critical. Current good tissue practice (cGTP) and current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) are examples of general standards that draw a baseline for cell manufacturing facilities. In recent years, stem cell researches have found great public interest in Iran and different cell therapy projects have been started in country. In this review we described the role of our tissue banking experiences in establishing a new cGMP cell manufacturing facility. The authors concluded that, tissue banks and tissue banking experts can broaden their roles from preparing tissue grafts to manufacturing cell and tissue engineered products for translational researches and phase I clinical trials. Also they can collaborate with cell processing laboratories to develop SOPs, implement quality management system, and design cGMP facilities.

  15. DIADDHEM set-up: New IBA facility for studying the helium behavior in nuclear glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamssedine, F.; Sauvage, T.; Peuget, S.

    2010-06-01

    The immobilization of fission products and minor actinides by vitrification is the reference process for industrial management of high-level radioactive wastes generated from spent fuel reprocessing. The glassy matrix is subjected to radiation damage and radiogenic helium generation due to the alpha decays of minor actinides. A specific experimental study has been conducted to better understand the behavior of helium and its diffusion mechanisms in the borosilicate glass. Helium production is simulated by external irradiation with 3He + ions at a concentration (2 × 10 15 He cm -2) equivalent to the one obtained after 1000 years of glass storage. He diffusion coefficients as function of temperature are extracted from the evolution of the depth profiles after annealing. The 3He(d, α) 1H Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) technique is successfully used for in situ low-temperature measurements of depth profiles. Its high depth resolution allows detecting helium mobility at a temperature as low as 250 K and the presence of a trapped helium fraction. The good agreement of our first values of diffusion coefficients with the literature data highlights the relevance of the implantation technique in the study of helium diffusion mechanisms in borosilicate glasses.

  16. Set Up and Test Results for a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Levashov, Michael Y.

    2010-12-01

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of a quadrupole. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing it. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). The following break up of error was suggested for the fiducialization steps: 10{micro}m for step 1 (finding the center), 20{micro}m for step 2 (finding the wire), and 10{micro}m for step 3 (tooling ball measurements). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the vibrating wire system meets the requirements for LCLS. In particular, if it can reliably fiducialize a quadrupole magnetic center to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. The behavior of individual system components is compared to the expected performance. A vibrating wire system was constructed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note studies the ability of the system to fulfill the fiducialization requirements.

  17. Set Up and Test Results for a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-29

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of a quadrupole. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing it. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). The following break up of error was suggested for the fiducialization steps: 10{micro}m for step 1 (finding the center), 20{micro}m for step 2 (finding the wire), and 10{micro}m for step 3 (tooling ball measurements). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the vibrating wire system meets the requirements for LCLS. In particular, if it can reliably fiducialize a quadrupole magnetic center to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. The behavior of individual system components is compared to the expected performance. A vibrating wire system was constructed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note studies the ability of the system to fulfill the fiducialization requirements.

  18. Cooperation between Japanese and Cambodian Dietitians in Setting up a Hospital Diet Management System.

    PubMed

    Ly, Koung Ry; Saito, Shino; Kusama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia faces a considerably high percentage of the stunted under 5 (Unicef, 2014). Despite the National Nutrition Strategy Launched by the Ministry of Health in cooperation with development partners, nutrition improvement projects have not always been effective. It is generally said these issues are addressed in many other developing nations, and the literature largely documented that successful nutrition programmes are community-based programmes because of their sustainability and the intensive communications between health workers and beneficiaries. Learning from the past experiences, the Foundation for International Development/Relief organized a project team with a Cambodian dietitian and an experienced Japanese dietitian to implement a hospital diet programme for children from April 2006 to March 2014 in the National Pediatric Hospital (NPH) in Cambodia. The project has two objectives: establishing a hospital diet management system, and developing the capacity of NPH staff. Hospital food menus were created paying particular attention to Cambodian culture, eating habits and accessibility to the ingredients for the purpose of continuous supply. We have also put emphasis on the communication between dietitians and family members of the children to let them understand the importance of a nutritious diet. After 8 y of project implementation, the hospital diet management system was established providing 7 types of menu with nutritious diets. The final evaluation of the project showed that NPH staff have the intention to continue hospital food supply with their acquired knowledge and capacity. In practice, a Cambodian dietitian currently takes the initiative for a continuous nutritional diet in NPH. The key to this success is the collaboration between Japanese dietitians with experience and Cambodian dietitians with knowledge of Cambodian eating habits. Taking our experience into account, it is highly recommended to educate Cambodian dietitians, as they are extremely scarce, and to increase the awareness of health care staff towards the importance of nutrition management.

  19. Field Enhancement Properties of Nanotubes in a Field Emission Set-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adessi, Ch.; Devel, M.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mechanisms of emission of nanotubes. The field enhancement properties of carbon nanotubes, involved in the emission of electrons, is investigated theoretically for various single-wall (SWNT) and multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT). The presentation points out big differences between (n,0) and (n,n) nanotubes, and propose phenomenological laws for the variations of the enhancement factor with length and diameter

  20. How to set up and manage a trainee-led research collaborative

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensuring that doctors in training acquire sufficient knowledge, experience and understanding of medical research is a universal and longstanding issue which has been brought into sharper focus by the growth of evidence based medicine. All healthcare systems preparing doctors in training for practice have to balance the acquisition of specific clinical attitudes, knowledge and skills with the wider need to ensure doctors are equipped to remain professionally competent as medical science advances. Most professional medical bodies acknowledge that this requires trainee doctors to experience some form of research education, not only in order to carry out original research, but to acquire sufficient academic skills to become accomplished research consumers in order to remain informed throughout their professional practice. There are many barriers to accomplishing this ambitious aim. Discussion This article briefly explains why research collaboratives are necessary, describes how to establish a collaborative, and recommends how to run one. It is based on the experiences of the pioneering West Midlands Research Collaborative and draws on the wider literature about the organisation and delivery of high quality research projects. Practical examples of collaborative projects are given to illustrate the potential of this form of research organisation. Summary The new trainee-led research collaboratives provide a supportive framework for planning, ownership and delivery of high quality multicentre research. This ensures clinical relevance, increases the chances of research findings being translated into changes in practice and should lead to improved patient outcomes. Research collaboratives also enhance the research skills and extend the scientific horizons of doctors in training. PMID:24886546

  1. Fretting-corrosion in Hip Implant Modular Junctions: New Experimental Set-up and Initial Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Royhman, D.; Patel, M.; Runa, M.J.; Jacobs, J.J.; Hallab, N.J.; Wimmer, M.A.; Mathew, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Modern hip prostheses feature a modular implant design with at least one tapered junction. This design can lead to several complications due to the introduction of additional interfaces, which are subjected to various loading conditions and micromotion. The main objective of current study is to develop a fretting corrosion apparatus, which is able characterize the mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of various existing metal alloy couples during fretting motion. This study describes the design and the main considerations during the development of a novel fretting corrosion apparatus, as well as determination of the machine compliance and the initial testing results. Machine compliance considerations and frictional interactions of the couples are discussed in detail. For the preliminary tests, metal alloy pins, made of Ti6Al4V and wrought high-carbon CoCrMo were mechanically polished to a surface roughness of less than 20nm. 2 pins (Diameter = 11mm) of either Ti6Al4V or CoCrMo were loaded onto a Ti6Al4V alloy rod at a normal force of 200N. The interface types included: Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V-CoCrMo, and CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V-CoCrMo. The Ti6Al4V rod articulated against the metal alloy pins in a sinusoidal fretting motion with a displacement amplitude of ±50μm. Bovine calf serum (30g/L of protein content) was selected as a lubricant and tested at 2 different pH levels (pH 3.0 and 7.6). In all cases, current and friction energy were monitored during the fretting process. The results indicated distinct, material-specific current evolutions and friction energies. No significant differences were observed in electrochemical or mechanical behaviour in response to pH change. In general, Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V couples displayed the earliest passivation and superior electrochemical behaviour compared to Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V-CoCrMo and CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V-CoCrMo under fretting conditions. In addition, fluctuations in current were observed in specific regions at all instances where Ti6Al4V was coupled with Ti6Al4V. These fluctuations were not observed in instances where Ti6Al4V was coupled with CoCrMo. These findings suggest transitions in the degradation mechanisms at the modular junction as a function of material couples/contacts. The findings may assist in improving the current hip modular junctions. PMID:26405372

  2. Fretting-corrosion in Hip Implant Modular Junctions: New Experimental Set-up and Initial Outcome.

    PubMed

    Royhman, D; Patel, M; Runa, M J; Jacobs, J J; Hallab, N J; Wimmer, M A; Mathew, M T

    2015-11-01

    Modern hip prostheses feature a modular implant design with at least one tapered junction. This design can lead to several complications due to the introduction of additional interfaces, which are subjected to various loading conditions and micromotion. The main objective of current study is to develop a fretting corrosion apparatus, which is able characterize the mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of various existing metal alloy couples during fretting motion. This study describes the design and the main considerations during the development of a novel fretting corrosion apparatus, as well as determination of the machine compliance and the initial testing results. Machine compliance considerations and frictional interactions of the couples are discussed in detail. For the preliminary tests, metal alloy pins, made of Ti6Al4V and wrought high-carbon CoCrMo were mechanically polished to a surface roughness of less than 20nm. 2 pins (Diameter = 11mm) of either Ti6Al4V or CoCrMo were loaded onto a Ti6Al4V alloy rod at a normal force of 200N. The interface types included: Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V-CoCrMo, and CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V-CoCrMo. The Ti6Al4V rod articulated against the metal alloy pins in a sinusoidal fretting motion with a displacement amplitude of ±50μm. Bovine calf serum (30g/L of protein content) was selected as a lubricant and tested at 2 different pH levels (pH 3.0 and 7.6). In all cases, current and friction energy were monitored during the fretting process. The results indicated distinct, material-specific current evolutions and friction energies. No significant differences were observed in electrochemical or mechanical behaviour in response to pH change. In general, Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V couples displayed the earliest passivation and superior electrochemical behaviour compared to Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V-CoCrMo and CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V-CoCrMo under fretting conditions. In addition, fluctuations in current were observed in specific regions at all instances where Ti6Al4V was coupled with Ti6Al4V. These fluctuations were not observed in instances where Ti6Al4V was coupled with CoCrMo. These findings suggest transitions in the degradation mechanisms at the modular junction as a function of material couples/contacts. The findings may assist in improving the current hip modular junctions.

  3. Using Video Streaming: Setting Up a Cheap System for Distributing Information to Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, Thomas, Jr.; Kearns, Landon

    2005-01-01

    Video streaming can be a very useful tool for educators. It is now possible for a school?s technical specialist or classroom teacher to create a streaming server with tools that are available in many classrooms. In this article we describe how we created our video streamer using free software, older computers, and borrowed hardware. The system…

  4. RNAi and antiviral defense in Drosophila: setting up a systemic immune response.

    PubMed

    Karlikow, Margot; Goic, Bertsy; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) controls gene expression in eukaryotic cells and thus, cellular homeostasis. In addition, in plants, nematodes and arthropods it is a central antiviral effector mechanism. Antiviral RNAi has been well described as a cell autonomous response, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. This dsRNA is the precursor for the silencing of viral RNA in a sequence-specific manner. In plants, systemic antiviral immunity has been demonstrated, however much less is known in animals. Recently, some evidence for a systemic antiviral response in arthropods has come to light. Cell autonomous RNAi may not be sufficient to reach an efficient antiviral response, and the organism might rely on the spread and uptake of an RNAi signal of unknown origin. In this review, we offer a perspective on how RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity could confer systemic protection in insects and we propose directions for future research to understand the mechanism of RNAi-immune signal sorting, spreading and amplification.

  5. Setting up a microneurosurgical skull base lab: technical and operational considerations.

    PubMed

    Salma, Asem; Chow, Andrew; Ammirati, Mario

    2011-07-01

    Microneurosurgical cadaveric dissections have become popular due to their usefulness in obtaining a working knowledge of the microneurosurgical anatomy in a controlled environment. This same controlled environment is also conducive to experiment with new surgical approaches. These factors have increased the number of microneurosurgical anatomic laboratories. Despite the increase in microneurosurgical laboratories, there is very little literature regarding the logistics of starting and maintaining a new neurosurgical laboratory. The aim of this paper is to provide a general road map and basic guidelines in starting and running a microneurosurgical dissection laboratory. The information in this paper is based on a review of the literature and on the experience we gained in organizing and managing the Dardinger Microneurosurgical Skull Base Laboratory at The Ohio State University.

  6. Setting Up Camp at the Great Instructional Divide: Educating Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Robert; Mirel, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This article sketches out a comprehensive approach for preparing history teachers. It argues that grounding in historical content knowledge is necessary for success in the classroom, but such grounding is not enough to ensure that success. For beginning teachers, the problem is not merely acquiring content knowledge but acquiring it in ways that…

  7. [Psychophysiologic pattern of pilot's activity during flight as a basis for setting up his workplace].

    PubMed

    Frolov, N I

    1997-01-01

    The psychophysiological pattern of a pilot is considered on the basis of experiments made during flights. Five components of his activity, which may be estimated, are identified. These include sensory, motor, autonomic, occupational, and psychological components. The "reserves of attention" are singled out as an objective independent parameter that characterizes the activity of a pilot. Five determinants of the level of physiological responses are identified in a pilot during flight. Their mechanisms are most efficiently analyzed in terms of the basic concepts developed by P.K. Anokhin, P.V. Simonov, K.V. Sudakov. The objective activity estimates make it possible to assess the adequacy of a working place to the problems to be solved, to apply the anthrocentric principle in working out the pilot's working place by taking into account his psychophysiological capacities.

  8. Setting up a social enterprise for clinician-led lymphoedema services.

    PubMed

    Warrilow, Mary; Jones, Kris

    The introduction of social enterprises into healthcare has brought about opportunities and challenges for providers and clinicians. Dudley Lymphoedema Service, a team originally of five staff members, has undergone radical changes. The team has successfully gone through the Department of Health's right to request programme to move from a primary care trust service to become a social enterprise, LymphCare UK, which is a community interest company. There are only approximately 40 NHS services throughout the country that have taken this option as part of government changes and plans to put clinicians at the helm of services. Becoming a social enterprise has led to the service becoming bespoke, more responsive, flexible and innovative. Stepping out of the NHS has not been an easy journey but is one that the team is confident will improve outcomes for the organisation and the patients it serves.

  9. Recent developments in the setting up of the Malta Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2015-04-01

    Weak to moderate earthquakes in the Sicily Channel have until now been either poorly located or left undetected. The number of seismic stations operated by various networks: Italy (INGV), Tunisia (TT), and Libya (LNSN) have now improved considerably, however most of the seismicity occurs offshore, in the central part of the Channel, away from the mainland stations. Seismic data availability from island stations across the Channel has been limited or had intermittent transmission hindering proper real-time earthquake monitoring and hypocentre relocation. In order to strengthen the seismic monitoring of the Sicily Channel, in particular the central parts of the Channel, the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU), University of Malta, has, in the last year, been installing a permanent seismic network across the Maltese archipelago: the Malta Seismic Network (ML). Furthermore the SMRU has upgraded its IT facilities to run a virtual regional seismic network composed of the stations on Pantelleria and Lampedusa, together with all the currently publicly available stations in the region. Selected distant seismic stations found elsewhere in the Mediterranean and across the globe have also been incorporated in the system in order to enhance the overall performance of the monitoring and to detect potentially damaging regional earthquakes. Data acquisition and processing of the seismic networks are run by SeisComP. The new installations are part of the project SIMIT (B1-2.19/11) funded by the Italia-Malta Operational Programme 2007-2013. The new system allows the SMRU to rapidly perform more accurate hypocentre locations in the region, and issue automatic SMS alert for potentially felt events in the Sicily Channel detected by the network and for strong earthquakes elsewhere. Within the SIMIT project, the alert system will include civil protection departments in Malta and Sicily. We present the recent developments of the real and virtual seismic network, and discuss the performance of each of the new stations, the general operation of the SMRU, and the alert system. New web features soon available on the SMRU website will be presented.

  10. Simplest stick-slip experimental set up to model a seismic fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Marquez, Leticia; Vargas, Carlos; Ramirez-Rojas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    In order to model the seismicity produced by the tectonic plate's interaction, we present an experimental device to mimic these phenomena. The experimental device is characterized by the interface of two sandpapers, one of them is stick in a solid block and the other is fixed in a track. This track has a free friction suspension. The solid block is pulled with constant and slow velocity by a rope connected to a DC motor. As the friction between the two sandpapers is opposed to the displacement of the block, the potential energy is accumulated till the force driven by the motor is able to pull, producing a suddenly displacement, that is the stick-slip phenomenon. Some statistical analysis of the experimental data series has been already published, displaying some dynamical features analogous to the natural seismicity.

  11. Modeling and Simulations in Time Domain of a Stimulation Set-up for Cortical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Schweigmann, Michael; Kirchhoff, Frank; Koch, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is used for example to treat neuronal disorders and depression with deep brain stimulation or transcranial electrical stimulation. Depending on the application, different electrodes are used and thus different electrical characteristics exist, which have to be handled by the stimulator. Without a measuring device the user would have to rely on the stimulator being able to deliver the needed stimulation signal. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a method to increase the level of confidence with characterization and modelling of the electrical behavior by using the example of one channel of our stimulation device for experimental use. In several simulation studies with an electrode model with values in a typical range for cortical applications the influence of the load onto the stimulator and the possibility to pre-estimate measuring signals in complex networks are shown. PMID:27478564

  12. [Three types of brand name loyalty strategies set up by drug manufacturers].

    PubMed

    PréMont, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-11-01

    The recent restructuring of the pharmaceutical industry has led to three new types of promotional strategies to build patient loyalty to brand name drugs: loyalty through rebates, patient support, and compassion programs. Loyalty through rebates seeks to keep patients on a brand name drug and prevent their switch to the generic equivalent. Loyalty through patient support provides aftersales services to help and support patients (by phone or home visits) in order to improve adherence to their treatments. Finally, compassion programs offer patients access to drugs still awaiting regulatory approval or reimbursement by insurers. When and if the approval process is successful, the manufacturer puts an end to the compassion program and benefits from a significant cohort of patients already taking a very expensive drug for which reimbursement is assured. The impact of these programs on public policies and patients' rights raises numerous concerns, among which the direct access to patients and their health information by drug manufacturers and upward pressure on costs for drug insurance plans.

  13. Setting up the drying regimes based on the theory of moisture migration during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Drying is energy intensive process which has important effect on the quality of the clay tiles that are dried commercially. Chamber and tunnel dryers are constantly improving. Better technical equipment and operational strategies have lead to higher quality of the dried clay products. The moisture migration during isothermal drying process can be visually traced on the curve that represents the relationship between variable effective moisture diffusivity (MR) with time (t). Proposed non isothermal drying regimes were consisted from several isothermal segments. For the first time, the choice of isothermal segments specification and its duration was not specified by experience or by trial-and-error method. It was detected from the isothermal curves Deff - MR in accordance with the theory of moisture migration during drying. Proposed drying regimes were tested. Clay roofing tiles were dried without cracks. Dried clay roofing tiles has satisfied all requirements defined in EN 1304 norm related to the shape regularity and mechanical properties.

  14. Video-Out Projection and Lecture Hall Set-Up. Microcomputing Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris

    This paper details the considerations involved in determining suitable video projection systems for displaying the Apple Macintosh's screen to large groups of people, both in classrooms with approximately 25 people, and in lecture halls with approximately 250. To project the Mac screen to groups in lecture halls, the Electrohome EDP-57 video…

  15. Tenure Track Athletic Training Educators: Are They Being Set Up to Fail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, Lori; Walsh, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Issues faced by tenure track AT education faculty are addressed and suggestions for those who are considering appointments as AT faculty are given. Literature and research from other allied health professions are provided as insights to AT faculty. We also suggest future research ideas related to AT educators. Finally, we consider future…

  16. Multiplicity of inhabited worlds and the problem of setting up contacts among them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shklovskiy, I. S.

