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Sample records for amazon isolated communities

  1. Outbreaks of attacks by hematophagous bats in isolated riverine communities in the Brazilian Amazon: a challenge to rabies control.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Costa, F A; Tedesqui, V L; de Jesus Nascimento Monteiro, M; Bóia, M N

    2012-06-01

    Human rabies has re-emerged in Latin America due to bat associated transmission. We present data related to attacks by hematophagous bats in three riverine communities in the Rio Negro basin, Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to obtain demographic and epidemiological data through interviews with 201 inhabitants. A total of 721 bat attacks with bites took place from 2004 to 2006, 238 (33%) reported by residents in Campinas do Rio Preto, 329 (46%) in Águas Vivas and 154 (21%) in the community of Malalahá. Incidence density among surveyed inhabitants was 84 attacks/100 persons-years in Campinas do Rio Preto, 249 attacks/100 persons-years in Águas Vivas and 81 attacks/100 persons-years in Malalahá. The proportion of surveyed inhabitants bled by bats at least once was 67% (63/94) in Campinas do Rio Preto, 96% (42/44) in Águas Vivas and 62% (39/63) in Malalahá. Among subjects bled by bats, the average number of bites was 4.6 ± 4.2 standard deviations (SD) in Campinas do Rio Preto, 8 ± 6 SD in Águas Vivas and 4.1 ± 3.9 SD in Malalahá. Regarding houses, 67% (26/39) had animals in the peridomestic environment (chickens and/or dogs) and all were vulnerable to bats due to gaps in the walls and/or in the windows and doors. In 13 dwellings, rudimentary protection against bats through the fixation of fishing nets and/or straw nets to the windows and other openings was observed. Among dwellers reporting attacks, 48% (68/144) received the full post-exposure anti-rabies vaccination protocol with five doses of diploid human cell vaccine, 28% (39/144) received an incomplete schedule (1-4 doses), and 26% (37/144) did not receive any dose. No cases of rabies were reported during the study; however, regular pre-exposure vaccination in the studied populations must be considered.

  2. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of two Brazilian anthropogenic Amazon dark earth sites, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; de Souza, Rosineide Cardoso; de Souza Cannavan, Fabiana; Patricio, André; Pylro, Victor Satler; Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Mui, Tsai Siu

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soil is considered one of the world's most fertile soils. These soils differs from conventional Amazon soils because its higher organic content concentration. Here we describe the metagenome sequencing of microbial communities of two sites of Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soils from Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. The raw sequence data are stored under Short Read Accession number: PRJNA344917.

  3. Dispersal assembly of rain forest tree communities across the Amazon basin

    PubMed Central

    Lavin, Mathew; Torke, Benjamin M.; Twyford, Alex D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Coley, Phyllis D.; Drake, Camila; Hollands, Ruth; Pennington, R. Toby

    2017-01-01

    We investigate patterns of historical assembly of tree communities across Amazonia using a newly developed phylogeny for the species-rich neotropical tree genus Inga. We compare our results with those for three other ecologically important, diverse, and abundant Amazonian tree lineages, Swartzia, Protieae, and Guatteria. Our analyses using phylogenetic diversity metrics demonstrate a clear lack of geographic phylogenetic structure, and show that local communities of Inga and regional communities of all four lineages are assembled by dispersal across Amazonia. The importance of dispersal in the biogeography of Inga and other tree genera in Amazonian and Guianan rain forests suggests that speciation is not driven by vicariance, and that allopatric isolation following dispersal may be involved in the speciation process. A clear implication of these results is that over evolutionary timescales, the metacommunity for any local or regional tree community in the Amazon is the entire Amazon basin. PMID:28213498

  4. Dispersal assembly of rain forest tree communities across the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Kyle G; Lavin, Mathew; Torke, Benjamin M; Twyford, Alex D; Kursar, Thomas A; Coley, Phyllis D; Drake, Camila; Hollands, Ruth; Pennington, R Toby

    2017-02-17

    We investigate patterns of historical assembly of tree communities across Amazonia using a newly developed phylogeny for the species-rich neotropical tree genus Inga We compare our results with those for three other ecologically important, diverse, and abundant Amazonian tree lineages, Swartzia, Protieae, and Guatteria Our analyses using phylogenetic diversity metrics demonstrate a clear lack of geographic phylogenetic structure, and show that local communities of Inga and regional communities of all four lineages are assembled by dispersal across Amazonia. The importance of dispersal in the biogeography of Inga and other tree genera in Amazonian and Guianan rain forests suggests that speciation is not driven by vicariance, and that allopatric isolation following dispersal may be involved in the speciation process. A clear implication of these results is that over evolutionary timescales, the metacommunity for any local or regional tree community in the Amazon is the entire Amazon basin.

  5. Isolation of fungi from bats of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W Y; Luizão, R C; Barreto da Silva, M do S

    1982-01-01

    A total of 2,886 bats captured in the Amazon Basin of Brazil were processed for the isolation of fungi. From the livers, spleens, and lungs of 155 bats (5.4%), 186 fungal isolates of the genera Candida (123 isolates), Trichosporon (26 isolates), Torulopsis (25 isolates), Kluyveromyces (11 isolates), and Geotrichum (1 isolate) were recovered. Seven known pathogenic species were present: Candida parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis, Trichosporon beigelii, and Torulopsis glabrata. Twenty-three culture-positive bats showed identical fungal colonization in multiple organs or mixed colonization in a single organ. The fungal isolation rates for individual bat species varied from 1 fungus per 87 bats to 3 fungi per 13 bats, and the mycoflora diversity for members of an individual fungus-bearing bat species varied from 16 fungi per 40 bats to 7 fungi per 6 bats. Of the 38 fungal species isolated, 36 had not been previously described as in vivo bat isolates. Of the 27 culture-positive bat species, 21 had not been previously described as mammalian hosts for medically or nonmedically important fungi. PMID:6890326

  6. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Marlene; Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  7. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  8. Isolation of a coronavirus from a green-cheeked Amazon parrot (Amazon viridigenalis Cassin).

    PubMed

    Gough, Richard E; Drury, Sally E; Culver, Francesca; Britton, Paul; Cavanagh, Dave

    2006-04-01

    A virus (AV71/99) was isolated from a green-cheeked Amazon parrot by propagation and passage in both primary embryo liver cells derived from blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) embryos and chicken embryo liver cells. Electron microscopic examination of cytopathic agents derived from both types of cell cultures suggested that it was a coronavirus. This was confirmed using a pan-coronavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction that amplified part of gene 1 that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The deduced sequence of 66 amino acids had 66 to 74% amino acid identity with the corresponding sequence of coronaviruses in groups 1, 2 and 3. Several other oligonucleotide primer pairs that give PCR products corresponding to genes 3, 5, N and the 3'-untranslated region of infectious bronchitis virus, turkey coronavirus and pheasant coronavirus (all in group 3) failed to do so with RNA from the parrot coronavirus. This is the first demonstration of a coronavirus in a psittacine species.

  9. Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Allen; Corral, Leonardo; Lima, Eirivelthon Santos; Asner, Gregory P

    2017-04-18

    Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or spur forest damage. We analyze such a campaign in the Peruvian Amazon, where more than 1,200 indigenous communities comprising some 11 million ha have been titled since the mid-1970s. We use community-level longitudinal data derived from high-resolution satellite images to estimate the effect of titling between 2002 and 2005 on contemporaneous forest clearing and disturbance. Our results indicate that titling reduces clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation.

  10. Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Allen; Corral, Leonardo; Lima, Eirivelthon Santos; Asner, Gregory P.

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or spur forest damage. We analyze such a campaign in the Peruvian Amazon, where more than 1,200 indigenous communities comprising some 11 million ha have been titled since the mid-1970s. We use community-level longitudinal data derived from high-resolution satellite images to estimate the effect of titling between 2002 and 2005 on contemporaneous forest clearing and disturbance. Our results indicate that titling reduces clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation. PMID:28373565

  11. Lead exposure in indigenous communities of the Amazon basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Anticona, Cynthia; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Lundh, Thomas; Alegre, Yuri; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2011-12-01

    Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4 μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5 μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2 μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.

  12. A large-scale deforestation experiment: Effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferraz, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Stouffer, P.C.; Bierregaard, R.O.; Lovejoy, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  13. A large-scale deforestation experiment: effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Gonçalo; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Stouffer, Philip C; Bierregaard, Richard O; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2007-01-12

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  14. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant.

    PubMed

    Silva, F V; Simões-Araújo, J L; Silva Júnior, J P; Xavier, G R; Rumjanek, N G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  15. Trocara virus: a newly recognized Alphavirus (Togaviridae) isolated from mosquitoes in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, A P; Turell, M J; Watts, D M; Powers, A M; Vasconcelos, P F; Jones, J W; Klein, T A; Dohm, D J; Shope, R E; Degallier, N; Popov, V L; Russell, K L; Weaver, S C; Guzman, H; Calampa, C; Brault, A C; Lemon, A P; Tesh, R B

    2001-01-01

    This report describes Trocara virus, a newly recognized member of the genus Alphavirus, that has been isolated from Aedes serratus mosquitoes collected at two widely separated sites in the Amazon Basin. Biological, antigenic and genetic characteristics of the new virus are given. Results of these studies indicate that Trocara virus is the first member of a newly discovered antigenic complex within the family Togaviridae genus Alphavirus. The public health and veterinary importance of Trocara virus is still unknown.

  16. Food consumption as an indicator of the conservation of natural resources in riverine communities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Victoria J; Almeida, Morgana C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Deus, Claudia P; Vale, Rozeilza; Klein, Gilmar; Begossi, Alpina

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed and compared the daily consumption of foods of animal origin in eleven communities of the Lower Amazon, Trombetas and Purus Rivers, representing three different management systems and levels of conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. All food items of animal origin were weighed by at least 10% of the families in the study communities during a week in each period of the flood cycle between 2006 and 2008. Fish was the most important food, and was consumed during six days of the week, with an average rate of 169 kg.person(-1).year(-1). Game was second in importance, with 37 kg.person(-1).year-(1). This yearly rate of fish consumption is one of the highest in the world and is almost double the minimum recommended by the World Health Organization. The dietary patterns reflect both the isolation of the communities from large urban centers and the better preservation of the local environments due to the existence of protected areas. Environmental degradation may thus have effects on the health and food security of local populations. The study emphasizes the need for the implementation of public policies and participative management initiatives.

  17. The Isolated Appalachian Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper investigates the isolation of the local black community within the social/cultural perspective. A profile of the community is given in terms of data collected from personal and family interviews. Personal interviews assessed how the Appalachian black viewed his group. Among the 13 variables studied are: trustworthiness, religion, work…

  18. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant

    PubMed Central

    Silva, F.V.; Simões-Araújo, J.L.; Silva Júnior, J.P.; Xavier, G.R.; Rumjanek, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium. PMID:24031880

  19. Effect of artesunate-mefloquine fixed-dose combination in malaria transmission in Amazon basin communities.

    PubMed

    Santelli, Ana C; Ribeiro, Isabela; Daher, André; Boulos, Marcos; Marchesini, Paola B; dos Santos, Roseli La Corte; Lucena, Marize B F; Magalhães, Izanelda; Leon, Antonio P; Junger, Washington; Ladislau, José L B

    2012-08-20

    Studies in South-East Asia have suggested that early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate (AS) and mefloquine (MQ) combination therapy may reduce the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the progression of MQ resistance. The effectiveness of a fixed-dose combination of AS and MQ (ASMQ) in reducing malaria transmission was tested in isolated communities of the Juruá valley in the Amazon region.Priority municipalities within the Brazilian Legal Amazon area were selected according to pre-specified criteria. Routine national malaria control programmatic procedures were followed. Existing health structures were reinforced and health care workers were trained to treat with ASMQ all confirmed falciparum malaria cases that match inclusion criteria. A local pharmacovigilance structure was implemented. Incidence of malaria and hospitalizations were recorded two years before, during, and after the fixed-dose ASMQ intervention. In total, between July 2006 and December 2008, 23,845 patients received ASMQ. Two statistical modelling approaches were applied to monthly time series of P. falciparum malaria incidence rates, P. falciparum/Plasmodium vivax infection ratio, and malaria hospital admissions rates. All the time series ranged from January 2004 to December 2008, whilst the intervention period span from July 2006 to December 2008. The ASMQ intervention had a highly significant impact on the mean level of each time series, adjusted for trend and season, of 0.34 (95% CI 0.20 - 0.58) for the P. falciparum malaria incidence rates, 0.67 (95% CI 0.50 - 0.89) for the P. falciparum/P. vivax infection ratio, and 0.53 (95% CI 0.41 - 0.69) for the hospital admission rates. There was also a significant change in the seasonal (or monthly) pattern of the time series before and after intervention, with the elimination of the malaria seasonal peak in the rainy months of the years following the introduction of ASMQ. No serious adverse events relating to the use of fixed

  20. Quinolone Resistance in Absence of Selective Pressure: The Experience of a Very Remote Community in the Amazon Forest

    PubMed Central

    Riccobono, Eleonora; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Quinolones are potent broad-spectrum bactericidal agents increasingly employed also in resource-limited countries. Resistance to quinolones is an increasing problem, known to be strongly associated with quinolone exposure. We report on the emergence of quinolone resistance in a very remote community in the Amazon forest, where quinolones have never been used and quinolone resistance was absent in 2002. Methods The community exhibited a considerable level of geographical isolation, limited contact with the exterior and minimal antibiotic use (not including quinolones). In December 2009, fecal carriage of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli was investigated in 120 of the 140 inhabitants, and in 48 animals reared in the community. All fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were genotyped and characterized for the mechanisms of plasmid- and chromosomal-mediated quinolone resistance. Principal Findings Despite the characteristics of the community remained substantially unchanged during the period 2002–2009, carriage of quinolone-resistant E. coli was found to be common in 2009 both in humans (45% nalidixic acid, 14% ciprofloxacin) and animals (54% nalidixic acid, 23% ciprofloxacin). Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of human and animal origin showed multidrug resistance phenotypes, a high level of genetic heterogeneity, and a combination of GyrA (Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn) and ParC (Ser80Ile) substitutions commonly observed in fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli. Conclusions Remoteness and absence of antibiotic selective pressure did not protect the community from the remarkable emergence of quinolone resistance in E. coli. Introduction of the resistant strains from antibiotic-exposed settings is the most likely source, while persistence and dissemination in the absence of quinolone exposure is likely mostly related with poor sanitation. Interventions aimed at reducing the spreading of resistant isolates (by improving sanitation and water

  1. Quinolone resistance in absence of selective pressure: the experience of a very remote community in the Amazon forest.

    PubMed

    Pallecchi, Lucia; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Riccobono, Eleonora; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are potent broad-spectrum bactericidal agents increasingly employed also in resource-limited countries. Resistance to quinolones is an increasing problem, known to be strongly associated with quinolone exposure. We report on the emergence of quinolone resistance in a very remote community in the Amazon forest, where quinolones have never been used and quinolone resistance was absent in 2002. The community exhibited a considerable level of geographical isolation, limited contact with the exterior and minimal antibiotic use (not including quinolones). In December 2009, fecal carriage of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli was investigated in 120 of the 140 inhabitants, and in 48 animals reared in the community. All fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were genotyped and characterized for the mechanisms of plasmid- and chromosomal-mediated quinolone resistance. Despite the characteristics of the community remained substantially unchanged during the period 2002-2009, carriage of quinolone-resistant E. coli was found to be common in 2009 both in humans (45% nalidixic acid, 14% ciprofloxacin) and animals (54% nalidixic acid, 23% ciprofloxacin). Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of human and animal origin showed multidrug resistance phenotypes, a high level of genetic heterogeneity, and a combination of GyrA (Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn) and ParC (Ser80Ile) substitutions commonly observed in fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli. Remoteness and absence of antibiotic selective pressure did not protect the community from the remarkable emergence of quinolone resistance in E. coli. Introduction of the resistant strains from antibiotic-exposed settings is the most likely source, while persistence and dissemination in the absence of quinolone exposure is likely mostly related with poor sanitation. Interventions aimed at reducing the spreading of resistant isolates (by improving sanitation and water/food safety) are urgently needed to preserve the efficacy

  2. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Jones, J W; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; Watts, D M; Fernandez, R; Travassos da Rosa, A; Guzman, H; Tesh, R; Rossi, C A; Ludwig, V; Mangiafico, J A; Kondig, J; Wasieloski, L P; Pecor, J; Zyzak, M; Schoeler, G; Mores, C N; Calampa, C; Lee, J S; Klein, T A

    2005-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive study on the ecology of arthropod-borne viruses in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, we assayed 539,694 mosquitoes captured in Loreto Department, Peru, for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were captured either by dry ice-baited miniature light traps or with aspirators while mosquitoes were landing on human collectors, identified to species, and later tested on Vero cells for virus. In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), Flavivirus (Ilheus and St. Louis encephalitis), and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Itaqui, Mirim, Murutucu, and Wyeomyia viruses) genera. In addition, several viruses distinct from the above-mentioned genera were identified to the serogroup level. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, whereas Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira. Most isolations of Ilheus virus were made from Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Although species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for only 45% of the mosquitoes collected, 85% of the virus isolations were made from this subgenus. Knowledge of the viruses that are being transmitted in the Amazon Basin region of Peru will enable the development of more effective diagnostic assays, more efficient and rapid diagnoses of clinical illnesses caused by these pathogens, risk analysis for military/civilian operations, and development of potential disease control measures.

  3. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes.

  4. Diversity of Chromobacterium violaceum isolates from aquatic environments of state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, L T; Martins, R N; Vallinoto, A C R; Ribeiro, K T S

    2008-11-01

    The present study intended to characterize the phenotypic and genetic diversity of Brazilian isolates of Chromobacterium violaceum from aquatic environments within the Amazon region. Nineteen isolates showed morphological properties of C. violaceum and the majority grew at 44 degrees C. Low temperatures, in contrast, showed to be inhibitory to their growth, as eleven isolates did not grow at 10 degrees C and nine did not produce pigmentation, clearly indicating an inhibition of their metabolism. The largest variation among isolates was observed in the citrate test (Simmons), in which 12 isolates were positive, and in the oxidation/fermentation of sucrose, with six positives isolates. Chloramphenicol, gentamicin and sulfonamides efficiently inhibited bacterial growth. Amplified products of the recA gene were digested with HindII or PstI, which produced three or four restriction fragments patterns, respectively. The combined analysis arranged the isolates into six genospecies. The higher diversity observed in Belém (genotypes C, D, E and F) may be a consequence of intense human occupation, pollution of the aquatic environment or due to the higher diversity of the environments sampled in that region. In conclusion, a high level of genetic and phenotypic diversity was observed, and four new genospecies were described.

  5. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, A. M.; Artaxo, P. E.; Ishida, F. Y.; Mueller, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  6. Conversion of Amazon rainforest to agriculture alters community traits of methane-cycling organisms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Kyle M; Klein, Ann M; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tringe, Susannah G; Mirza, Babur S; Tiedje, James M; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2017-03-01

    Land use change is one of the greatest environmental impacts worldwide, especially to tropical forests. The Amazon rainforest has been subject to particularly high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. A commonly observed response to cattle pasture establishment in the Amazon is the conversion of soil from a methane sink in rainforest, to a methane source in pasture. However, it is not known how the microorganisms that mediate methane flux are altered by land use change. Here, we use the deepest metagenomic sequencing of Amazonian soil to date to investigate differences in methane-cycling microorganisms and their traits across rainforest and cattle pasture soils. We found that methane-cycling microorganisms responded to land use change, with the strongest responses exhibited by methane-consuming, rather than methane-producing, microorganisms. These responses included a reduction in the relative abundance of methanotrophs and a significant decrease in the abundance of genes encoding particulate methane monooxygenase. We also observed compositional changes to methanotroph and methanogen communities as well as changes to methanotroph life history strategies. Our observations suggest that methane-cycling microorganisms are vulnerable to land use change, and this vulnerability may underlie the response of methane flux to land use change in Amazon soils.

  7. New Virus Genome Sequences of the Guama Serogroup (Genus Orthobunyavirus, Family Bunyaviridae), Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Márcio R. T.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Lima, Clayton P. S.; Inada, Davi T.; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Vianez, João L. S. G.; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the first announcement of two nearly complete viral genome sequences belonging to the Guama serogroup (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae) isolated in the Brazilian Amazon region: Mirim virus (MIRV; BEAN7722) and Ananindeua virus (ANUV; BEAN109303). PMID:28254992

  8. Are community-based forest enterprises in the tropics financially viable? Case studies from the Brazilian Amazon

    Treesearch

    Shoana Humphries; Thomas P. Holmes; Karen Kainer; Carlos Gabriel Goncalves Koury; Edson Cruz; Rosana de Miranda Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Community-based forest management is an integral component of sustainable forest management and conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, where it has been heavily subsidized for the last ten years. Yet knowledge of the financial viability and impact of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) is lacking. This study evaluates the profitability of three CFEs in the...

  9. Phytoplankton community of Reis Lake in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ise G; Moura, Ariadne N; Dantas, Enio W

    2013-01-01

    Reis Lake is located in the municipality of Caracaraí, state of Roraima (Brazil) and is subject to fluctuations in water level. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure of the phytoplankton community on the nictemeral and seasonal scales and determined the influence of limnological variables. Sampling was performed in the rainy season (June/2006) and dry season (November/2006), considering two nictemeral cycles. The phytoplankton community was assessed with regard to composition and density, abiotic variables were analyzed simultaneously. The lake had low concentrations of oxygen, clinograde profile and water stratified during the day and homogenous at night, with low concentrations of nutrients and waters ranging from slightly acidic to alkaline. The phytoplankton was represented by 43 taxa, 35 species in the dry season and 29 species in the rainy season. Low densities of phytoplankton occurred in both nictemeral cycles, with accentuated vertical gradient. The highest densities were recorded in the dry season. Reis Lake exhibits characteristics that classify it as a polymythic and oligotrophic environment. The variability in the data was more important seasonally than on the nictemeral scale, supporting the hypothesis of the influence of the hydrological cycle on the dynamics of phytoplankton communities in floodplain lakes.

  10. Conversion of the Amazon rainforest to agriculture results in biotic homogenization of soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Pellizari, Vivian H; Mueller, Rebecca; Baek, Kyunghwa; Jesus, Ederson da C; Paula, Fabiana S; Mirza, Babur; Hamaoui, George S; Tsai, Siu Mui; Feigl, Brigitte; Tiedje, James M; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2013-01-15

    The Amazon rainforest is the Earth's largest reservoir of plant and animal diversity, and it has been subjected to especially high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. This conversion has had a strongly negative effect on biological diversity, reducing the number of plant and animal species and homogenizing communities. We report here that microbial biodiversity also responds strongly to conversion of the Amazon rainforest, but in a manner different from plants and animals. Local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of soil bacteria increases after conversion, but communities become more similar across space. This homogenization is driven by the loss of forest soil bacteria with restricted ranges (endemics) and results in a net loss of diversity. This study shows homogenization of microbial communities in response to human activities. Given that soil microbes represent the majority of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems and are intimately involved in ecosystem functions, we argue that microbial biodiversity loss should be taken into account when assessing the impact of land use change in tropical forests.

  11. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Albert, James S; Carvalho, Tiago P; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A; Maxime, Emmanuel L; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E

    2011-04-29

    The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200-500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma) uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism) and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation) have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin.

  12. Framing community forestry challenges with a broader lens: case studies from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Reem; McGrath, David G; Kozak, Robert A; Innes, John L

    2011-09-01

    Community forestry initiatives have been shown to reduce rural poverty while promoting the conservation and sustainable use of forests. However, a number of challenges face communities wanting to initiate or maintain formal, community-based forest management. Through a grounded theory approach, this paper uses three case studies of community forest management models in the eastern Amazon to create a framework showing challenges faced by communities at different phases of formal management. The framework shows that, in the development phase, four root problems (land ownership, knowledge acquisition, community organization, and adequate capital) need to be addressed to obtain legal management permission. With this permission in hand, further challenges to operationalization are presented (deterring illegal loggers, maintaining infrastructure, obtaining necessary managerial skills and accessing markets). The interrelatedness of these challenges emphasizes that all challenges need to be addressed in a holistic manner for communities to maintain a profitable and self-sufficient operation. This contradicts current development approaches that only address part of this framework. The framework proposed here can be used as a starting point for community forestry initiatives in other regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Full-genome sequences of hepatitis B virus subgenotype D3 isolates from the Brazilian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Natália; Mello, Francisco Ca; Araujo, Natalia Motta

    2015-02-13

    The Brazilian Amazon Region is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, little is known regarding the genetic variability of the strains circulating in this geographical region. Here, we describe the first full-length genomes of HBV isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region; these genomes are also the first complete HBV subgenotype D3 genomes reported for Brazil. The genomes of the five Brazilian isolates were all 3,182 base pairs in length and the isolates were classified as belonging to subgenotype D3, subtypes ayw2 (n = 3) and ayw3 (n = 2). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Brazilian sequences are not likely to be closely related to European D3 sequences. Such results will contribute to further epidemiological and evolutionary studies of HBV.

  14. Full-genome sequences of hepatitis B virus subgenotype D3 isolates from the Brazilian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Natália; Mello, Francisco C A; Araujo, Natalia Motta

    2015-02-01

    The Brazilian Amazon Region is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, little is known regarding the genetic variability of the strains circulating in this geographical region. Here, we describe the first full-length genomes of HBV isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region; these genomes are also the first complete HBV subgenotype D3 genomes reported for Brazil. The genomes of the five Brazilian isolates were all 3,182 base pairs in length and the isolates were classified as belonging to subgenotype D3, subtypes ayw2 (n = 3) and ayw3 (n = 2). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Brazilian sequences are not likely to be closely related to European D3 sequences. Such results will contribute to further epidemiological and evolutionary studies of HBV.

  15. Acidobacterial community responses to agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Acácio A; Kuramae, Eiko E; de Hollander, Mattias; Pijl, Agata S; van Veen, Johannes A; Tsai, Siu M

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the impact of land-use changes and agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils on the abundance and composition of the acidobacterial community. Quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) assays and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene were applied to study the acidobacterial community in bulk soil samples from soybean croplands and adjacent native forests, and mesocosm soil samples from soybean rhizosphere. Based on qPCR measurements, Acidobacteria accounted for 23% in forest soils, 18% in cropland soils, and 14% in soybean rhizosphere of the total bacterial signals. From the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacteria domain, the phylum Acidobacteria represented 28% of the sequences from forest soils, 16% from cropland soils, and 17% from soybean rhizosphere. Acidobacteria subgroups 1-8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18, 22, and 25 were detected with subgroup 1 as dominant among them. Subgroups 4, 6, and 7 were significantly higher in cropland soils than in forest soils, which subgroups responded to decrease in soil aluminum. Subgroups 6 and 7 responded to high content of soil Ca, Mg, Mn, and B. These results showed a differential response of the Acidobacteria subgroups to abiotic soil factors, and open the possibilities to explore acidobacterial subgroups as early-warning bioindicators of agricultural soil management effects in the Amazon area.

  16. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among an immigrant community to the southern Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souto, F J; Fontes, C J; Martelli, C M; Turchi, M D; Martins, R M; Andrade, A L

    1999-01-01

    A community-based random survey was conducted in a southern Brazilian Amazonian county aiming to investigate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence and the association of demographic variables and lifestyle behaviours. Seven hundred eighty individuals were serologically screened with a third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect anti-HCV antibodies between 1994/1995. Positive samples were retested for confirmation with a line immunoassay (LIA, Inno-LIA HCV Ab III). Most of these subjects were low income and came from southern Brazilian states (65.8). Two point four percent (IC 95% 1.2%- 4.6%) of the subjects had LIA-confirmed anti-HCV antibodies reactivity. The age-specific prevalence of HCV antibodies slightly increased with age, with the highest prevalence after the age of 40 years. The results of multivariate analysis indicate a strong association between HCV antibodies and previous surgery and history of intravenous drug use. There were no apparent association with gender, hepatitis B virus markers, blood transfusion, and sexual activity. Mean time living in Amazon did not differ between confirmed and negative anti-HCV individuals. The present data point out an intermediate endemicity of HCV infection among this immigrant community to the Amazon region and that few HCV infected participants presented known risk factors.

  17. [Prevalence of arterial hypertension in communities along the Madeira River, Western Brazilian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Mourão, Dennys de Souza; Gomes, Núbia; Costa, Janaina Mara C; Souza, Andreia Vasconcelos de; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Fonseca, Marlon de Freitas; Mariani, Carolina Fiorillo; Abbad, Guilherme; Hacon, Sandra S

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among adults (n = 841) in communities along the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon, prior to startup of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The study gathered information on sociodemographic conditions, history of diseases, habits, fish consumption, and anthropometric parameters. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and the respective confidence intervals. Among the riverine communities, 26% (95%CI: 23%-29%) of adults presented hypertension (29% in men [95%CI: 24%-33%] and 23% in women [95%CI: 19%-27%]). Factors associated with hypertension were age, BMI, and place of residence in men and age, triglycerides, and blood glucose in women. The findings can contribute to strategies for state and municipal health services to monitor and prevent cardiovascular events.

  18. Sylvatic rabies and the perception of vampire bat activity in communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Escobar, Natalia; Utzet, Mireia; Feijoo-Cid, Maria; Martin, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of sylvatic rabies was reported in indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon in November 2011. The objective of this study was to analyze family dwelling characteristics and other sociodemographic factors associated with the perception of an increase in hematophagous bat bites in humans and domestic animals to assist the implementation of intervention policies in the region. A total of 381 households from communities covered by the outbreak response activities were surveyed. Despite being associated with poorer dwelling conditions, the possession of domestic animals is associated with the perception of an increase in bat bites among animals. Better dwelling conditions, use of protective measures, access to electricity, and no domestic animals are variables associated with the perception of a rise in attacks on humans. The analysis of perceptions of bite frequency is fundamental to improve the effectiveness of vaccination programs and strategies to promote the adoption of preventive measures against rabies among the population.

  19. Isolated starches from yams (Dioscorea sp) grown at the Venezuelan Amazons: structure and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elevina; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Dufour, Dominique; Guzmán, Romel; Tapia, María; Raymundez, Marìa; Ricci, Julien; Guilois, Sophie; Pontoire, Bruno; Reynes, Max; Gibert, Olivier

    2013-10-15

    This work aimed to characterize the molecular structure and functional properties of starches isolated from wild Dioscorea yams grown at the Amazons, using conventional and up-to-date methodologies. Among the high purity starches isolated (≥99%), the chain lengths were similar, whereas variations in gelatinization profile were observed. Starches have shown varied-shaped granules with monomodal distribution, and B-type crystallinity. Variations in amylose contents found by three analyses were hypothesized being related to intermediate material. Linear chain lengths were similar, and their amylopectins showed a dense, spherical conformation and similar molecular characteristics. The average molar mass and the radius of gyration of the chromatograms of the yam amylopectin, M¯W and R¯G were ranging between 174×10(6) g mol(-1) and 237×10(6) g mol(-1), and 201 nm and 233 nm, respectively. The white yams starches were more sensible to enzymes than the other two. All starches have shown a wide range of functional and nutritional properties.

  20. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    PubMed Central

    Albert, James S.; Carvalho, Tiago P.; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A.; Maxime, Emmanuel L.; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E.

    2011-01-01

    , predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma) uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism) and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation) have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin. PMID:26486313

  1. Stability in a changing world - palm community dynamics in the hyperdiverse western Amazon over 17 years.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ingrid; Svenning, Jens-Christian; van Bodegom, Peter M; Valencia, Renato; Balslev, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Are the hyperdiverse local forests of the western Amazon undergoing changes linked to global and local drivers such as climate change, or successional dynamics? We analyzed local climatic records to assess potential climatic changes in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, and compared two censuses (1995, 2012) of a palm community to assess changes in community structure and composition. Over 17 years, the structure and composition of this palm community remained remarkably stable. Soil humidity was significantly lower and canopy conditions were significantly more open in 2012 compared to 1995, but local climatic records showed that no significant changes in precipitation, temperature or river level have occurred during the last decade. Thus, we found no evidence of recent directional shifts in climate or the palm community in Yasuní. The absence of changes in local climate and plant community dynamics in Yasuní contrasts with recent findings from eastern Amazon, where environmental change is driving significant changes in ecosystem dynamics. Our findings suggest that until now, local forests in the northwest Amazon may have escaped pressure from climate change. The stability of this rich palm community embedded in the hyperdiverse Yasuní National Park underlines its uniqueness as a sanctuary for the protection of Amazonian diversity from global change impacts.

  2. Needs, Acceptability, and Value of Humanitarian Medical Assistance in Remote Peruvian Amazon Riverine Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan F.; Halsey, Eric S.; Bayer, Angela M.; Beltran, Martin; Razuri, Hugo R.; Velasquez, Daniel E.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Quispe, Antonio M.; Maves, Ryan C.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Sanders, John W.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Much debate exists regarding the need, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 457 children under 5 years from four remote riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon and collected anthropometric measures, blood samples (1–4 years), and stool samples. Focus groups and key informant interviews assessed perspectives regarding medical aid delivered by foreigners. The prevalence of stunting, anemia, and intestinal parasites was 20%, 37%, and 62%, respectively. Infection with multiple parasites, usually geohelminths, was detected in 41% of children. The prevalence of intestinal parasites both individual and polyparasitism increased with age. Participants from smaller communities less exposed to foreigners expressed lack of trust and fear of them. However, participants from all communities were positive about foreigners visiting to provide health support. Prevalent health needs such as parasitic infections and anemia may be addressed by short-term medical interventions. There is a perceived openness to and acceptability of medical assistance delivered by foreign personnel. PMID:25846293

  3. The effects of CO2 on phytoplankton community structure in the Amazon River Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. L.; Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.; McKee, K. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon River Plume results from an enormous discharge of freshwater and organic matter into the Atlantic Ocean. It is a unique environment with a natural pCO2 gradient in the surface waters of the plume that range from 130-950 μatm. The response of coastal marine phytoplankton to increased anthropogenic CO2 emission is still unknown, hence the Amazon River Plume gradient can serve as a natural laboratory to examine the potential influence of atmospheric CO2 increases and ocean acidification on phytoplankton community composition. A two pronged study was undertaken: the first in which shipboard samples from a 2010 cruise to the Amazon River Plume were analyzed to examine the distribution of 3 major phytoplankton groups (diatoms, diatom-diazotroph associations [DDAs], and the diazotroph Trichodesmium spp.) with respect to the natural pCO2 gradient; the second in which the growth response of Thalassiosira weisflogii, a representative diatom species, was examined under experimentally manipulated CO2 conditions. Cruise data analysis showed that diatoms were found with higher cell counts around 150 μatm; DDAs seemed to dominate waters within the narrow range of 350-400 μatm CO2; and the diazotroph Trichodesmium spp. grew in a wide range of pCO2 conditions, but with higher cell counts at upwards of 500 μatm. Phytoplankton group distributions along the CO2 gradient may be due to differences in their carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCMs) efficiencies. The CO2 manipulation apparatus was assembled such that the cells were grown under three different CO2 environments. Differential growth of T. weisflogii was observed at 150, 400, and 800 ppm CO2 treatment. T. weisflogii grew at all three CO2 concentrations, reflecting diatoms' physiological flexibility and efficient CCMs. Absorption spectra analysis of pigments and Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer analysis indicate potential changes in photosynthetic machinery with different CO2 treatments. Future CO2 manipulation

  4. Epidemiologic confirmation that fruit consumption influences mercury exposure in riparian communities in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa Passos, Carlos Jose Mergler, Donna; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Melanie; Mertens, Frederic; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Philibert, Aline

    2007-10-15

    Since deforestation has recently been associated with increased mercury load in the Amazon, the problem of mercury exposure is now much more widespread than initially thought. A previous exploratory study suggested that fruit consumption may reduce mercury exposure. The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of fruit consumption on the relation between fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury (Hg) exposure in Amazonian fish-eating communities. A cross-sectional dietary survey based on a 7-day recall of fish and fruit consumption frequency was conducted within 13 riparian communities from the Tapajos River, Brazilian Amazon. Hair samples were collected from 449 persons, and blood samples were collected from a subset of 225, for total and inorganic mercury determination by atomic absorption spectrometry. On average, participants consumed 6.6 fish meals/week and ate 11 fruits/week. The average blood Hg (BHg) was 57.1{+-}36.3 {mu}g/L (median: 55.1 {mu}g/L), and the average hair-Hg (HHg) was 16.8{+-}10.3 {mu}g/g (median: 15.7 {mu}g/g). There was a positive relation between fish consumption and BHg (r=0.48; P<0.0001), as well as HHg (r=0.34; P<0.0001). Both fish and fruit consumption entered significantly in multivariate models explaining BHg (fish: {beta}=5.6, P<0.0001; fruit: {beta}=-0.5, P=0.0011; adjusted model R{sup 2}=36.0%) and HHg levels (fish: {beta}=1.2, P<0.0001; fruit: {beta}=-0.2, P=0.0002; adjusted model R{sup 2}=21.0%). ANCOVA models showed that for the same number of fish meals, persons consuming fruits more frequently had significantly lower blood and HHg concentrations. For low fruit consumers, each fish meal contributed 9.8 {mu}g/L Hg increase in blood compared to only 3.3 {mu}g/L Hg increase for the high fruit consumers. In conclusion, fruit consumption may provide a protective effect for Hg exposure in Amazonian riparians. Prevention strategies that seek to maintain fish consumption while reducing Hg exposure in fish

  5. Structure of the parasites communities in two Erythrinidae fish from Amazon river system (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Natália Milhomem; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the parasite communities of Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus from Amazon river system. Hoplias malabaricus were infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Tetrahymena sp., Urocleidoides eremitus, Braga patagonica, metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and larvae of Nomimoscolex matogrossensis. Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus were also infected by these same species of protozoans, nematodes, digeneans and cestodes, except for Tetrahymena sp. and B. patagonica, which were replaced by Argulus pestifer, Urocleidoides sp., Whittingtonocotyle caetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju and Gorytocephalus spectabilis. For both hosts, I. multifiliis and P. pillulare were the predominant parasites. Most of the parasites presented an overdispersion. Parasite species richness, Brillouin diversity, evenness and Berger-Parker dominance were similar for the two hosts. The length and weight of H. malabaricus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of U. eremitus and Contracaecum sp., while the weight of H. unitaeniatus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of I. multifiliis. The diversity of ectoparasites seemed to be influenced by the behavior of these two hosts. This was shown by the similar parasite communities and was characterized by low species diversity, low evenness and low richness, and by a high prevalence of ectoparasites.

  6. Environmental impact and seroepidemiology of HTLV in two communities in the eastern Brazilian amazon.

    PubMed

    Magno Falcão, Luiz Fábio; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Feio Libonati, Rosana Maria; de Souza Aarão, Tinara Leila; Moura Guimarães, André Gustavo; Martins, Luisa Carício; Simões Quaresma, Juarez Antônio

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to detect antibodies for human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) in subjects residing in two communities located in the eastern Brazilian Amazon and on the shores of the Tucuruí hydroelectric power plant. A total of 657 serum samples were analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with an anti-HTLV antibody (Symbiosis™, São Paulo, Brazil), demonstrating a virus prevalence of 4.7%. Most individuals with HTLV were aged over 30 years (P = 0.013), were unmarried (P = 0.019), resided in the area for more than 10 years (P = 0.001), had a low level of education (P = 0.015), and had a family income of up to $305 (100%). In contrast, there was no significant association between infection and sex, city of birth, haemotransfusion, or previous surgery. The prevalence observed in these communities suggests that the residents should be concerned about HTLV infection, and that some areas may become endemic for HTLV. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Duffy blood group genotypes among African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Perna, S J Q; Cardoso, G L; Guerreiro, J F

    2007-03-29

    Duffy blood group genotype was studied in 95 unrelated subjects from four African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region: Trombetas, Pitimandeua, Curiaú, and Mazagão Velho. Genotyping was performed using an allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction technique for determining the three major alleles at FY blood group, and as expected, FY*O allele was the most common one, with frequencies ranging from 56.4% in Mazagão Velho to 72.2% in Pitimandeua, whereas the FY*O/FY*O genotype was found with frequencies between 32.3% in Mazagão Velho and 58.8% in Curiaú. Genotype and allele distributions in the four Amazonian communities are consistent with a predominantly African origin with some degree of local differentiation and admixture with people of Caucasian ancestry and/or Amerindians. These results reveal that the impact of the FY*O/FY*O genotype on the transmission and endemicity of the vivax malaria deserves to be investigated in full detail in an attempt to identify the contribution of host biological factors and explain the non-homogeneous prevalence of malaria in the region expressed by its different levels of exposure.

  8. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm

    PubMed Central

    Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Costa, Ohana Yonara Assis; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7%) were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers) were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest) and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area). More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied. PMID:27006640

  9. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm.

    PubMed

    Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Costa, Ohana Yonara Assis; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7%) were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers) were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest) and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area). More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied.

  10. [Profiles of intestinal polyparasitism in a community of the Colombian Amazon region].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Niño, Julián A; Astudillo-García, Claudia I; Segura, Laura María; Gómez, Natalia; Salazar, Ángela Skantria; Tabares, Juan Hember; Restrepo, Cristian Andrés; Ruiz, Miguel Ángel; López, Myriam Consuelo; Reyes, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal parasite infections and polyparasitism are highly prevalent in the most vulnerable populations of developing countries due to environmental, biological and social determinants common in the transmission of parasites. Children between 1 and 15 years of age are the most affected population. To describe the prevalence and profiles of intestinal polyparasitism in 1 to 15 year-old children from native communities in the Colombian Amazon region. We used a non-probability sampling of 300 children between 1 and 15 years of age from several rural settlements and the main urban area of Puerto Nariño, Amazonas, Colombia, who participated voluntarily in the study. We obtained fecal samples that were analyzed by the direct method (0.85% saline solution-lugol) and the Kato-Katz technique. The most prevalent polyparasitism profiles were identified using Cohen's kappa coefficient with a 95% confidence interval. The prevalence of polyparasitism, defined as the presence of at least two intestinal pathogenic parasites, was 84% (95 % CI: 79.35-87.96). Polyparasitism by two or three of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Blastocystis sp., Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus from the Ancylostomatidae family, and Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii of the Entamoeba complex, had the highest prevalence. Several intestinal polyparasitism profiles were found, although in most cases fewer than six parasites were involved. Better prevalence estimations and identification of determinant factors will allow to priorize and direct resources to control these infections.

