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Sample records for amacuzac area southern

  1. Regional groundwater flow and geochemical evolution in the Amacuzac River Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Casique, Eric; Guinzberg-Belmont, Jacobo; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    2016-11-01

    An approach is presented to investigate the regional evolution of groundwater in the basin of the Amacuzac River in Central Mexico. The approach is based on groundwater flow cross-sectional modeling in combination with major ion chemistry and geochemical modeling, complemented with principal component and cluster analyses. The hydrogeologic units composing the basin, which combine aquifers and aquitards both in granular, fractured and karstic rocks, were represented in sections parallel to the regional groundwater flow. Steady-state cross-section numerical simulations aided in the conceptualization of the groundwater flow system through the basin and permitted estimation of bulk hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates and residence times. Forty-five water locations (springs, groundwater wells and rivers) were sampled throughout the basin for chemical analysis of major ions. The modeled gravity-driven groundwater flow system satisfactorily reproduced field observations, whereas the main geochemical processes of groundwater in the basin are associated to the order and reactions in which the igneous and sedimentary rocks are encountered along the groundwater flow. Recharge water in the volcanic and volcano-sedimentary aquifers increases the concentration of HCO3 -, Mg2+ and Ca2+ from dissolution of plagioclase and olivine. Deeper groundwater flow encounters carbonate rocks, under closed CO2 conditions, and dissolves calcite and dolomite. When groundwater encounters gypsum lenses in the shallow Balsas Group or the deeper Huitzuco anhydrite, gypsum dissolution produces proportional increased concentration of Ca2+ and SO4 2-; two samples reflected the influence of hydrothermal fluids and probably halite dissolution. These geochemical trends are consistent with the principal component and cluster analyses.

  2. An integrated approach to characterize large scale groundwater systems in the Amacuzac River Basin, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Casique, E.; Guinzberg-Belmont, J.; Ortega-Guerrero, A.

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogeological system in the basin of the Amacuzac River in Central Mexico is composed by aquifers and aquitards both in granular, fractured and karstic rocks in a spatially variable heterogeneous manner. To analyze the regional evolution of groundwater in the basin, we use an approach which is based on groundwater cross-sectional numerical analysis of steady-state groundwater flow to characterize the flow pattern, graphical analysis using Stiff diagrams, principal component and cluster analyses of chemical data to identify and postulate geochemical processes and equilibrium geochemical modeling to compute saturation indexes. We illustrate how groundwater flow modeling and multivariate statistical analysis can add value to the geochemical analysis using traditional techniques. The hydrogeologic units were represented in three 60 to 90 km long sections parallel to the regional groundwater flow. Steady-state cross-section numerical simulations were conducted to represent the groundwater flow system through the basin and estimate bulk hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates and residence times. In addition, forty-five water locations (springs, groundwater wells and rivers) were sampled throughout the basin for chemical analysis of major ions. The joint analysis of the modeled gravity-driven groundwater flow system and the geochemical data allowed identifying the main geochemical processes of groundwater in the basin. These processes are associated to the order and reactions in which the igneous and sedimentary rocks are encountered along the groundwater flow. Recharge water in the volcanic and volcano-sedimentary aquifers increases the concentration of HCO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ from dissolution of plagioclase and olivine. Deeper groundwater flow encounters carbonate rocks, under closed CO2 conditions, and dissolves calcite and dolomite. When groundwater encounters gypsum lenses in the shallow Balsas Group or the deeper Huitzuco anhydrite, gypsum dissolution

  3. Impacts of southern pine beetles in special management areas

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Clarke

    1995-01-01

    Southern pine beetles have had great impacts on wilderness and other special management areas. Infestations have spread and affected adjacent [and, and they have disrupted the intended uses and goals desired for these areas. Coping with SPB in special management areas requires advance planning and management, then the use of new and integrated techniques for SPB risk...

  4. Southern California Area Environmental Manpower and Training Needs Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, James A.

    A survey was conducted to identify environmentally related jobs, the current employment need in these areas, the 5-year projection, and the current status of educational training programs to meet the employment needs for technicians or paraprofessionals within a five-county area of Southern California. The environmentally related occupations…

  5. CHAMA-SOUTHERN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Maurice R.; Lindquist, Alec E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Chama-southern San Juan Mountains Wilderness study area in Colorado revealed demonstrated coal resources in an area of substantiated coal resource potential and areas of probable resource potential for petroleum and metals including molydenum, copper, zinc, lead, and silver. The coal deposit that underlies the northwestern part of the study area at its westernmost extension requires further study for a more accurate determination of the coal resources that underlie the area. Drilling also is required to determine depth, magnitude, and tenor of the postulated porphyry deposit containing copper and molybdenum in the northernmost part of the study area. Geophysical surveys and detailed geologic mapping in advance of drilling are needed in the areas delineated as having potential for oil and gas resources.

  6. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas.

  7. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  8. Is It Working? Lysimeter Monitoring in the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  9. Is It Working? Lysimeter Monitoring in the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  10. SPLASH The Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Andrew; Dawson, Joanne

    2013-07-01

    The OH lines at 1612, 1665, 1667 and 1720 MHz are versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, and may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiassed and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane and Galactic Centre, that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous surveys. The project will answer critical questions on the global distribution of diffuse OH, the degree to which it traces 'hidden' emission caught between the regimes probed by traditional tracers, and its role as a probe of molecular cloud formation. As a blind and sensitive survey of all four ground-state transitions, SPLASH is also detecting many new OH masers, facilitating a broad range of astrophysical studies. I will report on the science aims and strategy of the survey, and present initial results from its first two semesters, which have revealed a rich and complex distribution of OH emission and absorption in a subsection of the Southern Milky Way.

  11. SPLASH: A Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joanne; Caswell, James; Gomez, Jose F.; Mcclure-Griffiths, Naomi; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Dickey, John; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Carretti, Ettore; Ellingsen, Simon; Walsh, Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Hennebelle, Patrick; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Gibson, Steven; Brown, Courtney; Krishnan, Vasaant

    2014-04-01

    The OH 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. The survey is answering critical questions on the global distribution of diffuse OH, the degree to which it traces ‘hidden’ material caught between the regimes probed by traditional tracers of the neutral ISM, and its role as a probe of molecular cloud formation. As a blind survey for all four ground-state transitions, SPLASH is also detecting many new OH masers, facilitating a broad range of astrophysical studies. This proposal requests 250 hours to complete Phase 1 of the SPLASH project, which is mapping 152 square degrees in the inner Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre.

  12. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Tropical Areas - Southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Regmi, N. R.; Leshchinsky, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are one of the common catastrophic phenomena in the world. In regions of humid-warm tropical climate they are triggered by extreme storms causing loss of life and economic devastation. In this study we mapped susceptibility to landslides in the tropical mountains of Guerrero (South Mexico) based on the inventory of landslide features triggered by the hurricane Manuel of September 2013. Landslide inventory was produced using interpretation of satellite images and automatic identification of landslides employing the Contour Connection Method (CCM). A map of susceptibility to landslides was developed by computing probability of landslide occurrence from statistical relationships of existing landslides using LiDAR elevation model and derived landslide-causing factors using a logistic regression method. Landslide inventory includes 419 features produced by the hurricane Manuel on the area of 22 km2, and > 1,000 older features, suggesting high landslide activity in this area. Most landslides in the region are small, but some large slides exist, such as the catastrophic landslide in La Pintada that caused 71 fatalities and destroyed a large part of the village. Our results indicate that the distance to streams, human activity, presence or absence of dense vegetation and orientation of slopes (on some areas) strongly influence the spatial distribution of landslides. Results showed high susceptibility zones encompass 30% of the study area and occur mostly along topographic convergence. Applied approach identified most of the landslides within the high susceptibility zone and suggested that it is a valid applicable method to map areas susceptible to landslides in southern Mexico but also on other humid-warm tropical regions.

  13. Net Exchange Ecossistem in Subtropical Agriculture Area in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D. R.; Diaz, M.; Webler, G.; Fiorin, J.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Teichrieb, C.; Amado, T.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Brazil contribute to 38% of Brazilian grain production. In contrast with the rest of the country, the south has a wet, subtropical climate that permits two annual harvests (double cropping system). The soybean and/or maize (summer) and black oat and/or wheat (winter) succession is widely used by farmers in plateau areas. In river natural lowlands, the cultivation of flooded irrigated rice is common. Changes in the land use affect the carbon, water and energy balance, and crop management practices, such as fertilization, water management, harvest and crop residues have influence in carbon exchange between the crop field and the atmosphere. This study quantifies the net exchange ecosystem (NEE) between the atmosphere and the crop cultivations in this wide region of Brazil from 2010 to 2014. We use data from two micrometeorological sites: Cruz Alta, with crop rotation and Cachoeira do Sul, with rice paddy. The carbon flux was analyzed using the eddy covariance method and gap filling procedures. The annual integration of data carbon demonstrates that the agroecosystems in southern Brazil is a acting as an light atmospheric CO2 sink. However, the NEE emissions that occurred in the fallow periods contributed negatively for such annual accumulation. To reduce this loss of CO2, farmers could cultivate plants in fallow periods, because there are favorable weather conditions for growing plants year round. Additionally, other management practices can increase the influx of C, including the production of more dry matter with cover crops by improving management and the immediate harvesting of crop after physiological maturity to reduce the period between maturation and harvest.

  14. SPLASH: A Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joanne; Caswell, James; Gomez, Jose F.; Mcclure-Griffiths, Naomi; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Dickey, John; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Carretti, Ettore; Ellingsen, Simon; Walsh, Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Hennebelle, Patrick; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Gibson, Steven; Jones, Courtney; Krishnan, Vasaant

    2013-10-01

    The OH 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. The survey will answer critical questions on the global distribution of diffuse OH, the degree to which it traces ‘hidden’ material caught between the regimes probed by traditional tracers of the neutral ISM, and its role as a probe of molecular cloud formation. As a blind survey for all four ground-state transitions, SPLASH will also detect many new OH masers, facilitating a broad range of astrophysical studies. This proposal requests 670 hours spread over two semesters to complete Phase 1 of the SPLASH project, which will map 152 square degrees in the inner Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. Following the ongoing success of the project, we request that its pre-graded status be renewed for a final two semesters.

  15. SPLASH: A Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joanne; Caswell, James; Gomez, Jose F.; Mcclure-Griffiths, Naomi; Jones, Paul; Dickey, John; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Carretti, Ettore; Ellingsen, Simon; Walsh, Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Hennebelle, Patrick; Gibson, Steven; Jones, Courtney; Krishnan, Vasaant

    2012-10-01

    The OH 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. The survey will answer critical questions on the global distribution of diffuse OH, the degree to which it traces ‘hidden’ emission caught between the regimes probed by traditional tracers, and its role as a probe of molecular cloud formation. As a blind survey for all four ground-state transitions, SPLASH will also detect many new OH masers as well as providing full Stokes information for all objects, facilitating a broad range of astrophysical studies. This proposal requests 1520 hours spread over three semesters to complete Phase 1 of the SPLASH project, which will map 152 square degrees in the inner Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. Following the success of first observations last semester, we request that the project be granted pre-graded status.

  16. SPLASH: A Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joanne; Caswell, James; Gomez, Jose F.; Mcclure-Griffiths, Naomi; Jones, Paul; Dickey, John; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Carretti, Ettore; Ellingsen, Simon; Walsh, Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Hennebelle, Patrick; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Gibson, Steven; Jones, Courtney; Krishnan, Vasaant

    2013-04-01

    The OH 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. The survey will answer critical questions on the global distribution of diffuse OH, the degree to which it traces ‘hidden’ emission caught between the regimes probed by traditional tracers, and its role as a probe of molecular cloud formation. As a blind survey for all four ground-state transitions, SPLASH will also detect many new OH masers as well as providing full Stokes information for all objects, facilitating a broad range of astrophysical studies. This proposal requests 1105 hours spread over two semesters to complete Phase 1 of the SPLASH project, which will map 152 square degrees in the inner Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. Following the success of initial observations in 2012APRS, the project has been granted pre-graded status.

  17. SPLASH: A Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joanne; Caswell, James; Gomez, Jose F.; Mcclure-Griffiths, Naomi; Jones, Paul; Dickey, John; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Carretti, Ettore; Ellingsen, Simon; Walsh, Andrew; Breen, Shari; Hennebelle, Patrick; Gibson, Steven; Jones, Courtney

    2012-04-01

    The OH 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. This proposal requests 1800 hours spread over four semesters to carry out Phase 1 of the SPLASH project, which will map 152 square degrees in the inner Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. The survey will answer critical questions on the global distribution of diffuse OH, the degree to which it traces ‘hidden’ emission caught between the regimes probed by traditional tracers, and its role as a probe of molecular cloud formation. As a blind survey for all four ground-state transitions, SPLASH will also detect many new OH masers as well as providing full Stokes information for all objects, facilitating a broad range of astrophysical studies.

  18. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area.

  19. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  20. Detailed seismicity analysis of the southern Dead Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, Benjamin; Asch, Guenter; Hofstetter, Rami; Haberland, Christian; Jaser, Darwish; El-Kelani, Radwan; Weber, Michael

    2013-04-01

    While the Dead Sea basin has been studied for a long time, the available knowledge about the micro-seismicity, its distribution and characteristics is limited. Therefore, within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. Within 18 month of recording 650 events were detected. Based on an already published tomography study clustering, focal mechanisms, statistics and the distribution of the micro-seismicity in relation to the velocity models from the tomography are analyzed. The determined b-value of 0.7 indicates a relatively high risk of large earthquakes compared to the moderate microseismic activity. The distribution of the seismicity suggests an asymmetric basin with a vertical strike slip fault forming the eastern boundary of the basin, and an inclined western boundary, made up of strike-slip and normal faults. Furthermore, significant differences between the area North and South of the Boqeq fault were observed. South of the Boqeq fault the western boundary is inactive while the entire seismicity occurs at the eastern boundary and below the basin-fill sediments. The largest events occurred here, their focal mechanisms represent the northwards transform motion of the Arabian plate along the Dead Sea Transform. The vertical extension of the the spatial and temporal cluster from February 2007 is interpreted as being related to the locking of the region around the Boqeq fault. North of the Boqeq fault similar seismic activity occurs at both boundaries most notably within the basin-fill sediments, displaying mainly small events with strike-slip mechanism and normal faulting in EW direction. Therefore, we suggest that the Boqeq fault forms the border between the "single" transform fault and the pull-apart basin with two active border faults.

  1. Geodetic Monitoring System Operating On Neapolitan Volcanic Area (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingue, F.; Ov-Geodesy Team

    The Neapolitan volcanic area is located in the southern sector of the Campanian Plain Graben including three volcanic active structures (Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia). The Somma-Vesuvius complex, placed East of Naples, is a strato-volcano composed by a more ancient apparatus (Mt. Somma) and a younger cone (Mt. Vesu- vius) developed inside Somma caldera. Since last eruption (1944) it is in a quiescent state characterised by a low level seismicity and deformation activity. The Campi Fle- grei, located West of Naples, are a volcanic field inside an older caldera rim. The last eruption, occurred in the 1538, built up the Mt. Nuovo cone. The Campi Flegrei are subject to a slow vertical deformation, called bradyseism. In the 1970-1972 and 1982-1984 they have been affected by two intense episodes of ground upheaval (ac- companied by an intense seismic activity)0, followed by a subsidence phase, slower than uplift and still active. Though such phenomenon has not been followed by erup- tive events, it caused serious damages, emphasizing the high volcanic risk of the phle- grean caldera. The Ischia island, located SW of Naples, has been characterised by a volcanic activity both explosive and effusive, occurred mainly in the last 50,000 years. These events modelled the topography producing fault systems and structures delim- iting the Mt. Epomeo resurgent block. The last eruption has occurred on 1302. After, the dynamics of the island has been characterised by seismic activity (the strongest earthquake occurred on 1883) and by a meaningful subsidence, on the S and NW sec- tors of the island. The concentration of such many active volcanoes in an area with a dense urbanization (about 1,500,000 inhabitants live) needs systematic and contin- uous monitoring of the dynamics. These information are necessary in order to char- acterise eruptive precursors useful for modelling the volcanoes behaviour. Insofar, the entire volcanic Neapolitan area, characterised by a

  2. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D

    2012-12-30

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25).

  3. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ∼ 0.25).

  4. 33 CFR 165.1413 - Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii. 165.1413 Section 165.1413 Navigation and Navigable... Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1413 Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation... staging area is intended for use by all commercial vessels intended to remain in the RNA during a tsunami...

  5. Local earthquake tomography model for the southern Dead Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

    2012-04-01

    Local earthquake data from a dense temporary seismological network in the southern Dead Sea area have been analyzed within the project DESIRE (Dead Sea Integrated Research Project). Local earthquakes are used for the first precise image of the distribution of the P velocity and the vp/vs ratios. 65 stations registered 655 local events within 18 months of observation time. A subset of 530 well locatable events with 26,730 P- and S-arrival times was used to calculate a tomographic model for the vp and vp/vs distribution. Since the study area is at first order two-dimensional, a gradual approach was chosen, which compromised a 2-D inversion followed by a 3-D inversion. The sedimentary basin fill, clearly imaged through high vp/vs ratios and low vp, shows an asymmetric structure with a vertical eastern boundary and an inclined western boundary. Within the basin fill the Lisan salt diapir is imaged through low vp/vs ratios. Below the basin fill the pre-basin sediments and the reworked crust, indicated by low P velocities and low vp/vs ratios, form a 10 km wide body between 12 and 18 km depth with vertical boundaries. No indications are found for a significant change of the P velocity structure in NS direction. Meanwhile, the change of the vp/vs ratios from high to low values varies in NS direction. This change, interpreted as the lower boundary of the basin fill, is reached already at 10 km depth in the area of the Boqeq fault, but not until 14 km depth below the Lisan peninsula. This difference is most likely related to different amounts of faulting at the transverse normal faults. North of the Boqeq fault the seismic activity between 3 and 15 km depth is mostly related to the fluid containing basin sediments. South of the Boqeq fault the seismic events occur between 12 and 18 km depth, and thus within the pre-basin sediments and the underlying crust.

  6. Anelastic attenuation structure of the southern Aegean subduction area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventouzi, Chrisanthi; Papazachos, Constantinos; Papaioannou, Christos; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    The study of the anelastic attenuation structure plays a very important role for seismic wave propagation and provides not only valuable constraints for the Earth's interior (temperature, relative viscosity, slab dehydration and melt transport) but also significant information for the simulation of strong ground motions. In order to investigate the attenuation structure of the broader Southern Aegean subduction area, acceleration spectra of intermediate depth earthquakes produced from data provided by two local networks which operated in the area were used. More specifically, we employed data from approximately 400 intermediate-depth earthquakes, as these were recorded from the EGELADOS seismic monitoring project which consisted of 65 land stations and 24 OBS recorders and operated during 2005-2007, as well as data from the earlier installed CYCNET local network, which operated during 2002-2005. A frequency-independent path attenuation operator t* was computed for both P and S arrivals for each waveform, using amplitude spectra generated by the recorded data of the aforementioned networks. Initially, estimated P and S traveltimes were examined and modeled as a function of epicentral distance for different groups of focal depths, using data from the CYCNET network in order to obtain the expected arrival information when original arrival times were not available. Two approaches to assess the spectral-decay were adopted for t* determination. Initially, an automated approach was used, where t* was automatically calculated from the slope of the acceleration spectrum, assuming an ω2 source model for frequencies above the corner frequency, fc. Estimation of t* was performed in the frequency band of 0.2 to 25 Hz, using only spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 3 for a frequency range of at least 4Hz for P-waves and 1Hz for S-waves, respectively. In the second approach, the selection of the linearly-decaying part of the spectra where t* was calculated, was

  7. Trace elements reconnaissance in the Jakolof Bay area, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.; Nelson, Arthur E.

    1950-01-01

    As a result of inquiries by prospectors in 1948 concerning radioactive ores in the vicinity of Jakolof Bay on the Kenai Peninsula in southern Alaska, the Geological Survey conducted a brief investigation during 1949. No radioactive material was found. Possibly a chromite stockpile in this locality was mistaken for pitchblende.

  8. Sensitive species of snakes, frogs, and salamanders in southern California conifer forest areas: status and management

    Treesearch

    Glenn R. Stewart; Mark R. Jennings; Robert H. Jr. Goodman

    2005-01-01

    At least 35 species of amphibians and reptiles occur regularly in the conifer forest areas of southern California. Twelve of them have some or all of their populations identified as experiencing some degree of threat. Among the snakes, frogs, and salamanders that we believe need particular attention are the southern rubber boa (Charina bottae umbratica...

  9. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  10. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley’s Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 to address the occurrence of high groundw...

  11. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley’s Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 to address the occurrence of high groundw...

  12. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  13. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  14. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts

    Treesearch

    Peter Keller

    2007-01-01

    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  15. Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

  16. Hydrologic Evaluation of the Jungo Area, Southern Desert Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    RecologyTM, the primary San Francisco waste-disposal entity, is proposing to develop a Class 1 landfill near Jungo, Nevada. The proposal calls for the landfill to receive by rail about 20,000 tons of waste per week for up to 50 years. On September 22, 2009, the Interior Appropriation (S.A. 2494) was amended to require the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the proposed Jungo landfill site for: (1) potential water-quality impacts on nearby surface-water resources, including Rye Patch Reservoir and the Humboldt River; (2) potential impacts on municipal water resources of Winnemucca, Nevada; (3) locations and altitudes of aquifers; (4) how long it will take waste seepage from the site to contaminate local aquifers; and (5) the direction and distance that contaminated groundwater would travel at 95 and 190 years. This evaluation was based on review of existing data and information. Desert Valley is tributary to the Black Rock Desert via the Quinn River in northern Desert Valley. The Humboldt River and Rye Patch Reservoir would not be affected by surface releases from the proposed Jungo landfill site because they are in the Humboldt basin. Winnemucca, on the Humboldt River, is 30 miles east of the Jungo landfill site and in the Humboldt basin. Groundwater-flow directions indicate that subsurface flow near the proposed Jungo landfill site is toward the south-southwest. Therefore, municipal water resources of Winnemucca would not be affected by surface or subsurface releases from the proposed Jungo landfill site. Basin-fill aquifers underlie the 680-square-mile valley floor in Desert Valley. Altitudes around the proposed Jungo landfill site range from 4,162 to 4,175 feet. Depth to groundwater is fairly shallow in southern Desert Valley and is about 60 feet below land surface at the proposed Jungo landfill site. A groundwater divide exists about 7 miles north of the proposed Jungo landfill site. Groundwater north of the divide flows north towards the Quinn River. South of

  17. Ozone in remote areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Musselman; John L. Korfmacher

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) data are sparse for remote, non-urban mountain areas of the western U.S. Ozone was monitored 2007e2011 at high elevation sites in national forests in Colorado and northeastern Utah using a portable battery-powered O3 monitor. The data suggest that many of these remote locations already have O3 concentrations that would contribute to exceedance of the current...

  18. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  19. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  20. Understanding haze pollution over the southern Hebei area of China using the CMAQ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Litao; Xu, Jing; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Xiujuan; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Dandan; Pan, Xuemei; Su, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Haze has been one of the major air pollution problems in Chinese cities, and the southern Hebei area has attracted particular attention because of its high frequency of haze weather and the rapid deterioration in visibility in recent years. This study is aimed at understanding the characteristics and sources of the serious haze pollution in the southern Hebei area using the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). The haze frequencies in the cities of southern Hebei, including Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, and five other urban centers in the surrounding regions, are analyzed for a ten-year period from 2001 to 2010, which shows a very similar and clear seasonal variation. The contributions of the local and regional anthropogenic emissions to the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodiameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μm) and the light extinction coefficient (Bext) are estimated by conducting simulations of seven scenarios. The results show that approximately 65% of the PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang and Xingtai originated from the local emissions of the southern Hebei area, followed by Shanxi Province and the northern area of Hebei (13.8% and 7.3% to Shijiazhuang and 10.4% and 5.2% to Xingtai, respectively). The contributions of the emissions from the local area, Shanxi Province and the northern Hebei area to Bext are approximately 59.4%, 13.8% and 6.8% for Shijiazhuang and 58.2%, 10.1% and 5.0% for Xingtai, respectively. Moreover, an analysis of a typical pollution episode indicates that the contributions from the Shandong and Henan provinces are also significant. Further investigations are still required because of the complexity of the haze pollution over the southern Hebei area.

  1. Stratigraphic assessment of the Arcelia Teloloapan area, southern Mexico: implications for southern Mexico's post-Neocomian tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Lang, H. R.; Harrison, C. G. A.

    2000-10-01

    Stratigraphic assessment of the "Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex" (TCMC) between Arcelia and Teloloapan in southern Mexico, based on photo interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and field mapping at the 1:100,000 scale, tests different tectonic evolution scenarios that bear directly on the evolution of the southern North American plate margin. The regional geology, emphasizing the stratigraphy of a portion of the TCMC within the area between Arcelia and Teloloapan is presented. Stratigraphic relationships with units in adjacent areas are also described. The base of the stratigraphic section is a chlorite grade metamorphic sequence that includes the Taxco Schist, the Roca Verde Taxco Viejo Formation, and the Almoloya Phyllite Formation. These metamorphic units, as thick as 2.7 km, are covered disconformably by a sedimentary sequence, 2.9 km thick, composed of the Cretaceous marine Pochote, Morelos, and Mexcala Formations, as well as undifferentiated Tertiary continental red beds and volcanic rocks. The geology may be explained as the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary environments developed upon attenuated continental crust. Our results do not support accretion of the Guerrero terrane during Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) time.

  2. Predictive equations for dimensions and leaf area of coastal Southern California street trees

    Treesearch

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Tree height, crown height, crown width, diameter at breast height (dbh), and leaf area were measured for 16 species of commonly planted street trees in the coastal southern California city of Santa Monica, USA. The randomly sampled trees were planted from 1 to 44 years ago. Using number of years after planting or dbh as explanatory variables, mean values of dbh, tree...

  3. Conserving the grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil

    Treesearch

    Adrian S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

    2005-01-01

    In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing existing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories...

  4. 78 FR 28170 - Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel Evacuation; Honolulu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel... during times when a tsunami warning is issued for the Hawaiian Islands by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. Tsunami warnings require the evacuation of a large number of vessels from their respective...

  5. 78 FR 61223 - Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel Evacuation, Honolulu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel... enforce this proposed regulation only when a tsunami warning is issued for the Hawaiian Islands by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. Tsunami warnings require the evacuation of a large number of vessels from...

  6. Los Angeles-Long Beach area of Southern California as seen from Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-09

    AS09-22-3436 (March 1969) --- Los Angeles-Long Beach area of southern California, as photographed from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its 92nd revolution of Earth. Santa Catalina Island is located off the coast. The California coastline is visible from San Clemente northward to Point Dume. Clouds cover most of the San Gabriel Mountains around Los Angeles.

  7. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  8. The Greater Southern Area Health Service Tobacco Control Plan 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Gow, Andrew J; Weir, Kylie M; Marich, Andrew J N

    2008-01-01

    In response to the NSW Tobacco Action Plan 2005-2009, Greater Southern Area Health Service (GSAHS) has developed a local plan. This short report describes how activities promoted in the state plan were prioritised and six outcomes identified as the focus for the GSAHS Tobacco Control Plan 2006-2009.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of burned area emergency response (BAER) efforts after the 2003 wildfires, southern California

    Treesearch

    Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Ken R. Hubbert; Jan L. Beyers; David R. Weise

    2007-01-01

    Wildfires burned approximately 300,000 hectares (750,000 acres) across southern California in the fall of 2003. Over 10 million dollars were spent on Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments following these fires. To support the BAER efforts, we designed a comprehensive strategy with standardized protocols to evaluate the effectiveness of various erosion...

  10. Preliminary analysis of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain Area, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.F.; Webring, M.W.; Bhattacharyya, B.K.

    1981-12-31

    Recent (1977 to 1978) gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain region, southern Nevada, have revealed new details of subsurface structure and lithology. The data strongly suggest that deformation caused by volcanic events has been accommodated along straight-line faults combining in such a fashion as to given a curvilinear appearance to regional structure. The magnetic data suggest that rock units in the central graben and along the southeast margin of Timber Mountain may have been altered, perhaps thermally, from their original state. The gravity data indicate that the south part of the Timber Mountain is underlain by relatively dense rock possibly intrusive rock, like that which crops out along its southeast side. The gravity data also suggest that the Silent Canyon caldera may extend considerably south of its presently indicated southern limit and may underlie much of the area of Timber Mountain. The moat areas appear to be more rectangular or triangular than annular in shape. The southern part of Timber Mountain caldera is separated from the Yucca Mountain area to the south by a triangular horst. The structural relations of the rock units making up the horst are complex. Several linear terrain features in the southern part of the caldera area are closely aligned with geophysical features, implying that the terrain features are fault-controlled.

  11. A Checklist of Novels Dealing with the Southern Appalachian Area for Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Shonna Sue

    Designed to help librarians identify Appalachian novels in an existing school library collection (grades 5-12), the 291 books included in this checklist have been chosen from 7 commonly available bibliographic tools, were published between 1902 and 1979, and contain subject matter dealing with the area of southern Appalachia which encompasses…

  12. Interacting effects of wildfire severity and liming on nutrient cycling in a southern Appalachian wilderness area

    Treesearch

    Katherine Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; William A. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Aims Wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by large-scale disturbances (e.g., wildfire), air pollution, climate change, exotic diseases or pests, and a combination of these stress factors (i.e., stress complexes). Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is one example of a high elevation wilderness in the southern Appalachian region that has been subject to stress...

  13. Patterns of drugs & poisons in southern area of South Korea in 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Park, Yonghoon; Ha, Hongil; Chung, Heesun

    2016-12-01

    The southern area of South Korea consists of three parts; Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. Busan Institute of National Forensic Service (NFS) performed about 50,000 cases throughout the southern area in 2014, occupying over 15% of total cases covered by NFS. In this study, patterns of drugs and poisons in the southern area of South Korea were investigated. The investigation was carried out by the laboratory information management system of NFS between January and December of 2014. As results, a total of 606 autopsy cases were performed by Busan Institute of NFS in 2014. Among them, 15 cases were determined as drug intoxication or poisons as the cause of death, taking up 2.5% of total cases: 5 cases of intoxication by drugs, 5 by agricultural pesticides, 3 by illicit drugs, and 1 each by detergents and chemical substances. A total of 108 drugs in postmortem bloods were detected from the autopsy cases, and the top 5 drugs were chlorpheniramine, tramadol, diazepam, zolpidem and lidocaine. Meanwhile, a total of 1,728 cases were submitted for illicit drug testing in 2014. Among them, hair was the most common type of specimens, and the rate of positive detection of methamphetamine from the hair, urine, and seized materials in the southern area was over 50% in all cases, indicating that this is the most commonly abused drug in South Korea. A total of 12 types of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) were detected in the southern area in 2014; 10 were identified as synthetic cannabinoids and 2 as alkyl nitrites.

  14. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008 ...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008 ...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008 ...

  17. Lower Devonian tentaculite bed in the Satun area, southern peninsular Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agematsu, Sachiko; Sashida, Katsuo; Salyapongse, Sirot; Sardsud, Apsorn

    2006-05-01

    A Lower Devonian (Emsian) tentaculite fauna including Nowakia acuaria [Richer, R., 1854. Thüringische Tentaculiten. Zeitschr. Deutsch. Geol. Gesellsch. 6, 275-290] occurs in black shale in the basal part of a siliciclastic sequence exposed north of Satun, southern peninsular Thailand. Similar tentaculite beds with Nowakia have been reported from several areas in the Fang, Sri Sawat, and Trang areas of Thailand, the Langkawi Islands and the Mahang-Baling areas of Malaysia. The depositional environments in which the tentaculite-bearing black shale accumulated extended from modern northern Thailand to northwestern Malaysia during the Early Devonian (Emsian).

  18. Characteristics of urban natural areas influencing winter bird use in southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul G R

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  19. A new species of land flatworm (Platyhelminthes: Continenticola) from areas of Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ilana; Fontoura, Marcela; Amaral, Silvana; Leal-Zanchet, Ana M

    2014-05-08

    The genus Cratera Carbayo et al. was proposed to encompass five species of Geoplaninae from southeastern Brazil that were mainly recorded in the state of São Paulo. Here we describe a new species of the genus, C. steffeni sp. nov., that occurs in areas of Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil, which augments the known distribution of Cratera. The new species is distinguished from others of the genus by its characteristic colour pattern and a combination of internal morphological characters.

  20. Characteristics of the Bab al Mandab-Northern Afar area of the southern Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.B. ); Sikander, A.H. ); Abouzakhm, A.G.

    1991-08-01

    The southern Red Sea and adjacent Afar area represent an enigmatic portion of the Red Sea/Gulf of Aden basin system. Although the topographic rift shoulders of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden can be traced through this elbow, and appear to suggest that a similar width for the zone of extension is maintained across the region, the character of the floor of the rift zone changes. The distinctive character of the southern Red Sea-Afar area results in part from a topographically elevated region, possibly associated with the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden-East African rift triple junction. In addition, however, seismic data from offshore Ethiopia suggests that the distinctive character is due a complex pattern of rifting. The central axial trough of the Red Sea decreases in depth to the south toward the strait of Bab al Mandab, suggesting that rifting is dying out southward. Farther to the west at the same latitude, a major but narrow half-graben can be seen on seismic in the Gulf of Zula, bounded to the east by a large west-dipping normal fault. This structure continues south into the Danakil Depression of the Afar area. Between these two en echelon rift trends, the Danakil Alps form a long-lived high. Seismic data from the southern Red Sea of Ethiopia show southward thinning and pinch-out of the Miocene syn-rift evaporite sequence onto the northern Danakil block. Thus, it appears that the Danakil block has largely escaped Red Sea extension and subsidence. Instead, it forms a large unextended terrain located between overlapping en echelon rift trends, and may represent an accommodation zone structure associated with offset in the rift axis of the southern Red Sea.

  1. Geohydrology of the Aguirre and Pozo Hondo areas, southern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The subsurface geology of the Aguirre and Pozo Hondo areas in southern Puerto Rico is primarily a fractured igneous volcanic rock (andesite) with three distinct zones: regolith, transition zone, and bedrock. Alluvial deposits are present, locally in each area, as well as weathered low- grade metamorphosed volcanics with a schistose texture and a vertical plane of foliation. A thin, water-table aquifer exists in the study areas. Ground water in this aquifer occurs primarily in the regolith and transition zone. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 1 foot to 75 feet below land surface. Ground- water flow out of the study areas is to the south into the southern coastal plain. The results of 2 multiple-well aquifer tests and 21 single-well slug injection and removal tests indicate that transmissivities range from 175 to 5,700 feet squared per day; hydraulic conductivities, from 0.02 to 160 feet per day; and storage coefficients from 0.02 to 0.2. The ground water in the study areas is of the calcium carbonate type. With the exception of dissolved solids, which were as much as 1,110 milligrams per liter, concentrations of common constituents in ground water did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water criteria.

  2. Development of the Permian-Triassic sequence in the basin Fringe area, southern Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Geluk, M.; Van Doorn, D.; Plomp, A.; Duin, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Geological studies in the fringe area of the southern Permian basin led to new insights in the distribution and development of the Permian-Triassic sequence. During the Permian, the fringe area formed a platform, attached to the London-Brabant Massif, while during the Triassic it is characterized by strongly subsiding half grabens. In the southern Netherlands, Rotliegende sandstones and conglomerates have a much wider distribution than previously recognized. The Rotliegende deposits are capped by claystones and carbonates of the Upper Permian Zechstein. In the offshore, an important feeder system of clastics from the London-Brabant Massif was active during deposition of the Rotliegende and the Zechstein. In course of time, the location of major sandstone deposition shifted westward. Deposition of the Triassic Buntsandstein was controlled by the development of a large feeder system, which transported clastics from the Vosges northward, through the Roer Valley Graben and West netherlands Basin into the Off Holland Low. This system was responsible for the deposition of the economically important sheet sandstones of the Volpriehausen, Detfurth, Hardegsen, and Solling formations. A regional unconformity occurs below the Solling Formation. The sandstones are capped by claystones, evaporites, and sandstones of the Rot Formation. During deposition of the Muschelkalk, the differences in subsidence decreased and shallow marine sediments are interbedded with evaporites. Several unconformities occur within the Keuper. In the previous half grabens in the southern Netherlands, the Keuper is incomplete, which may be indicative for a possible reversal of the tectonic movements during this period.

  3. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072 ...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072 ...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072 ...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072 ...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072 ...

  8. Measuring the Effective Sampling Area of a Pheromone Trap for Monitoring Population Density of Southern Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Peter Turchin; Francois J. Odendaal

    1996-01-01

    Multifunnel traps baited with frontalin and turpentine have been used to investigate dispersal of southern pine beetles, Dendroctonus front Zimmermann, and are routinely used in the southern United States to monitor population trends of this serious forest pest. However, there is no quantitative data on the effective sampling area of these traps that would allow us to...

  9. Feasibility of estimating rice planting area of hilly region in southern China using remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Geying; Yang, Xingwei

    1998-08-01

    The objective of the study (Zhejiang province as study area) was to estimate rice planting area of hilly region in southern part of China by remote sensing technique with NOAA/AVHRR data. The research contents mainly concerned contrast tests on practical approaches, both digital elevation model (DEM) and digital slope model (DSM) derived from the digital relief map were used for the purpose of improving the classification accuracy of AVHRR imagery in large-area hilly region. The results indicated that the accuracy of maximum-likelihood (MLH) classification could satisfy the professional requirements of estimating rice planting area and fuzzy supervised classification based on unmixing AVHRR imagery has better classification accuracy and stability than MLH. In addition, the results through using both DEM and DSM as ancillary categorization data suggests DSM may improve the results of extracting paddy field signatures from AVHRR, particularly may improve the spatial accuracy, while DEM contribute nothing to improve the accuracy mentioned above.

  10. Structural setting of the 1688 Sannio earthquake epicentral area (Southern Italy) from surface and subsurface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bucci, D.; Massa, B.; Tornaghi, M.; Zuppetta, A.

    2005-09-01

    We analysed the 1688 Sannio earthquake, one of the most destructive events that occurred along the axis of the Southern Apennines (Calore River valley, Italy). It was characterised by a very large damage area and by several ground effects. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of specific and multidisciplinary geological studies focused on the active tectonics of the area where this earthquake occurred. Therefore, this work is aimed at integrating subsurface and surface data to provide a new reconstruction of the present day structural setting and active tectonics of the region struck by the 1688 Sannio earthquake. We interpreted deep well logs and reflection seismic lines, and integrated them with the results of original geomorphic and mesostructural analyses and with new radiometric dating ( 40Ar/ 39Ar) of Pleistocene pyroclastic layers. The latest Pleistocene brittle deformation observed in the Calore valley suggests a NE dipping main fault related to a NW-SE oriented active extensional system (Calore River fault system: CRFS). This extensional system is tentatively interpreted as the seismogenic fault of the 1688 Sannio earthquake. The reconstruction of the deep structural setting of the study area, especially in correspondence with the CRFS, allowed the buried Apulia units to be identified. The active extensional fault system develops within a set of thrusts that strongly uplift the Apulia platform succession and possibly the underlying Paleozoic basement. At surface, instead, the extensional fault system projects within the most external parts of the Apennine unit, in proximity to its leading edge. A comparison with other extensional seismogenic sources of the Southern Apennines suggests that the occurrence of the described features could represent a key for the location of the major seismicity of the region and could provide an interpretative model for the identification of areas of possible seismic gap in Southern Italy.

  11. [Analysis on the epidemiological features of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, 2015-2016].

    PubMed

    Shi, Y J; Lai, S J; Chen, Q L; Mu, D; Li, Y; Li, X X; Yin, W W; Yu, H J

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, and to develop national strategies for brucellosis prevention and control. Methods: Individual data on human brucellosis was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System to describe the situation of brucellosis in China during 2015-2016. Epidemiological features of the disease in northern and southern areas of China were analyzed. Results: A total of 104 125 cases were reported in mainland China during 2015-2016, with an average incidence rate as 3.81/100 000. The overall incidence rate from the northern provinces was 7.77/100 000 in 2016, a 18.6% decrease from 2015 (9.55/100 000), whereas the incidence rate in the southern provinces was 0.27/100 000 in 2016, with an increase of 28.6% than 0.21/100 000 in 2015. 90.0% of the newly infected counties mainly distributed in southern China. As for the locations of reporting cases, most of them were in the same counties in the northern areas (52.3%) while most cases in the southern areas (59.6%) were imported from other counties. The median age of the cases was 48 (IQR: 38-58) years, with male-to-female ratios as 2.7∶1 in the north and 2.2∶1 in the south. Majority of the cases were occupation-related, from both the northern (86.8%) and southern (62.7%) areas. Human brucellosis occurred every month throughout the year but with an obvious seasonal increase between March and July. Conclusions: Different epidemiological features of human brucellosis appeared in both northern and southern areas of China. The disease was seen endemic in the northern and dispersal in the southern provinces. Appropriate strategies for brucellosis prevention and control should be developed, according to the different epidemiological characteristics in the northern or southern areas.

  12. 76 FR 22749 - Camden & Southern Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Camden Area Industrial Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Industrial Development Corporation Camden & Southern Railroad, Inc. (C&S), a noncarrier, has filed a verified... Area Industrial Development Corporation (CAIDC), located at Zone JH482, Yard 06, opposite milepost 463...

  13. A revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spengler, R.W.; Byers, F.M.; Dickerson, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits, Miocene intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain.

  14. A revised Litostragraphic Framework for the Southern Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Spengler; F.M. Byers; R.P. Dickerson

    2006-03-24

    An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits and intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain.

  15. Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them <1 mmol C m-2 d-1). It appears that nitrate is assimilated in the upper part of the mixed layer (coinciding with the euphotic layer) and regenerated in the lower parts. We suggest that such high contribution of nitrification to nitrate assimilation is driven by (i) a deep mixed layer, extending well below the euphotic layer, allowing nitrifiers to compete with phytoplankton for the assimilation of ammonium, (ii) extremely high rates of primary production for the Southern Ocean, stimulating the release of dissolved organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.

  16. Parasite infections in red deer Cervus elaphus from Krakow area, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Nosal, Paweł; Wajdzik, Marek; Basiaga, Marta; Lesiak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the parasitofauna of red deer Cervus elaphus from Kraków area (southern Poland). The study was done in years 2011-2012 and included altogether 6 animals. Five deer originated from the forest areas (hunted) and one came from the urban site (it died in a road accident). In addition to post-mortem examination, coproscopic analyses with sporulation were performed to define Eimeria species diversity. The deer were infected with four species of nematodes: Ashworthius sidemi, Spiculopteragia spiculoptera, Oesophagostomum venulosum and O. sikae, and two species of coccidia: E. elaphi and E. austriaca. The level of parasitie infections was low, but the results indicate the important role of deer as possible transmitter of A. sidemi to other ungulates in examined area.

  17. Acid deposition sensitivity map of the Southern Appalachian Assessment area; Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, John D.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Kress, Thomas H.; Collins, Thomas K.; Kappesser, Gary B.; Huber, Cindy M.; Webb, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Project Summary: The following digital product represents the Acid Deposition Sensitivity of the Southern Appalachian Assessment Area. Areas having various susceptibilities to acid deposition from air pollution are designated on a three tier ranking in the region of the Southern Appalachian Assessment (SAA). The assessment is being conducted by Federal agencies that are members of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere (SAMAB) Cooperative. Sensitivities to acid deposition, ranked high, medium, and low are assigned on the basis of bedrock compositions and their associated soils, and their capacities to neutralize acid precipitation.

  18. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species.

  19. GT-9A - EARTH SKY - SOUTHERN TIP OF RED SEA AREA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-38423 (6 June 1966) --- The southern tip of the Red Sea area as seen from the Gemini-9A spacecraft during its 43rd revolution of Earth. The Red Sea is at lower left. The Gulf of Aden is in the center of the picture. The land mass at bottom center is Ethiopia. Yemen is at upper center, southwestern tip of Arabian Peninsula. Somalia is the land mass in the background, center of picture. The image was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Zonation of High Disaster Potential Communities for Remote Mountainous Areas in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chang, Chwen-Ming; Chen, Jing-Wen; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Lu, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hui-Wen

    2017-04-01

    About three-quarters of Taiwan are covered by hillside areas. Most of the hillside regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. In recent years, human development coupled with the global impact of extreme weather, typhoons and heavy rains have caused the landslide disasters and leaded to human causalities and properties loss. The landslides also endanger the major public works and almost make the overall industrial economic development and transport path overshadowed by disasters. Therefore, this research assesses the exploration of landslide potential analysis and zonation of high disaster potential communities for remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan. In this study, the time series of disaster records and land change of remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan are collected using techniques of interpretation from satellite images corresponding to multi-year and multi-rainfall events. To quantify the slope hazards, we adopt statistical analysis model to analyze massive data of slope disasters and explore the variance, difference and trend of influence factors of hillside disaster; establish the disaster potential analysis model under the climate change and construct the threshold of disaster. Through analysis results of disaster potential assessment, the settlement distribution with high-risk hazard potential of study area is drawn with geographic information system. Results of image classification show that the values of coefficient of agreement for different time periods are at high level. Compared with the historical disaster records of research areas, the accuracy of predicted landslide potential is in reasonable confidence level. The spatial distribution of landslide depends on the interaction of rainfall patterns, slope and elevation of the research area. The results also show that the number and scale of secondary landslide sites are much larger than those of new landslide sites after rainfall

  1. Geoelectrical Tomographies for the study of some landslide areas in the Lucanian Apennine Chain (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Sdao, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the frame of the two projects supported by the Italian Ministry of Research: "Design of geophysical monitoring network in areas of the Basilicata Region characterized by a high hydrogeological hazard" and "Geomorphological study and landslides control in some areas of the Basilicata region characterized by historical-cultural heritage", we developed a research activity focussed on a 2D electromagnetic monitoring and modelling of landslide bodies. Basilicata region (Southern Italy), being dissected by numerous and often significant rivers and characterized by the outcrop of terrains with bad mechanical properties, is one of the more exposed regions of the southern Apennine chain to hydrogeologic hazard and shows a complete panorama of mass movements. In order to study some landslide areas located in the Basilicata region, such as Varco Izzo, Latronico, Campomaggiore and Maratea, we carried out 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), 2D-3D self-potential tomographies and maps, combining advanced technologies for data acquisition and new methods for data inversion (Loke and Barker, 1996; McCann and Forster, 1990; Patella, 1997). The geophysical results allowed us: to outline the discontinuity between landslide material and bedrock, to identify the possible reactivation surfaces, to obtain useful information about the thickness of the mobilised material and the main patterns of the underground fluid flow. Geophysical results were compared with the data coming from geological and hydrogeological surveys and from the analysis of aerial photo and boreholes. The good correlation between the main anomalous geoelectrical zones, the main structural lineaments and hydrogeological characteristics of the investigated areas, allowed us to consider the used geoelectrical methods as a possible powerful tool to investigate landslide areas characterised by very complex geology.

  2. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy.

  3. A Hierarchical Classification of Benthic Biodiversity and Assessment of Protected Areas in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Lucinda L.; Turner, Joel; Grantham, Hedley S.; Kaiser, Stefanie; Constable, Andrew; Nicoll, Rob; Raymond, Ben; Post, Alexandra; Brandt, Angelika; Beaver, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided. PMID:25032993

  4. Active faulting and neotectonics in the Baelo Claudia area, Campo de Gibraltar (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützner, Christoph; Reicherter, Klaus; Hübscher, Christian; Silva, Pablo G.

    2012-07-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar area is part of the western Eurasian-African convergence zone characterized by a complex pattern of deformation, including thrusting and folding and active normal faulting. Generally, the area is of low-seismicity; only some minor earthquakes have been recorded in the last hundred years. Archaeoseismological data evidences earthquake destruction occurring twice during Roman times. A better neotectonic framework and knowledge on the paleostress evolution of the Strait of Gibraltar area is necessary to find the local sources for those events and to establish an understanding of the recent deformation. Paleoseismic evidence for one moderate earthquake event around 6000-5000 BP along the normal Carrizales Fault is described in this paper. Off-shore high-resolution seismic investigations, structural and paleostress data, high-resolution GPR and geoelectrical resistivity measurements, outcrop investigations and trenching studies are discussed. The data reveal that active faulting takes place along N-S trending normal faults. Hence, N-S directed normal faults in the area are claimed as local candidates for moderate earthquake activity. Return periods of moderate earthquakes in the order of at least 2000-2500 years in the study area may have to be taken into account. Structural data, such a paleostress data and joints are presented and a deformation history for the Strait of Gibraltar area in southern Spain is developed in this study.

  5. Prevalence of Clonorchiasis in Southern Endemic Areas of Korea in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Byung-Chul; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Cheun, Hyeong-Il; Hong, Sung-Tae; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate prevalence of clonorchiasis among the inhabitants living in villages along the 4 major rivers, Nakdong-gang (= river), Seomjin-gang, Youngsan-gang, and Guem-gang in southern Korea. From January to December 2006, a total of 24,075 stool samples (1 sample per an inhabitant) were collected in 23 localities and examined by the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Of the inhabitants examined, 3,441 (14.3%) were found to harbor various types of intestinal parasite eggs, cysts or larvae. Numbers of infected people were 2,661 (11.1%) for Clonorchis sinensis, 431 (1.8%) for heterophyids, 226 (0.9%) for Entamoeba spp., 57 (0.2%) for Giardia lamblia, 30 (0.1%) for Trichuris trichiura, and 18 (0.07%) for echinostomes. Prevalence rates of clonorchiasis according to the river basin were 17.1% in Nakdong-gang, 11.2% in Seomjin-gang, 5.5% in Youngsan-gang and 4.6% in Guem-gang. Of the 2,661 C. sinensis egg-positive cases, 57.7% was male. The present findings suggest that clonorchiasis is still highly prevalent among inhabitants in the riverside areas of southern Korea, and it is necessary to implement a systematic control program in the endemic areas. PMID:18830051

  6. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): insights from new seismic reflection data.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side.

  7. Geochemical maps of the Southern Massanutten Roadless Area, Page and Rockingham counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Forn, Carl L.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) made a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Southern Massanutten Roadless Area to test for indistinct or unexposed mineral deposits that might be recognized by their geochemical halos.  Sixty-two stream-sediment and 52 rock samples were collected from within and near the study area by Lesure, assisted by J. H. DeYoung, Jr. (USGS) and A. E. Grosz (USGS) in October 1979.  All samples were analyzed for 31 elements by means of semiquantitative emission spectrographic methods by Forn in USGS laboratories, Denver, COlo. (table 1).  The samples were also analyzed for zinc by means of an atomic absorption method by B. F. Arbogast, USGS laboratories, Denver, Colo.