    1974-01-01

    The numerous planetary systems in our galaxy appear to a high degree of probability to contain some planets with a biosphere similar to earth' environment. The possibility of communicating with those extraterrestrial alien planetary civilizations centers on the high level of technological development that is required to overcome the problem of distance. It is conceivable that advanced civilizations can produce energy at a level of 10 to the 43rd power erg/year and that an artificial biosphere can be developed within the limits of 10 to the 22nd power to 10 to the 23rd power cm.

  17. A Python tool to set up relative free energy calculations in GROMACS.

    PubMed

    Klimovich, Pavel V; Mobley, David L

    2015-11-01

    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have seen a tremendous growth in the last decade. However, it is still difficult and tedious to set them up in an automated manner, as the majority of the present-day MD simulation packages lack that functionality. Relative free energy calculations are a particular challenge for several reasons, including the problem of finding a common substructure and mapping the transformation to be applied. Here we present a tool, alchemical-setup.py, that automatically generates all the input files needed to perform relative solvation and binding free energy calculations with the MD package GROMACS. When combined with Lead Optimization Mapper (LOMAP; Liu et al. in J Comput Aided Mol Des 27(9):755-770, 2013), recently developed in our group, alchemical-setup.py allows fully automated setup of relative free energy calculations in GROMACS. Taking a graph of the planned calculations and a mapping, both computed by LOMAP, our tool generates the topology and coordinate files needed to perform relative free energy calculations for a given set of molecules, and provides a set of simulation input parameters. The tool was validated by performing relative hydration free energy calculations for a handful of molecules from the SAMPL4 challenge (Mobley et al. in J Comput Aided Mol Des 28(4):135-150, 2014). Good agreement with previously published results and the straightforward way in which free energy calculations can be conducted make alchemical-setup.py a promising tool for automated setup of relative solvation and binding free energy calculations.

  18. Experimental evaluation and set-up of a new apparatus designed for transitional flow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-darag, Sakhr; Rozehnal, Dalibor

    2012-04-01

    Experimental exercise has been conducted to validate the capability of a new test apparatus. The test stand has been designed and constructed at the laboratory of aerodynamics, University of Defence to carry out the experimental investigation of transitional flow prediction and development over flat plate. The test facility consists of a rectangular duct set on the suction side of air source apparatus. The working section is 2 m long with a cross section of 0.44 m in width and 0.25 m in height. The exercise is performed into two stages. In the first stage, the basic parameters such as freestream velocity, turbulence intensity and pressure gradient in streamwise direction were measured and manipulated to setup acceptable values. Second stage of the exercise, the bottom wall of the test section was used as a flat plate model to conduct turbulent boundary-layer experiment. The characteristics of the boundary layer obtained by using the apparatus are represented by a qualitative and quantitative agreement with those predicted by boundary-layer theory for turbulent boundary layer while more improvements seems to be required to satisfy the rules of boundary layer stability experiments. The results are show a fair agreement for mean velocity profile, U∞, boundary layer thickness, δ, momentum thickness, θ, and skin friction coefficient, Cf.

  19. HPC in a HEP lab: lessons learned from setting up cost-effective HPC clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husejko, Michal; Agtzidis, Ioannis; Baehler, Pierre; Dul, Tadeusz; Evans, John; Himyr, Nils; Meinhard, Helge

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present our findings gathered during the evaluation and testing of Windows Server High-Performance Computing (Windows HPC) in view of potentially using it as a production HPC system for engineering applications. The Windows HPC package, an extension of Microsofts Windows Server product, provides all essential interfaces, utilities and management functionality for creating, operating and monitoring a Windows-based HPC cluster infrastructure. The evaluation and test phase was focused on verifying the functionalities of Windows HPC, its performance, support of commercial tools and the integration with the users work environment. We describe constraints imposed by the way the CERN Data Centre is operated, licensing for engineering tools and scalability and behaviour of the HPC engineering applications used at CERN. We will present an initial set of requirements, which were created based on the above constraints and requests from the CERN engineering user community. We will explain how we have configured Windows HPC clusters to provide job scheduling functionalities required to support the CERN engineering user community, quality of service, user- and project-based priorities, and fair access to limited resources. Finally, we will present several performance tests we carried out to verify Windows HPC performance and scalability.

  20. Setting up a mobile dental practice within your present office structure.

    PubMed

    Morreale, James P; Dimitry, Susan; Morreale, Mark; Fattore, Isabella

    2005-02-01

    Different service models have emerged in Canada and the United States to address the issue of senior citizens' lack of access to comprehensive dental care. Over the past decade, one such model, the use of mobile dental service units, has emerged as a practical strategy. This article describes a mobile unit, operated as an adjunct to the general practitioner's office and relying mainly on existing office resources, both human and capital, to deliver services at long-term care institutions. The essential components of a profitable geriatric mobile unit are described, including education, equipment, marketing research and development, and human resource management. Issues related to patient consent and operating expenditures are also discussed. Data from one practitioner's mobile dental unit, in Hamilton, Ontario, are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and profitability of this approach.

  1. Setting-up a European Cross-Provider Data Collection on Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalz, Marco; Kreijns, Karel; Walhout, Jaap; Castaño-Munoz, Jonatan; Espasa, Anna; Tovar, Edmundo

    2015-01-01

    While MOOCS have emerged as a new form of open online education around the world, research is stilling lagging behind to come up with a sound theoretical basis that can cover the impact of socio-economic background variables, ICT competences, prior experiences and lifelong learning profile, variance in intentions, environmental influences, outcome…

  2. U.S. Judge's Ruling Sets Up New Battle over Care of Lab Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    A federal court decision overturning federal regulations requiring research institutions to present plans for care and use of laboratory animals has renewed debate over laboratory animal welfare. University scientists fear new, stricter Department of Agriculture regulations will result. (MSE)

  3. [Experience in setting up a morbid anatomy bureau in the Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Golubev, O A

    2006-01-01

    A diversity of the clinical and morphological manifestations pf melanoma determines the great importance of each description of manifestation of this most malignant tumor. In this connection, there is a worldwide increasing rise in the number of patients with melanoma whose diagnosis present well-known difficulties, the authors describe a case of this tumor progression, which masked as uterine carcinoma.

  4. Digital dental surface registration with laser scanner for orthodontics set-up planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Albalat, Salvador E.; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos A.

    1997-05-01

    We present an optical measuring system based on laser structured light suitable for its diary use in orthodontics clinics that fit four main requirements: (1) to avoid use of stone models, (2) to automatically discriminate geometric points belonging to teeth and gum, (3) to automatically calculate diagnostic parameters used by orthodontists, (4) to make use of low cost and easy to use technology for future commercial use. Proposed technique is based in the use of hydrocolloids mould used by orthodontists for stone model obtention. These mould of the inside of patient's mouth are composed of very fluent materials like alginate or hydrocolloids that reveal fine details of dental anatomy. Alginate mould are both very easy to obtain and very low costly. Once captured, alginate moulds are digitized by mean of a newly developed and patented 3D dental scanner. Developed scanner is based in the optical triangulation method based in the projection of a laser line on the alginate mould surface. Line deformation gives uncalibrated shape information. Relative linear movements of the mould with respect to the sensor head gives more sections thus obtaining a full 3D uncalibrated dentition model. Developed device makes use of redundant CCD in the sensor head and servocontrolled linear axis for mould movement. Last step is calibration to get a real and precise X, Y, Z image. All the process is done automatically. The scanner has been specially adapted for 3D dental anatomy capturing in order to fulfill specific requirements such as: scanning time, accuracy, security and correct acquisition of 'hidden points' in alginate mould. Measurement realized on phantoms with known geometry quite similar to dental anatomy present errors less than 0,1 mm. Scanning of global dental anatomy is 2 minutes, and generation of 3D graphics of dental cast takes approximately 30 seconds in a Pentium-based PC.

  5. Setting up the critical rainfall line for debris flows via support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y. F.; Chan, C. H.; Chang, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    The Chi-Chi earthquake in 1999 caused tremendous landslides which triggered many debris flows and resulted in significant loss of public lives and property. To prevent the disaster of debris flow, setting a critical rainfall line for each debris-flow stream is necessary. Firstly, 8 predisposing factors of debris flow were used to cluster 377 streams which have similar rainfall lines into 7 groups via the genetic algorithm. Then, support vector machines (SVM) were applied to setup the critical rainfall line for debris flows. SVM is a machine learning approach proposed based on statistical learning theory and has been widely used on pattern recognition and regression. This theory raises the generalized ability of learning mechanisms according to the minimum structural risk. Therefore, the advantage of using SVM can obtain results of minimized error rates without many training samples. Finally, the experimental results confirm that SVM method performs well in setting a critical rainfall line for each group of debris-flow streams.

  6. Rac[e] to the pole: setting up polarity in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Collins, Caitlin; Tzima, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces influence many biological processes via activation of signaling molecules, including the family of Rho GTPases. Within the endothelium, the mechanical force of fluid shear stress regulates the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases, including Rac1. Shear stress-induced Rac1 activation is required for numerous essential biological processes, including changes in permeability, alignment of the actin cytoskeleton, redox signaling, and changes in gene expression. Thus, identifying mechanisms of Rac1 activation and the spatial cues that direct proper localization of the GTPase is essential in order to gain a comprehensive understanding the role of Rac1 in shear stress responses. This commentary will highlight our current understanding of how Rac1 activity is regulated in response to shear stress, as well as the downstream consequences of Rac1 activation.

  7. Evaporation condensation-induced bubble motion after temperature gradient set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolayev, Vadim S.; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Pichavant, Guillaume; Chatain, Denis; Beysens, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Thermocapillary (Marangoni) motion of a gas bubble (or a liquid drop) under a temperature gradient can hardly be present in a one-component fluid. Indeed, in such a pure system, the vapor-liquid interface is always isothermal (at saturation temperature). However, evaporation on the hot side and condensation on the cold side can occur and displace the bubble. We have observed such a phenomenon in two different fluids submitted to a temperature gradient under reduced gravity: hydrogen under magnetic compensation of gravity in the HYLDE facility at CEA-Grenoble and water in the DECLIC facility onboard the ISS. The experiments and the subsequent analysis are performed in the vicinity of the vapor-liquid critical point to benefit from critical universality. In order to better understand the phenomena, a 1D numerical simulation has been performed. After the temperature gradient is imposed, two regimes can be evidenced. At early times, the temperatures in the bubble and the surrounding liquid become different thanks to their different compressibility and the "piston effect" mechanism, i.e. the fast adiabatic bulk thermalization induced by the expansion of the thermal boundary layers. The difference in local temperature gradients at the vapor-liquid interface results in an unbalanced evaporation/condensation phenomenon that makes the shape of the bubble vary and provoke its motion. At long times, a steady temperature gradient progressively forms in the liquid (but not in the bubble) and induces steady bubble motion towards the hot end. We evaluate the bubble velocity and compare with existing theories.

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR SETTING UP A HOUSEHOLD SAMPLING SCHEDULE (SOP-2.10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for scheduling study subjects for field sampling activities in North Carolina (NC) and Ohio (OH). There are three field sampling teams with two staff members on each team. Two field sampling teams collect the field data simultaneously. A third fiel...

  9. Set-up and demonstration of a Low Energy Electron Magnetometer (LEEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayborn, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Described are the design, construction and test results of a Low Energy Electron Magnetometer (LEEM). The electron source is a commercial electron gun capable of providing several microamperes of electron beam. These electrons, after acceleration through a selected potential difference of 100-300 volts, are sent through two 30 degree second-order focussing parallel plate electrostatic analyzers. The first analyzer acts as a monochromator located in the field-free space. It is capable of providing energy resolution of better than 10 to the -3 power. The second analyzer, located in the test field region, acts as the detector for electrons deflected by the test field. The entire magnetometer system is expected to have a resolution of 1 part in 1000 or better.

  10. Tutorial on Set-Up and Communications Delays for all UHF SATCOM DAMA Modes of Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    4) a C o~l 0z 00 0 ocr CC 4 0 a)c z 4 .0 0 .0 0o o *-4 ý 0 W~ 4) 4- cis~0 00 ý7 r) - ol4.C 00 0z m 0u 0 0 ) e 0 0 C 0 4) 4 U, to 0 = o - 0 w4 C. s...TDMA, a communications concept, permits many user nets to share a satellite channel. It is analogous to time-division multiplexing , in which one...such as 11 multiplexing , frame, orderwire time slot, and communications time slot, and you may have gotten lost after the first term. Let us deal

  11. A Guide to Setting up a College Bereavement Group: Using Monologue, Soliloquy, and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Childhood grief disrupts and reshapes a developing child's primary attachments, emotional regulation system, and identity formation. Bereft college students have to build their grief identity simultaneously with their social, academic, vocational, and sexual identities. This article describes a bereavement group to help students work on these…

  12. ASCAN Helms sets up tent during survival training at Fairchild AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Susan J. Helms gathers pine branches to create bedding under a tent she has constructed from a parachute. Helms, along with her classmates, is participating in wilderness survival training at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) Spokane, Washington. The training was conducted in the mountain forests of Washington from 08-26-90 through 08-30-90.

  13. Set-up and application of an analytical approach for the quality control of purified colostrum as food supplement.

    PubMed

    Altomare, Alessandra; Regazzoni, Luca; Parra, Ximena Maria Paredes; Selmin, Francesca; Rumio, Cristiano; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-08-15

    A validated analytical procedure is here described for the quality control of the protein fraction of purified bovine colostrum used in food supplements. The proposed procedure starts with 1D and 2D-gel electrophoresis. The sample is then separated into two fractions by protein G affinity chromatography: the IgG enriched and the IgG depleted fraction (IgG-d). A size exclusion chromatography coupled to UV is then applied to the IgG and IgG-d fractions for the quantitative analysis of IgG and IgM, respectively. The IgG-d fraction is then analysed by HPLC-MS analysis for the quantitative analysis of β-lactoglobulins and α-lactoalbumin. The next step is to quantitatively measure a set of bioactive proteins selected from the bovine colostrum data bank on the basis of their claimed health benefits. The enzymatic activities of lactoperoxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase are then tested as an index of protein functionality.

  14. Setting Up an Efficient Therapeutic Hypothermia Team in Conscious ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A UK Heart Attack Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A; Tang, Kare H; Davies, John R; Keeble, Thomas R

    2015-12-01

    Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial.

  15. [Measuring the impact of an "age-friendly city" approach on a territory by setting up cross-cutting indicators].

    PubMed

    Chapon, Pierre-Marie; Lefebvre, Pierre-Olivier; Philipona, Angélique; Finot, Floria

    2015-06-01

    The "Age-friendly cities" program has been developing in France since 2010. So far the existing protocols had not allowed cities to assess actions taken in favor of elderly people comprehensively. The work done with the Francophone network of age-friendly cities (RFVAA) has led to the definition of an indicator consisting of 12 points; the relative importance of each target was weighted using a decision-making tool. This work has demonstrated the major role of governance in the implementation of cross-cutting policies for the benefit of older people.

  16. The preclinical set-up at the ID17 biomedical beamline to achieve high local dose deposition using interlaced microbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Nemoz, C.; Brochard, Th; Berruyer, G.; Renier, M.; Pouyatos, B.; Serduc, R.

    2013-03-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses spatially a fractionated "white beam" (energies 50-350 keV) irradiation from a Synchrotron Source. The typical microbeams used at ID17 are 25-100μm-thick, spaced by 200-400μm, and carry extremely high dose rates (up to about 16 kGy/s). These microbeams are well tolerated by biological tissue, i.e. up to several hundred of Gy in the peaks. When valley doses, caused by Compton scattering in between two microbeams, remain within a dose regime similar to conventional RT, a superior tumour control can be achieved with MRT than with conventional RT. The normal tissue tolerance of these microscopically small beams is outstanding and well documented in the literature. The hypothesis of a differential effect in particular on the vasculature of normal versus tumoral tissue might best be proven by using large animal models with spontaneous tumors instead of small laboratory animals with transplantable tumors, an ongoing project on ID17. An alternative approach to deposit a high dose, while preserving the feature of the spatial separation of these microbeams outside the target has opened up new applications in preclinical research. The instrumentation of this method to produce such interlaced beams is presented with an outlook on the challenges to build a treatment platform for human patients. Dose measurements using Gafchromic films exposed in interlaced geometries with their steep profiles highlight the potential to deposit radiotoxic doses in the vicinity of radiosensitive tissues.

  17. Finding the Answers: A Look at Central and Eastern Europe. [and] Setting Up Special Services: The Trade Union Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poloni, Cesare; Flechsenhar, Ullrich H.

    1990-01-01

    Poloni reviews implications for unions of recent economic, social, technological, and political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Flechsenhar states that unions play a role in the development and restructuring of developing countries by providing special services to meet the economic and social needs of their members. (SK)

  18. Study of boron detection limit using the in-air PIGE set-up at LAMFI-USP

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Trindade, G. F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-11

    The quantification of small amounts of boron in materials is of extreme importance in different areas of materials science. Boron is an important contaminant and also a silicon dopant in the semiconductor industry. Boron is also extensively used in nuclear power plants, either for neutron shielding or for safety control and boron is an essential nutrient for life, either vegetable or animal. The production of silicon solar cells, by refining metallurgical-grade silicon (MG-Si) requires the control and reduction of several silicon contaminants to very low concentration levels. Boron is one of the contaminants of solar-grade silicon (SG-Si) that must be controlled and quantified at sub-ppm levels. In the metallurgical purification, boron quantification is usually made by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, (ICP-MS) but the results need to be verified by an independent analytical method. In this work we present the results of the analysis of silicon samples by Particle Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE) aiming the quantification of low concentrations of boron. PIGE analysis was carried out using the in-air external beam line of the Laboratory for Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP) by the {sup 10}B(p,αγ({sup 7}Be nuclear reaction, and measuring the 429 keV γ-ray. The in-air PIGE measurements at LAMFI have a quantification limit of the order of 10{sup 16} at/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  20. Experimental Study of Homogeneous Isotropic Slowly-Decaying Turbulence in Giant Grid-Wind Tunnel Set Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliseda, Alberto; Bourgoin, Mickael; Eswirp Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present preliminary results from a recent grid turbulence experiment conducted at the ONERA wind tunnel in Modane, France. The ESWIRP Collaboration was conceived to probe the smallest scales of a canonical turbulent flow with very high Reynolds numbers. To achieve this, the largest scales of the turbulence need to be extremely big so that, even with the large separation of scales, the smallest scales would be well above the spatial and temporal resolution of the instruments. The ONERA wind tunnel in Modane (8 m -diameter test section) was chosen as a limit of the biggest large scales achievable in a laboratory setting. A giant inflatable grid (M = 0.8 m) was conceived to induce slowly-decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a large region of the test section, with minimal structural risk. An international team or researchers collected hot wire anemometry, ultrasound anemometry, resonant cantilever anemometry, fast pitot tube anemometry, cold wire thermometry and high-speed particle tracking data of this canonical turbulent flow. While analysis of this large database, which will become publicly available over the next 2 years, has only started, the Taylor-scale Reynolds number is estimated to be between 400 and 800, with Kolmogorov scales as large as a few mm . The ESWIRP Collaboration is formed by an international team of scientists to investigate experimentally the smallest scales of turbulence. It was funded by the European Union to take advantage of the largest wind tunnel in Europe for fundamental research.

  1. Setting Up a Stroke Team Algorithm and Conducting Simulation-based Training in the Emergency Department - A Practical Guide.

    PubMed

    Tahtali, Damla; Bohmann, Ferdinand; Rostek, Peter; Wagner, Marlies; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2017-01-15

    Time is of the essence when caring for an acute stroke patient. The ultimate goal is to restore blood flow to the ischemic brain. This can be achieved by either thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA), the standard therapy for stroke patients who present within the first hours of symptom onset without contraindications, or by an endovascular approach, if a proximal brain vessel occlusion is detected. As the efficacy of both therapies declines over time, every minute saved along the way will improve the patient's outcome. This critical situation requires thorough work and precise communication with the patient, the family and colleagues from different professions to acquire all relevant information and reach the right decision while carefully monitoring the patient. This is a high fidelity situation. In nonmedical high-fidelity environments such as aviation, Crew Resource Management (CRM) is used to enhance safety and team efficiency. This guide shows how a Stroke Team algorithm, which is transferable to other hospital settings, was established and how regular simulation-based trainings were performed. It requires determination and endurance to maintain these time-consuming simulation trainings on a regular basis over the course of time. However, the resulting improvement of team spirit and excellent door-to-needle times will benefit both the patients and the work environment in any hospital. A dedicated Stroke Team of 7 persons who are notified 24/7 by a collective call via speed dial and run a binding algorithm that takes approximately 20 min, was established. To train everybody involved in this algorithm, a simulation-based team training for all new Stroke Team members was conceived and conducted at monthly intervals. This led to a relevant and sustained reduction of the mean door-to-needle time to 25 min, and enhanced the feeling of stroke readiness especially in junior doctors and nurses.