  11. Micro-epidemiology and spatial heterogeneity of P. vivax parasitaemia in riverine communities of the Peruvian Amazon: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Castro, Marcia C; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Rodriguez, Hugo; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Alava, Freddy; Speybroeck, Niko; Lescano, Andres G; Vinetz, Joseph M; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2017-08-14

    Malaria has steadily increased in the Peruvian Amazon over the last five years. This study aimed to determine the parasite prevalence and micro-geographical heterogeneity of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia in communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Four cross-sectional active case detection surveys were conducted between May and July 2015 in four riverine communities in Mazan district. Analysis of 2785 samples of 820 individuals nested within 154 households for Plasmodium parasitaemia was carried out using light microscopy and qPCR. The spatio-temporal distribution of Plasmodium parasitaemia, dominated by P. vivax, was shown to cluster at both household and community levels. Of enrolled individuals, 47% had at least one P. vivax parasitaemia and 10% P. falciparum, by qPCR, both of which were predominantly sub-microscopic and asymptomatic. Spatial analysis detected significant clustering in three communities. Our findings showed that communities at small-to-moderate spatial scales differed in P. vivax parasite prevalence, and multilevel Poisson regression models showed that such differences were influenced by factors such as age, education, and location of households within high-risk clusters, as well as factors linked to a local micro-geographic context, such as travel and occupation. Complex transmission patterns were found to be related to human mobility among communities in the same micro-basin.

  12. Modeling Amazon forest vegetation dynamics and community response to increased wind disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Marra, D.; Rifai, S. W.; Knox, R. G.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; McGroddy, M. E.; Urquiza-Muñoz, J. D.; Tello-Espinoza, R.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; Higuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the drivers of tree mortality in Amazonia is a complex task, yet essential to reliable prediction of carbon storage in a warmer climate. Past studies have shown an east-west gradient of forest disturbance and rainfall amount across Amazonia. This study uses remote sensing and dynamic vegetation modeling to take a deeper look at drivers of tree mortality and community composition shifts associated with varying mortality rates. Our analysis, using 20 years of Landsat 5 images, showed that ever-wet Amazonia (located in north-west Amazonia, i.e. NWA) was more susceptible to windthrows than the Central Amazon (i.e. CA), which has a a well-defined dry season. The higher frequency of windthrows in NWA forest correlates with higher frequency and intensity of deep convection events in this region, observed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. While a combination of factors including: soil characteristics (and by proxy rooting depth) and community composition exacerbate the regional gradient of disturbance, wind was the mechanistic agent of disturbance. Using an individual-based gap model for tropical forests populated with the most representative NWA tree species and increased mortality rates, we found a decrease of biomass in this region and a slight increase in NPP compared to a control simulation, a pattern that is similar to observations. The model predicted which species had the largest response in basal area change due to elevated disturbance, but there was a non-significant shift in community composition in the NWA forests. However, analysis found strong differences in community composition between the modeled NWA and CA regions, consistent with observed results. When CA forests were subject to higher mortality rate similar to the current NWA region, dissimilarity in community composition continued to persist. In addition the model identified species-specific maximum tree height and maximum diameter as the most influential predictors of

  13. Impacts of extreme events of drought and flood on local communities of Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borma, L. D.; Roballo, S.; Zauner, M.; Nascimento, V. F.

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of drought events of 1997/98, 2005 and 2010 in terms of discharge anomalies in the Amazon region confirmed previous findings, such as: a) the influence of the El Niño in more than one hydrological year; b) the increase of the influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation of 1998, 2005 and 2010 drought events; c) the low levels of discharge observed in the 2010 drought are attributed to the association of discharge anomalies of the northern and southern tributaries of the Amazon river, and d) the 2010 drought lasted around 1 month (August to November) more than the other drought events analized here. The riverine communities located along the river banks of Solimões/Amazonas suit their economic activities to the oscillation of the water level. In general, low water periods favor the access to important sources of food such as fish and livestock, still allowing crop cultivation on fertile agricultural areas of the floodplain. Conversely, periods of drought increases the difficulties of transport and drinking water supply. During the high water, access to the main food supply (described above) are greatly hampered. However, the floods are recognized as an importance process of natural fertilization. Thus, despite the political, social and economic shortcomings, the local community has, since the pre-colonial period, learned to get the best of each season, providing local, regional and national markets with varzea products. During periods of extreme weather, however, the advantages of each season appear to be reduced, and the drawbacks increased. In fact, during flooding extremes, the access to primary sources of food is hampered by a long period of time and families find themselves forced to leave their homes, eventually losing them. Analysis of flow data to the extreme flooding of 2009, indicate a period of about 6 months of positive anomalies discharge (occurring mainly during high water). At the same time, Civil Defense data points to a

  14. Isolation and characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a virgin Brazilian Amazon region with potential to degrade atrazine.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Flavia Tonelli; da Silva, Michelle Barbosa Partata; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2014-12-01

    The use of pesticides to increase agricultural production can result in the contamination of the environment, causing changes in the genetic structure of organisms and in the loss of biodiversity. This practice is also inducing changes in the rainforest ecosystem. In this work, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a preservation soil area of the Brazilian Amazon Forest, without usage of any pesticide, was evaluated for its potential to degrade atrazine. This isolate presented all responsible genes (atzA, atzB, atzC, atzD, atzE, and atzF) for atrazine mineralization and demonstrated capacity to use atrazine as a nitrogen source, having achieved a reduction of 44 % of the initial concentration of atrazine after 24 h. These results confirm gene dispersion and/or a possible contamination of the area with the herbicide, which reinforces global concern of the increase and intensive use of pesticides worldwide.

  15. Microbial community composition and metagenomes across the river-to-ocean continuum of the Columbia and Amazon Rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, B. C.; Doherty, M.; Fortunato, C.; Simon, H. M.; Smit, M. W.; Krusche, A. V.; Brito, D.; Cunha, A.; Fernandes, M.; Zielinski, B.; Paul, J. H.; Ward, N. D.; Richey, J. E.; Satinsky, B. M.; Sharma, S.; Smith, C. B.; Moran, M.; Yager, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers are the primary conduits for land-to-ocean transfer of materials including terrestrial organic matter, nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants. Microbial communities in rivers, estuaries, and plumes regulate the nutrient concentrations and biogeochemistry of these riverborne materials and mediate their impact on carbon cycling. Despite their importance little is known about the composition and genetic capabilities of these organisms. Here we describe and compare the phylogeny and metagenomic profiles of microbial communities across the river-to-ocean gradients of two very large rivers: the tropical Amazon and temperate Columbia rivers. For the Amazon, samples were collected from the lower 600 km of the river and from surface waters across 1300 km of the plume in 2010 and 2011. For the Columbia, samples were collected along the gradient from river to deep ocean during 14 cruises between 2007 and 2010. Amplicon pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that bacterial communities were similar along the length of the lower Amazon River with variability caused by inputs from major tributaries. Freshwater taxa from both rivers were very rare in plume waters, but in the Columbia River estuary freshwater taxa mixed with marine communities. Communities in both rivers shifted with local seasons, likely due to changes in river environmental conditions including dissolved and particulate organic matter, river flow, and light availability. Seasonal variability was less pronounced in river plumes where spatial variability was greater than temporal variability. Bacterial community composition was very different between the two systems, and was most similar at the marine end of the gradient outside the plumes. Illumina-based metagenomic analyses of a subset of these samples showed similarity in the relative abundance of many annotated gene categories despite differences in phylogeny across salinity gradients. However, several categories of genes varied in relative

  16. Prevalence of rotavirus antibody among isolated South American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Linhares, A C; Salbé, E V; Gabbay, Y B; Rees, N

    1986-04-01

    Rotavirus antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 711 (54.7%) of 1,299 serum samples collected from Indians belonging to 13 relatively isolated communities in the Amazon region. The Parakanãs Novos Indians showed prevalences of immunity of 17.9% and 10.7% by ELISA and the indirect fluorescent antibody technique, respectively. The remaining tribes, with the exception of the Yanomamis, Tucanos, and Xicrins, had percentages of positivity greater than 50% by at least one technique; among both the Kubenkrankreins and the Oyampis, all individuals over 20 years of age possessed antibody. High percentages of rotavirus positivity were observed among the Apalais, ranging from 56.0% (age group 31-40 years) to 74.0% (age group 0-5 years). In the Kubenkrankreins, Maiogongs, and Tucanos, the prevalences of rotavirus antibody regularly increased with age. ELISA and the indirect fluorescent antibody technique agreed in 72.5% of the specimens, but the former test yielded more positives than the latter.

  17. Culture and Community in Canada's Isolated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina

    This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…

  18. Influence of the Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, Joaquim I.; Gomes, Helga do Rosario; Chekalyuk, Alexander M.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Coles, Victoria J.; Yager, Patricia L.; Berelson, William M.; Capone, Douglas G.; Foster, Rachel A.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Subramaniam, Ajit; Hafez, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Laser Fluorometer (ALF) capable of discriminating several phytoplankton pigment types was utilized in conjunction with microscopic data to map the distribution of phytoplankton communities in the Amazon River plume in May-June-2010, when discharge from the river was at its peak. Cluster analysis and Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) helped distinguish three distinct biological communities that separated largely on the basis of salinity gradients across the plume. These three communities included an "estuarine type" comprised of a high biomass mixed population of diatoms, cryptophytes and green-water Synechococcus spp. located upstream of the plume, a "mesohaline type" made up largely of communities of Diatom-Diazotroph Associations (DDAs) and located in the northwestern region of the plume and an "oceanic type" in the oligotrophic waters outside of the plume made up of Trichodesmium and Synechococcus spp. Although salinity appeared to have a substantial influence on the distribution of different phytoplankton groups, ALF and microscopic measurements examined in the context of the hydro-chemical environment of the river plume, helped establish that the phytoplankton community structure and distribution were strongly controlled by inorganic nitrate plus nitrite (NO3 + NO2) availability whose concentrations were low throughout the plume. Towards the southern, low-salinity region of the plume, NO3 + NO2 supplied by the onshore flow of subsurface (∼80 m depth) water, ensured the continuous sustenance of the mixed phytoplankton bloom. The large drawdown of SiO3 and PO4 associated with this "estuarine type" mixed bloom at a magnitude comparable to that observed for DDAs in the mesohaline waters, leads us to contend that, diatoms, cryptophytes and Synechococcus spp., fueled by the offshore influx of nutrients also play an important role in the cycling of nutrients in the Amazon River plume.

  19. Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy. After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series. Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) Objective of the Evidence-Based Analysis The objective was to systematically review interventions aimed at preventing or reducing social isolation and loneliness in community-dwelling seniors, that is, persons ≥ 65 years of age who are not living in long-term care institutions. The analyses focused on the following questions: Are interventions to reduce social isolation and

  20. Emergence and robustness of a community discussion network on mercury contamination and health in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Frédéric; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Lucotte, Marc; Mergler, Donna

    2008-08-01

    Information exchanges, debates, and negotiations through community social networks are essential to ensure the sustainability of the development process initiated in participatory research. The authors analyze the structural properties and robustness of a discussion network about mercury issues in a community in the Brazilian Amazon involved in a participatory research aimed at reducing exposure to the pollutant. Most of the villagers are connected in a large network and are separated from other individuals by few intermediaries. The structure of the discussion network displays resilience to the random elimination of villagers but shows vulnerability to the removal of one villager who has been a long-term collaborator of the project. Although the network exhibits a structure likely to favor an efficient flow of information, results show that specific actions should be taken to stimulate the emergence of a pool of opinion leaders and increase the redundancy of discussion channels.

  1. East of the Andes: The genetic profile of the Peruvian Amazon populations.

    PubMed

    Di Corcia, T; Sanchez Mellado, C; Davila Francia, T J; Ferri, G; Sarno, S; Luiselli, D; Rickards, O

    2017-06-01

    Assuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments. We analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America. We detected a high degree of genetic diversity in the Peruvian Amazon people, both for mtDNA than for Y chromosome, excepting for Cashibo people, who seem to have had no exchanges with their neighbors, in contrast with the others communities. The genetic structure follows the divide between the Andes and the Amazon, but we found a certain degree of gene flow between these two environments, as particularly emerged with the Y chromosome descent cluster's (DCs) analysis. The Peruvian Amazon is home to an array of populations with differential rates of genetic exchanges with their neighbors and with the Andean people, depending on their peculiar demographic histories. We highlighted some successful Y chromosome lineages expansions originated in Peru during the pre-Columbian history which involved both Andeans and Amazon Arawak people, showing that at least a part of the Amazon rainforest did not remain isolated from those exchanges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View ... of the world's mightiest rivers. This image of the Amazon's mouth was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... available at JPL September 8, 2000 - Mouth of the mighty Amazon River. project:  MISR ...

  3. Vulnerability associated with "symptoms similar to those of mercury poisoning" in communities from Xingu River, Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Da Silva-Junior, Flávio Mnaoel Rodrigues; Oleinski, Ritta M; Azevedo, Antonia E S; Monroe, Kátia C M C; Dos Santos, Marina; Da Silveira, Tatiane Britto; De Oliveira, Adrianne Maria Netto; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Pereira, Tatiana Da Silva

    2017-06-03

    The Brazilian Amazon is known to be a region with high levels of mercury (Hg) in the environment and studies point to an association between high levels of natural mercury in the mother rock and the vast number of clandestine gold mines. Other studies already report the contamination of fish in this region, as well as high levels of Hg in biological material from environmentally exposed populations. On the other hand, this is one of the least developed regions of the planet and it is necessary to understand the vulnerability factors in these populations that may be intoxicated by this element. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the vulnerability factors in communities from Xingu River-Amazon basin probably exposed to Hg. A cross-selection study in two cities localized in Xingu River was conducted, and the sample contained was 268 individuals. sociodemographic questions, lifestyle, diet habits and health conditions were collated. The majority of the sample was female, between 30 and 59 years old, had less than 3 years of educational level and lived in the local of study more than 240 months. There was regular fish consumption (95.9%), principally carnivorous species (80.5%). The visual problem has a highest prevalence (43.3%) between the health problems and about the symptoms of Hg intoxication, memory loss (42.9%), weakness (35.1%), fatigue (34.3%), mood changes (28.7%) and difficulties in concentration (27.2%) was most reported. The female sex, age over 60, educational level below 3 years of study, did not had flush toilet, smoke and least one chronic non-communicable disease represent higher probability to had symptoms of Hg intoxication. Lack of access to health services, low education level and income evidence the susceptibility of this community to diseases and injuries. The vulnerable groups identified in this study should be a priority in public health and environmental health policies.

  4. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA02 Isolated from an Ovine Host in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Muge, Gabriel R. S.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Queiroz; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G. M.; Azevedo, Vasco; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA02 isolated from an ovine host. The genome contains 2,328,435 bp, a 52.2% G+C content, 2,035 coding sequences, 12 rRNA operons, 45 tRNAs, and 14 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27516524

  5. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of endophytic bacteria isolated from banana cultivars in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Souza, Á; Nogueira, V B; Cruz, J C; Sousa, N R; Procópio, A R L; Silva, G F

    2015-08-19

    Endophytic microorganisms colonize plants, inhibit the growth of pathogens (by competing for nutrients and/or space), or produce antagonistic substances. Fifty-five endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaf tissue of the FHIA 18 banana cultivar. Genetic diversity analyses were performed using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence polymerase chain reaction method and BOX molecular markers. These analyses resulted in 33 and 21 polymorphic bands, respectively. The similarity data, obtained using the Dice coefficient based on the polyphasic analysis method, ranged from 22 to 100%. This indicated a high genetic diversity among the analyzed isolates. Sixty percent similarity was utilized as the cut-off criterion for the formation of operational taxonomic units (OTUs); this resulted in the identification of 32 possible OTUs, indicating a high number of potential species.

  6. The dilemma of contact: voluntary isolation and the impacts of gas exploitation on health and rights in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve, Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, Dora A.; Ryan, Aliya S. S.

    2007-10-01

    Many small groups of indigenous peoples in the Amazon basin avoid and resist direct encounters with outsiders. As far as we know, they do so because of appalling experiences in earlier encounters with national society. When contacted today, they are extremely vulnerable to introduced diseases and exploitation. In this paper we draw on our experience in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve for isolated peoples in SE Peru to discuss some of the current debates about whether isolated peoples should be contacted and how best to respect their right to life, health, autonomy and territory. The remote headwater regions where isolated peoples sought refuge during the last century are increasingly sought after for resource extraction. In particular, the extraction of oil and gas is increasing throughout the Peruvian Amazon. In the second part of the paper we give some examples of how oil/gas companies and the energy sector in Peru have affected the well-being of the peoples in this reserve in the 21st century. If this trend is not reversed the impacts for isolated peoples will be irreparable.

  7. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; de Almeida, Sílvia Maria; de Lima, Edna Tereza; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Pinczowski, Pedro; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2010-03-01

    Avian salmonellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella that can cause three distinct diseases in birds: pullorum diseases, fowl typhoid, and paratyphoid infection. Various wildlife species are susceptible to infections by Salmonella, regardless of whether they live in captivity or freely in the wild. The present study verified the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in three captive specimens of Amazona aestiva. The study involved a total of 103 birds undergoing rehabilitation to prepare for living in the wild, after having been captured from animal traffickers and delivered to the Centrofauna Project of the Floravida Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in A. aestiva that originated from capture associated with animal trafficking; Salmonella was detected during the study by the serologic method of rapid serum agglutination on a plate with bacterial isolate. The antimicrobial profile exam of the isolated samples demonstrated sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and cloranfenicol. The three samples also presented resistance to more than four antibiotics. The presence of the genes invA and spvC was verified by PCR technique and was associated with virulence and absence of class 1 integron, a gene related to antimicrobial resistance. The commercial antigen for pullorum disease was shown to be a useful tool for rapid detection in the screening of Salmonella of serogroup D1 in Psittaciformes. New studies on Salmonella carriage in birds involved in trafficking must be performed to better understand their participation in the epidemiologic cycle of salmonellosis in humans and other animals.

  8. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

  9. Links between plant and fungal communities across a deforestation chronosequence in the Amazon rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Rebecca C; Paula, Fabiana S; Mirza, Babur S; Rodrigues, Jorge LM; Nüsslein, Klaus; Bohannan, Brendan JM

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the interactions among microbial communities, plant communities and soil properties following deforestation could provide insights into the long-term effects of land-use change on ecosystem functions, and may help identify approaches that promote the recovery of degraded sites. We combined high-throughput sequencing of fungal rDNA and molecular barcoding of plant roots to estimate fungal and plant community composition in soil sampled across a chronosequence of deforestation. We found significant effects of land-use change on fungal community composition, which was more closely correlated to plant community composition than to changes in soil properties or geographic distance, providing evidence for strong links between above- and below-ground communities in tropical forests. PMID:24451208

  10. Links between plant and fungal communities across a deforestation chronosequence in the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Rebecca C; Paula, Fabiana S; Mirza, Babur S; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the interactions among microbial communities, plant communities and soil properties following deforestation could provide insights into the long-term effects of land-use change on ecosystem functions, and may help identify approaches that promote the recovery of degraded sites. We combined high-throughput sequencing of fungal rDNA and molecular barcoding of plant roots to estimate fungal and plant community composition in soil sampled across a chronosequence of deforestation. We found significant effects of land-use change on fungal community composition, which was more closely correlated to plant community composition than to changes in soil properties or geographic distance, providing evidence for strong links between above- and below-ground communities in tropical forests.

  11. Environmental aspects related to tuberculosis and intestinal parasites in a low-income community of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Biatriz Araújo; Fonseca, Fabio de Oliveira; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de; Martins, Ana Caroline Guedes Souza; Oliveira, Nissa Vilhena da Silva; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2017-08-07

    We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State) to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts) latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI). We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes. The average rate of TB was 105/100, 000 inhabitants per year; one third of TB patients had been household contacts of infected individuals in the past, and 23% of rCts were LTBI. More than half (65%) of 44% of the stools examined (representing 76% of the housing) had IPIs; the highest prevalence was of fecal-oral transmitted protozoa (40%, Giardia intestinalis ), followed by soil-transmitted helminths (23%). TB transmission may be related to insufficient disease control of rCts, frequent relocation, and underreporting. Education, adopting hygienic habits, improving sanitation, provision of a treated water supply and efficient sewage system, further comprehensive epidemiological surveillance of those who enter and leave the community and resources for basic treatment of IPIs are crucial in combating the transmission of these neglected diseases.

  12. Environmental aspects related to tuberculosis and intestinal parasites in a low-income community of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Biatriz Araújo; Fonseca, Fabio de Oliveira; de Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida; Martins, Ana Caroline Guedes Souza; Oliveira, Nissa Vilhena da Silva; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State) to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts) latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI). We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes. The average rate of TB was 105/100, 000 inhabitants per year; one third of TB patients had been household contacts of infected individuals in the past, and 23% of rCts were LTBI. More than half (65%) of 44% of the stools examined (representing 76% of the housing) had IPIs; the highest prevalence was of fecal-oral transmitted protozoa (40%, Giardia intestinalis ), followed by soil-transmitted helminths (23%). TB transmission may be related to insufficient disease control of rCts, frequent relocation, and underreporting. Education, adopting hygienic habits, improving sanitation, provision of a treated water supply and efficient sewage system, further comprehensive epidemiological surveillance of those who enter and leave the community and resources for basic treatment of IPIs are crucial in combating the transmission of these neglected diseases. PMID:28793025

  13. Functional, balance and health determinants of falls in a free living community Amazon riparian elderly.

    PubMed

    Maia Ribeiro, Ednéa Aguiar; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; Viegas, Karin; Teixeira, Fernanda; dos Santos Montagner, Greice Franciele Feyh; Mota, Kennya Márcia; Barbisan, Fernanda; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; de Paz, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate socio-economic, clinical, anthropometric, balance and functional fitness factors present in Amazon riparian older persons that can be associated with a risk of falling. A cross sectional study was performed with 637 riverine elderly residents (≥60 years old) in Maués city Amazonas, Brazil. The elderly were grouped in two categories with and without a history of falls in the past six months. The following variables were compared between these groups: self-reported social and health conditions; biochemical and physiological variables related to the control of metabolic diseases; body composition; hand grip strength; functional fitness evaluation using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) battery, and balance condition using the Berg Balance Test (BBT). The prevalence of at least one fall in the past six months was 24.6% (n=157) and was similar between the sexes. The mean age between males and females with and without a history of falls was also similar (males with falls=72.67 ± 8.86; males with no falls=73.26 ± 7.58) female falls=71.78 ± 8.18, female with no falls=71.48 ± 8.17). A history of falls was associated with hospitalization in the last year and to self-health perception to both sexes and presence of chronic morbidity and percentage of body fat (BF) to women. However, the other variables including balance and functional fitness, did not present differences between elderly with and without a history of falls. These results suggest that falls experienced by the riparian elderly are strongly associated to accidents due to environmental conditions related to daily life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health, healthcare access, and use of traditional versus modern medicine in remote Peruvian Amazon communities: a descriptive study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Health, Healthcare Access, and Use of Traditional Versus Modern Medicine in Remote Peruvian Amazon Communities: A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

  16. Human rabies transmitted by vampire bats: antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from the Amazon region (Brazil and Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Castilho, Juliana Galera; Carnieli, Pedro; Durymanova, Ekaterina A; Fahl, Willian de Oliveira; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Macedo, Carla Isabel; da Rosa, Elizabeth Salbe Travassos; Mantilla, Anibal; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete

    2010-10-01

    Since 2004, the main transmitter of human rabies in Latin America has been the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). Based on the nucleoprotein of the rabies virus (RV), we analyzed antigenic and genetic profiles of isolates from 29 samples taken from humans living in different areas of the Amazon region. Two isolates were from Ecuador and 27 from the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil, which were obtained during outbreaks in various municipalities in the states of Pará and Maranhão in the years 2004 and 2005. The partial N gene (nt 104-1477) of the 29 isolates was sequenced, and the sequences were used to build a neighbor-joining tree with the Kimura-2 parameter model. All 29 human RV isolates were identified as belonging to antigenic variant 3 (AgV3) and were genetically grouped into the D. rotundus cluster, which was divided into two subclusters (A and B), subcluster A in turn being divided into four genetic groups (A1, A2, A3 and A4). Genetic and molecular markers characterizing these genetic lineages were also identified. The results of this study show that the isolates belong to the same rabies cycle as that of the vampire bat D. rotundus. However, the division of clusters within the lineage associated with D. rotundus shows that different genetic sublineages of the virus were circulating in the Amazon region during the study period. Our findings suggest that there are phylogeographic differences between isolates obtained over a short period. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conservation and development projects in the Brazilian Amazon: lessons from the Community Initiative Program in Rondônia.

    PubMed

    Browder, John O

    2002-06-01

    Community-based conservation and development has become the prevailing programmatic paradigm of conservation organizations and development donors over the last 20 years, spawning a myriad of integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP) around the world. Appealing for its ambitious aspiration to harmonize sustainable economic development at the local level with the conservation of legally established protected areas (e.g., parks and reserves), the ICDP approach recently has drawn criticism from conservation biologists for failing to ensure adequate protection of biodiversity. Development planners and economists have also raised questions about the financial sustainability of ICDPs in practice and the replicability of the model from highly local contexts to larger regional scales. This paper briefly reviews the central elements of the concept of integrated conservation and development and the emerging debate over its effectiveness. A description of the Community Initiative Program (CIP), a pilot program of the Rondônia Natural Resources Management project (PLANAFLORO) in the western Brazilian Amazon state of Rondônia, follows. The CIP is a significant experiment because it boldly attempted to apply the principles of ICDP to the regional scale involving numerous different communities in one program simultaneously. Based on the author's mid-term review of the CIP in 1999, the development and conservation impacts of the program are considered. While the CIP has not significantly curbed the degradation of protected areas in Rondônia as intended, the evidence suggests lower rates of deforestation in municipios (i.e. counties) with the highest concentrations of CIP projects. Although the economic development impacts are mixed, approximately 50% of the projects delivered tangible benefits to local communities. Lessons learned from the CIP are presented in the final section. Among the lessons learned from the CIP, detailed in the final section, are several that

  18. Mapping the geographic distribution of canopy species communities in lowland Amazon rainforest with CAO-AToMS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping regional canopy diversity will greatly advance our understanding as well as the conservation of tropical rainforests. Changes in species composition across space and time are particularly important to understand the influence of climate, human activity and environmental factors on these ecosystems, but to date such monitoring is extremely challenging and is facing a scale gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. Advances were recently made in the field of spectroscopic imagery for the estimation of canopy alpha-diversity, and an original approach based on the segmentation of the spectral space proved its ability to estimate Shannon diversity index with unprecedented accuracy. We adapted this method in order to estimate spectral dissimilarity across landscape as a proxy for changes in species composition. We applied this approach and mapped species composition over four sites located in lowland rainforest of Peruvian Amazon. This study was based on spectroscopic imagery acquired using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), operating a unique sensor combining the fine spectral and spatial resolution required for such task. We obtained accurate estimation of Bray-Curtis distance between pairs of plots, which is the most commonly used metric to estimate dissimilarity in species composition (n=497 pairs, r=0.63). The maps of species composition were then compared to topo-hydrographic properties. Our results indicated a strong shift in species composition and community diversity between floodplain and terra firme terrain conditions as well as a significantly higher diversity of species communities within Amazonian floodplains. These results pave the way for global mapping of tropical canopy diversity at fine geographic resolution.

  19. A Serine Protease Isolated from the Bristles of the Amazonic Caterpillar, Premolis semirufa, Is a Potent Complement System Activator

    PubMed Central

    Villas Boas, Isadora Maria; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Magnoli, Fabio Carlos; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M.; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The caterpillar of the moth Premolis semirufa, commonly named pararama, is found in the Brazilian Amazon region. Accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles causes an intense itching sensation, followed by symptoms of an acute inflammation, which last for three to seven days after the first incident. After multiple accidents a chronic inflammatory reaction, called “Pararamose”, characterized by articular synovial membrane thickening with joint deformities common to chronic synovitis, frequently occurs. Although complement mediated inflammation may aid the host defense, inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system and generation of anaphylatoxins can lead to inflammatory disorder and pathologies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vitro, whether the Premolis semirufa’s bristles extract could interfere with the human complement system. Results The bristles extract was able to inhibit the haemolytic activity of the alternative pathway, as well as the activation of the lectin pathway, but had no effect on the classical pathway, and this inhibition seemed to be caused by activation and consumption of complement components. The extract induced the production of significant amounts of all three anaphylatoxins, C3a, C4a and C5a, promoted direct cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and induced a significant generation of terminal complement complexes in normal human serum. By using molecular exclusion chromatography, a serine protease of 82 kDa, which activates complement, was isolated from P. semirufa bristles extract. The protease, named here as Ps82, reduced the haemolytic activity of the alternative and classical pathways and inhibited the lectin pathway. In addition, Ps82 induced the cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and the generation of C3a and C4a in normal human serum and it was capable to cleave human purified C5 and generate C5a. The use of Phenanthroline, metalloprotease inhibitor, in the reactions did not significantly

  20. The Role of Competition in Structuring Primate Communities under Different Productivity Regimes in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juliana Monteiro de Almeida; Pinto, Míriam Plaza; Boubli, Jean Philippe; Grelle, Carlos Eduardo Viveiros

    2015-01-01

    The factors responsible for the formation of Amazonian primate communities are not well understood. Here we investigated the influence of interspecific competition in the assembly of these communities, specifically whether they follow an assembly rule known as "favored states". According to this rule, interspecific competition influences final species composition, resulting in functional groups that are equally represented in the community. We compiled presence-absence data for primate species at 39 Amazonian sites in Brazil, contrasting two regions with distinct productivity regimes: the eutrophic Juruá River basin and the oligotrophic Negro River basin. We tested two hypotheses: that interspecific competition is a mechanism that influences the structure of Amazonian primate communities, and that competition has had a greater influence on the structure of primate communities in regions with low productivity, where resources are more limited. We used null models to test the statistical significance of the results, and found a non-random pattern compatible with the favored states rule in the two regions. Our findings suggest that interspecific competition is an important force driving primate community assembly regardless of productivity regimes. PMID:26696089

  1. Lessons from a Community-Based Program to Monitor Forest Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Maíra; von Mühlen, Eduardo M; Venticinque, Eduardo M

    2017-09-01

    A large number of sustainable use reserves recently have been titled in the Brazilian Amazonia. These reserves require public participation in the design and implementation of management and monitoring programs. Species-monitoring programs that engage local stakeholders may be useful for assessing wildlife status over the long term. We collaborated on the development of a participatory program to monitor forest vertebrates in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve and to build capacity among the local people. We examined relations between the distance to the nearest human community and sighting rates of each species, and evaluated the program overall. Eighteen wildlife monitors received training in line transect and sign surveys and then conducted surveys along a total of ten transects. Sighting rates of most species in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve were higher than those reported in other Amazonian forests. Distance to the human community was not associated with the overall vertebrate sighting rate. Use of the trained monitors was successful in terms of data acquisition and engagement. The involvement of local people promoted discussions about regulation of hunting in the reserve. Implementation of community-based programs to monitor forest wildlife in Amazonian sustainable use reserves may empower local communities and assess the status of wildlife through time.

  2. Lessons from a Community-Based Program to Monitor Forest Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchimol, Maíra; von Mühlen, Eduardo M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.

    2017-09-01

    A large number of sustainable use reserves recently have been titled in the Brazilian Amazonia. These reserves require public participation in the design and implementation of management and monitoring programs. Species-monitoring programs that engage local stakeholders may be useful for assessing wildlife status over the long term. We collaborated on the development of a participatory program to monitor forest vertebrates in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve and to build capacity among the local people. We examined relations between the distance to the nearest human community and sighting rates of each species, and evaluated the program overall. Eighteen wildlife monitors received training in line transect and sign surveys and then conducted surveys along a total of ten transects. Sighting rates of most species in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve were higher than those reported in other Amazonian forests. Distance to the human community was not associated with the overall vertebrate sighting rate. Use of the trained monitors was successful in terms of data acquisition and engagement. The involvement of local people promoted discussions about regulation of hunting in the reserve. Implementation of community-based programs to monitor forest wildlife in Amazonian sustainable use reserves may empower local communities and assess the status of wildlife through time.

  3. Genetic and Symbiotic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soils in the Western Amazon by Using Cowpea as the Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon. PMID:22798370

  4. Genetic and symbiotic diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from agricultural soils in the western Amazon by using cowpea as the trap plant.

    PubMed

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2012-09-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon.

  5. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae.

  6. Semiconductor Sequencing Reveals the Diversity of Bacterial Communities in an Amazon Reservoir Considered as a Methane Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graças, D. A.; Ramos, R. T.; Sá, P. G.; Baraúna, R. A.; Schneider, M. C.; Silva, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Amazon region has enormous hydro potential which is used for power generation. In fact, there are several hydroelectric power stations (HPS) already installed and many under construction or designed. It's in the Amazon which the HPS of Tucuruí, fifth largest in the world, is located. The construction of this hydroelectric dam flooded an area of 2,400 km2 of forest that decomposing, releasing greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4). Methane is the most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere and the second most important greenhouse gas. In this study, we use semicondutor sequencing to assess the bacterial diversity along a water column of 70 meters deep in the Tucuruí reservoir. One liter of water was collected every 10 meters along the water column for total DNA extraction. A fragment of approximately 150 base pairs of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using universal primers. These fragments were then paralleled sequenced in Ion Torrent® platform using barcodes on the 316 chip. After the quality filters, about 237 thousands reads were obtained, representing more than 300 Mbp. For bacterial diversity analysis, we used only reads longer than 100 base pairs. The taxonomic diversity was obtained from the Ribosomal Database Project Classifier and alpha diversity analysis (diversity indices and rarefaction) was performed using the RDP pyrosequencing pipeline. Although it is recommended for data pyrosequencing, that pipeline is able to process data obtained from semiconductor sequencing once all of them are fasta files. Over 75% of the sequences were not classified in any phylum, which leads us to believe that there is a huge diversity in the bacterial environment whose function is still unclear. Among the sequences that could be classified, there is a predominance of proteobacteria in all layers, but in higher concentrations at the lower layers. Cyanobacteria accounted for about 3% in the layers of 0m and 10m, leading us to conclude that

  7. Selenium Levels in the Whole Blood of Children and Teenagers from Two Riparian Communities at the Madeira River Basin in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Vega, Claudia M; Godoy, José M; Barrocas, Paulo R G; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; De Oliveira, Beatriz F A; Jacobson, Ludmilla V; Mourão, Dennys S; Hacon, Sandra S

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that exerts multiple functions in the organism, and both its deficiency and excess can cause health impairments. Thus, it is important to monitor its levels in the population, especially in vulnerable groups, such as children from the Brazilian Amazon region, where there is a lack of information in this regard. The aim of this research was to study Se levels in the whole blood of children and teenagers (5-16 years old) from two riparian communities at the Madeira River (Cuniã RESEX and Belmont). Se level variations related to the communities' location, seasonality, diet, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Blood samples were collected in both communities for Se determinations, using ICP-MS and hemogram analyses, during May and September of 2011. Food frequency questionnaires were applied to assess consumption rates of specific food items. Non-parametric tests and linear multiple regressions were applied in the data analyses. Median Se levels were significantly higher during May (Cuniã RESEX 149 μg L(-1); Belmont 85 μg L(-1)) compared to September (Cuniã RESEX 79 μg L(-1); Belmont 53 μg L(-1)). No significant differences were found between the communities regarding BMI measurements and anemia prevalence. However, Se blood levels were significantly higher at the Cuniã RESEX compared to Belmont. In addition, the former showed higher fish and Brazil nut intakes, which may be the main Se sources for this community. These results contribute to a better understanding of Se reference levels for children and teenagers of Western Amazon riparian communities.

  8. Seasonal variation in the copepod community structure from a tropical Amazon estuary, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, André; Leite, Natália da R; Silva, João G S; Pereira, Luci C C; Costa, Rauquírio M da

    2009-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of copepod community structure during the months of July, September and November 2003 (dry season) and January, March and May 2004 (rainy season) in the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle 200microm mesh net tows from a small powerboat. Measurements of surface water conductivity were accomplished in situ using an electronic conductivimeter and salinity was later obtained through the transformation of the conductivity values. Salinity varied seasonally from 7.2 +/- 0.1 to 39.2 +/- 1.8 (mean +/- standard deviation) and was influenced mainly by differences in the amount of rainfall between the studied sampling seasons. In total, 30 Copepoda taxa were identified and Acartia tonsa comprised the most representative species throughout the entire studied period followed by Acartia lilljeborgii, Subeucalanus pileatus and Paracalanus quasimodo. In the present study, the density values, ecological indexes and copepod species dominance presented a clear seasonal pattern, showing that the studied area may be considered seasonally heterogeneous in relation to the investigated parameters.

  9. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  10. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  11. Mercury and selenium concentrations in hair samples of women in fertile age from Amazon riverside communities.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, M C N; Müller, R C S; Sarkis, J E; Vieira, J L F; Oikawa, T; Gomes, M S V; Guimarães, G A; do Nascimento, J L M; Silveira, L C L

    2005-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate mercury and selenium concentrations in hair samples of reproductive age women from riverside communities of the Tapajós River basin. We studied 19 pregnant and 21 non-pregnant women, 13 to 45 years old, living in the region for at least 2 years, and having a diet rich in fish. The analysis of Se and total Hg were performed in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN, São Paulo, Brazil) by using a Varian AA220-FS atomic absorption spectrometer with a flow injection system. There were no differences between the two groups - pregnant and non-pregnant -- concerning age (23.80 +/- 6.92 and 26.60 +/- 9.60 years old, respectively) and residential time (20.21 +/- 8.30 and 22.20 +/- 10.90 years, respectively). The geometric means and ranges for total Hg concentration were similar (p > 0.05): 8.25 microg/g (1.51-19.43) in pregnant and 9.39 microg/g (5.25-21.00) in non-pregnant women, respectively. Total Hg concentrations were also similar in different gestational stages. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05, Student t test) in relation to Se concentration: 0.61 microg/g (0.40-2.33) in pregnant and 2.46 microg/g (0.92-5.74) in non-pregnant women, respectively. We concluded that Hg exposure levels in reproductive age women were only slightly higher than a provisional tolerable weekly intake of MeHg would provide, that Hg concentration in maternal hair samples was independent of gestational age, and that low Se concentration in pregnant women indicates high mineral consumption by fetal organism to satisfy their metabolic requirements raised during pregnancy, including as a protective mechanism for Hg cytotoxic effects.

  12. Rabies: Knowledge and Practices Regarding Rabies in Rural Communities of the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa; Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas

    2016-01-01

    Background The occurrence of outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in Brazil in 2004 and 2005 reinforced the need for further research into this zoonosis. Studies of knowledge and practices related to the disease will help to define strategies for the avoidance of new cases, through the identification of gaps that may affect the preventive practices. Methodology/Principal findings A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 681 residents of twelve communities of northeastern Pará state involved in the 2004 and 2005 outbreaks mentioned above. The objective was to evaluate the local knowledge and practices related to the disease. We found a highly significant difference (p<0.0001) in the knowledge of rabies among education levels, indicating that education is a primary determinant of knowledge on this disease. More than half of the respondents (63%) recognized the seriousness of the zoonosis, and 50% were aware of the importance of bats for its transmission, although few individuals (11%) were familiar with the symptoms, and only 40% knew methods of prevention. Even so, 70% of pet owners maintained their animals vaccinated, and 52% of the respondents bitten by bats had received post-exposure vaccination. Most of the respondents (57%) reported being familiarized with rabies through informal discussions, and only a few (23%) mentioned public health agents as the source of their information. Conclusion/Significance We identified many gaps in the knowledge and practices of the respondents regarding rabies. This may be the result of the reduced participation of public health agents in the transfer of details about the disease. The lack of knowledge may be a direct determinant in the occurrence of new outbreaks. Given these findings, there is a clear need for specific educational initiatives involving the local population and the public health entities, with the primary aim of contributing to the prevention of rabies. PMID:26927503

  13. [Blood polymorphism in the study of isolated communities].

    PubMed

    Fujiki, N; Hirayama, M; Nomura, M; Nakanaga, M; Mano, K

    1988-01-01

    Isolated communities offer a unique opportunity for the study of biological and social consequences of consanguinity and migration. The studies of genetic polymorphisms have contributed greatly, not only to knowledge of the genetic constitution of a given individual and population, but also to clarify either relationship between structure and function of polymorphic traits or the susceptibility to multifactorial diseases, in which interaction between the gene and environment cannot be ignored. For over 25 years, we have investigated the effect of consanguinity and genetic polymorphisms in 9 isolated communities in Western Japan. We reported here different values of gene frequency for each polymorphic trait, compared with the neighboring communities and described how we applied these data to clarification of the genetic constitution of isolated communities as well as of genetic susceptibility to some diseases.

  14. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics.