  8. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

  9. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  10. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  12. Typology and distribution of sinkholes in the plain areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, S.; Iovine, G.; Parise, M.; Santo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes represent a very subtle hazard in karst areas, and often pose serious threat to population and anthropogenic environment. Cases which open, even without any premonitory sign, as rapid, catastrophic failures (collapse and/or cover collapse sinkholes) may result in severe economic losses and, most important, in casualties. In the last years, researches on sinkhole phenomena and related effects have significantly increased in Italy, in the aftermath of some remarkable events occurred in different regions, from Tuscany (Camaiore in October 1995) to Apulia (Gallipoli in March 2007). Aimed at recognizing and analysing the peculiar stratigraphical and morphological conditions which lead to sinkhole occurrence in Southern Italy, a review of events occurred in the plain areas of Campania, Apulia and Calabria is discussed in this study. The three considered regions are, in fact, suitable for a comparative analysis, due to presence of a good variety of environmental conditions. In Campania, the filling deposits of the plains are represented by alluvial deposits, intercalated with volcaniclastic materials. Sinkholes are generally located along of the Tyrrhenian margin of the carbonate massifs or within intramontane basins, and are 25-30 m deep. Some of them occurred in the vicinity of urban centres causing serious hazard conditions (such as in the case of Telese village) are described in detail. In Apulia, a flat region almost entirely interested by outcropping of soluble rocks, some cases affecting the calcarenite rocks overlying the limestone bedrock are examined, together with other cases involving Triassic evaporite rocks. In Calabria, one of the most seismogenic Italian regions, the relationships between strong historical earthquakes and occurrence of sinkholes are analyzed; nevertheless, other events of sinkholes related to meteoric events, rather than seismic shocks, are also considered. The article intends to provide a first glance on the variety of sinkhole

  13. Ground-water resources of southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater resources in southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas were studied to determine their potential for development as an alternative to the Mississippi River as a water-supply source for Jefferson Parish. Eight major aquifers consisting of thick sand units that underlie the study area are, in descending order: (1) shallow, (2) upper Ponchatoula, (3) lower Ponchatoula, (4) Abita, (5) Covington, (6) Tchefuncta, (7) Hammond, and (8) Amite. A fault zone, referred to as the Baton Rouge fault, crosses southern Tangipahoa Parish. Analyses of geophysical logs indicated that the deep aquifers south of the fault zone had been displaced from 350 to 400 feet, and that the deeper aquifers were not in hydraulic connection with the flow system north of the fault. The groundwater resources of southeastern Louisiana are immense and the quality of groundwater in Tangipahoa Parish is suitable for most uses. The quality of water in these aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standards for public supply. The hydrologic system underlying Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas in 1990 supplied about 19 Mgal/d of water that was suitable for public supply. However, substantial increases in pumping from the aquifer system would result in renewed water-level declines throughout the hydrologic system until a new equilibrium is established. A test we11 in southern Tangipahoa Parish, penetrated all eight aquifers. Total thickness of freshwater sand beds penetrated by the 3003-ft test hole was more than 1900 ft. Resistivity values from an electric log of the test typically averaged 200 ohm-meters, which indicates that the water has low dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations. An analysis of the Abita aquifer at Ruddock in St. John the Baptist Parish, for two of three hypothetical well fields, indicated that for a hypothetical we11 field with a pumping rate of 112 Mgal/d, the freshwater/saltwater interface could arrive at the outer perimeter we11 in

  14. Balancing livestock production and wildlife conservation in and around southern Africa's transfrontier conservation areas.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Atkinson, S J; Cassidy, D; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation, of which the transfrontier conservation area movement is an integral part, and more effective livestock production/trade are pivotal to future rural development in southern Africa. For that reason, it is imperative to effectively ameliorate the obstacles that have impeded progress towards the coexistence of these two sectors for more than half a century. Transboundary animal diseases, foot and mouth disease in particular, have been and continue to be the most important of these obstacles. Fortunately, new developments in international sanitary standards applicable to trade in commodities and products derived from animals are beginning to make a solution possible. However, while progress in principle has been achieved, practical implementation remains problematic for technical reasons, exacerbated by inconsistent attitudes towards acceptance of non-traditional international trade standards. This paper describes the background to this situation, progress that has been achieved in the recent past and remaining difficulties that need to be overcome to advance towards achievement of balanced rural development in southern Africa. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Regression Techniques for Determining the Effective Impervious Area in Southern California Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, R.; Mroczek, M.; Dallman, S.; Sengupta, A.; Stein, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    The portion of the Total Impervious Area (TIA) that is hydraulically connected to the storm drainage network is called the Effective Impervious Area (EIA). The remaining fraction of impervious area, called the non-effective impervious area, drains onto pervious surfaces which do not contribute to runoff for smaller events. Using the TIA instead of EIA in models and calculations can lead to overestimates of runoff volumes peak discharges and oversizing of drainage system since it is assumed all impervious areas produce urban runoff that is directly connected to storm drains. This makes EIA a better predictor of actual runoff from urban catchments for hydraulic design of storm drain systems and modeling non-point source pollution. Compared to TIA, determining the EIA is considerably more difficult to calculate since it cannot be found by using remote sensing techniques, readily available EIA datasets, or aerial imagery interpretation alone. For this study, EIA percentages were calculated by two successive regression methods for five watersheds (with areas of 8.38 - 158mi2) located in Southern California using rainfall-runoff event data for the years 2004 - 2007. Runoff generated from the smaller storm events are considered to be emanating only from the effective impervious areas. Therefore, larger events that were considered to have runoff from both impervious and pervious surfaces were successively removed in the regression methods using a criterion of (1) 1mm and (2) a max (2 , 1mm) above the regression line. MSE is calculated from actual runoff and runoff predicted by the regression. Analysis of standard deviations showed that criterion of max (2 , 1mm) better fit the regression line and is the preferred method in predicting the EIA percentage. The estimated EIAs have shown to be approximately 78% to 43% of the TIA which shows use of EIA instead of TIA can have significant impact on the cost building urban hydraulic systems and stormwater capture devices.

  16. The Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Selected data from the Southern Regional S-44 Project entitled "Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas" were analyzed to determine the work patterns of women in low-income rural areas. Objectives of the study were to describe the labor force experience of women, to report the attitudes of employed…

  17. Development and Application of Environmental Quality of Life Scale among People Residing near Three Types of Industrial Areas, Southern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat

    2013-01-01

    To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…

  18. Effect of surface ozone exposures on vegetation grown in the southern Appalachian Mountains: identification of possible areas of concern

    Treesearch

    Allen S. Lefohn; William Jackson; Douglas S. Shadwick; H. Peter Knudsen

    1997-01-01

    The results described in this paper are derived from an analysis, for the 8-yr period 1983-1990, that combined experimental exposure-response effects data for deciduous and coniferous seedlings and/or trees with characterized O3 ambient exposure data for a local area and soil moisture to identify areas that may be at risk in the Southern...

  19. Development and Application of Environmental Quality of Life Scale among People Residing near Three Types of Industrial Areas, Southern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat

    2013-01-01

    To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…

  20. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  1. Analysis of pseudocolor transformations of ERTS-1 images of Southern California area. [geological faults and lineaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Lamar, D. L.; Stratton, R. H.; Lamar, J. V.; Gazley, C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Representative faults and lineaments, natural features on the Mojave Desert, and cultural features of the southern California area were studied on ERTS-1 images. The relative appearances of the features were compared on a band 4 and 5 subtraction image, its pseudocolor transformation, and pseudocolor images of bands 4, 5, and 7. Selected features were also evaluated in a test given students at the University of California, Los Angeles. Observations and the test revealed no significant improvement in the ability to detect and locate faults and lineaments on the pseudocolor transformations. With the exception of dry lake surfaces, no enhancement of the features studied was observed on the bands 4 and 5 subtraction images. Geologic and geographic features characterized by minor tonal differences on relatively flat surfaces were enhanced on some of the pseudocolor images.

  2. Late Quaternary geomorphology and soils in Crater Flat, Yucca mountain area, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, F.F.; Bell, J.W.; Ramelli, A.R.; Dorn, R.I.; Ku, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    Crater Flat is an alluvium-filled structural basin on the west side of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is under consideration for a high-level nuclear waste repository. North-trending, late Quaternary faults offset alluvium in Crater Flat both along the canyons of the western flanks of Yucca Mountain and out on the piedmont slope. We believe the initial lack of young offsets at Yucca Mountain was in part due to unrecognized late Quaternary stratigraphy. We hypothesize that alluviation in the Yucca Mountain region was more active during the late Quaternary than previously thought. Several techniques were tried to test this hypothesis. Results are compared with previous soils and surface-exposure dating studies, and correlated to stratigraphy of other late Quaternary units in the southern Nevada, Death Valley, and Mojave Desert areas, and provide new stratigraphic data relevant to understanding climatic-alluvial processes in the Basin and Range Province during the late Quaternary. 76 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Factors associated with condom use in women from an urban area in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; dos Santos, Iná Silva; Béria, Jorge Umberto; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Tomasi, Elaine; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of factors associated with condom use during last sexual intercourse in 15-49-year-old women in a probabilistic sample from the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A questionnaire administered by an interviewer, investigating socioeconomic characteristics and habits, and another (self-administered) questionnaire on sexual behavior-related variables were used. Poisson regression, following a hierarchical model, was used for data analysis. 1,543 women were included, and losses and refusals amounted to 3.5%. Prevalence of condom use in last sexual intercourse was 28.0%. Condom use was positively associated with younger age, greater schooling, non-white color, single marital status, and greater number of sex partners in the previous three months. This suggests that the group most vulnerable to STDs/AIDS due to lack of condom use is white, adult women, in stable unions, with fewer sexual partners.

  4. Forest classes and tree cover gradient: tick habitat in encroached areas of southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Vanwambeke, S O; Van Doninck, J; Artois, J; Davidson, R K; Meyfroidt, P; Jore, S

    2016-03-01

    Forest, in particular deciduous forest, is a key element in determining areas with a high probability of tick presence. The way forest is generally monitored may be ill suited to some landscapes where Ixodes ricinus is found, as forest is usually characterised using crisp land cover classes. However, tree vegetation can be found outside of forests and continuous gradations of tree density can be found in a variety of landscapes. In this paper we investigate the probability of tick presence in southern Norway using landscape description based both on land cover classes and continuous data describing the tree cover fraction. Both perspectives on the landscape are significant in the logistic model, indicating that the usual approach based solely on land cover classes may not be comprehensive enough in capturing tick habitat, and characterising the landscape with variables focused on single specific elements may be insufficient.

  5. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 images on the volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.

  6. Transpressional regime in southern Arabian Shield: Insights from Wadi Yiba Area, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Kattu, Ghazi; Matsah, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Detailed field-structural mapping of Neoproterozoic basement rocks exposed in the Wadi Yiba area, southern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia illustrates an important episode of late Neoproterozoic transpression in the southern part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). This area is dominated by five main basement lithologies: gneisses, metavolcanics, Ablah Group (meta-clastic and marble units) and syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. These rocks were affected by three phases of deformation (D1-D3). D1 formed tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), penetrative foliation (S1), and mineral lineation (L1), which resulted from early E-W (to ENE-WSW) shortening. D2 deformation overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by transpression and top-to-the-W (-WSW) thrusting as shortening progressed. Stretching lineation trajectories, S-C foliations, asymmetric shear fabrics and related mylonitic foliation, and flat-ramp and duplex geometries further indicate the inferred transport direction. The N- to NNW-orientation of both “in-sequence piggy-back thrusts” and axial planes of minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds also indicates the same D2 compressional stress trajectories. The Wadi Yiba Shear Zone (WYSZ) formed during D2 deformation. It is one of several N-S trending brittle-ductile Late Neoproterozoic shear zones in the southern part of the ANS. Shear sense indicators reveal that shearing during D2 regional-scale transpression was dextral and is consistent with the mega-scale sigmoidal patterns recognized on Landsat images. The shearing led to the formation of the WYSZ and consequent F2 shear zone-related folds, as well as other unmappable shear zones in the deformed rocks. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during D2 transpression and occupied space created during thrust propagation. D1 and D2 structures are locally overprinted by mesoscopic- to macroscopic-scale D3 structures (F3 folds, and L3 crenulation lineations and

  7. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  8. Microbiological and chemical characterization of hydrothermal fluids at Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area, southern New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kennedy, John F.

    2000-06-01

    The Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area is part of the larger hydrothermal system of the Rio Grande Rift, southern New Mexico, USA. Chemical and microbial parameters indicate that the sampled hydrothermal water derives from a mixture zone of deep, anaerobic water with meteoric water from an adjacent alluvial, non-thermal groundwater flow system. A microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis indicates that biomass and diversity of hydrothermal groundwater are very low, whereas hydrothermal surface water is diverse and bacteria are in a rapid growth phase. A nucleic acid (DNA) analysis of the hydrothermal groundwater resulted in the identification of one eubacterium and two Archaea (archaebacteria); the eubacterium and one Archaea were previously unknown. The one Archaea that could be related to a known species is an extreme halophilic methanomicrobacterium. The presence of the halophilic Archaea and the other Archaea species supports the hypothesis of the Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area being the discharge area of deep circulating groundwater within a bedrock-hosted regional groundwater flow system.

  9. Detection of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from urban areas of Curitiba, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Furman, Keiko Endo; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Finger, Mariane Angélica; Busch, Ana Paula Brenner; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Deconto, Ivan; Dornbusch, Peterson Triches; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2012-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. The reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in Brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. Thus, the present study investigated the frequency of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from Curitiba and surrounding areas, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. IgG antibodies against Neospora sp. were detected using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and titers equal to or higher than 1:50 were considered reactive. Of all samples, 14/97 (14.4%) were positive: 2/29 (6.9%) were younger than 5; 5/26 (19.2%) between 6 and 9; and 6/31 (19.4%) older than 10 years of age. One of the 11 animals with unknown age was positive (9.1%). Cart horses are likely to be more exposed to dog feces and to Neospora sp. oocyst contamination in urban settings and a lower frequency of disease in dogs may have a negative impact on horse infection risk in these areas.

  10. First results from a temporary seismological network in the Southern Dead Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, A.; Haberland, C.; Darwish, J.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

    2008-12-01

    Within the framework of the international project DESIRE (Dead Sea Integrated Research Project) a local seismological network was operated in the Southern Dead Sea area as a co-operation between the GFZ Germany, GII Israel, NRA Jordan and An-Najah National Univer-sity Palestine. From October 2006 to March 2008 about 65 short period (38) and broadband (27) instruments recorded continuously the seismicity of the Dead Sea basin. This investiga-tion aims in studying the deeper structure of the Dead Sea area based on the distribution of the local seismicity. About 500 local events have been recorded and more than 300 have been processed up to now. A dominant feature in this first part of the dataset we found a cluster of 78 earthquakes, occurring in February 2007, including multiplets. We determined a 1D-reference model of P- and S-velocities using Velest (Kissling et al., 1994). The model shows a high velocity increase between 6 and 10 km depth. This could be related to a prominent reflector found in the results of the wide angle reflection experiment in the area in 2006 (Mechie et al., 2008). The station corrections suggest a 2D structure with the basin in the middle and the shoulders on the east and west. Additionally the results are compared with receiver function and magnetotelluric studies, part of the DESIRE project.

  11. Exploring for hydrocarbons in geothermally and hydrothermally complex areas -- a southern Nevada example

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A.G.; Repetski, J.E.; Grow, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Time-based isograd maps using conodont color alteration indices (CAI) have been compiled and interpreted for a large area in southern Nevada that includes Yucca Mountain, the Nevada Test Site, and the Nellis Air Force Bombing and Gunnery Range. These maps were produced to evaluate the controversy about possible important mineral and (or) energy resources near Yucca Mountain, the potential burial site for high-level nuclear waste. The hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain area has been likened to that of the Railroad and Pine Valley areas, 200 km to the northeast where 35 million barrels of oil have been produced from Paleozoic and lower Tertiary strata. In 1991, two companies with no previous drilling experience in Nevada drilled three oil exploration wells within 20 km of Yucca Mountain and within or close to the Timber Mountain caldera system. No shows of oil or gas were found in these wells. The deepest well was drilled to 5,000 feet and penetrated 2,200 feet of upper Tertiary valley-fill deposits and volcanic rocks overlying an overturned sequence of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician rocks having conodonts with CAI values of 5. Our new conodont sampling, however, has targeted some thermally favorable areas for hydrocarbons east of Yucca mountain, but their maturation history suggests that the potential for oil is substantially lower than in the Railroad and Pine Valley areas. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high for oil to be preserved, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Most of this zone, however, lies on Federal lands that are, for now, inaccessible for a variety of security and environmental reasons.

  12. Obstacle-related contourites in the El Arraiche area, southern Gulf of Cádiz.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandorpe, T.; Van Rooij, D.; Martins, I.; Hebbeln, D.

    2014-12-01

    The El Arraiche area is situated in the southern part of the Gulf of Cádiz, roughly between 35° and 35°45' north and 6°30' and 7°15' west. This area contains mud volcanoes, cold-water coral (CWC) mounds, contourite drifts and tectonic ridges (Fig. 1). CWC mounds are present both on top and at the foot of the Pen Duick Escarpment (Van Rooij et al., 2011; Vandorpe et al., 2014), but recent multibeam and seismic data indicate the ubiquitous presence of small mounds both buried and on the seafloor (Fig.1). Information regarding the environmental conditions in which these ecosystems thrived can be derived from the nearby contourite systems, as they contain an oceanographic as well as a climatic imprint. In this area, all of the topographic features interfere with the contourite deposits. The Quaternary Pen Duick drift for example displays pinch-out due to the uplifting Pen Duick Escarpment (Fig. 1), a Christmas-tree structure due to the outflow of mud from the nearby Gemini Mud Volcano and CWC mounds are present in certain parts of the moat (Vandorpe et al., 2014). Increased bottom currents are observed at the foot of the Pen Duick Escarpment, Renard ridge and Vernadsky ridge (up to 10 cm/s). As mounded drift deposits start occurring after the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution in the Pen Duick drift, enhanced bottom currents may be present from then onwards. The presence of (modified) Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is inferred (Vandorpe et al. (2014) and references therein) and likely contributes to the formation of the Pen Duick drift, while Mediterranean Outflow Water is only present at greater water depths (from 900 meter onwards). The formation of the other drift systems is the subject of ongoing research. Van Rooij, D., Blamart, D., De Mol, L., Mienis, F., Pirlet, H., Wehrmann, L.M., Barbieri, R., Maignien, L., Templer, S.P., de Haas, H., Hebbeln, D., Frank, N., Larmagnat, S., Stadnitskaia, A., Stivaletta, N., van Weering, T., Zhang, Y., Hamoumi, N., Cnudde, V

  13. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-12-01

    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  14. Regional deformation analysis in the Sannio-Matese area (Southern Apennines, Italy) by GPS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrizzo, Francesco; Sepe, Vincenzo; Brandi, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Andrea; de Martino, Prospero; Dolce, Mario; Tammaro, Umberto; Pingue, Folco

    2010-05-01

    The central-southern Apennines and the Calabrian arc are among the most actively deforming zones of the Mediterranean basin connected with the motion of Africa and Aegean-Anatolian systems with respect to Eurasia. The tectonic stress, caused in this area by the convergence of the confining blocks, is elastically accumulated and periodically released along crustal discontinuities (faults) during earthquakes. A detailed knowledge of the ongoing crustal strain rates is fundamental to constrain geodynamical models of the Italian peninsula and to understand the characteristics of the active tectonic stress release. Given the low deformation rates in the Central Mediterranean area, only a long-term monitoring can yield the necessary data set to model and understand the ongoing tectonic processes. The Matese carbonatic massive occupies a surface of beyond 1000 km2 between the Campania Apennine northernmost part while Monti del Sannio, consisting primarily of quaternary deposits. It is located to the East of massive and represent the area of Apennine chain which degrades to East towards the Bradanica foredeep and it's delimited, in its complex, from Volturno, Biferno, Tammaro and Calore rivers. The area was interested in historical events by several destructive earthquakes with an Intensity I greater or equal than IX MCS (1456, 1688, 1702, 1732, 1805, 1962), besides by seismic sequences of low energy (1885, 1903, 1905, 1990, 1992, 1997). The first studies surveying the area started from 1990-2000 with the definition of geodetic networks, covering all or part of the massive Matese, with the aim of the evaluation of seismogenic sources responsible for the seismicity of the area. A preliminary study from the geological and structural point of view was focused on the area extending among Benevento, Campobasso, Caserta, Isernia and L'Aquila provinces, in order to accurately define the sites in which the vertices of the network could be installed. After a careful inspection of

  15. Influence of climate variability and urban areas on the flood events in Bari (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) can be defined as the occurrence of one or more simultaneous phenomena, such as droughts, windstorms, heat waves, landslides, floods and secondary floods (i.e. rapid accumulation or pounding of surface water with very low flow velocity), causing damages. They represent a serious problem, especially in DHE-prone areas with growing urbanization, where the infiltration capability is limited by buildings and where the vulnerability is higher than other areas. The paper proposes a methodology, based on both historical and time series approaches, used for describing the influence of climatic variability and urban development on the number of phenomena observed. The historical approach is finalised to collect phenomenon historical data, very important for the comprehension of the evolution of a study area. Phenomenon historical data is useful for expanding the historical period of investigation in order to assess the occurrence trend of DHEs. The historical analysis of DHEs can support decision making and land-use planning, ultimately reducing natural risks. The time series approach includes the collection and the statistical analysis of climatic data (monthly rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, and temperature), useful to characterise the climate variations and trends and to roughly assess the effects of these trends on river discharge and on the triggering of landslides. The time series approach is completed by tools to analyse simultaneously all data types. The study of land use variations, with a special emphasis on the urban areas, is important to understand how the modifications occurred in the territory, especially in terms of vulnerability, could influence the occurrence of DHEs. The methodology can be applied simultaneously to floods and landslides and was tested considering the municipality of Bari (southern Italy), particularly affected by flood events. Since the climate trend (decreasing trend of rainfall and

  16. Phlebotomine sand fly population dynamics in a leishmaniasis endemic peri-urban area in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarallo, Viviana D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-12-01

    A 2-year survey was carried out from May to November 2008 and 2009 to study the sand fly species composition, its seasonal phenology and density in Apulia region (southern, Italy). The study was conducted in a dog shelter located in a new residential urban district where Leishmania infantum is endemic. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps from May to November, at about 7-day intervals. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily. In December 2008, general environmental improvements (e.g., the ground was covered with gravel and the vegetation present inside the cages was removed to facilitate cleaning) were made in the study area. The most diffused species during the whole study period were Phlebotomus perniciosus (2008, n=248, 49.4%; 2009, n=254, 50.6%) followed by Phlebotomus neglectus (2008, n=76, 39.8%; 2009, n=115, 60.2%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (2008, n=5, 50.0%; 2009, n=5, 50.0%). Four specimens of Phlebotomus perfiliewi were collected only in the first year. The number of Sergentomyia minuta specimens collected increased considerably in the second (n=548, 86.2%) in comparison to the first year (n=88, 13.8%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in July and August when a mean temperature from 27.09 to 28.02°C and mean relative humidity from 47.28 to 56.36% were recorded. The variations in phlebotomine sand fly species diversity and abundance recorded in this study were related to climatic and environmental factors. Data here presented confirm that sand flies easily adapt to the urban environments and that the may represent a public health concern for L. infantum and other pathogen transmission also in similar urban environment of southern Europe. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Southern Adriatic Basin: A Key Area For The Climatic Monitoring of The Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, G.; Gacic, M.; Saint, The

    The Southern Adriatic, the southernmost and deepest subbasin of the Adriatic Sea, is considered a major site of deep water formation and the origin of the semi-closed ther- mohaline cell in the Eastern Mediterranean. The dynamics of the area is dominated by the presence of a quasi-permanent cyclonic gyre that intensifies in the winter season creating the conditions for the production of dense and oxygenated waters that are exported to the rest of the Eastern Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. The at- mospheric forcing is transferred into the marine system by the winter convective water overturning, that is the key process generating new waters and triggering the biologi- cal pump. The other main forcing is the intermediate saline water advection across the Strait of Otranto, connecting the Adriatic Sea with the general basin-scale circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean. Both of them act in determining the occurrence and the magnitude of the convective events and the related biological processes. Due to the ac- tion of these forcing, the Southern Adriatic system is subject to a significant variability on temporal scale spanning from days to decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that the local thermal and haline surface forcing generates strong year-to-year varia- tions of the vertical convection and consequently of the primary production. On the other hand, the advective forcing changes the intermediate water thermohaline prop- erties as well as the nutrient content in the basin, again affecting both the vertical convection and the biological processes. The signals associated to these processes are particularly intense, and allow us to designate this relatively small basin as a suit- able field laboratory for the study of the relationships between ocean biogeochemical cycles and climate.

  18. Hydrology of coal-resource areas in the southern Wasatch Plateau, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, T.W.; Sylla, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study defines the surface and groundwater hydrology of coal-resources areas in the Southern Wasatch Plateau in Central Utah and, where possible, predicts the hydrologic impacts of underground mining. Discharge data at four streamflow gaging stations indicated that from 5 to 29% of the average annual precipitation on a drainage runs off streams, mainly during the snowmelt period (spring and summer). Most of the base flow of streams originates as spring discharge in the higher altitudes of drainages. Peak flows, average 7-day flood flows, and flood depths were related to basin characteristics in order to develop flood equations for ungaged sites. Chemical quality of surface water was suitable for most uses. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 97 to 835 milligrams per liter in 61 samples collected throughout the area. Data from wells and coal-test holes, and a comprehensive spring inventory indicate that groundwater occurs in all geologic units exposed in the study area. The coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation and underlying Star Point Sandstone are saturated in most areas. Some future mining operations would require dewatering of the Star Point-Blackhawk aquifer. Most of the springs issue from the Flagstaff Limestone and North Horn Formation above the Star Point-Blackhawk aquifer. It is not known whether water in the Flagstaff and North Horn is perched. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 105 to 1,080 milligrams per liter in 87 analyzed samples. Water levels in wells, the discharge of springs, benthic invertebrates in streams, and quantity and quality of mine effluents all need to be monitored in order to detect changes in the hydrologic system caused by coal mining. (USGS)

  19. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  20. Stable foraging areas and variable chick diet in Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) off southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Josh; Takekawa, John Y.; Carter, Harry R.

    2004-01-01

    Planktivorous seabirds readily respond to changes in marine ecosystems and have the ability to integrate information regarding variability in abundance, availability, and community composition of key prey resources. We studied the foraging and breeding ecology of the Cassin's auklet, Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas, 1811), off southern California during three breeding seasons (1999-2001), when large intra- and inter-annual variability occurred in local oceanographic conditions during a prolonged La Nina event. Radio-marked parents used consistent core foraging areas within 30 km of their colony, aggregated in shelf waters (< 200 m depth), and occasionally foraged in deeper waters. Parents delivered primarily euphausiids, pelagic larval-juvenile fishes, and minor amounts of cephalopods and other crustaceans. Whereas the euphausiid Thysanoessa spinifera Holmes, 1900 was most important during 1999 and 2001, Euphausia pacifica Hansen, 1911 replaced adult T. spinifera in 2000 after an anomalous eastward inflection of the California Current occurred near the auklets' foraging area. Differences in chick diets, however, did not significantly influence fledging success and growth among first chicks, but the proportion of pairs successfully fledging an alpha chick and initiating a second clutch was exceptional in 1999 (63%) and 2000 (75%), and less in 2001 (7%). We suggest that dietary composition was influenced by modified prey availability driven in part by fluctuations in regional upwelling and circulation. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  1. [Hymenolepis nana infection: associated factors with this parasitism in a health area of Southern Spain].

    PubMed

    Cabeza, M Isabel; Cabezas, M Teresa; Cobo, Fernando; Salas, Joaquín; Vázquez, José

    2015-10-01

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common tapeworm in humans; prevalence rates of 0.1%-58% have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence in a health area of Southern Spain and identify the demographic variables potentially associated with increased rates of hymenolepiasis in this area. A retrospective study was performed with patients, who had H. nana eggs in fecal samples during january 2000 to december 2013. Parasitological diagnosis relied on microscopic detection in concentrated stool samples. During the study period, 73.660 stool samples were analyzed. H. nana eggs were observed in 158 patients (31 female) with a mean age of 18,9 years. The prevalence during the study period was 0,21% and 61% of the infected patients had more than one intestinal parasite. In conclusion, the prevalence of parasitism by H. nana in our population was higher than the national average and higher in adults than in children due to the characteristics of our population.

  2. Research progress in volcanology in the Neapolitan area, southern Italy: a review and some alternative views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivo, Benedetto; Petrosino, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; Rolandi, Giuseppe; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2010-05-01

    Comprehensive reviews are given for the major volcanic systems that occur in the greater metropolitan area of Naples, southern Italy; Mt. Somma-Vesuvius to the east and the Campi Flegrei volcanic system to the west. Also included in the review is a detailed discussion of the large, highly explosive Campania Volcanic Zone (CVZ) ignimbrite events. These volcanic areas have been studied for more than 100 years, yet significant differences of opinion exist related to fundamental issues of origin and distribution. We present some alternative views related to petrogenesis on some issues based on more than 25 years of research. The relationship between risk assessment and management that impacts the threatened society or culture and the past and ongoing fundamental volcanological research is an essential part of the science. Countries with limited resources may be forced to accept an increased risk but even highly industrialized societies may not be able to completely eliminate deaths from volcanic eruptions. Scientific studies of the hazardous regions should be comprehensive and include reasonable alternative interpretations as this information reveals the level of confidence that must be conveyed to the public officials. The authors review the state of the art of risk assessment and management of the volcanic hazards in the Neapolitan region in light of the review of research.

  3. BOREAS HYD-9 Hourly and Daily Rainfall Maps for the Southern Study Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eley, F. Joe; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Krauss, Terry S.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-9 team collected data on precipitation and streamflow over portions of the Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA). This data set contains Cartesian maps of rain accumulation for one-hour and daily periods during the summer of 1994 over the SSA only (not the full view of the radar). A parallel set of one-hour maps for the whole radar view has been prepared and is available upon request from the HYD-09 personnel. An incidental benefit of the areal selection was the elimination of some of the less accurate data, because for various reasons the radar rain estimates degrade considerably outside a range of about 100 km. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-09 hourly and daily radar rainfall maps for the SSA are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  4. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  5. Microzooplankton community associated with phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean).

    PubMed

    Christaki, Urania; Georges, Clément; Genitsaris, Savvas; Monchy, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    The spatial and temporal community composition of microzooplankton (dinoflagellates and ciliates) was assessed in the Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean) during the KEOPS2 cruise in early spring (October-November) 2011. This naturally iron-fertilized region was characterized by a complex mesoscale circulation resulting in a patchy distribution of phytoplankton blooms. Collectively, 97 morphospecies of dinoflagellates and ciliates belonging to 41 genera were identified by microscopy, and 202 Alveolata-related OTUs (operational taxonomical units) were retrieved with tag-pyrosequencing. Microscopy and pyrosequencing data were in accordance, in that diatom-consuming dinoflagellates were the most enhanced taxa in the blooms. Dinoflagellates also showed significant positive relationships with phytoplankton pigments, while no major differences were found in the ciliate abundances inside and outside the blooms. Cluster analysis showed clear differences in the phytoplankton and microzooplankton community structures between the iron-fertilized and HNLC (high nutrient low chlorophyll) waters, and between the blooms, concerning their location and the fertilization mechanisms. These results were combined with the rates of primary production and mesozooplankton consumption determined for the study area. The potential role of dinoflagellates and ciliates as phytoplankton consumers and as prey for mesozooplankton was then evaluated. Overall, heterotrophic dinoflagellates were probably the most important group of phytoplankton grazers, and a potential food source for copepods.

  6. Ground water in the Harrisburg-Halsey area, southern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Harrisburg-Halsey area lies between the Cascade and Coast Ranges in the southern Willamette Valley in northwestern Oregon. The area consists of approximately 350 square miles (910 km2) and includes a part of the lower foothills of the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Volcanic and marine sedimentary units exposed in the foothills range in age from Eocene to Miocene. The volcanic rocks are primarily of dacitic and andesitic composition and yield only small quantities of water that are generally adequate only for domestic and stock use. The alluvial deposits (sand and gravel) of the valley plain contain the more productive aquifers in the area and yield most of the water that is pumped from wells in the area. Aquifers in the area are recharged principally by direct infiltration of precipitation. Most of the precipitation, which averages about 40 in. (1,020 mm) per year occurs during late autumn and winter. During 1974 the seasonal decline of water levels from winter to late summer averaged about 10 ft 13 m) for the alluvial deposits. The seasonal change of storage for 1974 was estimated to be about 170,000 acre-ft (210 hm3). Of this volume, about 14,300 acre-ft (17.6 hm3) was pumped from wells; the rest, about 156,000 acre-ft (190 hm3), was discharged naturally by seepage and spring flow to streams and by evapotranspiration. The difference between pumpage and natural discharge indicates that a large quantity of additional water is available for development. The storage capacity of the alluvial aquifers is estimated to be about 800,000 acre-ft (1,000 hm3) in the zone 10-100 ft (3-30 m} below land surface. Ground water from the alluvial deposits is chemically suitable for irrigation and other uses, as is most of the water obtained from perched-water bodies in the older sedimentary and volcanic rocks. However, the mineral concentration of water from the older sedimentary rocks, particularly from deeper producing zones beneath the valley plain, is greater than that of water

  7. Concentration and Distribution of Well Drilling in the Amargosa Desert Area of Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. P.; Gross, A. J.; Coleman, N. M.

    2002-05-01

    The earliest sources of fresh water supply in the Amargosa Desert area of Southern Nevada were the abundant, naturally occurring (cold) springs. They initially sustained the indigenous Native American populations and later, Euro-American miners, farmers, and ranchers. Prior to 1900, the many local springs and a few (mostly shallow) hand-dug wells were the principal sources of water supply. The first hand-dug well in the area was the Franklin well; it was dug in 1852 for workers performing a survey of the California-Nevada State line. The first mechanically bored wells were drilled for local railroads, along their respective alignments, sometime between 1905-07. About 1917, the first irrigation well in the Amargosa Desert area was drilled for an experimental farm operated by the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad. In the late 1940s-early 1950s, permanent interest in the area was established, in large measure because of a Federally sponsored desert reclamation program. For the period 1900-1999, a preliminary evaluation of publicly available information (collected principally by the State Engineer) indicates that more than 950 boreholes were drilled in the Amargosa Desert area. Almost half of these boreholes were drilled in the last 20 years. Forty-two percent of the boreholes were drilled to supply fresh drinking water; 26 percent were in support of irrigated agriculture; 21 percent of the wells were drilled for some non-water supply related purpose - ground-water monitoring and testing; and 11 percent were drilled to supply water for commercial or unspecified applications. Most of the well drilling has been concentrated in a parcel of land about 30-40 kilometers south of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Most wells have been generally drilled to depths less than 30 meters (100 feet), although deeper wells are uncommon. The main reason is that drilling is expensive and the profitability of finding and extracting potable water, in sufficient

  8. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Impieri, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy). Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species), respiratory apparatus diseases (11), toothache, decay etc. (10) and rheumatic pains (8). The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants. PMID:17983476

  9. Fluxes of deep CO 2 in the volcanic areas of central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, Barbara; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frondini, Francesco; Marini, Luigi; Ottonello, Giulio; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2004-08-01

    Both the shallow (organic-derived) and deep (mantellic-magmatic-metamorphic) fluxes of CO 2 [ ΦCO 2, mass time -1] and specific fluxes of CO 2 [ ϕCO 2 mass time -1 surface -1] dissolving in the shallow groundwaters of the volcanic areas of Amiata, Vulsini-Vico-Sabatini, Albani, Roccamonfina, Vesuvio, Vulture, and Etna were evaluated by partitioning the composed population of total dissolved inorganic carbon in two individual populations and subsequent subtraction of local background population. The flux of deep CO 2 released from the geothermal fields of Piancastagnaio (Amiata), Torre Alfina, Latera, Marta, Bracciano south, Cesano, and Mofete and from the Overall Northern Latium Hydrothermal Reservoir were also evaluated by means of the total surface heat flux and the enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the single liquid phase circulating in each geothermal reservoir. These data suggest that the ϕCO 2 released to the atmosphere varies from 9.5×10 6 to 3.0×10 6 mol year -1 km -2, over the geothermal fields of Bracciano south and Cesano, respectively, and that a total ΦCO 2 of 3.8×10 8 mol year -1 is cumulatively released from the geothermal fields of Torre Alfina, Latera and Cesano extending over an area of only 66 km 2. In addition, a flux of ˜2.2×10 11 to 3.8×10 11 mol year -1 of gaseous CO 2 entering the atmosphere is obtained for the entire anomalous area of central Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian coastline to the Apennine chain (45,000 km 2). Thus terrestrial CO 2 emission in central-southern Italy appears to be a significant carbon source.

  10. Hydrodynamic Environment and Ecosystem Diversity at two Deep-Sea Marine Protected Areas in Southern Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pola, C.; Ivey, G. N.; Jones, N. L.; Sanchez, F.; Kelly, S. M.; Bluteau, C.; Somavilla, R.

    2016-02-01

    Two nearby offshore deep sea areas in Southern Bay of Biscay (northern Spain), hosting valuable ecosystems, have been recently declared marine protected areas. The first one is Le Danois Bank, a seamount-like feature connected to the continental shelf by a saddle. The second one is the Aviles Canyon System (ACS) that breaks the continuity of the northern Spanish continental shelf. A number of observational multidisciplinary programs carried out within the last decade allowed a detailed identification of habitats and biological communities. As a long-term goal these programs aimed to understand the ecosystem functioning as a whole with the implicit focus in associated circulation and dynamics. The observational record includes deep sea photogrametry as well as standard hydrography and long-term mooring lines. A lander system provided high-frequency currents and thermal structure tens meters above bottom together with time lapse photographs at selected sites. Different characteristic habitats from sedimentary to rocky, associated with different fisheries, were described both in Le Danois Bank and the ACS. These include sponge aggregations and deep water corals. Noteworthy structured coral reefs only appeared in a relatively small area in one of the tributaries of the ACS (La Gaviera Canyon), where local near-bottom currents were stronger than anywhere else in the region. The development and violent breaking of an internal tidal bore was the main feature of such hotspot. Analytic estimates confirmed that La Gaviera is the only canyon were large patches of the seafloor are critical or near-critical to the semidiurnal internal tide and nearby upper flanks show also large patches of critical seafloor and large body forcing. A year-long near-bottom current record captured the development of three benthic storms, events lasting several days in which currents increases up to 3-fold the tidal max speeds and direction swings rapidly, losing the uniformity of tidal regime.

  11. HIV Incidence and Spatial Clustering in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Augusto, Orvalho J.; Munguambe, Khátia; Pierrat, Charlotte; Pedro, Elpidia N.; Sacoor, Charfudin; De Lazzari, Elisa; Aponte, John J.; Macete, Eusébio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara; Naniche, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Monitoring the HIV epidemic in a defined population is critical for planning treatment and preventive strategies. This is especially important in sub-Saharan Africa, which harbours the highest burden of the disease. Objective To estimate HIV incidence in adults aged 18-47 years old and to investigate spatial variations of HIV prevalence in Manhiça, a semi-rural area of southern Mozambique. Methods Two cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2012 to determine HIV prevalence. Individual participants were randomly selected from the demographic surveillance system in place in the area and voluntary HIV counselling and testing was offered at the household level. HIV incidence was calculated using prevalence estimates from the two sero-surveys. Each participant’s household was geocoded using a global information system. The Spatial Scan Statistics programme was used to identify areas with disproportionate excess in HIV prevalence. Results A total of 1511 adults were tested. The estimated HIV prevalence in the community was 39.9% in 2010 and 39.7% in 2012. The overall HIV incidence was 3.6 new infections per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR) [95CI 1.56; 7.88], assuming stable epidemic conditions, and tended to be higher in women (4.9/100 PYAR [95CI 1.74; 11.85]) than in men (3.2/PYAR [95CI 1.36; 9.92]). One cluster with significant excess HIV prevalence was identified at the same geographic location in both surveys. This cluster had an HIV prevalence of 79.0% in 2010 and 52.3% in 2012. Conclusions The findings of these first individually-randomised community-HIV sero-surveys conducted in Mozambique reinforce the need to combine HIV incidence estimates and research on micro geographical infection patterns to guide and consolidate effective prevention strategies. PMID:26147473

  12. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 2 Figure...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 2 Figure...

  14. Two new species of Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu (Platyhelminthes: Continenticola) from areas of deciduous forest in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Silvana Vargas Do; Leal-Zanchet, Ana Maria

    2016-09-29

    Two new species of Geoplaninae from southern Brazil are described herein. The new species, belonging to the genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990, can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by colour pattern and characteristics of the copulatory apparatus, especially regarding the female organs and prostatic vesicle. Both new species seem to be endemic to areas covered by deciduous forest.

  15. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  16. Capture Zone Analyses of Two Airlift Recirculation Wells in the Southern Sector of A/M Area

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.E.

    1999-09-14

    This report documents a series of capture zone analyses performed to access the expected overall performance of two (of the twelve) vertical airlift recirculation wells (ARWs) (specifically, SSR-011 and SRR-012) located in the Southern Sector of A/M Area.

  17. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  18. Basal area growth for aspen suckers under simulated browsing on Cedar Mountain, southern Utah, western United States of America

    Treesearch

    K. Tshireletso; J. C. Malechek; D. L. Bartos

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of season and intensity of clipping using simulated browsing on suckers' (Populus tremulaides Michx.) basal area growth on Cedar Mountain, Southern Utah, Western United States of America. Three randomly selected stands measuring 70 m x 70 m were clear-felled in mid-July, 2005, and fenced. Simulated browsing...

  19. Metamorphism and gold mineralization of the Kenticha Katawicha area: Adola belt, southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Lulu

    2006-05-01

    I present geological and mineral chemistry results aiming at understanding the relationship between metamorphism and gold mineralization in the N-trending Neoproterozoic Kenticha-Katawicha area in the Adola belt of southern Ethiopia. The Kenticha-Katawicha area comprises low-grade metamorphic rocks including pelitic schists, marble, graphite schists and Fe-Mn quartzites (Kenticha marine metasedimentary rocks) and serpentinites and talc-tremolite-chlorite schists with podiform chromites (Kenticha ophiolite). Lenses of high-grade amphibolite schist are also locally present within the Kenticha-Katawicha area. These rocks are sandwiched between high-grade para- and ortho-gneisses, migmatites, schists and amphibolites. Post-orogenic granites intrude the metamorphic sequences. Mineral assemblages and textural data obtained from the high-grade rocks indicate that the dominant metamorphic condition is of upper amphibolite facies. Garnet-biotite (garnet-core-matrix-biotite) and amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry gave estimates for peak metamorphic temperatures of 630-650 °C and pressure of 7 kbar for the high-grade rocks. On the other hand, the low-grade rocks recrystallized in the greenschist facies conditions. The estimated peak T- P values for the high-grade rocks suggest a burial to ˜25 km depth and a clockwise P- T path is deduced from mineral thermometry and the textural and paragenetic relations. This combined with the geochemistry of the magmatic rocks and clockwise P- T is consistent with a collision setting in which rocks of the calc-alkaline, volcanic-arc, and oceanic fragments are assembled. In the study area, gold occurs in quartz veins and veinlets in lenses of biotite schists within ultramafic rocks that are confined to shear zones. Fluid inclusion studies of gold quartz veins and veinlets indicate a H 2O- and CO 2-rich fluid with low salinity (<5 wt% NaCl equivalent). The gold mineralization in the area is post-peak regional metamorphism and is

  20. [Present situation of rice fertilization in qin-ba mountainous area of Southern Shaanxi, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Fen; Tong, Yan-An; Zhao, Zuo-Ping

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the present situation of rice fertilization and the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input in the Qin-Ba mountainous area of southern Shaanxi, the survey data from 2854 households in 11 counties of this area in the project "soil testing and formulated fertilization in 2006-2009" were analyzed and evaluated, and the countermeasures for the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were proposed. In the study area, the average rice yield was 7822 kg x hm(-2) per year, and the ratio of the households obtained the medium level yield was up to 50.9%. The input of the total fertilizers N, P2O5, K2O was 169, 68, and 54 kg x hm(-2), and the chemical fertilizer rate was 159, 62, and 45 kg x hm(-2), with the partial factor productivity (PFP) of the N, P2O5, and K2O being 51.52, 135.69, and 158.26 kg x kg(-1), respectively. According to the nutrient fertilization level, the proportion of the households fertilized with rational level of chemical N, P2O5, and K2O occupied 48.0%, 42.4%, and 7.2%, that of the households fertilized with excessive level was 22.6%, 11.2%, and 0.6%, and the proportion of the households fertilized with insufficient level occupied 29.4%, 46.5%, and 92.2%, respectively. The rice yield in the Qin-Ba mountainous area could be increased by 77 thousand tons if the households fertilizing with insufficient level of chemical NPK fertilizers increased the fertilization rate to a rational level. The existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were mainly the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the insufficient input of potassium fertilizer and organic manure. In the rice fertilization in this area, the focus would be the balanced application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, the increase of the fertilization rates of potassium fertilizer and organic manure, and the increase of top dressing, especially potassium.

  1. Relation between Oceanographic parameters and Optical properties in 5 coastal areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Braga, Federica; Betti, Mattia; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Grilli, Federica; Pascucci, Simone; Marini, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the CLAM-PHYM (Coasts-and-Lake-Assessment-and-Monitoring-by-Prisma-Hyperspectral-Mission) project it was carried out an oceanographic cruise (27/08-13/09/2010) along the coasts of southern Italy in order to analyze the physical, biochemical and optical properties of some coastal areas. The sampling areas are: the Gulf of Taranto, the Policoro area, the Cetraro Bay, the Gulf of Augusta and the Gulf of Gela. CTD profiles and reflectance measurements of the sea surface and along the water column with portable field spectroradiometers were collected. Water samples were also collected for the analysis of nutrients, chlorophyll-a and CDOM. These optically active substances interact with solar radiation along the water column through absorption and scattering phenomena. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between the bio-optical concentrations of optically-active-substances and the surface reflectance spectra measured in situ; this relation, if reversed, can be used to map the concentrations of optically-active-substances from hyperspectral-satellite-data. Results stress high biological activity in the Gulf of Taranto and in the Gulf of Gela showing the highest values of chlorophyll-a and aCDOM440. These areas are characterized by the presence of important industrial and port sites. The Gela's gulf, where we found the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and CDOM, is also characterized by the runoff of the Salso river increasing the biological activity. The correlations found in the Gulf of Taranto between Kd, chlorophyll a and aCDOM440 indicate that the high concentrations of CDOM are primarily due to phytoplankton rather than from terrestrial source. The Gulf of Taranto shows the best site among those investigated where to identify bio-optical relationships between the concentrations of optically active substances and the surface reflectance spectra measured in situ. The preliminary results encourage the combined use of

  2. Comparison of airborne and terrestrial gamma spectrometry measurements - evaluation of three areas in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kock, Peder; Samuelsson, Christer

    2011-06-01

    The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) has been conducting airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of natural radioactivity in Sweden for more than 40 years. Today, the database covers about 80% of the country's land surface. This article explores the first step of putting this data into use in radioactive source search at ground level. However, in order to be able to use the airborne background measurements at ground level, SGU data must be validated against terrestrial data. In this work, we compare the SGU data with data measured by a portable backpack system. This is done for three different areas in southern Sweden. The statistical analysis shows that a linear relationship and a positive correlation exist between the air and ground data. However, this linear relationship could be revealed only when the region possessed large enough variations in areal activity. Furthermore, the activity distributions measured show good agreement to those of SGU. We conclude that the SGU database could be used for terrestrial background assessment, given that a linear transfer function is established.

  3. Holocene pedogenesis in the Black soil area of southern Central Germany - a multiproxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Lauer, Tobias; Tinapp, Christian; Müller, Susann; Eckmeier, Eileen; Glaser, Bruno; Goldmann, Lisa; Zielhofer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Black soils (chernozems, phaeozems) cover some areas in the driest parts of Central Germany and are especially found on loessic material. However, time and causes of formation of these soils as well as their former distribution in the region have been a matter of debate for many decades: Accordingly, hypotheses about their age range from the Latest Pleistocene until the Neolithic period, and the assumed formation processes vary from natural (steppic vegetation, properties of parent material) to anthropogenic factors (forest-clearance, fire activity). In order to shed light on some of these open questions, several sites with black soil material (recent black soils, black soil colluvia, black soil material at archaeologic sites) in southern Central Germany were investigated. We applied a multi-proxy approach that combined intensive field work with the analysis of geochemical and environmental magnetic proxies with micromorphology as well as with OSL and archaeological dating. We tried to obtain information about the intensity of the development of black soils during different periods of the past and to look at their transformation during the Late Holocene. Finally, we tried to link this information with the known hypotheses about the formation of black soils as well as with landscape and palaeoclimatic development in Central Germany.

  4. Application of agrometeorological spectral model in rice area in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2015-10-01

    The southern region is responsible for 70% of rice production in Brazil. In this study, rice areas of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, using the land use classification, scale 1: 100,000, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). MODIS Images were used and meteorological data, available by National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The period of analysis was crop season 2011/2012, October to March. To obtain evapotranspiration was applied agrometeorological-spectral model SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Retrieving Evapotranspiration). From the analysis of the results, on planting and cultivation period , the average evapotranspiration (ET) daily was 1.93 +/- 0.96 mm.day-1. In the vegetative development period of rice, the daily ET has achieved 4.94 mm.day-1, with average value 2,31+/- 0.97 mm.day-1. In the period of harvest, evapotranspiration daily average was 1.84 +/- 0.80 mm.day-1. From results obtained, the estimation of evapotranspiration from satellite images may assist in monitoring the culture during the cycle, assisting in estimates of water productivity and crop yield.

  5. Population Dynamics of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Citrus Areas in Southern Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vanoye-Eligio, V; Barrientos-Lozano, L; Pérez-Castañeda, R; Gaona-García, G; Lara-Villalon, M

    2015-12-01

    An analysis of adult population fluctuation of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was performed in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2008 to 2011. The aim was to analyze population dynamics of A. ludens and its relationships with climatic factors in the citrus region of Llera, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Population densities were weekly examined to identify variation through the year and study period. Four periods were identified according to population size, amplitude, host availability and season of the year. The correlation between population density vs. rainfall and temperature (average, minimum and maximum) was determined by linear and multiple regression analyses. Simple linear regression analysis showed that population density with minimum temperature and rainfall was the most consistent correlation, whereas in multiple regression analysis, rainfall and maximum temperature showed more consistency. A seasonal association between the availability of commercial host, climatic variation, and population peaks of A. ludens was determined. This study may have practical implications for the design of specific control strategies, monitoring, and infestation prevention based on different phases of the pest through the year. This strategy, along with the area-wide approach implemented by the Plant Protection Service may lead to an optimization of material, financial and human resources.

  6. An experimental study of a minette from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2012-12-01

    Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37: 1629-1650, 2000) studied the minettes and xenoliths from the Milk River area of southern Alberta, Canada. Based on previous work, they hypothesized that the minettes were derived from a source containing phlogopite + clinopyroxene ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. To test this hypothesis, liquidus experiments were performed on a primitive minette between 1.33 and 2.21 GPa and between 1,300 and 1,400 °C to constrain the mineralogy of its source region. We found a multiple saturation point along the liquidus at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C, where the liquid coexists with orthopyroxene and olivine. Neither phlogopite nor clinopyroxene were found to be liquidus phases, which is inconsistent with Buhlmann et al.'s hypothesis. We suggest that our minette is not primary, but had re-equilibrated with harzburgitic mantle subsequent to formation. In such a scenario, partial melting of a veined source containing mica and clinopyroxene occurred at or near the base of the Wyoming craton (~200 km). Minimal heating or the introduction of hydrous fluids into the source would be required to induce partial melting. Rapid ascent rates, coupled with slow cooling rates, of the "primary minette magma" would preserve the high temperature observed in our experiments. At ~58 km, our "primary minette magma" likely stalled and re-equilibrated with the harzburgite surroundings.