  2. Study of factors affecting the magnitude and nature of ultrasound exposure with in vitro set-ups.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Jarkko J; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-05-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is a clinically applied method to improve fracture healing and holds great potential as a manipulator of biologic material relevant to tissue engineering approaches. Unfortunately, the cell stimulating property of ultrasound is not known, which inhibits the optimal use of this technique. Additionally, many in vitro studies in this field use ultrasound configurations that are vulnerable to errors during calibration and use. These errors arise from the structural simplicity and incomplete characterization of these configurations. In this study, pulse-echo ultrasound, laser Doppler vibrometry and Schlieren imaging were applied to noninvasively characterize common in vitro experimental configurations. Fine wire thermocouple measurements were conducted to characterize any possible temperature rise during the ultrasound exposures. The results quantified the frequency dependent sound transmission through culture wells and the standing wave effect within the cell volume. These effects can cause uncertainty of up to 700% in the actual ultrasound exposure experienced by the cell. A temperature rise of 2.7°C was measured from an ultrasound configuration commonly used in vitro ultrasound studies. Furthermore, wave mode conversion in culture wells was observed, emphasizing the complexity of these sonications. Similar type Lamb waves have been observed in bone in vivo. Thus, Lamb waves may be a mechanism for stimulating the cells.

  3. [How to set up a family and have healthy children? Plato and Aristotle's formulas for good life].

    PubMed

    Sahaj, Tomasz

    2003-01-01

    The article reconstructs and analyses the views of two great philosophers: Plato and Aristotle. Contrary to general opinions, philosophy busies itself not only with abstract issues, but also with the realistic ones. The thinkers introduced here prove this theory. They went into details discussing matters such as: procreation, behaviour of pregnant women, feeding and bringing up babies, children and teenagers' physical and mental education. Both men treated citizens' health as a matter of paramount importance, the matter of national significance.

  4. Spectroscopy of transfermium nuclei using the GABRIELA set up at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Piot, J.; Curien, D.; Gall, B.; Yeremin, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Isaev, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Katrasev, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Sokol, E. A.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Wiborg-Hagen, T.; Nyhus, H. T

    2010-06-01

    An IN2P3-JINR collaboration has launched a project called GABRIELA at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) within the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia). The goal of the project is to perform gamma-ray and internal conversion electron spectroscopy of heavy nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and transported to the focal plane of the recoil separator VASSILISSA. During five experimental campaigns of GABRIELA, the detection system has gained in sensitivity and new spectroscopic information has been obtained for {sup 249}Fm, {sup 251}Fm, {sup 253}No and {sup 255}Lr. In this contribution new results for {sup 253}No will be discussed.

  5. A new set-up for the simultaneous measurement of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gunsing, F.; Andriamonje, S.

    2011-07-01

    The measurement of the capture cross section of fissile elements, of upmost importance for the design of innovative nuclear reactors and the management of nuclear waste, involves particular difficulties related to the {gamma}-ray background produced in the fission reactions. These difficulties are the reason why five out of the six actinide {sigma}(n,{gamma}) measurements in the NEA High Request Priority List are fissile isotopes. At n-TOF we have combined the Total Absorption Calorimeter capture detector with a set of three {sup 235}U loaded MicroMegas fission detectors for measuring simultaneously the two reactions: capture and fission. In a first test measurement we have succeeded in measuring simultaneously with high efficiency the {sup 235}U capture and fission cross sections, disentangling accurately the two types of reactions. (authors)

  6. Spectroscopy of transfermium nuclei using the GABRIELA set up at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Piot, J.; Curien, D.; Gall, B.; Yeremin, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Isaev, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Katrasev, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Sokol, E. A.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Wiborg-Hagen, T.; Nyhus, H. T.; Siem, S.; Drafta, G.; Pantelica, D.; Scintee, N.; Görgen, A.; Kutsarova, T.; Mullins, S.; Šáro, Š.

    2010-06-01

    An IN2P3-JINR collaboration has launched a project called GABRIELA at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) within the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia). The goal of the project is to perform gamma-ray and internal conversion electron spectroscopy of heavy nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and transported to the focal plane of the recoil separator VASSILISSA. During five experimental campaigns of GABRIELA, the detection system has gained in sensitivity and new spectroscopic information has been obtained for 249Fm, 251Fm, 253No and 255Lr. In this contribution new results for 253No will be discussed.

  7. Spectroscopy of transfermium nuclei using the GABRIELA set up at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Briançon, Ch.; Désesquelles, P.; Garcia-Santamaria, S.; Korichi, A.; Robin, J.; Dorvaux, O.; Piot, J.; Curien, D.; Gall, B.; Khalfallah, F.; Khouaja, A.; Rousseau, M.; Stuttgé, L.; Rowley, N.; Yeremin, A. V.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Isaev, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Katrasev, D. E.; Kutznetzov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shutov, A. V.; Sokol, E. A.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Wiborg-Hagen, T.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Hanappe, F.; Bouchat, V.; Jones, P.; Borcea, R.; Drafta, G.; Pantelica, D.; Rotaru, F.; Scintee, N.; Zamfir, V.; Görgen, A.; Theisen, Ch.; Minkova, A.; Kutsarova, T.; Stodel, Ch.; Mullins, S.; Lieder, E.; Antalic, S.; Šáro, Š.; Venhart, M.

    2010-04-01

    An IN2P3-JINR collaboration has launched a project called GABRIELA at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) within the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia). The goal of the project is to perform gamma-ray and internal conversion electron spectroscopy of heavy nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and transported to the focal plane of the recoil separator VASSILISSA. During five experimental campaigns of GABRIELA, the detection system has gained in sensitivity and new spectroscopic information has been obtained for 249Fm, 251Fm, 253No and 255Lr.

  8. Shear-tensile/implosion source model vs. moment tensor: benefit in single-azimuth monitoring. Cotton Valley set-up.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileny, J.

    2012-12-01

    Moment tensor (MT) has become a standard for description of seismic sources, both in earthquake seismology and for various types of induced seismicity. It is a general dipole source, but for practice it may be too general, its generality causing troubles during its reconstruction from noisy data in the inverse process, which may be additionally ill-conditioned due to inexact hypocenter location or availability of a rough velocity/attenuation model only. Then, the retrieved source may be biased. It seems reasonable to assume a simpler and intuitivelly more physical source model directly describing the physical phenomena anticipated in the particular focus. A simple combination of a shear slip with tensile crack or 1D implosion (STI) may be a good model both for natural earthquakes and induced events. The model simplification introduced is crucial in cases of depleted sensor configuration when the moment tensor fails, in single-azimuth monitoring in particular. This is just the case of application in oil and gas industry, where the monitoring of seismicity induced by hydrofracturing is typically performed from single monitoring borehole. Then, MT is able to provide constrained solutions only (e.g. deviatoric), but STI detects also non-shear component correctly, providing important information on increase of permeability of the reservoir.

  9. Construction of Synthetic Populations with Key Attributes: Simulation Set-up while Accommodating Multiple Approaches within a Flexible Simulation Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A; Beaver, Justin M; Symons, Christopher T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our concept for overcoming the data barriers of building credible synthetic populations to assist the transformation between social theories and mathematical models. We specifically developed a 31-million-agent model of Afghanistan s population to demonstrate the ability to computationally control and analytically manipulate a system with the large number of agents (i.e., 108) necessary to model regions at the individual level using the LandScan Global population database. Afghanistan was selected for this case study because gathering data for Afghanistan was thought to be especially challenging. The LandScan Global population database is used by a majority of key U.S. and foreign agencies as their database system for worldwide geospatial distribution of populations. Assigning attributes to disaggregated population was achieved by fusing appropriate indicator databases using two forms of aggregation techniques geographical and categorical. A new approach of matching attributes to theoretical constructs was illustrated. The other data sources used include data on military and peacekeeper forces loyalties, readiness, and deployment collected through a combination of UN and classified force projections; economic data collected at the national level and disaggregated using data fusion techniques; data on social attitudes, beliefs, and social cleavages through anthropological studies, worldwide polling, and classified sources; and data on infrastructure and information systems and networks.

  10. On-line diagnostics of washing machines: design issues for the optimization of the measurement set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinelli, G.; Paone, N.; Cristalli, C.; Torcianti, B.

    2008-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the relevant aspects that a designer of an on-line test station for washing machine diagnostics based on a single-point laser Doppler vibrometer should consider. In particular, the paper presents a series of experiments useful to answer the two following questions: a) Where to locate the measurement point? b) Does the test need to be done with an external load to be inserted into the rotating drum? Tests have been done on a "good" washing machine and on a machine exhibiting the most frequent defects to be detected in production line. The study of the Operating Deflection Shapes (ODS) of the machine has been used to determine the best area of the machine cabinet where to position the single point laser vibrometer for on-line diagnostics. In order to support the decision whether or not to employ an artificial unbalance load inserted into the drum during the dynamic test, measurements have been repeated with and without load. Results have been analysed to highlight pros and cons of the use of an external load.

  11. The Setting Up of the Djajapura Centre. West Irian Industrial Vocation Training Scheme. Technical Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The Industrial Vocational Training Scheme project resulted from a study made by a United Nations mission which recommended procedures for the development of West Irian. The purpose of the project reported was to assist the government in establishing an industrial vocational training scheme consisting of a training department within the Office of…

  12. Public Relations Guide. Featuring PR Tools, PR Techniques, How To Set Up a PR Seminar. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    The goal of this guide is two-fold: (1) to equip readers with practical guidelines for establishing communications plans and making those plans work; and (2) to develop information for implementing a public relations seminar targeted at designing workshops that reach a broad segment of members. Five topics are addressed: (1) the basic public…

  13. Use of Nasal Bubble CPAP in Children with Hypoxemic Clinical Pneumonia—Report from a Resource Limited Set-Up

    PubMed Central

    KiranBabu, HB; Singhi, Sunit; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is preferred in developing economies for easy applicability and low cost. Because its use in older children is unexplored, we sought to evaluate its utility in hypoxemic clinical pneumonia. Methods: Of 330 children (1 month–12 years) with clinical pneumonia enrolled prospectively over 1 year, those with increased work of breathing and/or SpO2 <92% received bCPAP delivered via an underwater ‘T' tube through nasal prongs. Proportion requiring intubation despite bCPAP constituted primary outcome. Incidence of complications, duration of bCPAP and emergency stay were secondary outcomes. Results: Oxygen was initiated by nasal prongs (NPO2) in 204 (61.8%), and by bCPAP in 110 (33.3%). Sixteen (4.8%) were intubated at the outset. Fifty-three (25.9%) on NPO2 were shifted to bCPAP for worsening distress and hypoxemia. Only three (1.8%) from bCPAP group required intubation, of which one died. Failure rate and complications were negligent. The median emergency stay was 4 days. Conclusions: Nasal bCPAP was safe and effective in children with hypoxemic clinical pneumonia. PMID:26428195

  14. [Project HOPE contribution to the setting up of the professional identity of the first nurses from Alagoas, 1973-1977].

    PubMed

    Costa, Laís de Miranda Crispim; dos Santos, Regina Maria; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Trezza, Maria Cristina Soares Figueiredo; Leite, Josete Luzia

    2014-01-01

    Social-historical study conducted to examine the contribution of the American Nurses of Project HOPE to the configuration of the professional identity of the first trained nurses in Alagoas, in the period of 1973-1977. The theoretical framework was the "Civilizing Process" of Norbert Elias. Primary sources were official documents and personal files of 13 respondents by oral history; the secondary sources were authors of the History of Brazil/Alagoas. Data analysis showed that the configuration of the professional identity of the first trained nurses in Alagoas was a civilizing process, with all the nuances that make up the power relations. There was a significant contribution of American Nursing. However the movement of resistance to this domination was very strong, resulting in a Course that could take advantage of technological advancement and prestige brought by the United States, to build a unique Nursing from the social fabric embroidery at this meeting with so many different cultures.

  15. SETTING UP TRIAGE SERVICES IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT: EXPERIENCE FROM A TERTIARY CARE INSTITUTE OF PAKISTAN. A JOURNEY TOWARD EXCELLENCE.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Munawar; Fayyaz, Jabeen; Jamil, Ahsan

    2015-01-01

    The history of triage started from the French battle field for prioritizing patients. Emergency triage was started in early 1950's in USA in order to treat the sickest first. It has now become an integral component of all emergency departments (ED). The basic aim of triage is not only to sort out patients according to the criticality of their illness, but it also serves to streamline the patient flow. This will ultimately enable the ED physician to provide right management at the right time to the right patient in the available resources. In turn has a positive impact in reducing the ED overcrowding. The history of triage at AKUH-ED dated back in 2000. In the beginning physicians and nurse both were assigned to triage desk where they use to sort out the patient according to presenting complaints. At that time the documentation was manual with locally developed triage priorities. With the expansion of ED in 2008, responsibility of triage was shifted to nursing services. Triage policy was established and implemented. Specific triage protocols were developed for guidance and uniformity of care. Manual recording system was replaced by computerized triage data entry software. Enabling the department to monitor patient quality care indicators like total number of patients triaged, triage category, lag time reports and left without being seen by physicians.

  16. Development of a sensitive experimental set-up for LIF fuel wall film measurements in a pressure vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Florian; Schmidt, Jürgen; Beyrau, Frank

    2015-05-01

    This paper focusses on fundamental investigations of fuel wall films, which are formed when the spray impinges on the piston or cylinder walls. To reproduce the wide range of operating conditions within homogeneously charged gasoline direct-injection engines, it is necessary to use a film thickness measurement method, which can be applied inside a high-pressure, high-temperature vessel. Hence, we developed a method based on laser-induced fluorescence that reaches: a precision better than 1 µm, a geometric resolution of 31 µm and a practical applicability for wall film thicknesses smaller 80 µm. To obtain accurate film thickness results, we provide a detailed description of the selection of the surrogate fuel isooctane with 3-pentanone as fluorescence tracer and the resulting assembly of the excitation source, beam expander, filters, camera and the essential image processing. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of other possible solutions are discussed. Earlier publications provide only little information about the accuracy of their calibration and measurement procedures. Therefore, we tested and compared three basic calibration methods to each other and provide an analysis of possible errors, such as the influence of the preferential evaporation of 3-pentanone. Finally, images of resulting wall films are presented, and practical considerations for the execution of the measurements like recording timings are discussed.

  17. Set up of a new in vitro model to study dietary fructans fermentation in formula-fed babies.

    PubMed

    Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Chassard, Christophe; Baltzer, Selina; Lacroix, Christophe

    2010-02-01

    A new in vitro fermentation model with immobilised infant faecal microbiota simulating the proximal colon of a formula-fed baby was developed and used to test the effects of known prebiotic fructans. Intestinal fermentation, based on a previously developed colonic fermentation model, using a new feeding medium simulating a formula-fed infant ileal chyme, was carried out for seventy-one consecutive days divided into four stabilisation periods intercalated with four prebiotic treatment periods. At the end of the first stabilisation period, total bacterial concentration in colonised beads and in faecal sample was similar, metabolite concentrations returned to stabilisation values after each treatment period. As expected, the four prebiotic treatments significantly increased the bifidobacterial populations, whereas they decreased bacteroides and clostridia. No difference was observed in the prebiotic effect of these substrates selected. The treatments significantly increased total production of SCFA and decreased ammonia compared to stabilisation periods. Long-term stability of the system together with the reproducibility of the known prebiotic effects highlights the potential of the present model to quantify and compare the effects of different substrates in a formula-fed infant microbiota within the same fermentation experiment.

  18. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  19. Study of boron detection limit using the in-air PIGE set-up at LAMFI-USP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Trindade, G. F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of small amounts of boron in materials is of extreme importance in different areas of materials science. Boron is an important contaminant and also a silicon dopant in the semiconductor industry. Boron is also extensively used in nuclear power plants, either for neutron shielding or for safety control and boron is an essential nutrient for life, either vegetable or animal. The production of silicon solar cells, by refining metallurgical-grade silicon (MG-Si) requires the control and reduction of several silicon contaminants to very low concentration levels. Boron is one of the contaminants of solar-grade silicon (SG-Si) that must be controlled and quantified at sub-ppm levels. In the metallurgical purification, boron quantification is usually made by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, (ICP-MS) but the results need to be verified by an independent analytical method. In this work we present the results of the analysis of silicon samples by Particle Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE) aiming the quantification of low concentrations of boron. PIGE analysis was carried out using the in-air external beam line of the Laboratory for Materials Analysis with Ion Beans (LAMFI-USP) by the 10B ( p ,αγ(7Be nuclear reaction, and measuring the 429 keV γ-ray. The in-air PIGE measurements at LAMFI have a quantification limit of the order of 1016 at/cm2.

  20. GuMNet - Guadarrama Monitoring Network. Installation and set up of a high altitude monitoring network, north of Madrid. Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo

    2015-04-01

    An observational monitoring network in the Guadarrama Mountains is due to be operational at the end of 2015. This network integrates atmospheric measurements as well as subsurface observations in a high mountain climate, located up to 2.400 m.a.s.l. The data provided by GuMNet will help to improve the characterization of microclimate in high mountain areas, as well as land-atmosphere interations. The network information aims at meeting the needs of accuracy to be used for biological, agricultural, hydrological, meteorological and climatic investigations in this area. This initiative is supported and developed by research groups integrating the GuMNet Consortiuma from the Complutense and Polytechnical Universities of Madrid (UCM and UPM), the Energetic Environmental and Technological Research Centre (CIEMAT), the Spanish National Meteorological Agency (AEMET), and the National Park Sierra de Guadarrama (PNSG). The starting setup includes seven meteorological stations compatible with WMO standards, to be installed in the central area of the massif. Including a four-component net radiation sensor, an ultrasonic snow height, a pluviometer specialized for snow capture, air temperature and humidity devices and wind speed/direction sensor. Along with these atmospheric measurements, each station will include a set of subsurface measurements of temperature in shallow boreholes ( 20 m depth ) and temperature and humidity in trenches up to 1 m depth. These compatible WMO stations will be complemented by a station specialized in eddy covariance measuremets with CO2 fluxes at low altitude pastureland near Madrid. Another portable station is available to develop ad hoc comparison studies. This setup is embedded in a broader network of meteorological stations run partly by AEMET and partly by the PNSG. Most of the AEMET stations are distributed over lower altitudes, and will provide a very reliable boundary information for the atmosphere state around the Sierra. In the same way, the PNSG stations will provide a valuable record of atmopheric conditions for the past 15 years in the area of interest. provisional website: http://tifon.fis.ucm.es/~gumnet/ contact: edmundo.santolaria@ucm.es

  1. Comparing FTIR and RAPD techniques in the typing of C. albicans in a clinical set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandt, Christophe L.; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Toubas, Dominique; Aubert, Dominique; Lepan, Herve; Lepouse, Claire; Jaussaud, Maryse; Leon, Alain; Pinon, Jean-Michel; Manfait, Michel

    2002-03-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, generally though to be of endogenous origin, with however reported outbreaks. Epidemilogy of C. albicans has been studied so far by genotypic methods mainly, including the classical RAPD analysis. Albeit powerful, genotypic techniques are expensive, time consuming and complex to implement. FTIR spectroscopy is simple, rapid, inexpensive and an increasingly used technique for the identification of microorganisms. As a phenotypic method, it provides rapid whole cells 'fingerprinting' using few consumables and can detect very subtle differences between strains of the same species. In this study, C. albicans strains isolated from 50 patients from six hospital units were collected and studied by FTIR spectroscopy and RAPD-PCR. Discrimination of strains was computed using classification algorithms on selected features of the spectral data. Results from 10 patients, for whom iterative sampling was possible, are presented and discussed. Emphasis was laid on the reproducibility of dat for strain-level identification. FTIR analysis shows that (a) the C. albicans spectra were different from one patient to another, (b) seven patients exhibit each a homogeneous group while three patients display each two groups of strains. RAPD-PCR and FTIR analyses correlate quite well showing that FTIR spectroscopy could be a potential epidemiological tool in the control of nosocomial fungal infections.