  15. Dung Beetle Community and Functions along a Habitat-Disturbance Gradient in the Amazon: A Rapid Assessment of Ecological Functions Associated to Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Rodrigo F.; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

  16. The whole world will be able to see us: determining the characteristics of a culturally appropriate bed net among mestizo communities of the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steven A; Olórtegui, Maribel Paredes; Leontsini, Elli; Pezo, Clara Bustamante; Pezantes, Luz Marina Olórtegui; Winch, Peter J

    2008-12-01

    The Peruvian Ministry of Health has distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the country's Amazon region since 1999. Net use is nearly universal among mestizo communities in this area, but residents traditionally use non-impregnated muslin nets. We evaluated the cultural acceptability of Ministry ITNs using qualitative methods. Our results show that nets serve various functions for users: protection against insect bites, warmth, privacy, and a sense of security for young children. Because the Ministry-distributed ITNs could not fulfill these functions as well as traditional nets, many recipients disliked or rejected the ITNs they received. Also, because the ITN fabric stains rapidly, recipients washed their nets frequently rather than waiting 6 months as recommended. We propose a two-pronged approach that balances user and health system expectations of bed nets and that should lead to more widespread and effective ITN use in the study communities.

  17. Isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. from faeces of the blue-fronted Amazon parrot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Allegretti, L; Revolledo, L; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Chacón, J L; Martins, L M; Seixas, G H F; Ferreira, A J P

    2014-12-01

    In Brazil, the blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) is a common pet. The faecal microbiota of these birds include a wide variety of bacterial species, the majority of which belong to the Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) clade. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the diversity and abundance of LAB and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cloacae between wild and captive birds and to select, identify and characterise LAB for consideration as a parrot probiotic. Cloacal swabs were collected from 26 wild and 26 captive birds. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA genes were amplified. The numbers of PCR-positive Enterococcus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species isolated from wild and captive birds were significantly different (P<0.05). Enterococcus was the most frequently isolated genus, followed by Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Bifidobacterium. Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most frequently isolated species from all birds. This study increases our understanding of the faecal microbiota, and may help to improve the nutrition and habitat management of captive and wild parrots. The bacterial population identified in the faecal microbiota of clinically healthy wild and captive parrots can serve as a database to analyse variations in the gut microbiota of pathogen-infected parrots and to develop probiotics specific to these genera.

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.

  19. A Synoptic Assessment of the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum during Boreal Autumn: From Physics to Plankton Communities and Carbon Flux.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Moacyr; Noriega, Carlos; Hounsou-Gbo, Gbekpo Aubains; Veleda, Doris; Araujo, Julia; Bruto, Leonardo; Feitosa, Fernando; Flores-Montes, Manuel; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Melo, Pedro; Otsuka, Amanda; Travassos, Keyla; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon generates the world's largest offshore river plume, which covers extensive areas of the tropical Atlantic. The data and samples in this study were obtained during the oceanographic cruise Camadas Finas III in October 2012 along the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum (AROC). The cruise occurred during boreal autumn, when the river plume reaches its maximum eastward extent. In this study, we examine the links between physics, biogeochemistry and plankton community structure along the AROC. Hydrographic results showed very different conditions, ranging from shallow well-mixed coastal waters to offshore areas, where low salinity Amazonian waters mix with open ocean waters. Nutrients, mainly [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], were highly depleted in coastal regions, and the magnitude of primary production was greater than that of respiration (negative apparent oxygen utilization). In terms of phytoplankton groups, diatoms dominated the region from the river mouth to the edge of the area affected by the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection (with chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.94 mg m(-3)). The North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) region, east of retroflection, is fully oligotrophic and the most representative groups are Cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Additionally, in this region, blooms of cyanophyte species were associated with diatoms and Mesozooplankton (copepods). A total of 178 zooplankton taxa were observed in this area, with Copepoda being the most diverse and abundant group. Two different zooplankton communities were identified: a low-diversity, high-abundance coastal community and a high-diversity, low-abundance oceanic community offshore. The CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw), calculated from total alkalinity (1,450 < TA < 2,394 μmol kg(-1)) and dissolved inorganic carbon (1,303 < DIC < 2,062 μmol kg(-1)) measurements, confirms that the Amazon River plume is a sink of atmospheric CO2 in areas with salinities <35 psu, whereas

  20. A Synoptic Assessment of the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum during Boreal Autumn: From Physics to Plankton Communities and Carbon Flux

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Moacyr; Noriega, Carlos; Hounsou-gbo, Gbekpo Aubains; Veleda, Doris; Araujo, Julia; Bruto, Leonardo; Feitosa, Fernando; Flores-Montes, Manuel; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Melo, Pedro; Otsuka, Amanda; Travassos, Keyla; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon generates the world's largest offshore river plume, which covers extensive areas of the tropical Atlantic. The data and samples in this study were obtained during the oceanographic cruise Camadas Finas III in October 2012 along the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum (AROC). The cruise occurred during boreal autumn, when the river plume reaches its maximum eastward extent. In this study, we examine the links between physics, biogeochemistry and plankton community structure along the AROC. Hydrographic results showed very different conditions, ranging from shallow well-mixed coastal waters to offshore areas, where low salinity Amazonian waters mix with open ocean waters. Nutrients, mainly NO3− and SiO2−, were highly depleted in coastal regions, and the magnitude of primary production was greater than that of respiration (negative apparent oxygen utilization). In terms of phytoplankton groups, diatoms dominated the region from the river mouth to the edge of the area affected by the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection (with chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.94 mg m−3). The North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) region, east of retroflection, is fully oligotrophic and the most representative groups are Cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Additionally, in this region, blooms of cyanophyte species were associated with diatoms and Mesozooplankton (copepods). A total of 178 zooplankton taxa were observed in this area, with Copepoda being the most diverse and abundant group. Two different zooplankton communities were identified: a low-diversity, high-abundance coastal community and a high-diversity, low-abundance oceanic community offshore. The CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw), calculated from total alkalinity (1,450 < TA < 2,394 μmol kg−1) and dissolved inorganic carbon (1,303 < DIC < 2,062 μmol kg−1) measurements, confirms that the Amazon River plume is a sink of atmospheric CO2 in areas with salinities <35 psu, whereas, in regions with

  1. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium manausense strain BR 3351(T), an effective symbiont isolated from Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Zilli, Jerri Édson

    2017-02-09

    The strain BR 3351(T) (Bradyrhizobium manausense) was obtained from nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) growing in soil collected from Amazon rainforest. Furthermore, it was observed that the strain has high capacity to fix nitrogen symbiotically in symbioses with cowpea. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain BR 3351(T). The information presented will be important for comparative analysis of nodulation and nitrogen fixation for diazotrophic bacteria. A draft genome with 9,145,311bp and 62.9% of GC content was assembled in 127 scaffolds using 100bp pair-end Illumina MiSeq system. The RAST annotation identified 8603 coding sequences, 51 RNAs genes, classified in 504 subsystems.

  2. Hepatitis B virus infection in isolated Afro-Brazilian communities.

    PubMed

    Motta-Castro, Ana R C; Martins, Regina M B; Yoshida, Clara F T; Teles, Sheila A; Paniago, Anamaria M; Lima, Kátia M B; Gomes, Selma A

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence and genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have distinct geographical distribution. In Brazil, some African-descendants have been maintained as small isolated communities since the slavery period. In this study, HBV infection among these communities of African origin was examined. Individuals (1,058) living in 12 communities were interviewed and serum samples screened for the presence of HBV markers. HBsAg-positive sera were tested for HBV DNA by PCR and positive samples were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 19.8% (95% CI: 17.5-22.3), ranging from 5.5% to 42.4%, depending on the communities studied. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that increasing age, family history of hepatitis, and sexual activity were associated significantly with this infection. HBsAg was detected in 23/1,058 (2.2%) individuals. HBV DNA was present in 2/2 of HBeAg-positive serum samples and in 18/21 (85.7%) anti-HBe-positive samples. All HBV isolates belonged to genotype A, subtype Aa. Three RFLP patterns were identified: AI (17 isolates), AIV (1 isolate), and AVI (2 isolates). These findings suggest a common introduction of HBV during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  3. Running climate model on a commercial cloud computing environment: A case study using Community Earth System Model (CESM) on Amazon AWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuhong; Huang, Xianglei; Jiao, Chaoyi; Flanner, Mark G.; Raeker, Todd; Palen, Brock

    2017-01-01

    The suites of numerical models used for simulating climate of our planet are usually run on dedicated high-performance computing (HPC) resources. This study investigates an alternative to the usual approach, i.e. carrying out climate model simulations on commercially available cloud computing environment. We test the performance and reliability of running the CESM (Community Earth System Model), a flagship climate model in the United States developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), on Amazon Web Service (AWS) EC2, the cloud computing environment by Amazon.com, Inc. StarCluster is used to create virtual computing cluster on the AWS EC2 for the CESM simulations. The wall-clock time for one year of CESM simulation on the AWS EC2 virtual cluster is comparable to the time spent for the same simulation on a local dedicated high-performance computing cluster with InfiniBand connections. The CESM simulation can be efficiently scaled with the number of CPU cores on the AWS EC2 virtual cluster environment up to 64 cores. For the standard configuration of the CESM at a spatial resolution of 1.9° latitude by 2.5° longitude, increasing the number of cores from 16 to 64 reduces the wall-clock running time by more than 50% and the scaling is nearly linear. Beyond 64 cores, the communication latency starts to outweigh the benefit of distributed computing and the parallel speedup becomes nearly unchanged.

  4. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  5. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  6. Satellite Lessons: Vocational Education and Training for Isolated Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyford, Kylie; Crump, Stephen; Anderson, Alan

    2009-01-01

    At the Western Institute of Technical and Further Education (WITAFE) in New South Wales (NSW), vocational education and training (VET) courses are being delivered to students in isolated homesteads and remote Aboriginal communities by Interactive Distance eLearning (IDL). IDL provides satellite-supported two-way broadband voice, one-way video and…

  7. Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions.

    PubMed

    Casapia, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-07-10

    Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1) infant malnutrition; 2) adolescent pregnancy; 3) diarrhoea; 4) anaemia; 5) parasites; 6) lack of basic sanitation; 7) low level of education; 8) sexually transmitted diseases; 9) domestic violence; and 10) delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of Belen. The participatory focus of the workshops ensured the

  8. Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: Development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions

    PubMed Central

    Casapia, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-01-01

    Background Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Methods Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. Results The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1) infant malnutrition; 2) adolescent pregnancy; 3) diarrhoea; 4) anaemia; 5) parasites; 6) lack of basic sanitation; 7) low level of education; 8) sexually transmitted diseases; 9) domestic violence; and 10) delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. Conclusion The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of Belen. The

  9. Phenotypic and Molecular Aspects of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from Hospitalized Patients and Beef in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio A; Vargas, Taise F; Galvão, Newton N; Nogueira, Paulo A; Orlandi, Patrícia P

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and compare Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalized patients and beef marketed in the city of Porto Velho-RO, Brazil. The isolates were subjected to antibiogram tests, adherence capacity tests, detection of the mecA gene, and epidemiological investigation by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, using the primers M13 and H12. Among the 123 Staphylococcus spp. isolates, 50 were identified as S. aureus and 73 as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus; among the latter, 7 species were identified. It was observed that the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates showed greater adhesion ability than S. aureus. The profile of antimicrobial susceptibility was different among isolates, all of which were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid, and had high penicillin resistance rates, varying according to the bacterial class and the source. In this study, all strains were negative for mecA gene detection; however, 36% of S. aureus and 17% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were resistant to oxacillin. The genetic relationship of these bacteria, analyzed by RAPD, was able to discriminate the species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains of S. aureus along its origin. It was concluded that the isolates of Staphylococcus spp. derived from beef and human infections differ genetically. Thus, it is suggested that isolates from beef, which were grouped within hospital isolates, were probably carried via contact with beef in hospital professionals or patients.

  10. First study on communities of parasites in Triportheus rotundatus, a Characidae fish from the Amazon River system (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Santos, Paulo Henrique Nascimento; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    This study was the first investigation on the parasites of Triportheus rotundatus, a Characiformes fish from the Amazon, in Brazil. All the fish collected (100%) in a tributary from the Amazon River system were infected by one or more parasite species. The mean species richness of parasites was 4.9 ± 0.9, the Brillouin index was 0.39 ± 0.16, the evenness was 0.24 ± 0.09 and the Berger-Parker dominance was 0.81 ± 0.13. A total of 1316 metazoan parasites were collected, including Anacanthorus pithophallus, Anacanthorus furculus, Ancistrohaptor sp. (Dactylogyridae), Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae), Posthodiplostomum sp. (Diplostomidae), Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus (Camallanidae), Echinorhynchus paranensis (Echinorhynchidae) and Ergasilus sp. (Ergasilidae), but monogenoideans were the dominant parasites. These parasites presented an aggregate dispersion pattern, except for P. (S.) inopinatus, which showed a random dispersion pattern. The body conditions of the hosts were not affected by the parasitism levels. This first report of these parasites for T. rotundatus indicates that the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was due to hosts behavior and availability of infective stages in the environment, and this was discussed.

  11. Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches.

  12. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis masquerading as community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj; Tachamo, Niranjan; Siddiqui, Anam; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis in intravenous drug users is a rarely reported phenomenon. We present the case of a 25-year-old male with history of intravenous drug use who presented with respiratory symptoms after failing outpatient treatment for community-acquired pneumonia. Further investigations identified multiple lung lesions with early cavitation, concerning for septic pulmonary embolism on computerized tomography scan, positive blood cultures with methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus, and isolated vegetation of the pulmonic valve on transthoracic echocardiography. The patient had a complete recovery after being treated medically with intravenous oxacillin for a total of 6 weeks. PMID:27802862

  13. Comparison of bacterial communities in the Solimões and Negro River tributaries of the Amazon River based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, J C C; Leomil, L; Souza, J V; Peixoto, F B S; Astolfi-Filho, S

    2011-12-08

    The microbiota of the Amazon River basin has been little studied. We compared the structure of bacterial communities of the Solimões and Negro Rivers, the main Amazon River tributaries, based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Water was sampled with a 3-L Van Dorn collection bottle; samples were collected at nine different points/depths totaling 27 L of water from each river. Total DNA was extracted from biomass retained by a 0.22-μm filter after sequential filtration of the water through 0.8- and 0.22-μm filters. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed with the PHYLIP and DOTUR programs to obtain the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and to calculate the diversity and richness indices using the SPADE program. Taxonomic affiliation was determined using the naive Bayesian rRNA Classifier of the RDP II (Ribosomal Database Project). We recovered 158 sequences from the Solimões River grouped into 103 OTUs, and 197 sequences from the Negro River library grouped into 90 OTUs by the DOTUR program. The Solimões River was found to have a greater diversity of bacterial genera, and greater estimated richness of 446 OTUs, compared with 242 OTUs from the Negro River, as calculated by ACE estimator. The Negro River has less bacterial diversity, but more 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the bacterial genus Polynucleobacter were detected; 56 sequences from this genus were found (about 30% of the total sequences). We suggest that a more in-depth investigation be made to elucidate the role played by these bacteria in the river environment. These differences in bacterial diversity between Solimões and Negro Rivers could be explained by differences in organic matter content and pH of the rivers.

  14. The effects of community income inequality on health: Evidence from a randomized control trial in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Behrman, Jere R.; Leonard, William R.; Godoy, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that poorer people have worse health than the better-off and, more controversially, that income inequality harms health. But causal interpretations suffer from endogeneity. We addressed the gap by using a randomized control trial among a society of forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Treatments included one-time unconditional income transfers (T1) to all households and (T2) only to the poorest 20% of households, with other villages as controls. We assessed the effects of income inequality, absolute income, and spillovers within villages on self-reported health, objective indicators of health and nutrition, and adults’ substance consumption. Most effects came from relative income. Targeted transfers increased the perceived stress of participants in better-off households. Evidence suggests increased work efforts among better-off households when the lot of the poor improved, possibly due to a preference for rank preservation. The study points to new paths by which inequality might affect health. PMID:26706403

  15. Using performance indicators to evaluate an environmental education program in artisanal gold mining communities in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Rodolfo N; Veiga, Marcello M

    2009-02-01

    The Tapajos River Basin in the Brazilian Amazon is the location of one of the largest concentrations of artisanal and small-scale miners in the world. Today, 40,000 miners produce 8 t of gold annum(-1) and at least double this amount of mercury is released into the environment. This region was selected under the Global Mercury Project, a United Nations program that aims to reduce the environmental and health impacts caused by mercury through the application of cleaner technologies and increased awareness. A group of educators provided support to miners, training 4200 people in 141 mining locations. The effectiveness of this training was evaluated based on 20 performance indicators. After 120 days of training, an absolute improvement of approximately 29% had been achieved. As a result of this training, it is estimated that annual mercury emissions in Tapajos have been reduced by 1762 kg or around 10% of the total mercury released in the region.

  16. The effects of community income inequality on health: Evidence from a randomized control trial in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Leonard, William R; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that poorer people have worse health than the better-off and, more controversially, that income inequality harms health. But causal interpretations suffer from endogeneity. We addressed the gap by using a randomized control trial among a society of forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Treatments included one-time unconditional income transfers (T1) to all households and (T2) only to the poorest 20% of households, with other villages as controls. We assessed the effects of income inequality, absolute income, and spillovers within villages on self-reported health, objective indicators of health and nutrition, and adults' substance consumption. Most effects came from relative income. Targeted transfers increased the perceived stress of participants in better-off households. Evidence suggests increased work efforts among better-off households when the lot of the poor improved, possibly due to a preference for rank preservation. The study points to new paths by which inequality might affect health.

  17. Mircobial community composition in petroleum-contaminated and uncontaminated soil from Francisco de Orellana, in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Barragán, Verónica A; Aveiga, Iván; Trueba, Gabriel

    2008-06-01

    The microbial compositions of two soils from the northern Ecuadorian Amazon (Francisco de Orellana province), one contaminated with petroleum and the other uncontaminated, were compared. Classical culture and molecular techniques were used to analyze microbial diversity. The cultivable Bacteria from contaminated soil belonged to betaproteobacteria (16.6%), gammaproteobacteria (66.6%), and Firmicutes (16,6%), whereas in uncontaminated soil, cultivable Bacteria were identified as gammaproteobacteria (80%) and Firmicutes (20%). Analysis of the 16S rRNA showed that in the contaminated soil proteobacterial populations (alpha-, beta- and deltaproteobacteria) were more abundant than acidobacterial populations. The Shannon index (H cent ) was used to estimate diversity in the contaminated and uncontaminated soil. Diversity was higher in the uncontaminated (H cent = 2.16) than in the contaminated (H cent = 1.72) soil sample. Further studies are needed to determine whether the differences between contaminated and non-contaminated soil samples were due to spontaneous bioremediation microbial activity.

  18. Genetic Analysis of South American Eastern Equine Encephalitis Viruses Isolated from Mosquitoes Collected in the Amazon Basin Region of Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    3A and 4A). TABLE 2 Primers used in the studies Name Use Nucleotide sequence (5 → 3) Reference Genus -specific primers 0092-F Alphavirus...allowed us to compare directly the relationship between these viruses and to other viruses isolated in the same region. Over the five years of the study ...screened by IFA for reactivity against Alphavi- rus and Flavivirus genus -specific monoclonal antibodies (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of

  19. Characterization of the biochemical, physiological, and medicinal properties of Streptomyces hygroscopicus ACTMS-9H isolated from the Amazon (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Lima, Sandrine M A; Melo, Janaína G S; Militão, Gardênia C G; Lima, Gláucia M S; do Carmo A Lima, Maria; Aguiar, Jaciana S; Araújo, Renata M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Marchand, Pascal; Araújo, Janete M; Silva, Teresinha G

    2017-01-01

    Actinomycetes are known to produce numerous secondary bioactive metabolites of pharmaceutical interest. The purpose of this study was to isolate, characterize, and investigate the antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities of metabolites produced by Actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Paullinia cupana. The Actinobacteria was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus ACTMS-9H. Based on a bioguided study, the methanolic biomass extract obtained from submerged cultivation had the most potent antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. This extract was partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and 2-butanol. Elaiophylin was isolated from the methanolic biomass extract, and its molecular formula was determined (C54H88O18) based on (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR and MS analyses. The 2-butanol phase was fractionated into four fractions (EB1, EB2A, EB2B, and EB3M). Chemical prospecting indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, and reducing sugars in the methanolic extract and 2-butanol phase. The elaiophylin displayed anticancer activity in HEp-2 and HL-60 cells with an IC50 of 1 μg/mL. The EB1 fraction was selectively toxic to HL-60 cells with IC50 of 9 ng/mL. Bioautography showed that the EB1 fraction contained an alkaloid with antibacterial and antifungal activities (MIC values ≤1.9 and <3.9 μg/mL, respectively). In conclusion, the EB1 fraction and elaiophylin of S. hygroscopicus have potent antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer activities.

  20. The impact of a community intervention to improve cervical cancer screening uptake in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Derchain, Sophie Françoise; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Westin, Maria Cristina; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2007-01-04

    In the northern region of Brazil, cervical cancer is the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. There is considerable likelihood, however, that official incidence and mortality figures are greatly underestimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the repercussions from improvement in cervical cancer screening programs on the incidence of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in a municipality in this region. This was a quasi-experimental study that assessed process dimensions relevant to the program objectives. The study comprised a sample of 2,226 women seen at primary healthcare units in Cruzeiro do Sul, a small city in the Brazilian Amazon region, from April 2003 to July 2004. Women were recruited through local radio advertisements and by oral communication from the investigators. The women answered a structured questionnaire and underwent pelvic examination, which included Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and naked-eye inspection of the cervix after applying diluted acetic acid. Women with positive Pap smears or abnormal gynecological examination were referred for colposcopy and possible biopsy, diathermic large loop excision of the transformation zone or conization. The results obtained were compared with historical official data retrieved from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's database. Intervention resulted in a 40% increase in positive Pap smears and detection of cancer was nine times higher than had been observed in routine screening. Detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in the intervention group was remarkably higher than among women seen during routine screening.

  1. Biological characterization of the Amazon coral Micrurus spixii snake venom: Isolation of a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Terra, Angelo L C; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Monteiro, José Roniele N; Cavalcante, Walter L G; Gallacci, Márcia; Barros, Neuza B; Nicolete, Roberto; Teles, Carolina B G; Medeiros, Patrícia S M; Zanchi, Fernando B; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2015-09-01

    The Micrurus genus is the American representative of Elapidae family. Micrurus spixii is endemic of South America and northern states of Brazil. Elapidic venoms contain neurotoxins that promote curare-mimetic neuromuscular blockage. In this study, biochemical and functional characterizations of M. spixii crude venom were performed and a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2 called MsPLA2-I was isolated. M. spixii crude venom caused severe swelling in the legs of tested mice and significant release of creatine kinase (CK) showing its myotoxic activity. Leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 1.24 μg/mL) was also observed, along with antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, which are unprecedented for Micrurus venoms. MsPLA2-I with a Mr 12,809.4 Da was isolated from the crude venom of M. spixii. The N-terminal sequencing of a fragment of 60 amino acids showed 80% similarity with another PLA2 from Micrurus altirostris. This toxin and the crude venom showed phospholipase activity. In a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, M. spixii venom and MsPLA2-I induced the blockage of both direct and indirect twitches. While the venom presented a pronounced myotoxic activity, MsPLA2-I expressed a summation of neurotoxic activity. The results of this study make M. spixii crude venom promising compounds in the exploration of molecules with microbicidal potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Community-Based Participatory Critique of Social Isolation Intervention Research for Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Myra; Wethington, Elaine; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Reid, M C; Pillemer, Karl

    2009-04-01

    This article examines the dialogue that occurred within the structure of a Research-to-Practice Consensus Workshop that critiqued academic research priorities regarding social isolation among community-dwelling older adults and identified practice-based suggestions for a social isolation research agenda. The investigators adapted the scientific consensus workshop model to include expert practitioners and researchers in a discussion of the current state and future directions of social isolation intervention research. The group's critique resulted in several key recommendations for future research including the need for a social isolation measure with specific capacity to identify isolated older adults during a community crisis. This study demonstrates that the Research-to-Practice Consensus Workshop model can be used successfully to identify priority areas for research that have implications for community practice, construct an evidence base more relevant for community application, strengthen existing community-researcher partnerships, and build agency and practitioner capacity to take part in community-based participatory research.

  3. Determinants of Caregivers' Use and Adoption of Household Water Chlorination: A Qualitative Study with Peri-Urban Communities in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Jessica D; Leontsini, Elli; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Surkan, Pamela J; Kosek, Margaret

    2015-09-01

    The gap between the efficacy and the effectiveness of household water treatment in reducing diarrhea-related morbidity indicates the need for a better understanding of the determinants of long-term behavior change. To explore the barriers to drinking water chlorination in the Peruvian Amazon, where diarrhea is endemic among under-5 children, we conducted qualitative research with 23 caregivers from peri-urban communities of Iquitos, Peru. Our inquiry drew on the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change and the Integrated Behavioral Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene to identify the most relevant contextual, psychosocial, and technological determinants of initial action and long-term adoption of chlorination. Our findings suggest that the decision to try out this practice resulted from the combined effect of knowledge of chlorination benefits and product availability and affordability. Progress from action to adoption was influenced by caretakers' understanding of dosage, the packaging of chlorine products, knowledge and skills for multipurpose laundry bleach, the taste of treated water, and reinforcement. This analysis suggests that a focus on these determinants and the household domain may help to improve the sustainability of future intervention efforts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Determinants of Caregivers' Use and Adoption of Household Water Chlorination: A Qualitative Study with Peri-urban Communities in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Jessica D.; Leontsini, Elli; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Surkan, Pamela J.; Kosek, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The gap between the efficacy and the effectiveness of household water treatment in reducing diarrhea-related morbidity indicates the need for a better understanding of the determinants of long-term behavior change. To explore the barriers to drinking water chlorination in the Peruvian Amazon, where diarrhea is endemic among under-5 children, we conducted qualitative research with 23 caregivers from peri-urban communities of Iquitos, Peru. Our inquiry drew on the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change and the Integrated Behavioral Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene to identify the most relevant contextual, psychosocial, and technological determinants of initial action and long-term adoption of chlorination. Our findings suggest that the decision to try out this practice resulted from the combined effect of knowledge of chlorination benefits and product availability and affordability. Progress from action to adoption was influenced by caretakers' understanding of dosage, the packaging of chlorine products, knowledge and skills for multipurpose laundry bleach, the taste of treated water, and reinforcement. This analysis suggests that a focus on these determinants and the household domain may help to improve the sustainability of future intervention efforts. PMID:26175028

  5. Research into Mercury Exposure and Health Education in Subsistence Fish-Eating Communities of the Amazon Basin: Potential Effects on Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, José G.

    2010-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of fish-methylmercury (meHg) consumed regularly are considered hazardous to fetuses and newborn infants; as a result fish consumption advisories are an important asset to control meHg exposure in affluent societies. These concerns are now part of health promotion programs for Amazon subsistence villagers. While urban dwellers in affluent societies can choose an alternative nutritious diet, traditional and subsistence communities are caught up in controversial issues and lifestyle changes with unintended health consequences. Traditional fish-eating populations of industrialized and non-industrialized regions may be exposed to different neurotoxic substances: man-made pollutants and environmentally occurring meHg. Additionally, in non-industrialized countries, pregnant women and infants are still being immunized with thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) which degrade to ethylmercury (etHg). Therefore, the complexity involving fish-meHg associated with wild-fish choices and Hg exposure derived from TCVs is difficult to disentangle and evaluate: are villagers able to distinguish exposure to differently hazardous chemical forms of Hg (inorganic, fish-meHg, and injected etHg)? Is it possible that instead of helping to prevent a plausible (unperceived) fish-meHg associated neurocognitive delay we may inadvertently arouse panic surrounding Hg exposure and disrupt subsistence fish-eating habits (necessary for survival) and life-saving vaccination programs (required by public health authorities)? These questions characterize the incompleteness of information related on the various chemical forms of Hg exposure and the need to convey messages that do not disrupt nutritional balance and disease prevention policies directed at Amazonian subsistence communities. PMID:20948936

  6. Easier said than done: challenges of applying the Ecohealth approach to the study on heavy metals exposure among indigenous communities of the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The renewed interest in community participation in health research is linked to its potential for bridging gaps between research and practice. Its main attributes are the generation of knowledge that can lead to socially robust, long-lasting solutions and the creation of a co-learner relationship between researchers and research users. Following this philosophy, Ecohealth has evolved into a specialized framework for participatory research on the impact of pollution on ecosystems and human health. However, its principles pose considerable challenges. Its outcomes are strongly influenced by contextual factors that are impossible to control for ahead of time. This paper describes how the Ecohealth principles were applied to an epidemiological study of heavy metals exposure among indigenous communities of the Peruvian Amazon. It illustrates how knowledge generated from participatory research does not necessarily imply solving a public health problem. This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the benefits and barriers of following the basic principles of the Ecohealth approach, and assist researchers working in similar contexts. Research process Based upon their personal experience as participant observers, the authors describe the research process; then, they discuss the most important challenges faced, their implications, and the attempted strategies for resolution. Challenges Challenges were grouped into four themes: (1) building trust; (2) one partnership, many stakeholders, multiple agendas; (3) being a researcher; and (4) communicating complex and unexpected findings. Conclusions Integrating the principles of transdisciplinarity and participation posed a series of challenges to the research process that were difficult, and sometimes impossible to overcome. However, positive outcomes from this experience were the lessons learned by the different actors. Despite the lack of immediate action, it is expected that useful interventions to prevent

  7. Easier said than done: challenges of applying the Ecohealth approach to the study on heavy metals exposure among indigenous communities of the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Anticona, Cynthia; Coe, Anna-Britt; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-05-03

    The renewed interest in community participation in health research is linked to its potential for bridging gaps between research and practice. Its main attributes are the generation of knowledge that can lead to socially robust, long-lasting solutions and the creation of a co-learner relationship between researchers and research users. Following this philosophy, Ecohealth has evolved into a specialized framework for participatory research on the impact of pollution on ecosystems and human health. However, its principles pose considerable challenges. Its outcomes are strongly influenced by contextual factors that are impossible to control for ahead of time.This paper describes how the Ecohealth principles were applied to an epidemiological study of heavy metals exposure among indigenous communities of the Peruvian Amazon. It illustrates how knowledge generated from participatory research does not necessarily imply solving a public health problem. This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the benefits and barriers of following the basic principles of the Ecohealth approach, and assist researchers working in similar contexts. Based upon their personal experience as participant observers, the authors describe the research process; then, they discuss the most important challenges faced, their implications, and the attempted strategies for resolution. Challenges were grouped into four themes: (1) building trust; (2) one partnership, many stakeholders, multiple agendas; (3) being a researcher; and (4) communicating complex and unexpected findings. Integrating the principles of transdisciplinarity and participation posed a series of challenges to the research process that were difficult, and sometimes impossible to overcome. However, positive outcomes from this experience were the lessons learned by the different actors. Despite the lack of immediate action, it is expected that useful interventions to prevent and control lead exposure in the Corrientes

  8. Effects of habitat isolation on pollinator communities and seed set.

    PubMed

    Steffan-Dewenter, I; Tscharntke, Teja

    1999-11-01

    Destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats is the major reason for the decreasing biodiversity in the agricultural landscape. Loss of populations may negatively affect biotic interactions and ecosystem stability. Here we tested the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation affects bee populations and thereby disrupts plant-pollinator interactions. We experimentally established small "habitat islands" of two self-incompatible, annual crucifers on eight calcareous grasslands and in the intensively managed agricultural landscape at increasing distances (up to 1000 m) from these species-rich grasslands to measure effects of isolation on both pollinator guilds and seed set, independently from patch size and density, resource availability and genetic erosion of plant populations. Each habitat island consisted of four pots each with one plant of mustard (Sinapis arvensis) and radish (Raphanus sativus). Increasing isolation of the small habitat islands resulted in both decreased abundance and species richness of flower-visiting bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Mean body size of flower-visiting wild bees was larger on isolated than on nonisolated habitat islands emphasizing the positive correlation of body size and foraging distance. Abundance of flower-visiting honeybees depended on the distance from the nearest apiary. Abundance of other flower visitors such as hover flies did not change with increasing isolation. Number of seeds per fruit and per plant decreased significantly with increasing distance from the nearest grassland for both mustard and radish. Mean seed set per plant was halved at a distance of approximately 1000 m for mustard and at 250 m for radish. In accordance with expectations, seed set per plant was positively correlated with the number of flower-visiting bees. We found no evidence for resource limitation in the case of mustard and only marginal effects for radish. We conclude that habitat connectivity is essential to maintain not only abundant and

  9. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13–53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1–0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p < 0.01). When all subjects were divided in two groups independently of age—mercury-exposed and non-exposed—the following results were found: tactile sensation thresholds in mercury-exposed subjects were higher than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts, except at the left chest; vibration sensation durations were shorter in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects, at all locations except in the upper sternum; two-point discrimination thresholds were higher in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts

  10. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p < 0.01). When all subjects were divided in two groups independently of age-mercury-exposed and non-exposed-the following results were found: tactile sensation thresholds in mercury-exposed subjects were higher than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts, except at the left chest; vibration sensation durations were shorter in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects, at all locations except in the upper sternum; two-point discrimination thresholds were higher in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts. There was

  11. Male ancestry structure and interethnic admixture in African-descent communities from the Amazon as revealed by Y-chromosome Strs.

    PubMed

    Palha, Teresinha de Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Guerreiro, João Farias; de Moura, Luciene Soraya Souza; Santos, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    Some genetic markers on both the Y chromosome and mtDNA are highly polymorphic and population-specific in humans, representing useful tools for reconstructing the past history of populations with poor historical records. Such lack of information is usually true in the case of recent African-descent populations of the New World founded by fugitive slaves throughout the slavery period in the Americas, particularly in Brazil, where those communities are known as quilombos. Aiming to recover male-derived ethnic structure of nine quilombos from the Brazilian Amazon, a total of 300 individuals, belonging to Mazagão Velho (N = 24), Curiaú (N = 48), Mazagão (N = 36), Trombetas (N = 20), Itacoã (N = 22), Saracura (N = 46), Marajó (N = 58), Pitimandeua (N = 26), and Pontal (N = 20), were investigated for nine Y-STRs (DYS393, DYS19, DYS390, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS392, DYS391, DYS385 I/II). From the 169 distinct haplotypes obtained, 120 were singletons. The results suggest the West African coast as the main origin of slaves brought to Brazil (54% of male contribution); the European contribution was high (41%), while the Amerindian's was low (5%). Those results contrast with previous mtDNA data that showed high Amerindian female contribution (46.6%) in African-descent populations. AMOVA suggests that the genetic differentiation among the quilombos is mainly influenced by admixture with European. However, when restricting AMOVA to African-specific haplotypes, low differentiation was detected, suggesting great genetic homogeneity of the African founding populations and/or a later homogenization by intense slave trade inside Brazil.

  12. [Malocclusions in children and adolescents from villages and native communities in the Ucayali Amazon region in Peru].

    PubMed

    Aliaga-Del Castillo, Arón; Mattos-Vela, Manuel Antonio; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Rosalinda; Del Castillo-Mendoza, Claudia

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the prevalence of malocclusions in children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years of villages and native communities of the Ucayali jungle of Peru. We assessed the presence of malocclusions using Angle's classification and orthodontic changes. We evaluated 201 individuals, 106 (52.7%) were women, most of them (54.7%) had between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of malocclusions was 85.6%, the most prevalent according to Angle's classification was class I (59.6%). Orthodontic alterations were present in 67.2% of cases. The most frequent were dental crowding (28.4%), anterior crossbite (17.4%), exaggerated overjet (8.5%), excessive overbite (5.0%) and anterior open bite (5.0%). We found a high prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic changes in the evaluated native communities, highlighting the need to implement preventive programs to improve the oral health of these neglected populations.

  13. Microbial community composition explains soil respiration responses to changing carbon inputs along an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas; Nottingham, Andrew T; Ccahuana, Adan; Salinas, Norma; Bardgett, Richard D; Meir, Patrick; McNamara, Niall P; Austin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    1. The Andes are predicted to warm by 3–5 °C this century with the potential to alter the processes regulating carbon (C) cycling in these tropical forest soils. This rapid warming is expected to stimulate soil microbial respiration and change plant species distributions, thereby affecting the quantity and quality of C inputs to the soil and influencing the quantity of soil-derived CO2 released to the atmosphere. 2. We studied tropical lowland, premontane and montane forest soils taken from along a 3200-m elevation gradient located in south-east Andean Peru. We determined how soil microbial communities and abiotic soil properties differed with elevation. We then examined how these differences in microbial composition and soil abiotic properties affected soil C-cycling processes, by amending soils with C substrates varying in complexity and measuring soil heterotrophic respiration (RH). 3. Our results show that there were consistent patterns of change in soil biotic and abiotic properties with elevation. Microbial biomass and the abundance of fungi relative to bacteria increased significantly with elevation, and these differences in microbial community composition were strongly correlated with greater soil C content and C:N (nitrogen) ratios. We also found that RH increased with added C substrate quality and quantity and was positively related to microbial biomass and fungal abundance. 4. Statistical modelling revealed that RH responses to changing C inputs were best predicted by soil pH and microbial community composition, with the abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, and abundance of gram-positive relative to gram-negative bacteria explaining much of the model variance. 5. Synthesis. Our results show that the relative abundance of microbial functional groups is an important determinant of RH responses to changing C inputs along an extensive tropical elevation gradient in Andean Peru. Although we do not make an experimental test of the effects of climate

  14. Microbial community composition explains soil respiration responses to changing carbon inputs along an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas; Nottingham, Andrew T; Ccahuana, Adan; Salinas, Norma; Bardgett, Richard D; Meir, Patrick; McNamara, Niall P; Austin, Amy

    2014-07-01

    1. The Andes are predicted to warm by 3-5 °C this century with the potential to alter the processes regulating carbon (C) cycling in these tropical forest soils. This rapid warming is expected to stimulate soil microbial respiration and change plant species distributions, thereby affecting the quantity and quality of C inputs to the soil and influencing the quantity of soil-derived CO2 released to the atmosphere. 2. We studied tropical lowland, premontane and montane forest soils taken from along a 3200-m elevation gradient located in south-east Andean Peru. We determined how soil microbial communities and abiotic soil properties differed with elevation. We then examined how these differences in microbial composition and soil abiotic properties affected soil C-cycling processes, by amending soils with C substrates varying in complexity and measuring soil heterotrophic respiration (RH). 3. Our results show that there were consistent patterns of change in soil biotic and abiotic properties with elevation. Microbial biomass and the abundance of fungi relative to bacteria increased significantly with elevation, and these differences in microbial community composition were strongly correlated with greater soil C content and C:N (nitrogen) ratios. We also found that RH increased with added C substrate quality and quantity and was positively related to microbial biomass and fungal abundance. 4. Statistical modelling revealed that RH responses to changing C inputs were best predicted by soil pH and microbial community composition, with the abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, and abundance of gram-positive relative to gram-negative bacteria explaining much of the model variance. 5. Synthesis. Our results show that the relative abundance of microbial functional groups is an important determinant of RH responses to changing C inputs along an extensive tropical elevation gradient in Andean Peru. Although we do not make an experimental test of the effects of climate

  15. The socio-cultural importance of Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) and implications for multi-use management in two Maijuna communities of the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fruit from the palm Mauritia flexuosa (aguaje) is harvested throughout the Peruvian Amazon for subsistence and commercial purposes. Recent estimates suggest that residents of Iquitos, the largest city in the region, consume approximately 148.8 metric tons of aguaje fruit per month, the vast majority of which is harvested by felling and killing adult female trees. In this study, we sought to better understand and document the importance of M. flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) in two Maijuna indigenous communities to inform the sustainable management of this habitat and species. Methods Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and household surveys were carried out to assess the significance of aguajales and their associated plant and animal resources as well as to determine how the relationship that the Maijuna have with aguajales has changed over time. Results Aguajales and their associated resources are culturally significant and useful to the Maijuna in a wide variety of ways. In addition to M. flexuosa, the Maijuna use over 60 different species of plants from aguajales. When M. flexuosa is in fruit, aguajales are important hunting areas with a total of 20 different animal species hunted. The Maijuna also have traditional beliefs about aguajales, believing that malevolent supernatural beings reside in them. Notably, the relationship that the Maijuna have with aguajales has changed considerably over the years as aguaje fruit went from a subsistence item collected opportunistically from the ground to a market good destructively harvested beginning in the early 1990s. The Maijuna are concerned not only about how this has affected the future commercial harvest of aguaje but also about its effects on game animals given the importance of hunting to Maijuna cultural identity, subsistence, and income generation. Conclusions In order to meet the multiple socio-cultural and economic needs of the Maijuna, sustainable management efforts must be expanded to not

  16. Tasmania's Rural and Isolated Young People: Issues, Solutions and Strategies. Report of a Community Consultation with Young People, Government, Youth and Organisations, in Rural and Isolated Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Office of Youth Affairs, Hobart (Australia).