  7. Cost benefit analysis of tuberculosis control in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Southern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwacalimba, K K; Mumba, C; Munyeme, M

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an economic simulation model evaluating the costs and benefits of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control in a wildlife-livestock interface area of Southern Zambia over a 10 year period, using test and slaughter in livestock and promotion of milk pasteurization amongst livestock keeping communities to reduce the zoonotic transmission of bTB through milk. Expected benefits included increased productivity and health in village resident and transhumant cattle, and averted human bTB treatment costs after the fourth year of the project. In monetary terms, at different bTB prevalence estimates in cattle, the simulation outcome showed that the costs of control never exceeded the few benefits considered over the simulated period. However, the benefits are likely to outweigh the costs if wider implications of bTB in humans (infirmity-related productivity losses), livestock and wildlife (reduced productivity and herd value in cattle and diminished tourism potential from bTB-related wildlife mortalities) are taken into account.

  8. Characterization on mosaic glass found at Phu Khao Thong, southern area of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongkam, Y.; Dhanmanonda, W.; Tancharakorn, S.; Tanthanuch, W.; Kamwanna, T.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-03-01

    Glasses in forms of ornament and decorative objects have been found in Thailand for several hundred years. The mosaic glass used in this work was only one piece that excavated at Phu Khao thong archaeological site in Ranong Province, southern area of Thailand. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF) based on synchrotron radiation was firstly carried out to analyze its elemental composition and distribution. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and (PIXE) were also used to characterize the composition. The main composition of this mosaic glass sample found in Thailand was a lead-based silicate glass. The colorations were affected from transition metals, especially iron, copper and manganese. It was shown that although it look-liked the same, but the main composition was differ to that of Persia and South Asia, especially the lead content. However, it demonstrated the long distance trade or exchange network of the ancient time.

  9. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad; Abdelkader, Hussein Saad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  10. Deforestation and forest management in southern Ethiopia: investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  11. Metals contamination along the watershed and estuarine areas of southern Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Wang, Tieyu; Ni, Kun; Liu, Shijie; Wang, Pei; Xie, Shuangwei; Meng, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Lu, Yonglong

    2013-09-15

    Distributions and magnitude of metals in water, sediment and soil collected from the watershed and estuarine areas of southern Bohai Sea, were investigated. The largest dissolved concentrations of As, Cu and Zn in water were 347.70, 2755.00, 2076.00 μg/L, respectively, much higher than corresponding drinking water guidelines. The greatest concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb, As and Cd in sediments were 1462.2, 1602.17, 196.43, 67.15, 63.54, 73.86 and 1.41 mg/kg, dw, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, Cr, Pb and As in soils were 24.67, 24.73, 0.14, 64.75, 56.52, 25.12 and 9.34 mg/kg, dw, respectively. Land use was confirmed to be an important factor of influence on soil metal concentrations. Metal contents along the watershed of Jie River were significantly greater than in other locations. The detection of metals in relatively high concentrations from different environmental matrices in this region indicates the necessity of further studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ground water in the Eugene-Springfield area, southern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1973-01-01

    The cities of Eugene and Springfield and their outlying suburban and rural districts constitute an area of rapid population growth where progressively greater volumes of ground water are being required for irrigation and industrial and public supplies. The area is also one of diverse geologic and hydrologic conditions. As used in this report, the Eugene-Springfield area covers about 450 square miles and includes a part of the lower foothills of the Coast and Cascade Ranges and a strip of the main valley plain of the southern Willamette Valley. Volcanic and sedimentary rock units exposed in the foothills range in age from Eocene to Miocene. In the main valley plain the older units are overlain by Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial deposits. Marine-deposited sandstone, siltstone, shale, and mudstone of the older sedimentary units are fine grained and poorly permeable and yield water slowly to wells. The volcanic rocks, primarily of dacitic and andesitic composition, yield small quantities of water that are generally adequate only for domestic use. The alluvial deposits (sand and gravel) of the valley plain (central lowland) contain the most productive aquifers in the area and are considered to be the only ground-water reservoir for which large-scale development of ground-water supplies is feasible. Aquifers in the area are recharged principally by direct infiltration of precipitation. Most of the precipitation, which averages about 4C inches per year, occurs during late autumn and winter. Minimum recharge by infiltration of precipitation to the alluvial aquifers beneath the valley plain is estimated to be about 100,000 acre-feet. Ground water is discharged naturally from the central lowland by seepage and spring flow to small streams, by subsurface outflow to adjacent areas, and by evapotranspiration. Storage capacity of the central lowland in the Eugene-Springfield area is estimated to be about 2.1 million acre-feet in the zone 10-150 feet below land surface. The

  13. 3D Strucutural Geological Model of the Alpi Mt. Area (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Bruna, Vincenzo; Lamarche, Juliette; Viseur, Sophie; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The study area is located in the inner portion of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The Alpi Mt. is the only portion of the Apulian domain cropping in this sector. In fact, it is considered as a structural analogue of the Val d'Agri and Tempa Rossa reservoirs (Basilicata). The Alpi Mt. tectonic unit is composed of two main cronostratigraphic intervals, represented by a 2000m-thick Mesozoic carbonate succession and a Messinian mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession. The Messinian interval is made up of a Lower Messinian sedimentary cycle, wich form a paraconformity with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates, and an Upper Messinian cycle characterized by a marked unconformity at the bottom. This study aims to better understand the role exerted by the precontractional tectonic structures during the Messinian interval, wich are responsible for the development of the sedimentary angular unconformity. To reach this goal, a 3D structural geological model was build up by using the Gocad(R) software. The construction of the 3D model was gained through the integration of several results related to geological field mapping, well log analysis and seismic reflection data. Focusing on the Upper Messinian sedimentary horizon, in order to achieve the true geometry and kinematics of the high-angle extensional faults that bound the sedimentary depocenters, the model was restored through vertical line methodology. This process allows to obtain more information about location, geometry, and sedimentary depocenter orientations. Furthermore, the 3D structural model brings some important results from the 3D fault analysis that are represented by attitude, geometry and dimensional parameters of the fault network that affect the study area.

  14. Spatio-temporal trends of mortality in small areas of Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most mortality atlases show static maps from count data aggregated over time. This procedure has several methodological problems and serious limitations for decision making in Public Health. The evaluation of health outcomes, including mortality, should be approached from a dynamic time perspective that is specific for each gender and age group. At the moment, researches in Spain do not provide a dynamic image of the population's mortality status from a spatio-temporal point of view. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatial distribution of mortality from all causes in small areas of Andalusia (Southern Spain) and evolution over time from 1981 to 2006. Methods A small-area ecological study was devised using the municipality as the unit for analysis. Two spatio-temporal hierarchical Bayesian models were estimated for each age group and gender. One of these was used to estimate the specific mortality rate, together with its time trends, and the other to estimate the specific rate ratio for each municipality compared with Spain as a whole. Results More than 97% of the municipalities showed a diminishing or flat mortality trend in all gender and age groups. In 2006, over 95% of municipalities showed male and female mortality specific rates similar or significantly lower than Spanish rates for all age groups below 65. Systematically, municipalities in Western Andalusia showed significant male and female mortality excess from 1981 to 2006 only in age groups over 65. Conclusions The study shows a dynamic geographical distribution of mortality, with a different pattern for each year, gender and age group. This information will contribute towards a reflection on the past, present and future of mortality in Andalusia. PMID:20089142

  15. High-resolution local earthquake tomography of the southern Dead Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, B.; Asch, Guenter; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

    2012-12-01

    Local earthquake data from a dense temporary seismological network in the southern Dead Sea area have been analysed within the project DESIRE (Dead Sea Integrated Research Project). Local earthquakes are used for the first precise image of the distribution of the P-wave velocity and the vP/vS ratios. 65 stations registered 655 local events within 18 months of observation time. A subset of 530 well-locatable events with 26 730 P- and S-arrival times was used to calculate a tomographic model for the vP and vP/vS distribution. Since the study area is at first-order 2-D, a gradual approach was chosen, which compromised a 2-D inversion followed by a 3-D inversion. The sedimentary basin fill is clearly imaged through high vP/vS ratios and low vP. The basin fill shows an asymmetric structure with average depth of 7 km at the western boundary and depth between 10 and 14 km at the eastern boundary. This asymmetry is reflected by the vertical strike-slip eastern border fault, and the normal faulting at the western boundary, caused by the transtensional deformation within the last 5 Myr. Within the basin fill the Lisan salt diapir is imaged through low vP/vS ratios, reflecting its low fluid content. The extensions were determined to 12 km in E-W and 17 km in N-S direction while its depth is 5-6 km. The thickness of the pre-basin sediments below the basin fill cannot be derived from the tomography data—it is estimated to less than 3 km from former investigations. Below the basin, down to 18 km depth very low P-wave velocities and low vP/vS ratios are observed—most likely caused by fluids from the surrounding crust or the upper mantle.

  16. Detailed seismicity analysis revealing the dynamics of the southern Dead Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

    2014-10-01

    Within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. During 18 recording months, 648 events were detected. Based on an already published tomography study clustering, focal mechanisms, statistics and the distribution of the microseismicity in relation to the velocity models from the tomography are analysed. The determined b value of 0.74 leads to a relatively high risk of large earthquakes compared to the moderate microseismic activity. The distribution of the seismicity indicates an asymmetric basin with a vertical strike-slip fault forming the eastern boundary of the basin, and an inclined western boundary, made up of strike-slip and normal faults. Furthermore, significant differences between the area north and south of the Bokek fault were observed. South of the Bokek fault, the western boundary is inactive while the entire seismicity occurs on the eastern boundary and below the basin-fill sediments. The largest events occurred here, and their focal mechanisms represent the northwards transform motion of the Arabian plate along the Dead Sea Transform. The vertical extension of the spatial and temporal cluster from February 2007 is interpreted as being related to the locking of the region around the Bokek fault. North of the Bokek fault similar seismic activity occurs on both boundaries most notably within the basin-fill sediments, displaying mainly small events with strike-slip mechanism and normal faulting in EW direction. Therefore, we suggest that the Bokek fault forms the border between the single transform fault and the pull-apart basin with two active border faults.

  17. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Infascelli, Roberta; Faugno, Salvatore; Pindozzi, Stefania; Pelorosso, Raffaele; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00), nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year). The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should be revisited.

  18. Thresholds for storm impacts on an exposed sandy coastal area in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, L. P.; Vousdoukas, M. V.; Ferreira, Ó.; Rodrigues, B. A.; Matias, A.

    2012-03-01

    Storms are one of the most important phenomena responsible for coastal erosion. Their destructive power presents major challenges for coastal management, and knowledge of their characteristics and associated consequences is therefore of paramount importance. In this study, thresholds for storm impacts are defined for a sandy coast in southern Portugal (Faro beach, Ria Formosa) using two different approaches: i) hydrodynamic conditions associated with historical storm impacts (i.e., infrastructural damage); and (ii) computed maximum wave run-up values (RHIGH) compared with beach morphology. Damage thresholds are defined as limits above which the action of a storm exceeds beach front response capability and starts to act directly on human infrastructures. According to method (i), four different thresholds were defined. For individual storms directed from the SW the threshold is a significant wave height of 4.7 m with a storm duration of 2 days, and for storms directed from the SE is a significant wave height of 6 m with a storm duration of at least 2 days. Regarding storm groups, for those directed from the SW the threshold is 2 storms lasting at least 2 days each with significant wave heights greater than 3.5 m, whilst for those directed from the SE the threshold is 3 short storms (lasting 1 day each) with significant wave height over 3.9 m. The return period for the SW storm group threshold is just 1.7 years. For method (ii), beach morphological parameters (DHIGH — highest elevation of the frontal dune; DLOW — elevation of the dune base; and tanβf — foreshore slope) were determined for five chosen cross-shore profiles along the study area, and RHIGH computed for different hydrodynamic conditions. Results were validated through field observations of storm impacts. The lowest thresholds for overwash are along the central part of the study area where a dune crest is absent due to human occupation. The highest thresholds for overwash are on those profiles where

  19. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains complementary results related to the paper "Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy)" (Piscopo et al., 2016) [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy), named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP), the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE), the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA), the Ionian southern coast (ISC) and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC). Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above.

  20. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (<0.5) and COD/BOD5 (>3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability.

  1. Geophysical, hydrological, and archaeological investigation in the East Bank area of Luxor-southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed Mahmoud Ali

    The rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater are causing accelerated deterioration of stone foundations of visible temples and monuments at Luxor, southern Egypt. Elevated groundwater is thought to cause a loss of cohesion and breakdown of the stone, while pressure developed within the stone upon salt crystallization and hydration may aid in the stone's disintegration. In addition to the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater, the expansion of urbanization and agriculture are jeopardizing buried monuments that have not been discovered and unearthed. The five main objectives were to: (1) characterize the subsurface geologic/hydrologic units; (2) identify sources responsible for the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater; (3) evaluate geometry and water quality of the shallow aquifer; (4) map the upper limit of capillary water and variations in soil moisture and (5) map yet undiscovered, buried monuments in the vicinity of the Karnak Temples complex. These five objectives were achieved based on the interpretations and results of the integrated geophysical and hydrologic data. (1) The shallow subsurface (<100m) was characterized into seven geoelectric (geologic/hydrologic) units. The second unit (silty clay) is thicker (12--28m) underneath the area of the Karnak and Luxor Temples, which may be a paleo-meander of the River Nile. (2) The source of the rise in groundwater level was determined to be due to the flow of groundwater from the central cultivated land towards the area of the temples. The groundwater salinity increased towards the temples, in the direction of groundwater flow, and may account for the increase in groundwater salinity beneath the temples. (3) The Quaternary aquifer in the study area was found to have a thickness and water quality that makes it usable for anthropogenic purposes. (4) The upper limit of capillary water was determined to be at depths of 0.0--2m. Salt accumulation on the monuments' foundations

  2. Forest area and conditions: a 2010 update of Chapter 16 of the Southern Forest Resource Assessment

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Hartsell; Roger C. Conner

    2013-01-01

    This report updates the findings of Chapter 16 of the Southern Forest Resource Assessment (Wear and Greis 2002), based on 2010 report year data. Analysis focuses on changes in the South’s forest resources since 1999 using annual inventory, mapped-plot design data available for the first time for all 13 Southern States (excluding west Oklahoma and west Texas). The...

  3. Malaria entomological inoculation rates in gold mining areas of Southern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jorge E; Rubio-Palis, Yasmín; Páez, Elisa; Pérez, Enrique; Sánchez, Víctor; Vaccari, Elena

    2009-08-01

    A longitudinal study of malaria vectors aiming to describe the intensity of transmission was carried out in five villages of Southern Venezuela between January 1999-April 2000. The man-biting, sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated based on 121 all-night collections of anophelines landing on humans, CDC light traps and ultra violet up-draft traps. A total of 6,027 female mosquitoes representing seven species were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (56.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (33%), which together accounted for 89.7% of the total anophelines collected. The mean biting rate for An. marajoara was 1.27 (SD + 0.81); it was 0.74 (SD + 0.91) for An. darlingi and 0.11 (SD + 0.10) for Anopheles neomaculipalpus Curry and the overall biting rate was 2.29 (SD + 1.06). A total of 5,886 mosquitoes collected by all three methods were assayed by ELISA and 28 pools, equivalent to 28 mosquitoes, yielded positive results for Plasmodium spp. CS protein. An. neomaculipalpus had the highest sporozoite rate 0.84% (3/356), followed by An. darlingi 0.82% (16/1,948) and An. marajoara 0.27% (9/3,332). The overall sporozoite rate was 0.48% (28/5,886). The rates of infection by Plasmodium species in mosquitoes were 0.37% (22/5,886) for Plasmodium vivax(Grassi & Feletti) and 0.10% (6/5,886) for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch). The estimated overall EIR for An. darlingi was 2.21 infective bites/person/year, 1.25 for An. marajoara and 0.34 for An. neomaculipalpus. The overall EIR was four infective bites/person/year. The biting rate, the sporozoite rate and the EIR are too low to be indicators of the efficacy of control campaigns in this area.

  4. Geology of the Nevada Test Site and nearby areas, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnock, S.

    1982-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site (NTS) lies in the southern part of the Great Basin Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. This report addresses the geological setting of the NTS in the context of the current waste isolation policy. The intent is to provide a synthesis of geological conditions at the NTS and nearby areas so that a general background of information is available for assessing the possible role of geology in providing protections for humans from buried radioactive wastes. The NTS is characterized by alluvium-filled, topgraphically closed valleys surrounded by ranges composed of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Tertiary volcanic tuffs and lavas. The Paleozoic rocks are a miogeosynclinal sequence of about 13,000 ft of pre-Cambrian to Cambrian clastic deposits (predominantly quartzites) overlain by about 14,000 ft of Cambrian through Devonian carbonates, 8000 ft of Mississippian argillites and quartzites, and 3000 ft of Pennsylvanian to Permian limestones. Tertiary volcanic rocks are predominatly silicic composition and were extruded from numerous eruptive centers during Miocene and Pliocene epochs. Within eruptive caldera depressions, volcanic deposits accumulated to perhaps 10,000 ft in total thickness, thinning to extinction outward from the calderas. Extrusion of minor amounts of basalts accompanied Pliocene and Pleistocene filling of structural basins with detritus from the ranges. Regional compressional and extensional structures as well as local volcanic structures occur in the NTS region. Normal extensional faulting coincided with the outbreak of volcanism during the Miocene and was superimposed on existing Mesozoic structures. Continued extensional deformation may be occurring at the present time.

  5. Key seabird areas in southern New England identified using a community occupancy model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Flanders, Nicholas P.; Gardner, Beth; Winiarski, Kristopher J.; Paton, Peter W. C.; Allison, Taber

    2015-01-01

    Seabirds are of conservation concern, and as new potential risks to seabirds are arising, the need to provide unbiased estimates of species’ distributions is growing. We applied community occupancy models to detection/non-detection data collected from repeated aerial strip-transect surveys conducted in 2 large study plots off southern New England, USA; one off the coast of Rhode Island and the other in Nantucket Sound. A total of 17 seabird species were observed at least once in each study plot. We found that detection varied by survey date and effort for most species and the average detection probability across species was less than 0.4. We estimated the influence of water depth, sea surface temperature, and sea surface chl a concentration on species-specific occupancy. Diving species showed large differences between the 2 study plots in their predicted winter distributions, which were largely explained by water depth acting as a stronger predictor of occupancy in Rhode Island than in Nantucket Sound. Conversely, similarities between the 2 study plots in predicted winter distributions of surface-feeding species were explained by sea surface temperature or chlorophyll a concentration acting as predictors of these species’ occupancy in both study plots. We predicted the number of species at each site using the observed data in order to detect ‘hot-spots’ of seabird diversity and use in the 2 study plots. These results provide new information on detection of species, areas of use, and relationships with environmental variables that will be valuable for biologists and planners interested in seabird conservation in the region.

  6. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95 ± 0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L) and 8.58 ± 2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL), respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE), and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years), work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves), and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch). Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices. PMID:27313961

  7. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes. PMID:19527505

  8. Stratigraphic Sedimentary Environmental Change of the Mount Bruce Supergroup, Beasley River Area, Southern Pilbara, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komure, M.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Horie, K.

    2005-12-01

    The Mount Bruce Supergroup is deposited from Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic in the Pilbara craton, Western Australia. It is filed the information of the period that changes from the Late Archean to the Early Proterozoic, and is the key sequences which could reconstruct the sedimentary environment because of its low metamorphic grade. The evidence of early Proterozoic global ice age as the glacial sediment is reported in this uppermost group (Martin 1999). In this study, we focus the lithological changes of the Mount Bruce Supergroup at the Beasley River - Rocklea Dome area in the Southern Pilbara. Along the Beasley River, this supergroup distributes more than 10000m thick with 5 billion years sequences, and is divided into three groups. The Fortescue Group is identified with the flood basalt to the Shallow marine or the non-marine sediment, the middle Hamersley Group rich in the banded iron formation and the acidic volcanic rock and the upper Turee Creek Group mainly of the Shallow marine sediment. Here we focused origin of the sandstone in each group, especially in the Meteorite Bore Member of Turee Creek Formation which is identified as the early snowball earth events. At the matrix of the diamictite of the Meteorite Bore Member, Origin of diamictite matrix in the Turee Creek Group sediment by the U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology by CHIME and SHRIMP2. The zircon ages points between 2.7Ga and 2.4Ga. In addtion from this matrix, TOC value indicate 0.1-0.05%, the delta 13 C value is -30--20 par mil. These evidence suggested that the organic activity might take place at during ice age.

  9. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  10. Onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil Point area, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Stanley, Richard G.; Guy R. Cochrane, Guy R.

    2011-01-01

    Geologic maps that span the shoreline and include both onshore and offshore areas are potentially valuable tools that can lead to a more in depth understanding of coastal environments. Such maps can contribute to the understanding of shoreline change, geologic hazards, both offshore and along-shore sediment and pollutant transport. They are also useful in assessing geologic and biologic resources. Several intermediate-scale (1:100,000) geologic maps that include both onshore and offshore areas (herein called onshore-offshore geologic maps) have been produced of areas along the California coast (see Saucedo and others, 2003; Kennedy and others, 2007; Kennedy and Tan, 2008), but few large-scale (1:24,000) maps have been produced that can address local coastal issues. A cooperative project between Federal and State agencies and universities has produced an onshore-offshore geologic map at 1:24,000 scale of the Coal Oil Point area and part of the Santa Barbara Channel, southern California (fig. 1). As part of the project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) hosted a workshop (May 2nd and 3rd, 2007) for producers and users of coastal map products (see list of participants) to develop a consensus on the content and format of onshore-offshore geologic maps (and accompanying GIS files) so that they have relevance for coastal-zone management. The USGS and CGS are working to develop coastal maps that combine geospatial information from offshore and onshore and serve as an important tool for addressing a broad range of coastal-zone management issues. The workshop was divided into sessions for presentations and discussion of bathymetry and topography, geology, and habitat products and needs of end users. During the workshop, participants reviewed existing maps and discussed their merits and shortcomings. This report addresses a number of items discussed in the workshop and details the onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil

  11. Malaria infection and disease in an area with pyrethroid-resistant vectors in southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate baseline data on malaria before the evaluation of new vector control strategies in an area of pyrethroid-resistance of vectors. The burden of malaria was estimated in terms of infection (prevalence and parasite density) and of clinical episodes. Methods Between December 2007 and December 2008 in the health district of Ouidah - Kpomassè - Tori Bossito (southern Benin), a descriptive epidemiological survey of malaria was conducted. From 28 selected villages, seven were randomized from which a total of 440 children aged 0 to 5 years were randomly selected. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of six consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys of asymptomatic infection. Entomological information was also collected. The ownership, the use and the correct use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) were checked over weekly-survey by unannounced visits at home in the late evening. Results Mean parasite density in asymptomatic children was 586 P. falciparum asexual forms per μL of blood (95%CI 504-680). Pyrogenic parasite cut-off was estimated 2,000 P. falciparum asexual blood forms per μL. The clinical incidence of malaria was 1.5 episodes per child per year (95%CI 1.2-1.9). Parasitological and clinical variables did not vary with season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the principal vector closely followed by Anopheles funestus. Entomological inoculation rate was 5.3 (95%CI 1.1-25.9) infective bites per human per year. Frequency of the L1014F kdr (West) allele was around 50%. Annual prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection was 21.8% (95%CI 19.1-24.4) and increased according to age. Mean rates of ownership and use of LLINs were 92% and 70% respectively. The only correct use of LLINs (63%) conferred 26% individual protection against only infection (OR = 0.74 (95%IC 0

  12. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in

  13. A descriptive epidemiological study on the patterns of occupational injuries in a coastal area and a mountain area in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Liu, Xiaojian; Lu, Yaogui; Yu, Min

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study compared patterns of occupational injuries in two different areas, coastal (industrial) and mountain (agricultural), in Southern China to provide information for development of occupational injury prevention measures in China. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting Data were obtained from the Hospital Injury Surveillance System based on hospital data collected from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2008. Participants Cases of occupational injury, defined as injury that occurred when the activity indicated was work. Outcome measures Distribution and differences of patterns of occupational injuries between the two areas. Results Men were more likely than women to experience occupational injuries, and there was no difference in the two areas (p=0.112). In the coastal area, occupational injury occurred more in the 21–30-year age group, but in the mountain area, it was the 41–50-year age group (p<0.001). Occupational injuries in the two areas differed by location of hometown, education and occupation (all p<0.001). Occupational injuries peaked differently in the month of the year in the two areas (p<0.001). Industrial and construction areas were the most frequent locations where occupational injuries occurred (p<0.001). Most occupational injuries were unintentional and not serious, and patients could go home after treatment. The two areas also differed in external causes and consequences of occupational injuries. Conclusions The differing patterns of occupational injuries in the coastal and mountain areas in Southern China suggest that different preventive measures should be developed. Results are relevant to other developing countries that have industrial and agricultural areas. PMID:22710129

  14. Detailed crustal structure in the area of the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new seismic velocity model for the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border region with the aim to better define the crustal structures at the northern edge of the Ionian subduction zone. This sector also includes the Pollino Mts. area, where a seismic sequence of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes has been recorded between spring 2010 and 2013. In this sector a seismic gap was previously hypothesized by paleoseismological evidences associated with the lack of major earthquakes in historical catalogs. To perform the tomographic inversion we selected ca. 3600 earthquakes that have occurred in the last thirty years and recorded by permanent and temporary networks managed by INGV and Calabria University. Using for the first time the Local Tomography Software for passive tomography inversion (LOTOS hereinafter) to crustal analysis in southern Italy, we have computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. The obtained velocity model, jointly evaluated with results of synthetic modeling, as well as with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, gives us new constraints on the geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. The comparison between the shallow tomography sections and surface geology shows good correlation between velocity patterns and the main geological features of the study area. In the upper crust a low-velocity anomaly of P- and S-waves is detectable beneath the Pollino Mts. area and seems to separate the Calabrian and southern Apennines domains, characterized by higher velocities. The distributions of high Vp/Vs ratio, representing strongly fractured rocks with likely high fluid content, clearly correlate with areas of significant seismicity. In the lower crust we detect a clear transition from high to low seismic velocities in correspondence with the Tyrrhenian coast of the study area, which may represent the transition from the thinner Tyrrhenian crust to the thicker one beneath Calabria. In this

  15. Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about

  16. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; ...

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  17. How many general surgeons do you need in rural areas? Three approaches to physician resource planning in southern Manitoba.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, N; Black, C; Wade, J; Decker, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess critically the results of using three different approaches to planning for the number of general surgeons in rural areas. DESIGN: Estimates of the number of general surgeons needed using a ratio approach, a and a population-needs-based approach. SETTING: Rural southern Manitoba. OUTCOME MEASURE: Number of general surgeons needed. RESULTS: The ratio approach supported the recruitment of 7.8 to 14.5 additional general surgeons to rural southern Manitoba. The repatriation approach suggested that the area might support five additional general surgeons, if residents could be persuaded to undergo their surgery closer to home. The population-needs-based approach suggested that the health status of area residents was similar to that of residents of other areas of the province and that they had a higher rate of surgery than residents of other areas; no additional surgeons were apparently needed. CONCLUSIONS: Each method has certain advantages, and none is necessarily useful in isolation. Hence, the most effective approach to planning for general surgeons is likely a combination of all three methods. Other factors that may be important include the type of payment structure and the need for professional groups to monitor variations in rates of surgery. PMID:8752064

  18. Recent developments in understanding the tectonic evolution of the Southern California offshore area: Implications for earthquake-hazard analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Nicholson, C.; Ryan, H.F.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    During late Mesozoic and Cenozoic time, three main tectonic episodes affected the Southern California offshore area. Each episode imposed its unique structural imprint such that early-formed structures controlled or at least influenced the location and development of later ones. This cascaded structural inheritance greatly complicates analysis of the extent, orientation, and activity of modern faults. These fault attributes play key roles in estimates of earthquake magnitude and recurrence interval. Hence, understanding the earthquake hazard posed by offshore and coastal faults requires an understanding of the history of structural inheritance and modifi-cation. In this report we review recent (mainly since 1987) findings about the tectonic development of the Southern California offshore area and use analog models of fault deformation as guides to comprehend the bewildering variety of offshore structures that developed over time. This report also provides a background in regional tectonics for other chapters in this section that deal with the threat from offshore geologic hazards in Southern California. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Foraging ranges of immature African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) and their use of protected areas in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Willis, Stephen G; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2)) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape.

  20. Foraging Ranges of Immature African White-Backed Vultures (Gyps africanus) and Their Use of Protected Areas in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Willis, Stephen G.; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area  = 269,103±197,187 km2) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824

  1. Factor analysis of rock, soil and water geochemical data from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area, Salem, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayanan, M.; Eswaramoorthi, S.; Subramanian, S.; Periakali, P.

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical analytical data of 15 representative rock samples, 34 soil samples and 55 groundwater samples collected from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area in Salem, southern India, were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. A maximum of three factors account for 93.8 % variance in rock data, six factors for 84 % variance in soil data, five factors for 71.2 % in groundwater data during summer and six factors for 73.7 % during winter. Total dissolved solids are predominantly contributed by Mg, Na, Cl and SO4 ions in both seasons and are derived from the country rock and mining waste by dissolution of minerals like magnesite, gypsum, halite. The results also show that groundwater is enriched in considerable amount of minor and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Co). Nickel, chromium and cobalt in groundwater and soil are derived from leaching of huge mine dumps deposited by selective magnesite mining activity. The factor analysis on trivalent, hexavalent and total Cr in groundwater indicates that most of the Cr in summer is trivalent and in winter hexavalent. The gradational decrease in topographical elevation from northern mine area to the southern residential area, combined regional hydrogeological factors and distribution of ultramafic rocks in the northern part of the study area indicate that these toxic trace elements in water were derived from mine dumps.

  2. Factor analysis of rock, soil and water geochemical data from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area, Salem, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayanan, M.; Eswaramoorthi, S.; Subramanian, S.; Periakali, P.

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical analytical data of 15 representative rock samples, 34 soil samples and 55 groundwater samples collected from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area in Salem, southern India, were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. A maximum of three factors account for 93.8 % variance in rock data, six factors for 84 % variance in soil data, five factors for 71.2 % in groundwater data during summer and six factors for 73.7 % during winter. Total dissolved solids are predominantly contributed by Mg, Na, Cl and SO4 ions in both seasons and are derived from the country rock and mining waste by dissolution of minerals like magnesite, gypsum, halite. The results also show that groundwater is enriched in considerable amount of minor and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Co). Nickel, chromium and cobalt in groundwater and soil are derived from leaching of huge mine dumps deposited by selective magnesite mining activity. The factor analysis on trivalent, hexavalent and total Cr in groundwater indicates that most of the Cr in summer is trivalent and in winter hexavalent. The gradational decrease in topographical elevation from northern mine area to the southern residential area, combined regional hydrogeological factors and distribution of ultramafic rocks in the northern part of the study area indicate that these toxic trace elements in water were derived from mine dumps.

  3. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Southern Branch of Elizabeth River, at latitude 36°49′43″, longitude 76°17′26.5″; thence in a southwesterly direction to a point on the eastern boundary of Norfolk Harbor 40-foot channel at latitude 36°49′42... channel to latitude 36°49′28″, longitude 76°17′27″; thence easterly to the shore at latitude...

  4. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping

  5. Swampy area transformations by exploitation of Raphia hookeri (Arecaceae) in southern Benin (West Africa)

    SciTech Connect

    Profizi, J.

    1988-03-01

    The Raphia palms in the southern part of Benin are confined to freshwater swamps, where the natural vegetation consists of a forest rich in Dicotyledons. Human activity has transformed this forest into a raphiale where Raphia hookeri has become the main arborescent species. The influence of this transformation on the vegetation results in a more regular distribution of Raphis hookeri trunks and a gradual disappearing of clumps of ramets. By now, the future of Raphis hookeri species is almost ensured except in situations of over-exploitation.

  6. Characterizing and quantifying human movement patterns using GPS data loggers in an area approaching malaria elimination in rural southern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Searle, Kelly M; Lubinda, Jailos; Hamapumbu, Harry; Shields, Timothy M; Curriero, Frank C; Smith, David L; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J

    2017-05-01

    In areas approaching malaria elimination, human mobility patterns are important in determining the proportion of malaria cases that are imported or the result of low-level, endemic transmission. A convenience sample of participants enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study in the catchment area of Macha Hospital in Choma District, Southern Province, Zambia, was selected to carry a GPS data logger for one month from October 2013 to August 2014. Density maps and activity space plots were created to evaluate seasonal movement patterns. Time spent outside the household compound during anopheline biting times, and time spent in malaria high- and low-risk areas, were calculated. There was evidence of seasonal movement patterns, with increased long-distance movement during the dry season. A median of 10.6% (interquartile range (IQR): 5.8-23.8) of time was spent away from the household, which decreased during anopheline biting times to 5.6% (IQR: 1.7-14.9). The per cent of time spent in malaria high-risk areas for participants residing in high-risk areas ranged from 83.2% to 100%, but ranged from only 0.0% to 36.7% for participants residing in low-risk areas. Interventions targeted at the household may be more effective because of restricted movement during the rainy season, with limited movement between high- and low-risk areas.

  7. Paleomagnetic data bearing on the origin of arcuate structures in the French Peak-Massachusetts Mountain area of southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The eastern margin of the Yucca Flat basin, in southern Nevada, is bounded by NNW-striking tilted fault blocks of the Halfpint Range whose strikes curve as much as 90?? clockwise into ENE strikes in the French Peak-Massachusetts Mountain (FPMM) area. This pattern of arcuate structures has been attributed to clockwise drag along a postulated NW-trending, right-lateral shear zone. The flexure model implies that rocks within the FPMM area were rotated strongly clockwise about a vertical axis. Directions of remanent magnetization of the middle Miocene Ammonia Tanks and Rainier Mesa Members of the Timber Mountain Tuff and of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff indicate no systematic vertical-axis rotation in the FPMM area and disprove the flexure model. The paleomagnetic data indicate that structures in the FPMM area initiated with arcuate trends and were not originally straight elements that were rotated by right-lateral drag. The structures probably formed under the influence of spatially variable stress fields. The FPMM area lies in an accommodation zone between domains of oppositely tilted extensional fault blocks. Interaction between stress fields associated with propagating normal-fault zones may have been responsible for the arcuate structures in the FPMM area. -from Author

  8. Stratigraphic framework maps of the nearshore area of southern Long Island from Fire Island to Montauk Point, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, David S.; Swift, B. Ann; Schwab, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The maps presented in this report (depth to Coastal Plain unconformity, Quaternary sediment thickness, paleochannel thickness, and modern sand thickness) are helpful for determining sand-resource availability for beach nourishment programs and understanding the influence that the inner-shelf framework of southern Long Island has on coastal processes and evolution. The maps showing structure of the Coastal Plain unconformity and thickness of overlying Quaternary sediment delineate the framework of the coastal region. The map showing the distribution and thickness of paleochannel fill indicates areas not suitable as sources for beach nourishment, assuming the channels contain muddy estuarine deposits. The areas between channels are Pleistocene glacial deposits and probably consist of coarse sediment that may be suitable for beach nourishment. These coarser-grained glacial deposits are the source for modern sand deposits. The modern sands have been reworked primarily from glacial deposits and a Cretaceous outcrop off Watch Hill. These reworked deposits provide well-sorted clean sand that have and will provide nourishment for southern Long Island beaches.

  9. Four-dimensional modeling of recent vertical movements in the area of the southern California uplift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanicek, Petr; Elliot, Michael R.; Castle, Robert O.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical technique that utilizes scattered geodetic relevelings and tide-gauge records to portray Recent vertical crustal movements that may have been characterized by spasmodic changes in velocity. The technique is based on the fitting of a time-varying algebraic surface of prescribed degree to the geodetic data treated as tilt elements and to tide-gauge readings treated as point movements. Desired variations in time can be selected as any combination of powers of vertical movement velocity and episodic events. The state of the modeled vertical displacement can be shown for any number of dates for visual display. Statistical confidence limits of the modeled displacements, derived from the density of measurements in both space and time, line length, and accuracy of input data, are also provided. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated on selected data from the region of the southern California uplift. 

  10. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200μm up to 1000μm size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20μm are not able to translocate into the tissues.

  11. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  12. Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in Areas Burned by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in areas recently burned by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that burned in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those burned areas were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high burn severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular area of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently burned areas of

  13. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  14. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-02-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas.

  15. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... Area. Beginning at a point at St. Helena Annex of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, on the eastern shore of... channel to latitude 36°49′28″, longitude 76°17′27″; thence easterly to the shore at latitude...

  16. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... Area. Beginning at a point at St. Helena Annex of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, on the eastern shore of... channel to latitude 36°49′28″, longitude 76°17′27″; thence easterly to the shore at latitude...

  17. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at a large-scale antimony mining area in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuan; Chen, Zhipeng; Wu, Fengchang; Hou, Hong; Li, Jining; Shangguan, Yuxian; Zhang, Juan; Li, Fasheng; Zeng, Qingru

    2015-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have great potential for assisting heavy metal hyperaccumulators in the remediation of contaminated soils. However, little information is available about the community composition of AMF under natural conditions in soils contaminated by antimony (Sb). The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of AMF molecular diversity, and to explore the effects of Sb content and soil properties on the AMF community structure in an Sb mining area. Four Sb mine spoils and one adjacent reference area were selected from around the Xikuangshan mine in southern China. The association of AMF molecular diversity and community composition with the rhizosphere soils of the dominant plant species was studied by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Results from all five studied sites showed that the diversity of AMF decreased with increasing Sb concentration. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the AMF community structure was markedly different among these groups. Further redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Sb contamination was the dominating factor influencing the AMF community structure in the Sb mine area. However, the multivariate analysis showed that, apart from the soil Sb content, extractable nitrogen content and organic matter content also attributed to AMF sequence distribution type. Some AMF sequences were only found in the highly contaminated area and these might be ideal candidates for improving phytoremediation efficiency in Sb mining regions. Gene sequencing analysis revealed that most species were affiliated with Glomus, suggesting that Glomus was the dominant AMF genus in the studied Sb mining area.

  18. Melting phase relations of a mica-clinopyroxenite from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2013-08-01

    Melting experiments were conducted on a mica-clinopyroxenite xenolith brought up in a minette dyke in southern Alberta, Canada, near Milk River. Both the minettes and mica-clinopyroxenite xenoliths were studied by Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37:1629-1650, 2000), who hypothesized that the minettes formed by partial melting of a mantle source containing clinopyroxene + phlogopite ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. In liquidus experiments performed on the most primitive minette in our previous study (Funk and Luth in Contrib Mineral Petrol 164:999-1009, 2012), we found a multiple saturation point where olivine and orthopyroxene coexisted with liquid at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C. We argued that the minette originally formed by partial melting of clinopyroxene + phlogopite, but had re-equilibrated with a harzburgite during ascent. In the current study, we wanted to test both the source region hypothesis of Buhlmann et al. and our re-equilibration hypothesis by studying the near-solidus phase equilibria of a mica + clinopyroxene assemblage. We found the solidus for our xenolith has a steep slope in P-T space and lies at temperatures above those of a normal cratonic geotherm, implying that this mica-clinopyroxenite is stable in the cratonic mantle. Melting could occur at greater depths, where the solidus is extrapolated to cross the geotherm or must be induced either by raising the temperatures of the surrounding rocks or by introducing hydrous fluids into the source. Our melts are in equilibrium with clinopyroxene and olivine. The compositions of the liquids derived from melting this xenolith are similar to madupitic lamproites from the Leucite Hills, Wyoming, studied by Carmichael (Contrib Mineral Petrol 15:24-66, 1967) and Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:41-49, 1978; Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979). Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979) proposed that the madupitic lamproites may have come from a source containing mica

  19. Association of ABO blood group and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Dore Bafeno Area, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zerihun, Tewodros; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2011-08-01

    To assess the distribution of ABO blood group and their relationship with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria among febrile outpatients who sought medical attention at Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 269 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia, were examined for malaria and also tested for ABO blood groups in January 2010. The blood specimens were collected by finger pricking, stained with Geimsa, and examined microscopically. Positive cases of the parasitemia were counted. CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo was also used to test the blood specimens for malaria. ABO blood groups were determined by agglutination test using ERYCLONE(®) antisera. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and treatment status of the participants were also collected. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to assess the difference between frequencies and means, respectively. Out of a total of 269 participants, 178 (66.2%) febrile patients were found to be infected with Plasmodium parasites, among which 146 (54.3%), 28 (10.4%), and 4 (1.5%) belonged to P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. All febrile patients were also tested for ABO blood groups and 51.3%, 23.5%, 21.9% and 3.3% were found to be blood types of O, A, B and AB, respectively. Both total malaria infection and P. falciparum infection showed significant association with blood types (P<0.05). The proportion of A or B but not O phenotypes was higher (P<0.05) in individuals with P. falciparum as compared with non-infected individuals. The chance of having P. falciparum infection in patients with blood groups A, B and AB was 2.5, 2.5 and 3.3 times more than individuals showing blood O phenotypes, respectively. The mean P. falciparum malaria parasitaemia for blood groups A, B, AB, and O were 3 744/µL, 1 805/µL, 5 331/µL, and 1 515/µL, respectively (P<0.01). The present findings indicate that individuals of blood groups A, B and AB are

  20. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 6. Southern Study Area, Final, Version 3.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    r oror Structure - - -6 Section Number q k Stream... .of Dich 17,- Study Area Boundary 174.000 S’ate PNor. Grid Anolyte Sample Location "nd...Se6tionle Numnber ~i I I - Streami or Ditch - ,I - -- ~ -Study Area Boundary 17 4.000 State Plant Grid -- v1. Anolyte Sample Location and...Existing Structure :j6 Section Number __z! Study Area Boundary I 7i4.000 State Plane Grid Anolyte Sample Location ____ _ Iand Concentration (ug/1) 0

  1. Assessing the Effects of Burned Areas on the Northern and Southern African Seasonal Climates: a Regional Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sales, F.; Okin, G. S.; Xue, Y.; Dintwe, K.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of wildfires, whether natural or anthropogenic, is an important disturbance of the terrestrial ecosystems as it plays an essential role in shaping global and regional vegetation. This study presents an investigation of the impact of burned areas on the surface energy balance and precipitation in northern and southern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional modeling system. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS date-of-burning product was implemented in a set of WRF/SSiB2 simulations. Vegetation cover and LAI were degraded based on mean burned area fraction and survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with ash and charcoal deposition was imposed by temporarily lowering the ground albedo after burning. Wildfire-induced vegetation and ground degradation increased the surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground of the region, which in turn caused a decrease in surface net radiation and evapotranspiration. Overall, post-fire land condition resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the burned areas, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation. The areas with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8% and 3.3%, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early spring. This study suggests that the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by the burned areas led to strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Vertical air movement over the

  2. Identification of wild areas in southern lower Michigan. [terrain analysis from aerial photography, and satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habowski, S.; Cialek, C.

    1978-01-01

    An inventory methodology was developed to identify potential wild area sites. A list of site criteria were formulated and tested in six selected counties. Potential sites were initially identified from LANDSAT satellite imagery. A detailed study of the soil, vegetation and relief characteristics of each site based on both high-altitude aerial photographs and existing map data was conducted to eliminate unsuitable sites. Ground reconnaissance of the remaining wild areas was made to verify suitability and acquire information on wildlife and general aesthetics. Physical characteristics of the wild areas in each county are presented in tables. Maps show the potential sites to be set aside for natural preservation and regulation by the state under the Wilderness and Natural Areas Act of 1972.

  3. Kinematics of faulting in Mine Mountain area of southern Nevada: Evidence for pre-middle Miocene extension

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Cole, J.C. )

    1993-04-01

    Structural analysis has revealed widespread extension associated with discontinuous fault segments previously considered to represent a Mesozoic thrust in the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, of southern Nevada. Complex fault and stratigraphic relations characterize allochthonous Ordovician to Devonian dolomite and local quartzite that are in fault contact above less deformed (but anticlinally arched) Mississippian siltstone in this area. Although initial juxtaposition of the older and younger rocks probably occurred during Mesozoic thrusting, most of 714 small faults examined at 25 sites within the upper plate reflect later extension. Normal faults that chiefly accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are earliest and widespread in the upper plate. These faults are concentrated above the basal fault surface and have dominantly top-to-the-southwest slip, except on the east-dipping flank of the keel where top-to-the-northeast slip is indicated. These relations suggest that the upper plate was extended mostly in place after or, permissibly, during development of the lower plate anticline. Faults that accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are unconformably overlain by middle Miocene volcanic rocks; younger faults that accommodated northwest-directed extension are also interpreted to predate middle Miocene volcanism, although a depositional onlap relation is not preserved. Deformation at Mine Mountain may have been coeval with Oligocene to early Miocene extension that is well known in areas farther north and south in the Basin and Range province but poorly documented in southern Nevada. The authors cannot preclude, however, that extension might have occurred within upper structural levels of the Mesozoic Sevier hinterland.

  4. Mortality Trend for Tumor Correlated Immune System in Hyperendemic Area of HCV Infection in Southern Italy: Joinpoint Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montella, Maurizio; Malvezzi, Matteo; Grimaldi, Maria; Nocerino, Flavia; Frigeri, Ferdinando; Pinto, Antonio; Giudice, Aldo; Crispo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background In many regions of southern Italy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major health problem (with a prevalence rate between 6% and 13%). HCV is associated with different kinds of neoplasms such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and with auto-immune diseases (cryoglobulinemia), which develop after the virus has caused immune system alterations. Objectives To provide updated information on trends in mortality in a major metropolitan area of southern Italy from NHL, multiple myeloma and Hodgkin disease we analyzed cancer mortality data from 1988 to 2009. Materials and Methods Mortality data were extracted from National death certificates by age groups, gender, residence and cause of death by the Italian national institute of statistics (ISTAT). Age-standardized mortality rates (SMR) were computed applying the direct method and using the world standard population. To quantify the recent direction of temporal trends in older populations over time, truncated age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated for people aged 65 years and older. Cancer mortality trends were described using their estimated annual percent change (EAPC) and related 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results Statistically significant increasing EAPC was found among women for NHL (+2.0% / year), while statistically significant decrease was found among men and women for HD (-3.5% / year, -3.4% / year, respectively). No statistically significant EAPC was found for multiple myeloma. Conclusions The association between viral hepatitis and NHL in the area of interest might provide some degree of explanation to this finding. Our data confirm that due to epidemic infection of HCV in the area of Naples, a high mortality for NHL persists, moreover the adoption of standard therapeutic protocols administered in full accordance with an evidence-based approach and current guidelines explain reduced mortality from Hodgkin lymphomas. PMID:24171011

  5. Characterization of the improved features in the geophysical monitoring network installed in a seismic area of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, G.; Balasco, M.; Lapenna, V.; Telesca, L.

    2003-04-01

    In the past and recent years field geoelectrical measurements (resistivity, self-potential) in seismic areas attributed to stress and strain changes which were associated by earthquakes (e.g., Rikitake, 1988; Chu et al., Park, 1996, Cuomo et al., 2000, Vallianatos et al., 1999). The complex nature of this problem suggests the development of monitoring networks based on multiparametric remote stations able to carry out electromagnetic measures during a long time period and with a high spatial resolution. We designed and installed a new geophysical monitoring network built up with remote stations able to jointly detect electrical and seismometric parameters in a seismic active area of southern Apennine chain (southern Italy) (Balasco et al., 2002). During the last year we increased our monitoring stations with the installation of the another one geoelectrical station (Tramutola) in Val d’Agri area and adding magnetic sensors in one of the six test sites. Tito, Giuliano, Marsico Nuovo, Tramutola and Laterza are equipped with geoelectrical sensor; 2-4 copper electrodes, 1.5 m long, put into the ground 1 meter depth with 100 m dipole distance. Villa d’Agri station is equipped like other station but here we have installed three induction coils to measure the components of the magnetic field. The network combines new technologies for data acquisition with advanced statistical analysis packages for the identification of the extreme events in the geoelectrical and magnetic time series. The seismological setting, combined with a very low level of cultural noise, allow us to consider a good site to study the possible correlation between tectonic activity and anomalous pattern in the geoelectrical and magnetical data.

  6. Geophysical methods for identification of active faults between the Sannio-Matese and Irpinia areas of the Southern Apennines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Apennines is one of the Italian most active areas from a geodynamic point of view since it is characterized by occurrence of intense and widely spread seismic activity. Most seismicity of the area is concentrated along the chain, affecting mainly the Irpinia and Sannio-Matese areas. The seismogenetic sources responsible for the destructive events of 1456, 1688, 1694, 1702, 1732, 1805, 1930, 1962 and 1980 (Io = X-XI MCS) occurred mostly on NW-SE faults, and the relative hypocenters are concentrated within the upper 20 km of the crust. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW-SE trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW trending structures. The available focal mechanisms of the largest events show normal solutions consistent with NE-SW extension of the chain. After the 1980 Irpinia large earthquake, the release of seismic energy in the Southern Apennines has been characterized by occurrence of moderate energy sequences of main shock-aftershocks type and swarm-type activity with low magnitude sequences. Low-magnitude (Md<5) historical and recent earthquakes, generally clustered in swarms, have commonly occurred along the NE-SW faults. This paper deals with integrated analysis of geological and geophysical data in GIS environment to identify surface, buried and hidden active faults and to characterize their geometry. In particular we have analyzed structural data, earthquake space distribution and gravimetric data. The main results of the combined analysis indicate good correlation between seismicity and Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) lineaments from gravity data. Furthermore 2D seismic hypocentral locations together with high-resolution analysis of gravity anomalies have been correlated to estimate the fault systems parameters (strike, dip direction and dip angle) through the application of the DEXP method (Depth from Extreme Points).

  7. Multi-century lake area changes in the Southern Altiplano: a tree-ring-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M. S.; Carilla, J.; Grau, H. R.; Villalba, R.