  2. How to set up a microsurgical laboratory on small animal models: organization, techniques, and impact on residency training.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, A; Frati, A; Santoro, A; Lenzi, J; Delfini, R; Pannarale, L; Gaudio, E; D'Andrea, G; Cantore, G P

    2009-01-01

    Microsurgical training is mandatory for the optimal education of modern neurosurgeons. Even though this is a widely acknowledged statement and a lot of institutions around the world practice training in laboratory, the recent literature lacks tip and tricks on how to start a laboratory from scratch, what would be a convenient anesthesia, and what kind of exercises are appropriate. We present our experience in 16 microsurgical training courses settled up at our institutions. Two hundred eleven rodents were dissected. We will describe the organization of the laboratory and of the training courses and we will discuss its practical impact on the residency program.

  3. Radiation Monitoring using an Unmanned Helicopter in the Evacuation Zone Set up by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Kondo, Atsuya; Shoji, Yasunori; ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-04-01

    By the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPP. In recent years, technologies for an unmanned helicopter have been developed and applied to natural disasters. In expectation of the application of the unmanned helicopter to airborne radiation monitoring, we had developed a radiation monitoring system using an autonomous unmanned helicopter (AUH). Then, we measured the ambient dose-rate at the height of 1-m above the ground and the soil deposition of radioactive cesium (Cs-134, Cs-137) by using the AUH system in the evacuation zone of residents around the NPP. Here, we report on the measurement technique and the result. As a result measured around a river at 10-km away from the NPP, high contaminated areas compared with the circumstance are detected along the dry riverbed. It was seemed that it had flowed along the river from highly contaminated areas in the upper stream.

  4. Designing an optical set-up of differential laser triangulation for oil film thickness measurement on water.

    PubMed

    Ge, Baozhene; Sun, Jingbin; Liu, Pengcheng; Lü, Qieni; Wu, Di

    2013-01-01

    Based on the differential laser triangulation principle, an optical system configuration for measuring the oil film thickness on water is designed and developed. A semiconductor laser of 650 nm wavelength with the maximum power of 5 mW is used as a light source, the magnification of the imaging system is 1.4; the range of the measurement is 0.1 mm-10 mm; the resolution is 2.3 μm and the measurement accuracy is 10 μm theoretically. Experiments are conducted with block gauges and feeler gauges, and the experimental results, with absolute error less than ±25 μm and the maximal measurable thickness 12 mm, indicate that this system presented in this paper can fulfill high accuracy.

  5. SU-E-I-58: Experiences in Setting Up An Online Fluoroscopy Tracking System in a Large Healthcare System

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R; Wunderle, K; Lingenfelter, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Transitioning from a paper based to an online system for tracking fluoroscopic case information required by state regulation and to conform to NCRP patient dose tracking suggestions. Methods: State regulations require documentation of operator, equipment, and some metric of tube output for fluoroscopy exams. This information was previously collected in paper logs, which was cumbersome and inefficient for the large number of fluoroscopic units across multiple locations within the system. The “tech notes” feature within Siemens’ Syngo workflow RIS was utilized to create an entry form for technologists to input case information, which was sent to a third party vendor for archiving and display though an online web based portal. Results: Over 55k cases were logged in the first year of implementation, with approximately 6,500 cases per month once fully online. A system was built for area managers to oversee and correct data, which has increased the accuracy of inputted values. A high-dose report was built to automatically send notifications when patients exceed trigger levels. In addition to meeting regulatory requirements, the new system allows for larger scale QC in fluoroscopic cases by allowing comparison of data from specific procedures, locations, equipment, and operators so that instances that fall outside of reference levels can be identified for further evaluation. The system has also drastically improved identification of operators without documented equipment specific training. Conclusion: The transition to online fluoroscopy logs has improved efficiency in meeting state regulatory requirements as well as allowed for identification of particular procedures, equipment, and operators in need of additional attention in order to optimize patient and personnel doses, while high dose alerts improve patient care and follow up. Future efforts are focused on incorporating case information from outside of radiology, as well as on automating processes for increased efficiencies.

  6. Association of Cognitive and Noncognitive Symptoms of Delirium: A Study from Consultation-liaison Psychiatry Set-up

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Mehra, Aseem; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to evaluate the cognitive functions of patients with delirium using Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE), to study the correlation of cognitive functions assessed by HMSE with noncognitive symptoms as assessed using Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 1998 (DRS-R-98) and to study the association of cognitive functions assessed using HMSE and DRS-R98. Methods: A total of 76 consecutive patients fulfilling the diagnosis of delirium were evaluated on DRS-R-98, HMSE, and Short Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (retrospective IQCODE). Results: The mean DRS-R-98 score 33.9 (standard deviation [SD] - 7.2) and the mean DRS-R-98 severity score was 25.9 (SD - 7.2). The mean score on HMSE was 19.3 (7.98). There were significant correlations of all the domains of HMSE with DRS-R-98 total score, DRS-R-98 severity score, DRS-R-98 cognitive subscale score, DRS-R-98 noncognitive domain subscale score, and DRS severity score without attention score. When the association of each item of DRS-R-98 and HMSE was evaluated, except for the items of delusions, lability of affect and motor retardation, there were significant negative association between all the items of DRS-R-98 and HMSE, indicating that higher severity of cognitive symptoms as assessed on HMSE is associated with higher severity of all the cognitive symptoms and most of the noncognitive symptoms as assessed by DRS-R-98. Conclusion: The present study suggests that attention deficits in patients with delirium influence the severity of cognitive and noncognitive symptoms of delirium. Further, the present study suggests an increase in the severity of cognitive symptoms in other domains is also associated with an increase in the severity of noncognitive symptoms of delirium. PMID:28163496

  7. Analysis of Fine and Coarse mode Aerosol Distributions from AERONET's mini-DRAGON Set-up at Singapore 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Muller, A.; Liew, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol type and particle size regime. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from industrial and urban areas. However, depending on the time of the year (July-October), there can be a strong bio-mass component originated from uncontrolled forest/plantation fires from the neighboring land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. Unlike urban/fossil fuel aerosols, smoke or bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. Trans-boundary smoke episodes has become an annual phenomenon in this region. Severe episodes were recorded in 1997 and 2006 and other minor episodes happened during 2002, 2004, 2010 and more recently on 2013. On August-September 2012, as part of CRISP participation on the August-September ground campaign of the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS), a Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) set of six CIMEL CE-318A automatic Sun-tracking photometers have been deployed at sites located at North (Yishun ITE), East (Temasek Poly), West (NUS and Pandan Reservoir), Central (NEA) and South (St. John's island) of Singapore. In order to fully discriminate bio-mass burning events over other local sources, we perform a spectral discrimination of fine/coarse mode particle regime to all DRAGON sites; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponent are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set. Spatio-temporal relationship between sites are also investigated.

  8. [Breast cancer: end of treatment issues and set up of nursing follow up in the Italian Switzerland Breast Unit].

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Carla; Anelli, Simona; Manganiello, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    It's widely recognized the important role that nurses can have in identifying and managing problems of various kinds resulting from the illness and treatment in survivor cancer patients, so that clinical nursing follow-up programs for cancer patients are now widely diffused internationally. The aim of the following study is the detection of the main physical, emotional, social-familial problems of women with breast cancer followed by the Italian Switzerland Breast Unit, after the end of treatment in order to better target the activation of a nursing follow-up program. This is a descriptive study. Data were collected through a questionnaire mailed to all patients who underwent surgery in the Breast Unit from 2005 to 2009 for a total of 527 patients. The statistical analysis of data was carried out on a total of 202 patients. Fatigue is the physical problem most highlighted by the sample of women (52%), followed by bone pain and / or muscle pain (45.5%) and hot flushes (44.1%). On an emotional level, fear and worry are reported by 40.1% of women, followed by sadness reported by 31.3% of women. Regarding the socio-familial aspect, one of 5 women shows working difficulties (21.2%). Statistically significant correlations are highlighted between some problems and some contextual variables (age, type of treatment, time from the end of treatment). The study has allowed to characterize this population in the specific context and to structure a nursing follow-up program which is active since January 2012.

  9. Setting Up for Infant/Toddler Care: Guidelines for Centers and Family Child Care Homes. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Annabelle; Schrag, Lorraine

    With increasing numbers of infants in need of child care, the demand for infant care programs has grown. This handbook was designed to meet the need for technical assistance regarding program components and workable practices geared specifically to infant and toddler care. Part 1 of the handbook, "Considerations in Infant and Toddler…

  10. TU-CD-304-09: Feasibility Study for Thermoplastic Mask Set Up Monitoring Using Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T; Cho, M; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the setup accuracy of thermoplastic mask, we developed a new monitoring method based on force sensing technology and evaluated its feasibility. Methods: The thermoplastic mask setup monitoring system consists of a force sensing resistor sensor unit, a signal transport device, a control PC and an in-house software. The system is designed to monitor pressure variation between the mask and patient in real time. It also provides a warning to the user when there is a possibility of movement. A preliminary study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the sensor unit and developed monitoring system with a head phantom. Then, a simulation study with volunteers was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the monitoring system. Note that the sensor unit can have multiple end-sensors and every end-sensor was confirmed to be within 2% reliability in pressure reading through a screening test. Results: To evaluate the reproducibility of the proposed monitoring system in practice, we simulated a mask setup with the head phantom. FRS sensors were attached on the face of the head phantom and pressure was monitored. For 3 repeated mask setups on the phantom, the variation of the pressure was less than 3% (only 1% larger than 2% potential uncertainty confirmed in the screening test). In the volunteer study, we intended to verify that the system could detect patient movements within the mask. Thus, volunteers were asked to turn their head or lift their chin. The system was able to detect movements effectively, confirming the clinical feasibility of the monitoring system developed. Conclusion: Through the proposed setup monitoring method, it is possible to monitor patient motion inside a mask in real time, which has never been possible with most commonly used systems using non-radiographic technology such as infrared camera system and surface imaging system. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2013M2A2A7043498) and the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2A1A10050270) through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning.

  11. A "pivot" Model to set up Large Scale Rare Diseases Information Systems: Application to the Fibromuscular Dysplasia Registry.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Laurent; Ugon, Adrien; Giavarini, Alessandra; Riquier, Jérémie; Charlet, Jean; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The SIR-FMD project is a partnership between the Department of Genetics and Reference Centre for Rare Vascular Diseases at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris and the Medical Informatics and Knowledge Engineering Laboratory of Inserm. Its aim is to use an ontological approach to implement an information system for the French Fibromuscular Dysplasia Registry. The existing data was dispersed in numerous databases, which had been created independently. These databases have different structures and contain data of diverse quality. The project aims to provide generic solutions for the management of the communication of medical data. The secondary objective is to demonstrate the applicability of these generic solutions in the field of rare diseases (RD) in an operational context. The construction of the French FMD registry was a multistep process. A secure platform has been available since the beginning of November 2013. The medical records of 471 patients from the initial dataset provided by the HEGP-Paris, France have been included, and are accessible from a secure user account. Users are organized into a collaborative group, and can access patient groups. Each electronic patient record contains more than 2,200 items. The problem of semantic interoperability has become one of the major challenges for the development of applications requiring the sharing and reuse of data. The information system component of the SIR-FMD project has a direct impact on the standardisation of coding of rare diseases and thereby contributes to the development of e-Health.

  12. Setting up the criteria and credit-awarding scheme for building interior material selection to achieve better indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Niu, J L; Burnett, J

    2001-06-01

    Methods, standards, and regulations that are aimed to reduce indoor air pollution from building materials are critically reviewed. These are classified as content control and emission control. Methods and standards can be found in both of these two classes. In the regulation domain, only content control is enforced in some countries and some regions, and asbestos is the only building material that is banned for building use. The controlled pollutants include heavy metals, radon, formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Emission rate control based upon environment chamber testing is very much in the nature of voluntary product labeling and ranking, and this mainly targets formaldehyde and VOC emissions. It is suggested that radon emission from building materials should be subject to similar emission rate control. A comprehensive set criteria and credit-awarding scheme that encourages the use of low-emission building material is synthesized, and how this scheme can be practiced in building design is proposed and discussed.

  13. Set-up and calibration of a method to measure 10B concentration in biological samples by neutron autoradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadan, M. A.; Bortolussi, S.; Postuma, I.; Ballarini, F.; Bruschi, P.; Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S.; Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, A.; Zonta, C.; Altieri, S.

    2012-03-01

    A selective uptake of boron in the tumor is the base of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, which can destroy the tumor substantially sparing the normal tissue. In order to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor, keeping the dose absorbed by normal tissues below the tolerance level, it is mandatory to know the 10B concentration present in each kind of tissue at the moment of irradiation. This work presents the calibration procedure adopted for a boron concentration measurement method based on neutron autoradiography, where biological samples are deposited on sensitive films and irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor (University of Pavia). The latent tracks produced in the film by the charged particles coming from the neutron capture in 10B are made visible by a proper etching, allowing the measurement of the track density. A calibration procedure with standard samples provides curves of track density as a function of boron concentration, to be used in the measurement of biological samples. In this paper, the bulk etch rate parameter and the calibration curves obtained for both liquid samples and biological tissues with known boron concentration are presented. A bulk etch rate value of (1.64 ± 0.02) μm/h and a linear dependence with etching time were found. The plots representing the track density versus the boron concentration in a range between 5 and 50 μg/g (ppm) are linear, with an angular coefficient of (1.614 ± 0.169)·10-3 tracks/(μm2 ppm) for liquids and (1.598 ± 0.097)·10-2 tracks/(μm2 ppm) for tissues.

  14. Setting Up a Bibliographic Database from National Inventory of Scientific and Technical Literature. The CIDST Experience in Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriamparany, Louis Marius; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a bibliographic database in Madagascar through a national inventory of scientific and technical literature. The roles of the Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research for Development (MRSTD) and its information service, CIDST, are described; database products are discussed; and future prospects are suggested.…

  15. Use of natural clays as sorbent materials for rare earth ions: Materials characterization and set up of the operative parameters.

    PubMed

    Iannicelli-Zubiani, Elena Maria; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni; Gallo Stampino, Paola; Pelosato, Renato; Mesto, Ernesto; Schingaro, Emanuela; Lacalamita, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Two mineral clays of the montmorillonite group were tested as sorbents for the removal of Rare Earths (REs) from liquid solutions. Lanthanum and neodymium model solutions were used to perform uptake tests in order to: (a) verify the clays sorption capability, (b) investigate the sorption mechanisms and (c) optimize the experimental parameters, such as contact time and pH. The desorption was also studied, in order to evaluate the feasibility of REs recovery from waters. The adsorption-desorption procedure with the optimized parameters was also tested on a leaching solution obtained by dissolution of a dismantled NdFeB magnet of a hard-disk. The clays were fully characterized after REs adsorption and desorption by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the liquid phase was characterized via Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analyses. The experimental results show that both clays are able to capture and release La and Nd ions, with an ion exchange mechanism. The best total efficiency (capture ≈ 50%, release ≈ 70%) is obtained when the uptake and release processes are performed at pH=5 and pH=1 respectively; in real leached scrap solutions, the uptake is around 40% but release efficiency is strongly decreased passing from a mono-ion system to a real system (from 80% to 5%). Furthermore, a strong matrix effect is found, with the matrix largely affecting both the uptake and the release of neodymium.

  16. Modulated heterodyne light scattering set-up for measuring long relaxation time at small and wide angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Nancy; Villari, Valentina; Micali, Norberto

    2012-08-01

    We present a simple, compact, and versatile experimental setup working in the heterodyne detection mode with modulation of the reference beam. The system is implemented with a collection optics based on a unimodal optical fiber coupler. This choice allows the heterodyne to be used in a wide range of scattering angles, even for very small ones, without losing the optical beating. The apparatus can be successfully used to study translational diffusive dynamics of dispersed particles at scattering angles smaller than 5° and it is suitable for exploring slow relaxation processes in sub-Hertz frequency domain, for example, in glass-forming systems. It is also possible to measure the electrophoretic mobility by applying an electric field into a charged particles solution.

  17. Setting Up an Efficient Therapeutic Hypothermia Team in Conscious ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A UK Heart Attack Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A.; Tang, Kare H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial. PMID:26154447

  18. Elastic and inelastic electrons in the double-slit experiment: A variant of Feynman's which-way set-up.

    PubMed

    Frabboni, Stefano; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Grillo, Vincenzo; Pozzi, Giulio

    2015-07-01

    Modern nanotechnology tools allowed us to prepare slits of 90 nm width and 450 nm spacing in a screen almost completely opaque to 200 keV electrons. Then by covering both slits with a layer of amorphous material and carrying out the experiment in a conventional transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy filter we can demonstrate that the diffraction pattern, taken by selecting the elastically scattered electrons, shows the presence of interference fringes, but with a bimodal envelope which can be accounted for by taking into account the non-constant thickness of the deposited layer. However, the intensity of the inelastically scattered electrons in the diffraction plane is very broad and at the limit of detectability. Therefore the experiment was repeated using an aluminum film and a microscope also equipped with a Schottky field emission gun. It was thus possible to observe also the image due to the inelastically scattered electron, which does not show interference phenomena both in the Fraunhofer or Fresnel regimes. If we assume that inelastic scattering through the thin layer covering the slits provides the dissipative process of interaction responsible for the localization mechanism, then these experiments can be considered a variant of the Feynman which-way thought experiment.

  19. Determinants of symptom profile and severity of conduct disorder in a tertiary level pediatric care set up: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Rajamohanan, K.; Anil, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorders (CDs) are one of the most common causes for referral to child and adolescent mental health centers. CD varies in its environmental factors, symptom profile, severity, co-morbidity, and functional impairment. Aims: The aim was to analyze the determinants of symptom profile and severity among childhood and adolescent onset CD. Settings and Design: Clinic based study with 60 consecutive children between 6 and 18 years of age satisfying International Classification of Disease-10 Development Control Rules guidelines for CD, attending behavioral pediatrics unit outpatient. Materials and Methods: The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and functional level were assessed using parent interview schedule, revised behavioral problem checklist and Children's Global Assessment Scale. Statistical Analysis: The correlation and predictive power of the variables were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: There was significant male dominance (88.3%) with boy girl ratio 7.5:1. Most common comorbidity noticed was hyperkinetic disorders (45%). Childhood onset group was more predominant (70%). Prevalence of comorbidity was more among early onset group (66.7%) than the late-onset group (33.3%). The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and the functional impairment were significantly higher in the childhood onset group. Conclusion: The determinants of symptom profile and severity are early onset (childhood onset CD), nature, and quantity of family psychopathology, prevalence, and type of comorbidity and nature of symptom profile itself. The family psychopathology is positively correlated with the symptom severity and negatively correlated with the functional level of the children with CD. The symptom severity was negatively correlated with the functional level of the child with CD. PMID:25568472

  20. Assessment of potential nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and set-up of an environmental monitoring programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the project is to identify and differentiate the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources present and their impact on the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. The present investigation represents a new study, which, beside the traditional hydrochemical analyses (main ions and nutrients), introduces stable isotopes of nitrate, the stable isotope signature of boron and the stable isotopes of water. The analysis of stable isotopes in the nitrate molecule will be used to differentiate between nitrate coming from agriculture (synthetic and natural fertilizer), airborne nitrate and nitrate from nitrification processes in soils. Boron isotopes will be used to identify the impact of domestic wastewater on the aquatic system. The stable isotopes of the water molecule are useful tracers to calculate mixing ratios between sea and fresh water and the mean altitude of the recharge area of surface water. Moreover, this study represents a very new innovative approach for the investigation of the complex hydrogeochemical processes at the mixing interface between sea and fresh water. In addition to the analytical part, the monitoring programme will also include remote sensing techniques. Remotely sensed data from the satellites Landsat 1 MSS, Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ will be analysed and processed. This analysis is to assess the multi-temporal and spatial evolution of most superficial algae flora activity and the water temperature of the Lagoon as main indicators of eutrophication and, additionally, to identify the main environmental and morphological changes of the Lagoon since the beginning of the seventies.