    The Tasmanian (Australia) Office of Youth Affairs and Family conducted consultations concerning issues impacting young people living in rural and isolated areas. Eight workshops specifically for youth were attended by 123 young people. Five community forums were attended by 25-30 participants each. The difficulties of living in isolated situations…

  17. Recovery of Arapaima sp. populations by community-based management in floodplains of the Purus River, Amazon.

    PubMed

    Petersen, T A; Brum, S M; Rossoni, F; Silveira, G F V; Castello, L

    2016-07-01

    In the present study a unique dataset on population abundance in various community-based management (CBM) and non-CBM areas is analysed to address the question of whether CBM can recover overexploited populations of Arapaima sp. in river-floodplain ecosystems. All non-CBM areas possessed depleted Arapaima sp. populations with a mean density of 0·01 individuals ha(-1) . Arapaima sp. population densities in all CBM areas changed over time from depleted to overexploited or well managed status, with a mean rate of increase of 77% year(-1) . Rates of Arapaima sp. population recovery in CBM areas differed, probably reflecting differences in ecosystem productivity and compliance with management regulations. These results indicate that CBM schemes can be effective tools for the recovery and conservation of fish populations with non-migratory life cycles in tropical river-floodplain ecosystems. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. New focus of active transmission of Chagas disease in indigenous populations in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rufino; Vega, Silvia; Valderrama, Yadira; Cabanillas, Karina; Fernández, Connie; Rodríguez, Omar; Del Aguila, César; Hernández, Jesús; Mendoza, Leonardo; Ramón Meza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Several cases of acute Chagas disease (ACD) have been reported in the Peruvian Amazon basin. The objective was to describe and investigate 6 ACD cases in children from indigenous Amazon communities in the province of Datem del Marañón in Loreto department (2006-2010). The mean age was 3.6 years. All patients had fever, 4/6 hepatomegaly, 2/6 splenomegaly, and 5/6 had trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi on thick smears. The fatality rate was 33.3%. Rhodnius pictipes and Rhodnius robustus adults were found inside the homes and in the peri-domiciles. All cases reported were isolated cases. We report a new focus of ACD in indigenous populations.

  19. Relationships between copepod community structure, rainfall regimes, and hydrological variables in a tropical mangrove estuary (Amazon coast, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, André; Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; da Costa, Rauquírio Marinho

    2015-03-01

    The influence of rainfall and hydrological variables on the abundance and diversity of the copepod community was investigated on a monthly basis over an annual cycle in the Taperaçu mangrove estuary. In general, the results show that there were no clear spatial or tidal patterns in any biological variables during the study period, which was related to the reduced horizontal gradient in abiotic parameters, determined mainly by the morphological and morphodynamic features of the estuary. Nevertheless, seasonal and monthly trends were recorded in both the hydrological data and the abundance of the dominant copepod species. In particular, Pseudodiaptomus marshi (6,004.6 ± 22,231.6 ind m-3; F = 5.0, p < 0.05) and Acartia tonsa (905.6 ± 2,400.9 ind m-3; F = 14.6, p < 0.001) predominated during the rainy season, whereas Acartia lilljeborgii (750.8 ± 808.3 ind m-3; U = 413.0, p < 0.01) was the most abundant species in the dry season. A distinct process of succession was observed in the relative abundance of these species, driven by the shift in the rainfall regime, which affected hydrological, in particular salinity, and consequently the abundance of copepod species. We suggest that this may be a general pattern governing the dynamics of copepod populations in the estuaries of the Brazilian Amazonian region.

  20. Clustered local transmission and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria infections in a recently emerged, hypoendemic Peruvian Amazon community

    PubMed Central

    Branch, OraLee; Casapia, W Martin; Gamboa, Dionicia V; Hernandez, Jean N; Alava, Freddy F; Roncal, Norma; Alvarez, Eugenia; Perez, Enrique J; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Background There is a low incidence of malaria in Iquitos, Peru, suburbs detected by passive case-detection. This low incidence might be attributable to infections clustered in some households/regions and/or undetected asymptomatic infections. Methods Passive case-detection (PCD) during the malaria season (February-July) and an active case-detection (ACD) community-wide survey (March) surveyed 1,907 persons. Each month, April-July, 100-metre at-risk zones were defined by location of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the previous month. Longitudinal ACD and PCD (ACP+PCD) occurred within at-risk zones, where 137 houses (573 persons) were randomly selected as sentinels, each with one month of weekly active sampling. Entomological captures were conducted in the sentinel houses. Results The PCD incidence was 0.03 P. falciparum and 0.22 Plasmodium vivax infections/person/malaria-season. However, the ACD+PCD prevalence was 0.13 and 0.39, respectively. One explanation for this 4.33 and 1.77-fold increase, respectively, was infection clustering within at-risk zones and contiguous households. Clustering makes PCD, generalized to the entire population, artificially low. Another attributable-factor was that only 41% and 24% of the P. falciparum and P. vivax infections were associated with fever and 80% of the asymptomatic infections had low-density or absent parasitaemias the following week. After accounting for asymptomatic infections, a 2.6-fold increase in ACD+PCD versus PCD was attributable to clustered transmission in at-risk zones. Conclusion Even in low transmission, there are frequent highly-clustered asymptomatic infections, making PCD an inadequate measure of incidence. These findings support a strategy of concentrating ACD and insecticide campaigns in houses adjacent to houses were malaria was detected one month prior. PMID:15975146

  1. Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Celentano, Danielle; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Engel, Vera Lex; Façanha, Cristiane Lima; Oliveira, Elivaldo Moreira de; Moura, Emanoel Gomes de

    2014-01-27

    but also the main driver of forest degradation. Effective restoration approaches must transform problems into solutions by empowering local people. Successional agroforestry combining annual crops and trees may be a suitable transitional phase for restoration. The model must be designed collectively and include species of ecological, cultural, and socioeconomic value. In deprived communities of the Amazon, forest restoration must be a process that combines environmental and social gains.

  2. Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    . Conclusions Slash-and-burn agriculture is the main source of livelihood but also the main driver of forest degradation. Effective restoration approaches must transform problems into solutions by empowering local people. Successional agroforestry combining annual crops and trees may be a suitable transitional phase for restoration. The model must be designed collectively and include species of ecological, cultural, and socioeconomic value. In deprived communities of the Amazon, forest restoration must be a process that combines environmental and social gains. PMID:24468421

  3. Wood-fired fuel cells in an isolated community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.; Guiney, D. J.

    Fuel cells have the potential for generating electricity very efficiently, and because of their modular construction, retain the same efficiency at any scale. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered CO 2 neutral. A combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a fuel cell integrated with wood gasification (FCIWG) may offer a combination for delivering heat and electricity cleanly and efficiently, even at small-scales. The "isolated community" (IC) could be an island, or simply where grid-supplied electricity is weak or non-existent. The IC was taken to consist of 200 people and three retail outlets. Heat and electricity use profiles for this IC were produced and the FCIWG system was scaled to the power demand. The FCIWG system was modelled for two different types of fuel cell, the molten carbonate and the phosphoric acid. In each case, an oxygen-fired gasification system is proposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methane reformer. Technical, environmental and economic analyses of each version were made, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. Since fuel cell lifetimes are not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel cell lifetimes have been produced. The wood-fired phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system was found to be suitable where high heat/electricity values were required, but had low electrical efficiency. The wood-fired molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system was found to be quite efficient and suitable for small-scale electricity generation purposes. The expected capital costs of both systems would currently make them uncompetitive for general use, but the specific features of an IC with regard to the high cost of importing other fuel, and/or lack of grid electricity, could still make these systems attractive options.

  4. Mouth of the Amazon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-07

    Flowing over 6450 kilometers eastward across Brazil, the Amazon River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that eventually combine to form one of the world mightiest rivers as shown in this image from NASA Terra satellite.

  5. Plasmodium vivax Cell Traversal Protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (PvCelTOS) gene sequence and potential epitopes are highly conserved among isolates from different regions of Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt Chaves, Lana; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Martins da Silva, João Hermínio; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Banic, Dalma Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium vivax Cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PvCelTOS) plays an important role in the traversal of host cells. Although essential to PvCelTOS progress as a vaccine candidate, its genetic diversity remains uncharted. Therefore, we investigated the PvCelTOS genetic polymorphism in 119 field isolates from five different regions of Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Novo Repartimento, Porto Velho, Plácido de Castro and Oiapoque). Moreover, we also evaluated the potential impact of non-synonymous mutations found in the predicted structure and epitopes of PvCelTOS. The field isolates showed high similarity (99.3% of bp) with the reference Sal-1 strain, presenting only four Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) at positions 24A, 28A, 109A and 352C. The frequency of synonymous C109A (82%) was higher than all others (p<0.0001). However, the non-synonymous G28A and G352C were observed in 9.2% and 11.7% isolates. The great majority of the isolates (79.8%) revealed complete amino acid sequence homology with Sal-1, 10.9% presented complete homology with Brazil I and two undescribed PvCelTOS sequences were observed in 9.2% field isolates. Concerning the prediction analysis, the N-terminal substitution (Gly10Ser) was predicted to be within a B-cell epitope (PvCelTOS Accession Nos. AB194053.1) and exposed at the protein surface, while the Val118Leu substitution was not a predicted epitope. Therefore, our data suggest that although G28A SNP might interfere in potential B-cell epitopes at PvCelTOS N-terminal region the gene sequence is highly conserved among the isolates from different geographic regions, which is an important feature to be taken into account when evaluating its potential as a vaccine candidate. PMID:28158176

  6. Reexaming the Development of African American English: Evidence from Isolated Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2003-01-01

    Examines several longstanding, isolated biracial sociolinguistic situations in the coastal and Appalachian regions of North Carolina: a core community of African Americans and two case studies of isolated speakers. Compares diagnostic phonological and morphosyntactic variables for speakers representing different generations of African American and…

  7. Reexaming the Development of African American English: Evidence from Isolated Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2003-01-01

    Examines several longstanding, isolated biracial sociolinguistic situations in the coastal and Appalachian regions of North Carolina: a core community of African Americans and two case studies of isolated speakers. Compares diagnostic phonological and morphosyntactic variables for speakers representing different generations of African American and…

  8. The Dona Elena Project, A Better-Living Program in an Isolated Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lydia J.

    In 1958 a project was begun in a small, isolated, rural farm community in Puerto Rico to provide nutrition education and improve other conditions of home and community living. Preliminary meetings, interviews, and examinations revealed the interest and great need of the 100 families. Progress reports were made after 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years.…

  9. Classification of Epidemic Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Anatomical Site of Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jill C.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contributes significantly to cost, morbidity, and mortality due to infectious disease. We surveyed community-associated MRSA isolates to determine which strains were present within anatomical sites of interest. The most likely sources of MRSA among anatomic sites swabbed were wounds followed by the nasal cavity. The USA 300 MRSA strain was most commonly isolated among wound infections while nasal swabs largely yielded USA 100 MRSA. The frequency of isolation of USA 100 amongst community-associated strains is clinically significant as this strain is often correlated with invasive disease, exhibits broad antibiotic resistance, and has been considered to be hospital associated. The potential of USA 100 to cause serious disease and the frequency of its isolation suggest an important reservoir for opportunistic infection. These data demonstrate that MRSA epidemic clones are widespread among the community. PMID:24895625

  10. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Danilo B.; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Trindade, Giliane S.; Kroon, Erna G.; Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest. PMID:26787153

  11. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  12. Disrespect and Isolation: Elder Abuse in Chinese Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Sandra; Neysmith, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study of home care workers, this paper aims to understand elder abuse of Chinese Canadians. The findings show disrespect is the key form elder abuse takes in the Chinese community. As a culturally specific form of abuse, disrespect remains invisible under categories of elder abuse derived from a Western cultural perspective.…

  13. Bread on the Water: Education in an Isolated Mountain Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Michael T.

    1983-01-01

    Details the history of Big Laurel, West Virginia from 1918-1941, 1941-1965, and 1965-1983, noting the effects on education of events in all three periods. Describes the opening, closing, consolidation, and reopening of community schools, and the construction, development, philosophy, and curriculum of the new Big Laurel School. (SB)

  14. Disrespect and Isolation: Elder Abuse in Chinese Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Sandra; Neysmith, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study of home care workers, this paper aims to understand elder abuse of Chinese Canadians. The findings show disrespect is the key form elder abuse takes in the Chinese community. As a culturally specific form of abuse, disrespect remains invisible under categories of elder abuse derived from a Western cultural perspective.…

  15. The Amazon and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  16. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Sá, L.L.C.; Vale, E.R.V.; Garza, D.R.; Vicente, A.C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. PMID:24031874

  17. The Influence of Ecological Isolation on the Structural and Functional Stability of Complex Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, R. B.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2005-01-01

    To help understand how the behavior of microorganisms and microbial communities in insular space habitats may differ from the behavior of these groups on Earth, long-term incubations (100+ days) were conducting using wastewater bioreactors (batch fed) designed to mimic "closed" and "open" ecological systems. The issue of immigration was considered, and the goal of the research was to determine whether the stability of microbial communities in space is reduced due to their prolonged isolation. Bioreactors were established by inoculating flasks of sterile synthetic wastewater with the microbial community obtained from a local treatment facility; each day, one-third of the medium in the flask was replaced with an equal volume of sterile artificial wastewater. Flasks were divided into two treatments: "closed" and "open" to recruitment of additional microorganisms. "Closed" flasks were maintained as described above, while the medium used to feed the "open" flasks was supplemented daily with a small amount of raw sewage (which provided a continuous source of new potential community members). Significant differences in microbial community structure and function developed in the two sets of communities, and the results suggest that the open community was more stable and better able to adjust to changing environmental conditions. Each community's resistance to environmental (temperature fluctuations) and biological stresses (starvation and invasion by an opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was monitored. Experiments were also conducted to determine whether the effect of isolation changes depending on the microbial communities' initial diversity or composition; communities with a low(er) initial diversity were less stable. Overall, the results indicate that isolation will be an important factor influencing the activity of microbial communities on board spacecraft. A possible way of mitigating these effects would be to include communities with high initial

  18. Health beliefs and practices in an isolated polygamist community of southern Utah.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne Catherine; Karkazis, Katrina

    2013-06-01

    Short Creek is a largely closed and isolated community on the border between Utah and Arizona, made up of the sister towns of Hildale, Utah, and Colorado City, Arizona. Beginning from childhood, the 6,000 or so members of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS) are brought up in a lifestyle of plural marriage, meaning a marriage among one man and more than one woman, and are surrounded by their peers in "the covenant." A lifestyle of plural marriage is likely to affect the health of community members, but its effects have not been studied because of the community's isolation and distrust of outsiders. This paper addresses several questions that arise in contemplating the health of the Short Creek community: What are the health beliefs in this community, and what are their historical bases? Where do families seek medical care, and for what or at what threshold of illness or injury? What is the attitude of care providers serving this community, and how are the providers viewed by the community? More broadly, this paper examines the ways in which polygamy configures health. In order to meet this objective, this paper aims first to provide a brief account of this community's history and demographic profile, followed by a discussion of health care in this community and how it is affected by the practice of plural marriage, with the data comprised of qualitative interviews with health care providers to the community. The goals of this project are to gain a rich, historically nuanced understanding of the health of community members, and to identify directions for further academic and policy research. Our findings indicate that health in this community is shaped by limited resources, an attitude of health fatalism, and a profound insularity and corresponding isolation from the outside world.

  19. Isolation and identification of fungal communities in compost and vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Antonella; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Marchisio, Valeria Filipello

    2005-01-01

    This research illustrates the qualitative and quantitative composition of the mycoflora of both a green compost (thermophilically produced from plant debris) and a vermicompost (mesophilically produced by the action of earthworms on plant and animal wastes after thermophilic preconditioning). Fungi were isolated using three media (PDA, CMC, PDA plus cycloheximide), incubated at three temperatures (24, 37 and 45 C). Substantial qualiquantitative differences in the species composition of the two composts were observed. The total fungal load was up to 8.2 X 10(5) CFU/g dwt in compost and 4.0 x 10(5) CFU/g dwt in vermicompost. A total of 194 entities were isolated: 118 from green compost, 142 from vermicompost; 66 were common to both. Structural characterization of this kind is necessary to determine the most appropriate application of a compost and its hygienic quality.

  20. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  1. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  2. Streptomyces hypolithicus sp. nov., isolated from an Antarctic hypolith community.

    PubMed

    Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Rohland, Jeffrey; Meyers, Paul R; Cowan, Don A; Burton, Stephanie G

    2009-08-01

    As part of an enzyme-screening programme, an actinobacterium, strain HSM#10T, was isolated from a sample collected from the base of a translucent quartz rock in Miers Valley, eastern Antarctica. The isolate produced branching vegetative mycelium that was characteristic of filamentous actinobacteria. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain suggested that HSM#10T should be classified as a member of the genus Streptomyces. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was closely related to members of the genus Streptomyces, which supports the classification of this strain within the family Streptomycetaceae. Phenotypic and phylogenetic results allowed strain HSM#10T to be differentiated from known streptomycetes. DNA-DNA hybridization data also showed that strain HSM#10T could be differentiated from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours Streptomyces chryseus DSM 40420T (53.55+/-3.15% DNA relatedness), Streptomyces helvaticus DSM 40431T (38.75+/-2.75%), Streptomyces flavidovirens DSM 40150T (30.7+/-2.90%) and Streptomyces albidochromogenes DSM 41800T (33.9+/-0.10%). Therefore, the name Streptomyces hypolithicus sp. nov. is proposed, with HSM#10T (=DSM 41950T=NRRL B-24669T) as the type strain.

  3. Polymorphism of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance and chloroquine resistance transporter genes and in vitro susceptibility to aminoquinolines in isolates from the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Roncal, Norma; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Long, Ton That Ai; Gerena, Lucia; Garcia, Coralith; Solari, Lely; Magill, Alan J; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2004-05-01

    In vitro drug sensitivity to chloroquine (CQ), mefloquine (MQ) and quinine was investigated in 60 culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates from malaria patients in Padrecocha, a village in the Amazonian Department of Loreto, Peru. All isolates showed resistance to CQ, decreased susceptibility to quinine, and sensitivity to MQ. These isolates were examined for mutations in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) genes previously linked to CQ resistance. The mutations N86Y and D1246Y, two of the five mutations commonly observed in the pfmdr1 gene of CQ-resistant clones, were not found. The pfcrt mutation K76T, associated with CQ resistance, was identified in all the isolates tested. Sequence analysis of codons 72-76 in the pfcrt gene showed the haplotypes SVMNT and CVMNT.

  4. Social isolation from communities and child maltreatment: a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine: (1) the differences between Spanish and Colombian cultures in relation to community social support variables, and (2) the relationships between community social support variables and child maltreatment in both cultures. The study was based on 670 nonabusive families and 166 abusive families. The parents were asked to complete the Community Social Support Questionnaire. This instrument measures community social support in terms of Community Integration and Satisfaction, membership in voluntary organizations and community participation, and use of Community Resources of Social Support. Differences between both cultures were found in the pattern of community social support for the nonabusive groups. However, the relationships between community social support and child maltreatment were similar cross-culturally. Our results indicate that in both cultures abusive parents show lower levels of community integration, participation in community social activities and use of formal and informal organizations than the parents that provide adequate care. The results largely support the literature that has repeatedly reported the link between social isolation and child maltreatment and they confirm this relation within two cultural contexts, Colombian and Spanish, quite different from the Anglo-Saxon context, where most of the previous studies have been carried out.

  5. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Biffi, Sauro; Maggini, Valentina; Gori, Luigi; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-09-01

    In this work we analyzed the composition and structure of cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the stem/leaf and root compartments of two medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell, grown in the same soil, as well as the bacterial community from their rhizospheric soils. Molecular PCR-based techniques were applied to cultivable bacteria isolated from the three compartments of the two plants. The results showed that the two plants and their respective compartments were characterized by different communities, indicating a low degree of strain sharing and a strong selective pressure within plant tissues. Pseudomonas was the most highly represented genus, together with Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp. The presence of distinct bacterial communities in different plant species and among compartments of the same plant species could account for the differences in the medicinal properties of the two plants. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  6. Perceived social isolation in a community sample: its prevalence and correlates with aspects of peoples' lives.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Graeme

    2008-02-01

    Although there are many studies reporting perceived social isolation or loneliness and their correlates in specific groups, there are few modern prevalence studies. This study reports on the prevalence of perceived social isolation in an Australian community sample. Randomly sampled Australian adults (n = 3,015) were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. In addition to perceived social isolation assessed by the Friendship Scale, data were collected on socio-demographic variables and chronic health conditions. The findings suggest that while most participants were socially connected, 9% reported some social isolation and 7% were isolated or very isolated. Perceived social isolation varied by gender and age group, region of birth, relationship, labourforce, and income status. A key finding was that younger adults had higher probabilities of being classified as being socially isolated than did older participants. Depression was very strongly associated with perceived social isolation. Other health conditions or life experiences associated with it were hearing, incontinence and lifetime trauma exposure. The demographic characteristics and chronic health conditions associated with perceived social isolation are structural circumstances of peoples' lives. Given there are poor long-term health outcomes, including early death and suicide, there are clear public health implications for those trapped by these life circumstances.

  7. Evaluation of Quinolone Resistance in Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Community- and Hospital-Acquired Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bastopcu, Ayse; Yazgi, Halil; Uyanik, M. Hamidullah; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Gram negative bacilli are among the most important microbial agents involved in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. The quinolones are preferred antibacterial agents for the treatment of both community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections caused by gram negative bacilli because of their strong antibacterial effects, and because they can be administered both orally and parenterally. In this study, it was aimed to determine the sensitivity of gram negative bacteria isolated from both hospital- and community-acquired infections, to quinolones. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains used in this study were isolated from pathologic samples of patients who were treated in different clinics or who were admitted to the polyclinics of Atatürk University Research Hospitals. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin was assessed for all strains included in the study via the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: Of the 205 strains tested, 116 (56.5%) were from community-acquired infections, and 89 (43.5%) were from hospital-acquired infections. Resistance rates of community-origin strains against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin were 25%, whereas they were 26.7% against norfloxacin. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective quinolone (65.2%) against hospital-origin strains. E. coli was the most commonly isolated etiological agent from both community- and hospital-acquired infections. Conclusion: In this study, resistance to quinolones was observed for gram negative bacilli isolated from both hospital- and community-acquired infections, with the exception of community-acquired Salmonella and Shigella. Thus, these drugs should not be used empirically in the treatment of infections caused by gram negative bacilli, and susceptibility test results should be considered when planning therapy. PMID:25610028

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and body site distribution of community isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline; Wolden, Runa; Heise, Philipp; Esaiassen, Eirin; Klingenberg, Claus; Aarag Fredheim, Elizabeth G

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from healthy adults in the community. Healthy adults (n = 114) were swabbed on six body sites; both armpits, both knee pits and both sides of the groin. Species determination was performed using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) and susceptibility testing for 11 relevant antimicrobials was performed by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration gradient test. In total, 693 CoNS isolates were identified. Susceptibility testing was done on 386 isolates; one CoNS from each species found on each participant from the different body sites. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the CoNS isolates were; erythromycin (24.6%), fusidic acid (19.9%), tetracycline (11.4%), clindamycin (7.8%), gentamicin (6.2%) and cefoxitin (4.1%). Multidrug resistance was observed in 5.2% of the isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. hominis were the first and second most prevalent species on all three body sites. We conclude that CoNS isolates from healthy adults in the community have a much lower prevalence of antimicrobial resistance than reported in nosocomial CoNS isolates. Still, we believe that levels of resistance in community CoNS should be monitored as the consumption of antimicrobials in primary care in Norway is increasing.

  9. Drug resistance and population structure of M.tuberculosis isolates from prisons and communities in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Solomon; Beckert, Patrick; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Niemann, Stefan; Rachow, Andrea

    2016-11-21

    The population structure and drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates in Ethiopian prisons and some communities is still unknown. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted on 126 MTBC strains isolated from prisons and communities in southwestern, southern and eastern Ethiopia. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing was performed with the MGIT960 system. Combined 24-loci Mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat and spacer oligonucleotide typing methods were used to study the MTBC population structure. The obtained data from prisons and communities were compared using statistical tests and regression analysis. A diverse population structure with 11 different lineages and sub-lineages was identified. The predominant strains were the recently described Ethiopia_H37Rv like (27.52%) and Ethiopia_3 (16.51%) with equal lineage distribution between prisons and communities. 28.57% of prison strains and 31.82% of community strains shared the identical genotype with at least one other strain. The multidrug-resistance (MDR) prevalence of the community was 2.27% whereas that of prisons was 9.52%. The highest mono resistance was seen against streptomycin (15.89%). Tuberculosis in communities and prisons is caused by a variety of MTBC lineages with predominance of local Ethiopian lineages. The increasing prevalence of MDR MTBC strains is alarming. These findings suggest the need for new approaches for control of MDR tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

  10. Novel methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus clone isolated from patients with haematological diseases at the Blood Bank Centre of Amazon, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristina Motta; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Ferreira, William Antunes; de Oliveira, Cíntia Mara Costa; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus remains a severe public health problem worldwide. This research was intended to identify the presence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci clones and their staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-type isolate from patients with haematologic diseases presenting bacterial infections who were treated at the Blood Bank of the state of Amazonas in Brazil. Phenotypic and genotypic tests, such as SCCmec types and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), were developed to detect and characterise methicillin-resistant isolates. A total of 26 Gram-positive bacteria were isolated, such as: Staphylococcus epidermidis (8/27), Staphylococcus intermedius (4/27) and Staphylococcus aureus (4/27). Ten methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates were identified. MLST revealed three different sequence types: S. aureus ST243, S. epidermidis ST2 and a new clone of S. epidermidis, ST365. These findings reinforce the potential of dissemination presented by multi-resistant Staphylococcus and they suggest the introduction of monitoring actions to reduce the spread of pathogenic clonal lineages of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to avoid hospital infections and mortality risks. PMID:23579805

  11. Screening of the in vitro antileishmanial activities of compounds and secondary metabolites isolated from Maytenus guianensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae) chichuá Amazon.

    PubMed

    Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira; Lima, Renato Abreu; Hurtado, Fernanda Bay; Passarini, Guilherme Matos; Macedo, Sharon Rose Aragão; Barros, Neuza Biguinati de; Oliveira, Flávio Augusto de Souza; Medeiros, Patrícia Soares de Maria de; Militão, Júlio Sancho Linhares Teixeira; Nicolete, Roberto; Facundo, Valdir Alves

    2016-01-01

    Maytenus guianensis is a member of the Celastraceae family that is used in traditional medicine, particularly for its anti-parasitic and anti-cancer effects. To explore the ethnopharmacological potential of this plant, the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antileishmanial activities of extracts and compounds isolated from M. guianensis. Maytenus guianensis stems and leaves were extracted in acetone, followed by the preparation of eluates and isolation of secondary metabolites using chromatography on a glass column with silica gel as the fixed phase. The chemical components were identified using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen-1 and carbon-13, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of these eluates and compounds were evaluated by direct promastigote counting and viability assays. It was found that the hexane bark eluate produced the strongest anti-L. amazonensis effect, with 90-100% inhibition of the promastigote form. The isolated metabolite that produced the best result was tingenone B, followed by a compound formed by the union of tingenone and tingenone B (80-90% inhibition). Maytenus guianensis shows anti-parasite activity that warrants further investigation to determine the mechanisms underlying this antileishmanial effect and to evaluate the pharmacological potential of these eluates and isolated secondary metabolites, while minimizing any adverse effects.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the BeAn 58058 Virus Isolated from Oryzomys sp. Rodents in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A. L. P.; Azevedo, R. S. S.; Júnior, E. C. Sousa; Filho, L. C. F.; Oliveira, R. S.; Lemos, P. S.; Júnior, J. V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the BeAn 58058 virus (prototype) strain, isolated from a wild rodent Oryzomys sp. in the Utinga forest, Belém, state of Pará, Brazil in 1963. The genome of this virus showed similarity to the Poxviridae family, suggesting its inclusion in a possible new genus. PMID:28254970

  13. Health Promotion Efforts in an Isolated Hispanic Community: The Mora Substance Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias J.; And Others

    An alcohol and drug use education program was developed by teachers and administrators in Mora, a small, isolated Hispanic community in northern New Mexico, in cooperation with the town's public health nurses and a University of New Mexico research team. Pre- and posttests were given to 150 students in grades 7-9 in the Mora Public Schools to…

  14. Laribacter hongkongensis isolated from a patient with community-acquired gastroenteritis in Hangzhou City.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao-Ping; Ren, Shu-Hua; Sun, Jian-Rong; Xiang, Hai-Qing; Gao, Yan; Kong, Qing-Xin; Cha, Jie; Pan, Jing-Chao; Yu, Hua; Li, Hua-Ming

    2007-01-01

    We describe the isolation of Laribacter hongkongensis in Hangzhou City, People's Republic of China. One strain of bacterium, named LHHZ242, had many of the same phenotypic and genotypic characteristics as Laribacter hongkongensis described in previous publications. This discovery proves that Laribacter hongkongensis is also associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis outside Hong Kong.

  15. The Amazon and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon are reviewed. The physical causes of observed features are explained. The question whether deforestation leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere is examined, as well as the reduction in precipitation and its implication for the global climate. There are indications that for large scale clearing of tropical rain forests there would indeed be a reduction in rainfall, which would have global effects in terms of climate and weather.

  16. Social isolation and loneliness among older people: issues and future challenges in community and residential settings.

    PubMed

    Grenade, Linda; Boldy, Duncan

    2008-08-01

    Although often associated with older age, loneliness and social isolation are not well understood in terms of their prevalence, risk and protective factors. Evidence suggests that only a minority of community-dwelling older people are "severely" lonely or isolated, however a number of factors need to be considered to fully understand the extent and significance of the problem. Community-based studies have identified a variety of risk factors for loneliness/isolation including widowhood, no (surviving) children, living alone, deteriorating health, and life events (eg, loss and bereavement). Having a confidant has been identified as a protective factor for loneliness. However, evidence is often unclear or inconclusive, especially within residential settings. We identified the need to conduct more residential care-focused research; the importance of addressing a variety of methodological concerns; and the need for practitioners to develop intervention programs that are appropriately targeted, evidence-based and evaluated.

  17. A complex network based model for detecting isolated communities in water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Nan; Jia, Youwei; Xu, Zhao; Ho, Siu-Lau; Kan, Chi Wai

    2013-12-01

    Water distribution network (WDN) is a typical real-world complex network of major infrastructure that plays an important role in human's daily life. In this paper, we explore the formation of isolated communities in WDN based on complex network theory. A graph-algebraic model is proposed to effectively detect the potential communities due to pipeline failures. This model can properly illustrate the connectivity and evolution of WDN during different stages of contingency events, and identify the emerging isolated communities through spectral analysis on Laplacian matrix. A case study on a practical urban WDN in China is conducted, and the consistency between the simulation results and the historical data are reported to showcase the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  18. A complex network based model for detecting isolated communities in water distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Nan; Jia, Youwei; Xu, Zhao; Ho, Siu-Lau; Wai Kan, Chi

    2013-12-01

    Water distribution network (WDN) is a typical real-world complex network of major infrastructure that plays an important role in human's daily life. In this paper, we explore the formation of isolated communities in WDN based on complex network theory. A graph-algebraic model is proposed to effectively detect the potential communities due to pipeline failures. This model can properly illustrate the connectivity and evolution of WDN during different stages of contingency events, and identify the emerging isolated communities through spectral analysis on Laplacian matrix. A case study on a practical urban WDN in China is conducted, and the consistency between the simulation results and the historical data are reported to showcase the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  19. Characterization of two new rhabdoviruses isolated from midges (Culicoides SPP) in the Brazilian Amazon: proposed members of a new genus, Bracorhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Diniz, J A P; Nunes, M R T; Travassos da Rosa, A P A; Cruz, A C R; de Souza, W; Medeiros, D B A; Chiang, J O; Vasconcelos, P F C

    2006-12-01

    Itacaiunas and Curionopolis viruses were isolated from Culicoides midges in Parauapebas municipality, Pará state, Brazil, in 1984 and 1985, respectively. Itacaiunas virus infected newborn mice and mosquito cells (C6/36), but did not replicate in some mammalian cell lineages; while Curionopolis virus infected only mice. Neither virus showed a serological relationship with any of the 195 known arboviruses circulating in Brazil, nor against 38 other rhabdoviruses isolated worldwide. Both virus particles are bullet-shaped and similar in morphology to that observed for other members of the family Rhabdoviridae. Partial nucleotide sequencing of the N protein showed that those two viruses constitute a separate clade in the family Rhabdoviridae, which we propose to be a new genus, designated Bracorhabdovirus.

  20. Social isolation, C-reactive protein, and coronary heart disease mortality among community-dwelling adults.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Kathi L; Waring, Molly E; Roberts, Mary B; Eaton, Charles B; Gramling, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Social isolation confers increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and mortality. In two recent studies, low levels of social integration among older adults were related to higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, suggesting a possible biological link between social isolation and CHD. The current study examined relationships among social isolation, CRP, and 15-year CHD death in a community sample of US adults aged 40 years and older without a prior history of myocardial infarction. A nested case-cohort study was conducted from a parent cohort of community-dwelling adults from the southeastern New England region of the United States (N = 2321) who were interviewed in 1989 and 1990. CRP levels were measured from stored sera provided by the nested case-cohort (n = 370), which included all cases of CHD death observed through 2005 (n = 48), and a random sample of non-cases. We found that the most socially isolated individuals had two-and-a-half times the odds of elevated CRP levels compared to the most socially integrated. In separate logistic regression models, both social isolation and CRP predicted later CHD death. The most socially isolated continued to have more than twice the odds of CHD death compared to the most socially integrated in a model adjusting for CRP and more traditional CHD risk factors. The current findings support social isolation as an independent risk factor of both high levels of CRP and CHD death in middle-aged adults without a prior history of myocardial infarction. Prospective study of inflammatory pathways related to social isolation and mortality are needed to fully delineate whether and how CRP or other inflammatory markers contribute to mechanisms linking social isolation to CVD health.

  1. Biodiversity dynamics in isolated island communities: interaction between natural and human-mediated processes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Rosemary G; Claridge, Elin M; Roderick, George K

    2008-01-01

    The flora and fauna of oceanic islands have inspired research since the early scientific explorations. Islands can be considered 'nature's test tubes'- simple systems with multiple replicates. Our research has used the simplicity of island systems to understand ecological community dynamics and to compare the properties of island communities with those in more complex mainland systems. Here, we present three topics: (i) current patterns of biodiversity on isolated islands of the Pacific; (ii) current patterns of disturbance and invasion on islands; and (iii) future trajectories inferred from these patterns. We examine features of islands (in particular, topography and isolation) that have allowed for given levels and distribution of endemicity. The extent to which island communities are impacted by, resist or accommodate disturbance and/or invasions by nonindigenous species appears to be dictated to a large extent by properties of the native communities and how these communities were originally assembled. Accordingly, patterns of disturbance and invasion are very different for high (montane) islands that are extremely isolated compared to those that are nearer to a source of natural migrants. As with all biotas, those on islands are dynamic entities. However, the unique aspect of islands is their isolation, and extreme isolation has largely been lost over the course of the last few centuries due to the development of transportation routes. We argue that such a modified dynamic will affect the future of the biota and the processes that gave rise to the biota. Specifically for isolated habitats, ecological processes will become increasingly more likely to generate biodiversity than evolutionary processes which have been relatively more important in the past. In the short term, island biotas and other similar biotas that occur in montane habitats may fare well as species are often abundant locally in the habitat to which they are indigenous, and may demonstrate

  2. The detection of Vaccinia virus confirms the high circulation of Orthopoxvirus in buffaloes living in geographical isolation, Marajó Island, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira; Fagundes Pereira, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, serologic evidence of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) circulation showed positivity around 20% in cattle, humans, monkeys and rodents. Although OPV seropositivity has been described in buffalo herds in southeastern Brazil, no Vaccinia virus (VACV) (member of genus OPV) outbreaks in buffalo herds have been described in this country. This study aimed to investigate the detection of anti-OPV antibodies and to study the OPV genome in Brazilian buffalo herds. Our results demonstrated a high OPV seropositivity in buffalo herds on Marajó Island and molecular data confirmed the circulation of VACV. The geographical isolation conditionmight be a sine qua non condition to explain our results.

  3. Social isolation in community-dwelling seniors: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry's newly released Aging at Home Strategy.After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person's transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report.Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series.AGING IN THE COMMUNITY: Summary of Evidence-Based AnalysesPrevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisBehavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisCaregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based AnalysisSocial Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisThe Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) OBJECTIVE OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS: The objective was to systematically review interventions aimed at preventing or reducing social isolation and loneliness in community-dwelling seniors, that is, persons ≥ 65 years of age who are not living in long-term care institutions. The analyses focused on the following questions: Are interventions to reduce social isolation and/or loneliness effective?Do these

  4. 'Islands' and 'doctor's tool': the ethical significance of isolation and subordination in UK community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J

    2009-05-01

    Empirical ethics research is increasingly valued in offering insights into how ethical problems and decision-making occur in healthcare. In this article, the findings of a qualitative study of the ethical problems and decision-making of UK community pharmacists are presented, and it is argued that the identified themes of pharmacists' relative isolation from others and their subordination to doctors are ethically significant. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 community pharmacists in England, UK. Analysis of interviews revealed that isolation involved separation of pharmacists from their peers, other healthcare professionals, patients and customers. Such isolation is argued to be inimical to ethical practice - impeding ethical discourse as understood by Habermas, resulting in a form of anomie that inhibits the transmission of professional values, leading to a lack of proximity between pharmacist and patient or customer that may impede ethical relationships and resulting, psychologically, in less ethical concern for those who are less close. Pharmacists' subordination to doctors not only precipitated some ethical problems but also allowed some pharmacists to shift ethical responsibility to a prescribing doctor, as in the case of emergency hormonal contraception. The emergence of atrocity stories further supports a culture of subordination that may cause ethical problems. The study has implications for community pharmacy practice in terms of supervision issues, developments such as prescribing responsibilities and how ethical values can be taught and communicated. The potential for isolation and subordination in other healthcare professions, and resultant ethical problems, may also need to be addressed and researched.

  5. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Manvendra; Parket, Harrison; Myers, Katherine; Rahn, Thom; Christoffersson, B.; Wunch, Debra; Wennberg, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  6. Evidence for isolated evolution of deep-sea ciliate communities through geological separation and environmental selection.

    PubMed

    Stock, Alexandra; Edgcomb, Virginia; Orsi, William; Filker, Sabine; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Yakimov, Michail M; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2013-07-08

    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are isolated habitats at the bottom of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, which originate from the ancient dissolution of Messinian evaporites. The different basins have recruited their original biota from the same source, but their geological evolution eventually constituted sharp environmental barriers, restricting genetic exchange between the individual basins. Therefore, DHABs are unique model systems to assess the effect of geological events and environmental conditions on the evolution and diversification of protistan plankton. Here, we examine evidence for isolated evolution of unicellular eukaryote protistan plankton communities driven by geological separation and environmental selection. We specifically focused on ciliated protists as a major component of protistan DHAB plankton by pyrosequencing the hypervariable V4 fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. Geospatial distributions and responses of marine ciliates to differential hydrochemistries suggest strong physical and chemical barriers to dispersal that influence the evolution of this plankton group. Ciliate communities in the brines of four investigated DHABs are distinctively different from ciliate communities in the interfaces (haloclines) immediately above the brines. While the interface ciliate communities from different sites are relatively similar to each other, the brine ciliate communities are significantly different between sites. We found no distance-decay relationship, and canonical correspondence analyses identified oxygen and sodium as most important hydrochemical parameters explaining the partitioning of diversity between interface and brine ciliate communities. However, none of the analyzed hydrochemical parameters explained the significant differences between brine ciliate communities in different basins. Our data indicate a frequent genetic exchange in the deep-sea water above the brines. The "isolated island character" of the different brines

  7. Evidence for isolated evolution of deep-sea ciliate communities through geological separation and environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are isolated habitats at the bottom of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, which originate from the ancient dissolution of Messinian evaporites. The different basins have recruited their original biota from the same source, but their geological evolution eventually constituted sharp environmental barriers, restricting genetic exchange between the individual basins. Therefore, DHABs are unique model systems to assess the effect of geological events and environmental conditions on the evolution and diversification of protistan plankton. Here, we examine evidence for isolated evolution of unicellular eukaryote protistan plankton communities driven by geological separation and environmental selection. We specifically focused on ciliated protists as a major component of protistan DHAB plankton by pyrosequencing the hypervariable V4 fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. Geospatial distributions and responses of marine ciliates to differential hydrochemistries suggest strong physical and chemical barriers to dispersal that influence the evolution of this plankton group. Results Ciliate communities in the brines of four investigated DHABs are distinctively different from ciliate communities in the interfaces (haloclines) immediately above the brines. While the interface ciliate communities from different sites are relatively similar to each other, the brine ciliate communities are significantly different between sites. We found no distance-decay relationship, and canonical correspondence analyses identified oxygen and sodium as most important hydrochemical parameters explaining the partitioning of diversity between interface and brine ciliate communities. However, none of the analyzed hydrochemical parameters explained the significant differences between brine ciliate communities in different basins. Conclusions Our data indicate a frequent genetic exchange in the deep-sea water above the brines. The “isolated island

  8. A comparison between cactophilic yeast communities isolated from Cereus hildmannianus and Praecereus euchlorus necrotic cladodes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Franciele Pereira; Araujo, Ana Carolina Vieira; Moraes, Evandro Marsola de; Dos Santos, André Cordeiro Alves

    2016-10-01

    In the cactus-yeast-Drosophila model system, the necrotic cladode is used as substrate by a diverse and specific microbiota, which is utilized as food source by Drosophila. Although this association has been the focus of many studies in arid regions of North America, little is known of its composition in South America. This study analysed yeast communities isolated from two South American cacti species: Cereus hildmannianus and Praecereus euchlorus. Fourteen yeast species were isolated and identified by their morpho-physiological character and partial rRNA gene sequencing. Arthropods hatched from the analysed cladodes were identified. There was little similarity between the isolated yeast communities either in terms of cacti species (S = 0.286) or collection sites (S = 0.214-0.335). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that Metschnikowia koreensis and Hannaella sinensis have been described in association with cacti. Also, Drosophila buzzatti has not been described in association with Praecereus. The similarity between cactophilic arthropod communities found in the different cacti was low (S = 0.266) and zero when only Drosophila was considered. These results suggest that exploration by Drosophila species is the main factor that drives low yeast community similarity between cacti species.