    2015-09-01

    Size fluctuations in endorheic lakes in northwestern Argentina (NWA) and southwestern Bolivia (SWB) are very sensitive to basin hydrological balances, and consequently, very vulnerable to deleterious effects from climatic changes. The management of these water resources and their biodiversity requires a comprehensive knowledge of their natural variability over multiple timescales. In this study, we present a multi-century reconstruction of past lake-area fluctuations in NWA and SWB. The evidence used to develop and validate this reconstruction includes satellite images and a century-long tree-ring record from P. tarapacana. Inter-annual fluctuations in lake area of nine lakes were quantified based on Landsat satellite images over the period 1975 to 2009. A regional P. tarapacana tree-ring chronology, composite from two sampling sites, was used as predictors in a regression model to reconstruct the mean annual (January-December) lake area from the nine lakes. The reconstruction model captures 62 % of the total variance in lake-area fluctuations and shows adequate levels of cross-validation. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 601 years and characterizes the occurrence of annual to multi-decadal lake area fluctuations and its main oscillation modes of variability. Our reconstruction points out that the late 20th century decrease in lake area was exceptional over the period 1407-2007; a persistent negative trend in lake area is clear in the reconstruction and consistent with glacier retreat and other climate proxies from the Altiplano and the tropical Andes. Since the mid 1970s, the Vilama-Coruto lake system recorded an accelerated decrease in area consistent with an increasing recurrence of extremely small lake-area events. Throughout the 601 years, the reconstruction provides valuable information about spatial and temporal stabilities of the relationships between changes in lake area, ENSO, and PDO, highlighting the Pacific influence over most modes

  8. Bionomics of adult Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Tapachula foothills area of southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Salas, I; Rodriguez, M H; Roberts, D R; Rodriguez, M C; Wirtz, R A

    1994-09-01

    Field studies on the bionomics of adult Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald were conducted to assess its relative importance as a primary vector of vivax malaria in southern Mexico. In four malaria endemic villages in a foothill region near Tapachula, Mexico, population densities of A. pseudopunctipennis increased during the dry seasons of 1990 and 1991. The pattern of nocturnal host-seeking activity indoors was unimodal with a late night peak at 0100 hours enhancing its vectorial significance, because it occurred when most residents were asleep and fully exposed to the anophelines. Comparisons of trapping methods showed that a horse-baited trap was more effective than human landing catches or UV light traps. Pit shelters, on the other hand, were more effective than indoor and natural shelter resting collections. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on wild-caught A. pseudopunctipennis specimens documented the presence of natural infections with the VK210 and new VK247 circumsporozoite polymorphs of P. vivax. These findings verify the importance of A. pseudopunctipennis as a major vector of vivax malaria at higher elevations and extend the geographical range of the VK247 P. vivax polymorph in Mexico.

  9. Evolution and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Pinar Del Rio area, Southern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Tenreyro-Perez, R.; Lopez-Rivera, J.G.; Fernandez-Carmona, J.; Lopez-Quintero, J.O.

    1996-09-01

    The evolution of Southeast Gulf of Mexico comprises three main periods: pre-orogenic, syn-orogenic and post-orogenic. During pre-orogenic time, from Lower Jurassic to Campanian, the stages are the rift of Pangaea and the thermal subsidence (or drift). In drift stage two domains interacted in the space; the carbonate platforms (Bahamas, Yucatan, Organos and others), and the deepwater basins. These fluctuations were dictated by the differential subsidence and horizontal displacements of basement blocks as well as by the eustatic movements of the ocean. The Organos platform, for example, was entirely drowned since Upper Jurassic and the sedimentation continued in deepwater environment. The collision between Great Antilles Volcanic Arc and the continental margins since Upper Cretaceous modeled the Cuban orogen. Here, the southern facies thrusted over the northern section with simultaneous strike-slip movements. The interaction suddenly ceased in Eocene. The source rock levels are considerably more frequent in the deepwater domain than in the platforms. The Lower and Upper Jurassic as well as Lower and Middle Cretaceous horizons contain very high levels of organic matter. The offshore seismic shows the transition from the thrusted belt to the foreland basin with a typical triangle zone configuration. Reservoirs are expected in the Cretaceous section covered by seals conformed by early foreland basin sediments of Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene age. Foothill structures has a great potential for hydrocarbon exploration.

  10. Exceptional Tl-bearing manganese oxides from Zalas, Krakow area, southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołębiowska, Bożena; Rzepa, Grzegorz; Pieczka, Adam

    2015-06-01

    In the Permian rhyodacite quarry at Zalas near Krakow, southern Poland, thallium-bearing Mn oxides occur in a small fault zone cutting Middle Jurassic sandy limestone poorly encrusted by an oxidized polymetallic mineralization. The encrustation comprises sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, covellite, galena, marcasite), native bismuth, hematite, goethite, cuprite, mottramite, iodargyrite, unrecognized Cu sulphates and Bi oxychlorides as supergene minerals, barite and rare tiny grains of gold. It is most likely connected with rejuvenation of Early-Paleozoic faults during the Alpine orogeny on the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Rare Tlbearing Mn oxides occur in an outside zone of the encrustations, filling small fractures and voids in limestone forming the fault breccia. Tl contents, reaching 20.82wt% as Tl2O, exceed by more than two orders of magnitude those reported in similar minerals before, making the oxides unique on a world scale. The Tl-bearing Mn oxides from Zalas reflect intensive weathering of an older Tl-bearing sulphide mineralization in an arid climate, involving saline fluids delivered to the groundwater system as the nappe structure of the Carpathians was developing during the Sava tectonic phase Oligocene/Miocene boundary.

  11. Prioritising Carbon Sequestration Areas in Southern Queensland using Time Series MODIS Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apan, A.; Suarez Cadavid, L. A.; Richardson, L.; Maraseni, T.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method that will use satellite imagery to identify areas of high forest growth and productivity, as a primary input in prioritising revegetation sites for carbon sequestration. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, this study analysed the annual net primary production (NPP) values (gC/m2) of images acquired from 2000 to 2013, covering the Condamine Catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia. With the analysis of annual rainfall data during the same period, three transitions of "normal to dry" years were identified to represent the future climate scenario considered in this study. The difference in the corresponding NPP values for each year was calculated, and subsequently averaged to the get the "Mean of Annual NPP Difference" (MAND) map. This layer identified the areas with increased net primary production despite the drought condition in those years. Combined with key thematic maps (i.e. regional ecosystems, land use, and tree canopy cover), the priority areas were mapped. The results have shown that there are over 42 regional ecosystem (RE) types in the study area that exhibited positive vegetation growth and productivity despite the decrease in annual rainfall. However, seven (7) of these RE types represents the majority (79 %) of the total high productivity area. A total of 10,736 ha were mapped as priority revegetation areas. This study demonstrated the use of MODIS-NPP imagery to map vegetation with high carbon sequestration rates necessary in prioritising revegetation sites.

  12. Geochemistry of thermal fluids in NW Honduras: New perspectives for exploitation of geothermal areas in the southern Sula graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Franco, Tassi; Alberto, Renzulli; Orlando, Vaselli; Marco, Menichetti; Salvatore, Inguaggiato

    2014-06-01

    The results of a geochemical survey on thermal waters and, for the first time for this site, gas discharges in five geothermal sites (Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua, Río Gualcarque, El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente) in NW Honduras are here presented and discussed. El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente, in the southern part of the Sula graben are very close to a Quaternary basaltic field, whereas Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua and Río Gualcarque, located to the southwest of the Yojoa Lake, direcly emerge from the Cretaceous limestone deposits. The measured temperatures range between 37.5 and 104.8 °C. "Mature", alkaline, Na-SO4 thermal waters discharge from Azacualpa "La Cueva", while those from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente are "immature" and show a Na-HCO3 composition. Chemical equilibria of waters and gases from the Azacualpa "La Cueva" thermal springs indicate temperatures ranging from 150 to 200 °C. Conversely, gas discharges from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente have attained a partial chemical equilibrium in the liquid phase at slightly higher temperatures (200-250 °C), although gas-gas faster reactions involving CO seem to be adjusted in an isothermally separated vapor phase. Unlike Azacualpa, SiO2 geothermometer at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente indicates equilibrium temperatures for the liquid phase much lower than those calculated for the gas phase (≤ 120 °C). We conclude that thermal waters from the Azacualpa area likely represent the direct emergence of a water dominated reservoir having temperatures ≤ 150-200 °C. By contrast, at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente hot springs are supplied by a boiling shallow aquifer fed by a vapor phase rising from a steam-dominated zone. The above geochemical model is consistent with a geothermal reservoir hosted within the Cretaceous carbonate sequences of the Yojoa Group in the whole investigated sites. The reservoir extensively crops out in the Azacualpa area whereas the

  13. Feeding and indoor resting behaviour of the mosquito Anopheles longipalpis in an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission in southern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Kent, R. J.; Coetzee, M.; Mharakurwa, S.; Norris, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles longipalpis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a predominantly zoophilic mosquito that has not been implicated in malaria transmission. However, this species was collected indoors with An. funestus s.l. in southern Zambia, where transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic, and we initially misidentified it morphologically and molecularly as An. funestus s.l. The indoor resting density and blood-feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis were investigated during the 2004 – 05 and 2005 – 06 transmission seasons in Mufwafwi village in southern Zambia. Numbers of endophilic An. longipalpis increased towards the end of the rainy season. Although specimens were collected during human landing catches, the feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis was significantly biased towards cattle (88.7%), with other bloodmeals originating from dogs, goats and chickens. None of the 177 specimens of An. longipalpis were infected with P. falciparum. These data are consistent with existing reports that An. longipalpis is not involved in malaria transmission. However, more extensive sampling is necessary. Importantly, the correct identification of An. longipalpis is crucial for malaria control programmes in areas where An. funestus s.l and An. longipalpis exist sympatrically so that scarce resources are not wasted on the control of a non-vector. PMID:17199758

  14. Hybridization of Southern Hemisphere blue whale subspecies and a sympatric area off Antarctica: impacts of whaling or climate change?

    PubMed

    Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Jenner, K Curt S; Gill, Peter C; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Morrice, Margaret G; Robertson, Kelly M; Möller, Luciana M

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the degree of genetic exchange between subspecies and populations is vital for the appropriate management of endangered species. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have two recognized Southern Hemisphere subspecies that show differences in geographic distribution, morphology, vocalizations and genetics. During the austral summer feeding season, the Antarctic blue whale (B. m. intermedia) is found in polar waters and the pygmy blue whale (B. m. brevicauda) in temperate waters. Here, we genetically analyzed samples collected during the feeding season to report on several cases of hybridization between the two recognized blue whale Southern Hemisphere subspecies in a previously unconfirmed sympatric area off Antarctica. This means the pygmy blue whales using waters off Antarctica may migrate and then breed during the austral winter with the Antarctic subspecies. Alternatively, the subspecies may interbreed off Antarctica outside the expected austral winter breeding season. The genetically estimated recent migration rates from the pygmy to Antarctic subspecies were greater than estimates of evolutionary migration rates and previous estimates based on morphology of whaling catches. This discrepancy may be due to differences in the methods or an increase in the proportion of pygmy blue whales off Antarctica within the last four decades. Potential causes for the latter are whaling, anthropogenic climate change or a combination of these and may have led to hybridization between the subspecies. Our findings challenge the current knowledge about the breeding behaviour of the world's largest animal and provide key information that can be incorporated into management and conservation practices for this endangered species.

  15. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments from southern and northern areas of the Norwegian continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Boitsov, Stepan; Petrova, Vera; Jensen, Henning K B; Kursheva, Anna; Litvinenko, Ivan; Klungsøyr, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Variability in levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments from one large sea area off the coast of northern Norway ("North area", NA) have been compared to similar data from another large area off the coast of southern Norway ("South area", SA). Samples from NA were collected at the Norwegian continental shelf in south-western Barents Sea and north-eastern Norwegian Sea. Samples from SA were from the Norwegian Trench and the Skagerrak. Sediment cores have been dated, characterised by grain size distribution (GS) and organic carbon content (TOC), and the composition of PAH and geochemical biomarkers (alkanes and triterpanes) studied to provide an insight into the different sources of PAH. Generally, PAH levels are higher in sediments from SA compared to NA. A mixture of pyrogenic and petrogenic sources contribute to PAH levels in SA, while the contents of petrogenic PAH is negligible in surface sediments in NA. At some locations in NA, petrogenic PAH levels are elevated in the deepest sediment layers from pre-industrial times, indicating a natural input of petroleum through seepage. Occurrence of elevated levels of microbial hopanoids (hopenes) in the deepest sediment layers at some locations both in the north and the south indicate the presence of petroleum.

  16. Simulation of ground-water flow in the High Plains aquifer, southern sandhills area, west-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, J.S.; Chen, H.H.; Goeke, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    A generalized ground-water flow model was prepared for the High Plains aquifer in the southern sandhills area of west-central Nebraska. A grid of 4- by 4-mile nodes was established over the study area. Steady-state water levels were simulated using a distribution of recharge from a soil-moisture budget model and from estimates of hydraulic conductivity obtained from logs of test holes in the area. The final calibrated simulation used hydraulic- conductivity values that were 122 percent, and recharge rates that were 89 percent of the original values used in the model. Sixty-seven percent of the simulated recharge to the High Plains aquifer discharges to rivers, streams, and lakes. Discharges through ground-water evapotranspiration and from pumping wells account for 20 percent, with the wells accounting for less than 10 percent of the total discharge, and subsurface boundary outflow accounts for 13 percent. Twenty years of simulated pumping, assuming one additional well would be added to each township annually for 10 years, and two wells per township would be added each year for the succeeding 10 years, produced a maximum simulated drawdown of less than 10 feet when a uniform specific yield of 16 percent for the aquifer in the study area was assumed.

  17. Non-urban area ownership structure. Case study of Southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bożek, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The study shows a possible way of analyzing the diversity of ownership forms in non-urban areas, with particular focus on land co-ownership. The data in cadastral databases was processed with the use of the relational model which applied information on the geometry of areal spatial objects and descriptive attributes. The paper presents also the results of the analysis of Nowy Sącz District with the area of 1.550 sq.km and containing approximately 200.000 parcels. The area is representative for many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, where unfavorable land fragmentation indices and complex ownership structures complicate investing processes and development of rural areas what results in progressive degradation of agricultural and cultural landscape. The results indicate that the co-ownership phenomenon affects 13% of parcels in the study area. However, it varies greatly depending on the village and ranges from 3 to 67% of total parcels number. Suggested methods of analyzing the ownership structure are of universal character. In spite of this, when used during analyses conducted in other countries, certain modifications are required. It is mainly caused by the differences in cadastral data models used in those countries.

  18. The impact of two oil spill events on the water quality along coastal area of Kenting National Park, southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Chi; Tew, Kwee Siong; Ho, Ping-Ho; Hsieh, Hung-Yen; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2017-02-18

    In 2009, the container ship Colombo Queen and the oil tanker W-O BUDMO grounded off Jialeshui and Houwan, respectively, in southern Taiwan. Water quality was monitored at each site to evaluate the environmental impact caused by the resulting oil spills. The results show that the PAHs, turbidity, and other nutrients increased shortly after oil spill, however levels of these parameters eventually returned to baseline levels. On the other hand, DO saturation, pH and chl. a decreased initially, reached maxima after 10days, and returned to the baseline levels after 14days. The chl. a concentration, pH and DO saturation fluctuated in a similar pattern at both sites during the oil spills, likely driven by algal blooms. In this study, we documented a full environmental recovery at coastal areas before, during and after the oil spills.

  19. Barriers to depression treatment in low-income, unmarried, adolescent mothers in a southern, urban area of the United States.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Rakestraw, Vivian

    2009-07-01

    This study explored barriers to depression treatment in low-income, unmarried, adolescent mothers in a southern, urban area of the United States. The authors utilized a phenomenological approach and focus group methodology. Participants (n = 9) were enrolled in a teen parent program, an option of the public school system. The metaphor of a merry-go-round emerged from the data and represented the ups and downs that the adolescent mothers experience as they struggle to adjust to the role of mother. Their knowledge of postpartum depression and depression treatment occurred in the context of their demographics and their desire to create a family for their baby, their fears, and surprise at the reality of mothering. Childbirth education for adolescent mothers should include information on depression and the process of depression treatment.

  20. Long-term indigenous soil conservation technology in the Chencha area, southern Ethiopia: origin, characteristics, and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use.

  1. Estimation of water flux in urban area using eddy covariance measurements in Riverside, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenerette, D.; Liang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Micrometeorological methods can direct measure the sensible and latent heat flux in specific sites and provide robust estimates of the evaporative fraction (EF), which is the fraction of available surface energy contained in latent heat. Across a vegetation coverage gradient in urban area, an empirical relationship is expected between EF and vegetation coverage, which provides the opportunity to quantify regional water flux. Here we deployed three eddy covariance (EC) systems to quantify the relationship between EF and vegetation coverage. First, two continuous systems were deployed at an industrial area with very low vegetation cover and another located in the orange orchid in Riverside, CA, to quantify the temporal dynamic of EF for the endpoints. Second, a mobile EC system was deployed to quantify the spatial distribution of EF across a gradient of vegetation coverage, during the summer time in Riverside, CA. These data showed the EF in high vegetation cover is 31.16±3.99%, but at the lower vegetation cover site EF is only 16.48±5.40%, which about 2 times lower in EF than the area with high vegetation cover. These results derived from the EC measurements provide essential data to quantify the temporal and spatial water fluxes in urban area and are needed to better understand and manage urban water use in response to drought.

  2. Estimation of water flux in urban area using eddy covariance measurements in Riverside, Southern California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Micrometeorological methods can direct measure the sensible and latent heat flux in specific sites and provide robust estimates of the evaporative fraction (EF), which is the fraction of available surface energy contained in latent heat. Across a vegetation coverage gradient in urban area, an empir...

  3. Forest Productivity, Leaf Area, and Terrain in Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forests

    Treesearch

    Paul V. Bolstad; James M. Vose; Steven G. McNulty

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural characteristic of forest ecosystems which has been shown to be strongly related to forest mass and energy cycles and forest productivity. LAI is more easily measured than forest productivity, and so a strong relationship between LAI and productivity would be a valuable tool in forest management. While a linear...

  4. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Treesearch

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  5. Meadow Restoration in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in Southern Idaho

    Treesearch

    John Sloan

    2006-01-01

    High elevation sites are ecologically fragile. When disturbed, these sites can take a long time to recover. However, native plant seeds are often unavailable and little is known about growing many of these plant species. This paper describes the cooperative restoration of a high elevation meadow in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area after a severe disturbance. The...

  6. Spatial Distribution of Scorpion Sting in a High-Risk Area of Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Mehran; Moosavy, Seyed Hamid; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahamd Ali; Navidpour, Shahrokh; Zare, Shahram; Madani, Abdolhossein; Rafinejad, Javad

    2016-06-16

    Scorpion sting is a public health problem in south and southwestern parts of Iran, with about 36,000 cases recorded annually. This study aimed to find the spatial distribution of scorpions and their stings in Bandar Abbas County. Monthly scorpion sting cases at the village level were obtained and used for mapping. Scorpions were collected from 14 collection sites using a UV lamp at night and searching under stones during the day time. During the study period, a total of 3,971 cases of scorpion sting were recorded, most of them were found in mountainous areas and affected individuals aged 25-44 yrs. In total, 18 scorpion species belonging to 10 genera were collected and identified. The peak of scorpion sting cases occurred from July to September. The northern part of the mountainous areas had a richer species composition. Hemiscorpius persicus and Hemiscorpius gaillardi were collected for the first time in the area. There were 22 scorpion species in the area across studies; among them, 10 were most dangerous. Hemiscorpius genus is the main etiologic agent in Bandar Abbas County. Mapping dangerous species allows the health system to provide relevant anti-scorpion venom serum accordingly and more cost-effectively.

  7. Modeling coastal aquifers in a Mediterranean area: the example of Taranto gulf (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    Water resources stored in coastal aquifers are of strategic relevance for several regions throughout the world and in particular in the Mediterranean basin. They are extremely important in areas characterized by heavy urbanization, active industrial or touristic systems, where the need for fresh water is very acute and, sometimes, they are the only water resources available. This in turn can lead to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion because of aquifer overexploitation to satisfy the demand of an increasing population in coastal plains. Furthermore, karstic aquifers are well known for their specific vulnerability to natural and human-induced contamination, due to their particular characteristics such as thin soils, point recharge in dolines and swallow holes and increased hydraulic conductivity. Within this framework, the Taranto gulf is an example of paramount importance. In fact the presence of a wide industrial area close to the city of Taranto and the numerous maritime and military activities in the harbor area favored the increase of population density in the XX century. Moreover, they constitute factors of great concern for the protection of groundwater quality and quantity, in particular for the presence of the highly-vulnerable basins of Mar Piccolo and Mar Grande. In this area, groundwater resources are stored in a karst multilayered aquifer, which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphic point of view. Furthermore, the presence of highly water-demanding activities makes the seawater intrusion phenomenon very serious, especially along the coastline. In order to characterize the groundwater dynamic in the study area, we discuss the hydraulic relationships between the different hydrostratigraphic units and between the sea and the aquifer system by developing a numerical groundwater model to test and refine the preliminary conceptual model and estimate the most uncertain hydraulic parameters. To achieve these objectives, we used different data-sets to

  8. Distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in children's scalp hair from a rare earths mining area in southern China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shi-Lu; Zhu, Wang-Zhao; Gao, Zhao-Hua; Meng, Yu-Xiu; Peng, Rui-Ling; Lu, Guo-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the validity of using scalp hair rare earth elements (REEs) content as a biomarker of human REEs exposure, data were collected on REEs exposure levels from children aged 11-15 years old and living in an ion-adsorptive type light REEs (LREEs) mining and surrounding areas in southern China. Sixty scalp hair samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for 16 REEs (La Lu, Y and Sc). Sixteen REEs contents in the samples from the mining area (e.g., range: La: 0.14-6.93 microg/g; Nd: 0.09-5.27 microg/g; Gd: 12.2-645.6ng/g; Lu: 0.2-13.3 ng/g; Y: 0.03-1.27 microg/g; Sc: 0.05-0.30 microg/g) were significantly higher than those from the reference area (range: La: 0.04-0.40 microg/g; Nd: 0.04-0.32 microg/g; Gd: 8.3-64.6 ng/g; Lu: 0.4-3.3ng/g; Y: 0.03-0.29 microg/g; Sc: 0.11-0.36 microg/g) and even much higher than those published in the literature. The distribution pattern of REEs in scalp hair from the mining area was very similar to that of REEs in the mine and the atmosphere shrouding that area. In conclusion, the scalp hair REEs contents may indicate not only quantitatively but also qualitatively (distribution pattern) the absorption of REEs from environmental exposure into human body. The children living in this mining area should be regarded as a high-risk group with REEs (especially LREEs) exposure, and their health status should be examined from a REEs health risk assessment perspective.

  9. Epidemiological, clinical, and genetic characteristics of Paget's disease of bone in a rural area of Calabria, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rendina, D; Gianfrancesco, F; De Filippo, G; Merlotti, D; Esposito, T; Aloia, A; Benvenuto, D; Vivona, C L; Annunziata, G; Nuti, R; Strazzullo, P; Mossetti, G; Gennari, L

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is unknown in peninsular Southern Italy, although an elevated clinical severity of the disease was reported in patients from Campania. This study was performed to evaluate the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PDB in a rural area of Calabria, the southernmost region in the Italian peninsula. We examined 1068 consecutive pelvic radiographs of patients older than 40 yr referred for any reason to the "Spinelli" Hospital, Belvedere Marittimo, from January 1st 2004 to December 31st 2006. In subjects with radiological findings of pelvic PDB, a 99m Technetium methylene diphosphonate bone scan and the sequence analysis of the sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) gene were subsequently performed. In the examined geographic area, the crude radiographic prevalence of pelvic PDB was 0.74% (8/1068; male:female 5:3, mean age 71.6 ± 13.1 yr) whereas the estimated overall prevalence of PDB between 0.82% and 1.21%. PDB patients from Calabria showed clinical characteristics similar to those reported in patients from Campania. The disease was also frequently complicated by osteoarthritis and the right side of the body was more affected than the left. The SQSTM1 gene analysis revealed the presence of a novel missense mutation (M401V) in exon 8 in one subject with a familial and aggressive form of PDB. The study results confirmed that patients with PDB from rural districts of Southern Italy show an earlier onset and an increased clinical severity of the disease that appears mostly independent from the presence of germinal SQSTM1 mutations.

  10. Application of Logistic Regression for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in the Alishan Area, Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, H. C.; Chang, C. C.; Laio, P. Y.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility analysis usually combines several factors, including the terrain, geology, and hydrology. The analysis tries to find a suitable combination of these factors in order to establish a landslide susceptibility model and calculate the susceptibility value. A potential landslide map can be established by using the calculated the susceptibility value of landslide. This study took Alishan area as an example and aimed to assess landslide susceptibility analysis by Logistic regression, a multivariate analysis method. In order to select the factors efficiently, the calibration and selection procedure were performed. The results were verified by a previous typhoon event. The classification error matrix was used to evaluate the accuracy of landslide predicted by the present model. Finally, this study applied 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year return periods precipitation to estimate the susceptibility values for the study area. The landslide susceptibilities were separated into four levels, including high, medium-high, medium, and low, to delineate the map of potential landslide.

  11. Geologic map of the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cashman, P.H.; Cole, J.C.

    1998-10-05

    The Mine Mountain area is a small range of hills on the west side of the central Yucca Flat basin on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This map portrays the very complex relationships among the pre-Tertiary stratigraphic units of the region. Rocks and structures of the Mine Mountain area record the compounded effects of: (1) eastward-directed, foreland-vergent thrusting; (2) younger folds and thrusts formed by hinterland vergence in a general westerly direction; and (3) low-angle normal faulting formed by extension along a northeast-southwest trend. All of these structures are older than the oldest middle Miocene volcanic rocks that were deposited on the flanks of the Mine Mountain terrane. High-angle faults that post-date these volcanic rocks locally show displacements of several hundred meters, but do not strongly affect patterns in the pre-Tertiary rocks.

  12. The role of volcanic activity and climate in alluvial fan growth at volcanic areas: an example from southern Campania (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Di Vito, M. A.

    2004-06-01

    Volcaniclastic-rich alluvial fans developed in the southern Campanian Plain (Italy) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in an area eastward of the Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei volcanoes. Meanwhile, bedrock-rich alluvial fans developed in areas unaffected by pyroclastic deposition. Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcaniclastic-rich alluvial fans show some important differences: (i) late Pleistocene alluvial fans were dominated by hyperconcentrated flow deposits, whereas the Holocene ones were dominated by debris flows deposits; and (ii) late Pleistocene fans consist of several superimposed sedimentary bodies, characterized by homogeneous volcaniclastic material, whereas Holecene fans show either volcaniclastic bodies with homogenous lithology or mixed lithology (i.e., juvenile fractions eroded from different tephra layers). These differences are not related to the amount of volcaniclastic supply in time, but seem to be linked to changes in climatic condition between late Pleistocene and Holocene. Rapid remobilization of the pyroclastic material was favored by climatic and vegetation conditions of the study area during the late Pleistocene, when a semiarid setting dominated by steppe-like vegetation prevailed. During Holocene, the general increase in temperature and humidity favored vegetation and soil development and stabilization of the loose volcaniclastic materials. Thus, part of volcaniclastic material was stored in the catchments and was available for erosion a long time after an eruption. Shallow soil slips, active also today, generated volcaniclastic debris flows characterized by mixed lithology of pumice and scoria.

  13. Possible fault plane in a seismic gap area of the southern Apennines (Italy) revealed by receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucente, Francesco Pio; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Moro, Marco; Selvaggi, Giulio; di Bona, Massimo

    2005-04-01

    Unusual features in teleseismic receiver function, computed at a single three-component seismic station, reveal the presence of a dipping interface in the shallow crust with a pronounced seismic velocity contrast in the Campania-Lucania region, southern Apennines (Italy). The locus of this finding is the Pergola-Melandro basin, situated between the maximum intensity areas of two of the most destructive earthquakes reported in the Italian seismic catalogue: the M ˜ 7.0 Val d'Agri earthquake (1857) and the Ms = 6.9 Irpinia earthquake (1980). This area is not associated with known historical events and for this reason is currently object of investigation as a potential seismic gap, where the probability of future ruptures is higher than in surrounding regions, also for the static stress increase caused by the two above mentioned earthquakes. Through an inversion procedure applied to the computed receiver functions, we are able to satisfactorily constrain the strike, dip, depth, and velocity contrast of this crustal discontinuity, whose geometric characteristics closely match those proposed by some authors for the sources of the two neighboring earthquakes. We argue that the detected interface is the seismogenic source which fills the gap. The findings of this study could open new perspectives both in the study of seismic gap areas and in the identification of historical earthquake sources, offering a new and effective tool to locate, investigate, and constrain buried or unknown faults.

  14. Hydraulic, geotechnical, geomorphic, and biologic data for the Cache River/Heron Pond area in southern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    1996-01-01

    Heron Pond, located in extreme southern Illinois, lies immediately adjacent to the upper Cache River. The upper Cache River is encroaching on Heron Pond, which has raised the issue of the possibility of a failure of the Heron Pond wall, the area between Heron Pond and the upper Cache River. Hydraulic, geotechnical, geomorphic, and biologic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Water Resources (IDNR/OWR) for use in designing a mitigation plan by the IDNR/OWR to prevent the failure of the Heron Pond wall. The river is sluggish during floods with velocities generally 1-2 feet per second. Biologic activity in the area have increased bank instability, which already is a problem because of saturated soils in the Heron Pond wall. In the area adjacent to the Heron Pond, the right descending bank of the upper Cache River receded 0.5 foot between September 21, 1995 and June 25, 1996. Comparisons between two surveys, 1958 and 1995, indicate that the channel near the discontinued USGS streamflow-gaging station near the Burlington Northern Railroad crossing has widened by more than 10 feet with less than 0.5 foot of incision.

  15. Geochemical characterization of a Holocene aeolian profile in the Zhongba area (southern Tibet, China) and its paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuoyu; Wu, Yongqiu; Du, Shisong; Huang, Wenmin; Hao, Chengzhi; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Tianyang

    2016-03-01

    The Zhongba area lies in the valley of the Maquan River in southern Tibet, where there are both strong modern aeolian activities and ancient aeolian sand sediments. A Holocene aeolian sand and paleosol profile in the Zhongba area was selected for study and termed (Zhuzhu (ZZ) profile). The chronology of the ZZ profile was established by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating. Based on the grain size and geochemical elements of the ZZ profile, the geochemical characterization was analyzed, the Holocene aeolian activity processes were reconstructed in the study area, and the paleoclimatic implications were discussed. The major elements and the chemical indicators are highly correlated with different grain-sizes in the ZZ profile. The evolutionary sequence of the aeolian activities and the paleoclimate in Holocene reveal four stages: before 7.3 ka BP, the climate was warm and wet with weak winds when the sand paleosol developed; at 7.3-3.8 ka BP, the climate turned dry, with strong aeolian activities; at 3.8-0.7 ka BP, the climate became wetter and the winds weakened when the silt paleosol developed; and since 0.7 ka BP, it was cold and dry with strong aeolian activities.

  16. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease.

  17. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  18. An Integrated Approach for the Environmental Characterization of a Wide Potentially Contaminated Area in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ducci, Daniela; Albanese, Stefano; Boccia, Lorenzo; Celentano, Egidio; Cervelli, Elena; Corniello, Alfonso; Crispo, Anna; De Vivo, Benedetto; Iodice, Paolo; Langella, Carmela; Lima, Annamaria; Manno, Maurizio; Palladino, Mario; Pindozzi, Stefania; Rigillo, Marina; Romano, Nunzio; Sellerino, Mariangela; Senatore, Adolfo; Speranza, Giuseppe; Fiorentino, Nunzio; Fagnano, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the environmental characterization of a large and densely populated area, with a poor reputation for contamination, considering the contribution of environmental features (air, soil, soil hydraulic and groundwater) and the potential effects on human health. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) has made possible a georeferenced inventory and, by overlaying environmental information, an operational synthesis of comprehensive environmental conditions. The cumulative effects on environmental features were evaluated, taking into account superposition effects, by means of the Spatial MultiCriteria Decision Analysis (S-MCDA). The application of the S-MCDA for converging the combination of heterogeneous factors, related to soil, land and water, deeply studied by heterogeneous groups of experts, constitutes the novelty of the paper. The results confirmed an overall higher potential of exposure to contaminants in the environment and higher mortality rates in the study area for some tumours, but hospital admissions for tumours were generally similar to the regional trend. Besides, mortality data may be strictly dependent on the poor socioeconomic conditions, quality of therapy and a lack of welfare in the area relative to the rest of Italy. Finally, as regards the possible relationship between presence of contaminants in the environment and health conditions of the population no definite conclusions can be drawn, although the present study encourages the use of the new proposed methods, that increase the possibilities for studying the combined effect of more environmental factors. PMID:28654005

  19. Savannah River Site A/M Area Southern Sector Characterization Cone Penetrometer Report

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plaingeologic province. This area is characterized by low relief, predominantly unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous though Tertiary age. A multiple aquifer system underlies the A/M Area and affects the definition and distribution of a contaminant plume. The water table and uppermost confined aquifer (Steed Pond Aquifer) are contaminated with elevated concentrations of trichloroethylene(TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their associated compounds. The deeper aquifers in this area have less widely spread chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.Cone penetrometer testing was selected as the method of investigation because it is minimally invasive, offers advanced technological capabilities in gathering lithologic data, and offers groundwater sampling capabilities. CPT testing utilizes a hydraulic push tool system. The probe collects real-time data that is processed by computer into soil/lithology classifications. The system can also be used to collect sediment and soil vapor samples although these features were not utilized during this project. Advantages of the CPT system include a small borehole diameter which minimizes cross-contamination of lithologic units, virtual elimination of drill cuttings and fluids that require disposal, collection of various types of undisturbed sediment and water samples and plotting of hydrostratigraphic and lithologic data while in the field.

  20. Larval habitats and biodiversity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Charrahy, Z; Haghdoost, A A; Sedaghat, M M; Abedi, F; Soltani, M; Raeisi, A

    2012-06-01

    Malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in Iran. It is endemic in south to southeastern part of the country. Knowledge about bio-ecology of vectors will support authorities for appropriate management of the disease. Bashagard district is one of the main endemic areas for malaria in south of Iran. This study was conducted to determine anopheline fauna, diversity and affinity in the area, characterization of larval habitats, and mapping their potential distribution across the district. The potential aquatic habitats for Anopheles larvae were extracted from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) image and digital elevation model of the area using GIS. Surface water bodies were sampled monthly during 2009–10 for anopheline larvae, while characteristics of their physical environment were recorded and water samples were analyzed. A total of 4511 Anopheles larvae were found during the year with the lowest and highest frequencies in February and April, respectively. Dominant species was Anopheles culicifacies. The Shanon diversity index ranged from 0.570–0.829 at fixed collection sites, while the affinity index was significant among some vector species. Riversides and riverbeds were the main breeding places which provided sandy, rocky, and clay beds for different species. The potential breeding places as well as distribution of collected species were mapped. Knowledge about ecology of malaria vectors provides information to health sector for effective control programs.

  1. Hydropedology of a mildly-arid loess covered area, southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Aaron; Goldshleger, Naftali

    2016-04-01

    Extensive loess covered areas characterize the mildly arid areas of western Israel, where average annual rainfall is 280 mm. Hydrological data available point to a peculiar hydrological behavior of the ephemeral streams. The frequency of channel flow is very high. Four to eight flows are recorded annually. However, even in extreme rain events peak discharges are extremely low representing 0.002-0.005% of the rain amount received by the basin at peak flow. In addition, hydrographs are usually characterized by very steep rising and falling limbs, representative of saturated or nearly saturated areas, extending over a limited part of the watershed. Following this observation we advanced the hypothesis that storm channel runoff originated in the channel itself, with negligible contribution from the adjoining hillslopes. The study was based on two complementary approaches. The hydrological approach was based on the detailed analysis of rainfall-runoff relationships in a small watershed (11 km2). The second approach was based on the toposequence concept. According to this concept soil's properties are closely related to the position of a soil along a slope. Constituents and water lost by the upper part of the slope accumulate in its lower part, which is richer in clay and better leached. Several boreholes were dug along a hillslope 400 m long. Soil samples were collected for chemical and particle size analysis. In addition, samples for soil moisture data were taken following each major rain event. Chemical data obtained show no significant observable difference in the downslope direction. Similar results were also obtained for the particle size distribution and soil moisture content. However, particle size distribution in the active channel reveals very high clay content down to 60 cm. Data obtained lead to two main conclusions. 1. Data presented perfectly fit the concept of "Partial Area Contribution", in its narrow sense, as it presents an extreme case of hydrological

  2. Recent seismicity and crustal stress field in the Lucanian Apennines and surrounding areas (Southern Italy): Seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, C.; Frepoli, A.; Cimini, G. B.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the instrumental seismicity of Southern Italy in the area including the Lucanian Apennines and Bradano foredeep, making use of the most recent seismological data base available so far. P- and S-wave arrival times, recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network (RSNC) operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), were re-picked along with those of the SAPTEX temporary array deployed in the region in the period 2001-2004. For some events located in the upper Val d'Agri, we also used data from the Eni-Agip oil company seismic network. We examined the seismicity occurred during the period between 2001 and 2006, considering 514 events with magnitudes M ≥ 2.0. We computed the VP/ VS ratio obtaining a value of 1.83 and we carried out an analysis for the one-dimensional (1D) velocity model that approximates the seismic structure of the study area. Earthquakes were relocated and, for well- recorded events, we also computed 108 fault plane solutions. Finally, using 58 solutions, the most constrained, we computed regional stress field in the study area. Earthquake distribution shows three main seismic regions: the westernmost (Lucanian Apennines) characterized by high background seismicity, mostly with shallow hypocenters, the easternmost below the Bradano foredeep and the Murge with deeper and more scattered seismicity, and finally the more isolated and sparse seismicity localized in the Sila Range and in the offshore area along the northeastern Calabrian coast. Focal mechanisms computed in this work are in large part normal and strike-slip solutions and their tensional axes ( T-axes) have a generalized NE-SW orientation. The denser station coverage allowed us to improve hypocenters determination compared to those obtained by using only RSNC data, for a better characterization of the crustal and subcrustal seismicity in the study area.

  3. Geochemical Characteristics of Metavolcanics in the Area from Slate Formations of Southern Central Range, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, W.-S.; Lo, W.; Song, S.-R.

    2012-04-01

    The Central Range of Taiwan located at the convergent boundary of the Eurasia Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate accounts for 60% of total area of Taiwan. The rock types of Central Range include slates, phyllites, schists, gneisses, amphibolites, marbles, and some metaigneous rocks. In recent years, much attention has been given to the tectonic history in the Central Range of Taiwan. This notwithstanding, before the arc-continent collision began tectonic evolution that either passive continental margin of the South China Sea or active continental margin of the East China Sea has been a subject of much debate. Therefore, the petrogenesis of the metavolcanic rocks has the inseparable relation with the tectonic evolution of the Taiwan. According to previous studies, these metavolcanic rocks are exposed at widely scattered places in the Central Range of Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to present petrological, geochemical data (major and trace elements) and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses of the metavolcanic rocks of Shinkangshan area and the nearby associated Hsiangyangshan area. According to the chemical compositions, the metavolcanic rocks from the Shinkangshan area have SiO2 contents in the range of 48.29-51.35 wt.%. On the other hand, the metavolcanic rocks from the Hsiangyangshan area are characterized by SiO2 contents from 49.79 to 65.93 wt.%. On the Chondrite-normalized REE patterns, the Shinkangshan metavolcanic rocks show (La/Sm)N =1.88-2.87 and (La/Yb)N =3.41-5.89 and minor positive to non-existent Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.89-1.00), similar to the oceanic island basalts. The Hsiangyangshan metavolcanic rocks show fractionated REE patterns with (La/Sm)N=1.23-2.07, (La/Yb)N=1.42-2.68 slightly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.59-1.18). Primitive mantle-normalized abundance patterns and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions show that the Shinkangshan metavolcanic rocks have geochemical patterns characterized by enrichment in HFSE and LREE relative to HREE, as well as depletion

  4. Geologic map of the South Sierra Wilderness and South Sierra Roadless area, southern Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F. ); Carter, K.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The study area is underlain predominantly by granitoid rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Metamorphic rocks are present in roof pendants mainly in the southwest corner of the study area and consist of quartz-biotite schist, phyllite, quartzite, marble, calc-silicate hornfels, and meta-dacite. Among the seven Triassic and (or) Jurassic plutons are three newly described units that consist of the gabbro of Deer Mountain, the tonalite of Falls Creek, and the quartz diorite of Round Mountain. The map shows one newly described unit that intrudes Triassic rocks: the granodiorite of Monache Creek which is a leucocratic, medium-grained, equi-granular, locally porphyritic biotite hornblende granodiorite. Among the seven Cretaceous plutons are two newly described units. The Cretaceous rocks are generally medium- to coarse-grained, potassium-feldspar porphyritic granite with biotite and minor hornblende; it includes abundant pods of alaskite. The granite of Haiwee Creek is similar but only locally potassium-feldspar porphyritic and with only minor hornblende. Major-element data plotted on Harker diagrams show the older rocks to be higher in iron and magnesium and lower in silica than the younger rocks. There are abundant local pods of alaskite throughout the study area that consist of medium- to coarse-grained, leucocratic granite, alkali-feldspar granite and associated aplite and pegmatite bodies occurring as small pods and highly leucocratic border phases of nearby plutons. Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rock include the rhyolite of Monache Mountain and Quaternary surficial deposits: fan, stream-channel, colluvium, talus, meadow-filling, rock-glacier, and glacial-moraine deposits. Important structures include the Sierran front fault and a possible extensional feature along which Bacon (1978) suggests Monache Mountain erupted.

  5. Hydrogeology of the Tully Lakes area in southern Onondaga and Cortland counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Miller, Todd S.; Hetcher, Kari K.

    2001-01-01

    Glacial processes created the many kettlehole lakes, ponds, and depressions in the Tully Lakes area, as well as the Valley Heads Moraine, which forms the drainage divide between the St. Lawrence River drainage to the north and the Susquehanna River drainage to the south. The first hydrogeologic studies of the Tully Lakes area began in the 1870's, when the lakes were considered as a possible water supply for the city of Syracuse. Water was diverted from some of the northwestern lakes and ponds into the Tully Valley; these diversions occurred as early as the 1840's and ceased in the early 1960's, with the closure of the eastern Tully Valley brinefield. In 1998, the USGS began a 2-year hydrogeologic study of the aquifer system underlying the Tully Lakes area that included monitoring water levels in five of the Tully Lakes and more than 50 wells. The average annual water-level fluctuations in the three western lakes ranged from about 2.5 feet to 6 feet. Water-level fluctuations in the eastern lakes, near the center of the valley, were much less--about 1.5 feet, because these lakes have natural outlets. Three sets of ground-water-level measurements were made from the spring recharge period through the fall dry period of 2000. The resulting potentiometric-surface maps indicate that the water-level declines from the spring to the fall ranged from 1.5 to 8 feet. The ground-water divide is about 1 mile south of the Valley Heads Moraine crest in the spring and migrates southward in response to declining water levels in the surficial aquifer during the fall. Water-surface altitudes in the kettlehole lakes and ponds respond slowly to seasonal water-level changes in the surrounding aquifer and often differ from water levels in the aquifer because the poorly permeable lakebed sediments impede the exchange of water.

  6. Leaf area index of a tropical semi-deciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Júnior, Osvaldo Borges; Sanches, Luciana; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Brandão, Adilson Amorim; de Souza Nogueira, José

    2011-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important ecophysiological variable because leaves are the organs responsible for gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. This variable can be calculated from primary values of leaf area assessed by destructive or non-destructive methods, which is relatively easy when crop species are investigated, but is not the case when the focus is on natural wood plants communities. In this paper, we analyze the seasonality of LAI estimated by three different methods in the Amazonia-savannah transitional forest, located 50 km north-east of Sinop city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In the first method, we combine Monsi and Saekis' original method [Monsi M, Saeki T (1953) Jpn J Bot 14:22-52], which measures LAI using the Beer-Lambert extinction law, and the proposition of Goudriaan [Goudriaan J (1988) Agric For Meteorol 43:155-169] to estimate the extinction coefficient from solar height. The second method differed from the first only in the way in which the daily fraction of intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (FPAR) was calculated, as proposed by Charles-Edwards and Lawn (Charles-Edwards DA, Lawn RJ (1984) Plant Cell Environ 7:247-251]. In the third method, we used a remote sensing technique [MOD15_BU-collection 4, produced and distributed by EROS Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (EDC DAAC)]. We found that the first and the second methods revealed the expected LAI dynamics, which increased during the dry-wet transition and wet season, and decreased during the wet-dry transition and dry season. From 20 randomly distributed sets in a 1.0 ha area, only 3 showed significant differences in LAI estimated from the first two methods; conversely, LAI was overestimated by the third method.

  7. Leaf area index of a tropical semi-deciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Júnior, Osvaldo Borges; Sanches, Luciana; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Brandão, Adilson Amorim; de Souza Nogueira, José

    2011-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important ecophysiological variable because leaves are the organs responsible for gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. This variable can be calculated from primary values of leaf area assessed by destructive or non-destructive methods, which is relatively easy when crop species are investigated, but is not the case when the focus is on natural wood plants communities. In this paper, we analyze the seasonality of LAI estimated by three different methods in the Amazonia-savannah transitional forest, located 50 km north-east of Sinop city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In the first method, we combine Monsi and Saekis' original method [Monsi M, Saeki T (1953) Jpn J Bot 14:22-52], which measures LAI using the Beer-Lambert extinction law, and the proposition of Goudriaan [Goudriaan J (1988) Agric For Meteorol 43:155-169] to estimate the extinction coefficient from solar height. The second method differed from the first only in the way in which the daily fraction of intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (FPAR) was calculated, as proposed by Charles-Edwards and Lawn (Charles-Edwards DA, Lawn RJ (1984) Plant Cell Environ 7:247-251]. In the third method, we used a remote sensing technique [MOD15_BU-collection 4, produced and distributed by EROS Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (EDC DAAC)]. We found that the first and the second methods revealed the expected LAI dynamics, which increased during the dry-wet transition and wet season, and decreased during the wet-dry transition and dry season. From 20 randomly distributed sets in a 1.0 ha area, only 3 showed significant differences in LAI estimated from the first two methods; conversely, LAI was overestimated by the third method.

  8. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  9. BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Southern Study Area Jack Pine LAI and FPAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The RSS-4 team collected several data sets related to leaf, plant, and stand physical, optical, and chemical properties. This data set contains leaf area indices and FPAR measurements that were taken at the three conifer sites in the BOREAS SSA during August 1993 and at the jack pine tower flux and a subset of auxiliary sites during July and August 1994. The measurements were made with LAI-2000 and Ceptometer instruments. The measurements were taken for the purpose of model parameterization and to test empirical relationships that were hypothesized between biophysical parameters and remotely sensed data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  10. The epidemiology of malaria in adults in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Alfredo; Aponte, John J; Fogg, Carole; Saúte, Francisco; Greenwood, Brian; Dgedge, Martinho; Menendez, Clara; Alonso, Pedro L

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies of malaria in adults who live in malaria endemic areas are scarce. More attention to the natural history of malaria affecting adults is needed to understand the dynamics of malaria infection and its interaction with the immune system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the clinical, parasitological and haematological status of adults exposed to malaria, and to characterize parasites in these individuals who progressively acquire protective immunity. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 249 adults was conducted in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique. Clinical, parasitological and haematological status of the study population was recorded. Sub-microscopic infections and multiplicity of infections were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2). Results Prevalence of P. falciparum infection by microscopy (14%) and PCR (42%) decreased progressively during adulthood, in parallel with an increase in the prevalence of sub-microscopic infections. Anaemia was only related to parasitaemia as detected by PCR. Multiplicity of infection decreased with age and was higher in subjects with high P. falciparum densities, highlighting density-dependent constraints upon the PCR technique. Conclusion Adults of Manhiça progressively develop non-sterile, protective immunity against P. falciparum malaria. The method of parasite detection has a significant effect on the observed natural history of malaria infections. A more sensitive definition of malaria in adults should be formulated, considering symptoms such as diarrhoea, shivering and headache, combined with the presence of parasitaemia. PMID:17233881

  11. The epidemiology of malaria in adults in a rural area of southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Alfredo; Aponte, John J; Fogg, Carole; Saúte, Francisco; Greenwood, Brian; Dgedge, Martinho; Menendez, Clara; Alonso, Pedro L

    2007-01-17

    Epidemiological studies of malaria in adults who live in malaria endemic areas are scarce. More attention to the natural history of malaria affecting adults is needed to understand the dynamics of malaria infection and its interaction with the immune system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the clinical, parasitological and haematological status of adults exposed to malaria, and to characterize parasites in these individuals who progressively acquire protective immunity. A cross-sectional survey of 249 adults was conducted in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique. Clinical, parasitological and haematological status of the study population was recorded. Sub-microscopic infections and multiplicity of infections were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2). Prevalence of P. falciparum infection by microscopy (14%) and PCR (42%) decreased progressively during adulthood, in parallel with an increase in the prevalence of sub-microscopic infections. Anaemia was only related to parasitaemia as detected by PCR. Multiplicity of infection decreased with age and was higher in subjects with high P. falciparum densities, highlighting density-dependent constraints upon the PCR technique. Adults of Manhiça progressively develop non-sterile, protective immunity against P. falciparum malaria. The method of parasite detection has a significant effect on the observed natural history of malaria infections. A more sensitive definition of malaria in adults should be formulated, considering symptoms such as diarrhoea, shivering and headache, combined with the presence of parasitaemia.