  1. Set-up of a decision support system to support sustainable development of the Laguna de Bay, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Tjitte A; Bongco, Alicia E; Santos-Borja, Adelina C

    2003-01-01

    Over recent decades, population expansion, deforestation, land conversion, urbanisation, intense fisheries and industrialisation have produced massive changes in the Laguna de Bay catchment, Philippines. The resulting problems include rapid siltation of the lake, eutrophication, inputs of toxics, flooding problems and loss of biodiversity. Rational and systematic resolution of conflicting water use and water allocation interests is now urgently needed in order to ensure sustainable use of the water resources. With respect to the competing and conflicting pressures on the water resources, the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) needs to achieve comprehensive management and development of the area. In view of these problems and needs, the Government of the Netherlands was funding a two-year project entitled 'Sustainable Development of the Laguna de Bay Environment'.A comprehensive tool has been developed to support decision-making at catchment level. This consists of an ArcView GIS-database linked to a state-of-the-art modelling suite, including hydrological and waste load models for the catchment area and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model (Delft3D) linked to a habitat evaluation module for the lake. In addition, MS Office based tools to support a stakeholder analysis and financial and economic assessments have been developed. The project also focused on technical studies relating to dredging, drinking water supply and infrastructure works. These aimed to produce technically and economically feasible solutions to water quantity and quality problems. The paper also presents the findings of a study on the development of polder islands in the Laguna de Bay, addressing the water quantity and quality problems and focusing on the application of the decision support system.

  2. Field-based density measurements as tool to identify preeruption dome structure: set-up and first results from Unzen volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2005-03-01

    For an improvement in the quality of conduit flow and dome-related explosive eruption models, knowledge of the preeruption or precollapse density of the rocks involved is necessary. As close investigation is impossible during eruption, the best substitute comes from quantitative investigation of the eruption deposits. The porosity of volcanic rocks is of primary importance for the eruptive behaviour and, accordingly, a key-parameter for realistic models of dome stability and conduit flow. Fortunately, this physical property may be accurately determined via density measurements. We developed a robust, battery-powered device for rapid and reliable density measurements of dry rock samples in the field. The density of the samples (sealed in plastic bags at 250 mbar) is determined using the Archimedean principle. We have tested the device on the deposits of the 1990-1995 eruption of Unzen volcano, Japan. Short setup and operation times allow up to 60 measurements per day under fieldwork conditions. The rapid accumulation of correspondingly large data sets has allowed us to acquire the first statistically significant data set of clast density distribution in block-and-ash flow deposits. More than 1100 samples with a total weight of 2.2 tons were measured. The data set demonstrates that the deposits of the last eruptive episode at Unzen display a bimodal density distribution, with peaks at 2.0±0.1 and 2.3±0.1 g/cm 3, corresponding to open porosity values of 20 and 8 vol.%, respectively. We use this data set to link the results of laboratory-based fragmentation experiments to field studies at recently active lava domes.

  3. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data.

  4. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data. PMID:26687285

  5. The RAM Studies 1, 2, 3, and 4: A Description of the Thinking, Set-up, and Planning of the Studies. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    An initial study (Ram 1) in Denmark in 1970 determined whether methods could be developed to assess the effect of textual passages on readers' experiences of a short story. Subjects, 717 Danish secondary students, were given a questionnaire to check on the effect of specific auctorial techniques and to chart readers' attitudes and the way they…

  6. Laser-Assisted Bending of Sharp Angles With Small Fillet Radius on Stainless Steel Sheets: Analysis of Experimental Set-Up and Processing Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisario, Annamaria; Barletta, Massimiliano; Venettacci, Simone; Veniali, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Achievement of sharp bending angles with small fillet radius on stainless steel sheets by mechanical bending requires sophisticated bending device and troublesome operational procedures, which can involve expensive molds, huge presses and large loads. In addition, springback is always difficult to control, thus often leading to final parts with limited precision and accuracy. In contrast, laser-assisted bending of metals is an emerging technology, as it often allows to perform difficult and multifaceted manufacturing tasks with relatively small efforts. In the present work, laser-assisted bending of stainless steel sheets to achieve sharp angles is thus investigated. First, bending trials were performed by combining laser irradiation with an auxiliary bending device triggered by a pneumatic actuator and based on kinematic of deformable quadrilaterals. Second, laser operational parameters, that is, scanning speed, power and number of passes, were varied to identify the most suitable processing settings. Bending angles and fillet radii were measured by coordinate measurement machine. Experimental data were elaborated by combined ANalysis Of Mean (ANOM) and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA). Based on experimental findings, the best strategy to achieve an aircraft prototype from a stainless steel sheet was designed and implemented.

  7. A guideline for integrating dynamic areas of interests in existing set-up for capturing eye movement: Looking at moving aircraft.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Maik; Rußwinkel, Nele; Möhlenbrink, Christoph

    2016-06-10

    Today, capturing the behavior of a human eye is considered a standard method for measuring the information-gathering process and thereby gaining insights into cognitive processes. Due to the dynamic character of most task environments there is still a lack of a structured and automated approach for analyzing eye movement in combination with moving objects. In this article, we present a guideline for advanced gaze analysis, called IGDAI (Integration Guideline for Dynamic Areas of Interest). The application of IGDAI allows gathering dynamic areas of interest and simplifies its combination with eye movement. The first step of IGDAI defines the basic requirements for the experimental setup including the embedding of an eye tracker. The second step covers the issue of storing the information of task environments for the dynamic AOI analysis. Implementation examples in XML are presented fulfilling the requirements for most dynamic task environments. The last step includes algorithms to combine the captured eye movement and the dynamic areas of interest. A verification study was conducted, presenting an air traffic controller environment to participants. The participants had to distinguish between different types of dynamic objects. The results show that in comparison to static areas of interest, IGDAI allows a faster and more detailed view on the distribution of eye movement.

  8. An Optimized Table-Top Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Set-up for the Nanoscale Structural Analysis of Soft Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibillano, T.; de Caro, L.; Altamura, D.; Siliqi, D.; Ramella, M.; Boccafoschi, F.; Ciasca, G.; Campi, G.; Tirinato, L.; di Fabrizio, E.; Giannini, C.

    2014-11-01

    The paper shows how a table top superbright microfocus laboratory X-ray source and an innovative restoring-data algorithm, used in combination, allow to analyze the super molecular structure of soft matter by means of Small Angle X-ray Scattering ex-situ experiments. The proposed theoretical approach is aimed to restore diffraction features from SAXS profiles collected from low scattering biomaterials or soft tissues, and therefore to deal with extremely noisy diffraction SAXS profiles/maps. As biological test cases we inspected: i) residues of exosomes' drops from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells; ii) collagen/human elastin artificial scaffolds developed for vascular tissue engineering applications; iii) apoferritin protein in solution. Our results show how this combination can provide morphological/structural nanoscale information to characterize new artificial biomaterials and/or to get insight into the transition between healthy and pathological tissues during the progression of a disease, or to morphologically characterize nanoscale proteins, based on SAXS data collected in a room-sized laboratory.

  9. Set-up of large laboratory-scale chromatographic separations of poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives of the growth hormone-releasing factor 1-29 analogue.

    PubMed

    Piquet, G; Gatti, M; Barbero, L; Traversa, S; Caccia, P; Esposito, P

    2002-01-25

    In this paper we report the scale-up of the purification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives of the growth hormone-releasing factor 1-29, from laboratory scale (100 mg of bulk starting material) to larger scale (3 g of bulk), through the use of a cation-exchange TSK-SP-5PW chromatographic column. A one-step purification process capable of purifying large amounts of mono-PEGylated GRF species from the crude reaction mixture was developed. A simple, straightforward stepwise gradient elution separation was developed at laboratory scale and then scaled up with a larger column packed with a chromatographic resin with the same chemistry which maintained the laboratory-scale separation profile. Active material recovery and material purity remained constant through the scale-up from the 13-microm stationary phase to the 25-microm larger column. Overall, the gram GRF equivalent/batch process scale showed to be quite reproducible, and could be considered as a good platform for scale up to production scale.

  10. Diffuse reflectance based inverse Monte Carlo model for the estimation of the dependent scattering of intralipid 20% using a simplified two fiber oblique geometry set up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Michael; Narayanan Unni, Sujatha

    2015-03-01

    Scattering property of Intralipid is widely used for calibration and simulation of turbid media, especially biological tissues, in optical spectroscopic studies. The desired phantom turbidity level matching that of target tissue scattering properties is vital in the right preparation of phantoms mimicking the tissue. A simplified two fiber oblique illumination-collection geometry setup is used along with iterative inverse Monte Carlo simulations on the diffuse reflectance obtained experimentally for estimating the reduced scattering coefficient (μś) of Intralipid-20% for wavelengths ranging from 500 nm to 880 nm. Basic Monte Carlo for Multi Layered media (MCML) code is modified to incorporate the two fiber inverse model of diffuse reflectance with oblique broadband illumination and perpendicular collection of diffusively reflected light from the sample. Wavelength dependent true phase function of Intralipid is incorporated in the model and a semi-empirical concentration scaling methodology is used to obtain volume concentration dependence on the μś. In the inverse modelling, the modified Twersky equation for correlated scattering has been used to obtain the μś profile of Intralipid-20% for its volume concentration ranging from 16% to 100%. The results are shown to be in good agreement with the optical characterization studies of Intralipid-20% involving bulkier instrumentation for the wavelength range under consideration. The study presented in this paper gives an insight for an in vivo fiber based methodology for quantifying the variation of optical scattering during tissue malignancy.

  11. A survey of current ostrich handling and transport practices in North America with reference to ostrich welfare and transportation guidelines set up in other countries.

    PubMed

    Bejaei, M; Cheng, K M

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate management of an ostrich's exposure to stressors during preslaughter handling and transport practices can improve its well-being and product quality. Because of the lack of information about ostrich farming and transportation in North America and lack of developed Codes of Practice for ratite transport in Canada and the United States, the first objective of our research was to identify current preslaughter handling and transport practices of the ostrich industry in Canada and the United States, and to identify potential welfare issues based on the current practices. The second objective of this research was to review ostrich transport welfare standards and guidelines from Australia, European Union, New Zealand, and South Africa to investigate if those guidelines are applicable to Canadian and American ostrich production systems. Preliminary producer interviews, on-farm visits, and literature review information sources were used to design a producer questionnaire that was used to survey producers by Internet and mail surveying methods to identify existing ostrich transport norms in Canada and the United States. Based on the results of our producer survey and review of the transport standards and guidelines, we conclude that following factors are potential ostrich handling and transport welfare issues in Canada and the United States: lack of scientific information about welfare of ostriches during handling and transport; unfamiliarity of handlers and birds with handling and transport practices; not considering birds' social bounds, sex, behavior, and physical state in mixing them during handling and transport process; lack of an established specific maximum water and feed withdrawal duration for ostrich transport in Canada and the United States; lack of a specific vehicle designed for ratite transportation in Canada and the United States considering different physical body characteristics of ostriches compared with other species; exposure of birds to natural light during transport inside the trailer; overcrowding; and long transportation in Canada and the United States. Results of this research will contribute toward developing Codes of Practice for preslaughter handling, transportation, and slaughter of ostriches in Canada and the United States.

  12. Set-up of an infrared fast behavioral assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, and its application in compound biotoxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Bichara, Darío; Calcaterra, Nora B; Arranz, Silvia; Armas, Pablo; Simonetta, Sergio H

    2014-02-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly employed for evaluating toxicity and drug discovery assays. Commonly experimental approaches for biotoxicity assessment are based on visual inspection or video recording. However, these techniques are limited for large-scale assays, as they demand either a time-consuming detailed inspection of the animals or intensive computing resources in order to analyze a considerable amount of screenshots. Recently, we have developed a simple methodology for tracking the locomotor activity of small animals cultured in microtiter plates. In this work, we implemented this automatic methodology, based on infrared (IR) microbeam scattering, for measuring behavioral activity in zebrafish larvae. We determined the appropriate culture conditions, number of animals and stage of development to get robust results. Furthermore, we validated this methodology as a rapid test for evaluating toxicity. By measuring the effects of reference compounds on larvae activity, we were able to estimate the concentration that could cause a 50% decrease in activity events values (AEC₅₀), showing a strong linear correlation (R²  = 0.91) with the LC₅₀ values obtained with the standard DarT test. The toxicity order of the measured compounds was CuSO4  > 2,4-dinitrophenol > 3,4-dichloroaniline > SDS > sodium benzoate > EDTA > K₂CrO4 ; regarding solvents, EtOH ≈ DMSO. In this study, we demonstrate that global swimming behavior could be a simple readout for toxicity, easy to scale-up in automated experiments. This approach is potentially applicable for fast ecotoxicity assays and whole-organism high-throughput compound screening, reducing the time and money required to evaluate unknown samples and to identify leading pharmaceutical compounds.

  13. Phase Shift Interferometer and Growth Set Up to Step Pattern Formation During Growth From Solutions. Influence of the Oscillatory solution Flow on Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alex A.; Booth, N. A.; Vekilov, P. G.; Murray, B. T.; McFadden, G. B.

    2000-01-01

    We have assembled an experimental setup based on Michelson interferometry with the growing crystal surface as one of the reflective surfaces. The crystallization part of the device allows optical monitoring of a face of a crystal growing at temperature stable within 0.05 C in a flow of solution of controlled direction and speed. The reference arm of the interferometer contains a liquid crystal element that allows controlled shifts of the phase of the interferograms. We employ an image-processing algorithm, which combines five images with a pi/2 phase difference between each pair of images. The images are transferred to a computer by a camera capable of capturing 60 frames per second. The device allows data collection on surface morphology and kinetics during the face layers growth over a relatively large area (approximately 4 sq. mm) in situ and in real time during growth. The estimated depth resolution of the phase shifting interferometry is approximately 50 Angstroms. The data will be analyzed in order to reveal and monitor step bunching during the growth process. The crystal chosen as a model for study in this work is KH2PO4 (KDP). This optically non-linear material is widely used in frequency doubling applications. There have been a number of studies of the kinetics of KDP crystallization that can serve as a benchmark for our investigations. However, so far, systematic quantitative characteristics of step interaction and bunching are missing. We intend to present our first quantitative results on the onset, initial stages and development of instabilities in moving step trains on vicinal crystal surfaces at varying supersaturation, flow rate, and flow direction. Behavior of a vicinal face growing from solution flowing normal to the steps and periodically changing its direction in time was considered theoretically. It was found that this oscillating flow reduces both stabilization and destabilization effects resulted from the unidirectional solution flow directed up the step stream and down the step stream. This reduction of stabilization and destabilization comes from effective mixing which entangles the phase shifts between the spatially periodic interface perturbation and the concentration wave induced by this perturbation. Numerical results and simplified mixing criterion will be discussed.

  14. The 5th world symposium for lymphedema surgery-Recent updates in lymphedema surgery and setting up of a global knowledge exchange platform.

    PubMed

    Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Wu, Jerry Chih-Wei; Nguyen, Alexander; Dayan, Joseph; Smith, Mark; Masia, Jaume; Chang, David; Koshima, Isao; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2017-01-01

    The successful completion of the 5th World Symposium for Lymphedema Surgery (WSLS) marks another milestone in the development and advancement of the management of lymphedema. We present our experience in organizing such a scientific lymphedema conference as well as a summary of seven variable live surgeries used for treating lymphedema. An update of current knowledge and determination of future direction in the treatment of lymphedema was made possible via WSLS 2016. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:6-12. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A laboratory test setup for in situ measurements of the dielectric properties of catalyst powder samples under reaction conditions by microwave cavity perturbation: set up and initial tests.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-09-10

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  16. A pressure-polishing set-up to fabricate patch pipettes that seal on virtually any membrane, yielding low access resistance and efficient intracellular perfusion.

    PubMed

    Benedusi, Mascia; Aquila, Marco; Milani, Alberto; Rispoli, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    When performing whole-cell configuration recordings, it is important to minimize series resistance to reduce the time constant of charging the cell membrane capacitance and to reduce error in membrane potential control. To this end, an existing method was improved by widening the patch pipette shank through the calibrated combination of heat and air pressure. The heat was produced by passing current through a filament that was shaped appropriately to ensure a homogeneous heating of the pipette shank. Pressurized air was applied to the lumen of a pipette, pulled from a borosilicate glass microcap, via the pressure port of a modified commercial holder. The pipette reshaping was viewed on an LCD monitor connected to a contrast-intensified CCD camera and coupled to a modified bright-field stereomicroscope. By appropriately regulating the timing of air pressure and the application of heating, the pipette shank and, independently, the tip opening diameter were widened as desired. The methods illustrated here to fabricate and use the patch pipettes, using just one glass type, allowed the sealing of a wide variety of cell types isolated from different amphibian, reptilian, fish, and mammalian tissues as well as a variety of artificial membranes made with many different lipid mixtures. The access resistance yielded by pressure-polished pipettes was approximately one-fourth the size of the one attained with conventional pipettes; besides improving the electrical recordings, this minimized intracellular ion accumulation or depletion as well. Enlarged shank geometry allowed for fast intracellular perfusion as shown by fluorescence imaging, also via pulled quartz or plastic tubes, which could be inserted very close to the pipette tip.

  17. Setting up a large set of protein-ligand PDB complexes for the development and validation of knowledge-based docking algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Diago, Luis A; Morell, Persy; Aguilera, Longendri; Moreno, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    Background The number of algorithms available to predict ligand-protein interactions is large and ever-increasing. The number of test cases used to validate these methods is usually small and problem dependent. Recently, several databases have been released for further understanding of protein-ligand interactions, having the Protein Data Bank as backend support. Nevertheless, it appears to be difficult to test docking methods on a large variety of complexes. In this paper we report the development of a new database of protein-ligand complexes tailored for testing of docking algorithms. Methods Using a new definition of molecular contact, small ligands contained in the 2005 PDB edition were identified and processed. The database was enriched in molecular properties. In particular, an automated typing of ligand atoms was performed. A filtering procedure was applied to select a non-redundant dataset of complexes. Data mining was performed to obtain information on the frequencies of different types of atomic contacts. Docking simulations were run with the program DOCK. Results We compiled a large database of small ligand-protein complexes, enriched with different calculated properties, that currently contains more than 6000 non-redundant structures. As an example to demonstrate the value of the new database, we derived a new set of chemical matching rules to be used in the context of the program DOCK, based on contact frequencies between ligand atoms and points representing the protein surface, and proved their enhanced efficiency with respect to the default set of rules included in that program. Conclusion The new database constitutes a valuable resource for the development of knowledge-based docking algorithms and for testing docking programs on large sets of protein-ligand complexes. The new chemical matching rules proposed in this work significantly increase the success rate in DOCKing simulations. The database developed in this work is available at . PMID:17718923

  18. Source Memory Rehabilitation: A Review Toward Recommendations for Setting Up a Strategy Training Aimed at the "What, Where, and When" of Episodic Retrieval.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Kessels, Roy P C; Allain, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is a core component of episodic recall as it allows for the reconstruction of contextual details characterizing the acquisition of episodic events. Unlike episodic memory, little is known about source memory rehabilitation. Our review addresses this issue by emphasizing several strategies as useful tools in source memory rehabilitation programs. Four main strategies are likely to improve source recall in amnesic patients-namely, (a) contextual cueing, (b) unitization, (c) errorless learning, and (d) executive function programs. The rationale behind our suggestion is that: (a) reinstating contextual cues during retrieval can serve as retrieval cues and enhance source memory; (b) unitization as an encoding process allows for the integration of several pieces of contextual information into a new single entity; (c) errorless learning may prevent patients from making errors during source learning; and (d) as source memory deteriorations have been classically attributed to executive dysfunction, the rehabilitation of the latter ability is likely to maintain the former ability. Besides these four strategies, our review suggests several additional rehabilitation techniques such as the vanishing cues and spaced retrieval methods. Another additional strategy is the use of electronic devices. By gathering these strategies, our review provides a helpful guideline for clinicians dealing with source memory impairments. Our review further highlights the lack of randomized and controlled studies in the field of source memory rehabilitation.