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection in Afro-Brazilian isolated communities in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Aline G; Motta-Castro, Ana R C; Nascimento, Laura B; Silva, Agabo M C; Teles, Sheila A; Villar, Livia M; Gaspar, Ana M C; Martins, Regina M B

    2007-02-01

    To investigate hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection rates among isolated African-descendant communities in Central Brazil, 947 subjects were interviewed about demographic characteristics in all 12 isolated Afro-descendant communities existing in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil, between March 2002 and November 2003. Blood samples were collected and sera were tested for HAV antibodies (total and IgM anti-HAV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overall prevalence of HAV infection was 75.6% (95% CI: 72.7-78.3), ranging from 55.4 to 97.3%, depending on the communities studied. The prevalence of anti-HAV increased significantly with age, from 13.8% in the age 0-5 age group to 96.6% in those older than 40 years. The findings point out an intermediate endemicity of HAV infection in some Afro-Brazilian isolated communities in Central Brazil. In addition, the high proportion of susceptible young subjects could be target of future HAV vaccination programs.

  10. Alkalinity to calcium flux ratios for corals and coral reef communities: variances between isolated and community conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jokiel, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Calcification in reef corals and coral reefs is widely measured using the alkalinity depletion method which is based on the fact that two protons are produced for every mole of CaCO3 precipitated. This assumption was tested by measuring the total alkalinity (TA) flux and Ca2+ flux of isolated components (corals, alga, sediment and plankton) in reference to that of a mixed-community. Experiments were conducted in a flume under natural conditions of sunlight, nutrients, plankton and organic matter. A realistic hydrodynamic regime was provided. Groups of corals were run separately and in conjunction with the other reef components in a mixed-community. The TA flux to Ca2+ flux ratio (ΔTA: ΔCa2+) was consistently higher in the coral-only run (2.06 ± 0.19) than in the mixed-community run (1.60 ± 0.14, p-value = 0.011). The pH was higher and more stable in the mixed-community run (7.94 ± 0.03 vs. 7.52 ± 0.07, p-value = 3 × 10−5). Aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) was also higher in the mixed-community run (2.51 ± 0.2 vs. 1.12 ± 0.14, p-value = 2 × 10−6). The sediment-only run revealed that sediment is the source of TA that can account for the lower ΔTA: ΔCa2+ ratio in the mixed-community run. The macroalgae-only run showed that algae were responsible for the increased pH in the mixed-community run. Corals growing in a mixed-community will experience an environment that is more favorable to calcification (higher daytime pH due to algae photosynthesis, additional TA and inorganic carbon from sediments, higher Ωarag). A paradox is that the alkalinity depletion method will yield a lower net calcification for a mixed-community versus a coral-only community due to TA recycling, even though the corals may be calcifying at a higher rate due to a more optimal environment. PMID:24688834

  11. Alkalinity to calcium flux ratios for corals and coral reef communities: variances between isolated and community conditions.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Liana J A; Jokiel, Paul L; Atkinson, Marlin J

    2014-01-01

    Calcification in reef corals and coral reefs is widely measured using the alkalinity depletion method which is based on the fact that two protons are produced for every mole of CaCO3 precipitated. This assumption was tested by measuring the total alkalinity (TA) flux and Ca(2+) flux of isolated components (corals, alga, sediment and plankton) in reference to that of a mixed-community. Experiments were conducted in a flume under natural conditions of sunlight, nutrients, plankton and organic matter. A realistic hydrodynamic regime was provided. Groups of corals were run separately and in conjunction with the other reef components in a mixed-community. The TA flux to Ca(2+) flux ratio (ΔTA: ΔCa(2+)) was consistently higher in the coral-only run (2.06 ± 0.19) than in the mixed-community run (1.60 ± 0.14, p-value = 0.011). The pH was higher and more stable in the mixed-community run (7.94 ± 0.03 vs. 7.52 ± 0.07, p-value = 3 × 10(-5)). Aragonite saturation state (Ω arag) was also higher in the mixed-community run (2.51 ± 0.2 vs. 1.12 ± 0.14, p-value = 2 × 10(-6)). The sediment-only run revealed that sediment is the source of TA that can account for the lower ΔTA: ΔCa(2+) ratio in the mixed-community run. The macroalgae-only run showed that algae were responsible for the increased pH in the mixed-community run. Corals growing in a mixed-community will experience an environment that is more favorable to calcification (higher daytime pH due to algae photosynthesis, additional TA and inorganic carbon from sediments, higher Ω arag). A paradox is that the alkalinity depletion method will yield a lower net calcification for a mixed-community versus a coral-only community due to TA recycling, even though the corals may be calcifying at a higher rate due to a more optimal environment.

  12. [Characteristics of microbial community structure during isolation of electrical active bacteria].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhao, Yang- Guo; Lu, Shan-Shan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of selective culturing on microorganisms and functional role of electrical active bacteria in biofilm, some exoelectrogens were isolated from microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodic biofilm using Hungate roll-tube technique with iron oxide as indicator. At the same time, the dynamics of the microbial community structure was monitored during the pure culture isolation. The results show that maximum voltages of MFCs feeding with lactic acid, acetic acid and steroid wastewater are 0.57, 0.60 and 0.40 V respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated from seed sludge and anodic films feeding with acetate and lactate belong to phylum Proteobacteria; while steroid wastewater contains relative high diversity of bacteria, i. e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. After enriching and culturing, two bacteria were consequently obtained, which shared the highest similarity with Enterobacter ludwigii and Citrobacter freundii respectively. When inoculated in MFC with lactic acid as the substrate, they produced maximum voltage of 0.10 and 0.17 V individually. This study shows that electrical active bacteria can be isolated from the MFC anodic biofilm using anaerobic gradient dilution culture techniques with iron oxide as indicator. Microbial community structure presents markedly shifting during the bacteria isolation owing to its selectivity.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Ek-Ramos, María J; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U; Antwi, Josephine B; Kalns, Lauren L; Morgan, Gaylon D; Kerns, David L; Sword, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fungal Endophyte Communities Isolated from Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    PubMed Central

    Ek-Ramos, María J.; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U.; Antwi, Josephine B.; Kalns, Lauren L.; Morgan, Gaylon D.; Kerns, David L.; Sword, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  15. Chain of commercialization of Podocnemis spp. turtles (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Purus River, Amazon basin, Brazil: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Consumption of turtles by natives and settlers in the Amazon and Orinoco has been widely studied in scientific communities. Accepted cultural customs and the local dietary and monetary needs need to be taken into account in conservation programs, and when implementing federal laws related to consumption and fishing methods. This study was conducted around the Purus River, a region known for the consumption and illegal trade of turtles. The objective of this study was to quantify the illegal turtle trade in Tapauá and to understand its effect on the local economy. Methods This study was conducted in the municipality of Tapauá in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. To estimate turtle consumption, interviews were conducted over 2 consecutive years (2006 and 2007) in urban areas and isolated communities. The experimental design was randomized with respect to type of household. To study the turtle fishery and trade chain, we used snowball sampling methodology. Results During our study period, 100% of respondents reported consuming at least three species of turtles (Podocnemis spp.). Our estimates indicate that about 34 tons of animals are consumed annually in Tapauá along the margins of a major fishing river in the Amazon. At least five components related to the chain of commercialization of turtles on the Purus River are identified: Indigenous Apurinã and (2) residents of bordering villages (communities); (3) of local smugglers buy and sell turtles to the community in exchange for manufactured goods, and (4) regional smugglers buy in Tapauá, Lábrea, and Beruri to sell in Manaus and Manacapuru; Finally, (5) there are professional fishermen. Conclusions We quantify the full impact of turtle consumption and advocate the conservation of the region’s turtle populations. The Brazilian government should initiate a new turtle consumption management program which involves the opinions of consumers. With these measures the conservation of freshwater turtles in the

  16. Chain of commercialization of Podocnemis spp. turtles (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Purus River, Amazon basin, Brazil: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Lima, Jackson; Aride, Paulo H R; de Oliveira, Adriano T; Félix-Silva, Daniely; Pezzuti, Juarez C B; Rebêlo, George H

    2014-01-27

    Consumption of turtles by natives and settlers in the Amazon and Orinoco has been widely studied in scientific communities. Accepted cultural customs and the local dietary and monetary needs need to be taken into account in conservation programs, and when implementing federal laws related to consumption and fishing methods. This study was conducted around the Purus River, a region known for the consumption and illegal trade of turtles. The objective of this study was to quantify the illegal turtle trade in Tapauá and to understand its effect on the local economy. This study was conducted in the municipality of Tapauá in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. To estimate turtle consumption, interviews were conducted over 2 consecutive years (2006 and 2007) in urban areas and isolated communities. The experimental design was randomized with respect to type of household. To study the turtle fishery and trade chain, we used snowball sampling methodology. During our study period, 100% of respondents reported consuming at least three species of turtles (Podocnemis spp.). Our estimates indicate that about 34 tons of animals are consumed annually in Tapauá along the margins of a major fishing river in the Amazon. At least five components related to the chain of commercialization of turtles on the Purus River are identified: Indigenous Apurinã and (2) residents of bordering villages (communities); (3) of local smugglers buy and sell turtles to the community in exchange for manufactured goods, and (4) regional smugglers buy in Tapauá, Lábrea, and Beruri to sell in Manaus and Manacapuru; Finally, (5) there are professional fishermen. We quantify the full impact of turtle consumption and advocate the conservation of the region's turtle populations. The Brazilian government should initiate a new turtle consumption management program which involves the opinions of consumers. With these measures the conservation of freshwater turtles in the Brazilian Amazon, is possible.

  17. Clinical Significance of Community- and Healthcare-Acquired Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hung-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Jyh-Jou; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chao, Chien-Ming; Chuang, Yin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the clinical significance, manifestations, microbiological characteristics and outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates, and compare the clinical features of community- and healthcare-acquired CRE isolates. A total of 78 patients were identified to have CRE. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common pathogens (n = 42, 53.8%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (n = 24, 30.8%), and Escherichia coli (n = 11, 14.1%). Most of the patients acquired CRE from healthcare settings (n = 55, 70.5%), and other cases got CRE from community settings (n = 23, 29.5%). Nine cases (11.5%) were classified as CRE colonization. Among the remaining 69 cases of CRE infections, pneumonia (n = 28, 40.6%) was the most common type of infections, followed by urinary tract infection (n = 24, 34.8%), and intra-abdominal infection (n = 16, 23.2%). The patients acquired CRE from community settings were more likely to be elderly, female, and had more urinary tract infections than from healthcare settings. In contrast, the patients acquired CRE from healthcare settings had more intra-abdominal infections, intra-abdominal surgery, and presence of indwelling device than from community settings. In conclusion, community-acquired CRE are not rare, and their associated clinical presentations are different from healthcare-acquired CRE. PMID:26999356

  18. The changing Amazon forest.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  19. Amazon Deforestation Impacts on Pacific Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, L. A.; Randall, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation is known to affect Amazonian precipitation, but to what extent does changing Amazonian vegetation and rainfall impact eastern Pacific SST? Correlations between Amazonian rainfall rates and other atmospheric parameters (e.g. global precipitation, surface air temperature, vertical velocity, etc.) over the eastern Pacific indicate a strong relationship between these processes, but it does not show causality. In order to investigate the impact on the Pacific climate, the Community Earth System Model is used to test an extreme case of deforestation where broadleaf evergreen trees over the Amazon are replaced by C4 grass.

  20. Targeted isolation of proteins from natural microbial communities living in an extreme environment.

    PubMed

    Singer, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms from extreme environments are often very difficult to cultivate, precluding detailed study by biochemical and physiological techniques. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and proteomic measurements of samples obtained from natural communities have allowed new access to these uncultivated extremophiles and identified abundant proteins that can be isolated directly from natural samples. Here we report the isolation of two abundant heme proteins from low-diversity biofilm microbial communities that thrive in very acidic (pH ~ 1), metal-rich water in a subsurface mine. Purification and detailed characterization of these proteins has afforded new insight into the possible mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation by Leptospirillum Group II, the dominant population in most of these biofilms, and demonstrated that the abundance and posttranslational modifications of one of these proteins is dependent on the lifecycle of the biofilm.

  1. Bridging the gap: innovative approaches to continuing education in rural, remote, and isolated first nation communities.

    PubMed

    Scott, Tracy; Menzies, Cynthia; Chenard, Glen; Spence, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Access to education, communication, and support is essential for achieving and maintaining a skilled healthcare workforce. Delivering affordable and accessible continuing education for healthcare providers in rural, remote, and isolated First Nation communities is challenging due to barriers such as geography, isolation, costs, and staff shortages. The innovative use of technology, such as on-line courses and webinars, will be presented as a highly effective approach to increase access to continuing education for healthcare providers in these settings. A case study will be presented demonstrating how a national, not-for-profit health care organization has partnered with healthcare providers in these communities to support care at the local level through various technology-based knowledge exchange activities.

  2. Bacteria isolated from soils of the western Amazon and from rehabilitated bauxite-mining areas have potential as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia Maria; Marra, Leandro Marciano; Lima Soares, Bruno; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; da Silva, Krisle; Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2014-04-01

    Several processes that promote plant growth were investigated in endophytic and symbiotic bacteria isolated from cowpea and siratro nodules and also in bacterial strains recommended for the inoculation of cowpea beans. The processes verified in 31 strains were: antagonism against phytopathogenic fungi, free-living biological nitrogen fixation, solubilization of insoluble phosphates and indole acetic acid (IAA) production. The resistance to antibiotics was also assessed. Sequencing of the partial 16S rRNA gene was performed and the strains were identified as belonging to different genera. Eight strains, including some identified as Burkholderia fungorum, fixed nitrogen in the free-living state. Eighteen strains exhibited potential to solubilize calcium phosphate, and 13 strains could solubilize aluminum phosphate. High levels of IAA production were recorded with L-tryptophan addition for the strain UFLA04-321 (42.3 μg mL⁻¹). Strains highly efficient in symbiosis with cowpea bean, including strains already approved as inoculants showed the ability to perform other processes that promote plant growth. Besides, these strains exhibited resistance to several antibiotics. The ability of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to perform other processes and their adaptation to environmental conditions add value to these strains, which could lead to improved inoculants for plant growth and environmental quality.

  3. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  4. Music therapy to promote movement from isolation to community in homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Powers, James S; Heim, Daniel; Grant, Brian; Rollins, John

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' Operation Stand Down has done much to address homeless needs among veterans. Gaining client trust is central to the effectiveness of the program. Music therapy has been found beneficial in moving individuals from isolation to community. We report our experience with participatory music therapy in Operation Stand Down and offer this as a legitimate intervention to enhance client participation.

  5. Impacts of adjacent land use and isolation on marsh bird communities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lyndsay A; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity.

  6. Modification of extraction method for community DNA isolation from salt affected compact wasteland soil samples.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Purvi; Patel, Rushika; Patel, Meghavi; Sarodia, Devki; Munshi, Nasreen S

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the issue of interferences by salt and compactness in release of bacterial cell required for lysis, method described by Yeates et al. (1998), was optimized for isolation of genomic material (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, DNA) from soil microbial community by addition of Al(NH4)SO4. Very low total viable count was observed in the samples tested and hence use of higher amount of soil is required primarily for DNA isolation from wasteland soils. The method proves itself efficient where commercially available bead beating and enzymatic lysis methods could not give isolation of any amount of community genomic DNA due to compact nature and salt concentrations present in soil. •The protocol was found efficient for soil samples with high clay content for microbial community DNA extraction.•Variation in lysis incubation and amount of soil may help with soil samples containing low microbial population.•Addition of Al(NH4)SO4 is crucial step in humic acid removal from extracted DNA samples for soil samples containing high salinity and clay particles.

  7. Impacts of Adjacent Land Use and Isolation on Marsh Bird Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lyndsay A.; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity.

  8. Characterization of the microbial community structure and nitrosamine-reducing isolates in drinking water biofilters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanfeng; Guo, Yanling; Yang, Qingxiang; Huang, Yao; Zhu, Chunyou; Fan, Jing; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-15

    Two biofilters were constructed using biological activated carbon (BAC) and nitrosamine-containing water from two drinking water treatment plants. The microbiome of each biofilter was characterized by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing, and one nitrosamine-reducing bacterium was isolated. The results showed that nitrosamines changed the relative abundance at both the phylum and class levels, and the new genera were observed in the microbial communities of the two BAC filters after cultivation. As such, the genus Rhodococcus, which includes many nitrosamine-reducing strains reported in previous studies, was only detected in the BAC2 filter after cultivation. These findings indicate that nitrosamines can significantly affect the genus level in the microbial communities. Furthermore, the isolated bacterial culture Rhodococcus cercidiphylli A41 AS-1 exhibited the ability to reduce five nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine) with removal ratios that ranged from 38.1% to 85.4%. The isolate exhibited a better biodegradation ability with nitrosamine as the carbon source when compared with nitrosamine as the nitrogen source. This study increases our understanding of the microbial community in drinking water biofilters with trace quantities of nitrosamines, and provides information on the metabolism of nitrosamine-reducing bacteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    PubMed

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  10. Evidence of global-scale aeolian dispersal and endemism in isolated geothermal microbial communities of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Herbold, Craig W; Lee, Charles K; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, S Craig

    2014-05-20

    New evidence in aerobiology challenges the assumption that geographical isolation is an effective barrier to microbial transport. However, given the uncertainty with which aerobiological organisms are recruited into existing communities, the ultimate impact of microbial dispersal is difficult to assess. Here we use molecular genetic approaches to examine microbial communities inhabiting fumarolic soils on Mount Erebus, the southernmost geothermal site on Earth, to evaluate the ecological significance of global-scale microbial dispersal. There, hot, fumarolic soils provide an effective environmental filter to test the viability of organisms that have been distributed via aeolian transport over geological time. We find that cosmopolitan thermophiles dominate the surface, whereas endemic Archaea and members of poorly understood Bacterial candidate divisions dominate the immediate subsurface. These results imply that aeolian processes readily disperse viable organisms globally, where they are incorporated into pre-existing complex communities of endemic and cosmopolitan taxa.

  11. Global evolutionary isolation measures can capture key local conservation species in Nearctic and Neotropical bird communities.

    PubMed

    Redding, David W; Mooers, Arne O; Şekercioğlu, Çağan H; Collen, Ben

    2015-02-19

    Understanding how to prioritize among the most deserving imperilled species has been a focus of biodiversity science for the past three decades. Though global metrics that integrate evolutionary history and likelihood of loss have been successfully implemented, conservation is typically carried out at sub-global scales on communities of species rather than among members of complete taxonomic assemblages. Whether and how global measures map to a local scale has received little scrutiny. At a local scale, conservation-relevant assemblages of species are likely to be made up of relatively few species spread across a large phylogenetic tree, and as a consequence there are potentially relatively large amounts of evolutionary history at stake. We ask to what extent global metrics of evolutionary history are useful for conservation priority setting at the community level by evaluating the extent to which three global measures of evolutionary isolation (evolutionary distinctiveness (ED), average pairwise distance (APD) and the pendant edge or unique phylogenetic diversity (PD) contribution) capture community-level phylogenetic and trait diversity for a large sample of Neotropical and Nearctic bird communities. We find that prioritizing the most ED species globally safeguards more than twice the total PD of local communities on average, but that this does not translate into increased local trait diversity. By contrast, global APD is strongly related to the APD of those same species at the community level, and prioritizing these species also safeguards local PD and trait diversity. The next step for biologists is to understand the variation in the concordance of global and local level scores and what this means for conservation priorities: we need more directed research on the use of different measures of evolutionary isolation to determine which might best capture desirable aspects of biodiversity.

  12. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rafael M; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J; Farjalla, Vinícius F; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Barros, Nathan O

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River's north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes.

  13. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Rafael M.; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J.; Farjalla, Vinícius F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Barros, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River’s north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes. PMID:25788895

  14. Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control

    PubMed Central

    Dorado, Erika Jimena; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Montenegro, Lidia Madeline; Diaz, Gustavo; Barnwell, John W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Murillo Solano, Claribel

    2016-01-01

    Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on 365 P. falciparum dried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparum endemic sites in Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparum parasites in the country. We found a high proportion of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes. Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks reported in Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53 PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in Amazonas because of the high proportion of parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be prioritised. Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparum parasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive

  15. Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Erika Jimena; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Montenegro, Lidia Madeline; Diaz, Gustavo; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Murillo Solano, Claribel

    2016-01-01

    Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on 365 P. falciparum dried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparum endemic sites in Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparum parasites in the country. We found a high proportion of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes. Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks reported in Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53 PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in Amazonas because of the high proportion of parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be prioritised. Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparum parasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive

  16. Characteristics of community-onset NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Rhee, Ji-Young; Shin, Sang Yop; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2014-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed for three community-onset New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Korea. The genetic structure surrounding the blaNDM-1 gene was determined in blaNDM-1-harbouring plasmids. Three NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were found to belong to the same clone (sequence type 340). Each of these isolates showed the same genetic structure surrounding the blaNDM-1 gene. The genes blaNDM-1, bleMBL, trpF and dsbC were flanked by two intact insertion sequences, ISAba125 and IS26, which may promote horizontal gene transfer. The blaNDM-1-harbouring plasmids conferred antimicrobial resistance to carbapenems, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and aztreonam in transconjugants. It can be speculated that either the entire blaNDM-1-harbouring plasmids or just the part of the plasmid containing the blaNDM-1 gene may have transferred between K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Following the transfer, the isolate disseminated throughout Korea. This study suggests the need for monitoring the dissemination of NDM-1-producing isolates across countries or continents due to their potential transferability via ISAba125- and IS26-associated transposons.

  17. Andean Altiplano, Amazon Basin burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view is centered over Lake Poopo, Bolivia, in the central Andean Altiplano, (20.0S, 65.0W) with a view looking northeast into the lower elevations of Bolivia and Brazil. Extensive dry seasonal burning in the Amazon Basin produces a thick haze which is trapped in the lower atmosphere by a stable air layer. The clarity difference in the scene is caused by the Andes Mountains extending above the haze into cleaner upper atmosphere air. Amazon Basin burning

  18. Groundwater Isolation Governs Chemistry and Microbial Community Structure along Hydrologic Flowpaths

    PubMed Central

    Ben Maamar, Sarah; Aquilina, Luc; Quaiser, Achim; Pauwels, Hélène; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Dufresne, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of hydrodynamic functioning of hard-rock aquifers on microbial communities. In hard-rock aquifers, the heterogeneous hydrologic circulation strongly constrains groundwater residence time, hydrochemistry, and nutrient supply. Here, residence time and a wide range of environmental factors were used to test the influence of groundwater circulation on active microbial community composition, assessed by high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA. Groundwater of different ages was sampled along hydrogeologic paths or loops, in three contrasting hard-rock aquifers in Brittany (France). Microbial community composition was driven by groundwater residence time and hydrogeologic loop position. In recent groundwater, in the upper section of the aquifers or in their recharge zone, surface water inputs caused high nitrate concentration and the predominance of putative denitrifiers. Although denitrification does not seem to fully decrease nitrate concentrations due to low dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nitrate input has a major effect on microbial communities. The occurrence of taxa possibly associated with the application of organic fertilizers was also noticed. In ancient isolated groundwater, an ecosystem based on Fe(II)/Fe(III) and S/SO4 redox cycling was observed down to several 100 of meters below the surface. In this depth section, microbial communities were dominated by iron oxidizing bacteria belonging to Gallionellaceae. The latter were associated to old groundwater with high Fe concentrations mixed to a small but not null percentage of recent groundwater inducing oxygen concentrations below 2.5 mg/L. These two types of microbial community were observed in the three sites, independently of site geology and aquifer geometry, indicating hydrogeologic circulation exercises a major control on microbial communities. PMID:26733990

  19. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    PubMed

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  20. Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) in a Remote and Isolated Community in Samar Province, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Almazan, J U

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of death in children under five years old, most people who die from this disease actually die from severe dehydration and fluid loss. Moreover, 88% of its global diarrheal disease is attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation, and hygiene. This investigation was developed to determine the effect of Participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) program in an isolated community of Mabini,Samar Province, Philippines. Longitudinal research design was used in order to determine the effect of the program one year was implemented in the community. A purposive sampling was utilized in this investigation which accounts a total of 39 households in Mabini community, Basey, Samar, without toilet facilities. The instrument used was the modified questionnaire of Philippine Red Cross in water and sanitation before and after the program was implemented. Results showed that there was improvement of knowledge on water and sanitation, handwashing practice, household waste practices drinking practices, defecation practices. Thus, program reaching the most isolated and difficult area experiencing the most detrimental effects which improve poor hygiene and sanitation, improving health, equality and social justice.

  1. The Amazon continuum dataset: quantitative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic inventories of the Amazon River plume, June 2010.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Brandon M; Zielinski, Brian L; Doherty, Mary; Smith, Christa B; Sharma, Shalabh; Paul, John H; Crump, Byron C; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon River is by far the world's largest in terms of volume and area, generating a fluvial export that accounts for about a fifth of riverine input into the world's oceans. Marine microbial communities of the Western Tropical North Atlantic Ocean are strongly affected by the terrestrial materials carried by the Amazon plume, including dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) and inorganic nutrients, with impacts on primary productivity and carbon sequestration. We inventoried genes and transcripts at six stations in the Amazon River plume during June 2010. At each station, internal standard-spiked metagenomes, non-selective metatranscriptomes, and poly(A)-selective metatranscriptomes were obtained in duplicate for two discrete size fractions (0.2 to 2.0 μm and 2.0 to 156 μm) using 150 × 150 paired-end Illumina sequencing. Following quality control, the dataset contained 360 million reads of approximately 200 bp average size from Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and viruses. Bacterial metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were dominated by Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, SAR11, SAR116, and SAR86, with high contributions from SAR324 and Verrucomicrobia at some stations. Diatoms, green picophytoplankton, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, and copepods dominated the eukaryotic genes and transcripts. Gene expression ratios differed by station, size fraction, and microbial group, with transcription levels varying over three orders of magnitude across taxa and environments. This first comprehensive inventory of microbial genes and transcripts, benchmarked with internal standards for full quantitation, is generating novel insights into biogeochemical processes of the Amazon plume and improving prediction of climate change impacts on the marine biosphere.

  2. Inbreeding avoidance in an isolated indigenous Zapotec community in the valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed inbreeding using surname isonymy in an indigenous genetic isolate. The subjects were residents of a rural Zapotec-speaking community in the valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. The community can be classified as a genetic isolate with an average gene flow of < or = 3% per generation. Surnames were collected for individuals in each household in pedigree form using the culturally traditional patronym-matronym naming. Estimation of inbreeding from surname isonymy is facilitated by the traditional patronym-matronym name assignment among indigenous Mexican populations. A total of 2,149 individuals had valid surname patronym-matronym pairings, including 484 deceased ancestors. Surname isonymy analysis methods were used to estimate total inbreeding and to segregate it into random and nonrandom components. The surname isonymy coefficient computed from 119 isonymous surname pairings (119/2,149) was 0.0554. The estimated inbreeding coefficient from surname isonymy was 0.0138 (0.0554/4). The random and nonrandom components of inbreeding were F(r) = 0.0221 and F(n) = -0.0091, respectively. The results suggest that consanguinity is culturally avoided. Nonrandom inbreeding decreased total inbreeding by about 41%. Total estimated inbreeding by surname isonymy was 0.0138, which is similar to inbreeding estimated from a sample of pedigrees, 0.01. Socially prescribed inbreeding avoidance substantially lowered total F through negative nonrandom inbreeding. Even in the situation of genetic isolation and small effective population size (N(e)), estimated inbreeding is lower than may have otherwise occurred if inbreeding were only random. However, among the poorest individuals, socially prescribed jural rules for inbreeding avoidance failed to operate. Thus the preponderance of inbreeding appears to occur among the poor, economically disadvantaged in the community.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium straminisolvens Strain JCM 21531T, Isolated from a Cellulose-Degrading Bacterial Community

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a fibrolytic bacterium, Clostridium straminisolvens JCM 21531T, isolated from a cellulose-degrading bacterial community. The genome information of this strain will be useful for studies on the degradation enzymes and functional interactions with other members in the community. PMID:24558248

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium straminisolvens Strain JCM 21531T, Isolated from a Cellulose-Degrading Bacterial Community.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-02-20

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a fibrolytic bacterium, Clostridium straminisolvens JCM 21531(T), isolated from a cellulose-degrading bacterial community. The genome information of this strain will be useful for studies on the degradation enzymes and functional interactions with other members in the community.

  5. Antagonistic interactions between endophytic cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Mengoni, Alessio; Bosi, Emanuele; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have studied the antagonistic interactions existing among cultivable bacteria isolated from three ecological niches (rhizospheric soil, roots and stem/leaves) of the traditional natural medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. The three compartments harboured different taxonomic assemblages of strains, which were previously reported to display different antibiotic resistance patterns, suggesting the presence of differential selective pressure due to antagonistic molecules in the three compartments. Antagonistic interactions were assayed by the cross-streak method and interpreted using a network-based analysis. In particular 'within-niche inhibition' and 'cross-niche inhibition' were evaluated among isolates associated with each compartment as well as between isolates retrieved from the three different compartments respectively. Data obtained indicated that bacteria isolated from the stem/leaves compartment were much more sensitive to the antagonistic activity than bacteria from roots and rhizospheric soil. Moreover, both the taxonomical position and the ecological niche might influence the antagonistic ability/sensitivity of different strains. Antagonism could play a significant role in contributing to the differentiation and structuring of plant-associated bacterial communities. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Diversity and Impacts of Mining on the Non-Volant Small Mammal Communities of Two Vegetation Types in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ardente, Natália Carneiro; Ferreguetti, Átilla Colombo; Gettinger, Donald; Leal, Pricila; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Bergallo, Helena Godoy

    2016-01-01

    The Carajás National Forest contains some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world. The majority of the minerals are found below a plant community known as Savana Metalófila, or "Canga", which represents only 3% of the landscape within the Carajás National Forest (CNF). The aim of our study was to understand the diversity of community of non-volant small mammals in the two predominant vegetation types: Ombrophilous Forest and Canga, and to examine how mining impacts these communities. Sampling was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011 in 11 sampling sites divided by the total area of Canga and 12 sampling sites in the forest, totalizing 23 sites. Of these, 12 sites (Canga and Forest) were considered impacted areas located close to the mine (< 900 meters) and 11 sites (Canga and Forest), serving as controls, which were at least 7,000 meters from the mine. We recorded 28 species, 11 from the Order Didelphimorphia and 17 from the Order Rodentia. The two forest types shared 68.42% of the species found in the CNF. A gradient analysis (Non-metric multidimensional scaling) revealed that the first axis clearly separated the non-flying small mammal communities by vegetation type. Occupancy models showed that the detectability of species was affected by the distance from the mining activities. Of all the small mammals analyzed, 10 species were positively affected by the distance from mining in areas impacted (e.g. more likely to be detected farther from mining areas) and detectability was lower in impacted areas. However, three species were negatively affected by the distance from mining, with higher detectability in the impacted areas, and seven species showed no effect of their proximity to mining operations. To date, there are no studies in Brazil about the impact of mining on mammals or other vertebrates. This study reveals that the effect of mining may go beyond the forest destruction caused by the opening of the mining pits, but also may negatively affect

  7. Diversity and Impacts of Mining on the Non-Volant Small Mammal Communities of Two Vegetation Types in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Ardente, Natália Carneiro; Ferreguetti, Átilla Colombo; Gettinger, Donald; Leal, Pricila; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Bergallo, Helena Godoy

    2016-01-01

    The Carajás National Forest contains some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world. The majority of the minerals are found below a plant community known as Savana Metalófila, or “Canga”, which represents only 3% of the landscape within the Carajás National Forest (CNF). The aim of our study was to understand the diversity of community of non-volant small mammals in the two predominant vegetation types: Ombrophilous Forest and Canga, and to examine how mining impacts these communities. Sampling was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011 in 11 sampling sites divided by the total area of Canga and 12 sampling sites in the forest, totalizing 23 sites. Of these, 12 sites (Canga and Forest) were considered impacted areas located close to the mine (<< 900 meters) and 11 sites (Canga and Forest), serving as controls, which were at least 7,000 meters from the mine. We recorded 28 species, 11 from the Order Didelphimorphia and 17 from the Order Rodentia. The two forest types shared 68.42% of the species found in the CNF. A gradient analysis (Non-metric multidimensional scaling) revealed that the first axis clearly separated the non-flying small mammal communities by vegetation type. Occupancy models showed that the detectability of species was affected by the distance from the mining activities. Of all the small mammals analyzed, 10 species were positively affected by the distance from mining in areas impacted (e.g. more likely to be detected farther from mining areas) and detectability was lower in impacted areas. However, three species were negatively affected by the distance from mining, with higher detectability in the impacted areas, and seven species showed no effect of their proximity to mining operations. To date, there are no studies in Brazil about the impact of mining on mammals or other vertebrates. This study reveals that the effect of mining may go beyond the forest destruction caused by the opening of the mining pits, but also may negatively

  8. Relationship between Triclosan and Susceptibilities of Bacteria Isolated from Hands in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Allison E.; Marshall, Bonnie; Levy, Stuart B.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Larson, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    The possible association between triclosan and bacterial susceptibility to antibiotic was examined among staphylococci and several species of gram-negative bacteria (GNB) isolated from the hands of individuals in a community setting. Hand cultures from individuals randomized to using either antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products (including a hand soap containing 0.2% triclosan) or nonantibacterial cleaning and hygiene products for a 1-year period were taken at baseline and at the end of the year. Although there was no statistically significant association between triclosan MICs and susceptibility to antibiotic, there was an increasing trend in the association the odds ratios (ORs) for all species were compared at baseline (OR = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.33 to 1.27) versus at the end of the year (OR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.62 to 1.97) and for GNB alone at baseline(OR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.29 to 1.51) versus the end of year (OR = 2.69, 95%CI = 0.78 to 9.23) regardless of the hand-washing product used. Moreover, triclosan MICs were higher in some of the species compared to earlier reports on household, clinical, and industrial isolates, and some of these isolates had triclosan MICs in the range of concentrations used in consumer products. The absence of a statistically significant association between elevated triclosan MICs and reduced antibiotic susceptibility may indicate that such a correlation does not exist or that it is relatively small among the isolates that were studied. Still, a relationship may emerge after longer-term or higher-dose exposure of bacteria to triclosan in the community setting. PMID:15273108

  9. Suppression of Bacterial Blight by a Bacterial Community Isolated from the Guttation Fluids of Anthuriums†

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, R.; Fukui, H.; Alvarez, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    Growth and survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae in guttation fluids (xylem sap exuded from leaf margins) of anthuriums were suppressed by several bacterial strains indigenous to leaves of various anthurium cultivars. Inhibition of growth was not observed in filter-sterilized guttation fluids and was restored to original levels only by reintroducing specific mixtures of bacteria into filter-sterilized guttation fluids. The inhibitory effect was related to the species in the bacterial community rather than to the total numbers of bacteria in the guttation fluids. One very effective bacterial community consisted of five species isolated from inhibitory guttation fluids of two susceptible anthurium cultivars. The individual strains in this community had no effect on the pathogen, but the mixture was inhibitory to X. campestris pv. dieffenbachiae in guttation fluids. The populations of the individual strains remained near the initial inoculum levels for at least 14 days. The effect of the five inhibitory strains on reducing disease in susceptible anthurium plants was tested by using a bioluminescent strain of X. campestris pv. dieffenbachiae to monitor the progression of disease in leaves nondestructively. Invasion of the pathogen through hydathodes at leaf margins was reduced by applying the strain mixture to the leaves. When the strain mixture was applied directly to wounds created on the leaf margins, the pathogen failed to invade through the wounds. This bacterial community has potential for biological control of anthurium blight. PMID:10049858

  10. Small Traditional Human Communities Sustain Genomic Diversity over Microgeographic Scales despite Linguistic Isolation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Murray P; Hudjashov, Georgi; Sim, Andre; Savina, Olga; Karafet, Tatiana M; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen

    2016-09-01

    At least since the Neolithic, humans have largely lived in networks of small, traditional communities. Often socially isolated, these groups evolved distinct languages and cultures over microgeographic scales of just tens of kilometers. Population genetic theory tells us that genetic drift should act quickly in such isolated groups, thus raising the question: do networks of small human communities maintain levels of genetic diversity over microgeographic scales? This question can no longer be asked in most parts of the world, which have been heavily impacted by historical events that make traditional society structures the exception. However, such studies remain possible in parts of Island Southeast Asia and Oceania, where traditional ways of life are still practiced. We captured genome-wide genetic data, together with linguistic records, for a case-study system-eight villages distributed across Sumba, a small, remote island in eastern Indonesia. More than 4,000 years after these communities were established during the Neolithic period, most speak different languages and can be distinguished genetically. Yet their nuclear diversity is not reduced, instead being comparable to other, even much larger, regional groups. Modeling reveals a separation of time scales: while languages and culture can evolve quickly, creating social barriers, sporadic migration averaged over many generations is sufficient to keep villages linked genetically. This loosely-connected network structure, once the global norm and still extant on Sumba today, provides a living proxy to explore fine-scale genome dynamics in the sort of small traditional communities within which the most recent episodes of human evolution occurred. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Small Traditional Human Communities Sustain Genomic Diversity over Microgeographic Scales despite Linguistic Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Murray P.; Hudjashov, Georgi; Sim, Andre; Savina, Olga; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    At least since the Neolithic, humans have largely lived in networks of small, traditional communities. Often socially isolated, these groups evolved distinct languages and cultures over microgeographic scales of just tens of kilometers. Population genetic theory tells us that genetic drift should act quickly in such isolated groups, thus raising the question: do networks of small human communities maintain levels of genetic diversity over microgeographic scales? This question can no longer be asked in most parts of the world, which have been heavily impacted by historical events that make traditional society structures the exception. However, such studies remain possible in parts of Island Southeast Asia and Oceania, where traditional ways of life are still practiced. We captured genome-wide genetic data, together with linguistic records, for a case–study system—eight villages distributed across Sumba, a small, remote island in eastern Indonesia. More than 4,000 years after these communities were established during the Neolithic period, most speak different languages and can be distinguished genetically. Yet their nuclear diversity is not reduced, instead being comparable to other, even much larger, regional groups. Modeling reveals a separation of time scales: while languages and culture can evolve quickly, creating social barriers, sporadic migration averaged over many generations is sufficient to keep villages linked genetically. This loosely-connected network structure, once the global norm and still extant on Sumba today, provides a living proxy to explore fine-scale genome dynamics in the sort of small traditional communities within which the most recent episodes of human evolution occurred. PMID:27274003

  12. Measuring Water Storage in the Amazon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-07

    This image is from data taken by NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment showing the Amazon basin in South America. The amount of water stored in the Amazon basin varies from month to month. Animations are available at the Photojournal.

  13. Assessing the effectiveness and feasibility of implementing mitigation measures for an influenza pandemic in remote and isolated First Nations communities: a qualitative community-based participatory research approach.

    PubMed

    Charania, Nadia A; Tsuji, Leonard Js

    2013-01-01

    The next influenza pandemic is predicted to disproportionately impact marginalized populations, such as those living in geographically remote Aboriginal communities, and there remains a paucity of scientific literature regarding effective and feasible community mitigation strategies. In Canada, current pandemic plans may not have been developed with adequate First Nations consultation and recommended measures may not be effective in remote and isolated First Nations communities. This study employed a community-based participatory research approach. Retrospective opinions were elicited via interview questionnaires with adult key healthcare informants (n=9) regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of implementing 41 interventions to mitigate an influenza pandemic in remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-Arctic Ontario, Canada. Qualitative data were manually transcribed and deductively coded following a template organizing approach. The results indicated that most mitigation measures could potentially be effective if modified to address the unique characteristics of these communities. Participants also offered innovative alternatives to mitigation measures that were community-specific and culturally sensitive. Mitigation measures were generally considered to be effective if the measure could aid in decreasing virus transmission, protecting their immunocompromised population, and increasing community awareness about influenza pandemics. Participants reported that lack of resources (eg supplies, monies, trained personnel), poor community awareness, overcrowding in homes, and inadequate healthcare infrastructure presented barriers to the implementation of mitigation measures. This study highlights the importance of engaging local key informants in pandemic planning in order to gain valuable community-specific insight regarding the design and implementation of more effective and feasible mitigation strategies. As it is ethically important to address the

  14. Isolate Identity Determines Plant Tolerance to Pathogen Attack in Assembled Mycorrhizal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thaddeus J.; Dunfield, Kari E.; Antunes, Pedro M.