  12. Central Java Southern part area deformation analysis by using GPS-CORS 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusfania, Meiriska; Anjasmara, Ira Mutiara; Hadi, Avrilina Luthfil; Pramudya, Bima

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia located on the convergence area of four active tectonic plates. Eurasia plate collides with Indo-Australia plate which forms subduction zone at the south of Java Island and forms the java island. Indo-Australia plate moving north by 7cm/year subducting under tectonic plate of Eurasia that relatively stated. As the results, tectonics and volcanic earthquakes are commonly occured at the boundary. In 2006, 5.9 Richter's scale earthquake, took place in Jogjakarta its surrounding, causing severe damage to the infrastructures. Therefore, Central Java has been marked as the seventh area which has high possibilities of earthquake in Indonesia. The aim of this research is to investigate deformation that happened at the South of Central Java using data of Continously Operating Reference Station of Indonesia (Ina-CORS) from 2013-2015. The deformation result is represented in the form of vectors and shifting velocity. Based on the result, it can be analysed that all six stations observed have the similar moving direction that is to the southeast with the horisontal velocity valued from 0.00910 to 0.01203 m/year. The vertical velocity of six stasions range from -0.01147 to 0.04354 m/year. From strain calculation using triangle segment it is found thet the value of compression bigger than extention value. Dominant extention value is in CSLO-CMGL-CBTL segment. The Value ɛ1: 0.01879 μstrain and ɛ2: -0.00997μstrain

  13. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149

  14. Hydrogeochemical characterization of contaminated groundwater in Patancheru industrial area, southern India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Saibaba, Boraa; Sudarshan, Ganji

    2012-06-01

    The groundwater is one of the most contaminated natural resources in Patancheru industrial area due to unplanned and haphazard industrial growth and urbanization without following basic pollution control norms. The rapid industrialization initiated in early 1970 has started showing up its after effects few years later in the form of physiochemical contamination of the both surface and groundwater bodies of the area. It has resulted in local people being deprived of safe drinking water, plant and aquatic life has severely affected, and situation is deteriorating over the years in the area in spite of some preventive and remedial measures being initiated. The focus of the present study is to understand the chemical characteristics of groundwater and geochemical processes the contaminant water is undergoing which are normally imprinted in its ionic assemblages. The water samples collected in pre- and post-monsoon seasons from forty two groundwater and four surface water sources were analyzed for major constituents such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO (3) (-) , HCO (3) (-) , Cl(-), SO (4) (2-) , NO (3) (-) , and F(-), and selected samples were tested for ten important trace metals like Fe, Pb, Bi, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd. Na(+) among cations and Cl(-) among anions dominate the water in both the seasons where as Ca(2+), HCO (3) (-) , and Cl(-) show significant reduction in their ionic strength in post-monsoon. The groundwater in general is of mixed type, but most of it belong to Na(+)-Cl(-), Na(+)-HCO (3) (-) , Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO (3) (-) , and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-) facies. The Na(+) and Ca(2+) are in the transitional state with Na(+) replacing Ca(2+) and HCO (3) (-) -Cl(-) due to physiochemical changes in the aquifer system. The evaluation of hydrochemistry through various ionic indices, ratios, and plots suggest that silicate-carbonate weathering, ion exchange, dissolution, and evaporation processes are responsible for origin of the present chemical status of

  15. Hydrogeochemistry of geothermal waters in the Magumsan and Bugok area, southern part of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yun, S.; So, C.; Chae, G.; Koh, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotopic studies of geothermal waters in the Bugok and Magumsan area were conducted to understand the subsurface evolution of geothermal system in South Korea. Hydrochemically, the Bugok thermal waters (BTW; outflowing temperature = 45.8-78.0 degree in centigrade) belong to the Na-SO4 type, whereas the Magumsan thermal waters (MTW; 27.5-54.8 degree in centigrade) represent the Na-Cl type. Peripheral groundwaters (17.2-22.4 degree in centigrade) in both areas belong to the Ca-HCO3 type. Both BTW and MTW show a good correlation between TDS and SiO2 content. The thermodynamic calculation using SOLVEQ indicates that all the BTW and MTW are saturated or supersaturated with respect to albite, quartz, calcite, kaolinite, anorthite, muscovite and paragonite, and are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and chalcedony. A good correlation among in-situ temperature, oxygen (and hydrogen) isotope values, and tritium content is observed for BTW and MTW. The high chlorine concentration of MTW reflects the substantial mixing of paleoseawater in the geothermal system, as also suggested by Na, Br, SO4, and Cl concentrations. We propose a hydrogeochemical model for MTW, which includes the paleoseawater mixing and addition of sedimentary SO4 by water-rock interaction during the descent of meteoric recharged water and the calcite dissolution and successive CO2 degassing during the ascent of heated waters. In the case of BTW, we propose an alternative model which includes complex processes such as the recharge of meteoric waters at higher elevation, the prolonged water-rock interaction including the dissolution of sedimentary (evaporitic?) sulfates, the reduction of sulfate to form H2S, the CO2 degassing and associated calcite precipitation, and the re-oxidation of H2S to SO4. We consider that the geothermal system responsible for both MTW and BTW are located nearer to a deep heat source, compared to the other geothermal systems found in

  16. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Alice E.; Lindgren, Elise A.; Hermsmeier, Maiko C.; Rogowski, Peter A.; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  17. Comparative performance of imagicides on Anopheles stephensi, main malaria vector in a malarious area, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Abai, M R; Mehravaran, A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Javadian, E; Mashayekhi, M; Mosleminia, A; Piyazak, N; Edallat, H; Mohtarami, F; Jabbari, H; Rafi, F

    2008-12-01

    Jiroft district has subtropical climate and prone to seasonal malaria transmission with annual parasite index (API) 4.2 per 1000 in 2006. Anopheles stephensi Liston is a dominant malaria vector. The monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and irritability was conducted using discriminative dose as described by WHO. The IV instar larvae were collected from different larval breeding places and transported to the temporary insectary, fed with Bemax and then 2-3 days-old emerged and sugar-fed adults were used for susceptibility and irritability tests employing WHO methods and kits to organochlorine (OC) and pyrethroid (PY) insecticides. Mortality rates of field strain of An. stephensi were 91.3 +/- 0.14 and 90 +/- 0.47% to DDT and dieldrin, respectively at one hour exposure time but was susceptible to all pyrethroids tested. The average number of take-offs per min per adult was 2.09 +/- 0.13 for DDT, 0.581 +/- 0.05 for dieldrin, 1.85 +/- 0.08 for permethrin, 1.87 +/- 0.21 for lambda-cyhalothrin, 1.53 +/- 0.13 for cyfluthrin, and 1.23 +/- 0.1 for deltamethrin. Currently, deltamethrin is being used for indoor residual spraying against malaria vectors in the endemic areas of Iran. The findings revealed that the main malaria species is susceptible to all pyrethroids including deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin but was tolerant to DDT and dieldrin. This report and the finding are coincided with results of previous studies carried out during 1957-61 in the same area. Irritability tests to OC and PY insecticides revealed the moderate level of irritability to DDT compared to pyrethroids and dieldrin. Monitoring for possible cross-resistance between OC and PY insecticides should come into consideration for malaria control programme.

  18. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment.

  19. Comparison of changes in glacier area and thickness on the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Bogda, eastern Tianshan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Puyu; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Wenbin; Li, Huilin; Wu, Lihua; Huai, Baojuan; Zhou, Ping; Jin, Shuang; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Rapid shrinkage and dramatic volume loss of the glaciers on Mt. Bogda in the eastern Tianshan Mountains have resulted in water shortages in the surrounding arid regions of China. Understanding ice thickness and its variation is important to the analysis of changes in glacial volume, which are directly related to regional hydrology and water resources. Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier and Heigou Glacier No. 8 are located on the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Bogda, respectively. In this paper, the spatial distribution of the ice thickness of these two glaciers and the changes in their area and volume are discussed based on a 2009 survey result and comparison to previous investigations. The mean ice thickness of the tongue of Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier was about 82.3 m and the calculated ice volume was 385.2 × 106 m3 in 2009. It had thinned by 14 ± 8 m (0.30 ± 0.17 m a- 1) from 1962 to 2009, equivalent to an ice volume loss of 65.5 ± 37.4 × 106 m3. The mean ice thickness of the tongue of Heigou Glacier No. 8 was 58.7 m and the calculated ice volume was 115.1 × 106 m3 in 2009. The tongue of Heigou Glacier No. 8 thinned by 13 ± 6 m (0.57 ± 0.26 m a- 1) from 1986 to 2009, which corresponds to an ice volume loss of 25.5 ± 11.8 × 106 m3. The greater thinning and retreat of Heigou Glacier No. 8 than those of Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier is partially due to topographic characteristics. The difference can be attributed mainly to the greater increase in temperature on the southern slope than on the northern slope.

  20. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in Oregon's Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlstein, S.; Compton, J.; Eldridge, A.; Henning, A.; Selker, J. S.; Brooks, J. R.; Schmitz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural nitrogen use, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. Previous work in the 1990s in the Willamette Valley by researchers at Oregon State University determined the importance of cover crops and irrigation practices and made recommendations to the local farm community for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching. We are currently re-sampling many of the same fields studied by OSU to examine the influence of current crops and nutrient management practices on nitrate leaching below the rooting zone. This study represents important crops currently grown in the GWMA and includes four grass fields, three vegetable row-crop fields, two peppermint and wheat fields, and one each of hazelnuts and blueberries. New nutrient management practices include slow release fertilizers and precision agriculture approaches in some of the fields. Results from the first two years of sampling show nitrate leaching is lower in some crops like row crops grown for seed and higher in others like perennial rye grass seed when compared to the 1990s data. We will use field-level N input-output balances in order to determine the N use efficiency and compare this across crops and over time. The goal of this project is to provide information and tools that will help farmers, managers and conservation groups quantify the water quality benefits of management practices they are conducting or funding.

  1. Storm rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows from recently burned areas in southwestern Colorado and southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, S.H.; Gartner, J.E.; Wilson, R.C.; Bowers, J.C.; Laber, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows generated during rain storms on recently burned areas have destroyed lives and property throughout the Western U.S. Field evidence indicate that unlike landslide-triggered debris flows, these events have no identifiable initiation source and can occur with little or no antecedent moisture. Using rain gage and response data from five fires in Colorado and southern California, we document the rainfall conditions that have triggered post-fire debris flows and develop empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the occurrence of debris flows and floods following wildfires in these settings. This information can provide guidance for warning systems and planning for emergency response in similar settings. Debris flows were produced from 25 recently burned basins in Colorado in response to 13 short-duration, high-intensity convective storms. Debris flows were triggered after as little as six to 10??min of storm rainfall. About 80% of the storms that generated debris flows lasted less than 3??h, with most of the rain falling in less than 1??h. The storms triggering debris flows ranged in average intensity between 1.0 and 32.0??mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows sufficiently large to pose threats to life and property from recently burned areas in south-central, and southwestern, Colorado are defined by: I = 6.5D-??0.7 and I = 9.5D-??0.7, respectively, where I = rainfall intensity (in mm/h) and D = duration (in hours). Debris flows were generated from 68 recently burned areas in southern California in response to long-duration frontal storms. The flows occurred after as little as two hours, and up to 16??h, of low-intensity (2-10??mm/h) rainfall. The storms lasted between 5.5 and 33??h, with average intensities between 1.3 and 20.4??mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for life- and property-threatening floods and debris

  2. Coupling and Correlation-analysis Between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres' Solar Cycle Features based on Sunspot Area Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, W. N.; Dikpati, M.

    2014-12-01

    Vast literature on Babcock-Leighton flux-transport dynamo models indicate that the sunspot activity cycles in the Northern and Southern hemispheres are primarily decoupled about the equator and are independent of each other. However, we find from the analysis of long-term sunspot area data from 1875 to 2013 that the two hemispheres continuously attempt to couple about the equator. If we define the coupling line as the line where the sunspot area of the two hemispheres is the same on the plot of North versus South spot-area, we find that the two hemispheres' spot-area tend to fall on the coupling line over a very long period of time, despite their short-term traversal away from the coupling line. This indicates that there must be some underlying process inside the Sun's interior which is causing this coupling. Further analysis of the features, such as rise and decay times of solar cycles, minima and peak amplitudes, reveal that the solar cycles normally follow a saw-tooth pattern with a fast rise and slow fall, as noted before. Most interestingly, we find that rise-time in one hemisphere correlates with minima-amplitude of the other hemisphere, but anti-correlates with that of the same hemisphere. We speculate that this happens because the fast rise of a cycle can annihilate the opposite-hemisphere's flux faster, leading to a lower minima-amplitude. By contrast, the peak of a cycle does not have much influence on minima-amplitude of the opposite hemisphere. We are investigating the physics behind these features through dynamo simulations.

  3. New biostratigraphic results from the Kolbano area, southern West Timor: Implications for the Mesozoic—Tertiary stratigraphy of Timor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, T. R.; Wall, D.

    In the Kolbano area of southern West Timor (eastern Indonesia), strongly deformed Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks of Australian continental margin affinity are exposed within the Banda arc-continent collision complex. New biostratigraphic age determinations are presented for a suite of rocks from this area which modify the ages and stratigraphic relationships of several formations within this sequence. These results have significance for the evolution of the Australian northwest passive margin, and for the timing of arc-continental collision. A new, more restricted definition of the Jurassic Oe Baat Formation is proposed, with the lower part of the section exposed in the Pasi Inlier reassigned to the Wai Luli Formation. The Oe Baat Formation is dated as entirely Upper Jurassic (upper Oxfordian-Tithonian), and previously reported Lower Cretaceous ages were not confirmed. In the "mid" Cretaceous-Palaeogene sequence, it has been established previously that formations are strongly diachronous. The new data suggest even stronger diachroneity than has been recognised previously. The Wai Bua/Nakfunu Formation ranges locally as young as Lower Eocene, the Borolalo Formation as young as Lower Oligocene, and the Ofu Formation to Lower Oligocene or younger. The Neogene "Batuputih Formation" of the Kolbano area is shown not to be equivalent to the Batu Putih Limestone in the Central Basin. A new name, Siu Formation, is provisionally proposed for the Kolbano sequence. The syn-orogenic Sonalete Formation is found to be at least as old as planktonic foraminiferal zone N19, suggesting that major orogenesis was already underway in the Kolbano area by late Early Pliocene.

  4. Hydro-meteorological influences and multimodal suspended particle size distributions in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Lee, Byung Joon; Chen, Peihung; Yu, Jason C. S.

    2012-04-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration and particle size distribution (PSD) were assessed in a coastal turbidity maximum area (southern North Sea) during a composite period of 37 days in January-April 2008. PSDs were measured with a LISST 100X and classified using entropy analysis in terms of subtidal alongshore flow. The PSDs during tide-dominated conditions showed distinct multimodal behaviour due to flocculation, revealing that the building blocks of flocs consist of primary particles (<3 μm) and flocculi (15 μm). Flocculi comprise clusters of clay minerals, whereas primary particles have various compositions (calcite, clays). The PSDs during storms with a NE-directed alongshore subtidal current (NE storms) are typically unimodal and characterised by mainly granular material (silt, sand) resuspended from the seabed. During storms with a SW-directed alongshore subtidal current (SW storms), by contrast, mainly flocculated material can be identified in the PSDs. The findings emphasise the importance of wind-induced advection, alongshore subtidal flow and highly concentrated mud suspensions (HCMSs) as regulating mechanisms of SPM concentration, as well as other SPM characteristics (cohesiveness or composition of mixed sediment particles) and size distribution in a high-turbidity area. The direction of subtidal alongshore flow during SW storm events results in an increase in cohesive SPM concentration, HCMS formation, and the armouring of sand; by contrast, there is a decrease in cohesive SPM concentration, no HCMS formation, and an increase in sand and silt in suspension during NE storms.

  5. Impacts of informal trails on vegetation and soils in the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Barros, Agustina; Gonnet, Jorge; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-09-30

    There is limited recreation ecology research in South America, especially studies looking at informal trails. Impacts of informal trails formed by hikers and pack animals on vegetation and soils were assessed for the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere, Aconcagua Provincial Park. The number of braided trails, their width and depth were surveyed at 30 sites along the main access route to Mt Aconcagua (6962 m a.s.l.). Species composition, richness and cover were also measured on control and trail transects. A total of 3.3 ha of alpine meadows and 13.4 ha of alpine steppe were disturbed by trails. Trails through meadows resulted in greater soil loss, more exposed soil and rock and less vegetation than trails through steppe vegetation. Trampling also affected the composition of meadow and steppe vegetation with declines in sedges, herbs, grasses and shrubs on trails. These results highlight how visitor use can result in substantial cumulative damage to areas of high conservation value in the Andes. With unregulated use of trails and increasing visitation, park agencies need to limit the further spread of informal trails and improve the conservation of plant communities in Aconcagua Provincial Park and other popular parks in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lichen recolonisation in an urban-industrial area of southern Poland as a result of air quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Lisowska, Maja

    2011-08-01

    Dynamics of epiphytic lichen distribution and diversity in the town of Skawina, one of the major industrial centres of southern Poland, over the last 30 years, was documented in relation to air quality changes. Fieldwork was conducted in 2006-2007. A total of 34 species were recorded at 202 sites, which is similar to the historical data, however, significant qualitative changes occurred. Nitrogen- and dust-tolerant species have expanded and dominate, while some acidophytes, such as Lecanora conizaeoides, are in decline. Lichens have recolonised the former 'lichen desert' in the town centre. Species richness at study sites has increased; and an improvement in the health of lichen thalli was noted. These trends reflect air quality improvement, mainly SO(2) decline in the last few decades and transport-related compounds, mainly NO(x) and dust that have became the main pollutants. Host tree species and diameter diversity also contribute significantly to lichen species diversity in the study area. The recolonisation process seems far from complete and further changes in the lichen distribution and diversity in the study area are expected.

  7. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  8. Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-03-01

    Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and bioaccumulation in soybean plants from mining and smelting areas of southern Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Zeng, Min; Zhou, Xin; Liao, Bo-Han; Liu, Jun; Lei, Ming; Zhong, Qian-Yun; Zeng, Hui

    2013-12-01

    Soybean is one of most important dicotyledonous food crops and is widely planted in Hunan Province, China. However, mining activity causes contamination of the soil in which soybean grows. To assess the impact of mining-induced soil contamination on soybean plants, a geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) was used to evaluate 20 soil samples from the mining and smelting areas of southern Hunan Province. The results indicated that Zn ranged from uncontaminated to a moderately contaminated level (I(geo)<1), Pb was at a strongly contaminated level (I(geo)>3), and Cd was at an extremely contaminated level (I(geo)>5) across the whole study area. All of the studied soybean plants were affected by heavy metal Pb and Cd contamination, and the mean concentrations in seeds were 13.9 mg/kg and 2.95 mg/kg, respectively. The estimated bioconcentration factor and translocation factor showed that the soybean roots had a strong Cd bioconcentration capability and the stems had a strong translocation capability in terms of Pb, Cd, and Zn, with preferential transference of metals to the soybean leaves. The bioavailable fraction in the soil was characterized by the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals. In the present study, the bioavailable fractions of Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly positively correlated with the concentration of these metals in soybean tissues (roots, stems, leaves, husks, and seeds). © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Risk factors for malaria infection among rubber tappers living in a malaria control program area in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pattanasin, Sarika; Satitvipawee, Pratana; Wongklang, Warunnee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Bhumiratana, Adisak; Soontornpipit, Pichitpong; Jareinpituk, Sutthi

    2012-11-01

    Rubber tappers work begins at midnight during the feeding time of Anopheles maculatus and An. minimus, two common malaria vectors in southern Thailand. We studied the association between rubber tapper behavior and malaria infections as reported to the Notified Disease Surveillance System during 2010 in Prachuab Khiri Khan Province, Thailand. In that province insecticide treated bednets are distributed free to the population and insecticide residual spraying is performed annually. A random sample of 394 rubber tapper households was interviewed from October 2010 to May 2011. Twenty-six households (6.6%) had at least one family member who contracted malaria during 2010. Poisson regression was used to identify potential characteristics associated with malaria. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to test for simultaneous effects of tapper behavior and household risk for malaria infection. The estimated incidence rate ratio (IRR) for contracting malaria among those owning a farming hut was 2.9 (95% CI 1.1-7.3, p < 0.05) after controlling for other variables. Even in areas where control programs are in place, malaria infection among rubber tappers is common. Given the Thai Government's plan to expand the rubber plantation areas to other regions of the country without specific prevention for this at-risk population, the malaria burden in Thailand may increase.

  11. Plant-assisted bioremediation of a historically PCB and heavy metal-contaminated area in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ancona, Valeria; Barra Caracciolo, Anna; Grenni, Paola; Di Lenola, Martina; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Uricchio, Vito Felice; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Massacci, Angelo

    2017-09-25

    A plant-assisted bioremediation strategy was applied in an area located in Southern Italy, close to the city of Taranto, historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals. A specific poplar clone (Monviso) was selected for its ability to promote organic pollutant degradation in the rhizosphere, as demonstrated elsewhere. Chemical and microbiological analyses were performed at the time of poplar planting in selected plots at different distances from the trunk (0.25-1m) and at different soil depths (0-20 and 20-40cm), at day 420. A significant decrease in PCB congeners and a reduction in all heavy metals was observed where the poplar trees were present. No evidence of PCB and heavy metal reduction was observed in the non poplar-vegetated soil. Microbial analyses (dehydrogenase activity, cell viability, microbial abundance) of the autochthonous microbial community showed an improvement in soil quality. In particular, microbial activity generally increased in the poplar-rhizosphere and a positive effect was observed in some cases at up to 1m distance from the trunk and up to 40cm depth. The Monviso clone was effective in promoting both a general decrease in contaminant occurrence and an increase in microbial activity in the chronically polluted area a little more than one year after planting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of adolescent substance use: behavioral problems and family background among school students in Tsunami affected area in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sitdhiraksa, Nantawat; Piyasil, Vinadda; Pariwatcharakul, Pornjira; Ularntinon, Sirirat; Pityaratstian, Nuttorn; Singhakant, Supachoke; Ratta-apha, Woraphat; Saisavoey, Nattha; Ketumarn, Panom

    2014-06-01

    To study the prevalence of substance use and associated factors in school students in Tsunami affected areas in southern Thailand. The study was a school-based, cross-sectional, anonymous survey that used a translated questionnaire, ESPAD-03, in 5 schools. Chi-square tests and odds ratios were used to evaluate factors associated with substance use. Two thousand seven hundred and sixteen students (87.8%) were enrolled in the study. Lifetime, last 12 months, and last 30 days prevalence rates of any substance use were 50.3, 33.9, and 24.8%, respectively. Lifetime, last 12 months, and last 30 days prevalence rates of alcohol use were 43.2, 30.1, and 17.5%, respectively. Lifetime and last 30 days prevalence rates of smoking were 21.7 and 12.0%. Fighting, stealing, truancy, running away, unsafe sex, and thought of self-harming were associated with alcohol and substance use. Siblings and friends with alcohol and substance use were risk factors. Close support from parents and friends were protective factors. There was a high prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and substance use among school students in Tsunami affected areas. Behavioral problems and psychosocial risk factors were associated with history of smoking, alcohol and substance use. School-based intervention in students with behavioral problems seems to be a worthwhile investment. However, longitudinal studies should be done to confirm the correlation of PTSD and substance use.

  13. Fluoride enrichment in groundwater of semi-arid urban area: Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip (Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jabal, Mohamed Shaban; Abustan, Ismail; Rozaimy, Mohd Remy; Al-Najar, Hussam

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine fluoride enhancement in the groundwater of semi-arid urban area of Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip. Physicochemical data for a total of 200 groundwater samples were analyzed. The fluoride concentrations were varied from 0.3 to 6.45 mg/L with average value of 2.87 mg/L. Correlations between fluorides with other measured ions were relatively observed, negative correlation with calcium and the positive correlation with pH, bicarbonate and sodium increase the dissolution/solubility of fluoride bearing minerals, leading to fluoride leaching into the groundwater. Fluoride enrichment in the groundwater of the area is due to water hydrochemistry, mineral-water interaction (mainly calcite and fluorite), fluorite resulted from fluorapatite dissolution. The saturation indexes evaluation indicated that 42% of the samples are over saturated with respect to calcite and 35.5% under saturated with respect to fluorite, while 40.5% approached equilibrium with respect to both calcite and fluorite. At fluoride concentrations of less than 2.2 mg/L fluorite saturation indexes show under-saturation condition for fluorite and at higher fluoride concentrations show near saturation condition.

  14. Geophysical monitoring of the submerged area of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy): experiences and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; De Martino, Prospero; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Bobbio, Antonella; Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring system of the Campi Flegrei caldera is made up of a dense geophysical network of seismological and geodetic instruments with data acquired and processed at the Monitoring Center of INGV in Naples. As one third of the caldera is covered by the sea, a marine monitoring system has been operating since 2008 in the center of the gulf of Pozzuoli, where the sea depth is about 100 m at ~2.5 km from the coast. The main component of the monitoring system is CUMAS (Cabled Underwater Multidisciplinary Acquisition System), which consists of a sea floor module equipped with geophysical and oceanographic sensors (broad band seismometer, accelerometer, hydrophone, bottom pressure recorder and single point three component water-current meter) and status and control sensors. CUMAS is connected by cable to the top of an elastic beacon buoy equipped with the power supply and data transmission devices. The buoy consists of a float placed below sea level, surrounding and holding a steel pole that supports a turret structure above sea level. The pole, turret and float system are rigidly connected to the ballast on the sea bottom. Thus a GPS installed on the turret can record the vertical sea floor displacement related to the volcanic activity of the area. The GPS has operated since January 2012 with continuous acquisition lasting more than three years and has recorded a cumulative seafloor uplift of about 7-8 cm. The comparison of the pattern of the GPS buoy data with those of the land stations confirms a quasi-symmetrical vertical displacement field of the caldera area. Measurement of vertical sea floor displacement has also been obtained by the analysis of bottom pressure recorder data. These results, in conjunction with the analysis of seismic and hydrophone data, have encouraged us to extend the marine monitoring system with the deployment in the Gulf of Pozzuoli of three new similar systems. We also present preliminary results of the first few months of activity of

  15. Early Eocene Molluscan biostratigraphy, Mount Pinos-Lockwood Valley area, northern Ventura County, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, R.L.; Wilson, M.

    1987-05-01

    A 600-m thick unnamed marine, predominantly transition-zone siltstone unit along the south flank of the Mount Pinos uplift, in the northern Lockwood Valley area, previously has been suggested to be early Eocene (Capay Stage) in age at its base. This present study shows the entire unit to be this age. Unconformably overlying the pre-Tertiary granite basement is 30 m of unfossiliferous muddy siltstone that grades upward into 50 m of very fine sandstone with rarely fossiliferous lenses of medium to coarse sandstone. Gradationally above the sandstone is 100 m of muddy siltstone with less rarely fossiliferous lenses of conglomeratic sandstone. Macrofossil collections made at 10 localities in these lower 180 m yielded a sparse fauna of subtropical shallow-marine gastropods and bivalves, as well as rare specimens of discocyclinid foraminifera. from 180 to 500 m above the base of the section is unfossiliferous siltstone with local occurrences of lower shoreface, alternating laminated and bioturbated very fine sandstone. The uppermost 100 m of the section is siltstone with rarely fossiliferous lenses of fine to medium sandstone. Collections made at five localities yielded subtropical shallow-marine mollusks. Evidence of a West Coast provincial molluscan Capay Stage (early Eocene) age for all the fossiliferous beds of the siltstone unit is the presence of Turritella andersoni, a species diagnostic of this stage. Commonly associated mollusks are Cryptoconus cooperi, Cylichnina tantilla, Ectinochilus (Macilentos) macilentus, and Turritella buwaldana. Unconformably overlying the unit is the Oligocene-lower Miocene nonmarine Plush Ranch Formation.

  16. Faults on Skylab imagery of the Salton Trough area, Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M.; Lamar, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large segments of the major high angle faults in the Salton Trough area are readily identifiable in Skylab images. Along active faults, distinctive topographic features such as scarps and offset drainage, and vegetation differences due to ground water blockage in alluvium are visible. Other fault-controlled features along inactive as well as active faults visible in Skylab photography include straight mountain fronts, linear valleys, and lithologic differences producing contrasting tone, color or texture. A northwestern extension of a fault in the San Andreas set, is postulated by the regional alignment of possible fault-controlled features. The suspected fault is covered by Holocene deposits, principally windblown sand. A northwest trending tonal change in cultivated fields across Mexicali Valley is visible on Skylab photos. Surface evidence for faulting was not observed; however, the linear may be caused by differences in soil conditions along an extension of a segment of the San Jacinto fault zone. No evidence of faulting could be found along linears which appear as possible extensions of the Substation and Victory Pass faults, demonstrating that the interpretation of linears as faults in small scale photography must be corroborated by field investigations.

  17. Dermatophytosis: a 16-year retrospective study in a metropolitan area in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Daiane; Garcia, Marcelo Rocha; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Vetoratto, Gerson; Schwartz, Joel; Amaro, Taís Guarienti; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2015-08-29

    Dermatophytoses are considered a public health problem. The objectives of this study were to determine the evolution of their prevalence in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, and to analyze the dermatophyte species distribution according to body site and demographic characteristics of the patients. This work was a retrospective analysis of data from patients attending a tertiary care hospital during 1996-2011. There were 9,048 cases with cultures positive for dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum occurred in 59.6% of the cases, followed by Trichophyton interdigitale (34%), Microsporum canis (2.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum (1.5%), Microsporum gypseum (1.3%), and Trichophyton tonsurans (0.9%). The angular coefficients for T. interdigitale, E. floccosum, T. rubrum, and M. canis were +1.119, +0.211, -0.826 and -0.324% per year, respectively. Males presented higher prevalence of infection (79.3% versus 53.9%). Tinea unguium occurred in 48.5% of the cases, followed by tinea pedis (33.1%). T. rubrum was the predominant species in all regions of the body except the scalp, where M. canis was responsible for 75% of the cases. Monitoring of the evolution of dermatophytosis tracks changes in prevalence over the years and may assist practical measures for the public health control of this disease.

  18. Two unusual new dinoflagellate cyst genera from the Bunde Borehole, Maastrichtian type area, southern Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Brinkhuis; Klinkenberg; Williams; Fensome

    2000-06-01

    Maastrichtian and Danian deposits from the Bunde Borehole in the Maastrichtian type area contain the morphologically unusual dinoflagellate species Spumadinium felderorum gen. et sp. nov. and Lasagniella herngreenii gen. et sp. nov., both of which have archeopyles formed by the loss of several paraplates. In S. felderorum the paraplates forming the operculum or opercular pieces appear to be the third and fourth precingulars (3"-4") plus the first and second anterior intercalaries (1a-2a). This suggests that Spumadinium, although having a wall resembling some cribroperidinioids, is a cladopyxiinean. L. herngreenii is unique in having up to eight wall layers, separated and supported by buttresses. The archeopyle is also a combination type but formed by loss of one apical (3'), three anterior intercalary (1a-3a) and three precingular (3"-5") paraplates. Thus, Lasagniella is assignable to the Peridiniales. The distinctive morphology and restricted ranges of the two genera make them useful stratigraphic markers for the Upper Maastrichtian-Danian.

  19. Characteristics and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl pollution in a suburban area of Guangzhou, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qilu; Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, 52 paired gas and particle samples were collected from a suburban field in Guangzhou in 2012 using a high-volume active air sampler; they were then analysed for 30 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners via gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 97.4 to 853 pg m-3. This was a moderate level compared with other cities, undeveloped areas, and electronic waste disposal sites. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs did not exhibit notable diurnal or seasonal variations, except for a few high measurement. Tetra- and tri-CBs were the predominant PCB compounds, with an average combined contribution of 81.9%. CB-77 was the dominant congener in the particle phase due to a few samples with extremely high mass fraction of CB-77 and relatively low concentrations of other PCBs. Based on measurements of pollution characteristics including diurnal and seasonal variations, we used correlation analysis, principal component analysis and back trajectory modeling to deduce that electronic manufacturing and recycling activities, pigment/paint production, and waste incineration plants are possible sources of PCBs in Guangzhou. Of these sources, the high observed contributions of CB-77 originated mainly from the pigment/paint industry.

  20. Delineation and Prediction Uncertainty of Areas Contributing Recharge to Selected Well Fields in Wetland and Coastal Settings, Southern Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesz, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Areas contributing recharge to four well fields in two study sites in southern Rhode Island were delineated on the basis of steady-state groundwater-flow models representing average hydrologic conditions. The wells are screened in sand and gravel deposits in wetland and coastal settings. The groundwater-flow models were calibrated by inverse modeling using nonlinear regression. Summary statistics from nonlinear regression were used to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predicted areas contributing recharge to the well fields. In South Kingstown, two United Water Rhode Island well fields are in Mink Brook watershed and near Worden Pond and extensive wetlands. Wetland deposits of peat near the well fields generally range in thickness from 5 to 8 feet. Analysis of water-level drawdowns in a piezometer screened beneath the peat during a 20-day pumping period indicated vertical leakage and a vertical hydraulic conductivity for the peat of roughly 0.01 ft/d. The simulated area contributing recharge for average withdrawals of 2,138 gallons per minute during 2003-07 extended to groundwater divides in mostly till and morainal deposits, and it encompassed 2.30 square miles. Most of a sand and gravel mining operation between the well fields was in the simulated contributing area. For the maximum pumping capacity (5,100 gallons per minute), the simulated area contributing recharge expanded to 5.54 square miles. The well fields intercepted most of the precipitation recharge in Mink Brook watershed and in an adjacent small watershed, and simulated streams ceased to flow. The simulated contributing area to the well fields included an area beneath Worden Pond and a remote, isolated area in upland till on the opposite side of Worden Pond from the well fields. About 12 percent of the pumped water was derived from Worden Pond. In Charlestown, the Central Beach Fire District and the East Beach Water Association well fields are on a small (0.85 square mile) peninsula in a

  1. Paleomagnetic data bearing on style of Miocene deformation in the Lake Mead area, Southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wawrzyniec, T.F.; Geissman, J.W.; Anderson, R.E.; Harlan, S.S.; Faulds, J.

    2001-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and structural data from intermediate to mafic composition lava flows and related dikes in all major blocks of the late Miocene Hamblin-Cleopatra Volcano, which was structurally dismembered during the development of the Lake Mead Fault System (LMFS), provide limits on the magnitude and sense of tilting and vertical axis rotation of crust during extension of this part of the Basin and Range province. Sinistral separation along the fault system dissected the volcano into three major blocks. The eastern, Cleopatra Lobe of the volcano is structurally the most intact section of the volcano. Normal and reverse polarity data from paleomagnetic sites collected along traverses in the Cleopatra Lobe yield an in situ grand mean of Declination (D) = 339??, Inclination (I) = +54??, ??95 = 3.1??, k = 27.2, N = 81 sites. The rocks of the central core of the volcano yield an in situ grand mean of D = 3??, I = + 59??, ??95 = 6.8??, k = 42.5, N = 11 sites (six normal, five reverse polarity). Sites collected within the western Hamblin Lobe of the volcano are exclusively of reverse polarity and yield an overall in situ mean of D = 168??, I = -58??, ??95 = 6.5??. k = 28.9, N = 18 sites. Interpretation of the paleomagnetic data in the context of the structural history of the volcano and surrounding area, considers the possibility of two different types of structural corrections. A stratigraphic tilt correction involves restoring flows to the horizontal using the present strike. This correction assumes no initial, possibly radial, dip of flows of the volcano and is considered invalid. A structural tilt correction to the data assumes that dikes of the radiating swarm associated with the volcano were originally vertical and results in block mean directions of D = 9??, I = +53??, ??95 = 3.1??, k = 27.2, and D = 58??, I = + 78??, ??95 = 6.8, k = 42.5, for the Cleopatra Lobe and the central intrusive core, respectively. The data from the Cleopatra Lobe are slightly discordant

  2. Paleomagnetic data bearing on style of Miocene deformation in the Lake Mead area, southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniec, Tim F.; Geissman, John W.; Anderson, R. Ernest; Harlan, Steve S.; Faulds, James

    2001-08-01

    Paleomagnetic and structural data from intermediate to mafic composition lava flows and related dikes in all major blocks of the late Miocene Hamblin-Cleopatra Volcano, which was structurally dismembered during the development of the Lake Mead Fault System (LMFS), provide limits on the magnitude and sense of tilting and vertical axis rotation of crust during extension of this part of the Basin and Range province. Sinistral separation along the fault system dissected the volcano into three major blocks. The eastern, Cleopatra Lobe of the volcano is structurally the most intact section of the volcano. Normal and reverse polarity data from paleomagnetic sites collected along traverses in the Cleopatra Lobe yield an in situ grand mean of Declination ( D)=339°, Inclination ( I)=+54°, α95=3.1°, k=27.2, N=81 sites. The rocks of the central core of the volcano yield an in situ grand mean of D=3°, I=+59°, α95=6.8°, k=42.5, N=11 sites (six normal, five reverse polarity). Sites collected within the western Hamblin Lobe of the volcano are exclusively of reverse polarity and yield an overall in situ mean of D=168°, I=-58°, α95=6.5°, k=28.9, N=18 sites. Interpretation of the paleomagnetic data in the context of the structural history of the volcano and surrounding area, considers the possibility of two different types of structural corrections. A stratigraphic tilt correction involves restoring flows to the horizontal using the present strike. This correction assumes no initial, possibly radial, dip of flows of the volcano and is considered invalid. A structural tilt correction to the data assumes that dikes of the radiating swarm associated with the volcano were originally vertical and results in block mean directions of D=9°, I=+53°, α95=3.1°, k=27.2, and D=58°, I=+78°, α95=6.8°, k=42.5, for the Cleopatra Lobe and the central intrusive core, respectively. The data from the Cleopatra Lobe are slightly discordant, in a clockwise sense, from expected middle

  3. Raw fish consumption in liver fluke endemic areas in rural southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Phongluxa, Khampheng; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia, and in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), in particular. We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of villagers in liver fluke endemic areas related to raw fish preparation, consumption and its health consequences. In February 2010, eight focus group discussions (FGDs, 35 men and 37 women total) and direct observations were conducted in four randomly selected villages in Saravane District, Saravane Province (Lao PDR). FGDs distilled the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of adult community members on raw fish preparation, consumption and its consequences for health. Conversations were transcribed from notes and tape-recorders. MaxQDA software was used for content analysis. Knowledge regarding the health effects of raw fish consumption was heterogeneous. Some participants did not associate liver fluke infection with any ill health, while others linked it to digestive problems. Participants also associated vegetables and tree leave consumption with liver fluke infection. The majority of FGD participants considered fish flesh that had been prepared with weaver ant extract to be safe for consumption. Visual appearance, taste, smell and personal preference were given as reasons for consuming raw fish dishes. Moreover, participants considered it a traditional way of food preparation, practiced for generations in Laos. Ten different fish dishes that use raw or fermented fish were identified. All FGD participants reported consuming dishes with raw fish. This study reveals a low degree of knowledge among local people on the health risks related to frequent consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish. Fish dishes were considered to be 'well-prepared' (that is, 'cooked') even though the fish had not been heated. In future, successful health education campaigns will have to address the specific knowledge, attitudes

  4. CLMSZ, Garnet Mountain area, southern California: A collisionally generated contractional shear zone

    SciTech Connect

    Bracchi, K.A.; Girty, G.H.; Girty, M.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The Harper Creek gneiss (HCg) and Oriflamme Canyon unit (OCu) underlie the central portion of the Cuyamaca Laguna Mountains shear zone (CLMSZ) in and around Garnet Mountain, Peninsular Ranges, California, and may have been deformed during Cretaceous arc-continent collision. U-Pb zircon work and petrological and geochemical analyses suggest that in the Garnet Mountain area, the 140 Ma HCg is derived from granite and granodiorite, whereas the 122 [+-] 1 Ma OCu is a protomylonite derived from a granite. Both units appear to be per aluminous calc-alkaline magmatic arc granitoids. Mineral assemblages suggest uppermost greenschist to lower amphibolite grade conditions during deformation. In the HCg, S-1hc is a mylonitic gneissosity with a mean attitude of N11W, 60 NE. A mineral streaking lineation lies within the plane of S-1hc and has a mean attitude of 61[degree] N76E. In the OCu, S-1oc strikes about N13W and dips 52 NE and contains a mineral streaking lineation with an attitude of 49 N52E. Dextral and sinistral shear bands, S-2d and S-2s (looking NW), transect S-1hc and S-1oc. S-2d and S-2s strike subparallel to S-1. In the HCg S-2s is weakly developed and dips about 32 NE, whereas S-2d is more dominant and dips about 76 NE. On the OCu these relationships are reversed. S-2d does not cross cut S-2s: hence, the two sets of shear bands are interpreted to be conjugates reflecting NE-SW contraction and subvertical extension during collisional development of the CLMSZ.

  5. Prevalence and clustering of soil-transmitted helminth infections in a tribal area in southern India.

    PubMed

    Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; George, Santosh; Francis, Mark Rohit; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Minz, Shantidani; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; George, Kuryan; Roy, Sheela; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2013-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence, spatial patterns and clustering in the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and factors associated with hookworm infections in a tribal population in Tamil Nadu, India. Cross-sectional study with one-stage cluster sampling of 22 clusters. Demographic and risk factor data and stool samples for microscopic ova/cysts examination were collected from 1237 participants. Geographical information systems mapping assessed spatial patterns of infection. The overall prevalence of STH was 39% (95% CI 36%–42%), with hookworm 38% (95% CI 35–41%) and Ascaris lumbricoides 1.5% (95% CI 0.8–2.2%). No Trichuris trichiura infection was detected. People involved in farming had higher odds of hookworm infection (1.68, 95% CI 1.31–2.17, P < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression, adults (2.31, 95% CI 1.80–2.96, P < 0.001), people with pet cats (1.55, 95% CI 1.10–2.18, P = 0.011) and people who did not wash their hands with soap after defecation (1.84, 95% CI 1.27–2.67, P = 0.001) had higher odds of hookworm infection, but gender and poor usage of foot wear did not significantly increase risk. Cluster analysis, based on design effect calculation, did not show any clustering of cases among the study population; however, spatial scan statistic detected a significant cluster for hookworm infections in one village. Multiple approaches including health education, improving the existing sanitary practices and regular preventive chemotherapy are needed to control the burden of STH in similar endemic areas.

  6. Middle-Late Pleistocene polycyclic evolution of a stable coastal area (southern Apulia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Quinif, Yves; Sansò, Paolo; Selleri, Gianluca

    2007-05-01

    The Otranto-Leuca coastal tract is marked by the presence of numerous sea caves placed close to present sea level. They are located generally at the back of a shore platform covered by a sequence of breccia deposits, marine sediments and speleothems. At Grotta di Masseria dell'Orte, marine cemented sands rest on a narrow shore platform at about 6.2 m above mean sea level and are covered by speleothems older than 185 ka. At Grotta del Diavolo, which is mostly filled by breccia deposits, three beach levels have been detected at about 3.0, 3.5 and 5.9 m above msl. They are either covered by or overlie speleothems that yield an U/Th age of 340, 78 ka and between 170.3 and 146.5, respectively. Geomorphological evidence and radiometric ages indicate that the area after a period of uplift has been tectonically stable since the last part of the Middle Pleistocene so that marine landforms close to the present shoreline underwent a polycyclic evolution. The sedimentary fills of sea caves formed during Middle-Late Pleistocene glacial stages, when arid or semiarid conditions promoted the removal of regolith and the development of thick breccia deposits. During Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 9.3, 5.5 and 5.1, cave sediments were partially eroded whereas beach layers and related speleothems developed. These are, in fact, the only marine isotope stages marked by a sea level position which in this Mediterranean region was either close to, or slightly higher than, the present one.

  7. Imported malaria in an area in southern Madrid, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Spain, malaria cases are mostly due to migrants and travellers returning from endemic areas. The objective of this work was to describe the malaria cases diagnosed at the Severo Ochoa University Hospital (HUSO) in Leganés in the south of the Madrid Region from 2005 to 2008. Methods Descriptive retrospective study performed at HUSO. Data sources are registries from the Microbiology Department and malaria cases notified to the Preventive Medicine Department. Analysed parameters were: administrative, demographical, related to the stay at the endemic country, clinical, microbiological diagnosis method, pregnancy, treatment and prophylaxis, co-infections, and days of hospital stay. Results Fifty-seven patients diagnosed with malaria were studied. Case distribution per year was 13 in 2005, 15 in 2006, 15 in 2007 and 14 in 2008. Thirty-three patients were female (57.9%) and 24 male (42.1%). Mean age was 27.8 years. Most of the malaria cases were acquired in Nigeria (49.1%) and Equatorial Guinea (32.7%). 29.1% of the patients were immigrants who had arrived recently, and 61.8% acquired malaria when travelling to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR). Majority of cases were diagnosed between June and September. Microscopy was positive in 39 cases (68.4%) immunochromatography in 42 (73.7%) and PCR in the 55 cases where performed. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for 94.7% of the cases. The more frequent symptoms were fever (77.2%), followed by headache and gastrointestinal symptoms (33.3%). Nine cases needed hospital admittance, a pregnant woman, three children, four VFR and an African tourist, but all evolved favourably. Chemoprophylaxis data was known from 55 patients. It was taken correctly in one case (1.8%), in five (9.1%) the prophylaxis was improper while the others 49 (89.1%) cases had not followed any anti-malarial prophylaxis. Conclusions Children, pregnant women and the VFR have the highest risk to present severe

  8. Ground-water outflow, San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area, upper Santa Ana Valley, Southern California, 1927 through 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Fenzel, F.W.

    1972-01-01

    The San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area is in the upper Santa Ana Valley, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Calif., where the Yucaipa and San Timoteo-Beaumont ground-water basins border Bunker .Hill basin on the south between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The area is broken by numerous faults, the topography is rough, and in a large part of the area few wells had been drilled prior to 196S. The alluvial deposits, which constitute the aquifers in the area, range in thickness from 0 where they lap onto exposed bedrock hills to about 1,000 feet. Beneath the southern part of the area near the San Jacinto fault the total thickness of alluvial and lacustrine deposits may be as much as 6,000 feet. The purpose of this study was to estimate ground-water outflow by an indirect method not involving balancing of the hydrologic budget. For this purpose it was necessary to estimate the permeability of the aquifer materials, the average annual hydraulic gradient, and the cross-sectional area through which the flow occurs; these values were estimated for five segments along a line of section between the San Jacinto fault and Crafton Hills. To provide data for the outflow estimates, several miles of reflection and refraction seismic traverses were made along and across the outflow section. Nineteen deep and shallow test holes were drilled; one of the deep test holes and several existing wells were pumped to obtain data on aquifer permeability. The estimated average permeabilities of the aquifer materials range from 5 gallons per day per square foot for the lower part of the San Timoteo beds of Frick (1921) and 40 gallons per day per square foot for the older alluvium to 220 gallons per day per square foot for the upper part of the San Timoteo beds. The estimated outflow in 1927 was 8,150 acre-feet. By 1967 the estimated total outflow was 5,350 acre-feet, a reduction of approximately 34 percent. During the 12-year period 1956 through 1967, however, the annual outflow

  9. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  10. Multiple Suppression and Imaging of Marine Seismic Data from The Shallow Water Area in Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Luan, X.; Yang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Neither surface-related multiple elimination(SRME) nor predictive de-convolution method is effective to suppress the multiple of marine seismic data from the shallow water area. The former method needs the accurate reflection of seafloor, which is mixed with the direct wave in the near offset range. The other one could probably lose the primary wave when applied to the shallow water seismic data. We introduced the new method: deterministic water-layer de-multiple method (DWD) which is capable for the poor extrapolate result of near-offset traces. Firstly, the data shifts as downward continuation in tau-p domain with a water-layer period and the multiple model will be obtained. Then, the original seismic subtracts adaptively with the multiple model. Finally, we would get the de-multiple data after inverse tau-p transform. Marine seismic real data is from southern part of East China Sea Shelf Basin. This area has become the potential target for marine hydrocarbon exploration, it is located in the junction of the Eurasian plate pacific plate and Indian plate. Because the average water depth is less than 100 meters, seismic data contains abundant of multiple, especially the surface-related multiple. As a result it is difficult to distinguish the strata structure clearly. We used DWD approach to remove the water-layer multiple, cut off the seafloor reflection events and then suppressed the residual surface-related multiple by the traditional SRME. At last , the radon transform was applied to eliminate the multiple with long period . With these steps, we suppressed the multiple of marine seismic data from this area effectively. After multiple is removed , we acquired more accurate velocity to build the velocity model of migration. With the pre-stack migration technique, reflections from each geological period are shown clearly in the seismic section. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41476053).

  11. A prevalence survey and risk analysis of filariosis in dogs from the Mt. Vesuvius area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Capelli, G

    2001-12-13

    A dog microfilariae prevalence and risk factor survey was conducted in 51 contiguous municipalities of the Mt. Vesuvius area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding filarial worms in this zone. Between May 1999 and June 2000, blood samples were collected from 351 asymptomatic dogs. Blood samples were examined using a modified Knott's technique and histochemical staining in order to count and identify microfilariae. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and choroplethic municipal maps (MMs) were drawn by a geographical information system (GIS) software. Microfilariae were detected in 63 of the 351 dogs surveyed, constituting a total filarial prevalence of 17.9%. In particular, 56 dogs (15.9%) showed only microfilariae of Dipetalonema reconditum; three dogs (0.8%) only microfilariae of Dirofilaria repens; two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both D. reconditum and D. repens and two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. High D. reconditum prevalence was associated with hunting practice, masculine gender and older dogs. There was also a tendency to find high prevalence in dogs sampled in the afternoon. In conclusion, the presence of microfilariae of D. reconditum in 92% of microfilaraemic dogs indicates that this filarial worm was the predominant filarial species in dogs in the Mt. Vesuvius area. In addition, the general trends of the MMs showed that D. immitis and D. repens were present only in a few municipalities, whereas D. reconditum was widely and homogeneously spread throughout the entire study area.

  12. Prevention educational program of human rabies transmitted by bats in rain forest preserved area of southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Kikuti, M; Paploski, I A D; Silva, M d C P; de Oliveira, E A; da Silva, A W C; Biondo, A W

    2011-12-01

    Guaraqueçaba city is a rain forest environmental protected area located on the southern coast of Brazil. Recently, the local Animal Health Service has noticed haematophagous bats feeding from humans and domestic animals, as well as bat colonies located in houses and public schools. In 2007, two non-haematophagous bats were tested positive by direct immunofluorescence for rabies in a nearby city. Native fauna and environmental laws protect non-haematophagous bats in Brazilian preserved areas such as Guaraqueçaba, making non-haematophagous bat population control almost impossible. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate a simple and feasible educational protocol applied by a multi-institutional task force in local elementary schools to prevent rabies transmitted by bats. Information was transmitted to children by video, lectures and oral question-answer section; evaluation was made by written questionnaires to teachers and students. Interinstitutional task force included public and animal health public services, a federal university and the city secretary of environment, of education, of agriculture and of animal health, and also participation of local community. Information was effectively absorbed by children when evaluated just after being given. As important, questionnaires showed that handling and playing with bats at day time was common in several elementary school students, exposing themselves to what may represent higher risk of rabies transmission than haematophagous bat feeding directly from humans. Training of teachers and students may effectively prevent rabies by bats in such communities. Insertion of this subject into science content of local elementary school educational programme was proposed in order to establish a continuing education programme on rabies transmitted by bats in environmental preserved areas.

  13. Topography effect on soil organic carbon pool in Mediterranean natural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozan-García, Beatriz; Galán-Espejo, Arantxa

    2014-05-01

    quantify the relationships between topographical parameters and soil properties. Researchers suggested some promising indicators such as pH, organic matter, exchangeable cations, total exchangeable basis, ratio of primary to secondary minerals, free oxides, carbonates and physical properties such as, particle size distribution, moisture content, color, bulk density and depth to specific horizon. If we considered SOC and TN how indicators of soil quality it is necessary to explain the relationship between the soil properties and topographic position, furthermore, is necessary establish indicator of the soil quality. In this regard, the stratification ratio (SR) is the most used. Soil development in this region is genetically complicated by three important soil forming factors: relief, fragility of this environment and absence of good vegetation (erosion by water) and the use and management (CT). Very little literature is published on soil variability and its relationship with topographic positions within such fragile environment. There are few reports on stratification of the SOC, TN and C:N ratio as affected by topography in natural areas. In this context, the objectives of this study were; assess the SOC in the soils, its vertical distribution in the profile and analyze the accumulation and SR of SOC along a topographic gradient and their relationship to soil depth in arid Mediterranean climate in Spain.

  14. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

    Treesearch

    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  15. Optical and Radar Satellite Remote Sensing for Large Area Analysis of Landslide Activity in Southern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessner, S.; Behling, R.; Teshebaeva, K. O.; Motagh, M.; Wetzel, H. U.