  19. Impact of dose rate on accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy plan delivery using the pretreatment portal dosimetry quality assurance and setting up the workflow at hospital levels

    PubMed Central

    Kaviarasu, Karunakaran; Raj, N. Arunai Nambi; Murthy, K. Krishna; Babu, A. Ananda Giri; Prasad, Bhaskar Laxman Durga

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of dose rate on accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan delivery by comparing the gamma agreement between the calculated and measured portal doses by pretreatment quality assurance (QA) using electronic portal imaging device dosimetry and creating a workflow for the pretreatment IMRT QA at hospital levels. As the improvement in gamma agreement leads to increase in the quality of IMRT treatment delivery, gamma evaluation was carried out for the calculated and the measured portal images for the criteria of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA). Three gamma parameters: Maximum gamma, average gamma, and percentage of the field area with a gamma value>1.0 were analyzed. Three gamma index parameters were evaluated for 40 IMRT plans (315 IMRT fields) which were calculated for 400 monitor units (MU)/min dose rate and maximum multileaf collimator (MLC) speed of 2.5 cm/s. Gamma parameters for all 315 fields are within acceptable limits set at our center. Further, to improve the gamma results, we set an action level for this study using the mean and standard deviation (SD) values from the 315 fields studied. Forty out of 315 IMRT fields showed low gamma agreement (gamma parameters>2 SD as per action level of the study). The parameters were recalculated and reanalyzed for the dose rates of 300, 400 and 500 MU/min. Lowering the dose rate helped in getting an enhanced gamma agreement between the calculated and measured portal doses of complicated fields. This may be attributed to the less complex motion of MLC over time and the MU of the field/segment. An IMRT QA work flow was prepared which will help in improving the quality of IMRT delivery. PMID:26865759

  20. Protocolisation, use and development of anti-cancer drugs in the context of T2A (case-mix based payment system) set-up.

    PubMed

    Mathieu-Boué, Anne; Demolis, Pierre; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    Drugs used in oncology represent more than half of the innovative and costly drugs which are not covered by a Group Homogène de Soins (DRG type classification) within the context of the case-mix based payment system (termed T2A). For these drugs, good practice reference guidelines have been drawn up by scientific societies and registration agencies. Recognised indications, relevant indications and situations where the treatment should not be prescribed are defined by the National Institute of Cancer. The reference guidelines should lead towards the good use of these drugs and allow the sick funds to control prescriptions. They should evolve with time, which means that bibliographic monitoring and independent expert opinion is necessary to update them as science provides new data. Manufacturers are involved in this process which in no case should undermine developmental efforts leading to registration. The objective of this protocolisation is to allow all patients early and legitimate access to drugs representing real therapeutic progress. These reference guidelines should be integrated into the life-cycle of a drug and should give rise to new developments allowing the good use of cancer products in situations which have been properly validated.

  1. Protocolisation, Use and Development of Anti-Cancer Drugs in the Context of T2A (Case-Mix Based Payment System) Set-Up.

    PubMed

    Mathieu-Boué, Anne; Demolis, Pierre; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    Drugs used in oncology represent more than half of the innovative and costly drugs which are not covered by a Group Homogène de Soins (DRG type classification) within the context of the case-mix based payment system (termed T2A). For these drugs, good practice reference guidelines have been drawn up by scientific societies and registration agencies. Recognised indications, relevant indications and situations where the treatment should not be prescribed are defined by the National Institute of Cancer. The reference guidelines should lead towards the good use of these drugs and allow the sick funds to control prescriptions. They should evolve with time, which means that bibliographic monitoring and independent expert opinion is necessary to update them as science provides new data. Manufacturers are involved in this process which in no case should undermine developmental efforts leading to registration. The objective of this protocolisation is to allow all patients early and legitimate access to drugs representing real therapeutic progress. These reference guidelines should be integrated into the life-cycle of a drug and should give rise to new developments allowing the good use of cancer products in situations which have been properly validated.

  2. Exploring Relationships between Setting Up Complex Tasks and Opportunities to Learn in Concluding Whole-Class Discussions in Middle-Grades Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara; Garrison, Anne; Wilson, Jonee; Gibbons, Lynsey; Shahan, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article specifies how the setup, or introduction, of cognitively demanding tasks is a crucial phase of middle-grades mathematics instruction. The authors report on an empirical study of 165 middle-grades mathematics teachers' instruction that focused on how they introduced tasks and the relationship between how they introduced tasks and the…

  3. An experiment proposed and set up by the readers will be flying on board the Shuttle; these are the rules of the game; the experiments of others

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazzano, P.; Masini, G.

    1982-01-01

    The 400th round trip ticket to space via the space shuttle is booked in the name of an Italian journal. Students from that country are offered an opportunity to propose an experiment for NASA's Get Away Special program. The dimensional characteristics of the container, as specified by NASA, are given as well as limitations of weight, volume, diameter, and height for the experiment. The types of experiments in the OSS-1 payload and their operation are described.

  4. Set-up of a high-resolution 300 mK atomic force microscope in an ultra-high vacuum compatible 3He/10 T cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Allwörden, H.; Ruschmeier, K.; Köhler, A.; Eelbo, T.; Schwarz, A.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2016-07-01

    The design of an atomic force microscope with an all-fiber interferometric detection scheme capable of atomic resolution at about 500 mK is presented. The microscope body is connected to a small pumped 3He reservoir with a base temperature of about 300 mK. The bakeable insert with the cooling stage can be moved from its measurement position inside the bore of a superconducting 10 T magnet into an ultra-high vacuum chamber, where the tip and sample can be exchanged in situ. Moreover, single atoms or molecules can be evaporated onto a cold substrate located inside the microscope. Two side chambers are equipped with standard surface preparation and surface analysis tools. The performance of the microscope at low temperatures is demonstrated by resolving single Co atoms on Mn/W(110) and by showing atomic resolution on NaCl(001).

  5. Set-up of a high-resolution 300 mK atomic force microscope in an ultra-high vacuum compatible (3)He/10 T cryostat.

    PubMed

    von Allwörden, H; Ruschmeier, K; Köhler, A; Eelbo, T; Schwarz, A; Wiesendanger, R

    2016-07-01

    The design of an atomic force microscope with an all-fiber interferometric detection scheme capable of atomic resolution at about 500 mK is presented. The microscope body is connected to a small pumped (3)He reservoir with a base temperature of about 300 mK. The bakeable insert with the cooling stage can be moved from its measurement position inside the bore of a superconducting 10 T magnet into an ultra-high vacuum chamber, where the tip and sample can be exchanged in situ. Moreover, single atoms or molecules can be evaporated onto a cold substrate located inside the microscope. Two side chambers are equipped with standard surface preparation and surface analysis tools. The performance of the microscope at low temperatures is demonstrated by resolving single Co atoms on Mn/W(110) and by showing atomic resolution on NaCl(001).

  6. Bis-methionyl Coordination in the Crystal Structure of the Set up a citation RSS feed (Opens new window) Citation Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Aranda IV, Roman; Worley, Chad E.; Liu, Mengyao; Bitto, Eduard; Cates, M. Susan; Olson, John S.; Lei, Benfang; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2010-01-07

    Surface proteins Shr, Shp, and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter HtsABC are believed to make up the machinery for heme uptake in Streptococcus pyogenes. Shp transfers its heme to HtsA, the lipoprotein component of HtsABC, providing the only experimentally demonstrated example of direct heme transfer from a surface protein to an ABC transporter in Gram-positive bacteria. To understand the structural basis of heme transfer in this system, the heme-binding domain of Shp (Shp{sup 180}) was crystallized, and its structure determined to a resolution of 2.1 {angstrom}. Shp{sup 180} exhibits an immunoglobulin-like {beta}-sandwich fold that has been recently found in other pathogenic bacterial cell surface heme-binding proteins, suggesting that the mechanisms of heme acquisition are conserved. Shp shows minimal amino acid sequence identity to these heme-binding proteins and the structure of Shp{sup 180} reveals a unique heme-iron coordination with the axial ligands being two methionine residues from the same Shp molecule. A negative electrostatic surface of protein structure surrounding the heme pocket may serve as a docking interface for heme transfer from the more basic outer cell wall heme receptor protein Shr. The crystal structure of Shp{sup 180} reveals two exogenous, weakly bound hemins, which form a large interface between the two Shp{sup 180} molecules in the asymmetric unit. These 'extra' hemins form a stacked pair with a structure similar to that observed previously for free hemin dimers in aqueous solution. The propionates of the protein-bound heme coordinate to the iron atoms of the exogenous hemin dimer, contributing to the stability of the protein interface. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation studies indicate that both full-length Shp and Shp{sup 180} are monomeric in dilute aqueous solution.

  7. Setting-Up, Calibrating and Validating Hydrodynamic Models on the Basis of Remotely-Sensed Data Only: Are We There Yet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.

    2015-12-01

    The greater availability of remote sensing data stimulates the scientific community to resort to these new data sources in order to pursue a greater spatial coverage of hydraulic models, even in remote and data-sparse areas. However, the accuracy of hydrological and hydraulic models performed in absence of measured topography data suffers from the lack of knowledge of the river bathymetry, which cannot be directly inferred from satellite instruments. This work, adopting the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) for representing the riverbed and floodplain morphology, tests two different procedures for inferring the river bathymetry under the water surface level, thus enhancing the accuracy of space-borne digital elevation model and its suitability for hydraulic applications. Referring to a river stretch of about 140 km of the Po river, the study investigates the suitability of 1) altimetry data (i.e., ERS-2 and ENVISAT) and 2) SRTM-based river cross-sections modified according to two approaches (Channel Bankfull depth (CB) and Slope-Break (SB) approach), for the implementation and calibration of 1D numerical models. Simulation results are compared with those obtained by means of a quasi-2D model implemented with detailed topographical data (i.e. airborne LiDAR), and show that both SRTM-based models based on CB and SB approaches appear accurate enough to reproduce the hydrometric regime of the river stretch. In particular, despite the SB approach does not require any field data, it provides efficiency values (NSs) and errors of the same order of LiDAR-based model. Even though the accuracy of SRTM-based models is still not adequate for detailed analysis (i.e., local flood-risk estimate), the study further emphasizes the suitability of space-borne topography data (e.g. SRTM), combined with remotely sensed altimetry data (i.e., ERS-2 and ENVISAT), for the implementation of large-scale analysis (i.e., global flood risk analysis), even in absence of field measurements.

  8. Integration of Female Pilots in the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) - A Culture Already Set-Up for Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-14

    the 160 th ‘s female integration also includes its critical enlisted personnel (crewchiefs for the helicopters ), the thesis of this paper will only...terrain in Eastern Afghanistan, a flight of two Chinook helicopters led by a senior pilot (Flight Lead (FL)), begin their mission to insert elite...worldwide. Outsiders may view the members of the unit as a bit cocky but mission focused; play hard and work hard; 10 have cool toys ( helicopters

  9. Set up of a serum-free culture system for bovine embryos: embryo development and quality before and after transient transfer.

    PubMed

    George, F; Daniaux, C; Genicot, G; Verhaeghe, B; Lambert, P; Donnay, I

    2008-03-15

    It is well known that serum in culture medium negatively affects blastocyst quality. The objective of this work was to develop and test a serum-free culture medium which could improve embryo quality, measured by the resistance to freezing, lipid and glutathione content of the resulting blastocysts, as well as the ability of the blastocysts to elongate after transient transfer to recipient cows. In a first experiment we showed that adding a mixture of insulin, transferrin and selenium to serum-free Synthetic Oviduct Fluid medium (SOF-ITS) improved embryo development and quality. In the second experiment, the addition of BSA to SOF-ITS further improved blastocyst development. Moreover, a reduction in lipid content of morulae was observed in SOF-ITS-BSA by comparison with morulae cultured with serum (SOF-FCS). The resistance to freezing measured by hatching rates 24h post-thawing was also improved for blastocysts with a diameter between 160 and 180 microm cultured in SOF-ITS-BSA by comparison to those produced with serum. In order to evaluate the redox potential of the embryos, reduced glutathione content (GSH) was evaluated both before and after cryopreservation. A significant decrease in glutathione was observed after freezing, whatever the culture medium, but no difference was observed between culture conditions. Transient transfers were performed and elongated D-13 embryos were recovered. Elongation was more pronounced and the embryonic disk more often visible in embryos cultured in SOF-ITS-BSA than in embryos cultured with FCS. In conclusion, the serum-free system we developed to produce in vitro bovine embryos meets the developmental and qualitative requirements for a large-scale use.

  10. Set-up and calibration of an outdoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies at the Masse experimental station (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Todisco, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the technical characteristics and the preliminary calibration of a rainfall simulator recently installed by the Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (Perugia University) at the Masse experimental station located 20 km south of Perugia, in the region of Umbria (central Italy). The site includes some USLE plots of different length λ = 11 and 22 m and width w = 2, 4 and 8 m, oriented parallel to a 16 % slope and kept free of vegetation by frequent ploughing. Since 2008, the station enabled to collect data from more than 80 erosive events, that were mainly used to investigate the relationship between rainfall characteristics and soil loss. The relevant soil loss variability that characterizes erosive storm events with similar overall characteristics (duration and/or depth) can be explained by the different rainfall profile of erosive storms and by the different antecedent soil aggregate stability. To analyse in more detail these aspects, recently, the Masse experimental station has been equipped with a semi-portable rainfall simulator placed over two micro-plots of 1x1 m each, having the same topographic and pedologic conditions of the adjacent USLE plots. The rainfall simulator consists of four full-cone spray nozzles for each micro-plot, placed at the angles of a 0.18-m square, centred over the plot at a height of 2.7 m above the ground. The operating pressure is regulated by pressure regulating valves and checked by pressure gauges mounted in correspondence of each nozzle. An electronic control unit regulates the start and stop of the inlet solenoid valves. A range of rainfall intensities can be achieved, by activating different combinations of nozzles (15 different intensities) also during the same simulation trial. The particular design of the plots allows to collect separately the runoff volume deriving from the plots and the water volume fallen outside of the plot. In this way it is possible to derive, by difference, the actual infiltration volume. The experiments are carried out simultaneously on the two adjacent micro-plots. In particular, this contribution reports the results of the first experimental trials aimed to assess the uniformity attainable by single nozzles and its reproducibility (between plots and in time). The interferences between adjacent nozzles (when they work simultaneously) were also evaluated.

  11. Setting up a CFO Trust Fund: Forging a Bond with Your Director of Finance Will Reap Rewards for Your Institution--And Your Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    While it would be naive to think that every CIO can achieve a rapport with his CFO, understanding the importance of a solid relationship with the head of finance is critical to success, both for the IT department and the institution as a whole. Never has this been truer than in today's bleak economy, as CFOs become increasingly cautious about…

  12. Documentation and Instructions for Running Two Python Scripts that Aid in Setting up 3D Measurements using the Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Daniel Peter

    2015-08-24

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently purchased a Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer for vibration measurement. This device has proven to be a very nice tool for making vibration measurements, and has a number of advantages over traditional sensors such as accelerometers. The non-contact nature of the laser vibrometer means there is no mass loading due to measuring the response. Additionally, the laser scanning heads can position the laser spot much more quickly and accurately than placing an accelerometer or performing a roving hammer impact. The disadvantage of the system is that a significant amount of time must be invested to align the lasers with each other and the part so that the laser spots can be accurately positioned. The Polytec software includes a number of nice tools to aid in this procedure; however, certain portions are still tedious. Luckily, the Polytec software is readily extensible by programming macros for the system, so tedious portions of the procedure can be made easier by automating the process. The Polytec Software includes a WinWrap (similar to Visual Basic) editor and interface to run macros written in that programming language. The author, however, is much more proficient in Python, and the latter also has a much larger set of libraries that can be used to create very complex macros, while taking advantage of Python’s inherent readability and maintainability.

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart A of... - Manufactured Home Sites, Rental Projects and Subdivisions: Development, Installation and Set-Up

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plumbing, heating, and electrical systems are contained in the structure. Manufactured Home Community. A..., energy efficient and dependable systems with sufficient easements for their required installation and.... Manufactured homes shall be installed on a foundation system which is designed and constructed to...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart A of... - Manufactured Home Sites, Rental Projects and Subdivisions: Development, Installation and Set-Up

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plumbing, heating, and electrical systems are contained in the structure. Manufactured Home Community. A..., energy efficient and dependable systems with sufficient easements for their required installation and.... Manufactured homes shall be installed on a foundation system which is designed and constructed to...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart A of... - Manufactured Home Sites, Rental Projects and Subdivisions: Development, Installation and Set-Up

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plumbing, heating, and electrical systems are contained in the structure. Manufactured Home Community. A..., energy efficient and dependable systems with sufficient easements for their required installation and.... Manufactured homes shall be installed on a foundation system which is designed and constructed to...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart A of... - Manufactured Home Sites, Rental Projects and Subdivisions: Development, Installation and Set-Up

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plumbing, heating, and electrical systems are contained in the structure. Manufactured Home Community. A..., energy efficient and dependable systems with sufficient easements for their required installation and.... Manufactured homes shall be installed on a foundation system which is designed and constructed to...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart A of... - Manufactured Home Sites, Rental Projects and Subdivisions: Development, Installation and Set-Up

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plumbing, heating, and electrical systems are contained in the structure. Manufactured Home Community. A..., energy efficient and dependable systems with sufficient easements for their required installation and.... Manufactured homes shall be installed on a foundation system which is designed and constructed to...

  18. The Use of Anxiety Management Training in the Treatment of Generalized and Specific Anxieties. [and] Considerations in Setting Up A Full Service Desensitization Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoletti, John A., Jr.

    This report discusses the success of desensitization techniques in alleviating specific anxiety but its failure in treating generalized anxiety. Anxiety management training (AMTO has been developed to overcome some of the deficiencies of desensitization approaches. Through the use of instructions and cues to arouse anxiety responses and the…

  19. Meetopstelling van een Gepulste CO2 Laser Afstandsmeter met Heterodyne Detectie (Experimental Set-Up for a Pulsed CO2 Laser Range-Finder with Heterodyne Detection)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    voor een staande golf om te resoneren via een andere weg dan door het midden van de cavity. Meestal kan door het verdraaien van het tralie hier iets aan...gedaan worden. Mogelijkerwijs speelt ook hier het tralie dus een rol. Tot slot is gebleken dat de RF laser, die gevoed wordt door een wissel- spanning...laser. Bij beide lasers is het mogelijk door middel van hat verstellen van een tralie een lijn uit bet C0 2-spectrum in de 9 en 10 pm band te selekteren

  20. Can a relativistic differential equation be set up to treat the angularity of the valence electron density in heavy atom clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, N. H.; Glasser, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an explicit relativistic non-linear differential equation to estimate the ground-state electron density, and especially its directionality dependence, for large clusters of heavy atoms, such as Pb, at their experimentally measured equilibrium geometry. The study embodies the early theory of Vallarta and Rosen, which seems to us to build a firm foundation on relativistic semi-classical many-electron theory. Assuming a finite nuclear radius for the heavy atoms would be advisable in subsequent numerical applications.

  1. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, T.; Chêne, G.; Mathis, F.; Marchal, A.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.