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread soil microorganisms that associate mutualistically with plant hosts. AMF receive photosynthates from the host in return for various benefits. One of such benefits is in the form of enhanced pathogen tolerance. However, this aspect of the symbiosis has been understudied compared to effects on plant growth and its ability to acquire nutrients. While it is known that increased AMF species richness positively correlates with plant productivity, the relationship between AMF diversity and host responses to pathogen attack remains obscure. The objective of this study was to test whether AMF isolates can differentially attenuate the deleterious effects of a root pathogen on plant growth, whether the richest assemblage of AMF isolates provides the most tolerance against the pathogen, and whether AMF-induced changes to root architecture serve as a mechanism for improved plant disease tolerance. In a growth chamber study, we exposed the plant oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) to all combinations of three AMF isolates and to the plant root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. We found that the pathogen caused an 81% reduction in shoot and a 70% reduction in root biomass. AMF significantly reduced the highly deleterious effect of the pathogen. Mycorrhizal plants infected with the pathogen produced 91% more dry shoot biomass and 72% more dry root biomass relative to plants solely infected with R. solani. AMF isolate identity was a better predictor of AMF-mediated host tolerance to the pathogen than AMF richness. However, the enhanced tolerance response did not result from AMF-mediated changes to root architecture. Our data indicate that AMF communities can play a major role in alleviating host pathogen attack but this depends primarily on the capacity of individual AMF isolates to provide this benefit. PMID:23620744

  15. Causality evaluation of bacterial species isolated from patients with community-acquired lower leg cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Chaniotakis, I; Gartzonika, C G; Gaitanis, G; Levidiotou-Stefanou, S; Bassukas, I D

    2016-09-01

    Lower leg cellulitis is a diffuse inflammation of the cutaneous connective tissue following invasion of microorganisms and with potential to recur. The causative agent is not routinely identified in clinical practice, and the empirical therapy initiated primarily targets the 'conventional' disease pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. To evaluate at case level, the role of bacterial species isolated from lesional skin in the pathogenesis of community-acquired lower leg cellulitis. Two sampling methods (superficial swab and biopsy) were applied to isolate bacterial species from 40 patients hospitalized for first (N = 24 cases) and recurrent (N = 16 patients) lower leg cellulitis episodes. Subsequently, a clinical-laboratory heuristic algorithm was employed to interpret causality associations of isolated species with disease episodes at case level. In 37/40 cases (92.5%), at least one bacterial species was identified with either sampling method. The number of different species/specimen isolated from superficial swabs compared to punch biopsies was significantly more (P < 0.001). A causative agent was identified in 16 cases (40%); it was a 'conventional' pathogen in seven patients and strains belonging to one of six 'non-conventional' pathogens in nine cases. There was no concordance in the spectrum of isolated pathogens with the two sampling methods (kappa-index = 0.028). Another four species may have participated in five patients as co-pathogens in mixed infections. There was also no difference in microbiological disease features between patients with first and recurrent cellulitis episodes. The application of a clinical-laboratory causality algorithm coupled with pooled culture results of more than one sampling methods in patients with lower leg cellulitis is anticipated to permit the identification of responsible bacterial species at case level and offer incentive for therapeutic intervention studies. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology

  16. Isolation of Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix strains from iron bacteria communities in Tierra del Fuego wetlands.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bertram; Sánchez, Leandro A; Fretschner, Till; Kreps, Gastón; Ferrero, Marcela A; Siñeriz, Faustino; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Sheath-forming iron- and manganese-depositing bacteria belonging to the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group (SLG) are widespread in natural and artificial water systems. Known requirements for their growth include the presence of organic substrates and molecular oxygen. High concentrations of reduced iron or manganese, although not necessary for most species, make their growth a noticeable phenomenon. Such microbial communities have been studied mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we present descriptions of diverse ochre-depositing microbial communities in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, using a combined approach of microscopical examination, clone library construction and cultivation focused on SLG bacteria. To date, only few SLG type strains are available. The present work increases the number and diversity of cultivated SLG bacteria by obtaining isolates from biofilms and sediment samples of wetlands in Tierra del Fuego. Thirty isolates were selected based on morphological features such as sheath formation and iron/manganese deposition. Five operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were deduced. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that one OTU is identical to the Leptothrix mobilis Feox-1(T) -sequence while the four remaining OTUs show similarity values related to previously described type strains. Similarity values ranged from 96.5% to 98.8%, indicating possible new species and subspecies.

  17. Biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) isolated from community and hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Seng, Rathanin; Kitti, Thawatchai; Thummeepak, Rapee; Kongthai, Phattaraporn; Leungtongkam, Udomluk; Wannalerdsakun, Surat; Sitthisak, Sutthirat

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) are the major cause of infectious diseases because of their potential ability to form biofilm and colonize the community or hospital environments. This study was designed to investigate the biofilm producing ability, and the presence of mecA, icaAD, bap and fnbA genes in MR-CoNS isolates. The MR-CoNS used in this study were isolated from various samples of community environment and five wards of hospital environments, using mannitol salt agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin. The specie level of Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus warneri was identified by specific primers of groESL (S. haemolyticus), rdr (S. epidermidis) and nuc (S. hominis and S. warneri). The remainder isolates were identified by tuf gene sequencing. Biofilm production was determined using Congo red agar (CRA) and Microtiter plate (MTP) assay. The mecA and biofilm associated genes (icaAD, fnbA and bap) were detected using PCR method. From the 558 samples from community and hospital environments, 292 MR-CoNS were isolated (41 from community environments, and 251 from hospital environments). S. haemolyticus (41.1%) and S. epidermidis (30.1%) were the predominant species in this study. Biofilm production was detected in 265 (90.7%) isolates by CRA, and 260 (88.6%) isolates were detected by MTP assay. The staphylococci isolates derived from hospital environments were more associated with biofilm production than the community-derived isolates. Overall, the icaAD and bap genes were detected in 74 (29.5%) and 14 (5.6%) of all isolates from hospital environments. When tested by MTP, the icaAD gene from hospital environment isolates was associated with biofilm biomass. No association was found between bap gene and biofilm formation. The MR-CoNS isolates obtained from community environments did not harbor the icaAD and bap genes. Conversely, fnbA gene presented in MR

  18. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  19. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  20. Naturally acquired immune responses to malaria vaccine candidate antigens MSP3 and GLURP in Guahibo and Piaroa indigenous communities of the Venezuelan Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in most of Latin America can be considered as controlled. In such a scenario, parameters of baseline immunity to malaria antigens are of specific interest with respect to future malaria eradication efforts. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two indigenous population groups in Amazonas/Venezuela. Data from the regional malaria documentation system were extracted and participants from the ethnic groups of the Guahibo (n = 180) and Piaroa (n = 295) were investigated for the presence of Plasmodium parasites and naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in serum. The GMZ2 vaccine candidate proteins MSP3 and GLURP were chosen as serological markers. Results The incidence of P. falciparum in both communities was found to be less than 2%, and none of the participants harboured P. falciparum at the time of the cross-sectional. Nearly a quarter of the participants (111/475; 23,4%) had positive antibody titres to at least one of the antigens. 53/475 participants (11.2%) were positive for MSP3, and 93/475 participants (19.6%) were positive for GLURP. High positive responses were detected in 36/475 participants (7.6%) and 61/475 participants (12.8%) for MSP3 and GLURP, respectively. Guahibo participants had significantly higher antibody titres than Piaroa participants. Conclusions Considering the low incidence of P. falciparum, submicroscopical infections may explain the comparatively high anti-P. falciparum antibody concentrations. PMID:22335967

  1. Detection of benzalkonium chloride resistance in community environmental isolates of staphylococci.

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Xin; Landry, Michael; Chen, Huizhong; Thorpe, Conner; Walsh, Dennis; Varela, Manuel F; Pan, Hongmiao

    2014-05-01

    We isolated a total of 653 strains from 64 community environmental samples in Massachusetts, USA. Among these isolates, 9.65 % (63 strains) were benzalkonium chloride (BC)-resistant staphylococci. All BC-resistant strains were collected from surfaces upon which antibacterial wipes or antibacterial sprays containing 0.02-0.12 % BC had frequently been used in the fitness centres. However, isolates from surfaces upon which antibacterial wipes or antibacterial sprays had not been used were all sensitive to BC. All BC-resistant strains were also resistant to erythromycin, penicillin and ampicillin. In addition, 51 strains showed resistance to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), 15 strains showed resistance to chloramphenicol, 12 strains showed resistance to ciprofloxacin and four strains showed resistance to meticillin. Resistance gene analysis demonstrated that 41 strains contained qacA/B, 30 strains had qacC, 25 strains contained qacG, 16 strains had qacH and eight strains contained qacJ. These data indicate that application of BC is associated with environmental staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance.

  2. [Evaluation of levofloxacin susceptibility against strains isolated from lower urinary tract infections in the community].

    PubMed

    Weber, P; Dib, C; Durand, C; Moniot-Ville, N

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of levofloxacin (LVX) in comparison to nalidixic acid (NAL), ofloxacin (OFX), norfloxacin (NOR), amoxicillin (AMX), cefixime (CFM), cotrimoxazole (SXT) and nitrofurantoin (FT), against 402 strains recently isolated from urine specimens in outpatient women suffering from lower urinary tract infections for which short-term treatment was not indicated. MICs were determined by the agar dilution method on Mueller-Hinton medium (Bio-Rad) according to the recommendations of the Comite de l'Antibiogramme de la Societe Francaise de Microbiologie (CA-SFM). Strains were classified as susceptible (S), intermediate (I) or resistant (R) according to the CA-SFM recommended breakpoints. Quality control was carried out using three reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. For E. coli, the most prevalent species (345 isolates: 85.3%), susceptibilities were as follows: AMX: 60.6%, CFM: 99.1%, NAL: 94.8%, NOR: 97.4%, OFX: 97.4%, LVX: 97.4%, SXT: 84.5%, FT: 98%. This study confirms the good in vitro activity of LVX, OFX, and CFM against strains isolated from urinary tract infections in the community and particularly against E. coli, which is by far the most prevalent pathogen, 90% of strains, with more than 97% of strains being susceptible.

  3. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M

    2012-01-01

    South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a ‘Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations. PMID:22234246

  4. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M

    2012-06-01

    South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a 'Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations.

  5. [Phytoplankton community structure and its succession in isolated lakes of Poyang-Junshan Lake].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Qian, Kui-Mei; Tan, Guo-Liang; Xing, Jiu-Sheng; Li, Mei; Chen, Yu-Wei

    2014-07-01

    As one of the human activities that transform nature, construction of dams and dykes may impose significant effects on lake ecosystems. Due to lacking of comparative data for ecological monitoring, how the changes of phytoplankton community structure respond to altered hydrological connectivity between lakes and other water bodies is still unknown. This work chose Junshan Lake, the typical isolated lake from Poyang Lake floodplain, to investigate the succession in phytoplankton communities responding to altered connectivity. Phytoplankton samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons in Junshan Lake, to analyze the phytoplankton community structure. The results showed that, fifty three genera from six phyta were identified in Junshan Lake, with Chlorophyta (47.2%), Bacillariophyta (22.2%), Cyanophyta (14.8%) and Euglenophyta (9.3%) being the main phyta. The dominant species were Ceratium hirundinella (20.5%), Anabeana spp. (18.5%) and Microcystis spp. (12.9%) during the wet seasons. Cryptomonas ovate (38.4%), Aulacoseira granulata (15.2%) and Microcystis spp. (10.5%) dominated during the whole dry seasons. The total phytoplankton abundance was mainly composed of Cyanophyta (85.4% -87.0%). The total phytoplankton biomass was dominantly made up of Cyanophyta (45.0%), Dinophyta (21.1%), Bacillariophyta (15.6%) and Chlorophyta (11.5%) during the wet seasons. Cryptophyta (38.2%), Bacillariophyta (31.3%) and Cyanophyta (21.1%) were the main contributors of the total phytoplankton biomass during the dry seasons. The phytoplankton community structure changed from Dinophyta-Bacillariophyta type during the wet seasons of 2007-2008 to Cyanophyta- Dinophyta type during the wet seasons of 2012-2013, and changed from Dinophyta- Bacillariophyta type during the dry seasons of 2007-2008 to Cryptophyta- Bacillariophyta- Cyanophyta type during the dry seasons of 2012-2013. The abundance and biomass increased from 2.66 x 10(6) cell L(-1) during 2007-2008 to 6.77 x 10(7) cell x

  6. Oil Road Effects on the Anuran Community of a High Canopy Tank Bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) in the Upper Amazon Basin, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Shawn F.; Forstner, Michael R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) at ∼20–45 m (x¯ = 33 m) above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation. PMID:24416414

  7. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Shawn F; Forstner, Michael R J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m) above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation.

  8. Isolated communities of Epsilonproteobacteria in hydrothermal vent fluids of the Mariana Arc seamounts.

    PubMed

    Huber, Julie A; Cantin, Holly V; Huse, Susan M; Welch, David B Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L; Butterfield, David A

    2010-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal vent fluids represent access points to diverse microbial communities living in oceanic crust. This study examined the distribution, relative abundance, and diversity of Epsilonproteobacteria in 14 low-temperature vent fluids from five volcanically active seamounts of the Mariana Arc using a 454 tag sequencing approach. Most vent fluids were enriched in cell concentrations compared with background seawater, and quantitative PCR results indicated that all fluids were dominated by bacteria. Operational taxonomic unit-based statistical tools applied to 454 data show that all vents from the northern end of the Mariana Arc grouped together, to the exclusion of southern arc seamounts, which were as distinct from one another as they were from northern seamounts. Statistical analysis also showed a significant relationship between seamount and individual vent groupings, suggesting that community membership may be linked to geographical isolation and not geochemical parameters. However, while there may be large-scale geographic differences, distance is not the distinguishing factor in the microbial community composition. At the local scale, most vents host a distinct population of Epsilonproteobacteria, regardless of seamount location. This suggests that there may be barriers to exchange and dispersal for these vent endemic microorganisms at hydrothermal seamounts of the Mariana Arc.

  9. [Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates related to USA300 clone: Origin of community-genotype MRSA in Colombia?].

    PubMed

    Escobar-Pérez, Javier Antonio; Castro, Betsy Esperanza; Márquez-Ortiz, Ricaurte Alejandro; Gaines, Sebastián; Chavarro, Bibiana; Moreno, Jaime; Leal, Aura Lucía; Vanegas, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    USA300 is a genetic lineage found both in methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates. In Colombia, hospital and community MRSA infections are caused by a USA300-related community genotype MRSA (CG-MRSA) clone. The genetic origin of this clone is unknown yet. To identify and characterize methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates in order to improve the information about the origin of the CG-MRSA isolates in Colombia. USA300-related MSSA isolates were detected and characterized from a study of 184 S. aureus isolates (90 MRSA and 94 MSSA) recovered from infections. The genetic relatedness of the isolates was established by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and protein A gene typification ( spa typing). Among 184 isolates, 27 (14.7%) showed molecular characteristics and genetic relationship with the USA300 clone, of which 18 were MRSA and nine were MSSA. All USA300-related MRSA harbored Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) IVc (3.1.2). In the MSSA isolates, SCC mec remnants or att B duplicate sites were not detected. In Colombia, the CG-MRSA isolates probably originated in the dissemination of an USA300-related MSSA clone which later acquired SCC mec IVc.

  10. Activity of the new cephalosporin ceftaroline against bacteraemia isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ian; Ge, Yigong; Janes, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The activity of ceftaroline, a novel cephalosporin, was evaluated against 1337 isolates from patients with bacteraemic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring hospitalisation (including 119 Haemophilus influenzae, 9 Moraxella catarrhalis, 164 Staphylococcus aureus, 1007 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 38 Streptococcus pyogenes). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and susceptibility category assessments were made using CLSI or US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) breakpoints. Ceftaroline MICs were < or = 0.008-0.06 mg/L against H. influenzae, 0.25-2mg/L against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 0.06-1mg/L against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, 0.015-0.5mg/L against M. catarrhalis and < or = 0.008-0.5mg/L against S. pneumoniae, and all S. pyogenes isolates had ceftaroline MICs < or = 0.008mg/L. Ceftaroline was more active than ceftriaxone or cefepime both against MRSA and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. More than 90% of MRSA isolates were resistant to clarithromycin and levofloxacin but were susceptible to linezolid or tigecycline. A high rate of clarithromycin resistance was also observed in the pneumococci. Ceftaroline was very active in vitro against all CAP isolates, including MRSA and penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci, in contrast to the other beta-lactams tested. These data confirm ceftaroline as a new cephalosporin with enhanced anti-Gram-positive activity and suggest that ceftaroline has the potential to be a useful new agent in the treatment of CAP-associated bacteraemic infections.

  11. The Amazon basin in transition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  12. Molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from hospital- and community-acquired infections in NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Romero, Ana Laura; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Barrios, Humberto; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Reyna-Flores, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the molecular characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-PEc) isolates from two hospitals and community settings in Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. Between 2011 and 2014, thirty-seven ESBL-PEc isolates were collected. The major encoded ESBL was the blaCTX-M-15 gene (97%); followed by 13.5% of the blaSHV-12 gene, and 5.5% encoded the blaTLA-1 gene. The PMQR gene aac(6´)-Ib-cr was detected in 97% of the isolates and the qnrB gene, in one isolate. The ESBL-PEc isolates corresponded to phylogenetic group B2, ST131. Our results highlight the dissemination of ESBL-PEc isolates in northwest Mexico (Ciudad Obregon, Sonora).

  13. Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Hospital- and Community-Acquired Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Isolates over 5-Year Period in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Wafaa Y.; Rotimi, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading and an important cause of diarrhea in a healthcare setting especially in industrialized countries. Community-associated CDI appears to add to the burden on healthcare setting problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of healthcare-associated and community-acquired C. difficile infection over 5 years (2008–2012) in Kuwait. A total of 111 hospital-acquired (HA-CD) and 35 community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CA-CD) clinical isolates from stool of patients with diarrhoea were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobial agents against these pathogens was performed using E test method. There was no evidence of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, daptomycin, linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, teicoplanin and vancomycin by both HA-CD and CA-CD isolates. Metronidazole had excellent activity against CA-CD but there was a 2.9% resistance rate against HA-CD isolates. Ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and imipenem resistance rates among the HC-CD vs. CA-CD isolates were 100 vs. 47.4%; 43 vs. 47.4%; 100 vs. 100% and 100 vs. 89%, respectively. An unexpected high rifampicin resistance rate of 15.7% emerged amongst the HA-CD isolates. In conclusion, vancomycin resistance amongst the HA-CD and CA-CD isolates was not encountered in this series but few metronidazole resistant hospital isolates were isolated. High resistance rates of ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and imipenem resistance were evident among both CA-CD and HA-CD isolates. Rifampicin resistance is emerging among the HA-CD isolates. PMID:27536994

  14. Clostridium amazonense sp. nov. an obliqately anaerobic bacterium isolated from a remote Amazonian community in Peru

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Lindsey; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J.; Tito, Raul Y.; Ozga, Andrew T.; Polo, Susan I.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Lawson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic Gram-stain positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium designated NE08VT, was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a remote Amazonian community in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the organism belonged to the genus Clostridium and is most closely related to Clostridium vulturis (97.4% sequence similarity) and was further characterized using biochemical and chemotaxonomic methods. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso C13:0 and C16:0 with a genomic DNA G + C content of 31.6 mol%. Fermentation products during growth on glucose were acetate and butyrate. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic information, strain NE08V was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium amazonense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE08VT (DSM 23598T = CCUG 59712T). PMID:26123611

  15. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  16. Resistance of Escherichia coli urinary isolates in ED-treated patients from a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Virginia H; White, Bryan P; Southwood, Robin

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide resistance data for Escherichia coli isolates causing urinary tract infections in emergency department (ED) patients not requiring admission and explore if differences between this subpopulation and the hospital antibiogram exist. Differences between community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) and health care-associated (HA-UTI) subgroups were also investigated. Patients with a positive urine culture treated and discharged from the ED of a 200-bed community hospital were reviewed. Patients with urinary isolates of more than 100000 colony-forming unit/mL and documented intention to treat were included. Patients who required admission, were pregnant, less than the age of 18 years, or who had a positive culture but without any evidence of intention to treat were excluded. Only the initial visit was included for patients who returned to the ED within 7 days. Overall, 308 visits were screened, and 217 were included. Of these, 78.3% were CA-UTI, and 21.7% were HA-UTI. Females comprised 88.5% of all patients. E coli was the most common pathogen overall and in both subgroups. E coli resistance to levofloxacin was 13.5% overall, 9.2% for CA-UTI, and 38.5% for HA-UTI compared with 27% on the hospital antibiogram. E coli resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was 26.9% overall, 25.2% for CA-UTI, and 34.6% for HA-UTI vs 26% on the antibiogram. E coli susceptibility for ED patients not requiring admission may not be accurately represented by hospital antibiograms that contain culture data from various patient types, sites of infection, or patients with varying illness severity. Separation of the ED population into CA-UTI and HA-UTI subgroups may be helpful when selecting empiric antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Peptoniphilus catoniae sp. nov., isolated from a human faecal sample from a traditional Peruvian coastal community

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nisha B.; Tito, Raul Y.; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J.; O'Neal, Lindsey; Trujillo-Villaroel, Omar; Marin-Reyes, Luis; Troncoso-Corzo, Luzmila; Guija-Poma, Emilio; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a faecal sample obtained from an individual in a traditional community located off the southern coast of Peru. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the novel bacterium belonged to the genus Peptoniphilus but showed no particular relationship with any species, demonstrating less than 91 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with all members of the genus. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel isolate were determined to be C10 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 2ω6,9c/anteiso-C18 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol%. End-products of metabolism from peptone-yeast-glucose broth (PYG) were determined to be acetate and butyrate. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic results, the organism represents a novel species of the genus Peptoniphilus, for which the name Peptoniphilus catoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M6.X2DT ( = DSM 29874T = CCUG 66798T). PMID:26907921

  18. Subtype analysis of Blastocystis sp. isolates from asymptomatic individuals in an urban community in the Philippines

    PubMed

    Adao, Davin Edric V.; Dela Serna, Ace O.; Belleza, Maria Luz B.; Bolo, Nicole R.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2016-10-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a commonly reported enteric protistan parasite in faecal specimens with a worldwide distribution afflicting both humans and a wide range of animals. The aim of this study is to characterize the subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis sp. isolates from asymptomatic individuals in an urban community in Pateros, Metro Manila, Philippines. The 600-bp small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) barcoding region of Blastocystis sp. isolates was amplified and sequenced using the primers RD5 and BhRDr. Subtypes were identified by uploading the sequences onto the Basic Local Alignment and Search Tool (BLAST) websites, the Blastocystis Subtype (18S) and Sequence Typing (MLST) Database and by construction of a phylogenetic tree. Twenty-nine (29) out of 35 individuals were detected positive for Blastocystis sp. ST3 is the most common among the three STs detected (65.5%), followed by ST1 (31.0%) and ST4 (3.44%). This study showed that DNA barcoding can serve as a helpful tool to investigate the diversity of Blastocystis sp. in the Philippines.

  19. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  20. Geochemistry of the Amazon Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Krest, James M.; Swarzenski, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    The Amazon River supplies more freshwater to the ocean than any other river in the world. This enormous volume of freshwater forces the estuarine mixing out of the river channel and onto the continental shelf. On the continental shelf, the estuarine mixing occurs in a very dynamic environment unlike that of a typical estuary. The tides, the wind, and the boundary current that sweeps the continental shelf have a pronounced influence on the chemical and biological processes occurring within the estuary. The dynamic environment, along with the enormous supply of water, solutes and particles makes the Amazon estuary unique. This chapter describes the unique features of the Amazon estuary and how these features influence the processes occurring within the estuary. Examined are the supply and cycling of major and minor elements, and the use of naturally occurring radionuclides to trace processes including water movement, scavenging, sediment-water interaction, and sediment accumulation rates. The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, and the significances of the Amazon estuary in the global mass balance of these elements are examined.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Benzoyl Coenzyme A Reductase Genes Detected in Denitrifying Isolates and Estuarine Sediment Communities

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bongkeun; Ward, Bess B.

    2005-01-01

    Benzoyl coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) reductase is a central enzyme in the anaerobic degradation of organic carbon, which utilizes a common intermediate (benzoyl-CoA) in the metabolism of many aromatic compounds. The diversity of benzoyl-CoA reductase genes in denitrifying bacterial isolates capable of degrading aromatic compounds and in river and estuarine sediment samples from the Arthur Kill in New Jersey and the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland was investigated. Degenerate primers were developed from the known benzoyl-CoA reductase genes from Thauera aromatica, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Azoarcus evansii. PCR amplification detected benzoyl-CoA reductase genes in the denitrifying isolates belonging to α-, β-, or γ-Proteobacteria as well as in the sediment samples. Phylogenetic analysis, sequence similarity comparison, and conserved indel determination grouped the new sequences into either the bcr type (found in T. aromatica and R. palustris) or the bzd type (found in A. evansii). All the Thauera strains and the isolates from the genera Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Paracoccus, Ensifer, and Pseudomonas had bcr-type benzoyl-CoA reductases with amino acid sequence similarities of more than 97%. The genes detected from Azarocus strains were assigned to the bzd type. A total of 50 environmental clones were detected from denitrifying consortium and sediment samples, and 28 clones were assigned to either the bcr or the bzd type of benzoyl-CoA reductase genes. Thus, we could determine the genetic capabilities for anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds in sediment communities of the Chesapeake Bay and the Arthur Kill on the basis of the detection of two types of benzoyl-CoA reductase genes. The detected genes have future applications as genetic markers to monitor aromatic compound degradation in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:15812036

  2. Epidemiology of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant community-acquired Enterobacteria isolated from elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, S; Caillon, J; Marquet, A; Grandjean, G; Potel, G; Ballereau, F

    2014-02-01

    This survey was made to study the epidemiology of multiresistant bacteria (MRB) in the French community, among elderly patients 65 years of age or more, carrying third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-resistant) Enterobacteriaceae, and the co-resistance of prescribed antibiotics. The data was collected in 2009 in the West of France by MedQual, a network of 174 private laboratories. Two thousand one hundred and sixty strains of the 88,255 identified Enterobacteria strains were 3GC-resistant (2.4%) and 945 of these strains (41.8%) were isolated from elderly patients 65 years of age or more. Escherichia coli was the predominant 3GC-resistant strain (72.7%). 51.4% of the 945 patients in whom a 3GC-resistant strain was isolated produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). The main risk factors for infection with the 3GC-resistant strain were hospitalization and antibiotic treatment in the previous year (58.2 and 86.9%, respectively). Hospitalization during the previous year was more frequent among elderly patients who lived at home compared with those who lived in nursing homes (P<0.05). The production of ESBL, among the 945 patients who carried the 3GC-resistant strains, was similar among patients who lived at home compared with those who lived in nursing homes (51.4% versus 49.7%). Microbiologists should warn family physicians about MRB isolates with a specific antimicrobial resistance pattern (3GC-resistant, fluoroquinolone-resistant, etc.) to prescribe more effective medications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The magnitude of behavioral isolation is affected by characteristics of the mating community

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Gene exchange between species occurs in areas of secondary contact, where two species have the opportunity to hybridize. If heterospecific males are more common than conspecific males, females will experience more encounters with males of other species. These encounters might increase the likelihood of heterospecific matings, and lead to the production of hybrid progeny. I studied the mating behavior of two pairs of sibling species endemic to Africa: Drosophila yakuba/Drosophila santomea and Drosophila simulans/Drosophila sechellia. Drosophila yakuba and D. simulans are cosmopolitan species widely distributed in the African continent, while D. santomea and D. sechellia are island endemics. These pairs of species hybridize in nature and have the potential to exchange genes in natural conditions. I used these two pairs of Drosophila species, and constructed mating communities of different size and different heterospecific:conspecific composition. I found that both the total number of potential mates and the relative frequency of conspecific versus heterospecific males affect female mating decisions in the cosmopolitan species but not in the island endemics. These results suggest that the population characteristics, in which mating occurs, may affect the magnitude of premating isolation. Community composition might thus facilitate, or impair, gene flow between species. PMID:25165530

  4. CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE PATTERN AMONG BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION.

    PubMed

    Reis, Ana Carolina Costa; Santos, Susana Regia da Silva; Souza, Siane Campos de; Saldanha, Milena Góes; Pitanga, Thassila Nogueira; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio

    2016-07-11

    To identify the main bacterial species associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the pattern of ciprofloxacin susceptibility among bacteria isolated from urine cultures. We conducted a retrospective study in all the patients with community-acquired UTI seen in Santa Helena Laboratory, Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil during five years (2010-2014). All individuals who had a positive urine culture result were included in this study. A total of 1,641 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Despite the fact that participants were female, we observed a higher rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin in males. The most frequent pathogens identified in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance has been observed mainly for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, E. coli has shown the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance, reaching 36% of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in 2014. The rate of bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin observed in the studied population is much higher than expected, prompting the need for rational use of this antibiotic, especially in infections caused by E. coli. Prevention of bacterial resistance can be performed through control measures to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms and a rational use of antimicrobial policy.

  5. CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE PATTERN AMONG BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    REIS, Ana Carolina Costa; SANTOS, Susana Regia da Silva; de SOUZA, Siane Campos; SALDANHA, Milena Góes; PITANGA, Thassila Nogueira; OLIVEIRA, Ricardo Riccio

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: To identify the main bacterial species associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the pattern of ciprofloxacin susceptibility among bacteria isolated from urine cultures. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in all the patients with community-acquired UTI seen in Santa Helena Laboratory, Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil during five years (2010-2014). All individuals who had a positive urine culture result were included in this study. Results: A total of 1,641 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Despite the fact that participants were female, we observed a higher rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin in males. The most frequent pathogens identified in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance has been observed mainly for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, E. coli has shown the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance, reaching 36% of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in 2014. Conclusion: The rate of bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin observed in the studied population is much higher than expected, prompting the need for rational use of this antibiotic, especially in infections caused by E. coli. Prevention of bacterial resistance can be performed through control measures to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms and a rational use of antimicrobial policy. PMID:27410913

  6. Community of thermoacidophilic and arsenic resistant microorganisms isolated from a deep profile of mine heaps.

    PubMed

    Casas-Flores, S; Gómez-Rodríguez, E Y; García-Meza, J V

    2015-12-01

    Soluble arsenic (As) in acidic feed solution may inhibit the copper (Cu) bioleaching process within mine heaps. To clarify the effect of soluble arsenic on the live biomass and bioxidative activity in heaps, toxicological assays were performed using a synthetic feed solution given by a mine company. The microorganisms had previously been isolated from two heap samples at up to 66 m depth, and cultured using specific media for chemolithotrophic acidophiles (pH 1-2) and moderate thermophiles (48°C), for arsenic tolerance assay. The four media with the highest biomass were selected to assay As-resistance; one culture (Q63h) was chosen to assay biooxidative activity, using a heap sample that contained chalcopyrite and covellite. We found that 0.5 g/L of As does not affect living biomass or biooxidative activity on Cu sulfides, but it dissolves Cu, while As precipitates as arsenic acid (H3AsO4·½H2O). The arsenic tolerant community, as identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, was composed of three main metabolic groups: chemolithotrophs (Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus); chemolithoheterotrophs and organoheterotrophs as Acidovorax temperans, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina and Sphingomonas spp. Leptospirillum spp. and S. thermosulfidooxidans were the dominant taxa in the Q63-66 cultures from the deepest sample of the oldest, highest-temperature heap. The results indicated arsenic resistance in the microbial community, therefore specific primers were used to amplify ars (arsenic resistance system), aio (arsenite oxidase), or arr (arsenate respiratory reduction) genes from total sample DNA. Presence of arsB genes in S. thermosulfidooxidans in the Q63-66 cultures permits H3AsO4-As(V) detoxification and strengthens the community's response to As.

  7. Multilocus genotyping reveals high heterogeneity and strong local population structure of the Plasmodium vivax population in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Peru is one of the Latin American countries with the highest malaria burden, mainly due to Plasmodium vivax infections. However, little is known about P. vivax transmission dynamics in the Peruvian Amazon, where most malaria cases occur. The genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax isolates collected in different communities around Iquitos city, the capital of the Peruvian Amazon, was determined. Methods Plasmodium vivax population structure was determined by multilocus genotyping with 16 microsatellites on 159 P. vivax infected blood samples (mono-infections) collected in four sites around Iquitos city. The population characteristics were assessed only in samples with monoclonal infections (n = 94), and the genetic diversity was determined by calculating the expected heterozygosity and allelic richness. Both linkage disequilibrium and the genetic differentiation (θ) were estimated. Results The proportion of polyclonal infections varied substantially by site (11% - 70%), with the expected heterozygosity ranging between 0.44 and 0.69; no haplotypes were shared between the different populations. Linkage disequilibrium was present in all populations (IAS 0.14 - 0.61) but was higher in those with fewer polyclonal infections, suggesting inbreeding and a clonal population structure. Strong population differentiation (θ = 0.45) was found and the Bayesian inference cluster analysis identified six clusters based on distinctive allele frequencies. Conclusion The P. vivax populations circulating in the Peruvian Amazon basin are genetically diverse, strongly differentiated and they have a low effective recombination rate. These results are in line with the low and clustered pattern of malaria transmission observed in the region around Iquitos city. PMID:20525233

  8. The DURAMAZ indicator system: a cross-disciplinary comparative tool for assessing ecological and social changes in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Le Tourneau, François-Michel; Marchand, Guillaume; Greissing, Anna; Nasuti, Stéphanie; Droulers, Martine; Bursztyn, Marcel; Léna, Philippe; Dubreuil, Vincent

    2013-06-05

    During the last 20 years, the Amazon region has been at the same time a place of massive ecological and social change and a laboratory of experiments aimed at promoting sustainable development. Policies and project initiatives involving diverse social groups and environmental contexts have been implemented across the region. They have resulted in mixed outcomes and trade-offs between social and environmental dimensions, making their impact at the local level difficult to assess and their successes difficult to generalize. The objective of the DURAMAZ research project was to provide a better understanding of these impacts. It produced a multi-dimensional indicator system designed to allow a holistic view of sustainable development at local and subregional levels and a comparative perspective across 12 research sites, from an isolated indigenous village to smallholders and agribusiness areas in Mato Grosso. The results of the first observation campaign (2007-2009) show that despite the claim of promoting sustainable development, no project was able to untie the 'Gordian knot' of development in the Amazon. Communities continue to face the old dilemma of either enjoying a preserved ecosystem but enduring adverse life conditions, or enjoying better living at the expense of forest cover. Another finding is that the subregional context is very important in shaping the impacts of regional policies. Thus, the same policy will not always have the same effect, depending on in which context it is applied. Finally, we found that cultural factors and a sense of place play a more important role than economic factors when it comes to the way people evaluate their own situation. This research provides the basis for a second phase of the project (2012-2016) in which we will continue to expand our sample and to refine our methodologies with the goal of transforming the initiative into a network of observatories of sustainable development in the Amazon.

  9. The DURAMAZ indicator system: a cross-disciplinary comparative tool for assessing ecological and social changes in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Le Tourneau, François-Michel; Marchand, Guillaume; Greissing, Anna; Nasuti, Stéphanie; Droulers, Martine; Bursztyn, Marcel; Léna, Philippe; Dubreuil, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the Amazon region has been at the same time a place of massive ecological and social change and a laboratory of experiments aimed at promoting sustainable development. Policies and project initiatives involving diverse social groups and environmental contexts have been implemented across the region. They have resulted in mixed outcomes and trade-offs between social and environmental dimensions, making their impact at the local level difficult to assess and their successes difficult to generalize. The objective of the DURAMAZ research project was to provide a better understanding of these impacts. It produced a multi-dimensional indicator system designed to allow a holistic view of sustainable development at local and subregional levels and a comparative perspective across 12 research sites, from an isolated indigenous village to smallholders and agribusiness areas in Mato Grosso. The results of the first observation campaign (2007–2009) show that despite the claim of promoting sustainable development, no project was able to untie the ‘Gordian knot’ of development in the Amazon. Communities continue to face the old dilemma of either enjoying a preserved ecosystem but enduring adverse life conditions, or enjoying better living at the expense of forest cover. Another finding is that the subregional context is very important in shaping the impacts of regional policies. Thus, the same policy will not always have the same effect, depending on in which context it is applied. Finally, we found that cultural factors and a sense of place play a more important role than economic factors when it comes to the way people evaluate their own situation. This research provides the basis for a second phase of the project (2012–2016) in which we will continue to expand our sample and to refine our methodologies with the goal of transforming the initiative into a network of observatories of sustainable development in the Amazon. PMID:23610180

  10. Variance in water chemistry parameters in isolated wetlands of Florida, USA, and relationships with macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighty small isolated wetlands throughout Florida were sampled in 2005 to explore within-site variability of water chemistry parameters and relate water chemistry to macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure. Three samples or measures of water were collected within each si...

  11. Variance in water chemistry parameters in isolated wetlands of Florida, USA, and relationships with macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighty small isolated wetlands throughout Florida were sampled in 2005 to explore within-site variability of water chemistry parameters and relate water chemistry to macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure. Three samples or measures of water were collected within each si...

  12. A Mouse Click Away: Internet Resources for Students in Crisis in Geographically Isolated or Self-Sequestered Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Juneau Mahan

    2010-01-01

    The impact, incidence, prevalence, and severity of violence and trauma adversely affect students academically, behaviorally, emotionally, and socially. For students residing in geographically isolated or self-sequestered communities, trauma may be exacerbated when school counselors may be unprepared to respond effectively and timely because…

  13. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton in an Amazon lake, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ise de Goreth; Moura, Ariadne do Nascimento; Dantas, Enio Wocyli; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo

    2010-12-01

    Natural lake systems represent important reservoirs for residential water supply, fish production, recreational activities and enjoyment of their natural beauty. Nevertheless, human impacts may affect their health status resulting in degradation and loss of biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the health status of a natural lake located in an indigenous reservation in the Brazilian Amazon, using the phytoplankton community changes along the rainy (June) and dry (November) seasons of 2006. We collected water (temperature, pH, Secchi depth and conductivity) and phytoplankton samples from the subsurface, middle of the water column, and approximately 30 cm above the bottom, over 24-hour sampling periods, from a central station in the lake. Samples taken from biotic and abiotic variables were correlated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Results showed that the lake exhibited high temperatures in both seasons, and showed thermal stratification only during the rainy season. Dissolved oxygen exhibited a clinograde pattern in the rainy season and high oxygen in the hypolimnion in the dry season. In the rainy season, the water near the bottom was acidic, turbid and had a greater concentration of phosphorus. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, nitrite, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited diel variations in the rainy season, whereas water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited significant differences between hours of the day in the dry season. The phytoplankton was represented by 39 taxa, and Chlorophyta showed the greatest species richness, totaling 25 taxa. Among Chlorophyta, desmids were the most diverse, accounting 52%. Bacillariophyta (nine species) was the second most diverse group. Cyanophyta was represented by three species, including Merismopedia tenuissima, the most abundant taxon. Despite the occurrence of taxa that indicate organic pollution, their biomass

  14. Magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation of functional bacteria in a complex microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dayi; Berry, James P; Zhu, Di; Wang, Yun; Chen, Yin; Jiang, Bo; Huang, Shi; Langford, Harry; Li, Guanghe; Davison, Paul A; Xu, Jian; Aries, Eric; Huang, Wei E

    2015-01-01

    Although uncultured microorganisms have important roles in ecosystems, their ecophysiology in situ remains elusive owing to the difficulty of obtaining live cells from their natural habitats. In this study, we employed a novel magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation (MMI) method to recover metabolically active cells of a group of previously uncultured phenol degraders, Burkholderiales spp., from coking plant wastewater biosludge; five other culturable phenol degraders—Rhodococcus sp., Chryseobacterium sp. and three different Pseudomonas spp.—were also isolated from the same biosludge using traditional methods. The kinetics of phenol degradation by MMI-recovered cells (MRCs) was similar to that of the original sludge. Stable isotope probing (SIP) and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA from the ‘heavy' DNA (13C-DNA) fractions indicated that Burkholderiales spp. were the key phenol degraders in situ in the biosludge, consistent with the results of MRCs. Single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied to probe individual bacteria in the MRCs obtained from the SIP experiment and showed that 79% of them were fully 13C-labelled. Biolog assays on the MRCs revealed the impact of various carbon and nitrogen substrates on the efficiency of phenol degradation in the wastewater treatment plant biosludge. Specifically, hydroxylamine, a metabolite of ammonia oxidisation, but not nitrite, nitrate or ammonia, inhibited phenol degradation in the biosludge. Our results provided a novel insight into the occasional abrupt failure events that occur in the wastewater treatment plant. This study demonstrated that MMI is a powerful tool to recover live and functional cells in situ from a complex microbial community to enable further characterisation of their physiology. PMID:25191996

  15. Magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation of functional bacteria in a complex microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dayi; Berry, James P; Zhu, Di; Wang, Yun; Chen, Yin; Jiang, Bo; Huang, Shi; Langford, Harry; Li, Guanghe; Davison, Paul A; Xu, Jian; Aries, Eric; Huang, Wei E

    2015-03-01

    Although uncultured microorganisms have important roles in ecosystems, their ecophysiology in situ remains elusive owing to the difficulty of obtaining live cells from their natural habitats. In this study, we employed a novel magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation (MMI) method to recover metabolically active cells of a group of previously uncultured phenol degraders, Burkholderiales spp., from coking plant wastewater biosludge; five other culturable phenol degraders-Rhodococcus sp., Chryseobacterium sp. and three different Pseudomonas spp.-were also isolated from the same biosludge using traditional methods. The kinetics of phenol degradation by MMI-recovered cells (MRCs) was similar to that of the original sludge. Stable isotope probing (SIP) and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA from the 'heavy' DNA ((13)C-DNA) fractions indicated that Burkholderiales spp. were the key phenol degraders in situ in the biosludge, consistent with the results of MRCs. Single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied to probe individual bacteria in the MRCs obtained from the SIP experiment and showed that 79% of them were fully (13)C-labelled. Biolog assays on the MRCs revealed the impact of various carbon and nitrogen substrates on the efficiency of phenol degradation in the wastewater treatment plant biosludge. Specifically, hydroxylamine, a metabolite of ammonia oxidisation, but not nitrite, nitrate or ammonia, inhibited phenol degradation in the biosludge. Our results provided a novel insight into the occasional abrupt failure events that occur in the wastewater treatment plant. This study demonstrated that MMI is a powerful tool to recover live and functional cells in situ from a complex microbial community to enable further characterisation of their physiology.