    2014-12-01

    The presented work has been investigating the potential of optical and radar satellite remote sensing for the spatio-temporal analysis of landslide activity at a regional scale along the eastern rim of the Fergana Basin representing the area of highest landslide activity in Kyrgyzstan. For this purpose a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing database has been established for a 12.000 km2 study area in Southern Kyrgyzstan containing a multitude of optical data acquired during the last 28 years as well as TerraSAR-X and ALOS-PALSAR acquired since 2007. The optical data have been mainly used for creating a multi-temporal inventory of backdated landslide activity. For this purpose an automated approach for object-oriented multi-temporal landslide detection has been developed which is based on the analysis of temporal NDVI-trajectories complemented by relief information to separate landslide-related surface changes from other land cover changes. Applying the approach to the whole study area using temporal high resolution RapidEye time series data has resulted in the automated detection of 612 landslide objects covering a total area of approx. 7.3 km². Currently, the approach is extended to the whole multi-sensor time-series database for systematic analysis of longer-term landslide occurrence at a regional scale. Radar remote sensing has been focussing on SAR Interferometry (InSAR) to detect landslide related surface deformation. InSAR data were processed by repeat-pass interferometry using the DORIS and SARScape software. To better assess ground deformation related to individual landslide objects, InSAR time-series analysis has been applied using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method. Analysis of the results in combination with optical data and DEM information has revealed that most of the derived deformations are caused by slow movements in areas of already existing landslides indicating the reactivation of older slope failures. This way, InSAR analysis can

  16. Microbial food web dynamics during spring phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christaki, U.; Lefèvre, D.; Georges, C.; Colombet, J.; Catala, P.; Courties, C.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Blain, S.; Obernosterer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial food web dynamics were determined during the onset of several spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2). The abundances of heterotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacterial heterotrophic production, bacterial respiration, and bacterial growth efficiency, were consistently higher in surface waters of the iron-fertilized sites than at the reference site in HNLC (high nutrient low chlorophyll) waters. The abundance of virus-like particles remained unchanged, but viral production increased by a factor of 6 in iron-fertilized waters. Bacterial heterotrophic production was significantly related to heterotrophic nanoflagellate abundance and viral production across all sites, with bacterial production explaining about 70 and 85%, respectively, of the variance of each in the mixed layer (ML). Estimated rates of grazing and viral lysis, however, indicated that heterotrophic nanoflagellates accounted for a substantially higher loss of bacterial production (50%) than viruses (11%). Combining these results with rates of primary production and export determined for the study area, a budget for the flow of carbon through the microbial food web and higher trophic levels during the early (KEOPS2) and the late phase (KEOPS1) of the Kerguelen bloom is provided.

  17. Heavy metals in ryegrass species versus metal concentrations in atmospheric particulate measured in an industrial area of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Rosa; d'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Ragosta, Maria

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of ryegrass species as active biomonitors by assessing atmospheric metal concentrations. We show a procedure for measuring atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals by means of biomonitors and present the data collected between July 1997 and October 2000 in the industrial area of Tito Scalo (Basilicata region, Southern Italy). In particular, we discuss the reproducibility of the biomonitoring measures, the influence of plant age and the correlation between metal concentrations in plants and in atmospheric particulate. Statistical analysis of measured data suggests us that in the investigated site, Cd, Cr and Ni are suitable to be monitored by means of ryegrass species. For the other metals, their emission patterns in atmosphere make it difficult to identify the correlation structure between plants and particulate, and as a result the interpretation of the biomonitoring data is complex. On the basis of the results, we believe that for correct application of active biomonitoring procedure, a careful preliminary analysis of the monitoring site and integration of the biomonitoring and chemical-physical observation is necessary.

  18. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition.

  19. Microbial food web dynamics during spring phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christaki, U.; Lefèvre, D.; Georges, C.; Colombet, J.; Catala, P.; Courties, C.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Blain, S.; Obernosterer, I.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial food web dynamics were determined during the onset of several spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2). The abundances of heterotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacterial heterotrophic production, bacterial respiration, and bacterial growth efficiency, were consistently higher in surface waters of the iron-fertilized sites than at the reference site in HNLC (high nutrient low chlorophyll) waters. The abundance of viral like particles remained unchanged, but viral production increased by a factor of 6 in iron-fertilized waters. Bacterial heterotrophic production was significantly related to heterotrophic nanoflagellate abundance and viral production across all sites, with bacterial production explaining about 70 and 85%, respectively, of the variance of each in the mixed layer (ML). Estimated rates of grazing and viral lysis, however, indicated that heterotrophic nanoflagellates accounted for a substantially higher loss of bacterial production (50%) than viruses (11%). Combining these results with rates of primary production and export determined for the study area, a budget for the flow of carbon through the microbial food web and higher levels during the early (KEOPS2) and the late phase (KEOPS1) of the Kerguelen bloom is provided.

  20. Insecticide-treated nets provide protection against malaria to children in an area of insecticide resistance in Southern Benin.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, Aurore; Cornélie, Sylvie; Fassinou, Jacob; de Tove, Yolande Sissinto Savi; Adéothy, Adicath Adéola; Tokponnon, Filémon T; Makoutode, Patrick; Adechoubou, Alioun; Legba, Thibaut; Houansou, Telesphore; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothée; Akogbeto, Martin C; Massougbodji, Achille; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Donnelly, Martin; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2017-05-26

    Malaria control is heavily reliant on insecticides, especially pyrethroids. Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides may threaten the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control and lead to a resurgence of malaria in Africa. In 21 villages in Southern Benin with high levels of insecticide resistance, the resistance status of local vectors was measured at the same time as the prevalence of malaria infection in resident children. Children who used LLINs had lower levels of malaria infection [odds ratio = 0.76 (95% CI 0.59, 0.98, p = 0.033)]. There was no evidence that the effectiveness of nets was different in high and low resistance locations (p = 0.513). There was no association between village level resistance and village level malaria prevalence (p = 0.999). LLINs continue to offer individual protection against malaria infection in an area of high resistance. Insecticide resistance is not a reason to stop efforts to increase coverage of LLINs in Africa.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Cervical Neoplasia in Women from a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, Clara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Renom, Montse; Sacarlal, Jahit; Quintó, Llorenç; Lloveras, Belen; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Kornegay, Janet R.; Sigauque, Betuel; Bosch, F. Xavier; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and the prevalence of cervical neoplasia in rural sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the prevalence and the etiology of STIs and the prevalence of cervical neoplasia among women in southern Mozambique. An age-stratified cross-sectional study was performed where 262 women aged 14 to 61 years were recruited at the antenatal clinic (59%), the family-planning clinic (7%), and from the community (34%). At least one active STI was diagnosed in 79% of women. Trichomonas vaginalis was present in 31% of all study participants. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis were 14% and 8%, respectively, and Syphilis was diagnosed in 12% of women. HPV DNA was detected in 40% of women and cervical neoplasia was diagnosed in 12% of all women. Risk factors associated with the presence of some of the STIs were being divorced or widowed, having more than one sexual partner and having the partner living in another area. A higher prevalence was observed in the reproductive age group and some of the STIs were more frequently diagnosed in pregnant women. STI control programs are a priority to reduce the STIs burden, including HIV and cervical neoplasia. PMID:20706691

  2. Mercury in sediments from gold and copper exploitation areas in the Camaquã River Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, M. H. D.; Lechler, P.; Formoso, M. L. L.; Miller, J.

    2000-11-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in stream sediments from the Camaquã River Basin, located in the shield region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The resulting geochemical data show that overbank floodplain deposits exhibit higher concentrations than sediments collected from the active channel bed. In addition, higher Hg concentrations were measured in the fine(<63 μm) sediment fraction of the samples. Total Hg concentrations in the fine fraction of active stream sediments from Lavras do Sul County, which have been influenced by past gold mining activities, have decreased during the last five years to values ≤142 ng g -1. However, in a settling pond containing abandoned mine wastes, the Hg concentration of a bulk sample remained exceptionally high (5220 ng g -1). Preliminary speciation results show that Hg 0 is the predominant species in most of the samples. This was the form of Hg released by the gold amalgamation activities in the area, and appears to be relatively stable under the existing Eh and pH conditions.

  3. Early formation of gnammas (weathering pits) in a recently glaciated area of Torres del Paine, southern Patagonia (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Villar, David

    2006-06-01

    Incipient gnammas (weathering pits) were identified and measured in the Francés Valley of Torres del Paine, southern Patagonia. The gnammas were located on the granite blocks of a lateral moraine deposited during a Late Holocene neoglacial advance. The gnammas were measured for maximum and minimum depth, length, and width in addition to other observations. Based on these measurements, the surface area and the volume of the gnammas were calculated. Most of the gnammas have < 1 L of rock volume eroded, and the maximum depth is always < 10 cm. The gnammas do not develop erosional spillways. A high correlation exists between maximum and minimum depths, indicating these values are not completely independent. Thus, the depth ratio has been used to characterize the gnammas for discrete locations. The gnammas from Francés Valley belong to a unique normal population and a δ-value based on the depth ratio was defined to represent this population. The δ of Francés Valley is 1.33 ± 0.07, comparable with the lowest values of other stations around the globe. I suggest that the δ-value could be used as an indicator of gnamma evolution.

  4. Low West Nile virus circulation in wild birds in an area of recurring outbreaks in Southern France.

    PubMed

    Balança, Gilles; Gaidet, Nicolas; Savini, Giovanni; Vollot, Benjamin; Foucart, Antoine; Reiter, Paul; Boutonnier, Alain; Lelli, Rossella; Monicat, François

    2009-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has a history of irregular but recurrent epizootics in countries of Mediterranean and of Central and Eastern Europe. We have investigated the temporal enzootic activity of WNV in free-ranging birds over a 3-year period in an area with sporadic occurrences of WNV outbreaks in Southern France. We conducted an intensive serologic survey on several wild bird populations (>4000 serum samples collected from 3300 birds) selected as potential indicators of the WNV circulation. WNV antibodies were detected by seroneutralization and/or plaque reduction neutralization in house sparrows, black-billed magpies, and scops owls, but these species appeared to be insufficient indicators of WNV circulation. Overall seroprevalence was low (<1%), including in birds that had been potentially exposed to the virus during recent outbreaks. However, the detection of a seroconversion in one bird, as well as the detection of seropositive birds in all years of our monitoring, including juveniles, indicate a constant annual circulation of WNV at a low level, including in years without any detectable emergence of WN fever in horses or humans.

  5. Seismically induced environmental effects in costal areas : the 1783, 1905 and 1908 earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, S.; Esposito, E.; Violante, C.; Sacchi, M.; Guerrieri, L.; Serva, L.; Sciarrotta, S.

    2009-04-01

    Calabria and Sicily's Coast, particularly in the Messina Strait, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Southern Italy. Since 1783, there have been seven earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 6.0 and 7.2 These earthquakes have produced wide damages on the MCS Intensities scale of X or greater. The high rate of seismic activity in the region is related to the complex geologic setting resulting in a number of different sources of potentially damaging earthquakes. All these earthquake induced numerous and spectacular coseismic environmental effects overall along the coast where the impact was particularly catastrophic. These earthquakes caused several changes in elevation, due to tectonic deformations, landslides and settlements (i.e along both sides of the Messina Straits, 1908 event), relevant landslides (the February6, 1783 event triggered in Scilla, along the cliff of the M. Pacì a huge rock avalanche estimate of 5 Mm3 in the areal zone and 3 Mm3 in the submarine zone (Bozzano et al 2006), that fell into the sea generating a disastrous tsunamis), ground fractures (in the Capo Vaticano promontory area, 1905 event; in Messina Reggio C., Villa S. Giovanni, 1908 event); liquefaction phenomena (in the area of Messina, Ganzirri and Reggio Calabria, 1908 event), and catastrophic tsunamis (five induced by the 1783 Calabrian seismic sequence, other two by 1905 and 1908 events, Graziani et al 2006). The run-up observed ranging from few cm to tens of m: the highest tsunami wave was about 16 m in Scilla (Feb. 6, 1783 tsunami), 13 m in Pellaro (1908 event) and 1,30 m along the Calabrian coast (1905 tsunami) . Portion of the coast were lost, most of them eroded by the tsunamis with a coastline retreat and flooded the shore for several hundred meters inland depositing a large amount of silt and fish, and in some case killing people (i.e 1500 in Scilla and 28 in Messina during the February 6, 1783 tsunami, Barbano 2008; Porfido et al.,2008). Finally, it is

  6. Geochemistry and geochronology of granitoids in the Kibi-Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anum, Solomon; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Su, Ben-Xun; Nude, Prosper M.; Nyame, Frank; Asiedu, Daniel; Kwayisi, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In Ghana the West African Craton is represented by Birimian and Tarkwaian rocks with extensive granitoid bodies. Granitoids from Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana were analysed for major and trace element contents and found to be characterised by highly-fractionated REE, enrichments, in LILE, and depletion in Nb, Ta and Sr. The LILE enrichment relative to strong Nb-Ta depression, indicates that these granitoids were emplaced in an active margin. Based on field relations, geochemical composition and geochronological data, the granitoids from the Kibi-Asamankese area can be divided into three types, namely; the Eburnean biotite granodiorite (2133-2127 Ma) and hornblende granodiorite (2147 Ma), and the Pre-Eburnean gneissic biotite granite (2193 Ma). The geochemical data of the studied rocks plot in the tholeiitic field, whereas on the A/CNK-A/NK diagram, they generally fall within the metaluminous field, with A/CNK values between 0.69 and 0.88. U-Pb dating of zircons in the granitoids yielded ages ranging from 2193 to 2127 Ma, which are among the oldest ages obtained from the granitoid plutons in Ghana. Such high-precision geochronological data indicate that magmatism occurred over a time-span of about 70 Ma. This provides further evidence that the period 2.1-2.2 Ga was one of the important stages of Birimian magmatism that led to the generation of the granitoids. From the above-mentioned ages, it is possible to link the geological activities to crustal processes and establish the cyclic geotectonic evolution in the West African Craton over time as part of an arc-back-arc basin system.

  7. Epidemiology of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in a spotted fever-endemic area of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Amalia R M; Filho, Jonas M; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Souza, Julio C; Szabó, Matias P J; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed in Vila Itoupava, an area of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in which a tick-borne spotted fever illness has been endemic since 2003. Notably, both the etiological agent and the vector of these spotted fever cases remain unknown. During January 2011, humans, domestic dogs, and their ticks were sampled in households that are typically surrounded by highly preserved Atlantic rainforest fragments. Ticks collected from dogs were Amblyomma ovale (34% prevalence), Amblyomma aureolatum (18.9%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.8%). A total of 7.8% (6/77) A. ovale and 9.3% (4/43) A. aureolatum were infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent recently shown to cause spotted fever illness in southeastern Brazil. Overall, 67.3% (35/52) of the dogs were seroreactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae, mostly with highest endpoint titers to R. parkeri. Among humans, 46.7% (7/15) reacted serologically to rickettsiae at low to moderate endpoint titers. Because canine seroreactivity to R. parkeri was strongly associated with frequent contact with forests (the preferred habitat for A. ovale and A. aureolatum), it is concluded that sampled dogs have been infected by strain Atlantic rainforest through the parasitism of these tick species. The present study provides epidemiological evidence that the spotted fever in the study area has been caused by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, transmitted to humans by either A. ovale or A. aureolatum. Further studies encompassing direct diagnostic methods on clinical specimens from patients are needed to confirm the above epidemiological evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. An integrated assessment of pollution and biological effects in flounder, mussels and sediment in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Lehtonen, Kari K; Lang, Thomas; Waszak, Ilona; Balode, Maija; Strode, Evita

    2017-02-01

    Organic and metal contaminants and biological effects were investigated in flounder, mussels, and sediments in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area in order to assess environmental quality status in that area. Four sites were selected, including two within the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG). In biota and sediment at each site, DDTs dominated over PCBs and PBDEs were the least abundant among organic contaminants. Their concentrations decreased progressively outward from GoG. Among metal contaminants, the levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd were elevated in GoG. Biomarkers in flounder, EROD activity and DNA SB, showed moderate positive correlations with organic and metal contaminants. In flounder, the integrated biomarker index (IBR/n) presented a spatial trend coherent with chemical pollution index (CPI), but there was no clear spatial correspondence between IBR/n and CPI in mussels nor between sediment toxicity index (STI) and sediment CPI. The integrated assessment of contaminant and biological effect data against available assessment criteria indicated that in biota, the contaminant assessment thresholds were most often exceeded by CB-118, heptachlor, PBDE, and Hg (in the GoG sediments by p,p'-DDT, Hg and Cd), while of the biological determinants, the threshold was breeched by AChE activity in mussels in GoG. Applying the ICES/OSPAR traffic-light approach showed that of the 50 parameters assessed at each site, there were 18% of determinants in the red color category in the two GoG sites and 8% of determinants in the two sites outside GoG, which indicated that none of the four investigated sites attained good environmental status (GES).

  9. Sporo-pollen assemblage and paleoclimate events in shelf area of the southern Yellow Sea since 15 ka B. P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guanglan; Han, Yousong; Wang, Shaoqing; Wang, Zhenyan

    2004-03-01

    Based on the authors’ 1986 to 1994 sporo-pollen assemblage analysis in the southern Yellow Sea area, data from 3 main cores were studied in combination with14C, palaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence data. The evolution of the paleoclimate environments in the southern Yellow Sea since 15ka B. P. was revealed that, in deglaciation of the last glacial period, the climate of late glaciation transformed into that of postglaciation, accompanied by a series of violent climate fluctuations. These evolution events happened in a global climate background and related to the geographic changes in eastern China. We distinguished three short-term cooling events and two warming events. Among them, the sporo-pollen assemblage of subzone A1 showed some cold climate features indicating that a cooling event occurred at about 15-14ka. B. P. in early deglaciation. This subzone corresponds to the Oldest Dryas. In subzone A3, many drought-enduring herbal pollens and some few pollens of cold-resistant Picea, Abies, etc. were found, which indicated that a cooling event, with cold and arid climate, occurred at about 12-11ka. B. P. in late deglaciation. This subzone corresponds to the Younger Dryas. The sporo-pollen assemblage of zone B showed warm and arid climate features in postglaciation. Although the assemblage of subzone B2 indicated a cold and arid climate environment, the development of flora in subzone B2 climate was less cold than that in A3. Subzone B2 indicated a cooling event which occurred at about 9ka B. P. in early olocene. Subzone A2, with some distinct differences from subzone A1 and A3, indicated a warming event which occurred at 14-13ka. B.P. and should correspond to a warming fluctuation. The sporo-pollen assemblage of zone C showed features of warn-moist flora and climate, and indicated a warming event which universally occurred along the coast of eastern China at 8-3 ka B. P. in middle Holocene, and its duration was longer than that of any climate events mentioned

  10. Long-range effect of cyanide on mercury methylation in a gold mining area in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davée; Betancourt, Oscar; Miranda, Marcio Rodrigues; Barriga, Ramiro; Cueva, Edwin; Betancourt, Sebastián

    2011-11-01

    Small-scale gold mining in Portovelo-Zaruma, Southern Equador, performed by mercury amalgamation and cyanidation, yields 9-10 t of gold/annum, resulting in annual releases of around 0.65 t of inorganic mercury and 6000 t of sodium cyanide in the local river system. The release of sediments, cyanide, mercury, and other metals present in the ore such as lead, manganese and arsenic significantly reduces biodiversity downstream the processing plants and enriches metals in bottom sediments and biota. However, methylmercury concentrations in sediments downstream the mining area were recently found to be one order of magnitude lower than upstream or in small tributaries. In this study we investigated cyanide, bacterial activity in water and sediment and mercury methylation potentials in sediments along the Puyango river watershed, measured respectively by in-situ spectrophotometry and incubation with (3)H-leucine and (203)Hg(2+). Free cyanide was undetectable (<1 μg·L(-1)) upstream mining activities, reached 280 μg·L(-1) a few km downstream the processing plants area and was still detectable about 100 km downstream. At stations with detectable free cyanide in unfiltered water, 50% of it was dissolved and 50% associated to suspended particles. Bacterial activity and mercury methylation in sediment showed a similar spatial pattern, inverse to the one found for free cyanide in water, i.e. with significant values in pristine upstream sampling points (respectively 6.4 to 22 μgC·mg wet weight(-1)·h(-1) and 1.2 to 19% of total (203) Hg·gdry weight(-1)·day(-1)) and undetectable downstream the processing plants, returning to upstream values only in the most distant downstream stations. The data suggest that free cyanide oxidation was slower than would be expected from the high water turbulence, resulting in a long-range inhibition of bacterial activity and hence mercury methylation. The important mercury fluxes resultant from mining activities raise concerns about its

  11. A New Strategy for the Electromagnetic Monitoring of Seismic Areas: the Case-Study of Agri Valley (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenna, V.; Balasco, M.; Giocoli, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Romano, G.; Siniscalchi, A.; Telesca, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Agri valley is one of the most active areas of Southern Apennine chain that was hidden by destructive events in historical and recent periods (i.e. the 1857 Great Neapolitan earthquake). The geological environment is extremely complex and the location of the main faults are still debated. The Agriu valley is a N- W elongated basin filled by quaternary deposits covering the pre-quaternary rock of the Apennine chain. The area is characterised by a very low man-made electromagnetic noise and it represents an ideal "outdoor laboratory" to test new strategies for geophysical monitoring of active faults. In this work we present a novel approach based on the integration of Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (DERT), Self-Potential (SP) and Magnetotelluric (MT) time-continuous measurements. The basic idea underlying this approach is to jointly analyse and modelling the electrical signals, observed on earth-surface, and the time-dependent changes of subsurface resistivity patterns. We are firmly convinced that any conclusions about the relationship between anomalous electrical signals and earthquake activity cannot be achieved without a good knowledge of subsurface resistivity structures and an accurate localisation of the electrical sources. In our work DERT has been applied for illuminating in-depth the geological structures and giving a contribute to better define the thickness and the shape of alluvial deposits covering the pre- quaternary bedrock of Agri valley. SP surveying and time-continuous monitoring have been carried to study electrokinetic effects due to groundwater patterns and to identify possible fingerprints of fluid migration phenomena. New SP stations with sensors in boreholes (200m) have been installed. MT time-continuous soundings have been performed to analyse the time-dependent changes in deep resistivity patterns. All data measured in the study area have been processed and filtered using robust statistical methodologies (DFA, wavelet, multi

  12. Asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil: popular myths and features

    PubMed Central

    Roncada, Cristian; de Oliveira, Suelen Goecks; Cidade, Simone Falcão; Rafael, Joseane Guimarães; Ojeda, Beatriz Sebben; dos Santos, Beatriz Regina Lara; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age) completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127) and healthy controls (n = 124). Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5%) were the mothers and 130 (51.8%) were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1%) and 26 (21.0%), respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48%) and 56 (45.2%), respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4%) and 17 (13.7%) of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3%) were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3%) had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9%) used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems. PMID:27167435

  13. Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

    2011-03-01

    An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses.

  14. Mobile Phone Usage and its Health Effects Among Adults in a Semi-Urban Area of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Stalin, P; Abraham, Sherin Billy; Kanimozhy, K; Prasad, R Vishnu; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, mobile phone usage has been increased dramatically which could affect the health of the people. India has the second largest number of mobile phone users. However there are only few studies conducted in India to assess its effects on health. To determine the prevalence and pattern of mobile phone usage and to assess the relationship between certain selected health problems and mobile phone usage among adults. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kottakuppam, a town panchayat in Villupuram district of Coastal Tamil Nadu, Southern India. It is a semi-urban area with a population of about 16,000. Majority of the residents are Muslim by religion and belong to different socio economic status. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. A total of 2121 study participants were interviewed by the pre-final medical students through house-to-house survey using a pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included the variables such as socio demographic profile, mobile phone usage and pattern, selected health problems, perceived benefits and threats and blood pressure. Selected health problems included headache, earache, neck pain, tinnitus, painful fingers, restlessness, morning tiredness, tingling fingers, fatigue, eye symptoms, sleep disturbance and hypertension. Only 2054 were included for data analysis using SPSS 17 version. Proportions were calculated. Chi-square test was used to measure the p-value. The p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of mobile phone usage was 70%. Calling facility (94.2%) was used more than the SMS (67.6%). Health problems like headache, earache, tinnitus, painful fingers and restlessness etc., were found to be positively associated with mobile phone usage. There was negative association between hypertension and mobile phone usage. The prevalence of mobile phone usage was high. There was significant association between selected health problems and

  15. Asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil: popular myths and features.

    PubMed

    Roncada, Cristian; Oliveira, Suelen Goecks de; Cidade, Simone Falcão; Rafael, Joseane Guimarães; Ojeda, Beatriz Sebben; Santos, Beatriz Regina Lara Dos; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-04-01

    To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age) completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127) and healthy controls (n = 124). The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5%) were the mothers and 130 (51.8%) were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1%) and 26 (21.0%), respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48%) and 56 (45.2%), respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4%) and 17 (13.7%) of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3%) were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3%) had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9%) used asthma medications regularly. Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems.

  16. Case study of groundwater pollution in a critical area of the Southern-Friuli exposed to agricultural and landfill pressures.

    PubMed

    Adami, G; Siviero, P; Barbieri, P; Piselli, S; Reisenhofer, E

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater of the Southern-Friuli displays high levels of agricultural pollutants, such as nitrates and triazinic herbicides not only in the surficial layers, but also in the deeper ones, below 150 m. Some wells of the district of Gonars was monitored. The examined waters, used for irrigation but also for drinkable use, are exposed to environmental risk due to both agricultural practices and presence of many waste disposal sites. Heavy metals, nitrates and triazinic herbicides were measured in samples taken at four wells in three periods having different rain conditions. We found that groundwater quality is affected mainly by agricultural practices: nitrates and triazines are present at levels very near as well as superior to the maximum concentration allowable by Italian law. These agricultural contaminants have similar levels at all sampled sites: no difference was detected between dry periods and rain ones. Heavy metal contents are negligible in all cases; this fact suggests that ion-exchange, sorbing and complexing properties of the soils hinder the way of the metal leachates towards underlying groundwater. Zinc constitutes an exception; it is found at levels near or superior to the maximum allowable concentration (CMA), and the highest contents are observed in rain periods; different sites display different zinc levels, suggesting that this metal could have various point sources. Nitrates fertilisers were found in all sites at similar levels, very near to CMA (50 mg/L). Triazines are specific herbicides for corn growing, highly diffused here: their use in recent years is forbidden by Italian law, but the presence in groundwater of parent triazines and metabolites is a persistent problem of this area. The Italian law indicates a CMA of 0.10 microgram/L for the sum of atrazine and desethylatrazine, but we found that desethylatrazine by itself exceeds largely CMA in all sites.

  17. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-02-01

    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p < 0.05). Cd level in blood samples of subjects occupationally exposed was 1.3 times higher than that of non-exposed. Blood metals were not significantly affected by amalgam fillings, place of living and sea food and drinking water consumption. This first biomonitoring study of metal exposure in the South of Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated.

  18. Association between HIV infection and socio-economic status: evidence from a semirural area of southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Pons-Duran, Clara; González, Raquel; Quintó, Llorenç; Munguambe, Khatia; Tallada, Joan; Naniche, Denise; Sacoor, Charfudin; Sicuri, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the association between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV in Manhiça, a district of Southern Mozambique with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world. Data were gathered from two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2010 and 2012 among 1511 adults and from the household census of the district's population. Fractional polynomial logit models were used to analyse the association between HIV and SES, controlling for age and sex and taking into account the nonlinearity of covariates. The inequality of the distribution of HIV infection with regard to SES was computed through a concentration index. Fourth and fifth wealth quintiles, the least poor, were associated with a reduced probability of HIV infection compared to the first quintile (OR = 0.595, P-value = 0.009 and OR = 0.474, P-value < 0.001, respectively). Probability of HIV infection peaked at 36 years and then fell, and was always higher for women regardless of age and SES. HIV infection was unequally distributed across the SES strata. Despite the high HIV prevalence across the entire population of Manhiça, the poorest are at greatest risk of being HIV infected. While women have a higher probability of being HIV positive than men, both sexes showed the same infection reduction at higher levels of SES. HIV interventions in the area should particularly focus on the poorest and on women without neglecting anyone else, as the HIV risk is high for everyone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-14

    Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  20. Stormwater Runoff Plumes in Southern California Detected with Satellite SAR and MODIS Imagery - Areas of Increased Contamination Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Gierach, M.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal pollution poses both a major health and environmental hazard, not only for beachgoers and coastal communities, but for marine organisms as well. Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB). The SCB is the final destination of four major urban watersheds and associated rivers, Ballona Creek, the Los Angeles River, the San Gabriel River, and the Santa Ana River, which act as channels for runoff and pollution during and after episodic rainstorms. Previous studies of SCB water quality have made use of both fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and wide-swath medium resolution optical "ocean color" imagery from SeaWiFS and MODIS. In this study, we expand on previous SAR efforts, compiling a more extensive collection of multi-sensor SAR data, spanning from 1992 to 2014, analyzing the surface slick component of stormwater plumes. We demonstrate the use of SAR data in early detection of coastal stormwater plumes, relating plume extent to cumulative river discharge, and shoreline fecal bacteria loads. Intensity maps of the primary extent and direction of plumes were created, identifying coastal areas that may be subject to the greatest risk of environmental contamination. Additionally, we illustrate the differences in the detection of SAR surface plumes with the sediment-related discharge plumes derived from MODIS ocean color imagery. Finally, we provide a concept for satellite monitoring of stormwater plumes, combining both optical and radar sensors, to be used to guide the collection of in situ water quality data and enhance the assessment of related beach closures.

  1. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Elko, Steptoe Valley, Coyote Spring Valley, and Sheep Range areas, eastern and southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.; Schaefer, D.H.; Frick, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Principal facts for 537 gravity stations in the carbonate-rock province of eastern and southern Nevada are tabulated and presented. The gravity data were collected in support of groundwater studies in several valleys. The study areas include the Elko area, northern Steptoe Valley, Coyote Spring Valley, and the western Sheep Range area. The data for each site include values for latitude, longitude, altitude, observed gravity, free- air anomaly, terrain correction, and Bouguer anomaly (calculated at a bedrock density of 2.67 g/cu cm. (USGS)

  2. Geology, mineralization, and geochronology of the Qianhe gold deposit, Xiong'ershan area, southern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ke-Fei; Li, Jian-Wei; Selby, David; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Bi, Shi-Jian; Deng, Xiao-Dong

    2013-08-01

    The Qianhe gold deposit in the Xiong'ershan area is located along the southern margin of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic North China Craton. The deposit consists of six orebodies that are hosted in Paleoproterozoic andesites to basaltic andesites and structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Individual orebodies comprise auriferous quartz veins and disseminated Au-bearing pyrite within hydrothermally altered rocks on both sides of, or close to, the veins. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration has produced various mixtures of K-feldspar, quartz, sericite, chlorite, epidote, carbonate, and sulfides. Pyrite is the most important ore mineral, associated with minor amounts of galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Other trace minerals include molybdenite, arsenopyrite, scheelite, rutile, xenotime, and parisite. Gold occurs mostly as native gold and electrum enclosed in pyrite or along microfractures of sulfides and quartz. Microthermometric measurements of primary inclusions in auriferous quartz suggest that gold and associated minerals were precipitated in the range of 160-305 °C from aqueous or carbonic-aqueous fluids with salinities of 6-22 wt% NaCl equiv. Samples of molybdenite coexisting with Au-bearing pyrite have Re-Os model ages of 134-135 Ma, whereas ore-related hydrothermal sericite separates yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages between 127 and 124 Ma. The Re-Os and 40Ar/39Ar ages are remarkably consistent with zircon U-Pb ages (134.5 ± 1.5 and 127.2 ± 1.4 Ma; 1 σ) of the biotite monzogranite from the Heyu-intrusive complex and granitic dikes in and close to the Qianhe gold mine, indicating a close temporal and thus possibly genetic relationship between gold mineralization and granitic magmatism in the area. Fluid inclusion waters extracted from auriferous quartz have δD values of -80 to -72 ‰, whereas the calculated δ 18OH2O values range from 3.1 to 3.8 ‰. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes from this study and previous work indicate that ore fluids

  3. Paleomagnetism, magnetic fabric, and 40Ar/39Ar dating of Pliocene and Quaternary ignimbrites in the Arequipa area, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquereau-Lebti, Perrine; Fornari, Michel; Roperch, Pierrick; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Macedo, Orlando

    2008-07-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages and paleomagnetic correlations using characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) show that two main ignimbrite sheets were deposited at 4.86 ± 0.07 Ma (La Joya Ignimbrite: LJI) and at 1.63 ± 0.07 Ma (Arequipa Airport Ignimbrite: AAI) in the Arequipa area, southern Peru. The AAI is a 20-100 m-thick ignimbrite that fills in the Arequipa depression to the west of the city of Arequipa. The AAI is made up of two cooling units: an underlying white unit and an overlying weakly consolidated pink unit. Radiometric data provide the same age for the two units. As both units record exactly the same well-defined paleomagnetic direction (16 sites in the white unit of AAI: Dec = 173.7; Inc = 31.2; α95 = 0.7; k = 2749; and 10 sites in the pink unit of AAI; Dec = 173.6; Inc = 30.3; α95 = 1.2; k = 1634), showing no evidence of secular variation, the time gap between emplacement of the two units is unlikely to exceed a few years. The >50 m thick well-consolidated white underlying unit of the Arequipa airport ignimbrite provides a very specific magnetic zonation with low magnetic susceptibilities, high coercivities and unblocking temperatures of NRM above 580°C indicating a Ti-poor titanohematite signature. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) is strongly enhanced in this layer with anisotropy values up to 1.25. The fabric delineated by AMS was not recognized neither in the field nor in thin sections, because most of the AAI consists in a massive and isotrope deposit with no visible textural fabric. Pumices deformation due to welding is only observed at the base of the thickest sections. AMS within the AAI ignimbrite show a very well defined pattern of apparent imbrications correlated to the paleotopography, with planes of foliation and lineation dipping often at more than 20° toward the expected vent, buried beneath the Nevado Chachani volcanic complex. In contrast with the relatively small extent of the thick AAI, the La Joya ignimbrite covers large

  4. The evolution of the magmatic arc of Southern Peru (200-60 Ma), Arequipa area: insight from geochemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouy, S.; Benoit, M.; De Saint Blanquat, M.; Brunet, P.

    2012-12-01

    Cordilleran-type batholiths are built by prolonged arc activity along continental margins and may provide detailed magmatic records of the subduction system evolution. The magmas produced in subduction context involve both mantellic and crustal end members and are subject to various petrological processes. The MASH zones (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), at the basis of the continental crust, are the best places for the genesis of such hybrid magmas. The various geochemical signatures observed in the plutonic rocks, may also be attributed to source heterogeneities or generated by subsequent petrological processes. This study has focused in the Arequipa section of the Coastal Batholith of Southern Peru (200-60 Ma), in an area extending over 80x40 km. Major and trace elements as well as Sr and Nd isotopic analyses were performed in a set of 100 samples ranging from gabbro to granite. The obtained data highlight the wide heterogeneity of the geochemical signatures that is not related to the classification of the rocks. In first step, Rb/Sr systematic was used to isolate a set of samples plotting along a Paleocene isochron and defining a cogenetic suite. This suite appears to have evolved by simple fractional crystallization. By using reverse modeling, the parameters controlling the fractional crystallization process were defined, as partition coefficients, initial concentrations and amount of fractional crystallization. The other magmatic suites display a wide range of isotopic and geochemical signatures. To explain this heterogeneity, a model involving competition between fractional crystallization and magma mixing into MASH zones was proposed. A large range of hybrid magma types is potentially generated during the maturation of the system, but this range tends to disappear as fractionation and mixing occurs. Finally the model predicts the genesis of a homogeneous reservoir created at depth, from which magmas may evolve only by fractional crystallization. Therefore

  5. Gold placer and Quaternary stratigraphy of the Jabal Mokhyat area, southern Najd Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, D.L.; Puffett, W.P.; Campbell, W.L.; Al-Koulak, Z. H.

    1981-01-01

    An ancient gold placer at Jabal Mokhyat (lat 20?12.2'N., long 43?28'E.), about 90 km east of Qalat Bishah in the southern Najd Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was studied in 1973. Seven hundred and twenty-eight samples in 25 measured sections were collected along trenches and pits 2.5 m in depth and 2,600 m in total length. Alluvium was thicker than the excavation depth along about 50 percent of the trench length. The average gold content was 4.4 mg per m3, and the highest grade trench contained 40 mg gold per m 3. Because fine particulate gold is rare in the alluvium, a few large particles, 1 to 5 mm in diameter, greatly affected the sampling results. The ancient placer diggings are in small headwater wadis distributed over a 30-km 2 area, and the total dug area is about 1.2 km2. The placer produced an estimated 50 kg of gold and was worked about 2,600 + 250 years ago. The potential for a present-day placer operation is small. The gold is sparsely distributed in locally derived, flood-deposited, immature gravels throughout a stratigraphic section that consists of 1) calichified, saprolitic bedrock of Precambrian age; 2) basal, intensely calichified, saprolitic gravel (0-3 m thick) of Pleistocene age; 3) disconformable, slightly consolidated gravel and sand (0-1 m thick) of late Pleistocene age containing sparse, disseminated caliche; 4) firm loessic silt (0-1 m thick) of early Holocene age; and 5) loose sand and gravel (0.3-1 m thick) of late Holocene age. The loessic silt accumulated during the Holocene pluvial. The top of the loessic silt unit is dated at about 6,000 years B.P. by using charcoal from hearths of ancient man. Following the Holocene pluvial, the climate became arid, and extreme desiccation resulted in abundant eolian sand that progressively diluted the late Holocene gravels. The remnants of the pre-Holocene stratigraphy suggest similar climatic cycles during the Pleistocene. Abundant, sparsely mineralized, gold-bearing quartz veins (0-1 m wide

  6. Stratigraphic and structural characterization of the OU-1 area at the former George Air Force Base, Adelanto, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The former George Air Force Base (GAFB), now known as the Southern California Logistics Airport (SCLA), is located in the town of Adelanto, approximately 100 km northeast of Los Angeles, California (Fig. 1). In this report, we present acquisition parameters, data, and interpretations of seismic images that were acquired in the OU-1 area of GAFB during July 1999 (Fig. 2). GAFB is scheduled for conversion to civilian use, however, during its years as an Air Force base, trichlorethylene (TCE) was apparently introduced into the subsurface as a result of spills during normal aircraft maintenance operations. To comply with congressional directives, TCE contaminant removal has been ongoing since the early-tomid 1990s. However, only a small percentage of the TCE believed to have been introduced into the subsurface has been recovered, due largely to difficulty in locating the TCE within the subsurface. Because TCE migrates within the subsurface by ground water movement, attempts to locate the TCE contaminants in the subsurface have employed an array of ground-water monitoring and extraction wells. These wells primarily sample within a shallow-depth (~40 m) aquifer system. Cores obtained from the monitoring and extraction wells indicate that the aquifer, which is composed of sand and gravel channels, is bounded by aquitards composed largely of clay and other fine-grained sediments. Based on well logs, the aquifer is about 3 to 5 m thick along the seismic profiles. A more thorough understanding of the lateral variations in the depth and thickness of the aquifer system may be a key to finding and removing the remaining TCE. However, due to its complex depositional and tectonic history, the structural and stratigraphic sequences are not easily characterized. An indication of the complex nature of the structure and stratigraphy is the appreciable variation in stratigraphic sequences observed in some monitoring wells that are only a few tens of meters apart. To better

  7. Environmental management of small-scale and artisanal mining: the Portovelo-Zaruma goldmining area, southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N H

    2002-06-01

    This paper considers technical measures and policy initiatives needed to improve environmental management in the Portovelo-Zaruma mining district of southern Ecuador. In this area, gold is mined by a large number of small-scale and artisanal operators, and discharges of cyanide and metal-laden tailings have had a severe impact on the shared Ecuadorian-Peruvian Puyango river system. It is shown to be technically possible to confine mining waste and tailings at a reasonable cost. However, the complex topography of the mining district forces tailings management to be communal, where all operators are connected to one central tailings impoundment. This, in turn, implies two things: (i) that a large number of operators must agree to pool resources to bring such a facility into reality; and (ii) that miners must move away from rudimentary operations that survive on a day-to-day basis, towards bigger, mechanized and longer-term sustainable operations that are based on proven ore reserves. It is deemed unlikely that existing environmental regulations and the provision of technical solutions will be sufficient to resolve the environmental problems. Important impediments relate to the limited financial resources available to each individual miner and the problems of pooling these resources, and to the fact that the main impacts of pollution are suffered downstream of the mining district and, hence, do not affect the miners themselves. Three policy measures are therefore suggested. First, the enforcement of existing regulations must be improved, and this may be achieved by the strengthening of the central authority charged with supervision and control of mining activities. Second, local government involvement and local public participation in environmental management needs to be promoted. Third, a clear policy should be defined which promotes the reorganisation of small operations into larger units that are strong enough to sustain rational exploration and environmental

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Transfer of 1100 AREA, Southern Rail Connection and Rolling Stock, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy's proposed action: the transfer of the 1100 Area, southern rail connection and rolling stock to a non-federal entity. Impact information contained herein will be used by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1508.27. This EA was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The following is a description of each section of the EA. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S. Department of Energy is addressing with the proposed action. As necessary, background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. A description with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts is provided. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. Reasonable alternative actions, which would address the Purpose and Need, are described. A no action alternative, as required by 10 CFR 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This provides a brief description of the locale in which the proposed action takes place, and which may be environmentally impacted. (5) Environmental

  9. Mobile Phone Usage and its Health Effects Among Adults in a Semi-Urban Area of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sherin Billy; Kanimozhy, K.; Prasad, R. Vishnu; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, mobile phone usage has been increased dramatically which could affect the health of the people. India has the second largest number of mobile phone users. However there are only few studies conducted in India to assess its effects on health. Aim To determine the prevalence and pattern of mobile phone usage and to assess the relationship between certain selected health problems and mobile phone usage among adults. Settings and Design Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kottakuppam, a town panchayat in Villupuram district of Coastal Tamil Nadu, Southern India. It is a semi-urban area with a population of about 16,000. Majority of the residents are Muslim by religion and belong to different socio economic status. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. A total of 2121 study participants were interviewed by the pre-final medical students through house-to-house survey using a pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included the variables such as socio demographic profile, mobile phone usage and pattern, selected health problems, perceived benefits and threats and blood pressure. Selected health problems included headache, earache, neck pain, tinnitus, painful fingers, restlessness, morning tiredness, tingling fingers, fatigue, eye symptoms, sleep disturbance and hypertension. Statistical Analysis Used Only 2054 were included for data analysis using SPSS 17 version. Proportions were calculated. Chi-square test was used to measure the p-value. The p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The prevalence of mobile phone usage was 70%. Calling facility (94.2%) was used more than the SMS (67.6%). Health problems like headache, earache, tinnitus, painful fingers and restlessness etc., were found to be positively associated with mobile phone usage. There was negative association between hypertension and mobile phone usage. Conclusion The prevalence of

  10. Observations regarding the movement of barchan sand dunes in the Nazca to Tanaca area of southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker Gay, S.

    1999-03-01

    Significant studies of sand dunes and sand movement made in coastal southern Peru in 1959-1961 [Gay, S.P., 1962. Origen, distribución y movimiento de las arenas eólicas en el área de Yauca a Palpa. Boletin de la Sociedad Geologica del Perú 37, 37-58] have never been published in the English language and consequently have never been referred to in the standard literature. These studies contain valuable information, not developed by later workers in this field, that may be of broad general interest. For example, using airphotos of barchan dunes and plotting the rates of movement vs. dune widths, the author quantified the deduction of Bagnold [Bagnold, R.A., 1941. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Methuen, London.] that the speed of barchan movement is inversely proportional to barchan size (as characterized by height or width). This led to the conclusion that all barchans in a given dune field, regardless of size, sweep out approximately equal areas in equal times. Another conclusion was that collisions between smaller, overtaking dunes and larger dunes in front of them do not result in destruction or absorption of the smaller dunes if the collision is a `sideswipe'. The dunes simply merge into a compound dune for a time, and the smaller dune then moves on intact, i.e., passes, the larger dune, whilst retaining its approximate original size and shape. Another result of the 1959-1961 studies was a map that documents the Pacific coast beaches as the source of the sand ( Fig. 1), which is then blown inland through extensive dune fields of barchans and other dune forms in great clockwise-sweeping paths, to its final resting place in huge sand masses, sometimes called `sand seas' [Lancaster, N., 1995. Geomorphology of Desert Dunes. Routledge, London], at higher elevations 20 to 60 km from the coast. A minor, but nevertheless interesting, discovery was a small heavy mineral dune located directly in the lee of a large barchan, evidently formed by the winnowing

  11. Remote sensing and GIS applied in the definition and zonification of the protected coastal areas in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lomeli, D.Z.; Aponte, A.G.; Yanez-Arancibia, A.

    1997-06-01

    The state of Campeche, Mexico is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. At present Campeche state has two protected areas in its coastal zone: the Terminos Lagoon Area which was declared as a Protected of Flora and Fauna Zone and the Petenes Region which was declared as Special Protected Zone of Flora and Fauna. Considering ecological, socioeconomic and normative criteria along with Landsat-TM satellite images and aerial photographs analyses, overlays of thematic cartography and land surveys, it was defined the borders and ecological zonification of the two protected areas. The ecological zonification includes two zones: Nucleus Zone (restricted protected area) and Buffer Zone (conservation and multiple use area).

  12. Airborne Passive Remote Sensing of the Troposphere in Nashville/Middle Tennessee Area During the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D. M.; Worden, H. M.; Beer, R.; Nandi, S.; Sparks, L. C.

    1998-01-01

    In July of 1995 the Airborne Emission Spectrometer was deployed to Nashville, Tennessee to participate in the 1995 Ozone Study Intensive Campaign of the Southern Oxidants Study. AES is a high resolution mid-infrared interferometer that measures the spectrum of upwelling radiation in the 650-4250 cm-1 range.

  13. Communication Requirements of Employees of Business and Industry Represented by Areas of Technological Study at Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Penny J.; Sweeney, Kevin F.

    A study examined the need and demand for communication skills for employees in the technical fields for which Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute offers programs of academic preparation. Two members of the Institute's English Department interviewed representatives of organizations that have hired technical program graduates. Further…

  14. Airborne Passive Remote Sensing of the Troposphere in Nashville/Middle Tennessee Area During the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D. M.; Worden, H. M.; Beer, R.; Nandi, S.; Sparks, L. C.

    1998-01-01

    In July of 1995 the Airborne Emission Spectrometer was deployed to Nashville, Tennessee to participate in the 1995 Ozone Study Intensive Campaign of the Southern Oxidants Study. AES is a high resolution mid-infrared interferometer that measures the spectrum of upwelling radiation in the 650-4250 cm-1 range.

  15. Communication Requirements of Employees of Business and Industry Represented by Areas of Technological Study at Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Penny J.; Sweeney, Kevin F.

    A study examined the need and demand for communication skills for employees in the technical fields for which Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute offers programs of academic preparation. Two members of the Institute's English Department interviewed representatives of organizations that have hired technical program graduates. Further…

  16. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Anderson-Darling test at each horizon or a combination of horizons for each soil type. RESULTS The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, reducing the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). The reduction of SOC by LUC, can be explained by a degraded process (due to vegetation losses and unsustainable soil management, which result in progressive impoverishment in the soil organic matter (OM) content, causing low productivity, which derived in unsuitable chemical properties) and by the reduced input of OM in cultivated soils, which reduced physical protection of soil and increased water erosion. However, 46 years of LUC had a positive effect in the soil, increasing the SR (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). REFERENCES Parras-Alcántara, L., Martín-Carrillo, M., Lozano-García, B. 2013. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain). Solid Earth, 4: 167-177.

  17. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vinícius A; Antonini, Yasmine; Araújo, Ana P A

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Espinhaço Range consists of large areas covered by quartzitic or metaliferous tropical altitudinal fields. The Espinhaço Range ecosystems are endangered by anthropic high impacts, particularly due to mining and urbanization. We conducted a one-year inventory of the bee flora and fauna at the quartzitic Ouro Branco Mountains and a two-year survey of the metaliferous Ouro Preto fields. The samples were collected twice a month, from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. The bees (677) belonged to 91 species, five families. The family Apidae was the richest and most abundant, followed by the Halictidae and Megachilidae. The bees visited 46 flowering plant species; the most visited plants were the Asteraceae (n = 220), the Malpighiaceae (n = 95), the Melastomataceae (n = 94), the Fabaceae (n = 78), and the Solanaceae (n = 63). Diversity was higher in Ouro Branco (H = 1.47) than in Ouro Preto (H = 1.17). The low richness and abundance of bees in our research site when compared to other Brazilian "Cerrado" areas can be due to the high altitude, low temperature, and low availability of flowers we found. "Canga" and rupestrian areas house fauna and flora species that are rare and threatened by extinction. The southern Espinhaço areas can, therefore, be given the status of permanent biodiversity preservation area.

  18. New 40Ar/39Ar isotopic dates from Miocene volcanic rocks in the Lake Mead area and southern Las Vegas Range, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlan, S.S.; Duebendorfer, E.M.; Deibert, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar dates on volcanic rocks interlayered with synextensional Miocene sedimentary rocks in the western Lake Mead area and southern end of the Las Vegas Range provide tight constraints on magmatism, basin formation, and extensional deformation in the Basin and Range province of southern Nevada. Vertical axis rotations associated with movement along the Las Vegas Valley shear zone occurred after 15.67??0.10 Ma (2??), based on a 40Ar/39Ar date from a tuff in the Gass Peak formation in the southern Las Vegas Range. Basaltic magmatism in the western Lake Mead area began as early as 13.28??0.09 Ma, based on a date from a basalt flow in the Lovell Wash Member of the Horse Spring Formation. Isotopic dating of a basalt from the volcanic rocks of Callville Mesa indicates that these rocks are as old as 11.41??0.14 Ma, suggesting that volcanic activity began shortly after formation of the Boulder basin, the extensional basin in which the informally named red sandstone unit was deposited. The red sandstone unit is at least as old as 11.70??0.08 Ma and contains megabreccia deposits younger than 12.93??0.10 Ma. This results shows that formation of the Boulder basin was associated with development of topographic relief that was probably generated by movement along the Saddle Island low-angle normal fault. Stratal tilting associated with extension occurred both prior to and after 11.5 Ma.

  19. Extensional Late Paleozoic deformation on the western margin of Pangea, Patlanoaya area, Acatlán Complex, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Arias, M. A.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Rivera, A.; Lee, J. W. K.