    2011-12-01

    The "IPNAS" laboratory, in collaboration with the "Centre Européen d'Archéométrie" is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ⩽ Z ⩽ 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  2. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia. PMID:25211199

  3. Setting Up the Next Generation Biofeedback Program for Stress and Anxiety Management for College Students: A Simple and Cost-Effective Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Sverduk, Kevin; Hayashino, Diane; Prince, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of stress and anxiety on college campuses along with limited resources and budget reductions for many campuses has prompted the need for innovative approaches to help students effectively manage their stress and anxiety. With college students becoming more and more technology-savvy, the authors present an innovative…

  4. Dosimetry of a set-up for the exposure of newborn mice to 2.45-GHZ WiFi frequencies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, R; Lopresto, V; Galloni, P; Marino, C; Mancini, S; Lodato, R; Pioli, C; Lovisolo, G A

    2010-08-01

    This work describes the dosimetry of a two waveguide cell system designed to expose newborn mice to electromagnetic fields associated with wireless fidelity signals in the frequency band of 2.45 GHz. The dosimetric characterisation of the exposure system was performed both numerically and experimentally. Specific measures were adopted with regard to the increase in both weight and size of the biological target during the exposure period. The specific absorption rate (SAR, W kg(-1)) for 1 W of input power vs. weight curve was assessed. The curve evidenced an SAR pattern varying from <1 W kg(-1) to >6 W kg(-1) during the first 5 weeks of the life of mice, with a peak resonance phenomenon at a weight around 5 g. This curve was used to set the appropriate level of input power during experimental sessions to expose the growing mice to a defined and constant dose.

  5. The feasibility of in vivo quantification of bone-gadolinium in humans by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) following gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafaei, F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chettle, D. R.; Noseworthy, M. D.; Prestwich, W. V.

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of using a 238Pu/Be-based in vivo prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system, previously successfully used for measurements of muscle, for the detection of gadolinium (Gd) in bone was presented. Gd is extensively used in contrast agents in MR imaging. We present phantom measurement data for the measurement of Gd in the tibia. Gd has seven naturally occurring isotopes, of which two have extremely large neutron capture cross sections; 155Gd (14.8% natural abundance (NA), σ= 60,900 barns) and 157Gd (15.65% NA, σ= 254,000 barns). Our previous work focused on muscle but this only informs about the short term kinetics of Gd. We studied the possibility of measuring bone, as it may be a long term storage site for Gd. A human simulating bone phantom set was developed. The phantoms were doped with seven concentrations of Gd of concentrations 0.0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 120 and 150 ppm. Additional elements important for neutron activation analysis, Na, Cl and Ca, were also included to create an overall elemental composition consistent with Reference Man. The overall conclusion is that the potential application of this Pu-Be-based prompt in vivo NAA for the monitoring of the storage and retention of Gd in bone is not feasible.

  6. Scientific Research Program for Power, Energy, and Thermal Technologies. Task Order 0002: Power, Thermal and Control Technologies and Processes Experimental Research. Subtask: Laboratory Test Set-up to Evaluate Electromechanical Actuation Systems for Aircraft Flight Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Bang Tsao, Ph.D. Steve Fuchs Committee Member Committee Member Instructor Senior Engineering...to work on such a challenging and rewarding project. I would also like to thank committee members, Dr. Jamie Ervin, Dr. Bang Tsao, and Steve Fuchs...Stoelting, P., Curran, S., “A Diagnostic Approach for Electro-Mechanical Actuators in Aerospace Systems” IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, March

  7. The development of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP) by designing new analysing software and by setting up new recording locations of radio VLF/LF signals in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Dolea, Paul; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Based on scientific evidences supporting the causality between earthquake preparatory stages, space weather and solar activity and different types of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances together with the benefit of having full access at ground and space based EM data, INFREP proposes a complex and cross correlated investigation of phenomena that occur in the coupled system Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionsophere in order to identify possible causes responsible for anomalous effects observed in the propagation characteristics of radio waves, especially at low (LF) and very low frequency (VLF). INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe in 2009, having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. The Romanian NIEP VLF / LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver -made by Elettronika S.R.L. (Italy) and provided by the Bari University- and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data, is a part of the international initiative INFREP. The NIEP VLF / LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 in Bucharest and relocated to the Black-Sea shore (Dobruja Seismologic Observatory) in December 2009. The first development of the Romanian EM monitoring system was needed because after changing the receiving site from Bucharest to Eforie we obtained unsatisfactory monitoring data, characterized by large fluctuations of the received signals' intensities. Trying to understand this behavior has led to the conclusion that the electric component of the electromagnetic field was possibly influenced by the local conditions. Starting from this observation we have run some tests and changed the vertical antenna with a loop-type antenna that is more appropriate in highly electric-field polluted environments. Since the amount of recorded data is huge, for streamlining the research process we have realized the automation of the transfer, storage and initial processing of data using the LabView software platform. The special designed LabVIEW application, which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet, opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application performs primary, statistical correlation and spectral analysis, appends daily files into monthly and annual files and performs 3D color-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. Another feature of the software is the correlation of the daily recorded files for the studied frequencies by overlaying the 24 hours radio activity and taking into account the sunrise and sunset. The next step in developing the Romanian EM recording system is to enlarge the INFREP network with new VLF/LF receivers for a better coverage and separation of European seismogenic zones. This will be done in the future by using national resources. The unitary seismotectonic zoning of Romania and the whole Europe is a very important step for this goal.

  8. Understanding the barriers to setting up a healthcare quality improvement process in resource-limited settings: a situational analysis at the Medical Department of Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge regarding the best approaches to improving the quality of healthcare and their implementation is lacking in many resource-limited settings. The Medical Department of Kamuzu Central Hospital in Malawi set out to improve the quality of care provided to its patients and establish itself as a recognized centre in teaching, operations research and supervision of district hospitals. Efforts in the past to achieve these objectives were short-lived, and largely unsuccessful. Against this background, a situational analysis was performed to aid the Medical Department to define and prioritize its quality improvement activities. Methods A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was applied using checklists for observed practice, review of registers, key informant interviews and structured patient interviews. The mixed methods comprised triangulation by including the perspectives of the clients, healthcare providers from within and outside the department, and the field researcher’s perspectives by means of document review and participatory observation. Results Human resource shortages, staff attitudes and shortage of equipment were identified as major constraints to patient care, and the running of the Medical Department. Processes, including documentation in registers and files and communication within and across cadres of staff were also found to be insufficient and thus undermining the effort of staff and management in establishing a sustained high quality culture. Depending on their past experience and knowledge, the stakeholder interviewees revealed different perspectives and expectations of quality healthcare and the intended quality improvement process. Conclusions Establishing a quality improvement process in resource-limited settings is an enormous task, considering the host of challenges that these facilities face. The steps towards changing the status quo for improved quality care require critical self-assessment, the willingness to change as well as determined commitment and contributions from clients, staff and management. PMID:24382312

  9. Establishment of conditions for ovum pick up and IVM of jennies oocytes toward the setting up of efficient IVF and in vitro embryos culture procedures in donkey (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Goudet, Ghylène; Douet, Cécile; Kaabouba-Escurier, Aurore; Couty, Isabelle; Moros-Nicolás, Carla; Barrière, Philippe; Blard, Thierry; Reigner, Fabrice; Deleuze, Stefan; Magistrini, Michèle

    2016-07-15

    Most wild and domestic donkey breeds are currently endangered or threatened. Their preservation includes the creation of a Genome Resource Bank. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from both male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. Because embryo production in vivo is limited in equids, our objective was to establish conditions for in vitro production of embryos in donkey using ovum pick up (OPU), IVM, IVF, and in vitro culture of zygotes. Donkey cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspirations OPU in adult cyclic jennies and in vitro matured in tissue culture medium 199 supplemented with fetal calf serum and epidermal growth factor for 24, 30, 34, or 38 hours. They were preincubated with oviductal fluid for 30 minutes, coincubated with frozen-thawed donkey semen treated with procaine for 18 hours, and cultured for 30 hours in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium-F12 supplemented with NaHCO3, fetal calf serum, and gentamycin. From the five OPU sessions, we collected 92 COCs in 193 follicles (48%) with an average of 4.2 COCs per jenny. All COCs were expanded after more than 24-hour IVM. At collection, jennies oocytes contained a germinal vesicle. Metaphase 1 oocytes were observed after 30-hour IVM and 44% were in metaphase 2 after 34-hour IVM. In our conditions, IVM of donkey oocytes was slower than IVM of equine oocytes and optimal duration for donkey oocytes IVM may be 34 hours. Only 15% of jennies oocytes contained two pronuclei after coincubation with donkey spermatozoa and none of them developed further after 48 hours post-IVF. Moreover, some parthenogenetic activation occurred. Thus, the treatment of donkey sperm with procaine may not be efficient for IVF. In conclusion, we established for the first time conditions for OPU in jennies with high recovery rates. We reported that IVM of jennies oocytes can produce 44% of metaphase 2 oocytes after 34 hours in culture and we described for the first time the chronology of IVM of donkey oocytes. Further studies are in progress to establish efficient conditions for IVF and development of donkey zygotes.

  10. [The set-up of an in vitro model for stable knockdown of MyD88 by lentivirus-based RNAi in IEC-6 cell line and the study on its early apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Bao, Pingqian; Li, Yang; Chen, Keling; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Bin; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zongguang

    2012-12-01

    Intestinal inflammatory disease is a kind of non-specific disease with morbidity increasing yearly. It has been proved that the Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways are closely related to intestinal inflammatory diseases. Myeloid differentiation protein 88 (Myd88) is a critical adaptor protein of TLR4 signaling and critical for the study of intestinal inflammatory disease, but stable Myd88 knockdown in vitro models of cell line are still very few. In the present study, an HIV-1-based lentivirus three-plamid packaging system was used for the construction of a lentivirual vector mediating RNA interference (RNAi) against Myd88 in intestinal fossae epithelial cell line-6 (IEC-6). Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect Myd88 expression. Annexin V staining and flowcytometry (FLM) were applied to detect and evaluate the early apoptosis. The results showed that lentiviral vectors containing the shRNA expression cassette specifically targeting Myd88 were constructed and efficiently stably knocked down Myd88 expression in IEC-6 cell line. Early apoptosis was significantly decreased after Myd88 knockdown. This study successfully constructed a lentivirus-based RNAi for Myd88 and detailed the key technique combined with characteristics of the early apoptosis after the Myd88 knockdown, provided a novel, stable and repeatable in vitro model for the pathogenesis, targeting therapeutic study for the intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  11. [Methods of development of recommendations for clinical practice (RCP) and of setting-up of a platform cancer heart vessels (PTF-CHV) in the inter3C Vaucluse-Arles].

    PubMed

    Debourdeau, Philippe; Meuleman, Catherine; Dufaitre, Ghislaine; Laroche, Jean-Pierre; Slama, Borhane; Chebrek, Safia; Aboukhoudir, Falah; Mège, Alice; Dotigny, Robert; Serin, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring and prevention of cardiovascular complications of anti-neoplastic treatment are currently well known for anthracyclines and trastuzumab but remain poorly implemented. The management of cardiac and vascular side effects of targeted therapies is not codified. The purpose of the platform heart-vessel cancer is to optimize the management of such complications within a small area (Vaucluse region of Arles). The platform will offer prescribers an easily accessible database, doctors performing exams standardized monitoring forms and patients a uniform follow-up. We report here the methodology of the elaboration of recommendations for clinical practice and the ways to develop the platform. After a year of active process, an analysis of the will be performed to see opportunities for improvement and dissemination on a larger scale.

  12. Estimating the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration using the water balance model WAVE and fine spatial resolution airborne remote sensing images from the DAIS-sensor: Experimental set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Veroustraete, F.; Feyen, J.

    2003-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ET) of agricultural land and forestland surfaces play an important role in the redistribution of water on the Earth's surface. Any change in evapotranspiration, either through change in vegetation or climate change, directly effects the available water resources. For quantifying these effects physical models need to be constructed. Most hydrological models have to deal with a lack of good spatial resolution, despite their good temporal information. Remote sensing techniques on the contrary determine the spatial pattern of landscape features and hence are very useful on large scales. The main objective of this research is the combination of the spatial pattern of remote sensing (using visible and thermal infrared spectrum) with the temporal pattern of the water balance model WAVE (Vanclooster et al., 1994 and 1996). To realise this, the following objectives are formulated: (i) relate soil and vegetation surface temperatures to actual evapotranspiration of forest and crops simulated with the water balance model WAVE using remote sensing derived parameters. Three methods will be used and mutually compared. Both airborne and satellite imagery will be implemented; (1) compare the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration, as a result of the three methods, with the energy balance model SEBAL (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) and finally; (2) subject the up-scaled WAVE and SEBAL models to an uncertainty analysis using the GLUE-approach (Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimate) (Beven en Binley, 1992). To study the behaviour of the model beyond the field-scale (micro-scale), a meso-scale study was conducted at the test-site of DURAS (50°50'38"N, 5°08'50"W, Sint-Truiden). Airborne imagery from the DAIS/ROSIS sensor are available. For the determination of the spatial pattern of actual evapotranspiration the next two methods are considered: (1) relations between surface temperature, surface albedo and vegetation indices are linked with field-simulations of the water balance model WAVE on some specific locations (derived from Price, 1990 and Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) and; (2) determining the spatial input parameters of WAVE in order to simulate the spatial patterns of evapotranspiration (based on D'Urso); the Split-Data, Split-Window, Jack-knife, and cross-correlation techniques will take care of the temporal and spatial validation of the results.

  13. Seafood Identification in Multispecies Products: Assessment of 16SrRNA, cytb, and COI Universal Primers' Efficiency as a Preliminary Analytical Step for Setting up Metabarcoding Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Alice; Tinacci, Lara; Sotelo, Carmen G; Marchetti, Martina; Guidi, Alessandra; Zheng, Wenjie; Armani, Andrea

    2017-04-05

    Few studies applying NGS have been conducted in the food inspection field, particularly on multispecies seafood products. A preliminary study screening the performance and the potential application in NGS analysis of 14 "universal primers" amplifying 16SrRNA, cytb, and COI genes in fish and cephalopods was performed. Species used in surimi preparation were chosen as target. An in silico analysis was conducted to test primers' coverage capacity by assessing mismatches (number and position) with the target sequences. The 9 pairs showing the best coverage capacity were tested in PCR on DNA samples of 53 collected species to assess their amplification performance (amplification rate and amplicon concentration). The results confirm that primers designed for the 16SrRNA gene amplification are the most suitable for NGS analysis also for identification of multispecies seafood products. In particular, the primer pair of Chapela et al. (2002) is the best candidate.

  14. [Epidemic of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 in the French overseas territories of the Americas: epidemiological surveillance set up and main results, April 2009-January 2010].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, S; Rosine, J; Ledrans, M; Flamand, C; Chappert, J-L; Cassadou, S; Carvalho, L; Blateau, A; Barrau, M; Ardillon, V; Quénel, P

    2011-05-01

    Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, St. Martin and St. Barthelemy were the French territories most exposed to the new influenza A(H1N1)v, and adequate epidemiological surveillance tools were promptly developed in order to detect its emergence. The first stage, "containment phase", consisted in detection and management of individual cases. Then, when an autochthonous A(H1N1)v circulation was confirmed, its evolution has been monitored within the whole population, mainly through data collected from sentinel doctors' networks and virological surveillance. This allowed to detect very early the occurrence of epidemics, and to follow their evolution until they were over. Like all the other Caribbean countries, the five French overseas territories were hit by an outbreak of influenza A(H1N1)v. Although they had globally similar characteristics, each epidemic had its specificity in terms of scale and severity. They started between August and September 2009 in four of the five territories, while the last one, St. Barthelemy, was not affected until the end of the year. Attack rate estimates varied from 28 to 70 per 1000 inhabitants according to the territory, and hospitalisation rate varied from 4.3 to 10.3 per 1000 cases. Severity rate didn't reach 1 per 1000 cases in any of the territories. Compared to metropolitan France, the surveillance system presented several strengths, including the pre-existence of both an active sentinel network and an expert committee on emerging diseases in each territory. On the other hand, specific difficulties appeared, notably linked with logistical aspects of virological surveillance and the co-circulation of dengue virus in Guadeloupe and St. Barthelemy. Despite these difficulties, the different tools allowed early detection of the epidemics and follow-up of their evolution. All of them lead to very concordant results, suggesting that they are completely appropriate to monitor a potential new epidemic wave.

  15. ISBD(S), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials; Recommended by the Joint Working Group on the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials set up by the IFLA Committee on Cataloguing and the IFLA Committee on Serial Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--provides a format for the international communication of bibliographic information so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(S) standards are limited to the descriptive…

  16. Characterization of the Energy Spectrum at the Indiana University Neutron Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    60 PGNAA Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 DGNAA...broken into a number of sub-categories. Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) 60 Table 6. Materials selected for use in the main experimental...Delay Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 TSCA Timing Single-Channel Analyzer

  17. The analysis of complex mixed-radiation fields using near real-time imaging.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Jonathan; Mellor, Matthew P; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2014-10-01

    A new mixed-field imaging system has been constructed at Lancaster University using the principles of collimation and back projection to passively locate and assess sources of neutron and gamma-ray radiation. The system was set up at the University of Manchester where three radiation sources: (252)Cf, a lead-shielded (241)Am/Be and a (22)Na source were imaged. Real-time discrimination was used to find the respective components of the neutron and gamma-ray fields detected by a single EJ-301 liquid scintillator, allowing separate images of neutron and gamma-ray emitters to be formed. (252)Cf and (22)Na were successfully observed and located in the gamma-ray image; however, the (241)Am/Be was not seen owing to surrounding lead shielding. The (252)Cf and (241)Am/Be neutron sources were seen clearly in the neutron image, demonstrating the advantage of this mixed-field technique over a gamma-ray-only image where the (241)Am/Be source would have gone undetected.

  18. INL Neutron Interrogation R&D: FY2010 MPACT End of Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury; J. Wharton; S. M. Watson

    2010-08-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the feasibility and utility of using neutron interrogation and small-scale, portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) instruments for assaying uranium for safeguards applications. Prior work has shown the potential of the PGNAA technique for assaying uranium using reactor-based neutron sources and high-yield electronic neutron generators (ENGs). In this project we adapted Idaho National Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy (PINS) PGNAA system for measuring natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake and metallic depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium. This work used 252Cf as well as deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) ENGs. For PGNAA measurements a limiting factor when assaying large objects is the detector dead time due to fast-neutron scattering off of the uranium; this limits the maximum useable neutron source strength to O(107) neutrons per second. Under these conditions the low PGNAA reaction cross sections for uranium prohibited the collection of useful uranium PGNAA signatures from either the yellowcake or metallic uranium samples. Measurement of the decay product activation in these materials following irradiation in the PGNAA geometry similarly did not produce useful uranium activation product – fission product signatures. A customized irradiation geometry tailored to optimally thermalize the interrogation neutron source, intended only for generating long-lived activation products – fission products and not intended for PGNAA measurements, might be possible using small scale ENGs but an application need and a modeling and simulation exercise would be recommended before advancing to experiments. Neutron interrogation PGNAA using a DT-ENG was found to be a quick and useful qualitative method for detecting the presence of oxygen in natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake. With a low effort of development work it would be reasonable to expect this measurement

  19. Chlorine detection in fly ash concrete using a portable neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Kalakada, Zameer; Al-Matouq, Faris A; Maslehuddin, M; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2012-08-01

    The chlorine concentration in chloride-contaminated FA cement concrete specimens was measured using a portable neutron generator based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup with the neutron generator and the gamma-ray detector placed side-by-side on one side of the concrete sample. The minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in FA cement concrete measured in the present study was comparable with previous results for larger accelerator based PGNAA setup. It shows the successful application of a portable neutron generator in concrete corrosion studies.

  20. New PTB thermal neutron calibration facility: first results.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Reginatto, M; Wershofen, H; Wiegel, B; Zimbal, A

    2014-10-01

    A new thermal neutron calibration facility based on a moderator assembly has been set up at PTB. It consists of 16 (241)Am-Be radionuclide sources mounted in a graphite block, 1.5 m wide, 1.5 m high and 1.8 m deep. The sources are distributed to eight different positions, at a mean distance of ∼1.25 m from the front face of the moderator. The neutron field at the reference position, 30 cm in front of the moderator device and 75 cm above the floor, has been characterised using calculations, Bonner sphere measurements and gold foil activation. First results are shown. The field is highly thermalised: 99 % in terms of fluence. It is quite homogenous within a 20 cm×20 cm area, but the absolute value of the thermal neutron fluence rate is small and yields an ambient dose equivalent rate of 3 µSv h(-1).