  16. Isolated diastolic hypertension and incident heart failure in community-dwelling older adults: Insights from the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Helen M; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Valentova, Miroslava; Anker, Markus S; Deedwania, Prakash; Banach, Maciej; Morgan, Charity J; Blackman, Marc R; Fonarow, Gregg C; White, Michel; Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Allman, Richard M; Aronow, Wilbert S; Anker, Stefan D; Ahmed, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension and isolated diastolic hypotension are common in older adults and associated with a higher risk of incident heart failure (HF). However, little is known about the prevalence and impact of isolated diastolic hypertension in this population. In the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), of the 5776 community-dwelling older adults ≥65years who had data on baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), 28 had isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP ≥90mmHg and SBP <140mmHg). From the 5748 without isolated diastolic hypertension, we excluded those with SBP ≥120mmHg (n=4451), DBP 80-89mmHg (n=20), DBP <60mmHg (n=425), normal BP taking anti-hypertensive medications (n=311), normal BP taking no anti-hypertensive medications but with history of hypertension (n=38), and baseline HF (n=5). The final cohort of 524 participants included 27 with isolated diastolic hypertension. Patients (n=524) had a mean (±SD) age of 71 (±5) years, 58% were women and 9% African American. There were no significant between-group age or sex differences; 37% of those with isolated diastolic hypertension (versus 7% without) were African American. Incident HF occurred in 19% and 7% of participants with and without isolated diastolic hypertension, respectively (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio {HR}, 4.65; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.09-19.90; p=0.038). There was a trend toward higher cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.59; 95% CI, 0.92-23.88; p=0.063). Among community-dwelling older adults, isolated diastolic hypertension is rare and is associated with higher risk for incident HF and cardiovascular mortality. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or “blocks” that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover ∼688,000 km2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Conclusions/Significance Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories. PMID:18716679

  18. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Pimm, Stuart L; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-08-13

    The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2) of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  19. Promoting health and happiness in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Scannavino, Caetano; Anastácio, Rui

    2007-01-01

    With the motto "Health, happiness of the body. Happiness, health of the soul", the Health & Happiness Project (PSA) works to promote integrated and sustainable community development in parts of the Brazilian Amazon. PSA grew out of local workers' personal experience in collaborating with communities and the need for sustainable actions for their future development. PSA was established as a not-for-profit organization in 1987 It started off by implementing strategies that would increase the health status of the population, which was identified as the biggest challenge, to then extend to other areas of development. Education, training and community participation were key elements of the project's actions, which included basic sanitation, reproductive health and child health, technical assistance in agricultural practices and youth empowerment through communications, among others. Once the health structure was established, the work moved on to new priorities related to education, economic production, protection of the environment and community management in the medium and long terms. The project's success has helped to institutionalize the practices and today it reaches a total of approximately 5,000 families distributed across 150 rural communities in the mid- and low-Amazon region.

  20. Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from the Environment of Ghanian Communities Where Buruli Ulcer Is Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye, Samuel Yaw; Danso, Emelia; Ampah, Kobina Assan; Nakobu, Zuliehatu; Asare, Prince; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Röltgen, Katharina; Yirenya-Tawiah, Dzidzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to isolate nontuberculous mycobacterial species from environmental samples obtained from some selected communities in Ghana. To optimize decontamination, spiked environmental samples were used to evaluate four decontamination solutions and supplemented media, after which the best decontamination solution and media were used for the actual analysis. The isolates obtained were identified on the basis of specific genetic sequences, including heat shock protein 65, IS2404, IS2606, rpoB, and the ketoreductase gene, as needed. Among the methods evaluated, decontamination with 1 M NaOH followed by 5% oxalic acid gave the highest rate of recovery of mycobacteria (50.0%) and the lowest rate of contamination (15.6%). The cultivation medium that supported the highest rate of recovery of mycobacteria was polymyxin B-amphotericin B-nalidixic acid-trimethoprim-azlocillin–supplemented medium (34.4%), followed by isoniazid-supplemented medium (28.1%). Among the 139 samples cultivated in the main analysis, 58 (41.7%) yielded mycobacterial growth, 70 (50.4%) had no growth, and 11 (7.9%) had all inoculated tubes contaminated. A total of 25 different mycobacterial species were identified. Fifteen species (60%) were slowly growing (e.g., Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium mantenii, and Mycobacterium malmoense), and 10 (40%) were rapidly growing (e.g., Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium abscessus). The occurrence of mycobacterial species in the various environmental samples analyzed was as follows: soil, 16 species (43.2%); vegetation, 14 species (38.0%); water, 3 species (8.0%); moss, 2 species (5.4%); snail, 1 species (2.7%); fungi, 1 species (2.7%). This study is the first to report on the isolation of M. ulcerans and other medically relevant nontuberculous mycobacteria from different environmental sources in Ghana. IMPORTANCE Diseases caused by mycobacterial species other than those that cause

  1. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Mary; Yager, Patricia L.; Moran, Mary Ann; Coles, Victoria J.; Fortunato, Caroline S.; Krusche, Alex V.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Payet, Jérôme P.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Satinsky, Brandon M.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Crump, Byron C.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ∼675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajós River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2–2.0 μm and >2.0 μm). River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May) and low (December) discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity near-shore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in tropical rivers and

  2. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mary; Yager, Patricia L; Moran, Mary Ann; Coles, Victoria J; Fortunato, Caroline S; Krusche, Alex V; Medeiros, Patricia M; Payet, Jérôme P; Richey, Jeffrey E; Satinsky, Brandon M; Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Ward, Nicholas D; Crump, Byron C

    2017-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ∼675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajós River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2-2.0 μm and >2.0 μm). River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May) and low (December) discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity near-shore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in tropical rivers and

  3. NASOPHARYNGEAL FLORA IN HEALTH AND DURING RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN ISOLATED COMMUNITIES IN ALABAMA AND LABRADOR

    PubMed Central

    Burky, E. L.; Smillie, W. G.

    1929-01-01

    Studies of the bacterial flora of the nasopharynx were made in isolated communities in South Alabama and Labrador. The basic flora was determined in both communities. In Alabama an epidemic of common colds was studied. In Labrador cases of sporadic colds and an epidemic of tracheitis were studied. Gram-negative cocci were found in nearly all normal individuals in moderate numbers. In pathological states there was a suppression of these organisms. Staphylococci were found in small numbers in about half of the normal individuals. In pathological conditions they disappeared from most of those affected but were found in increased numbers in a few individuals. Pfeiffer bacilli were absent or present only in small numbers in normal individuals. During the epidemic of colds in Alabama there was an increase in the number of strains recovered and an increase in the relative numbers of the bacilli in each throat. The highest prevalence was found one month after the epidemic had reached its height. In Labrador a similar increase was coincident with an epidemic of tracheitis. During normal periods the majority of the Pfeiffer strains were of the para non-indol-forming type. During epidemic periods the strains recovered were largely true indol-forming B. Pfeifferi. Hemolytic streptococci were rarely found in normals. During disease prevalence periods they appeared in a small number of persons. In Alabama, indifferent streptococci resembled the hemolytic streptococci in their distribution. In Labrador they were found to be widely distributed in both health and disease and composed apparently a part of the normal flora. Green streptococci were found to be widely distributed in fairly large numbers both in health and disease. Intermediates, or organisms midway between green streptococci and pneumococci, were found in moderate numbers in each series of persons studied. Early in the Alabama epidemic they were present in large numbers in nearly all persons. Pneumococci were not found

  4. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs.

  5. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs. PMID:26838035

  6. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-03

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs.

  7. Isolation of enterovirus and reovirus from sewage and treated effluents in selected Puerto Rican communities.

    PubMed Central

    Dahling, D R; Safferman, R S; Wright, B A

    1989-01-01

    Sewage treatment plant effluents were surveyed for viral contributions to gastroenteritis outbreaks in Puerto Rico. Of the 15 sewage treatment plants studied, all discharged their effluents upstream from water treatment plant intakes. No base-line data on the degree of viral challenge to these sewage treatment plants or the subsequent reduction of viruses before discharge existed. Enterovirus counts were generally much higher than those found in the continental United States. At four plants, viruses in the incoming sewage exceeded 100,000 PFU/liter, and one of these, a trickling filter plant, was discharging 24,000 PFU/liter to receiving waters. Virus identification showed that more than 80% of the enterovirus isolates were coxsackievirus B5. These overwhelming viral numbers pointed to defects in the sewage treatment processes. Without reasonable barriers to protect receiving waters, several of the downstream communities were using raw waters that posed extraordinary demands on the ability of their water treatment plants to supply virologically safe drinking water. PMID:2541664

  8. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    By exploiting the available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences - spanning over a sampling period of more than 10 yr - retrieved from sediments of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV), Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) and eastern Mediterranean (Amsterdam and Kazan mud volcanoes; AMSMV, KZNMV) mud volcanoes/pockmarks, we investigated whether these systems are characterized by high (interconnectivity) or low (isolation) connection degree based on shared bacterial and archaeal phylotypes. We found only two archaeal and two bacterial phylotypes to occur in all three sites and a few more that were found in two of the three sites. Although the number of shared species depends a lot on the analysis depth of each sample, the majority of the common phylotypes were related mostly to cold seep deep-sea habitats, while for some of them their relative abundance was high enough to be considered as key-species for the habitat they were found. As new tools, like next generation sequencing platforms, are more appropriate for revealing greater depth of diversity but also allow sample replication and uniform sampling protocols, and gain wider recognition and usage, future attempts are more realistic now for fully elucidating the degree of specificity in deep-sea mud volcanoes and pockmarks microbial communities.

  9. Clostridium amazonense sp. nov. an obliqately anaerobic bacterium isolated from a remote Amazonian community in Peru.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Lindsey; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J; Tito, Raul Y; Ozga, Andrew T; Polo, Susan I; Lewis, Cecil M; Lawson, Paul A

    2015-10-01

    A strictly anaerobic Gram-stain positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium designated NE08V(T), was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a remote Amazonian community in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the organism belonged to the genus Clostridium and is most closely related to Clostridium vulturis (97.4% sequence similarity) and was further characterized using biochemical and chemotaxonomic methods. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso C13:0 and C16:0 with a genomic DNA G + C content of 31.6 mol%. Fermentation products during growth with PYG were acetate and butyrate. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic information, strain NE08V was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium amazonense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE08V(T) (DSM 23598(T) = CCUG 59712(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of tuberculosis transmission in a community by 1 year of systematic typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Torrea, G; Offredo, C; Simonet, M; Gicquel, B; Berche, P; Pierre-Audigier, C

    1996-01-01

    Interhuman transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated by using molecular typing, including restriction fragment length polymorphism with probes IS6110, DR (direct repeat) and PGRS (polymorphic GC-rich sequence) and a PCR method using the inverted repeat sequences of IS6110 as primers. From 105 patients hospitalized for tuberculosis during a 1-year survey in three hospitals in Paris, France, 111 isolates were collected and analyzed. Eighty-eight patients were infected with genetically different isolates, demonstrating the clonal heterogeneity of M. tuberculosis in these patients originating from various geographical areas. Fourteen patients were infected by strains clustered with identical fingerprints. An epidemiological relatedness was demonstrated for isolates from only seven of these patients. Thus, the typing of isolates from all tuberculous patients in hospitals during 1 year allows the detection of transmission in the general community. This would improve the case findings, thereby further improving the detection of outbreaks. PMID:8727873

  11. A community-based participatory approach and engagement process creates culturally appropriate and community informed pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-arctic Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Charania, Nadia A; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2012-04-03

    Public health emergencies have the potential to disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations due to pre-established social and economic inequalities. Internationally, prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, existing pandemic plans were created with limited public consultation; therefore, the unique needs and characteristics of some First Nations communities may not be ethically and adequately addressed. Engaging the public in pandemic planning can provide vital information regarding local values and beliefs that may ultimately lead to increased acceptability, feasibility, and implementation of pandemic plans. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elicit and address First Nations community members' suggested modifications to their community-level pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The study area included three remote and isolated First Nations communities located in sub-arctic Ontario, Canada. A community-based participatory approach and community engagement process (i.e., semi-directed interviews (n = 13), unstructured interviews (n = 4), and meetings (n = 27)) were employed. Participants were purposively sampled and represented various community stakeholders (e.g., local government, health care, clergy, education, etc.) involved in the community's pandemic response. Collected data were manually transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. The data subsequently informed the modification of the community-level pandemic plans. The primary modifications incorporated in the community-level pandemic plans involved adding community-specific detail. For example, 'supplies' emerged as an additional category of pandemic preparedness and response, since including details about supplies and resources was important due to the geographical remoteness of the study communities. Furthermore, it was important to add details of how, when, where, and who was responsible for implementing recommendations

  12. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2012-03-01

    Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i) extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii) adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii) uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  13. Dissecting the deep biosphere: retrieving authentic microbial communities from packer-isolated deep crystalline bedrock fracture zones.

    PubMed

    Purkamo, Lotta; Bomberg, Malin; Nyyssönen, Mari; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Ahonen, Lasse; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Itävaara, Merja

    2013-08-01

    Deep fracture zones in Finnish crystalline bedrock have been isolated for long, the oldest fluids being tens of millions of years old. To accurately measure the native microbial diversity in fracture-zone fluids, water samples were obtained by isolating the borehole fraction spanning a deep subsurface aquifer fracture zone with inflatable packers (500 and 967 m) or by pumping fluids directly from the fracture zone. Sampling frequency was examined to establish the time required for the space between packers to be flushed and replaced by indigenous fracture fluids. Chemical parameters of the fluid were monitored continuously, and samples were taken at three points during the flushing process. Microbial communities were characterized by comparison of 16S ribosomal genes and transcripts and quantification of dsrB (dissimilatory sulfate reduction) gene. Results suggest that fracture-zones host microbial communities with fewer cells and lower diversity than those in the drill hole prior to flushing. In addition, each fracture zone showed a community composition distinct from that inhabiting the drill hole at corresponding depth. The highest diversity was detected from the 967-m fracture zone. We conclude that the applied packer method can successfully isolate and sample authentic microbial fracture-zone communities of deep bedrock environments. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concurrent Dengue and malaria in the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Santana, Vinícius Dos Santos; Lavezzo, Lígia Carolina; Mondini, Adriano; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Moraes; Rossit, Andrea Regina Baptista; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Rahal, Paula; Nogueira, Mara Correa Lelles; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region has extensive forested areas and natural ecosystems, providing favorable conditions for the existence of innumerous arboviruses. Over 200 arboviruses have been isolated in Brazil and about 40 are associated with human disease. Four out of 40 are considered to be of public health importance in Brazil: Dengue viruses (1-4), Oropouche, Mayaro and Yellow Fever. Along with these viruses, about 98% of the malaria cases are restricted to the Legal Amazon region. This study aimed to investigate the presence of arboviruses in 111 clinical serum samples from patients living in Novo Repartimento (Pará), Plácido de Castro (Acre), Porto Velho (Rondônia) and Oiapoque (Amapá). The viral RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was performed followed by a Multiplex-Nested-PCR, using Flavivirus, Alphavirus and Orthobunyavirus generic and species-specific primers. Dengue virus serotype 2 was detected in two patients living in Novo Repartimento (Pará) that also presented active Plasmodium vivax infection. Despite scant data, this situation is likely to occur more frequently than detected in the Amazon region. Finally, it is important to remember that both diseases have similar clinical findings, thus the diagnosis could be made concomitantly for dengue and malaria in patients living or returning from areas where both diseases are endemic or during dengue outbreaks.

  15. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae) by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae), in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-11-01

    Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  16. Ecohydrology of a Dammed Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpe, K. A.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon River watershed is the world's largest river basin and provides >US$30 billion/yr in ecosystem services to local populations, national societies and humanity at large. Construction of >30 large hydroelectric dams and >170 small dams in the Brazilian Amazon is currently underway as a result of governmental plans geared toward increased energy security, economic growth, improved living standards and industrialization. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from the development of hydropower will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects at local to global scales. Here we demonstrate the extensive and large-scale effects of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon region on hydrologic parameters calculated using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) method applied to 33 small and large dams in the Brazilian Amazon. Our analysis provides the first holistic assessment of hydrological alterations (HA) caused by Amazonian dams and offers insight on the primary physical and management drivers of dam impacts. Across sites, results show that dams have affected all ecologically important flow characteristics (i.e., magnitude, duration, timing, frequency and rate of change of pulse events). While each dam/river system are unique, some dams cause substantially greater HA. The "worst" dams were Balbina (HA=108%), Manso (HA=62%), and Serra da Mesa (HA=48%). All three are "large" dams with substantial reservoirs, however Serra da Mesa produces 6 times more electricity than either Balbina or Manso, with lower impact. The most dramatic dam-induced shifts in hydrologic regime were related to the frequency/duration and frequency/rate of change of pulse events. HA on rivers with multiple dams was only 8% higher than those with individual dams. Dam elevation and reservoir area were the best environmental predictors of HA. Results suggest that hydrological impacts from dams are similar among temperate and tropical climates (i.e., peak flows are often

  17. Alkane-degrading bacteria at the soil-litter interface: comparing isolates with T-RFLP-based community profiles.

    PubMed

    Giebler, Julia; Wick, Lukas Y; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Harms, Hauke

    2013-10-01

    Alkane-degrading bacteria were isolated from uncontaminated soil microcosms, which had been incubated with maize litter as natural alkane source. The isolates served to understand spatio-temporal community changes at the soil-litter interface, which had been detected using alkB as a functional marker gene for bacterial alkane degraders. To obtain a large spectrum of isolates, liquid subcultivation was combined with a matrix-assisted enrichment (Teflon membranes, litter). Elevated cell numbers of alkane degraders were detected by most probable number counting indicating enhanced alkane degradation potential in soil in response to litter treatment. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 395 isolates revealed forty different phylogenetic groups [operational taxonomic units (OTUs)] and spatio-temporal shifts in community composition. Ten OTUs comprised so far unknown alkane degraders, and five OTUs represented putative new bacterial genera. The combination of enrichment methods yielded a higher diversity of isolates than liquid subcultivation alone. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP profiles indicated that many alkane degraders present in the enrichments were not detectable in the DNA extracts from soil microcosms. These possibly rare specialists might represent a seed bank for the alkane degradation capacity in uncontaminated soil. This relevant ecosystem function can be fostered by the formation of the soil-litter interface.

  18. Amazon plant diversity revealed by a taxonomically verified species list.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Domingos; Särkinen, Tiina; Alexander, Sara; Amorim, André M; Bittrich, Volker; Celis, Marcela; Daly, Douglas C; Fiaschi, Pedro; Funk, Vicki A; Giacomin, Leandro L; Goldenberg, Renato; Heiden, Gustavo; Iganci, João; Kelloff, Carol L; Knapp, Sandra; Cavalcante de Lima, Haroldo; Machado, Anderson F P; Dos Santos, Rubens Manoel; Mello-Silva, Renato; Michelangeli, Fabián A; Mitchell, John; Moonlight, Peter; de Moraes, Pedro Luís Rodrigues; Mori, Scott A; Nunes, Teonildes Sacramento; Pennington, Terry D; Pirani, José Rubens; Prance, Ghillean T; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci; Rapini, Alessandro; Riina, Ricarda; Rincon, Carlos Alberto Vargas; Roque, Nádia; Shimizu, Gustavo; Sobral, Marcos; Stehmann, João Renato; Stevens, Warren D; Taylor, Charlotte M; Trovó, Marcelo; van den Berg, Cássio; van der Werff, Henk; Viana, Pedro Lage; Zartman, Charles E; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2017-09-18

    Recent debates on the number of plant species in the vast lowland rain forests of the Amazon have been based largely on model estimates, neglecting published checklists based on verified voucher data. Here we collate taxonomically verified checklists to present a list of seed plant species from lowland Amazon rain forests. Our list comprises 14,003 species, of which 6,727 are trees. These figures are similar to estimates derived from nonparametric ecological models, but they contrast strongly with predictions of much higher tree diversity derived from parametric models. Based on the known proportion of tree species in neotropical lowland rain forest communities as measured in complete plot censuses, and on overall estimates of seed plant diversity in Brazil and in the neotropics in general, it is more likely that tree diversity in the Amazon is closer to the lower estimates derived from nonparametric models. Much remains unknown about Amazonian plant diversity, but this taxonomically verified dataset provides a valid starting point for macroecological and evolutionary studies aimed at understanding the origin, evolution, and ecology of the exceptional biodiversity of Amazonian forests.

  19. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  20. A community-based participatory approach and engagement process creates culturally appropriate and community informed pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-arctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health emergencies have the potential to disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations due to pre-established social and economic inequalities. Internationally, prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, existing pandemic plans were created with limited public consultation; therefore, the unique needs and characteristics of some First Nations communities may not be ethically and adequately addressed. Engaging the public in pandemic planning can provide vital information regarding local values and beliefs that may ultimately lead to increased acceptability, feasibility, and implementation of pandemic plans. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elicit and address First Nations community members’ suggested modifications to their community-level pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods The study area included three remote and isolated First Nations communities located in sub-arctic Ontario, Canada. A community-based participatory approach and community engagement process (i.e., semi-directed interviews (n = 13), unstructured interviews (n = 4), and meetings (n = 27)) were employed. Participants were purposively sampled and represented various community stakeholders (e.g., local government, health care, clergy, education, etc.) involved in the community’s pandemic response. Collected data were manually transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. The data subsequently informed the modification of the community-level pandemic plans. Results The primary modifications incorporated in the community-level pandemic plans involved adding community-specific detail. For example, ‘supplies’ emerged as an additional category of pandemic preparedness and response, since including details about supplies and resources was important due to the geographical remoteness of the study communities. Furthermore, it was important to add details of how, when, where, and who was responsible

  1. Bilingual Education and Language Use among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacelosky, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how language choice for education contributes to changes in the way a society views and uses language in the context of the Peruvian Amazon. Oral surveys were administered to Shipibo people in 13 communities along the Ucayali River of eastern Peru where a transition type bilingual education program was introduced several decades ago.…

  2. Metagenome Sequencing of Prokaryotic Microbiota Collected from Rivers in the Upper Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Toyama, Danyelle; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Souza; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical freshwater environments, like rivers, are important reservoirs of microbial life. This study employed metagenomic sequencing to survey prokaryotic microbiota in the Solimões, Purus, and Urucu Rivers of the Amazon Basin in Brazil. We report a rich and diverse microbial community. PMID:28082494

  3. Integrating Language Documentation, Language Preservation, and Linguistic Research: Working with the Kokamas from the Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallejos, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of speech community members on a series of interconnected projects to document, study and maintain Kokama, a deeply endangered language from the Peruvian Amazon. The remaining fluent speakers of the language are mostly older than 60 years of age, are spread out across various small villages, and speak the language in…

  4. Bilingual Education and Language Use among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacelosky, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how language choice for education contributes to changes in the way a society views and uses language in the context of the Peruvian Amazon. Oral surveys were administered to Shipibo people in 13 communities along the Ucayali River of eastern Peru where a transition type bilingual education program was introduced several decades ago.…

  5. Integrating Language Documentation, Language Preservation, and Linguistic Research: Working with the Kokamas from the Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallejos, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of speech community members on a series of interconnected projects to document, study and maintain Kokama, a deeply endangered language from the Peruvian Amazon. The remaining fluent speakers of the language are mostly older than 60 years of age, are spread out across various small villages, and speak the language in…

  6. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  7. Confluence of the Amazon and Topajos Rivers, Brazil, South America

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    This view shows the confluence of the Amazon and the Topajos Rivers at Santarem, Brazil (2.0S, 55.0W). The Am,azon flows from lower left to upper right of the photo. Below the river juncture of the Amazon and Tapajos, there is considerable deforestation activity along the Trans-Amazon Highway.

  8. Confluence of the Amazon and Topajos Rivers, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the confluence of the Amazon and the Topajos Rivers at Santarem, Brazil (2.0S, 55.0W). The Am,azon flows from lower left to upper right of the photo. Below the river juncture of the Amazon and Tapajos, there is considerable deforestation activity along the Trans-Amazon Highway.

  9. Five-Year Eradication of Hepatitis B Infection After an Outreach Immunization Program in the Waorani Population in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Quizhpe, Edy; Ñauta, Gladys; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Teran, Enrique

    2016-09-07

    In Waorani communities of the Amazon basin of Ecuador, hepatitis B (HB) surface antigen was found in 14% of asymptomatic persons. The aim of this study was to identify the Waorani population in Ecuador and obtain an epidemiologically adequate coverage of vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) among them. Between February and September 2010, three vaccination campaigns were completed as part of a collaborative activity between the Ecuadorian Ministry of Public Health and the community leaders in the intervention areas. In addition, in 10 of the 22 Waorani communities, during first contact, a questionnaire about risk factors for HBV infection was administered. A total of 16 Waorani communities were registered before the beginning of this intervention, but during the actual process, six additional communities were identified. In total, 1,251 community members were registered, 92.7% of which received all three doses of the vaccine. Among them, 83% of survey respondents reported having been vaccinated, but only 22% were able to show proof. Only 1% of respondents were intravenous drug users, whereas 22% had at least one tattoo. All self-identified as heterosexual, but only 32% reported using condoms during sexual intercourse. By March 2015, no new cases of HB were been reported in any of the Waorani communities. Herein, we report the importance of intersectoral collaboration to strengthen health interventions in an isolated population like the Waorani area.

  10. Five-Year Eradication of Hepatitis B Infection after an Outreach Immunization Program in the Waorani Population in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Quizhpe, Edy; Ñauta, Gladys; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Teran, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In Waorani communities of the Amazon basin of Ecuador, hepatitis B (HB) surface antigen was found in 14% of asymptomatic persons. The aim of this study was to identify the Waorani population in Ecuador and obtain an epidemiologically adequate coverage of vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) among them. Between February and September 2010, three vaccination campaigns were completed as part of a collaborative activity between the Ecuadorian Ministry of Public Health and the community leaders in the intervention areas. In addition, in 10 of the 22 Waorani communities, during first contact, a questionnaire about risk factors for HBV infection was administered. A total of 16 Waorani communities were registered before the beginning of this intervention, but during the actual process, six additional communities were identified. In total, 1,251 community members were registered, 92.7% of which received all three doses of the vaccine. Among them, 83% of survey respondents reported having been vaccinated, but only 22% were able to show proof. Only 1% of respondents were intravenous drug users, whereas 22% had at least one tattoo. All self-identified as heterosexual, but only 32% reported using condoms during sexual intercourse. By March 2015, no new cases of HB were been reported in any of the Waorani communities. Herein, we report the importance of intersectoral collaboration to strengthen health interventions in an isolated population like the Waorani area. PMID:27382082

  11. Oil Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Bozigar, Matthew; Gray, Clark L.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels is increasingly penetrating into isolated regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, potentially undermining their livelihoods and well-being. To provide new insight to this issue, we draw on a unique longitudinal dataset collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon over an 11-year period from 484 indigenous households with varying degrees of exposure to oil extraction. Fixed and random effects regression models of the consequences of oil activities for livelihood outcomes reveal mixed and multidimensional effects. These results challenge common assumptions about these processes and are only partly consistent with hypotheses drawn from the Dutch disease literature. PMID:26543302

  12. Oil Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bozigar, Matthew; Gray, Clark L; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels is increasingly penetrating into isolated regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, potentially undermining their livelihoods and well-being. To provide new insight to this issue, we draw on a unique longitudinal dataset collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon over an 11-year period from 484 indigenous households with varying degrees of exposure to oil extraction. Fixed and random effects regression models of the consequences of oil activities for livelihood outcomes reveal mixed and multidimensional effects. These results challenge common assumptions about these processes and are only partly consistent with hypotheses drawn from the Dutch disease literature.

  13. River discharge and flood inundation over the Amazon based on IPCC AR5 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Rodrigo; Sorribas, Mino; Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila; Melack, John; Bravo, Juan Martin; Beighley, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and related effects over the hydrologic regime of the Amazon River basin could have major impacts over human and ecological communities, including issues with transportation, flood vulnerability, fisheries and hydropower generation. We examined future changes in discharge and floodplain inundation within the Amazon River basin. We used the hydrological model MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias - Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas) coupled with a 1D river hydrodynamic model simulating water storage over the floodplains. The model was forced using satellite based precipitation from the TRMM 3B42 dataset, and it had a good performance when validated against discharge and stage measurements as well as remotely sensed data, including radar altimetry-based water levels, gravity anomaly-based terrestrial water storage and flood inundation extent. Future scenarios of precipitation and other relevant climatic variables for the 2070 to 2100 time period were taken from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The climate models were chosen based on their ability to represent the main aspects of recent (1970 to 2000) Amazon climate. A quantile-quantile bias removal procedure was applied to climate model precipitation to mitigate unreliable predictions. The hydrologic model was then forced using past observed climate data altered by delta change factors based on the past and future climate models aiming to estimate projected discharge and floodplain inundation in climate change scenario at several control points in the basin. The climate projections present large uncertainty, especially the precipitation rate, and predictions using different climate models do not agree on the sign of changes on total Amazon flood extent or discharge along the main stem of the Amazon River. However, analyses of results at different regions indicate an increase

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli O25b-ST131 isolates causing community-acquired UTIs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Barrios, Humberto; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Rojas-Moreno, Teresa; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J; Fagundo-Sierra, Reynero; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus

    2013-07-01

    Escherichia coli is a common uropathogen causing community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Out of 4735 E. coli community-acquired UTIs, 10.2% were extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing. The identified ESBL types were CTX-M-15 (96.4%), SHV-2a (3%), and TLA-1 (1%). Of the isolates, 94.6% tested positive for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (aac(6')-lb-cr [92.1%] and qepA1 [7%] and for qnr-determinants [3.5%]). E. coli O25b-ST131 was identified in 25% of the isolates that harbor a non-conjugative 160-kb plasmid (IncFIA) containing the CTX-M-15, and all of these isolates were found to contain PMQR genes. This work can be useful in modeling the potential impact that may have on community-acquired UTIs in Mexico. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of Stenotrophomonas spp. Isolates Contributes to the Identification of Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cerezer, Vinicius Godoy; Pasternak, Jacyr; Franzolin, Marcia Regina; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas ssp. has a wide environmental distribution and is also found as an opportunistic pathogen, causing nosocomial or community-acquired infections. One species, S. maltophilia, presents multidrug resistance and has been associated with serious infections in pediatric and immunocompromised patients. Therefore, it is relevant to conduct resistance profile and phylogenetic studies in clinical isolates for identifying infection origins and isolates with augmented pathogenic potential. Here, multilocus sequence typing was performed for phylogenetic analysis of nosocomial isolates of Stenotrophomonas spp. and, environmental and clinical strains of S. maltophilia. Biochemical and multidrug resistance profiles of nosocomial and clinical strains were determined. The inferred phylogenetic profile showed high clonal variability, what correlates with the adaptability process of Stenotrophomonas to different habitats. Two clinical isolates subgroups of S. maltophilia sharing high phylogenetic homogeneity presented intergroup recombination, thus indicating the high permittivity to horizontal gene transfer, a mechanism involved in the acquisition of antibiotic resistance and expression of virulence factors. For most of the clinical strains, phylogenetic inference was made using only partial ppsA gene sequence. Therefore, the sequencing of just one specific fragment of this gene would allow, in many cases, determining whether the infection with S. maltophilia was nosocomial or community-acquired. PMID:24818127

  16. The Effect of Lactobacillus isolates on growth performance, immune response, intestinal bacterial community composition of growing Rex Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Zhu, Y; Li, F; Huang, L

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus isolates on intestinal bacterial community composition of growing Rex Rabbits. A total of 120 weaned Rex Rabbits (30 days old, 30 per group) were used for the experiment, which started after an adaptation period of 7 days. The control group was fed with basal diet only, while the treatment I, II and III groups were fed with basal diet adding antibiotics, Lactobacillus zeae (LB1) and Lactobacillus casei (L3) respectively. Growth performance, immune response and intestinal flora have been examined. The results obtained were as follows: (i) F/G of the rabbits fed with Lactobacillus isolates was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.05). (ii) The concentration of ALT decreased significantly (p < 0.05) and that of IgG and IgM increased significantly (p < 0.05) after feeding rabbits with Lactobacillus isolates. (iii) Lactobacillus isolates had no influence on the number of mast cells in duodenum and jejunum, but increased the number of mast cells in caecum significantly (p < 0.05). (iv) The data from pyrosequencing-based analysis suggested that the bacterial community in the rabbit's intestinal flora can be changed by Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics, especially for the microbial diversity and abundance in the caecum. In conclusion, the application of proper Lactobacillus isolates can improve the growth performance, enhance the immunological function and adjust the intestinal micro-ecosystem of growing Rex Rabbits. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Amazon deforestation and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, J.; Nobre, C.; Sellers, P. )

    1990-03-16

    A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the length of the dry season also increased; such an increase could make reestablishment of the tropical forests after massive deforestation particularly difficult. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  19. Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in Middle Ear Fluid Isolates During Acute Otitis Media and Nasopharyngeal Isolates During Community-acquired Alveolar Pneumonia in Central Romania.

    PubMed

    Lixandru, Raluca-Ileana; Falup-Pecurariu, Cristian; Bleotu, Laura; Mercas, Alice; Leibovitz, Eugene; Dagan, Ron; Greenberg, David; Falup-Pecurariu, Oana

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Romania has high rates of S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) are not being used routinely in this country. The aims of the study were as follows: 1) to compare pneumococcal antibiotic resistance patterns in AOM and CAAP in children from central Romania and 2) to compare differences in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes isolated from the middle ear fluid (MEF) of children with AOM and from the nasopharynx (NP) of children with CAAP. Children younger than 5 years old with AOM or with radiologically confirmed CAAP were prospectively enrolled. Samples from MEF and NP were evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility and serotyping. Eighty-eight children with CAAP and 68 with AOM were enrolled. Of the MEF and CAAP isolates, 64 (94.1%) and 79 (89.7%) were penicillin nonsusceptible, respectively. The pneumococcal serotypes distribution in AOM was similar to those in CAAP except for serotype 19F, which was more common in AOM. Overall, 89.7% and 85.8% of all serotypes in AOM and CAAP patients, respectively, were covered by 13-valent PCV. MEF and NP-CAAP S. pneumoniae isolates were similar in regard to serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance. S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance rates were extremely high. Thirteen-valent PCV has the potential to reduce both the burden of disease as well as the rates of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae in both diseases.

  1. Endophytic bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of Amazon Paullinia cupana associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P < 0.05). Similarly, comparisons using LIBSHUFF and heatmap analysis for the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed differences between endophytic bacterial communities. These data are in agreement with the NMSD and ANOSIM analysis of DGGE profiles. Our results suggest that anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum.

  2. Serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Marta; Aliberti, Stefano; Azzari, Chara; Moriondo, Maria; Nieddu, Francesco; Blasi, Francesco; Mantero, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia remain an important public health problem. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of community-acquired pneumonia that is attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection; secondary objectives were the description of community-acquired pneumonia attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae according to socio-demographic and clinical variables, the clinical evolution of community-acquired pneumonia and the description of the serotype distribution of vaccine-preventable disease and antibiotic resistance rate of pneumococcal infections. An observational, prospective study was conducted on consecutive patients coming from the community, who were hospitalized with pneumonia. Data on admission, at discharge and 30 days after discharge were collected. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors independently associated with pneumococcal pneumonia. Among the 193 patients enrolled in the study, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia was identified in 60 patients (33%) and 35 (18%) of evaluable patients had community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Of all clinical characteristics, if no previous antibiotic treatment was performed, there was a 13-fold higher risk of presenting community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-117.9). Moreover, the most frequent isolated serotypes were 35F, 3 and 24 (29%, 23% and 16%, respectively). The most frequent serotypes in pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia are 35F, 3, 24, 6 and 7A, and thus almost 50% of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains could be covered by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 in adult patients with risk factors for pneumococcal infections.

  3. Recent Amazon climate as background for possible ongoing and future changes of Amazon humid forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloor, M.; Barichivich, J.; Ziv, G.; Brienen, R.; Schöngart, J.; Peylin, P.; Ladvocat Cintra, B. Barcante; Feldpausch, T.; Phillips, O.; Baker, J.

    2015-09-01

    Recent analyses of Amazon runoff and gridded precipitation data suggest an intensification of the hydrological cycle over the past few decades in the following sense: wet season precipitation and peak river runoff (since ˜1980) as well as annual mean precipitation (since ˜1990) have increased, while dry season precipitation and minimum runoff have slightly decreased. There has also been an increase in the frequency of anomalously severe floods and droughts. To provide context for the special issue on Amazonia and its forests in a warming climate we expand here on these analyses. The contrasting recent changes in wet and dry season precipitation have continued and are generally consistent with changes in catchment-level peak and minimum river runoff as well as a positive trend of water vapor inflow into the basin. Consistent with the river records, the increased vapor inflow is concentrated to the wet season. Temperature has been rising by 0.7°C since 1980 with more pronounced warming during dry months. Suggestions for the cause of the observed changes of the hydrological cycle come from patterns in tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Tropical and North Atlantic SSTs have increased rapidly and steadily since 1990, while Pacific SSTs have shifted during the 1990s from a positive Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase with warm eastern Pacific temperatures to a negative phase with cold eastern Pacific temperatures. These SST conditions have been shown to be associated with an increase in precipitation over most of the Amazon except the south and southwest. If ongoing changes continue, we expect forests to continue to thrive in those regions where there is an increase in precipitation with the exception of floodplain forests. An increase in flood pulse height and duration could lead to increased mortality at higher levels of the floodplain and, over the long term, to a lateral shift of the zonally stratified floodplain forest communities. Negative effects on

  4. New observations of sinuous channels on the Amazon Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    High-sinuosity submarine fan channels on the Amazon Fan were first observed using long-range (GLORIA) side-scan sonar in 1982 and mapped in greater detail using multibeam sonar in 1984. These data have provided important insights into the nature and evolution of submarine channel systems. Subsequent studies on the Amazon Fan have focused on avulsion patterns, sedimentation patterns, fan growth and the climate record contained in fan sediments, and there has been relatively little additional work on the details of sinuous channel morphology. Channels on the Amazon Fan have been imaged by multibeam sonar on several occasions since 1984 during focused studies, regional mapping and ship transit. These multibeam data are being compiled and studied to better characterize these iconic channels. One observation of particular interest is that, on the Amazon Fan, channel-wall slumps appear to be more common than previously thought. Drilling of a cut-off meander during ODP Leg 155 on the Amazon Fan showed the presence of slumped material deeper in the channel suggesting that failure of the channel wall was in part responsible for the abandonment and filling of that meander loop. The failure also apparently created a sandy debris flow with clasts of fine-grained levee material transported in a sandy matrix. This sandy debris flow may have been able to flow along the channel and deposit at the seaward end where similar sediments can be found. Disturbed zones now visible on the inner walls of channels at several other places along the channels suggest that these kinds of inner-wall slumps may play important roles in channel evolution and fan growth. Channel-blocking slumps can isolate channel loops which can then fill with sandy sediments, and avulsions are likely if this kind of slump fills the channel. The failure of channel walls can also lead to new channel segments that tend to straighten the channel. Dramatic changes to the shape of the channel can likely lead to large and

  5. Patterns of geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Barboza, José Luis; Morrison, Amy C; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2014-08-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities. We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95 km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level. Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos. In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

  6. Patterns of Geographic Expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Barboza, José Luis; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities. Methods We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level. Results Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos. Conclusion In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats. PMID:25101786

  7. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  8. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.

    2017-06-01

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  9. Molecular typing and drug sensitivity testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated by a community-based survey in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, Muluwork; Ameni, Gobena; Kebede, Abebaw; Yaregal, Zelalem; Hailu, Elena; Medihn, Grimay; Demssie, Daniel; Girmachew, Feven; Fiseha, Yetnebersh; Meaza, Abyot; Dirse, Nathneal; Agonafir, Mulualem; Dana, Feleke; Tsegaye, Fasil; Alebachew, Zeleke; Abebe, Almaz; Kebede, Amha; Lemma, Eshetu

    2015-08-06

    The identification of circulating TB strains in the community and drug sensitivity patterns is essential for the tuberculosis control program. This study was undertaken to identify M. tuberculosis strains circulating in selected communities in Ethiopia as well as to evaluate the drug sensitivity pattern of these strains. This study was a continuation of the Ethiopian National TB Prevalence Survey that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. Culture-positive isolates of M. tuberculosis from previous study were typed using region of difference (RD) 9-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and spoligotyping. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted using the indirect proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen media. All 92 isolates were confirmed as M. tuberculosis by RD9-based PCR and spoligotyping of 91 of these isolates leds to the identification of 41 spoligotype patterns. Spoligotype revealed higher diversity (45 %) and among this 65.8 % (27/41) were not previously reported. The strains were grouped into 14 clusters consisting of 2-15 isolates. The dominant strains were SIT53, SIT149 and SIT37 consisting of 15, 11, and 9 isolates, respectively. Our study reveals 70 % (64/91) clustered strains and only 39.1 % (25/64) occurred within the same Kebele. Further assignment of the strains to the lineages showed that 74.7 % (68/91) belonged to Euro-American lineage, 18.6 % (17/91) to East Africa Indian lineage and the remaining 6.5 % (6/91) belonged to Indo-oceanic lineage. Valid drug susceptibility test results were available for 90 of the 92 isolates. Mono-resistance was observed in 27.7 % (25/90) and poly-resistance in 5.5 % (5/90) of the isolates. Moreover, multi-drug resistance (MDR-TB) was detected in 4.4 % of the isolates whilst the rest (60/90) were susceptible to all drugs. The highest level of mono-resistance, 26.6 % (24/90), was observed for streptomycin with majority (91.1 %) of streptomycin mono-resistant strains belonging to the Euro-American lineage. In this study

  10. Delayed fertility transition among indigenous women in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jason; Bilsborrow, Richard; Gray, Clark

    2015-03-01

    Communities indigenous to the Amazon are among the few remaining worldwide still practicing near-natural fertility, without the use of modern contraceptives. Given the large proportion of women desiring no more births, information on the challenges women there face in limiting fertility would be useful. Samples of women of reproductive age from five indigenous ethnic groups in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon were surveyed in 2001 and 2012. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses examined married women's desire for another child at both times and modern contraceptive use in 2012, as well as determinants of a change in women's desire to have more children and of the number of children born during the study period. In 2001, 48% of married women desired another child, 2% used a modern contraceptive and 50% had an unmet need for limiting; in 2012, the proportions were 40%, 19% and 47%, respectively. The total fertility rate was 7.9 births per woman in 2001 and 7.0 births per woman in 2012. Characteristics associated with wanting another child in 2001 and 2012 included parity (odds ratios, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively) and experience of a child death (2.0 each); characteristics associated with contraceptive use in 2012 included desire for another child, experience of a child death and presence of a community health worker (0.3-0.5). Number of children born was positively associated, and the square of the term negatively associated, with no longer wanting more children in 2012 among women who wanted more in 2001 (2.1 and 0.9, respectively). Indigenous women in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon appear to be making the transition to lower fertility. Insufficient access to credible information about the safety and efficacy of modern contraceptives, however, may slow the transition.