    2008-02-01

    New mapping in the northern part of the Paleozoic Acatlán Complex (Patlanoaya area) records several ductile shear zones and brittle faults with normal kinematics (previously thought to be thrusts). These movement zones separate a variety of units that pass structurally upwards from: (i) blueschist-eclogitic metamorphic rocks (Piaxtla Suite) and mylonitic megacrystic granites (Columpio del Diablo granite ≡ Ordovician granites elsewhere in the complex); (ii) a gently E-dipping, listric, normal shear zone with top to the east kinematic indicators that formed under upper greenschist to lower amphibolite conditions; (iii) the Middle-Late Ordovician Las Minas quartzite (upper greenschist facies psammites with minor interbedded pelites intruded by mafic dikes and a leucogranite dike from the Columpio del Diablo granite) unconformably overlain by the Otate meta-arenite (lower greenschist facies psammites and pelites): roughly temporal equivalents are the Middle-Late Ordovician Mal Paso and Ojo de Agua units (interbedded metasandstone and slate, and metapelite and mafic minor intrusions, respectively) — some of these units are intruded by the massive, 461 ± 2 Ma, Palo Liso megacrystic granite: decussate, contact metamorphic muscovite yielded a 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau age of 440 ± 4 Ma; (iv) a steeply-moderately, E-dipping normal fault; (v) latest Devonian-Middle Permian sedimentary rocks (Patlanoaya Group: here elevated from formation status). The upward decrease in metamorphic grade is paralleled by a decrease in the number of penetrative fabrics, which varies from (i) three in the Piaxtla Suite, through (ii) two in the Las Minas unit (E-trending sheath folds deformed by NE-trending, subhorizontal folds with top to the southeast asymmetry, both associated with a solution cleavage), (iii) one in the Otate, Mal Paso, and Ojo de Agua units (steeply SE-dipping, NE-SW plunging, open-close folds), to (iv) none in the Patlanoaya Group. 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses of muscovite from the

  20. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-04-15

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed.

  1. Principal facts for gravity data collected in the southern Albuquerque Basin area and a regional compilation, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, Cindy L.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Oshetski, Kim; Keller, Gordon R.

    2000-01-01

    Principal facts for 156 new gravity stations in the southern Albuquerque basin are presented. These data fill a gap in existing data coverage. The compilation of the new data and two existing data sets into a regional data set of 5562 stations that cover the Albuquerque basin and vicinity is also described. Bouguer anomaly and isostatic residual gravity data for this regional compilation are available in digital form from ftp://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/openfile- reports/ofr-00-490.

  2. Genetic identification of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in an endemic area of a mild spotted fever in Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo Vizzoni, Vinicius; Barbosa Silva, Arannadia; Medeiros Cardoso, Karen; Barbosa Dos Santos, Fernanda; Stenzel, Barbara; Amorim, Marinete; Vilges de Oliveira, Stefan; Salles Gazeta, Gilberto

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest causes a less severe rickettsiosis, with two cases confirmed until now. The tick species Amblyomma ovale is appointed as the main vector of this bacterium. The southern region of Brazil has reported patients with spotted fever who have milder symptoms. In 2013, during an investigation of rickettsiosis cases, an A. ovale tick was found attached to a man in an area where there were two cases. The parasite was processed for molecular analysis and the rickettsial infection was confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis of genes ompA, ompB and geneD (sca4). In the present study the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was identified in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Since A. ovale, its main vector, is found frequently parasitizing dogs, animals that can cross international borders freely in southern Brazil, this bacteria can bring major concerns in terms of public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-06-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  4. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain.

  5. Developing a topographic model to predict the northern hardwood forest type within Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) recovery areas of the southern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Andrew; Odom, Richard H.; Resler, Lynn M.; Ford, W. Mark; Prisley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI) are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score) for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  6. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Automated mapping of burned areas in Landsat imagery; tracking spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas and greenhouse gas emissions in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawbaker, Todd; Vanderhoof, Melanie; French, Nancy; Billmire, Michael; Beal, Yen-Ju Grace; Takacs, Josh; Bosshart, Robbert; Caldwell, Megan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emissions depend on precise mapping of burned area extent and timing. Consequently, fire disturbance has been identified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program as one of the 14 Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). Landsat's temporal resolution and sensor characteristics make it more suitable for mapping burned area than existing burned area products from coarse resolution sensors. We have developed an automated algorithm to identify burned areas in temporally rich stacks of Landsat surface reflectance data using boosted regression trees and spatial filters. For this analysis, we quantified trends in burned area and fire emissions using the USGS Burned Area ECV data and the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity data, the latter of which is known to be incomplete. Both datasets were combined with the LANDFIRE Fuel Characteristic Classification System to assign pre-fire biomass loads, and the CONSUME model was used to estimate biomass consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Both data sets show a dramatic increase in burned area between 1984-1999 and 2000-2015, but the Burned Area ECV included more small fires and fires in non-forest ecosystems. Emission estimates were similar between the two burned area datasets, but were generally greater for the Burned Area ECV. Our results suggest that national and regional scale emission estimates could be improved by incorporating the more complete Burned Area ECV dataset.

  8. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    PubMed Central

    Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814

  9. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review.

    PubMed

    Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V

    2017-05-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  10. Addendum to sources of powerplant cooling water in the desert area of Southern California: a reconnaissance study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koehler, J.H.; Mallory, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrologic reconnaissance study was made in five basins in southern California previously classified as suitable for providing sufficient ground water for cooling a 1,000-megawatt electric-power generating plant. The criteria used to evaluate the basins were (1) theoretical aquifer response to pumping, (2) alternative sources of water, and (3) chemical quality of water. The basins were ranked relative to each other for the three criteria and in overall suitability. On the basis of subjective analysis, the basins were ranked in the following order for overall suitability: (1) Calzona-Vidal Valley, (2) Middle Amargosa Valley, (3) Chuckwalla Valley, (4) Soda Lake Valley, and (5) Caves Canyon Valley. (USGS)

  11. Ground-Water Data for the Suck Creek Area of Walden Ridge, Southern Cumberland Plateau, Marion County, Tennessee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Water level, well Ma:N-026 - w Water level, well Ma:N-027 60 gallons per minute Pumping rate: 60 gallons per minute 0 500 1000 1300 PERIOD OF...I0 s n ’ ” m ’ * 1 “‘I - 1 s ‘I A-A Water level, well Ma:N-026 Pumping rate: 105 gallons per minute w Water level, Ma:N-O27 PERIOD OF PUMPING, IN... Carboniferous depositional environments in the Cumberland Plateau of southern Tennessee and northern Alabama: Tennessee Division Geology Report of

  12. Joint NOAA/NWS/USGS prototype debris flow warning system for recently burned areas in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Restrepo, P.; Jorgensen, D.P.; Cannon, S.H.; Costa, J.; Laber, J.; Major, J.; Martner, B.; Purpura, J.; Werner, K.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows, also known as mudslides, are composed gravity-driven mixtures of sediment and water that travel through steep channels, over open hillslopes, and the like. Addressing this issue, US Geological Survey (USGS) and NOAA have established a debris-flow warning system that has the ability to monitor and forecast precipitation and issue timely weather hazard warning. In 2005, this joint NOAA-USGS prototype debris-flow warning system was issued in Southern California and as a result, it has provided valuable information to emergency managers in affected communities.

  13. Relative abundances of sandfly species (Diptera: Phlebotominae) in two villages in the same area of Campeche, in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rebollar-Téllez, E A; Tun-Ku, E; Manrique-Saide, P C; Andrade-Narvaez, F J

    2005-03-01

    Leishmania mexicana is the parasite causing most cases of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Mexico, where Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca and Lu. cruciata are the most probable vectors. In the present study, sandflies were collected during one transmission season (November 2001-March 2002) in the village of La Guadalupe and the nearby village of Dos Naciones, in the southern Mexican county of Calakmul. Using Shannon traps, Disney traps and CDC light traps, 5983 sandflies (Brumptomyia and Lutzomyia) were caught. In Dos Naciones the numbers of Lu. panamensis caught in Shannon or CDC traps outnumbered those of the other sandfly species. In La Guadalupe, in contrast, the most abundant species in the collections made with Shannon or CDC traps was Lu. cruciata , followed by Lu. olmeca olmeca and Lu. deleoni. In both locations, the numbers of sandflies attracted to Shannon traps peaked between 18.00 and 22.00 hours. Given the abundance of Lu. olmeca olmeca in the collections made with Shannon and Disney traps (it was the only species caught in the latter), this species is probably the primary vector of Le. mexicana in Calakmul county.

  14. Carbon export in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area of the Southern Ocean based on the 234Th approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchon, F.; Ballas, D.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Bowie, A. R.; Davies, D.; Trull, T.; Laurenceau, E.; Van Der Merwe, P.; Dehairs, F.

    2014-11-01

    The Kerguelen Plateau region in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean supports annually a large-scale phytoplankton bloom which is naturally fertilized with iron. As part of the second KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study expedition (KEOPS2) in austral spring (October-November 2011), we examined upper-ocean Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) export using the 234Th approach. We aimed at characterizing the spatial and the temporal variability of POC export production at high productivity sites over and downstream the Kerguelen plateau. Export production is compared to a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area upstream of the plateau in order to assess the impact of iron-induced productivity on the vertical export of carbon. Deficits in 234Th activities relative to its parent nuclide 238U were observed at all stations in surface waters, indicating that scavenging by particles occurred during the early stages of the phytoplankton bloom. 234Th export was lowest at reference station R-2 (412 ± 134 dpm m-2 d-1) and highest inside a~permanent meander of the Polar Front (PF) at stations E (1995 ± 176 dpm m-2 d-1, second visit E-3) where a detailed time series was obtained as part of a~pseudo-lagrangian study. 234Th export over the central plateau was relatively limited at station A3 early (776 ± 171 dpm m-2 d-1, first visit A3-1) and late in the survey (993 ± 223 dpm m-2 d-1, second visit A3-2), but it was higher at high biomass stations TNS-8 (1372 ± 255 dpm m-2 d-1) and E-4W (1068 ± 208 dpm m-2 d-1) in waters which could be considered as derived from plateau. Limited 234Th export of 973 ± 207 dpm m-2 d-1 was also found in the northern branch of the Kerguelen bloom located downstream of the island, north of the PF (station F-L). The 234Th results support that Fe fertilization increased particle export in all iron fertilized waters. The impact was greatest in the recirculation feature (3-4 fold at 200 m depth), but more moderate over the central Kerguelen plateau

  15. Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority has proposed construction of a pipeline to convey natural gas from the municipio of Pe?uelas to the Aguirre thermoelectric power plant in the municipio of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico. To ensure that the geologic conditions along the possible routes do not represent a threat to the physical integrity of the natural gas pipeline, and thus comply with State and Federal regulations, the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority requested the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a synthesis of published literature of the geology of the coastal plain in the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. The study area is located in part of the Southern Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. In the area that extends from the municipio of Pe?uelas eastward to the Laguna de las Salinas at Ponce, a distance of about 5 miles, the study area is underlain by middle Tertiary carbonate units. Eastward from the Laguna de las Salinas to the pipeline terminus at the Aguirre power plant in Salinas, a distance of about 30 miles, the terrain is underlain by fan-delta deposits of Quaternary age. The carbonate units and the fan-delta deposits are underlain by early Tertiary and older-age volcaniclastics with subordinate sedimentary rocks and lavas. The Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is the principal geologic structural feature in southern Puerto Rico. At present, the Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is considered largely quiescent, although it apparently is associated with minor earthquakes. There is no evidence of terrestrial, late Quaternary faulting within the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. Seismic activity in this area mostly originates from extension zones of more distal shallow sources such as Mona Canyon to the northwest and the Anegada Trough northeast of the island of Puerto Rico. The magnitude of completeness of earthquakes in the study area ranges from 2.0 to 2.5. The seismic density for the southern coast including the study area is about 0.128 earthquakes

  16. Final Remedial Investigation Sampling Plan Addendum. Milan Army Ammunition Plant Remedial Investigation Southern Study Area (Operable Unit No. 5)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    inspection . "SH" Area located 150 feet south of Disposal Area "H" used as a surface burning/flashingarea for laboratory wastes and ordnance items. "J...burning pits were seen during the site inspection of this area. "L" Location of a diesel-fired incinerator that was used to burn the tracer from 40 mm...planned to address these areas. Other field activities will consist of documenting (mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection

  17. Hydrogeological research on intensively exploited deep aquifers in the `Loma de Úbeda' area (Jaén, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Ramón, Antonio; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Gollonet, Javier

    2013-06-01

    The intensive use of groundwater for irrigation in the area of Úbeda (`Loma de Úbeda', Jaén, southern Spain) has transformed an area of traditionally rain-fed dry farmland into fields with some of the highest olive oil productivity in the world. Early hydrogeological research studies, initiated just after the beginning of the groundwater exploitation, revealed that the water was collected from three different overlapping aquifers occupying an area of over 1,100 km2, with the lower aquifers located at depths from 300 to over 700 m in an area of 440 km2. Multidisciplinary research, based on geological characterization, and piezometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, has led to a conceptual model of functioning in this complex hydrogeological system. The proposed model allows for the identification of the recharge areas, and the discharge, which is at present mainly associated with the groundwater pumping. Areas of mixing of waters from the different aquifers and the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality are described.

  18. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China.

  19. Incidence of canine leptospirosis in the metropolitan area of Curitiba, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Camila Marinelli; Barros, Cristiane da Conceição de; Galindo, Claudia Martins; Kikuti, Mariana; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Pampuch, Raquel dos Santos; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Langoni, Helio; Ferreira, Fernando; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of canine leptospirosis in Brazil needs to be assessed. The same dogs in southern Brazil were sampled over two years to determine the prevalence, incidence and association of canine leptospirosis with various risk factors. In 2009, the prevalence was 33 (14.4%) of 228 dogs, with a predominance of serovar Canicola (33.4%). In 2010, 90 dogs were re-evaluated (the remaining dogs were lost to deaths, address changes and donations), and the prevalence was found to be 35 (38.9%) of 90, with the predominant serovar being Icterohaemorrhagiae (51.4%). Moreover, the incidence was 26 of 90 (28.9%), and the disease was statistically associated with age (2009) and street access (2010). Our findings revealed instability in the dog population and age to be relevant risk factors for canine leptospirosis.

  20. Investigation of sulfonamide, tetracycline, and quinolone antibiotics in vegetable farmland soil in the Pearl River Delta area, southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Mo, Ce-Hui; Tai, Yi-Ping; Huang, Xian-Pei; Xiang, Lei

    2011-07-13

    Thirteen antibiotics in soil from vegetable farmlands of the Pearl River Delta, southern China, were investigated. At least three antibiotics were detected in each sample. Six antibiotics including four quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were detected in >94% of the samples. The total contents of three tetracyclines, eight sulfonamides, and four quinolones were not detected-242.6, 33.3-321.4, and 27.8-1537.4 μg/kg, respectively. The highest antibiotic concentrations were observed mainly in vegetable farmlands affiliated with livestock farms. Chlortetracycline, sulfameter, and quinolones in some samples exceed the ecotoxic effect trigger value (100 μg/kg) set by the Steering Committee of Veterinary International Committee on Harmonization. The composition and concentration of antibiotics in soil were correlated with vegetable species. This study has revealed an alarming condition of antibiotics in vegetable farmland soil. Further investigation including environmental fate, plant uptake, and human exposure to antibiotics by plant-derived food should be conducted.

  1. Fracturing in the Paleozoic carbonate formations of southern China (Guanxi fracture area): Interpretation within the tectonic context of eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogue, C.

    1986-01-01

    This tectonic study deals with the fracturing of Paleozoic carbonate series of the southern China block. In addition to the E-W shortening, with its reverse faults, which is known to be of Mesozoic age, two other deformation episodes stand out clearly. The chronology of the episodes is as follows: Compression with a sub-meridian strike, with an horizontal extension subsequently stretching N130° with normal faults. This latter episode could be equivalent to the stretching dating back to the Cenozoic that is generally spread over most of eastern and southeastern Asia. The organisation of this fracturing is characterised by two dominant types of strike, which show up in an almost identical fashion on field surveys and on ERTS (satellite) imagery. The organisation of fractures surveyed in the field is characterized by two major orientation classes (N000°-N020° and N060°-N080°) which appear almost identical on satellite photos.

  2. Efficacy of insecticide impregnated bed-nets to control malaria in a rural forested area in southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, G; Robert, V; Fondjo, E; Carnevale, P

    1992-01-01

    Due to current spreading of chemoresistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum malaria control must incorporate vector control programmes. Due to well known constraints house sprayings cannot be performed as before. Personal protection can be developed and a large scale use of insecticide treated bed-nets appeared to be very useful to reduce man-vector contact in Asia, South America and West and East Africa. No trial has been done in forest Central Africa where transmission is permanent. We performed such a trial in the southern part of Cameroon (using deltamethrin, at 25 mg/m2) and obtained similar data to those observed in The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Tanzania with a noteworthy reduction of both transmission and high parasitaemia of P. falciparum (respectively 78% and 75%) meaning a drop of malaria morbidity.

  3. Geologic Utility of LANSDAT-4 TM Data. [Death Valley, California and the Silver Bell area of southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Kahle, A. B.; Gillespie, A.; Conel, J.; Lang, H.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of the TM vis-a-vis various geological applications was quantified by analyzing: (1) the geological utility of the data with respect to the increased spatial resolution and number of bands (compared to the MSS); (2) the geometric accuracy; (3) the radiometric performance of the TM scanner. Preliminary analyses were performed on TM scenes: over Death Valley, California, and over southern Arizona. Both scenes were acquired in CCT-PT format, where the data were geometrically and radiometrically corrected. Overall, the TM data appears to contain a marked increase in geologically useful information; however, a number of instrumental or processing artifacts may well limit the ability of the geologist to fully extract this information.

  4. Analyses of water and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1976-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallworth, Geraldine R.; Jordan, Helen F.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide water-quality data to evaluate the potential environmental effects of (1) dredging activities in selected navigable waterways of southern Louisiana and (2) the disposal of dredged material at selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Areas studied from September 1976 to May 1978 included five ocean disposal sites in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to the following waterways: Baptiste, Collette Bayou, Mississippi River at Head of Passes and Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at Tiger Pass, Bayou Black, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical, physical, and biological constituents. (USGS)

  5. Structural and geochemical constraints on the reassembly of disrupted mid-Miocene volcanoes in the Lake Mead-Eldorado Valley area of southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Michael E.; Smith, Eugene I.

    1987-06-01

    In the Lake Mead-Eldorado Valley (LMEV) area of southern Nevada, mid-Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks in the River, McCullough, and Eldorado mountains lie in the upper plate of a regional detachment structure. The detachment structure and strike-slip faults of the Lake Mead fault zone are temporally and kinematically related. Strike-slip systems and normal faults (Eldorado Valley fault) serve as boundaries between regions of variable extension in the upper plate of this detachment. Geochemical correlation and geometric reconstructions suggest that prior to extension, the LMEV area was characterized by three stratovolcano complexes, each above or adjacent to a chemically correlative pluton. Geochemical correlation techniques are useful tools that may have general application in reconstructing structurally disrupted volcanic-plutonic terranes. *Present address: Department of Geology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514

  6. Structure of the Reelfoot-Rough Creek rift system, Fluorspar area fault complex, and Hicks Dome, southern Illinois and western Kentucky; new constraints from regional seismic reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, C.J.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Heigold, P.C.; Drahovzal, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Mo. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  7. Collapse susceptibility map in abandoned mining areas by microgravity survey: A case study in Candado hill (Málaga, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González-Castillo, L.; Azañón, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    The presence of disused gypsum mine galleries in Candado hill (Málaga, southern Spain) has caused constructions at the western end of the hill to collapse. The mine, which closed in the 1960s, is disconnected from the surface. Therefore, the precise dimensions and position of the galleries are unknown, making it essential to undertake a thorough microgravity study to assess the collapse susceptibility of the area. On the one hand, we analyze the accuracy of the terrain correction and Bouguer anomaly calculation, varying density values. This study shows that higher density values produce more pronounced residual minima corresponding to the mine galleries. On the other hand, the approximate mine gallery positions and dimensions were derived through forward modelling, then correlated with the gravity residual anomalies produced in the hill. Altogether, these results can be presented as a collapse susceptibility map relating the areas containing mine galleries with shallow voids on the hill.

  8. Ground-water conditions in the southern and central parts of the East Shore area, Utah, 1953-61

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Ralph E.; Gates, Joseph S.

    1963-01-01

    The East Shore area is in north-central Utah between the Wasatch Range and Great Salt Lake, and it has been divided into the Bountiful, Weber Delta, and Brigham ground-water districts, from south to north. The area described in this report includes the Bountiful and Weber Delta districts and the southernmost part of the Brigham district. Long-term mean annual precipitation at Ogden is 17.07 inches, and the average annual temperature over the area is about 50°F. The population of the project area increased by 54 per cent from 1950 to 1960 and should increase rapidly in the future.

  9. Distribution of two species of sea snakes, Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus, in the southern Great Barrier Reef: metapopulation dynamics, marine protected areas and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukoschek, V.; Heatwole, H.; Grech, A.; Burns, G.; Marsh, H.

    2007-06-01

    Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus typically occur in spatially discrete populations, characteristic of metapopulations; however, little is known about the factors influencing the spatial and temporal stability of populations or whether specific conservation strategies, such as networks of marine protected areas, will ensure the persistence of species. Classification tree analyses of 35 years of distribution data (90 reefs, surveyed 1-11 times) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) revealed that longitude was a major factor determining the status of A. laevis on reefs (present = 38, absent = 38 and changed = 14). Reef exposure and reef area were also important; however, these factors did not specifically account for the population fluctuations and the recent local extinctions of A. laevis in this region. There were no relationships between the status of E. annulatus (present = 16, absent = 68 and changed = 6) and spatial or physical variables. Moreover, prior protection status of reefs did not account for the distribution of either species. Biotic factors, such as habitat and prey availability and the distribution of predators, which may account for the observed patterns of distribution, are discussed. The potential for inter-population exchange among sea snake populations is poorly understood, as is the degree of protection that will be afforded to sea snakes by the recently implemented network of No-take areas in the GBR. Data from this study provide a baseline for evaluating the responses of A. laevis and E. annulatus populations to changes in biotic factors and the degree of protection afforded on reefs within an ecosystem network of No-take marine protected areas in the southern GBR.

  10. Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease SAT2 Viruses at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface of Two Major Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Barbara P.; Jori, Ferran; Dwarka, Rahana; Maree, Francois F.; Heath, Livio; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV) serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas: Kavango–Zambezi (KAZA) and Great Limpopo (GL). Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMDV SAT2 topotypes I, II, and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GL. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. We used coalescent Bayesian skyline analysis to study the genetic variation of the virus in cattle and buffalo, and discussed the association of these genetic changes in the virus and relevant epidemiological events that occurred in this area. Our results show that the genetic diversity of FMDV SAT2 has decreased in buffalo and cattle population during the last decade. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMDV SAT2 in Southern Africa, which will could ultimately help in designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level. PMID:27148217

  11. Production of Landsat ETM+ reference imagery of burned areas within Southern African savannahs: comparison of methods and application to MODIS

    Treesearch

    A. M. S. Smith; N. A. Drake; M. J. Wooster; A. T. Hudak; Z. A. Holden; C. J. Gibbons

    2007-01-01

    Accurate production of regional burned area maps are necessary to reduce uncertainty in emission estimates from African savannah fires. Numerous methods have been developed that map burned and unburned surfaces. These methods are typically applied to coarse spatial resolution (1 km) data to produce regional estimates of the area burned, while higher spatial resolution...

  12. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  13. Distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in forest soils from urban to rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-03-04

    The upper layer of forest soils (0-20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban-suburban-rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area.

  14. Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated from Si isotopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

    2014-05-01

    A massive diatom-bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the Plateau biogenic silica production fluxes are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 in average), silica dissolution rates were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (Si:C and Si:N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate the primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution to production ratios (D:P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustained most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS-expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution on the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to a higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling between H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross-Si:N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the HNLC area, likely due to different diatoms communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long time scales does not necessarily decrease Si:N uptake ratios

  15. Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated with Si isotopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

    2014-10-01

    A massive diatom bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes (ρSi and ρDiss, respectively) in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the plateau biogenic ρSi are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 on average), ρDiss were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (ρSi : ρC and ρSi : ρN) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution-to-production ratios (D : P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustain most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution of the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling of H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross Si : N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area, likely due to different diatom communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long timescales does not necessarily

  16. Kinematic Evolution of fold-and-thrust Belts in the Yubei Area: Implications for the Tectonic Events of Ordovician at the Southern Tarim Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As a response to tecto-orogenic processes of the South Altun and the West Kunlun (Monlar P, 1975; He Bizhu, 2011), early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the southern Tarim craton was distinctively one of the extensions and was followed by compression (Morris W.Leighton, 1990; Gao Zhiqian, 2015). From the late Ordovician, the Yubei area developed distinctively NE-SW trending fold-and-thrust belts in rows which were eroded and deformed through multiphase tectonic movement (Dengfa He, 2007), with similarities and dissimilarities between each other rows in many aspects, at the Southern Tarim inner basin (Fig. 1). The northern of Hetian paleo-uplift and the northwestern of NE-trending folds zone on Caledonian in Tangguzibasi depression should be favorable to the potential exploration area for the first large-scale period of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation (Brown LF, 1979). In this contribution, based on geophysical log, core and 2D/3D seismic data, we constructed its tectonic geometry morphology, controlled by detailed chronostratigraphic framework. According to the fault-related fold theory, rows of asymmetric fault-propagation folds grew in the Yubei area during the late Caledonian period, with the evidence of interpreted growth strata from the high resolution 3D seismic data (Suppe J et al., 1990). That intercontinental tecto-orogenic events from southern Tarim basin, leading to the transformation of its margins, affected inner basin at that time, modified the basin into the Tarim metacraton (Jean-Paul Liégeois, 2013; Zieglar P.A., 1998). Correlating the four tectonic groups of the identified with the axis variation of strata and fold amplitude distribution showed that fault evolution progressed in several superimposed stages: Precambrian, late Ordovician to early Carboniferous (Zhao Zongju, 2009), Carboniferous to Permian, Cenozoic. Analyzing the sedimentary development and structure evolution the tectonic paleo-geographic setting is reconstructed, providing

  17. Spatial-temporal Trends and Factors Associated with the Bluetongue Virus Seropositivity in Large Game Hunting Areas from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Montes, A; Paniagua, J; Arenas, A; Lorca-Oró, C; Carbonero, A; Cano-Terriza, D; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to determine the spatial-temporal trends and risk factors potentially involved in the seropositivity to bluetongue virus (BTV) in hunting areas with presence of red deer (Cervus elaphus). A total of 60 of 98 (61.2%; CI95% : 51.6-70.9) hunting areas sampled presented at least one seropositive red deer. Antibodies against BTV were detected in juvenile animals during the hunting seasons 2007/2008 to 2013/2014 in 15 of 98 (15.3%) hunting areas, which indicates an uninterrupted circulation of BTV in this period. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that the red deer density at hunting area level (>22 individuals/km(2) ), the annual abundance of Culicoides imicola (>1.4 mosquitoes/sampling) and the goat density at municipality level (>24.1 individuals/km(2) ) were factors significantly associated with BTV seropositivity in hunting areas. Control measures against BTV in the studied area include vaccination programmes in wild and domestic ruminants, movement control in areas with high densities and abundance of red deer and C. imicola, respectively. Considering the potential risk of BTV re-emergence, red deer should be included in the BT surveillance programmes in regions where these species share habitats with livestock. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Impact of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia on the imunohematological indices among school children and adolescents in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (APFP) has been reported to be highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region heavily burdened by malaria, yet, the impact of APFP on the immunological reference values have not yet been established. This study was aimed at i) determine the prevalence of APFP in children and adolescents living in a region highly endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and its impact on the immuno-hematological indices and ii) determine the factors independently associated with APFP. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique during the dry season. Apparently healthy children and adolescents were selected for the study. Results Blood samples were collected from 348 participants. Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 56.5% (194/343) of study subjects. APFP was more frequent in males and was associated with lower values of hemoglobin and platelets measurements. Parasitized and not parasitized individuals were similar in terms of lymphocyte counts, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts. Platelet count was the parameter with strongest association with APFP (OR: 0.991, p= 0.000) in children and its performance in guiding clinical suspicion was moderate (AUC: 0.70, p=0.000). Contrarily, in adolescents, the predictive value of platelets counts was low (AUC: 0.55). Conclusion Overall, our finding demonstrated that APFP is highly prevalent in regions endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and was associated with lower hematological parameters but unaltered lymphocyte counts, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts. Platelets count was of moderate performance in guiding clinical suspicion of APFP in children but not in adolescents. PMID:23710648

  19. Epidemiologic Study of Opium Use in Pars Cohort Study: A Study of 9000 Adults in a Rural Southern Area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Salehi, Alireza; Naghshvarian, Mojtaba; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Gandomkar, Abdullah; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Opium is one of the most common substances used worldwide with variable epidemiologic features in different regions. This study was performed in southern Iran, to find the epidemiology of opium use and its association with different factors and diseases. This cross-sectional study was performed on baseline data extracted from Pars Cohort Study performed in Valashahr, a rural area in southern Iran. For any subject, information was collected about demographic factors, some common diseases including heart disease, stroke and hypertension and the state of using opium, other substances and cigarettes. There were 4276 males and 4988 females, with a mean age of 52.6 ± 9.7 years of whom 8.4% reported opium use (17.3% of males and 0.7% of females). In men, the history of stroke and heart disease were significantly more common in opium users (12.6% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.001 and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.01, respectively) while the history of hypertension was significantly more common in non-opium users (7.8% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.04). Younger age, male gender, being non-married and positive history of joint pain, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were the factors associated with opium use. Opium use is common in non-married men who have a positive history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the rural population of southern Iran. It is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke and decreased risk of hypertension in males. Global interventional and preventive measures are required to control this complicated social problem.

  20. Epidemiological survey on Leishmania infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and hunting dogs sharing the same rural area in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Di Muccio, Trentina; Manzillo, Valentina Foglia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Neola, Benedetto; Di Prisco, Francesca; D'Alessio, Nicola; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Gramiccia, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Southern Italy, particularly Campania region, is an area where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are endemic. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been hypothesized to play a role in occurrence of CanL in Italy but specific studies are poor. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs and foxes living in the same rural area (Picentini hills). 123 sera from autochthonous fox-hunting dogs were examined by immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) using a cut-off of 1:160. The seroprevalence of dogs examined was 17.9%. Moreover, 48 foxes were examined after having been shooted by hunters or road accidents. Spleen, liver and lymph node samples were analyzed by specific Leishmania nested PCR (n-PCR). 10 foxes were found infected by L. infantum (20.8%) of which 4 animals in spleen, 2 in lymph nodes and 4 both in spleen and lymph nodes. The overall n-PCR positivity was 17.4% for spleen samples and 13.3% for lymph nodes; all liver samples resulted negative. In positive PCR foxes no signs clearly referable to leishmaniasis were recorded at necropsy. The results confirmed the presence of L. infantum infection in red foxes from Southern Italy, with a moderate level of exposure. Because large proportions of dogs with ascertained progressive leishmaniasis show a prolonged "subpatent condition" during which they are only positive to n-PCR before seroconversion, our results allow to assume that exposure risk in foxes is lower than hunting dogs living in the studied area.

  1. RENO IV Outline Plan for Operations of the Southwest Pacific Area to Include the Reoccupation of the Southern Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-03-06

    VOGELKOP-and- in HALMAHERA required for flank protection and support of subsequent. operations ta occupy MINDANAO^ / t̂UAl̂ ^^^ ̂ ^^ Phase IV Occupy... HALMAHERA areas. d. ESTIMATE OF PRINCIPAL COMBAT ELEMENTS REQUIRED. (See Annex 3.) (1) Land Forces. Assault # HUMBOIDT BAY - 2 Divs. GEELVINK BAY - 1...SEA area for strategic bombing operations in the N.E.I, and for general support of subsequent operations into the VOGELKOP and HALMAHERA . b

  2. Dynamics of population densities and vegetation associations of Anopheles albimanus larvae in a coastal area of southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Rodríguez, M H; Meza, R A; Hernández, J E; Rejmankova, E; Savage, H M; Roberts, D R; Pope, K O; Legters, L

    1993-03-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations on Anopheles albimanus larval densities and their plant associations were investigated in larval habitats in southern Mexico between April 1989 and May 1990. Thirty-four plant groups were dominant in larval habitats. Dense larval populations were associated with 3 genera of plants, Cynodon, Echinocloa and Fimbristylis and no larvae were found in habitats with Salvinia and Rhizophora. Low significant positive or negative associations were documented with the other 12 plant genera. Larval habitats were classified according to the morphology of their dominant plants. Higher larval densities were observed in the groups characterized by relatively short emergent vegetation. The distribution of habitat-types within 5 identified vegetation units showed a significantly dependent relationship. For the entire study period, highest larval densities were detected in flooded pasture/grassland vegetation units. For all vegetation units, higher larval densities were found when the dominant plant type covered between 25-50% of the breeding site. The integration of data from habitat-types into vegetation units did not result in loss of information.

  3. Feeding Preferences of the Larval Southern Two-Lined Salamander, Eurycea Cirrigera, in an Impacted Agricultural Area, Southwest Georgia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, T. K.; Golladay, S. W.; Smith, L. L.; Vellidis, G.

    2005-05-01

    Feeding preference of the stream-dwelling Southern Two-lined Salamander, Eurycea cirrigera, was examined in streams affected by agricultural practices in southwest Georgia. Larvae were collected within bimonthly benthic macroinvertebrate samples from February 2002 to February 2003. Five stream reaches were sampled, two of which were fenced from cattle and three allowed cattle access. Forty larvae were recovered from the invertebrate collections, with significantly higher captures at fenced sites than unfenced sites. The entire digestive tract was removed from larvae and stomach contents were examined to better understand prey selection in streams with differing intensities of adjacent agricultural land-use. Invertebrates were enumerated in 34 salamander stomachs, with Chironomidae comprising the largest percentage of individuals found, both in stomach contents and habitat collections. Electivity values showed a wide range of variability among individual salamanders, however, overall indices suggest slight positive selection for a subfamily of the Chironomidae, the Tanypodinae. It appears that E.cirrigera larvae select for Tanypodinae, however, this invertebrate group was found at all stream sites, suggesting factors other than prey abundance, such as stream habitat quality, may also influence larval salamander abundance.

  4. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mangold, Atilio J; Castro, Oscar; De Souza, Carlos G; Félix, María L; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibánez, Sonia; Oteo, José A

    2012-01-01

    At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  5. Protist community composition during early phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, C.; Monchy, S.; Genitsaris, S.; Christaki, U.

    2014-10-01

    Microbial eukaryotic community composition was examined by 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, during the early phase of spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization, off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2 cruise). A total of 999 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), affiliated to 30 known high-level taxonomic groups, were retrieved from 16 samples collected in the upper 300 m water column. The alveolata group was the most abundant in terms of sequence number and diversity (696 OTUs). The majority of alveolata sequences were affiliated to Dinophyceae and to two major groups of marine alveolates (MALV-I and MALV-II). In the upper 180 m, only 13% of the OTUs were shared between of the fertilized stations and the reference site characterized by high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Fungi and Cercozoa were present in iron-fertilized waters, but almost absent in the HNLC samples, while Haptophyta and Chlorophyta characterized the HNLC sample. Finally, the 300 m depth samples of all stations were differentiated by the presence of MALV-II and Radiolaria. Multivariate analysis, examining the level of similarity between different samples, showed that protistan assemblages differed significantly between the HNLC and iron-fertilized stations, but also between the diverse iron-fertilized blooms.

  6. Protist community composition during early phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, C.; Monchy, S.; Genitsaris, S.; Christaki, U.

    2014-07-01

    Microbial eukaryotic community composition was examined by 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, during the early phase of spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization, off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2 cruise). A total of 999 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), affiliated to 30 known high-level taxonomic groups, were retrieved from 16 samples collected in the upper 300 m water column. The alveolata group was the most abundant in terms of sequence number and diversity (696 OTUs). The majority of alveolata sequences were affiliated to Dinophyceae and to two major groups of marine alveolates (MALV-I and MALV-II). In the upper 180 m, only 13% of the OTUs were shared between of the fertilized stations and the reference site characterized by high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Fungi and Cercozoa were present in iron-fertilized waters, but almost absent in the HNLC samples, while Haptophyta and Chlorophyta characterized the HNLC sample. Finally, the 300 m depth samples of all stations were differentiated by the presence of MALV-II and Radiolaria. Multivariate analysis, examining the level of similarity between different samples, showed that protistan assemblages differed significantly between the HNLC and iron-fertilized stations, but also between the diverse iron-fertilized blooms.

  7. A descriptive account of benthic macrofauna and sediment from an area of planned petroleum exploration in the southern Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, T. D.; Tait, R. D.; Maxon, C. L.; Newton, F. C., III; Hardin, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    As a precursor to petroleum exploration and potential development in the offshore southern Caspian Sea, sediment was collected from 42 stations (67-692 m water depths) and analyzed for grain size, total organic carbon, and species abundance, diversity, and biomass of benthic macrofauna. Sediment ranged from very fine sands to very fine silts, with moderately enriched organic carbon levels (avg. 2.3%). A significant positive correlation between finer grain size, organic carbon, and water depth was evident. The macrofauna was numerically dominated by annelid worms (44% of total organisms), crustaceans (37%), and molluscs (18%). Of 71 species identified, the greatest diversity was represented by two crustacean orders (22 amphipod species, 11 cumacean species), 14 gastropod mollusc species, and six oligochaete worm species. Except for annelids, all major taxa exhibited significant decline in abundance, species density, and biomass with increasing water depth. Low species dominance and abundance characterized deeper stations, indicating stressed habitat from hypoxia/anoxia at the sediment-water boundary. Petroleum exploration and development at slope depths greater than 150 m should have relatively little impact upon a macrofauna that is naturally impoverished due to oxygen deficiency. Shelf depths (<150 m) are not oxygen limited and support a more diverse macrofaunal community, which could be more vulnerable to discharged cuttings and adhered drilling muds, but able to recover more quickly than deeper biota.

  8. Kyanite eclogite xenolith from the orthogneiss terrane of the Tisza Megaunit, Jánoshalma area, crystalline basement of southern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachar, Judit; Tóth, Tivadar M.; Janák, Marian

    2007-12-01

    New evidence for high-pressure, eclogite facies metamorphism in the crystalline basement of the Tisza Megaunit (southern Hungary) is reported. The retrogressed mafic eclogite forms a small lens in the orthogneiss and it was found in the borehole near Jánoshalma. The carbonated eclogite contains the peak metamorphic assemblage omphacite + garnet + phengite + kyanite + clinozoizite + rutile + K-feldspar + quartz. Omphacite (Xjd 0.40-0.41Xdio 0.52-0.53Xhd 0.05Xaug 1.55-2.85) occurs in the matrix and as inclusions in garnet (Xpy 0.37-0.38Xgrs 0.21-0.22Xalm 0.39-0.40Xsps 0-0.01Xadr 0-0.01) and kyanite. Thermobarometry based on net-transfer reactions between garnet, omphacite, kyanite and phengite yields P- T conditions of 710 ± 10 °C and 2.6 ± 0.75 GPa. Retrogression during decompression is manifested by formation of symplectites; the most typical are diopside + plagioclase after omphacite, corundum + spinel + plagioclase after kyanite and biotite + plagioclase after phengite. Carbonatization along the veins of the retrogressed eclogite was probably coeval with formation of these symplectites. At places where carbonate is absent the rock was completely hydrated and retrogressed down to the greenschist facies with the development of actinolite. Similar eclogites together with abundant orthogneisses occur mainly in the eastern parts of the Tisza Megaunit, suggesting the existence of an ancient (possibly Variscan) subduction/accretionary complex.

  9. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino) to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels) in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%). The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes) smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10%) and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas encapsulated inside smoking areas

  10. Ground temperature regime and periglacial dynamics in three different sites from the summit area in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) from 2006 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Oliva, Marc; Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ground temperatures and its control on snow cover are crucial factors conditioning the activity of current periglacial processes in the highest lands of Sierra Nevada (Betique Range, Iberian Peninsula). We present summary results of the monitoring period from September 2006 to August 2012 in three sites with contrasting topography, aspect and snow cover. Temperatures loggers have recorded data at 2 hours time lapse at: a) Veleta glacial cirque, an environment with marginal permafrost and a small active rock glacier in it (3107 m asl), b) the flat summit plateau of Collado de los Machos (3297 m) characterized by the existence of inactive sorted circles with scarce snow cover, and c) the southern cirque of Rio Seco, an area with moderate snow cover and widespread solifluction lobes (3105 m). We discuss the periglacial activity in the three study sites in relation with ground temperatures. Results show evidence of the decisive control played by snow cover (duration and thickness) in the thermal regime of the ground (rhythm, depth and intensity of freezing). Only the site in the Veleta cirque has revealed the existence of permafrost, which is inexistent at the summit plateaus and southern cirques. The freezing and thawing of the ground depends substantially on the geographical characteristics of the sites, although a common pattern is detected: the thawing occurs more rapidly than the freezing and the number of freeze-thaw cycles in air temperatures is substantially higher than in ground temperatures.

  11. Integrated approach for demarcating subsurface pollution and saline water intrusion zones in SIPCOT area: a case study from Cuddalore in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.

  12. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Results of LACIE integrated drought analysis (Southern U.S. Great Plains drought 1975-76)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The development and intensification of the drought in the United States southern Great Plains was monitored during the initial growing period of the 1975-76 winter wheat crop. Because of the severity of the drought conditions, a drought analysis plan was developed and implemented beginning on March 8, 1976. Sample segments and full-frame imagery were used at 9-day intervals to identify the drought area and quantify the effects on the wheat acreage. Yield model simulations were run to extrapolate the effects of the drought on yield estimates at harvest, assuming 10 and 90 percent of normal rainfall for subsequent months and 30-day forecast. A survey of LANDSAT data for improvement of distribution of rainfall patterns in the drought area was done for April and yield models run for drought affected crop reporting districts. Special aggregations were performed by the Crop Assessment Subsystem on the drought area to evaluate the utility of remote sensing to monitor the effect of the drought on wheat area, yield, and production.

  13. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

  14. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    PubMed

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration.

  15. Particle-phase concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of rural residential areas in southern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Günter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2010-01-01

    An important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential areas, particularly in the winter season, is the burning process when wood is used for domestic heating. The target of this study was to investigate the particle-phase PAH composition of ambient samples in order to assess the influence of wood combustion on air quality in residential areas. PM10 samples (particulate matter <10 μm) were collected during two winter seasons at two rural residential areas near Stuttgart in Germany. Samples were extracted using toluene in an ultrasonic bath and subsequently analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Twenty-one PAH compounds were detected and quantified. The PAH fingerprints of different wood combustion emissions were found in significant amounts in ambient samples and high correlations between total PAHs and other wood smoke tracers were found, indicating the dominant influence of wood combustion on air quality in residential areas. Carcinogenic PAHs were detected in high concentrations and contributed 49% of the total PAHs in the ambient air. To assess the health risk, we investigated the exposure profile of individual PAHs. The findings suggest that attention should be focused on using the best combustion technology available to reduce emissions from wood-fired heating during the winter in residential areas. PMID:20495599

  16. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-05-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  17. Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) host selection patterns in three ecological areas of the coastal plains of Chiapas, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Loyola, E G; González-Cerón, L; Rodríguez, M H; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Bennett, S; Bown, D N

    1993-05-01

    The host-feeding patterns of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann were described and the effect of host availability on these patterns was assessed in three different ecological areas of coastal Chiapas, Mexico. Resting mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors during rainy seasons. A 20% sample of blood-fed mosquitoes was tested to determine the source of the blood meal using an ELISA. The unweighted human blood index (HBI) of An. albimanus in the three areas ranged from 0.11 to 0.21. This mosquito species fed more frequently on bovines than on any other host, but the forage ratio indicated that there was also a high preference for equines. Some females tended to rest or complete their gonotrophic cycle indoors after feeding on animals, but females also fed on man and rested outdoors. Host availability and ecological conditions appeared to be responsible for differences observed in the HBI among areas.

  18. Evaluation of emission rates and observation of natural sources of nitrogen oxides in acid rain area of southern China

    SciTech Connect

    Miao-Qin Lu; Yu-Bao Wang

    1996-12-31

    The present paper reports the observation results of natural sources of NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2} in the area of Fujien province, southeast of China, where acidic rain occurs at relatively high frequency. The emission rates of NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2} in paddy field and dry farmland in Xiamen, Jimei district, Tongan and Guoan counties were measured in this investigation. The measurement results shows that the emission rates of nitrogen oxides from paddy field are higher than that from dry farmland. The emission rate of NO{sub 2} was the highest among the three nitrogen oxides. But no more difference between NO and N{sub 2}O. It should be noted that the emission rates of nitrogen oxides from paddy field in Jimei area are obviously higher than that in Tongan. The main reason for this difference resulted from the different types of soils between those two areas.

  19. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae) from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perera-Garcia, Martha A; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido; Ferrara, Allyse; Huerta-Ortiz, Maricela; Hernández-Gómez, Raúl E

    2013-06-01

    Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro) and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos) commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt = 109.21(1-e-0.2(t+0.57)) for Barra Bosque, FLt = 94.56(1-e-027(t+0.485)) for Barra San Pedro, FLt = 97.15(1-e 0.17(t + 1.32)) for San Pedro and FLt = 83.77(1-e-026(t + 0.49)) for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling's T2, p < 0.05) test growth was significantly greater for females than for males. Based on the Chen test, von Bertalanffy growth curves were different among the study sites (RSS, p < 0.05). Based on the observed differences in growth parameters among sampling sites (coastal and riverine environments) future research need to be conducted on migration and population genetics, in order to delineate the stock structure of this population and support management programs.

  20. Abundance and prevalence of Aedes aegypti immatures and relationships with household water storage in rural areas in southern Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Anh P; Clements, Archie C A; Jeffery, Jason A L; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Nam, Vu Sinh; Vaughan, Gregory; Shinkfield, Ramon; Kutcher, Simon C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Since 2000, the Government of Viet Nam has committed to provide rural communities with increased access to safe water through a variety of household water supply schemes (wells, ferrocement tanks and jars) and piped water schemes. One possible, unintended consequence of these schemes is the concomitant increase in water containers that may serve as habitats for dengue mosquito immatures, principally Aedes aegypti. To assess these possible impacts we undertook detailed household surveys of Ae. aegypti immatures, water storage containers and various socioeconomic factors in three rural communes in southern Viet Nam. Positive relationships between the numbers of household water storage containers and the prevalence and abundance of Ae. aegypti immatures were found. Overall, water storage containers accounted for 92-97% and 93-96% of the standing crops of III/IV instars and pupae, respectively. Interestingly, households with higher socioeconomic levels had significantly higher numbers of water storage containers and therefore greater risk of Ae. aegypti infestation. Even after provision of piped water to houses, householders continued to store water in containers and there was no observed decrease in water storage container abundance in these houses, compared to those that relied entirely on stored water. These findings highlight the householders' concerns about the limited availability of water and their strong behavoural patterns associated with storage of water. We conclude that household water storage container availability is a major risk factor for infestation with Ae. aegypti immatures, and that recent investment in rural water supply infrastructure are unlikely to mitigate this risk, at least in the short term.

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in the muscle, liver and brain of seabirds (Larus) from the coastal area of the Southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Falkowska, Lucyna; Reindl, Andrzej R; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita U

    2016-11-01

    The presence of persistent organic pollutants in the environment manifests itself most strongly in the marine trophic chain, where the highest link is comprised of seabirds. At the same time, seabirds are excellent indicators of contamination in their habitat. The present study concentrates on toxic substances: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and chlorinated organic pesticides (OCPs) accumulated in the livers, pectoral muscles and brains of dead gulls collected along the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea in the years 2010-12. The highest toxic equivalence was determined in the livers of Larus argentatus (TEQ(birds TEF)-28.3pgg(-1) ww) and Larus marinus (TEQ(birds TEF)-29.9pgg(-1) ww.). However, the toxic equivalence of muscles was lower and amounted to 3.9pgg(-1) ww. and 7.8pgg(-1) ww. respectively for the two species. The lowest toxic equivalence was found in the brains of birds, where only one, the most toxic, 2,3,7,8 TCDD congener was found (TEQ(birds TEF) 0.87pgg(-1) ww). The highest concentration of chloroorganic pesticides was determined in the brains of the birds (total OCP 167.8pgg(-1) ww.), lower concentrations were found in the livers (total OCP 92.1pgg(-1) ww.) and muscles (total OCP 43.1pgg(-1) ww.). With regard to pesticides, the highest proportion in the total OCP content was constituted by DDT and its isomers (liver 81%, muscles 77% and brain 55%). High concentrations of the studied pollutants in the livers of gulls found dead on the coast of the Southern Baltic could have been effected by levels of contamination in the birds' last meals, which resulted in a seven-fold increase of the liver's toxic equivalence and a two-fold increase in OCP concentration in relation to muscles.

  2. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics in the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area, northern Bexar County, Texas, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Allan K.; Morris, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    The area designated by the city of San Antonio as the Rancho Diana Natural Area is in northern Bexar County, near San Antonio, Texas. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of San Antonio, documented the geologic framework and mapped the hydrogeologic characteristics for the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area. The geologic framework of the study area and its hydrogeologic characteristics were documented using field observations and information from previously published reports. Many of the geologic and hydrogeologic features were found by making field observations through the dense vegetation along gridlines spaced approximately 25 feet apart and documenting the features as they were located. Surface geologic features were identified and hydrogeologic features such as caves, sinkholes, and areas of solutionally enlarged porosity were located using hand-held Global Positioning System units. The location data were used to create a map of the hydrogeologic subdivisions and the location of karst features. The outcrops of the Edwards and Trinity aquifer recharge zones were mapped by using hydrogeologic subdivisions modified from previous reports. All rocks exposed within the study area are of sedimentary origin and Lower Cretaceous in age. The valley floor is formed in the cavernous member of the upper Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group. The hills are composed of the basal nodular member, dolomitic member, Kirschberg evaporite member, and grainstone member of the Kainer Formation of the Edwards Group. Field observations made during this study of the exposed formations and members indicate that the formations and members typically are composed of mudstones, wackestones, packstones, grainstones, and argillaceous limestones, along with marls. The upper Glen Rose Limestone is approximately 410 to 450 feet thick but only the upper 70 feet is exposed in the study area. The Kainer Formation is approximately 255 feet thick in

  3. Prevalence and acceptance of tattoos and piercings: a survey of young adults from the southern German-speaking area of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Kastner, Cornelia K; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and acceptance of body piercings and tattoos among a community sample from the southern German-speaking area of Central Europe. A total of 440 respondents completed information about their own body piercings and tattoos and reported whether they would be likely never to have piercings and tattoos in the future. Analyses indicated that 19.8 and 15.2% of respondents had piercings (excluding the earlobe) and tattoos, respectively. Women were more likely to have body piercings than men, but there were no sex differences in tattooing. There were also few sociodemographic differences in piercings and tattoos, and most participants reported being likely to consider body art in the future. These results are considered in relation to prevalence estimates of body art in other Western countries and the associated health risks.

  4. Incorporating genetic sampling in long-term monitoring and adaptive management in the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, Amy G.

    2017-06-02

    Habitat and species conservation plans usually rely on monitoring to assess progress towards conservation goals. Southern California, USA, is a hotspot of biodiversity and home to many federally endangered and threatened species. Here, several regional multi-species conservation plans have been implemented to balance development and conservation goals, including in San Diego County. In the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area (MSPA), a monitoring framework for the preserve system has been developed with a focus on species monitoring, vegetation monitoring, threats monitoring and abiotic monitoring. Genetic sampling over time (genetic monitoring) has proven useful in gathering species presence and abundance data and detecting population trends, particularly related to species and threats monitoring objectives. This report reviews genetic concepts and techniques of genetics that relate to monitoring goals and outlines components of a genetic monitoring scheme that could be applied in San Diego or in other monitoring frameworks throughout the Nation.