  1. Characterisation of the IRSN graphite moderated Americium-Beryllium neutron field.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, V; Gressier, V; Muller, H; Lebreton, L

    2004-01-01

    The SIGMA facility was set up at IRSN to provide thermal neutrons for metrology and dosimetry purposes. SIGMA consists of six Am-Be radioactive sources located in a 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 m3 graphite moderator block. The neutron field at the calibration position, situated at 50 cm from the west surface of the assembly was characterised experimentally and by Monte Carlo calculations. The thermal neutron fluence was determined by the activation of gold foils; the neutron fluence energy distribution above 240 keV was measured with proton recoil spectrometers and the neutron fluence energy distribution from thermal energies to 20 MeV was measured with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. A Monte Carlo simulation of the SIGMA assembly was undertaken using the MCNP4C code, and the calculated neutron fluence energy distribution was compared with the measurements. As a whole, the experimental data and the MCNP calculation are in a good agreement.

  2. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system design: effects of D-T versus D-D neutron generator source selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is used for the non-invasive measurement of human body composition. Advancements in portable, compact neutron generator design have made those devices attractive as neutron sources. Two distinct generators are available: D-D with 2.5 MeV, and D-T wi...

  3. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  4. Conversion electron spectrometry of Pu isotopes with a silicon drift detector.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Paepen, J; Peräjärvi, K; Turunen, J; Pöllänen, R

    2016-03-01

    An electron spectrometry set-up was built at IRMM consisting of a vacuum chamber with a moveable source holder and windowless Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector (SDD). The SDD is well suited for measuring low-energy x rays and electrons emitted from thin radioactive sources with low self-absorption. The attainable energy resolution is better than 0.5keV for electrons of 30keV. It has been used to measure the conversion electron spectra of three plutonium isotopes, i.e. (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, as well as (241)Am (being a decay product of (241)Pu). The obtained mixed x-ray and electron spectra are compared with spectra obtained with a close-geometry set-up using another SDD in STUK and spectra measured with a Si(Li) detector at IRMM. The potential of conversion electron spectrometry for isotopic analysis of mixed plutonium samples is investigated. With respect to the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio, the conversion electron peaks of both isotopes are more clearly separated than their largely overlapping peaks in alpha spectra.

  5. Characterisation of the epithermal neutron irradiation facility at the Portuguese research reactor using MCNP.

    PubMed

    Beasley, D G; Fernandes, A C; Santos, J P; Ramos, A R; Marques, J G; King, A

    2015-05-01

    The radiation field at the epithermal beamline and irradiation chamber installed at the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear of Instituto Superior Técnico was characterised in the context of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) applications. Radiographic films, activation foils and thermoluminescence dosimeters were used to measure the neutron fluence and photon dose rates in the irradiation chamber. A fixed-source MCNPX model of the beamline and chamber was developed and compared to measurements in the first step towards planning a new irradiation chamber. The high photon background from the reactor results in the saturation of the detector and the current facility configuration yields an intrinsic insensitivity to various elements of interest for PGNAA. These will be addressed in future developments.

  6. Results of performance tests on chemical and radiation measurement systems for use at a dig-face

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    Chemical and radiation measurement systems are being developed for use at a dig-face to provide sensing capability during the excavation of previously buried waste. it is believed that on-line dig-face characterization will reduce environmental, health, and safety risks during the cleanup of buried waste sites as well as improve the efficiency of the cleanup process. This report describes progress in the development of three measurement systems: (a) a {gamma}/neutron monitor that scans the dig-face for high levels of radiation prior to excavation, (b) a Ge spectrometer that identifies specific radionuclides located with the {gamma}/neutron monitor, and (c) a prompt {gamma} neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system that measures the presence of chlorine and chlorinated compounds often associated with hazardous waste. The Ge spectrometer and PGNAA system also will provide off-line but on-site capability of radionuclide and elemental identification of excavated waste prior to handling, treatment, transportation, or disposal.

  7. Development of a surface scanning soil analysis instrument.

    PubMed

    Falahat, S; Köble, T; Schumann, O; Waring, C; Watt, G

    2012-07-01

    ANSTO is developing a nuclear field instrument for measurement of soil composition; particularly carbon. The instrument utilises the neutron activation approach with clear advantages over existing soil sampling and laboratory analysis. A field portable compact pulsed neutron generator and γ-ray detector are used for PGNAA and INS techniques simultaneously. Many elements can be quantified from a homogenised soil volume equivalent to the top soil layers. Results from first test experiments and current developments are reported.

  8. The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility at ICN-Pitesti

    SciTech Connect

    Barbos, D.; Paunoiu, C.; Mladin, M.; Cosma, C.

    2008-08-14

    PGNAA is a very widely applicable technique for determining the presence and amount of many elements simultaneously in samples ranging in size from micrograms to many grams. PGNAA is characterized by its capability for nondestructive multi-elemental analysis and its ability to analyse elements that cannot be determined by INAA. By means of this PGNAA method we are able to increase the performance of INAA method. A facility has been developed at Institute for Nuclear Research-Pitesti so that the unique features of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis can be used to measure trace and major elements in samples. The facility is linked at the radial neutron beam tube at ACPR-TRIGA reactor. During the PGNAA-facility is in use the ACPR reactor will be operated in steady-state mode at 250 KW maximum power. The facility consists of a radial beam-port, external sample position with shielding, and induced prompt gamma-ray counting system.Thermal neutron flux with energy lower than cadmium cut-off at the sample position was measured using thin gold foil is: {phi}{sub scd} = 1.10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2}/s with a cadmium ratio of:80.The gamma-ray detection system consist of an HpGe detector of 16% efficiency (detector model GC1518) with 1.85 keV resolution capability. The HpGe is mounted with its axis at 90 deg. with respect to the incident neutron beam at distance about 200mm from the sample position. To establish the performance capabilities of the facility, irradiation of pure element or sample compound standards were performed to identify the gama-ray energies from each element and their count rates.

  9. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata

    2002-11-10

    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  10. Prompt gamma ray evaluation for chlorine analysis in blended cement concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Kalakada, Zameer; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2014-12-01

    Single prompt gamma ray energy has been evaluated to measure chlorine concentration in fly ash (FA), Super-Pozz (SPZ) and blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete specimens using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) setup. The gamma ray yield data from chloride concentration measurement in FA, SPZ and BFS cement concretes for 2.86-3.10, 5.72 and 6.11MeV chlorine gamma rays were analyzed to identify a gamma ray with common slope (gamma ray yield/Cl conc. wt%) for the FA, BFS and SPZ cement concretes. The gamma ray yield data for FA and SPZ cement concretes with varying chloride concentration were measured previously using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. In the current study, new data have been measured for chlorine detection in the BFS cement concrete using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup for 2.86-3.10, 5.72, and 6.11MeV chlorine gamma rays. The minimum detection limit of chlorine in BFS cement concrete (MDC) was found to be 0.034±0.010, 0.032±0.010, 0.033±0.010 for 2.86-3.10, 5.72 and 6.11MeV gamma ray, respectively. The new BFS cement concrete data, along with the previous measurements for FA and SPZ cement concretes, have been utilized to identify a gamma ray with a common slope to analyze the Cl concentration in all of these blended cement concretes. It has been observed that the 6.11MeV chlorine gamma ray has a common slope of 5295±265 gamma rays/wt % Cl concentration for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in blended cement concrete was measured to be 0.033±0.010wt % for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA. Thus, the 6.11MeV chlorine gamma ray can be used for chlorine analysis of blended cement concretes.

  11. Monte-Carlo investigation of radiation beam quality of the CRNA neutron irradiator for calibration purposes.

    PubMed

    Mazrou, Hakim; Sidahmed, Tassadit; Allab, Malika

    2010-10-01

    An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an (241)Am-Be radionuclide source of 185 GBq (5Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards, we expect large changes in the physical quantities of primary importance of the source compared to a free-field situation. Thus, the main goal of the present work is to fully characterize neutron field of such special delivered set-up. This was conducted by both extensive Monte-Carlo calculations and experimental measurements obtained by using BF(3) and (3)He based neutron area dosimeters. Effects of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) on the energy neutron spectrum have been investigated by simulating four irradiation configurations and comparison to the ISO spectrum has been performed. The ambient dose equivalent rate was determined based upon a correct estimate of the mean fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion factors at different irradiations positions by means of a 3-D transport code MCNP5. Finally, according to practical requirements established for calibration purposes an optimal irradiation position has been suggested to the SSDL staff to perform, in appropriate manner, their routine calibrations.

  12. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    PubMed

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites.

  13. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  14. Design of a setup for 252Cf neutron source for storage and analysis purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Daqian; Zhuang, Haocheng; Jia, Wenbao; Cheng, Can; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Da

    2016-11-01

    252Cf is a reliable isotopic neutron source and widely used in the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. A cylindrical barrel made by polymethyl methacrylate contained with the boric acid solution was designed for storage and application of a 5 μg 252Cf neutron source. The size of the setup was optimized with Monte Carlo code. The experiments were performed and the results showed the doses were reduced with the setup and less than the allowable limit. The intensity and collimating radius of the neutron beam could also be adjusted through different collimator.

  15. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  16. The electrical response of plants under radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Xi, Wenze; Feng, David J. Y.; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2014-05-01

    Plant electricity was discovered about 100 years ago. Until recent two decades, researchers started to notice that the electricity play a key role for plant's communications and defense. Recently, we have demonstrated a wound-generated electrical signal, up to a few hundred mV, can be produced and propagate through the whole plant. As plants defense reactions the wound signal will activate genes and induce subsequent molecular biology responses. In this study, we further investigate the electrical response of plants when they are under nuclear radiation. We discovered nuclear radiation could produce internal voltage gradient in living trees, resulting in measureable voltage and current signals. The results was measured by attaching one of electrodes to a lower branch, close to the roots and attaching the other one to an upper branch. During irradiating, trees were set up at 1-meter far from a NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi). It will produce a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h, corresponding to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h by assuming the tissue is primarily water content. Once the radioactive source is pulled up from a shielded container below the tree, the system potential starts to drop and in about 6-7 hours it drops down to -220mV, eventually stabilizing at around -250mV after 10 hours of radiation. We have further observed plant electricity changes caused by x-ray, gamma-ray, and beta-ray radiations. After the sources were removed, the terminal voltage recovered and eventually returned to the original value.

  17. Feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, T.; Pérot, B.; Carasco, C.; Brackx, E.; Mariani, A.; Passard, C.; Mauerhofer, E.; Collot, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of 235U and 239Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to 137Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of 235U or 239Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  18. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-L; Carasco, C; Perot, B; Mauerhofer, E; Kettler, J; Havenith, A

    2012-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R&D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a ∼20kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Jülich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages.

  19. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.; Smith, E.H.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Marsh, D.L.; Zhao, L.

    1997-12-01

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide {sup 252}Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world`s largest inventory of compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of {le} 10{sup 11} neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at the sample. Total flux of {ge}10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the {sup 252}Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis.

  20. Prompt gamma analysis of chlorine in concrete for corrosion study.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2006-02-01

    Measurement of chlorine in concrete is very important for studying of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is primarily ascribed to the penetration of chloride ions to the steel surface. Preventive measures for avoiding concrete structure reinforcement corrosion requires monitoring the chloride ion concentration in concrete so that its concentration does not exceed a threshold limit to initiate reinforcement concrete corrosion. An accelerator based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed for non-destructive analysis of elemental composition of concrete samples. The setup has been used to measure chlorine concentration in concrete samples over a 1-3 wt% concentration range. Although a strong interference has been observed between the chlorine gamma-rays and calcium gamma-rays from concrete, the chlorine concentration in concrete samples has been successfully measured using the 1.164 and 7.643 MeV chlorine gamma-rays. The experimental data were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. An excellent agreement has been achieved between the experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations. The study has demonstrated the successful use of the accelerator-based PGNAA setup in non-destructive analysis of chlorine in concrete samples.

  1. Computer Series, 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, James P., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a simple laboratory set-up for teaching microprocessor-controlled data acquisition as a part of an instrumental analysis course. Discussed are the experimental set-up, experimental procedures, and technical considerations for this technique. (CW)

  2. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  3. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  4. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  5. High Energy Performance Tests of Large Volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, A.A.; Gondal, M.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Dastageer, M.A.; Maslehuddin, M.M.; Al-Amoudi, O.S.B.

    2015-07-01

    High energy prompt gamma ray tests of a large volume cylindrical 100 mm x 100 mm (height x diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector were carried out using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. In this study prompt gamma-rays yield were measured from water samples contaminated with toxic elements such nickel, chromium and mercury compounds with gamma ray energies up to 10 MeV. The experimental yield of prompt gamma-rays from toxic elements were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. In spite of its higher intrinsic background due to its larger volume, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of high energy gamma-rays from Ni, Cr and Hg samples has been achieved for the large volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. (authors)

  6. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of 10B and Gd in biological samples at the MEPhI reactor.

    PubMed

    Khokhlov, V F; Zaitsev, K N; Beliayev, V N; Kulakov, V N; Lipengolts, A A; Portnov, A A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the work was to build a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility at the MEPhI reactor for analyzing the content of various elements for NCT. The facility was implemented on a monochromatic neutron beam. Methods of quantitative (10)B and Gd measurement have been developed for pharmacokinetic studies. The facility is capable of measuring 1 microg of (10)B and 10 microg of Gd in biological samples with an error less than 10%. The detection limit of the facility is 0.3 microg of (10)B and 2 microg of Gd. Neutron flux attenuation within biological tissue samples was estimated and a new system for determining the elemental concentration was suggested.

  7. A compact neutron beam generator system designed for prompt gamma nuclear activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, J; Mostacci, D

    2011-08-01

    In this work a compact system was designed for bulk sample analysis using the technique of PGNAA. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source, a moderator/reflector/filter assembly, and a suitable enclosure to delimit the resulting neutron beam. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimised to maximise the thermal neutron component useful for samples analysis with a suitably low level of beam contamination. The neutron beam delivered by this compact system is used to irradiate the sample and the prompt gamma rays produced by neutron reactions within the sample elements are detected by appropriate gamma rays detector. Neutron and gamma rays transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP5).

  8. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. L.; Vainionpaa, J. H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Harris, J. L.; Fuller, M. J.; Cremer, J. T.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Kwan, J. W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1010 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators' applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  9. X-Ray Measurements Of A Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, C. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Caffrey, A. J.; Simpson, J.; Lemchak, M.

    2011-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X rays are a normal byproduct from neutron generators, but depending on their intensity and energy, x rays can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60° between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and its x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric. A thin lead shield, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick, reduced the 70-keV generator x rays to negligible levels.

  10. X-Ray Measurements Of A Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, C. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Caffrey, A. J.; Simpson, J.; Lemchak, M.

    2011-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X rays are a normal byproduct from neutron generators, but depending on their intensity and energy, x rays can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60 deg. between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and its x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric. A thin lead shield, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick, reduced the 70-keV generator x rays to negligible levels.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of moderator and reflector in coal analyzer based on a D-T neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Shan, Qing; Chu, Shengnan; Jia, Wenbao

    2015-11-01

    Coal is one of the most popular fuels in the world. The use of coal not only produces carbon dioxide, but also contributes to the environmental pollution by heavy metals. In prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA)-based coal analyzer, the characteristic gamma rays of C and O are mainly induced by fast neutrons, whereas thermal neutrons can be used to induce the characteristic gamma rays of H, Si, and heavy metals. Therefore, appropriate thermal and fast neutrons are beneficial in improving the measurement accuracy of heavy metals, and ensure that the measurement accuracy of main elements meets the requirements of the industry. Once the required yield of the deuterium-tritium (d-T) neutron generator is determined, appropriate thermal and fast neutrons can be obtained by optimizing the neutron source term. In this article, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code and Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) database are used to optimize the neutron source term in PGNAA-based coal analyzer, including the material and shape of the moderator and neutron reflector. The optimized targets include two points: (1) the ratio of the thermal to fast neutron is 1:1 and (2) the total neutron flux from the optimized neutron source in the sample increases at least 100% when compared with the initial one. The simulation results show that, the total neutron flux in the sample increases 102%, 102%, 85%, 72%, and 62% with Pb, Bi, Nb, W, and Be reflectors, respectively. Maximum optimization of the targets is achieved when the moderator is a 3-cm-thick lead layer coupled with a 3-cm-thick high-density polyethylene (HDPE) layer, and the neutron reflector is a 27-cm-thick hemispherical lead layer.

  12. No More Public School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Harold Zina

    Frustrated by the public schools, the author took his child out of one and set up his own school. This book tells other parents how to do the same. The step-by-step account explains how to take a child out of the public school; set up a plan for the home instruction of a child; choose a more complex educational plan; set up a curriculum for any…

  13. Interaction of Electrons and Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    electron guns and made appreciable progress in the construction of an experimental set- up for spontaneous and stimulated Cerenkov-Smith Purcell...design and initial fabrication of two versions of electron guns and made appreciable progress in the construction of an experimental set- up for...for the Cerenkov-Smith-Purcell j ,. -8-r radiation experimental set up . The system is a standard 14" diameter U.H.V. pump which was adapted to our

  14. Actinide/beryllium neutron sources with reduced dispersion characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Schulte, Louis D.

    2012-08-14

    Neutron source comprising a composite, said composite comprising crystals comprising BeO and AmBe.sub.13, and an excess of beryllium, wherein the crystals have an average size of less than 2 microns; the size distribution of the crystals is less than 2 microns; and the beryllium is present in a 7-fold to a 75-fold excess by weight of the amount of AmBe.sub.13; and methods of making thereof.

  15. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Harris, R. V.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Moran, Traci L.

    2011-08-01

    The focus of this study is the understanding of the technical obstacles that hinder the replacement of and the disadvantages from the loss of extensive interpretation experience based on data accumulated with AmBe. Enhanced acoustic and electromagnetic sensing methods in combination with non-isotope-based well logging techniques have the potential to complement and/or replace existing isotope-based techniques, providing the opportunity to reduce oil industry dependence on isotopic sources such as AmBe.

  16. CNC Turning Center Operations and Prove Out. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-334.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronski, Steven D.

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to instruct the student in the recommended procedures used when setting up tooling and verifying part programs for a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 discusses course content and reviews and demonstrates set-up procedures…

  17. Comparison of Two Experiments Based on a Physical and a Torsion Pendulum to Determine the Mass Moment of Inertia Including Measurement Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Leonard

    2017-02-01

    To determine the mass-moment-of-inertia properties of devices under test with particularly small mass moments of inertia (some 10-4 kg m2), two measurement set-ups based on different measurement principles were developed. One set-up is based on a physical pendulum, the second set-up incorporates a torsion pendulum. Both measurement set-ups and their measurement principles are described in detail, including the chosen data acquisition and analysis. Measurement uncertainty estimations according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) were carried out for both set-ups by applying Monte Carlo simulations. Both set-ups were compared using the same three devices under test. For each measurement result, the measurement uncertainties were estimated. The measurement results are compared in terms of consistency and the resulting measurement uncertainties. For the given devices under test, the torsion pendulum set-up gave results with smaller measurement uncertainties compared to the set-up incorporating a physical pendulum.

  18. 47 CFR 2.1511 - Measurements of radiated emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (3) After an appropriate warm up, turn the receiver to the frequency of the test unit, set the...) General set-up instructions. Measurements of radiated electromagnetic emissions (EME) are to be performed... internal battery with its standard antenna attached and deployed. (b) Set-up for radiated EME tests....

  19. 47 CFR 2.1511 - Measurements of radiated emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (3) After an appropriate warm up, turn the receiver to the frequency of the test unit, set the...) General set-up instructions. Measurements of radiated electromagnetic emissions (EME) are to be performed... internal battery with its standard antenna attached and deployed. (b) Set-up for radiated EME tests....

  20. Simple Demonstration of the Seebeck Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molki, Arman

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose a simple and low-cost experimental set-up through which science educators can demonstrate the Seebeck effect using a thermocouple and an instrumentation amplifier. The experiment can be set up and conducted during a 1-hour laboratory session. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)