  5. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1997-06-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  6. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  7. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics.

  8. Mitigating "Milliken"? School District Boundary Lines and Desegregation Policy in Four Southern Metropolitan Areas, 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Over the past half century, law and policy have helped cement tremendous inequities into the structure of our cities. District boundary lines separating multiple, unequal school systems within a single metropolitan (metro) area play a central role in structuring racial and economic isolation. Using data from the National Center for Education…

  9. Mitigating "Milliken"? School District Boundary Lines and Desegregation Policy in Four Southern Metropolitan Areas, 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Over the past half century, law and policy have helped cement tremendous inequities into the structure of our cities. District boundary lines separating multiple, unequal school systems within a single metropolitan (metro) area play a central role in structuring racial and economic isolation. Using data from the National Center for Education…

  10. Geochemical studies in the Indian Pass and Picacho Peak Bureau of Land Management Wilderness study areas, imperial county, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Berger, B.R.; Tosdal, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has conducted geochemical studies in the Indian Pass (CDCA-355), 124 km2, and Picacho Peak (CDCA-355A), 23 km2, Wilderness Study Areas (WSA's) as part of a program to evaluate the mineral resource potential of designated areas in the California Desert Conservation Area. These two WSA's are of particular interest because they lie within a region which has intermittently produced significant quantities of Au since the mid-1800's, and is currently the site of much exploration activity for additional Au resources. Within a 15-km radius of the WSA's, there is one actively producing gold mine, a major deposit which began production in 1986, and one recently announced discovery. In the reconnaissance geochemical surveys of the two WSA's - 177 ??m (-80 mesh) stream sediments, heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediments, and rocks were prepared and analyzed. Four areas of possible exploration interest were identified within the WSA's. The first area is characterized by anomalous W and Bi in nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrates, and is underlain primarily by the Mesozoic Orocopia Schist which has been intruded by monzogranite of Oligocene age. Alteration and mineralization appear to be localized near the intrusive contact. The mineralized rock at the surface contains secondary Cu and Fe minerals where the monzogranite intrudes the metabasite horizons of the Orocopia Schist and scheelite where the monzogranite intrudes marble within the Orocopia Schist. The second area is characterized by anomalous As, Sb, Ba, B, and Sr in nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrates and by anomalous As in - 177 ??m stream sediments. Geologically, this area is underlain by metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of Jurassic(?) age; a biotite monzogranite of Jurassic(?) age; and Tertiary volcanic and hypabyssal rocks composed of flows, domes, and tuffs of intermediate to silicic composition. All these rock types are cut by a set of north-south-striking normal faults

  11. Nitrogen cycling in the Southern Ocean Kerguelen Plateau area: evidence for significant surface nitrification from nitrate isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehairs, F.; Fripiat, F.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Trull, T. W.; Fernandez, C.; Davies, D.; Roukaerts, A.; Fonseca Batista, D.; Planchon, F.; Elskens, M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents whole water column data for nitrate N, O isotopic composition for the Kerguelen Plateau area and the basin extending east of Heard Island, aiming at understanding the N-cycling in this naturally iron fertilized area that is characterized by large re-current phytoplankton blooms. The KEOPS 2 expedition (October-November 2011) took place in spring season and complements knowledge gathered during an earlier summer expedition to the same area (KEOPS 1, February-March 2005). As noted by others a remarkable condition of the system is the moderate consumption of nitrate over the season (nitrate remains >20 μM) while silicic acid becomes depleted, suggesting significant recycling of nitrogen. Nitrate isotopic signatures in the upper water column do mimic this condition, with surprising overlap of spring and summer regressions of δ18ONO3 vs. δ15NNO3 isotopic compositions. These regressions obey rather closely the 18ϵ/15ϵ discrimination expected for nitrate uptake (18ϵ/15ϵ = 1), but regression slopes as large as 1.6 were observed for the mixed layer above the Kerguelen Plateau. A preliminarily mass balance calculation for the early bloom period points toward significant nitrification occurring in the mixed layer and which may be equivalent to up to 47% of nitrate uptake above the Kerguelen Plateau. A further finding concerns deep ocean low δ18ONO3 values (<2‰) underlying high chlorophyll waters at the Polar Front Zone and which cannot be explained by remineralization and nitrification of the local particulate nitrogen flux, which is too small in magnitude. However, the studied area is characterized by a complex recirculation pattern that would keep deep waters in the area and could impose a seasonally integrated signature of surface water processes on the deep waters.

  12. Nitrogen cycling in the Southern Ocean Kerguelen Plateau area: evidence for significant surface nitrification from nitrate isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehairs, F.; Fripiat, F.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Trull, T. W.; Fernandez, C.; Davies, D.; Roukaerts, A.; Fonseca Batista, D.; Planchon, F.; Elskens, M.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents whole water column data for nitrate N, O isotopic composition for the Kerguelen Plateau area and the basin extending east of the island, aiming at understanding the N-cycling in this naturally iron fertilized area that is characterized by large re-current phytoplankton blooms. The KEOPS 2 expedition (October-November 2011) took place in spring season and complements knowledge gathered during an earlier summer expedition to the same area (KEOPS 1, February-March 2005). As noted by others a remarkable condition of the system is the moderate consumption of nitrate over the season (nitrate remains > 20 μM) while silicic acid becomes depleted, suggesting significant recycling of nitrogen. Nitrate isotopic signatures in the upper water column do mimic this condition, with surprising overlap of spring and summer regressions of δ18ONO3 vs. δ15NNO3 isotopic compositions. These regressions obey rather closely the 18ϵ/15ϵ discrimination expected for nitrate uptake (18ϵ/15ϵ = 1), but regression slopes as large as 1.6 were observed for the mixed layer above the Kerguelen Plateau. A preliminary mass balance calculation for the early bloom period points toward significant nitrification occurring in the mixed layer and which could account for up to 80 % of nitrate uptake above the Kerguelen Plateau. A further finding concerns deep ocean low δ18ONO3 values (< 2‰) underlying high chlorophyll waters at the Polar Front Zone and which cannot be explained by remineralisation and nitrification of the local particulate nitrogen flux, which is too small in magnitude. However, the studied area is characterised by a complex recirculation pattern that would keep deep waters in the area and could impose a seasonally integrated signature of surface water processes on the deep waters.

  13. A Wrench fault system and nappe emplacement in Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania.- A key area for Pan-African continental collision in East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauernhofer, A.; Wallbrecher, E.; Hauzenberger, C.; Fritz, H.; Loizenbauer, J.; Hoinkes, G.; Muhongo, S.; Mathu, E.

    2003-04-01

    In the Voi Area of Southern Kenya, the granulite facies rocks of the Taita Hills and the Tsavo East National Park (Galana River) can be divided into three structural domains: The Galana-East unit consists of an intercalation of flat lying metapelites and marbles of continental margin origin. These metasediments can be traced further east to the Umba Steppe (Between Mombasa and Tanga). Galana-West consists of a N-S oriented wrench fault zone with vertical foliation planes and horizontal stretching lineation. Numerous shear sense indicators always show sinistral shear sense. Amphibolites of MORB affinity are involved in this wrench fault zone. To the west, this zone is bordered by calc-alkaline metatonalites of the Sagala Hills. The westernmost unit consists of the Taita Hills. They form an imbricated pile of southwestward thrusted nappe sheets containing metapelites, marbles, and ultramafics. The Taita Hills may be explained as part of an accretionary wedge. Southwestward nappe thrusting is also the prominent structure in the Pare and Usambara Mountains of Northern Tanzania. The following model may may explain these observations: The Southern Kenya -- Northern Tanzania section of the Mozambique Belt is the result of continental collision tectonics. Remnants of an island arc and of an accretionary wedge that occur at least in the Voi area may be part of a former subduction zone. An oceanic domain between an eastern passive continental margin and a western terrane, now represented by the Tanzanian granulite belt has been closed incorporating island arc and accretionary wedge material. Oblique convergence of two continental blocks is suggested from wrench tectonics. The age of convergent tectonics is 530 -- 580 Ma, dated by Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock analysis. This is interpreted as the age of peak metamorphism.

  14. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present.

  15. Heavy Metals Concentrations in top Soils of Urban Areas (Naples - Southern Italy) as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Origin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.

    2001-12-01

    Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In Italy this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km

  16. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Murcia Region, a southern European Mediterranean area with low cardiovascular risk and high obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain) registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Both low (94/80) and high (102/88) waist circumference (WC) thresholds were considered. Results Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2), 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3) and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3) according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII) or 60.3% (JIS94/80) among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80). The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6%) and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively). Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese). Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Conclusions Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be reinforced. PMID

  17. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Murcia Region, a southern European Mediterranean area with low cardiovascular risk and high obesity.

    PubMed

    Gavrila, Diana; Salmerón, Diego; Egea-Caparrós, José-Manuel; Huerta, José M; Pérez-Martínez, Alfonso; Navarro, Carmen; Tormo, María-José

    2011-07-14

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain) registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Both low (94/80) and high (102/88) waist circumference (WC) thresholds were considered. Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2), 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3) and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3) according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII) or 60.3% (JIS94/80) among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80). The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6%) and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively). Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese). Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be reinforced.

  18. High genetic diversity in the Culex pipiens complex from a West Nile Virus epidemic area in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Simonato, Mauro; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Cavaletto, Giacomo; Santoiemma, Giacomo; Saltarin, Andrea; Mazzon, Luca

    2016-03-15

    The Culex pipiens complex includes the most widespread mosquito species in the world. Cx. pipiens is the primary vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and North America. Cases of WNV have been recorded in Italy since 1998. In particular, wet areas along the Po River are considered some of the most WNV affected areas in Italy. Here, we analyzed the genetic structure of ten Cx. pipiens populations collected in the last part of the Po River including the Delta area. We assessed the genetic variability of two mitochondrial markers, cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and 2 (COII), for a total of 1200 bp, and one nuclear marker, a fragment of acetylcholinesterase-2 (ace-2), 502 bp long. The effect of the landscape features was evaluated comparing haplotype and nucleotide diversity with the landscape composition. The analysis showed a high genetic diversity in both COI and COII gene fragments mainly shared by the populations in the Delta area. The COI-COII network showed that the set of haplotypes found was grouped into three main supported lineages with the higher genetic variability gathered in two of the three lineages. By contrast, ace-2 fragment did not show the same differentiation, displaying alleles grouped in a single clade. Finally, a positive correlation between mitochondrial diversity and natural wetland areas was found. The high mitochondrial genetic diversity found in Cx. pipiens populations from the Po River Delta contrasts with the low variability of inland populations. The different patterns of genetic diversity found comparing mitochondrial and nuclear markers could be explained by factors such as differences in effective population size between markers, sex biased dispersal or lower fitness of dispersing females. Moreover, the correlation between genetic diversity and wetland areas is consistent with ecosystem stability and lack of insecticide pressure characteristic of this habitat. The mtDNA polymorphism found in the Po River Delta is even more

  19. Estimated subsidence in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas in Southern California for a postulated water-level lowering, 1965-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, Ben Elder

    1971-01-01

    One of the alternate plans for water utilization being considered by the California Department of Water Resources in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas in southern California involves partial mining of ground water during the period 1965-2015, and consequent substantial lowering of water levels. The Department wants to know whether land subsidence would be a problem as a result of the postulated lowering. To answer this question, to the extent that leveling control permits, the present study has been made at the request of and in cooperation with the State of California.At a few locations in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas, comparable water-level decline and subsidence data are available from which rough estimates can be made of subsidence that would occur as a result of the postulated lowering from 1965 to 2015. Limited leveling control, and apparent discrepancies in the data, preclude accurate determination of amounts of subsidence caused by historic water-level decline.Based on 1965-2015 water-level changes postulated by the California Department of Water Resources and on available subsidence/head decline ratios, as much as 6 feet of subsidence might occur northeast of the San Jacinto fault between Loma Linda and San Bernardino, in an area of more than 350 feet of projected water-level decline. Also, as much as 1.5 feet of subsidence might occur in the vicinity of Ontario.

  20. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area.

    PubMed

    van Walraven, Lodewijk; Driessen, Floor; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Bol, Anneke; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C; Coolen, Joop W P; Bos, Oscar G; Gittenberger, Adriaan; Schrieken, Niels; Langenberg, Victor T; van der Veer, Henk W

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten inshore locations in the Netherlands, seven offshore locations in the North Sea and in the Gullmar Fjord in Sweden. Polyps were identified to species level by sequencing both a fragment of 18S rDNA and a fragment of mitochondrial COI, and comparing these sequences to reference sequences available in GenBank and to newly obtained sequences from medusae collected in the area. All polyps sequenced did belong to Aurelia aurita. For this species, molecular diversity in mitochondrial COI was high, with 50 haplotypes among 183 polyps. Population differentiation was detected between the Dogger Bank and other-more coastal-locations, indicating extremely low connectivity. No significant differences were found between coastal samples. The location of polyps of Cyanea capillata, Cyanea lamarckii, Chrysaora hysoscella and Rhizostoma octopus in the study area remains unresolved.

  1. Native Larvivorous Fish in an Endemic Malarious Area of Southern Iran, a Biological Alternative Factor for Chemical Larvicides in Malaria Control Program

    PubMed Central

    SHAHI, Mehran; KAMRANI, Ehsan; SALEHI, Mehrdad; HABIBI, Reza; HANAFI-BOJD, Ahmad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The widespread use of chemical insecticides, resistance in vectors and environmental problems, all have led to an increased interest in the use of biological agents in malaria control programs. The most important functional elements are the native fish. The aim of this study was to identify the native species of lavivorous fish in Rudan County, southern Iran, to introduce an effective species and to propose its’ implementation in the national malaria control program. Methods: This ecologically descriptive study was conducted during 2011–2012 using random sampling from different fish habitats of Rudan County. The shoals of fish were caught using fishing net. Fish samples were then identified in the Ichthyology lab, Department of Fisheries and the Environment, Hormozgan University. Results: Three species of larvivorous fish were identified as follows: Gambusia holbrooki, Aphaniusdispar dispar and Aphanius sp. The latter species has the most distribution in the study area and needs more morphological and molecular studies for identification at the species level. Conclusion: Two species of native fish, i.e., A. dispar and A. sp. with larvivorous potential live in the area. Further studies on their predatory property are recommended in order to apply this local potential against malaria vectors in the area. PMID:26744713

  2. Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

    1978-01-01

    The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

  3. Sero-prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bulls originated from Borena pastoral area of Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Leta, Samson; Hailu, Berhanu

    2015-06-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious cattle disease, which is widespread in pastoral areas of Africa, and it imposes a major problem on Ethiopian livestock export market. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on bulls originated from Borena pastoral area to determine seroprevalence of CBPP. Forty batches of bulls containing 38,187 Borana bulls were tested using c-ELISA. Of the total 40 batches tested for the presence of antibodies, 25 (62.5 %) of them contained at least one seropositive bull. From the total of 38,187 bulls tested, 150 (0.4 %) bulls were positive. The number of seropositive animals increases as the herd size increases (P < 0.05). Both at herd and individual level, the highest CBPP prevalence was recorded in herd size >1000, and the difference was found statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was statistically significant (χ (2) = 23.73, df = 9, P = 0.005) difference of CBPP prevalence between months of the year. The present low prevalence of CBPP in the cattle feedlots indicates that the disease is decreasing progressively in Borena pastoral area, this might be associated with the ongoing mass vaccination campaign against economically important livestock diseases in pastoral areas. The decrease in the prevalence of CBPP offered a great opportunity to livestock producers and live animal and meat exporters by improving the demand of Ethiopian livestock on international market. Regular reintroduction of infected cattle from neighboring countries or herds where the disease remains endemic may change the disease dynamics again. Therefore, mass blanket vaccinations coupled with prompt diagnosis, isolation and stamping out of the outbreaks, intensive surveillance, followed by strict cattle movement control should be implemented by concerned parties.

  4. Equal dependence of the high prevalence of health problems on age and family income in rural southern areas.

    PubMed

    Glenn, L L; Burkett, G L

    1999-10-01

    People who have periods of low family income are at risk for increased health problems in the future, even if they present a similar clinical picture before the reduction in family income. The association between low income and health status was studied in residents of an area with relatively low-average family income and with a historically unstable economy. We surveyed a stratified, clustered sample of residents of Johnson County, Tennessee, using a structured interview. The responses were analyzed in conjunction with national and regional data (National Health Interview Survey). Residents of the geographic area under study had a markedly higher prevalence of self-reported health problems than either the national average or rural areas in the southeast United States. The higher prevalence was accounted for by the combination of age and family income, which had equal effects on health status, but not by age differences alone. Family income and economic development are critically important to improving community health. Sensible capitation rates in managed care arrangements can be obtained only if the income distribution of an insured population is considered along with their age, sex, and physical health status.

  5. Structure and tectonic evolution of the Tornquist Zone and adjacent sedimentary basins in Scania and the southern Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlström, M.; Thomas, S. A.; Deeks, N.; Sivhed, U.

    1997-04-01

    Southernmost Sweden, Bornholm and the surrounding Baltic Sea region are located on a large-scale releasing bend in the dextral strike-slip system of the Tornquist Zone, with its resulting pull-apart basins. The well constrained geology of Scania and Bornholm has been combined with detailed on- and offshore borehole data and three proprietary marine seismic surveys. This in conjunction with supplementary BABEL deep seismic reflection findings allows a combined 3D interpretation of sediment/structure interactions. As a result, a regional interpretation has emerged which gives a new understanding of the interplay between structural movement on a complex strike-slip fault system (Tornquist Zone) and its intrazonal depressions (Vomb Trough and Colonus Shale Trough) as well as the sedimentation history of associated areas of sediment accumulation (Rønne and Arnager Grabens, Höllviken Halfgraben, Hanö Bay Basin and Skurup Platform). Detailed sequential litho- and seismo-stratigraphic descriptions have been possible by combination of the various data sets. This resulted in the clarification or recognition of previously unknown structural limits to sub-basins and highs in the study area. A 3D chronological (4D) model for the development of the region is proposed. This model takes into account the long-lived structural history combining elements of strike-slip, extension and inversion tectonics. The deep-seated faulting controlling these structures is integrated with the deep structure as revealed by the BABEL line in this area.

  6. Geologic and geochemical study of tin-bearing rhyolites in the Broken Ridge area, southern Wah Wah Mountains, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Duttweiler, K.A.; Griffitts, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to document the geologic, petrologic, and geochemical relationships of the tin-bearing rhyolitic lava flows and domes of the 12-m.y.-old Steamboat Mountain Formation of Thompson and Perry in the area of Broken Ridge. Early phases of volcanic activity produced a crystal-rich, topaz-bearing rhyolite flow followed by eruption of a crystal-poor rhyolite from many local centers. These geochemical characteristics are typical of other topaz-bearing rhyolites in the western United States and suggest that such rhyolites formed as highly differentiated magmas. The 23-m.y.-old Bible Spring fault zone was reactivated after emplacement of the rhyolite flows that resulted in a series of high-angle normal faults. Multiple hydrothermal events resulted in widespread alteration along the faults and concentration of Be, F, Sn, Nb, Mo, Cu, Zn, W, and Ba. Alteration types include silicification, argillization, and alunitization. Crystalline cassiterite and wood tin are widespread and locally abundant in heavy-mineral-concentrate samples from the Broken Ridge area. The only visible cassiterite in the rocks occurs with specular hematite in veins within the silicified topaz-bearing rhyolite, immediately adjacent to a vent breccia. Trace element anomalies of Sn, Mo, Nb, and Be in rock samples well-define the vein area. The combined geologic, geochemical, and structural data suggest that an intrusive may be at depth directly beneath Broken Ridge.

  7. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  8. Hydrogeological aspects and environmental concerns of the New Valley Project, Western Desert, Egypt, with special emphasis on the southern area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaad, Fakhry A.

    1988-12-01

    The New Valley Project has been given much attention in the past 20 years especially from the hydrogeological point of view concerning groundwater utilization for the reclamation of a large area of the Western Desert. Lithological, petrophysical, and petrographical studies were conducted on four wells south of Beris Oasis, namely Beris 20, Beris 15, Beris 14, and Beris 13, and are defined by latitudes 24°25'E and 24°35'E and longitudes 30°30'N and 30°46'N. The Nubian sedimentation is of Posttectonic deposition that took place over the uplifted Precambrian granitic basement and is Lower Cretaceous, whereas the upper most variegated shales of the cap rock are Upper Cretaceous. The Nubian sandstones in the area south of Beris Oasis contain hematitic stains and/or fine granular authigenic hematite, thin laminae of brown ferruginous quartzite is also recorded denoting oxidizing conditions in the basin of deposition. Thin streaks of carbonaceous shales are met with in different depths to the south of Beris area, may be taken to denote oscillations in the sea level and accordingly its depths, and are responsible for the change in the oxidation-reduction potential during the deposition of the corresponding beds. Lithologic logs were interpreted together with the electric and micro-logs for adjustment of the shale breaks and showed that there are five water-bearing zones, named from bottom to top: A, B, C, D, and E, and are mainly unfossiliferous orthoquartzites, separated from each other by impervious beds of siltstones, shales, and clays of varying thicknesses. This zoning had been found valid in other parts of the Kharga Oases and could be applied locally in the Kharga Oases area. Mechanical analysis was performed mainly on 39 samples, of which 18 were core samples and 21 were cuttings, that were raised from four wells dug in the area south of Beris Oasis, Kharga Oases. Porosity and permeability tests were carried out on the 18 core samples only. The implication of

  9. Integrated geophysical studies on the area east of Abu Gharadig basin, southern Cairo, Egypt, using potential field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Awady, Mohammed Mohamed; El-Badrawy, Hussein Tawfek; Abuo El-Ela, Amin Mohamed; Solimaan, Mohamed Refaat; Alrefaee, Hamed Abdelhamid; Elbowab, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Potential field data of the area east of Abu Gharadig basin were used to delineate the tectonic framework of probable economic interest and for future development plans for the area. To achieve this goal, the RTP and Bouguer gravity maps of the study area were subjected to several filtering and processing techniques. The regional magnetic map shows NE-SW high regional magnetic trends at the northwestern and southeastern parts as well as low magnetic trends at the central part reflecting thick non-magnetized sediments and/or deep highly magnetized basement rocks. Similarly, the regional gravity map shows NE-SW diagonal high and low gravity trends across the entire area of study as well as a distinct increase of gravity values toward the northwest corner reflecting thickening of sedimentary cover and/or deepening of denser basement rock at the central part. The residual maps reveal many anomalies of shallow sources with different polarities, amplitudes and extensions in the form of alternating high and low gravity and magnetic indicating that the basement rocks are dissected by faults forming uplifted and downthrown blocks. Edge detection techniques outlined effectively the boarders and extensions of the structural highs and lows through showing gravity and magnetic maxima over the edges of these tectonic features. Moreover, the River Nile course is controlled by shallow normal faults affecting the recent Nile sediments and is clearly shown by edge detection maps of gravity data. Euler deconvolution of magnetic and gravity data reveals clustering of solution along fault trends or causative bodies centers. The Euler depth estimate to the basement surface shows a good correlation with the depth determined by the power spectrum method where its value ranges around 4 km. The interpreted basement tectonic map of the study area is dominated by ENE-WSW Syrian Arc, NW-SE Gulf of Suez and Red Sea, NE-SW Aqaba, E-W Mediterranean and N-S East Africa tectonic trends. The older

  10. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, G M; Droste, A

    2012-11-01

    The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  11. Implementation of magnetic, gravity and resistivity data in identifying groundwater occurrences in El Qaa Plain area, Southern Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, El Sayed; Abdel-Raouf, Osama; Mesalam, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    El Qaa plain is one of the areas that have been proved to be promising as to its soil and groundwater resources in the southwestern part of Sinai. This study was carried out to study the lateral and vertical variations in the subsurface lithologic properties in El Qaa plain area and delineating the subsurface structure that affecting El Qaa plain depression. Gravity, magnetic data, fifty-one (51) vertical electrical sounding (Ves's) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map were used. Two-dimensional density modeling, analytical signal, tilt derivatives, Euler deconvolution techniques and interpretation of the resistivity data were applied on potential data. This study concluded that, El Qaa plain is a NE-SW depression confined by two normal faults and subdivided into five sedimentary units. Rock fragments and boulders derived to the plain from the surrounding highlands are the main components of the first surface unit that characterized by high resistivity values. This layer is overly another unit composed of gravelly sand with thickness ranging between 10 and 140 m. The third unit is composed mainly of sand with intercalations of clay with thickness ranging from 2 to 152 m. A Reefal limestone unit is a fourth unit interpreted from this study. The fifth unit is composed of clay. The water bearing formations in El Qaa Plain area are located principally in the second and the third layers. Finally, the depth to the basement surface ranges from 400 m to more than 1.5 km below sea level. Also, there are many minor structural trends interpreted from this study and affecting the El Qaa plain are striking in N-S, E-W and NE-SW directions.

  12. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, J.; Plasencia, A.; Oros, M.; Borrell, C.; Kraus, J.

    2000-01-01

    Background—In Spain, a federal road safety law went into effect in the fall of 1992 extending to urban areas the unrestricted use of safety helmets by all two wheel motor vehicle occupants. Objectives—To assess the effect of the law in reducing fatal motorcycle crash injuries; to estimate the number of lives saved; and to determine changes in the distribution of severity and anatomical location of injuries. Methods—Pre-test/post-test design of all deaths of two wheel motor vehicle occupants from 1990–92 (pre-law period) and from 1993–95 (post-law period) detected by the Barcelona Forensic Institute and the city police department. Injuries were coded using the 1990 version of the abbreviated injury scale. Poisson regression methods were used to model trends in mortality ratios and to provide estimates of the number of lives saved. Results—Between 1993 and 1995, 35 lives of two wheel motor vehicle occupants were spared, representing a decrease of 25% in the observed motorcycle crash mortality in the post-law period when compared with what would be expected if no such law had gone into effect. The proportion of deaths with severe head injuries was also reduced from 76% to 67% in the post-law period. Conclusions—This study offers the first evaluation of a helmet law using combined forensic and police data in a large south European urban area where there is widespread use of motorcycles. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the helmet law, as measured by the reduction in the number of deaths and mortality ratios after the law implementation. The findings reinforce the public health benefits of mandatory non-restricted motorcycle and moped helmet use, even in urban areas with lower traffic speeds. PMID:11003182

  13. Soil resources and potential for agricultural development in Bahr El Jebel in southern Sudan, Jonglei Canal project area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Moore, D. G.; Abdel-Hady, M. A.; Abdel-Samie, A. G.; Elshazly, E. M. (Principal Investigator); Youvis, H.; Worcester, B. K.; Klingebiel, A. A.; Elshazly, M. M.; Hamad, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Fourteen LANDSAT scenes were used to produce mosaics of the 167, 474 sq km study area. These were black and white MSS 7 images and false color composite images. Five major soil-landscape units were delineated on the mosaics, and these were subdivided into a total of 40 soil mapping units. Aerial reconnaissance was useful in defining boundaries between mapping units and in estimating the proportion of the various soils which composed each mapping unit. Ground surveying permitted first-hand observation of major soils and sampling for quantitative laboratory analysis. Soil interpretations were made, including properties, potentials, and limitations.

  14. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-11-26

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.

  15. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  16. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to <1 mg/L, SO4 increased from 162 to 314 mg/L, dissolved Fe increased from to 0.011 to 0.596 mg/L, and dissolved Zn increased from 0.056 to 0.607 mg/L. Compared to mine drainage in the same study areas, the chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to

  17. Monitoring of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the subarctic and in alpine areas of southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David C.; Jónsson, Ingi R.; Cypaité, Vaiva; Ognjanova, Nadja; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Trichkova, Teodora

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades invasive species have been spreading across Europe. Although the perceptions of invasive species are divergent among researchers there is a general consent that invasive species endanger the diversity of native biota and hence should be monitored to initiate appropriate counter measures in drastic cases. Anthropogenic activities and climate change are the main cause for the enhanced spreading of non-native species to new environments. In this presentation we will present preliminary results from two aquatic case studies, one located in subarctic Iceland (River Elliðaár) and one in the high mountains of Bulgaria (the Seven Rila lakes), focusing on the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo). The diatom is a single cell algae which's natural habitat is cold fresh water environments with low nutrient content, i.e. mountainous areas in Europe, Asia and North America. In the last decades Didymo has been increasingly observed in new areas, e.g. Iceland, North America and New Zealand. Within the ESENIAS-TOOLS project two field excursions will identify the existence of Didymo in the two study sites and compare current abundance to previous observations. The preliminary results in the Rila Mountains, including both fossil and recent records, confirm that the occurrence of Didymo is restricted to Lake Bliznaka, the largest of the seven lakes located at lower altitude. In River Elliðaár preliminary results indicate a high abundance of Didymo along all sampling locations, confirming the invasive proliferation described in previous studies. The upscaling of the preliminary results from Elliðaár and Rila Mountains can help us to formulate general conclusions about the spreading of this invasive species. Furthermore, this bilateral cooperation can be further extended to other countries and hence contribute to a better management of invasive alien species in Europe. Acknowledgement: This study is part of ESENIAS - The East and South European

  18. Modelling the risk of being bitten by malaria vectors in a vector control area in southern Benin, west Africa.

    PubMed

    Moiroux, Nicolas; Bio-Bangana, Abdul S; Djènontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Guis, Hélène

    2013-03-15

    The diversity of malaria vector populations, expressing various resistance and/or behavioural patterns could explain the reduced effectiveness of vector control interventions reported in some African countries. A better understanding of the ecology and distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. Here, we analyzed the spatio-temporal risk of the contact between humans and the sympatric An. funestus and both M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. in an area of Benin with high coverage of vector control measures with an unprecedented level of resolution. Presence-absence data for the three vectors from 1-year human-landing collections in 19 villages were assessed using binomial mixed-effects models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validations of the models, predictive maps of the risk of the contact between humans and the sympatric An. funestus and both molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae s.s. were computed. Model validations showed that the An. funestus, An. gambiae M form, and S form models provided an excellent (Area Under Curve>0.9), a good (AUC>0.8), and an acceptable (AUC>0.7) level of prediction, respectively. The distribution area of the probability of contact between human and An. funestus largely overlaps that of An. gambiae M form but this latter showed important seasonal variation. An. gambiae S form also showed seasonal variation but with different ecological preferences. Landscape data were useful to discriminate between the species' distributions. These results showed that available remote sensing data could help in predicting the human-vector contact for several species of malaria vectors at a village level scale. The predictive maps showed seasonal and spatial variations in the risk of human-vector contact for all three vectors. Such maps could help Malaria

  19. Cephenemyia stimulator (Diptera) infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Kraków area, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Kowal, Jerzy; Wajdzik, Marek; Nosal, Paweł; Wojtaszek, Magdalena; Basiaga, Marta

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae infection in roe deer populations (Capreolus capreolus) in the Kraków area on the basis of necropsy and questionnaire surveys. Hunters were surveyed about the age and sex of hunted animals, and the origin of their habitat. All parasite specimens were identified to species in the laboratory. The parasites were found in the nasal cavities, esophagus, and larynx of male roe deer aged 3-8 years, living in forest habitats. The level of infection was relatively low (13%), with the intensity ranging from 1 to 10 larvae per host. Although no fly larvae were found during the dissection of roe deer carcasses, the parasites received from the hunters were identified as Cephenemyia stimulator botflies. These findings are supported by the evidence drawn from the questionnaires completed by the hunters. parasites, Cephenemyia stimulator, Capreolus capreolus, necropsy, questionnaire study, Poland.

  20. Filariasis in sub-Saharan immigrants attended in a health area of southern Spain: clinical and epidemiological findings.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Fernando; Cabezas-Fernández, Ma Teresa; Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Cabeza-Barrera, Ma Isabel; Vázquez-Villegas, José; Soriano-Pérez, Manuel J

    2015-02-01

    Filariasis is still an endemic disease in several countries worldwide. Patients with mansonellosis result in only relatively mild symptoms, but these infections could produce many visits to health care providers. In Spain, this infection is imported due to the increase of immigrant population reaching our country during last years. The health area of the Hospital of Poniente has a rate of immigrants around to 20%, with a high percentage coming from sub-Saharan countries, being Mansonella perstans the main filarial infection in the majority of cases. In the protocol for the immigrants, it has been included the diagnosis of filarial infections in order to treat them. This manuscript describes epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with this kind of infection.

  1. Residential proximity to industrial sites in the area of Taranto (Southern Italy). A case-control cancer incidence study.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Belli, Stefano; Binazzi, Alessandra; Scarselli, Alberto; Massari, Stefania; Bruni, Antonella; Conversano, Michele; Crosignani, Paolo; Minerba, Aldo; Zona, Amerigo; Comba, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    The association between cancer incidence and the residence near polluting facilities in an industrial area nearby Taranto has been investigated. Age, sex and occupational exposure were controlled as confounding variables in a case-control study (658 cases, 2092 controls). High risks were evidenced close to the steel mill (OR: 3.54), coke plant (OR: 4.80), mineral deposit (OR: 3.33) and shipbuilding (OR: 4.29) for pleural neoplasm, and to the steel mill (OR: 1.65) and shipbuilding (OR: 1.79) for lung cancer. After adjustment for occupational exposure, increasing trends of risk were observed both for lung and bladder cancers. Cancer risks were evidenced near industrial sites and the introduction of "occupational exposure" as a confounder modified significantly the risks with respect to distance from the source of pollution, particularly for pleural, lung and bladder cancers.

  2. The epidemiology of TT virus (TTV) infection in a hepatitis C and B virus hyperendemic area of southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Dai, C Y; Yu, M L; Chuang, W L; Lu, S N; Wang, J H; Huang, J F; Hou, C; Chen, S C; Lin, Z Y; Hsieh, M Y; Wang, L Y; Tsai, J F; Chang, W Y

    2000-10-01

    TT virus (TTV) is a newly isolated DNA virus from the serum of a patient with posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997. To evaluate the clinical and molecular characteristics of TT virus (TTV) in a hepatitis C virus (HCV) and B (HBV) hyperendemic area (Masago), 200 residents were enrolled in the study. The sera were tested for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HCV RNA and GB virus C/Hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA, TTV DNA, HBsAg, anti-HCV and antibodies to HGV E2-protein (anti-E2). TTV DNA was positive in 99 of the 200 sera with a prevalence rate of 49.5%. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HCV RNA, HGV RNA, anti-E2 and HGV exposure (defined as positive for serum HGV RNA and/or anti-E2) was 38.9%, 69.5%, 64.5%, 17.0%, 25.5% and 39.5%, respectively. Neither clinical nor virological factors were associated with TTV viremia. The rate of ALT abnormality was significantly elevated in HCV RNA-positive (34.9%) than -negative (7.0%) residents (p < 0.001). HCV viremia was the only factor significantly associated with ALT elevation by multiple logistic regression (odds ratio: 6.96; 95% C.I.: 2.60-18.7). We concluded that in this HCV/HBV hyperendemic area, the prevalence of TTV DNA was high. No significant clinical factor was observed to be associated with TTV infection. TTV infection is not related to abnormal ALT levels and ALT abnormality was mainly attributable to HCV but not TTV, HBV or HGV infection.

  3. Reproductive ecology of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) in a coastal area of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2016-01-01

    The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P <0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P <0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.

  4. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  5. Controls on Cenozoic exhumation of the Tethyan Himalaya from fission-track thermochronology and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology in the Gyirong basin area, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tianyi; Wang, Guocan; Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Beek, Peter; Bernet, Matthias; Cao, Kai; Wang, An; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Kexin

    2016-07-01

    The Gyirong basin, southern Tibet, contains the record of Miocene-Pliocene exhumation, drainage development, and sedimentation along the northern flank of the Himalaya. The tectonic controls on basin formation and their potential link to the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) are not well understood. We use detrital zircon (ZFT) and apatite (AFT) fission-track analysis, together with detrital zircon U-Pb dating to decipher the provenance of Gyirong basin sediments and the exhumation history of the source areas. Results are presented for nine detrital samples of Gyirong basin sediments (AFT, ZFT, and U-Pb), two modern river-sediment samples (ZFT and AFT), and six bedrock samples (ZFT) from transect across the Gyirong fault bounding the basin to the east. The combination of detrital zircon U-Pb and fission-track data demonstrates that the Gyirong basin sediments were sourced locally from the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence. This provenance pattern indicates that deposition was controlled by the Gyirong fault, active since 10 Ma, whose vertical throw was probably < 5000 m, rather than being controlled by normal faults associated with the STDS. The detrital thermochronology data contain two prominent age groups at 37-41 and 15-18 Ma, suggesting rapid exhumation at these times. A 15-18 Ma phase of rapid exhumation has been recorded widely in both southern Tibet and the Himalaya. A possible interpretation for such a major regional exhumation event might be detachment of the subducting Indian plate slab during the middle Miocene, inducing dynamic uplift of the Indian plate overriding its own slab.

  6. Evaluating of the spatial heterogeneity of soil loss tolerance and its effects on erosion risk in the carbonate areas of southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Bai, Xiao Yong; Jie Wang, Shi; Qin, Luo Yi; Chao Tian, Yi; Jie Luo, Guang

    2017-05-01

    Soil loss tolerance (T value) is one of the criteria in determining the necessity of erosion control measures and ecological restoration strategy. However, the validity of this criterion in subtropical karst regions is strongly disputed. In this study, T value is calculated based on soil formation rate by using a digital distribution map of carbonate rock assemblage types. Results indicated a spatial heterogeneity and diversity in soil loss tolerance. Instead of only one criterion, a minimum of three criteria should be considered when investigating the carbonate areas of southern China because the one region, one T value concept may not be applicable to this region. T value is proportionate to the amount of argillaceous material, which determines the surface soil thickness of the formations in homogenous carbonate rock areas. Homogenous carbonate rock, carbonate rock intercalated with clastic rock areas and carbonate/clastic rock alternation areas have T values of 20, 50 and 100 t/(km2 a), and they are extremely, severely and moderately sensitive to soil erosion. Karst rocky desertification (KRD) is defined as extreme soil erosion and reflects the risks of erosion. Thus, the relationship between T value and erosion risk is determined using KRD as a parameter. The existence of KRD land is unrelated to the T value, although this parameter indicates erosion sensitivity. Erosion risk is strongly dependent on the relationship between real soil loss (RL) and T value rather than on either erosion intensity or the T value itself. If RL > > T, then the erosion risk is high despite of a low RL. Conversely, if T > > RL, then the soil is safe although RL is high. Overall, these findings may clarify the heterogeneity of T value and its effect on erosion risk in a karst environment.

  7. Land-use and land-cover dynamics monitored by NDVI multitemporal analysis in a selected southern Amazonian area (Brazil) for the last three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borini Alves, D.; Perez-Cabello, F.; Rodrigues Mimbrero, M.

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the dynamics of land-use and land-cover (LULC) in a selected southern Amazonian area (Brazil), monitoring and distinguishing trajectories in NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) variations for the last three decades. The area, with a total of 17336 km^2, has been subject to significant LULC changes associated with deforestation progress and use of fire. Considering available Landsat time series, it was selected an image per year from 1984 to 2013 (path/row -231/66), at a particular period of year, atmospherically corrected using LEDAPS tools. NDVIs values were generated for each selected image. Furthermore, the images of 1984 and 2010 still underwent a classification of LULC differentiate five categories: water, forest, secondary/degraded forest, savannah/pasture and crop/bare soil. The trajectories in NDVI variation values were analysed by R software, considering intersections of classified categories. The pixels identified as forests on the images of 1984 and 2010 displayed stable trajectories of NDVI values, with average value 0.824 and coefficient of variation 3.9%. While the pixels of savannah/pasture, which was periodically affected by fire, had an average NDVI value 0.585 and coefficient of variation 15,1%. The main regressive trajectory was the transition "forest to crop/bare soil", identifying 1999 as the starting point in the drop in NDVI values, associated with an increase of the deforested areas. Therefore, the results show distinct trajectories associated with NDVIs and LULC changes that assist in better understanding the dynamics of ecological processes and the human impacts operating in the area.

  8. An interpretation of induced-polarization data collected in the Haenam area, southern part of Korea Peninsula, based on effective nonlinear inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bitnarae; Jang, Hannuree; Nam, Myung Jin; Kim, Hee Joon; Son, Jeong-Sul

    2015-04-01

    The Haenam area in the southern tip of Korean Peninsula, which experienced broad hydrothermal transition during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary times and whose geology is composed of granitic rocks, quartz porphyry, andesite, rhyolite, tuff and sedimentary rocks, is known to have many clay-alunite and gold-silver deposits. For the investigation of new gold deposits near an existing gold mine, both electrical-resistivity and induced polarization (IP) surveys have been conducted based on dipole-dipole array with 10 m-electrode spacing. The survey line is set to be 200 m and nearly normal to the geological strike. Together with the surveys, an investigation borehole was drilled about 130 m away from the survey line, and coring has been conducted during the drilling. For the interpretation of IP data, linear inversion of IP data based on approximate linearization has been conducted after making 3D inversion of electrical-resistivity data. The inversion result shows that area of high intrinsic chargeability complies with area of high-salinity, which is interpreted from the borehole data. However, the linear inversion has high chance to contain unwanted error during the inversion process since the inversion is based on the linearization approximation of a non-linear problem by assuming the value of intrinsic chargeability is very small. In this study, we first develop an efficient non-linear inversion algorithm to invert the IP data based on finite element method using tetrahedral elements. Then, we apply the developed algorithm to synthetic IP data and compare its results with those from existing IP inversion algorithms. Finally, we make non-linear inversion of the Haenam field data not only to interpret the data more precisely but also to compare its results with existing-interpretation results from linear-IP inversion. The analysis confirms that the non-linear time domain IP inversion reflects the geological characteristics in the survey area, complying with

  9. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Tulare Lake bed area, southern San Joaquin Valley, California, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.; Palawski, D.U.; Skorupa, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of numerous toxic trace elements and pesticides were measured during 1986 in water, sediment, and biota from three areas near the Tulare Lake Bed, southern San Joaquin Valley, California: Kern National Wildlife Refuge, Pixley National Wildlife Refuge, and Westfarmers evaporation ponds about 5 mi west of Kern National Wildlife Refuge, to determine whether toxic constituents in agricultural-irrigation drainage pose a threat to beneficial uses of water, especially to uses by wildlife. Pesticide residues were found to be low at all three areas. Trace element concentrations were found to be comparatively low at the Kern and Pixley National Wildlife Refuge areas and high at the Westfarmers evaporation ponds. Dissolved selenium concentrations were < 1 micrograms/L (ug/L) in areas on and adjacent to the refuges, but ranged from 110 to 360 ug/L in the saline drainwater impounded in the evaporation ponds. The ratio of mean selenium concentrations in biota from Westfarmers ponds compared to biota from Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge (where adverse effects have been documented) is 5 for waterboatman, 2 for avocet liver, 1 for avocet eggs, and < 1 for widgeongrass. The low concentrations measured at Kern and Pixley National Wildlife Refuges suggest that trace elements and pesticides pose little threat to wildlife there; however, impounded subsurface drainage from agricultural irrigation does pose a threat to wildlife at the nearby Westfarmers ponds. Preliminary results of surveys conducted in 1987 indicated that there are adverse biological effects on shorebirds nesting at the ponds, although interpretation of the magnitude of the effects is premature, pending completion of ongoing studies by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (<200 m) but exhibited a diurnal pattern of directed excursions (forays) away from their home locations. Dogs spent, on average, 5.3% of their time in forays with average per dog foray distances from the house ranging 0.5–1.9 km (maximum distance detected 4.3 km). Foraying behavior was positively associated with pasture habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  11. Shallow earthquake swarms in southern Ryukyu area: manifestation of dynamics of fluid and/or magma plumbing system revealed by teleseismic and regional datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake swarm occurrence beneath volcanic domains is one of the indicators of current magmatic activity in the Earth's crust. Repeated occurrence of teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms has been observed in the lithospheric wedge of the southern Ryukyu area above the subducting slab of the Philippine Sea Plate. The swarms were analyzed using the EHB, ISC and JMA catalogs of hypocenter parameters. The swarm earthquakes are shallow (1-60 km), in the body-wave magnitude range up to 5.8. The swarms are distributed beneath the seafloor, parallel to the Ryukyu Trench along a belt connecting active subaerial volcanoes Io-Torishima north-east and Kueishantao west of the investigated area. Epicentral zones of the swarms often coincide with distinct elevations at the seafloor—seamounts and seamount ranges. The top of the subducting slab reaches a depth of about 100 km beneath the zones of earthquake swarm occurrence, which is an average depth of a slab beneath volcanoes in general. The repeated occurrence of relatively strong, teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms thus probably reflects fluid and/or magma migration in the plumbing system of the volcanic arc and points to brittle character of the lithospheric wedge at respective depths. In addition to the factual results, this study documents the high accuracy of hypocenter parameter determinations published by the International Seismological Centre and the usefulness of the EHB relocation procedure.

  12. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  13. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtDNA lineages in chronic wasting disease (CWD) outbreak areas in southern Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kip G; Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Grear, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas.

  14. Geomorphic assessment of late Quarternary volcanism in the Yucca Mountain area, southern Nevada: Implication for the proposed high-level radiocative waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.; McFadden, L.D.; Renault, C.E.; Crowe, B.M.

    1990-06-01

    Volcanic hazard studies for high-level radioactive waste isolation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, require a detailed understanding of Quaternary volcanism to forecast rates of volcanic processes. Recent studies of the Quaternary Cima volcanic field in southern California have demonstrated that K-Ar dates of volcanic landforms are consistent with their geomorphic and pedologic properties. The systematic change of these properties with time may be used to provide age estimates of undated or questionably dated volcanic features. The reliability of radiometric age determinations of the youngest volcanic center, Lathrop Wells, near the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been problematic. In this study, a comparison of morphometric, pedogenic, and stratigraphic data establishes that correlation of geomorphic and soil properties between the Cima volcanic field and the Yucca Mountain area is valid. Comparison of the Lathrop Wells cinder cone to a 15-20 ka cinder cone in California shows that their geomorphic-pedogenic properties are similar and implies that the two cones are of similar age. We conclude that previous determinations of ca. 0.27 Ma for the latest volcanic activity at Lathrop Wells, approximately 20 km from the proposed repository, may be in error by as much as an order of magnitude and that the most recent volcanic activity is no older than 20ka.

  15. Geomorphic assessment of late Quaternary volcanism in the Yucca Mountain area, southern Nevada: Implications for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.; McFadden, L.D.; Renault, C.E.; Crowe, B.M.

    1991-03-01

    Volcanic hazard studies for high-level radioactive waste isolation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, require a detailed understanding of Quaternary volcanism to forecast rates of volcanic processes. Recent studies of the Quaternary Cima volcanic fields in southern California have demonstrated that K-Ar dates of volcanic landforms are consistent with their geomorphic and pedologic properties. The systematic change of these properties with time may be used to provide age estimates of undated or questionably dated volcanic features. The reliability of radiometric age determinations of the youngest volcanic center, Lathrop Wells, near the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been problematic. In this study, a comparison of morphometric, pedogenic, and stratigraphic data establishes that correlation of geomorphic and soil properties between the Cima volcanic field and the Yucca Mountain area is valid. Comparison of the Lathrop Wells cinder cone to a 15-20 ka cinder cone in California shows that their geomorphic-pedogenic properties are similar and implies that the two cones are of similar age. The authors of ca. 0.27 Ma for the latest volcanic activity at Lathrop Wells, approximately 20 km from the proposed repository, may be in error by as much as an order of magnitude and that the most recent volcanic activity is no older than 20 ka.

  16. Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Laurent, Diane; Hähni, Marlies; St-Laurent, Julien; Baril, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg−1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg−1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg−1 (Pb). These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg−1) in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg−1 (SD 17.5). Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites) range between 12 and 22 mg kg−1, and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage) to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail. PMID:20948950

  17. Implications and concerns of deep-seated disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water using three-dimensional contaminant transport model in Bhit Area, Dadu District of Southern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Akhter, Gulraiz; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan

    2010-11-01

    A three-dimensional contaminant transport model has been developed to simulate and monitor the migration of disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water in Injection well at 2,100 m depth in the Upper Cretaceous Pab sandstone, Bhit area in Dadu district of Southern Pakistan. The regional stratigraphic and structural geological framework of the area, landform characteristics, meteorological parameters, and hydrogeological milieu have been used in the model to generate the initial simulation of steady-state flow condition in the underlying aquifer's layers. The geometry of the shallow and deep-seated characteristics of the geological formations was obtained from the drilling data, electrical resistivity sounding surveys, and geophysical well-logging information. The modeling process comprised of steady-state simulation and transient simulation of the prolific groundwater system of contamination transport after 1, 10, 30 years of injection. The contaminant transport was evaluated from the bottom of the injection well, and its short- and long-term effects were determined on aquifer system lying in varying hydrogeological and geological conditions.

  18. Shallow earthquake swarms in southern Ryukyu area: manifestation of dynamics of fluid and/or magma plumbing system revealed by teleseismic and regional datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Earthquake swarm occurrence beneath volcanic domains is one of the indicators of current magmatic activity in the Earth's crust. Repeated occurrence of teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms has been observed in the lithospheric wedge of the southern Ryukyu area above the subducting slab of the Philippine Sea Plate. The swarms were analyzed using the EHB, ISC and JMA catalogs of hypocenter parameters. The swarm earthquakes are shallow (1-60 km), in the body-wave magnitude range up to 5.8. The swarms are distributed beneath the seafloor, parallel to the Ryukyu Trench along a belt connecting active subaerial volcanoes Io-Torishima north-east and Kueishantao west of the investigated area. Epicentral zones of the swarms often coincide with distinct elevations at the seafloor—seamounts and seamount ranges. The top of the subducting slab reaches a depth of about 100 km beneath the zones of earthquake swarm occurrence, which is an average depth of a slab beneath volcanoes in general. The repeated occurrence of relatively strong, teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms thus probably reflects fluid and/or magma migration in the plumbing system of the volcanic arc and points to brittle character of the lithospheric wedge at respective depths. In addition to the factual results, this study documents the high accuracy of hypocenter parameter determinations published by the International Seismological Centre and the usefulness of the EHB relocation procedure.

  19. Identification and mapping of radon-prone areas in Croatia-preliminary results for Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties.

    PubMed

    Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Stanić, Denis; Poje, Marina; Krpan, Ivana; Mužević, Matko; Petrinec, Branko; Vuković, Branko

    2014-11-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements performed by LR 115 track etched detectors in Croatian homes during 2003-04 showed that the arithmetic means of radon concentrations in Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties were three times higher (198 Bq m(-3)) than in houses at national level (68 Bq m(-3)). Recently, indoor radon measurements in randomly selected houses were investigated. The obtained values in these new measurements have confirmed the values obtained 10 y ago (the average radon value in 225 investigated houses in this area is 223 Bq m(-3)). Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured in September and October 2012 and 20