  11. Oropouche virus transmission in the Amazon River basin of Peru.

    PubMed

    Watts, D M; Phillips, I; Callahan, J D; Griebenow, W; Hyams, K C; Hayes, C G

    1997-02-01

    Seroepidemiologic studies were conducted to determine the prevalence of Oropouche (ORO) viral antibody, risk factors, and the incidence of infection among residents of the Amazon region of Peru. Blood samples, as well as demographic, cultural, and medical history data, were collected from residents in a sector of the city of Iquitos and in an adjacent rural and three neotropical rain forest communities. Blood specimens were obtained approximately one year later from a cohort of the same study subjects who were negative for ORO antibody on the initial cross-sectional survey. Sera were tested for ORO IgG antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody prevalences were 35% for residents of the urban population, 24-46% for the forest communities, and 18% for the rural community. Antibody prevalence increased with age, and subjects who were seropositive were significantly (P = 0.001) older (mean = 33 years) than the seronegative subjects (mean = 15 years). Multivariate analysis revealed that only age, urban and forest residence, and occupation as a farmer or housekeeper remained significantly associated with seropositivity. Seroconversion data for the same populations one year later demonstrated evidence of ORO viral infection among 28% of the residents in the rural community and 2% or less in the forest and urban communities. Oropouche virus infection was significantly associated with older age (P = 0.04) in the rural community (P < 0.001). These data support prior evidence of ORO viral infection among residents of Iquitos and surrounding villages and suggest that transmission of this virus occurs continuously in the population of this area of the Amazon basin.

  12. Social Isolation from Communities and Child Maltreatment: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Enrique; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 670 nonabusive families and 166 abusive families compared Spanish and Colombian cultures in relation to community social support variables and the relationships between these variables and child maltreatment. In both cultures, abusive parents showed lower levels of community integration, participation in social activities, and…

  13. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  14. AmazonFACE: Assessing the Effects of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on the Resilience of the Amazon Forest through Integrative Model-Experiment Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  15. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon-implications for genetic resource management.

    PubMed

    Adin, A; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Vidaurre, H; Vosman, B; Smulders, M J M

    2004-05-01

    Peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which are managed by indigenous and colonist farming communities, respectively. Gene diversity was 0.2629 for the populations in indigenous communities and 0.2534 in colonist communities. Genetic differentiation among populations ( G(st)) was 0.0377-0.0416 ( P<0.01) among populations along both rivers. There was no relation between genetic differentiation and the geographical location of populations along the rivers. Since natural seed dispersal by birds and rodents is thought to occur only across relatively short distances (100-200 m), it is likely that exchange of material by farmers and commercial traders is responsible for most of the 'long-distance' (over more than 20 km) gene flow among populations along the two rivers studied. This exchange of material may be important to counteract the effects of selection as well as genetic drift in small groups of trees in farmers' fields, much as in a metapopulation, and may account for the weak genetic differentiation between the two rivers ( G(st)=0.0249, P<0.01). A comparison with samples from other landraces in Peru and Brazil showed the existence of an isolation-by-distance structure up to 3,000 km, consistent with gene flow on a regional scale, likely mediated by trade in the Amazon Basin. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications for the management of genetic resources with farming communities.

  16. Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance Among Community Derived Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae Using Urine Sample: A Study From Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Lohiya, Ayush; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite world-wide evidence of increased antibiotic resistance, there is scarce data on antibiotic resistance in community settings. One of the reason being difficulty in collection of biological specimen (traditionally stool) in community from apparently healthy individuals. Hence, finding an alternative specimen that is easier to obtain in a community setting or in large scale surveys for the purpose, is crucial. We conducted this study to explore the feasibility of using urine samples for deriving community based estimates of antibiotic resistance and to estimate the magnitude of resistance among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia against multiple antibiotics in apparently healthy individuals residing in a rural community of Haryana, North India. Materials and Methods Eligible individuals were apparently healthy, aged 18 years or older. Using the health management information system (HMIS) of Ballabgarh Health Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), sampling frame was prepared. Potential individuals were identified using simple random sampling. Random urine sample was collected in a sterile container and transported to laboratory under ambient condition. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae was done using Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) 2012 guidelines. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae, Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, and Carbapenem producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were identified from the urine samples. Results A total of 433 individuals participated in the study (non-response rate – 13.4%), out of which 58 (13.4%) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae, 8.1% for E. coli and 5.3% for K. pneumoniae. Resistance against penicillin (amoxicillin/ampicillin) for E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 62.8% and 100.0% respectively. Isolates resistant to co-trimoxazole were 5.7% and 0.0% respectively. None of the isolates

  17. Garenoxacin activity against isolates form patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Helio S; Stilwell, Matthew G; Fritsche, Thomas R

    2007-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to cause significant morbidity worldwide, and the principal bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae) have acquired numerous resistance mechanisms over the last few decades. CAP treatment guidelines have suggested the use of broader spectrum agents, such as antipneumococcal fluoroquinolones as the therapy for at-risk patient population. In this report, we studied 3087 CAP isolates from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1999-2005) worldwide and all respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolate population of pneumococci (14665 strains) grouped by antibiogram patterns against a new des-F(6)-quinolone, garenoxacin. Results indicated that garenoxacin was highly active against CAP isolates of S. pneumoniae (MIC(90), 0.06 microg/mL) and H. influenzae (MIC(90), < or =0.03 microg/mL). This garenoxacin potency was 8- to 32-fold greater than gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against the pneumococci and >99.9% of strains were inhibited at < or =1 microg/mL (proposed susceptible breakpoint). Garenoxacin MIC values were not affected by resistances among S. pneumoniae strains to penicillin or erythromycin; however, coresistances were high among the beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins), macrolides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Analysis of S. pneumoniae isolates with various antimicrobial resistance patterns to 6 drug classes demonstrated that garenoxacin was active against >99.9% (MIC, < or =1 microg/mL) of strains, and the most resistant pneumococci (6-drug resistance, 1051 strains or 7.2% of all isolates) were completely susceptible (100.0% at < or =1 microg/mL) to garenoxacin (MIC(90), 0.06 microg/mL). These results illustrate the high activity of garenoxacin against contemporary CAP isolates and especially against multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. pneumoniae that have created therapeutic dilemmas for all RTI presentations. Garenoxacin appears to be a

  18. Microspatial gene expression patterns in the Amazon River Plume.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Brandon M; Crump, Byron C; Smith, Christa B; Sharma, Shalabh; Zielinski, Brian L; Doherty, Mary; Meng, Jun; Sun, Shulei; Medeiros, Patricia M; Paul, John H; Coles, Victoria J; Yager, Patricia L; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-07-29

    We investigated expression of genes mediating elemental cycling at the microspatial scale in the ocean's largest river plume using, to our knowledge, the first fully quantitative inventory of genes and transcripts. The bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a phytoplankton bloom in Amazon River Plume waters at the outer continental shelf in June 2010 harbored ∼ 1.0 × 10(13) genes and 4.7 × 10(11) transcripts per liter that mapped to several thousand microbial genomes. Genomes from free-living cells were more abundant than those from particle-associated cells, and they generated more transcripts per liter for carbon fixation, heterotrophy, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and iron acquisition, although they had lower expression ratios (transcripts ⋅ gene(-1)) overall. Genomes from particle-associated cells contributed more transcripts for sulfur cycling, aromatic compound degradation, and the synthesis of biologically essential vitamins, with an overall twofold up-regulation of expression compared with free-living cells. Quantitatively, gene regulation differences were more important than genome abundance differences in explaining why microenvironment transcriptomes differed. Taxa contributing genomes to both free-living and particle-associated communities had up to 65% of their expressed genes regulated differently between the two, quantifying the extent of transcriptional plasticity in marine microbes in situ. In response to patchiness in carbon, nutrients, and light at the micrometer scale, Amazon Plume microbes regulated the expression of genes relevant to biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale.

  19. Microspatial gene expression patterns in the Amazon River Plume

    PubMed Central

    Satinsky, Brandon M.; Crump, Byron C.; Smith, Christa B.; Sharma, Shalabh; Zielinski, Brian L.; Doherty, Mary; Meng, Jun; Sun, Shulei; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Paul, John H.; Coles, Victoria J.; Yager, Patricia L.; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated expression of genes mediating elemental cycling at the microspatial scale in the ocean’s largest river plume using, to our knowledge, the first fully quantitative inventory of genes and transcripts. The bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a phytoplankton bloom in Amazon River Plume waters at the outer continental shelf in June 2010 harbored ∼1.0 × 1013 genes and 4.7 × 1011 transcripts per liter that mapped to several thousand microbial genomes. Genomes from free-living cells were more abundant than those from particle-associated cells, and they generated more transcripts per liter for carbon fixation, heterotrophy, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and iron acquisition, although they had lower expression ratios (transcripts⋅gene−1) overall. Genomes from particle-associated cells contributed more transcripts for sulfur cycling, aromatic compound degradation, and the synthesis of biologically essential vitamins, with an overall twofold up-regulation of expression compared with free-living cells. Quantitatively, gene regulation differences were more important than genome abundance differences in explaining why microenvironment transcriptomes differed. Taxa contributing genomes to both free-living and particle-associated communities had up to 65% of their expressed genes regulated differently between the two, quantifying the extent of transcriptional plasticity in marine microbes in situ. In response to patchiness in carbon, nutrients, and light at the micrometer scale, Amazon Plume microbes regulated the expression of genes relevant to biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale. PMID:25024226

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from women with uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Widerström, Micael; Wiström, Johan; Ferry, Sven; Karlsson, Carina; Monsen, Tor

    2007-05-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women. Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of S. saprophyticus UTIs. In the current study, we compared 76 isolates of S. saprophyticus prospectively isolated from women with uncomplicated UTI participating in a randomized placebo-controlled treatment trial performed in northern Sweden from 1995 to 1997 with 50 strains obtained in 2006 from five different locations in northern Europe with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The aim was to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of this uropathogenic species and to investigate whether specific clones are associated with UTI in women. A total of 47 different PFGE profiles were detected among the 126 analyzed isolates. Ten clusters consisting of 5 to 12 isolates each showing PFGE DNA similarity of >85% were identified. Several clusters of genetically highly related isolates were detected in the original trial as well as among isolates obtained during 2006 from different locations. In the original trial, clonal persistence was found among 16 of 21 (76%) patients examined in the placebo group at follow-up 8 to 10 days after inclusion, indicating a low spontaneous short-time bacteriological cure rate. We conclude that multiple clones of S. saprophyticus were causing lower UTIs in women. The result suggests that some human-pathogenic clones of S. saprophyticus are spread over large geographical distances and that such clones may persist over long periods of time.

  1. Isolation of genomic DNA suitable for community analysis from mature trees adapted to arid environment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Harish; Rai, Manoj Kumar; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Shekhawat, Narpat Singh

    2011-11-10

    Isolation of intact and pure genomic DNA (gDNA) is essential for many molecular biology applications. It is difficult to isolate pure DNA from mature trees of hot and dry desert regions because of the accumulation of high level of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, tannins etc. We hereby report the standardized protocol for the isolation and purification of gDNA from seven ecologically and medically important tree species of Combretaceae viz. Anogeissus (Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia, Anogeissus pendula, and Anogeissus latifolia) and Terminalia (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia catappa and Terminalia chebula). This method involves (i) washing the sample twice with Triton buffer (2%) then (ii) isolation of gDNA by modified-CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method employing a high concentration (4%) of PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) and 50mM ascorbic acid, and (iii) purification of this CTAB-isolated gDNA by spin-column. gDNA isolated by modified CTAB or spin-column alone were not found suitable for PCR amplification. The Triton washing step is also critical. The quality of DNA was determined by the A(260)/A(280) absorbance ratio. gDNA was also observed for its intactness by running on 0.8% agarose gel. The suitability of extracted DNA for PCR was tested by amplification with RAPD primers, which was successful. Further, rbcLa (barcoding gene) was amplified and sequenced to check the quality of extracted gDNA for its downstream applications.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Escherichia coli isolates as agents of community-acquired urinary tract infection (2008–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Nisel; Ağuş, Neval; Bayram, Arzu; Şamlıoğlu, Pınar; Şirin, M. Cem; Derici, Yeşer Karaca; Hancı, Sevgi Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequently seen community-acquired infections worldwide. E. coli causes 90% of urinary system infections. To guide the empirical therapy, the resistance pattern of E. coli responsible for community-acquired UTI was evaluated throughout a seven-year period in this study. Material and methods The urine cultures of patients with urinary tract infections admitted to outpatient clinics between 1st January 2008 and 31st December 2014 were analyzed. Presence of ≥105 colony-forming units/mL in urine culture media was considered as significant for UTI. Isolated bacteria were identified by standard laboratory techniques or automated system VITEK2 (BioMerieux, France) and BD PhoenixTM 100 (BD, USA), as required. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria. Results A total of 13281 uropathogens were isolated. Overall E. coli accounted for 8975 (67%) of all isolates. Resistance rates of E. coli to antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: ampicillin 66.9%, cefazolin 30.9%, cefuroxime 30.9%, ceftazidime 14.9%, cefotaxime 28%, cefepime 12%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 36.9%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SXT) 20%, ciprofloxacin 49.9%, amikacin 0.3%, gentamycin 24%, nitrofurantoin 0.9%, and fosfomycin 4.3%. There was no resistance to imipenem nor meropenem. The frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli strains was 24%. Conclusion It is concluded that fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are appropriate empirical therapy for community-acquired UTI empirical therapy, but the fluoroquinolones and the TMP-SXT shall not be used in the emprical treatment of UTI at this stage. In conclusion, as resistance rates show regional differences, it is necessary to regularly examine regional resistance rates to determine the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment and national antibiotic usage policies must be reorganized

  3. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from Brazilian children living in low socioeconomic level communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in developing areas of Brazil. The importance of Escherichia coli among children with diarrhea in these areas was unknown. This study determined the prevalence of different E. coli categories in symptomatic and asymptomatic children from low socioeconomic level rural communities in southeastern Brazil. Methods A total of 560 stool samples were collected from 141 children with diarrhea (< 10 years) and 419 apparently healthy controls who resided in 23 communities. E. coli isolates (n = 1943) were subjected to two multiplex PCRs developed for the detection of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Strains were also examined for the presence of EPEC, EAEC, and DAEC by assays of adhesion to HEp-2 cells and by hybridization with specific DNA probes. Results Diarrheagenic E. coli strains were isolated from 253 (45.2%) children, and were associated with diarrhea in children aged < 5 years (p < 0.001). EAEC (20.9%), DAEC (11.6%), EPEC (9.3%) were the most frequent pathotypes, followed by ETEC (2.7%), EIEC (0.5%), and STEC (0.2%). Depending of the assay, EPEC, EAEC, and DAEC (collectively termed enteroadherent E. coli) strains were isolated in 45% to 56% of diarrhea cases, a significantly higher incidence than in controls (P < 0.05). Individually, only DAEC showed significant association with diarrhea (p < 0.05), particularly in children aged 2–5 years. Conclusion This study indicates that enteroadherent E. coli is an important cause of diarrhea in children living in low socioeconomic level communities in southeastern Brazil. Our results reveal that the PCR1 assay is an excellent tool for the identification of EAEC and DAEC. PMID:24010735

  4. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

  5. Ability Changes in Children Moving from Small to Large Isolated Communities. Institute for Research in Human Abilities Research Bulletin No. 70-003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanes, Graham R.

    As a prelude to testing deductions from the Ferguson and other ability theories that environment influences patterns of ability, school children in 5 large and 11 small isolated communities on the South Coast of Newfoundland were tested to compare ability patterns of children in small places with those in large communities. Data used for…

  6. Yeast succession in the Amazon fruit Parahancornia amapa as resource partitioning among Drosophila spp.

    PubMed Central

    Morais, P B; Martins, M B; Klaczko, L B; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Hagler, A N

    1995-01-01

    The succession of yeasts colonizing the fallen ripe amapa fruit, from Parahancornia amapa, was examined. The occupation of the substrate depended on both the competitive interactions of yeast species, such as the production of killer toxins, and the selective dispersion by the drosophilid guild of the amapa fruit. The yeast community associated with this Amazon fruit differed from those isolated from other fruits in the same forest. The physiological profile of these yeasts was mostly restricted to the assimilation of a few simple carbon sources, mainly L-sorbose, D-glycerol, DL-lactate, cellobiose, and salicin. Common fruit-associated yeasts of the genera Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora, Candida guilliermondii, and Candida krusei colonized fruits during the first three days after the fruit fell. These yeasts were dispersed and served as food for the invader Drosophila malerkotliana. The resident flies of the Drosophila willistoni group fed selectively on patches of yeasts colonizing fruits 3 to 10 days after the fruit fell. The killer toxin-producing yeasts Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri and Candida fructus were probably involved in the exclusion of some species during the intermediate stages of fruit deterioration. An increase in pH, inhibiting toxin activity and the depletion of simple sugars, may have promoted an increase in yeast diversity in the later stages of decomposition. The yeast succession provided a patchy environment for the drosophilids sharing this ephemeral substrate. PMID:8534092

  7. Natural history of the narrow endemics Ipomoea cavalcantei and I. marabaensis from Amazon Canga savannahs.

    PubMed

    Babiychuk, Elena; Kushnir, Sergei; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Dias, Mariana Costa; Carvalho-Filho, Nelson; Nunes, Gisele Lopes; Dos Santos, Jorge Filipe; Tyski, Lourival; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Castilho, Alexandre; Fonseca, Vera Lucia Imperatriz; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2017-08-08

    Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I. marabaensis. Partitioning of the nuclear and chloroplast gene alleles strongly suggested that the species share the most recent common ancestor, pointing a new independent event of the red flower origin in the genus. Chloroplast gene allele analysis showed strong genetic differentiation between Canga populations, implying a limited role of seed dispersal in exchange of individuals between Cangas. Closed haplotype network topology indicated a requirement for the paternal inheritance in generation of cytoplasmic genetic variation. Tenfold higher nucleotide diversity in the nuclear ITS2 sequences distinguished I. cavalcantei from I. marabaensis, implying a different pace of evolutionary changes. Thus, Canga ecosystems offer powerful venues for the study of speciation, multitrait adaptation and the origins of genetic variation.

  8. Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.

  9. Understory Bird Communities in Amazonian Rainforest Fragments: Species Turnover through 25 Years Post-Isolation in Recovering Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Philip C.; Johnson, Erik I.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Lovejoy, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Inferences about species loss following habitat conversion are typically drawn from short-term surveys, which cannot reconstruct long-term temporal dynamics of extinction and colonization. A long-term view can be critical, however, to determine the stability of communities within fragments. Likewise, landscape dynamics must be considered, as second growth structure and overall forest cover contribute to processes in fragments. Here we examine bird communities in 11 Amazonian rainforest fragments of 1–100 ha, beginning before the fragments were isolated in the 1980s, and continuing through 2007. Using a method that accounts for imperfect detection, we estimated extinction and colonization based on standardized mist-net surveys within discreet time intervals (1–2 preisolation samples and 4–5 post-isolation samples). Between preisolation and 2007, all fragments lost species in an area-dependent fashion, with loss of as few as <10% of preisolation species from 100-ha fragments, but up to 70% in 1-ha fragments. Analysis of individual time intervals revealed that the 2007 result was not due to gradual species loss beginning at isolation; both extinction and colonization occurred in every time interval. In the last two samples, 2000 and 2007, extinction and colonization were approximately balanced. Further, 97 of 101 species netted before isolation were detected in at least one fragment in 2007. Although a small subset of species is extremely vulnerable to fragmentation, and predictably goes extinct in fragments, developing second growth in the matrix around fragments encourages recolonization in our landscapes. Species richness in these fragments now reflects local turnover, not long-term attrition of species. We expect that similar processes could be operating in other fragmented systems that show unexpectedly low extinction. PMID:21731616

  10. Characteristics of the community-genotype sequence type 72 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates that underlie their persistence in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Ji-Young; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2016-06-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone ST72, known as a major community-associated MRSA in Korea, has emerged as an important pathogen in hospitals. To understand bacterial properties that underlie transformation of this clone into a nosocomial pathogen, we compared characteristics of the community-genotype ST72 MRSA isolates with those of ST5 and ST239 MRSA, which have been predominant nosocomial MRSA clones in Korea. Several genes associated with adhesion and virulence were absent or rarely found in ST72 isolates. Many ST72 isolates (70.1%) belonged to agr group I, but the agr group of other ST72 isolates could not be determined. As indicated by d-hemolysin production, ST72 isolates expressed fully functional agr, whereas agr dysfunction was observed in ST5 and ST239 isolates. In the biofilm formation assay, no upregulation of biofilm-forming activity of ST72 MRSA was detected. However, ST72 isolates demonstrated persistence under hypotonic and desiccating conditions (survival rates 72.3% and 33.9%, respectively), which was similar to characteristics of ST5 or ST239 isolates. ST72- MRSA isolates showed low virulence, but properties of their functional agr system could facilitate their spread in hospitals. In conclusion, tolerance to stressful environments, e.g., hypotonic and dry conditions, may also contribute to survival of the community-associated MRSA clones in healthcare facilities.

  11. Mollusc communities in Bulgarian fens: predictive power of the environment, vegetation, and spatial structure in an isolated habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal; Hájková, Petra; Cameron, Robert; Cernohorsky, Nicole; Apostolova, Iva

    2011-08-01

    Mollusc communities of previously unexplored Bulgarian fens were studied in order to determine and generalise the patterns of species richness and composition along the mineral richness gradient. The aim was also to compare predictive values of the environment, vegetation and spatial structure. Altogether, 44 mollusc species were recorded at 40 treeless fen sites. Species richness varied from 0 to 18 species per site, and it was positively associated with the mineral gradient and negatively with altitude. However, the best predictor was obtained using plant species composition. All explanatory variables had higher effect on land snails than on the entire mollusc assemblage (including aquatic species). Species richness and abundance were significantly and positively correlated with the species composition turnover; the communities were highly nested, with poor sites having subsets of the fauna found in the richest. The main direction of mollusc species turnover was highly associated with that observed for vegetation, and the main gradient of plant species composition was able to explain nearly 20% of total variation in mollusc data. We found that spatial structure explained by far the highest proportion of independent variation, which reflected the high level of geographical isolation of Bulgarian fens and regional differences independent of any environmental variation. Our results demonstrate (1) the general role of mineral richness gradient for structuring mollusc communities in fens, (2) the pivotal indicator role of plant species composition in predicting species composition of mollusc communities, despite being trophically independent and (3) the effect of isolation and origins of the habitat on species composition: most species have wide geographical distributions within the habitat type, and geographical patterns within Bulgaria may have a stochastic element.

  12. Mollusc communities in Bulgarian fens: predictive power of the environment, vegetation, and spatial structure in an isolated habitat.

    PubMed

    Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal; Hájková, Petra; Cameron, Robert; Cernohorsky, Nicole; Apostolova, Iva

    2011-08-01

    Mollusc communities of previously unexplored Bulgarian fens were studied in order to determine and generalise the patterns of species richness and composition along the mineral richness gradient. The aim was also to compare predictive values of the environment, vegetation and spatial structure. Altogether, 44 mollusc species were recorded at 40 treeless fen sites. Species richness varied from 0 to 18 species per site, and it was positively associated with the mineral gradient and negatively with altitude. However, the best predictor was obtained using plant species composition. All explanatory variables had higher effect on land snails than on the entire mollusc assemblage (including aquatic species). Species richness and abundance were significantly and positively correlated with the species composition turnover; the communities were highly nested, with poor sites having subsets of the fauna found in the richest. The main direction of mollusc species turnover was highly associated with that observed for vegetation, and the main gradient of plant species composition was able to explain nearly 20% of total variation in mollusc data. We found that spatial structure explained by far the highest proportion of independent variation, which reflected the high level of geographical isolation of Bulgarian fens and regional differences independent of any environmental variation. Our results demonstrate (1) the general role of mineral richness gradient for structuring mollusc communities in fens, (2) the pivotal indicator role of plant species composition in predicting species composition of mollusc communities, despite being trophically independent and (3) the effect of isolation and origins of the habitat on species composition: most species have wide geographical distributions within the habitat type, and geographical patterns within Bulgaria may have a stochastic element.

  13. Poor psychometric scores of children living in isolated riverine and agrarian communities and fish-methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Márlon de F; Dórea, José G; Bastos, Wanderley R; Marques, Rejane C; Torres, João P M; Malm, Olaf

    2008-11-01

    Because of heavy dependence on fish, Amazonian riparian communities are chronically exposed to high levels of methylmercury (MeHg). We studied fish-MeHg exposure (total hair-Hg, HHg) as a determinant of neurocognitive scores of children living in two geographically distant, culturally distinct and isolated poor communities of non-urban environments: Amazonian riverines (Riparians, n=38) of the Puruzinho Lake community in the Rio Madeira Basin and rural agrarians from Iúna, Espírito Santo (Agrarians, n=32). Nutritional status was estimated by anthropometry (Z-scores) and individual cognitive abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) and the Human Figure Drawings (HFD), both validated versions for Brazilian children. Anthropometric assessment showed slightly elevated Z-scores for the Agrarian children (not statistically significant) but median HHg concentrations were 14.4 and 0.25microgg(-1) respectively for Riparian and Agrarian children (p=0.000). Despite paradoxical MeHg exposures, both groups showed comparable HFD scores but very poor performance in WISC-III test battery; median of sum of WISC-III subtests scores (SigmaTOT) were 17.9 and 28.6 (p<0.000) for Riparian and Agrarian children, respectively (percentage scale). Spearman correlation between nutritional status (attained growth) and psychometric scores were statistically significant between height-for-age Z-score and Object Assembly subtest (r=0.269; p=0.043), SigmaTOT (r=0.319; p=0.016), Performance-IQ (r=0.311; p=0.019) and Perceptual Organization Index scores (r=0.302; p=0.023). In these isolated communities there are stronger determinants of neurocognitive poor performance than MeHg exposure. Global strategies for reducing human exposure to MeHg by curtailing fish consumption are unrealistic options for riverine subsistence populations and are not justifiable to prevent low cognitive scores.

  14. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Sequence Type 131 Subgroups O25b and O16 Among Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Isolates from Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Hefzy, Enas Mamdouh; Hassuna, Noha Anwar

    2017-03-01

    The multidrug-resistant sequence type 131 (ST131) Escherichia coli is a spreading epidemiological burden particularly among isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones. We aimed to evaluate the commonality of ST131-O25b and ST131-O16 among fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates causing community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) at Fayoum University Hospital, in Egypt. Ninety-two fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates were subjected to multiplex PCR for detection of ST131 of either O25b or O16 subgroups. Positive isolates were then assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence genotyping. Out of 92 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates, 56 (60.9%) isolates were O25b/O16 subgroups of ST131, including 44 (78.6%) ST131-O25b and 12 (21.4%) ST131-O16 subgroups. All the O25b/O16 ST131 isolates were sensitive to meropenem, where ST131-O25b isolates were significantly more resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins compared to S131-O16 strains. All the O25b/O16 ST131 isolates harbored three or more of the virulence factors associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli status. ST131-O16 showed a significantly higher virulence score than ST131-O25b isolates. Our results bring to highlight the emergence of O25b/O16 ST131 isolates between community acquired UTIs among Egyptian patients. This is the first report for the presence of O16 isolates in Egypt, showing a lower predominance than the O25b subgroup. The high prevalence of O25b/O16 ST131 isolates requires strict stewardship on antimicrobial use, notably fluoroquinolones, to control the endemicity of such emerging multidrug-resistant clone in the community.

  15. A primary assessment of the endophytic bacterial community in a xerophilous moss (Grimmia montana) using molecular method and cultivated isolates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Lei; Liu, Su Lin; Liu, Min; Kong, Bi He; Liu, Lei; Li, Yan Hong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the endophytic bacterial community in special moss species is fundamental to understanding the microbial-plant interactions and discovering the bacteria with stresses tolerance. Thus, the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the xerophilous moss Grimmia montana were estimated using a 16S rDNA library and traditional cultivation methods. In total, 212 sequences derived from the 16S rDNA library were used to assess the bacterial diversity. Sequence alignment showed that the endophytes were assigned to 54 genera in 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids). Of them, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (45.9%) and Firmicutes (27.6%), the most abundant genera included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Leclercia, Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Planococcus, Paenisporosarcina and Planomicrobium. In addition, a total of 14 species belonging to 8 genera in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) were isolated, Curtobacterium, Massilia, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the dominant genera. Although some of the genera isolated were inconsistent with those detected by molecular method, both of two methods proved that many different endophytic bacteria coexist in G. montana. According to the potential functional analyses of these bacteria, some species are known to have possible beneficial effects on hosts, but whether this is the case in G. montana needs to be confirmed.

  16. Teaching for Diversity by Troubling Whiteness: Strategies for Classrooms in Isolated White Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; McAuley, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores strategies to help prepare pre-service teachers from a predominantly white, relatively isolated island in Atlantic Canada to teach for diversity. The paper proposes a modified framework for "teacher identity development" that pivots around three foci for enhancing teacher awareness and commitment to action: (1)…

  17. In vitro activity of tigecycline and occurrence of tetracycline resistance determinants in isolates from patients enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bradford, P A; Petersen, P J; Tuckman, M; Jones, C H

    2008-09-01

    The in vitro activity of tigecycline was evaluated against baseline pathogens isolated from patients enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials for community-acquired pneumonia conducted in 29 countries worldwide. Tigecycline was active against the most prevalent pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC(90) 0.06 mg/L), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC(90) 0.25 mg/L), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(90) 0.5 mg/L) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC(90) 1 mg/L). Twelve isolates of S. pneumoniae expressing tet(M) and two isolates of K. pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases isolated during the study were susceptible to tigecycline. The excellent in vitro activity of tigecycline against these clinical isolates confirmed its potential utility against pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia.

  18. Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch focuses on communities. Ethnic groups, religious groups, schools, families, even the Internet, are used as examples of communities in Iowa. Forced communities are exemplified by migration, law, natural disasters, and sometimes education. Photographs from Iowa's past show the changing nature of communities and encourage…

  19. From Isolation to Symphonic Harmony: Building a Professional Development Community among Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadar, Linor; Brody, David

    2010-01-01

    Professional development among teacher educators requires a framework in which collaborative learning can support growth and change. This study describes a professional development project modeled on a professional development community focused on thinking education in a teachers college. Qualitative measures revealed a multilayered process…

  20. One Classroom at a Time? Teacher Isolation and Community Viewed Through the Prism of the Particular

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomson, Alex D. M.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years a research literature has developed which increasingly problematizes the project to construct professional community in schools. This case-based literature explores the messy complexities of teacher cooperation and collaboration. It points to the human, cultural, and political dimensions in schools that prevent changes in the…

  1. From Isolation to Symphonic Harmony: Building a Professional Development Community among Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadar, Linor; Brody, David

    2010-01-01

    Professional development among teacher educators requires a framework in which collaborative learning can support growth and change. This study describes a professional development project modeled on a professional development community focused on thinking education in a teachers college. Qualitative measures revealed a multilayered process…

  2. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. Additionally, turnover rates in the Western Amazon are doubled compared to the Central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB). This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address these issues, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes under scenarios of increased disturbance rates in a Central Amazon forest using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM), a global land surface model. Upon doubling the mortality rate in the Central Amazon to mirror the disturbance regime in the Western Amazon of ~2% mortality, the two regions continued to differ in multiple forest processes. With the inclusion of elevated natural disturbances, at steady-state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% with no significant difference between modeled AGB and empirical AGB from the western Amazon datasets (104 vs. 107 Mg C ha-1). However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical dataset. The empirical dataset suggests that a decrease in wood density drives the reduction in AGB. While decreased stand basal area was the driver of AGB loss in ZELIG-TROP, and decreased leaf area index (LAI) was the driver in CLM, two forest attributes that do not significantly vary across the Amazon Basin. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and growth rates differed between the two Amazonian regions. This suggests that: 1) the variability between regions cannot be entirely explained by the variability in disturbance regime, but rather potentially sensitive to intrinsic environmental factors; or 2) the models are not

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil. PMID:26607884

  5. Community-onset Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in Taiwan: clinical features of the disease and associated microbiological characteristics of isolates from pneumonia and nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Wang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Fu-Der; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-onset pneumonia in Asian countries and South Africa. We investigated the clinical characteristics of K. pneumoniae causing community-onset pneumonia, and the associated microbiological features between K. pneumoniae isolates from pneumonia and those from the nasopharynx in Taiwan. This study was conducted at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital during July, 2012 to February, 2014. The clinical characteristics in patients with community-onset K. pneumoniae pneumonia were analyzed. K. pneumoniae isolates from the nasopharynx of adults attending otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinics were collected to compare their microbiological features with those from pneumonia. Capsular genotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and multilocus sequence type (MLST) were determined among these strains. Ninety-one patients with community-onset K. pneumoniae pneumonia were enrolled. We found a high mortality (29.7%) among these patients. Capsular types K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, and K57 accounted for ∼70% of the K. pneumoniae isolates causing pneumonia, and ∼70% of all the K. pneumoniae strains isolated from the nasopharynx of patients in outpatient clinics. The MLST profiles further demonstrated the genetic relatedness between most pneumonia isolates and those from the nasopharynx. In conclusion, our results show that community-onset pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae was associated with high mortality and could have a reservoir in the nasopharynx. To tackle this high-mortality disease, the distribution of capsular types in the nasopharynx might have implications for future vaccine development.

  6. Community-onset Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in Taiwan: clinical features of the disease and associated microbiological characteristics of isolates from pneumonia and nasopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Wang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Fu-Der; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-onset pneumonia in Asian countries and South Africa. We investigated the clinical characteristics of K. pneumoniae causing community-onset pneumonia, and the associated microbiological features between K. pneumoniae isolates from pneumonia and those from the nasopharynx in Taiwan. This study was conducted at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital during July, 2012 to February, 2014. The clinical characteristics in patients with community-onset K. pneumoniae pneumonia were analyzed. K. pneumoniae isolates from the nasopharynx of adults attending otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinics were collected to compare their microbiological features with those from pneumonia. Capsular genotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and multilocus sequence type (MLST) were determined among these strains. Ninety-one patients with community-onset K. pneumoniae pneumonia were enrolled. We found a high mortality (29.7%) among these patients. Capsular types K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, and K57 accounted for ∼70% of the K. pneumoniae isolates causing pneumonia, and ∼70% of all the K. pneumoniae strains isolated from the nasopharynx of patients in outpatient clinics. The MLST profiles further demonstrated the genetic relatedness between most pneumonia isolates and those from the nasopharynx. In conclusion, our results show that community-onset pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae was associated with high mortality and could have a reservoir in the nasopharynx. To tackle this high-mortality disease, the distribution of capsular types in the nasopharynx might have implications for future vaccine development. PMID:25741336

  7. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

  8. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Latifpour, Mohammad; Gholipour, Abolfazl; Damavandi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a family member of Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates of K. pneumoniae produce enzymes that cause decomposition of third generation cephalosporins. These enzymes are known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Resistance of K. pneumoniae to beta-lactamase antibiotics is commonly mediated by beta-lactamase genes. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the ESBL produced by K. pneumoniae isolates that cause community-acquired and nosocomial urinary tract infections within a one-year period (2013 to 2014) in Kashani and Hajar university hospitals of Shahrekord, Iran. Patients and Methods From 2013 to 2014, 150 strains of K. pneumoniae isolate from two different populations with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were collected. The strains were then investigated by double disk synergism and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The study population of 150 patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were divided to two groups of 75 each. We found that 48 of the K. pneumoniae isolates in the patients with nosocomial infection and 39 isolates in those with community-acquired infections produced ESBL. The prevalence of TEM1, SHV1 and VEB1 in ESBL-producing isolates in nosocomial patients was 24%, 29.3% and 10.6%, and in community-acquired patients, 17.3%, 22.7% and 8%, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolate is of great concern; therefore, continuous investigation seems essential to monitor ESBL-producing bacteria in patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections. PMID:27226874

  9. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel Curtis; Curran, Lisa M; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino; Ramos, Claudia Azevedo; Voll, Eliane; McDonald, Alice; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter

    2006-03-23

    Expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon basin has increased deforestation rates and will soon push all-weather highways into the region's core. In the face of this growing pressure, a comprehensive conservation strategy for the Amazon basin should protect its watersheds, the full range of species and ecosystem diversity, and the stability of regional climates. Here we report that protected areas in the Amazon basin--the central feature of prevailing conservation approaches--are an important but insufficient component of this strategy, based on policy-sensitive simulations of future deforestation. By 2050, current trends in agricultural expansion will eliminate a total of 40% of Amazon forests, including at least two-thirds of the forest cover of six major watersheds and 12 ecoregions, releasing 32 +/- 8 Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. One-quarter of the 382 mammalian species examined will lose more than 40% of the forest within their Amazon ranges. Although an expanded and enforced network of protected areas could avoid as much as one-third of this projected forest loss, conservation on private lands is also essential. Expanding market pressures for sound land management and prevention of forest clearing on lands unsuitable for agriculture are critical ingredients of a strategy for comprehensive conservation.

  10. Flooding dynamics on the lower Amazon floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudorff, C.; Melack, J. M.; Bates, P. D.

    2013-05-01

    We analyzed flooding dynamics of a large floodplain lake in the lower reach of the Amazon River for the period between 1995 through 2010. Floodplain inundation was simulated using the LISFLOOD-FP model, which combines one-dimensional river routing with two-dimensional overland flow, and a local hydrological model. Accurate representation of floodplain flows and inundation extent depends on the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM). We combined digital topography (derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) with extensive floodplain echo-sounding data to generate a hydraulically sound DEM. Analysis of daily water balances revealed that the dominant source of inflow alternated seasonally among direct rain and local runoff (October through January), Amazon River (March through August), and seepage (September). As inflows from the Amazon River increase during the rising limb of the hydrograph, regional floodwaters encounter the floodplain partially inundated from local hydrological inputs. At peak flow the floodplain routes, on average, 2.5% of the total discharge for this reach. The falling limb of the hydrograph coincides with the locally dry period, allowing seepage of water stored in sediments to become a dominant source. The average annual inflow from the Amazon River was 58.8 km3 (SD = 33.5), representing more than three thirds (80%) of inputs from all sources, with substantial inter-annual variability. The average annual net export of water from the floodplain to the Amazon River was 7.9 km3 (SD = 2.7).

  11. Science workshops in isolated communities in the state of Guanajuato, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Cristina; Campos, Antonio; Leon, Eleonor

    2012-10-01

    The original initiative or this program was from the Science Council of the State of Guanajuato, and it was extended thanks to the support of the SPIE grant. The outreach coordination supported the idea of visiting elementary schools that belong to remote municipalities or rural schools of the region; we have worked with communities from 30 to 300 miles apart from the city of León. The workshops to be given were chosen, taking into consideration that they needed to be really representative, creative, and demonstrative, useful and at the same time neither expensive nor delicate. The school were reached and in several occasions. At the moment, at least one request of workshops for communities is served every week, where approximately 5000 children had been attended in the last two years.

  12. Agricultural colonization and malaria on the Amazon frontier.

    PubMed

    Singer, B H; de Castro, M C

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the interrelationships between macropolitical, social and economic policies, human migration, agricultural development, and malaria transmission on the Amazon frontier. We focus our analysis on a recent colonization project, POLONOROESTE, in the state of Rondonia. Employing data from field surveys in 1985-1987 and 1995, we use spatial statistical methodologies linked to a geographical information system (GIS) to describe the patterns of human settlement in the area, the ecological transformations induced by forest clearance practices, and the manner in which these factors determine gradations of malaria risk. Our findings show that land use patterns, linked to social organization of the community and the structure of the physical environment, played a key role in promoting malaria transmission. In addition, the location of each occupied area is itself an important determinant of the pattern of malaria risk. Based on lessons learned from our spatial and temporal characterization of malaria risk, we propose policies for malaria mitigation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  13. Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D; Vermote, Eric F; Harding, David J; North, Peter R J

    2014-02-13

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data. We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  14. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  15. Evaluating the Metal Tolerance Capacity of Microbial Communities Isolated from Alberta Oil Sands Process Water

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Mathew L.; Demeter, Marc A.; Lemire, Joe A.; Turner, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in the intensified use of water resources. For example, open pit bitumen extraction by Canada’s oil sands operations uses an estimated volume of three barrels of water for every barrel of oil produced. The waste tailings–oil sands process water (OSPW)–are stored in holding ponds, and present an environmental concern as they are comprised of residual hydrocarbons and metals. Following the hypothesis that endogenous OSPW microbial communities have an enhanced tolerance to heavy metals, we tested the capacity of planktonic and biofilm populations from OSPW to withstand metal ion challenges, using Cupriavidus metallidurans, a known metal-resistant organism, for comparison. The toxicity of the metals toward biofilm and planktonic bacterial populations was determined by measuring the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) and planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the MBEC ™ assay. We observed that the OSPW community and C. metallidurans had similar tolerances to 22 different metals. While thiophillic elements (Te, Ag, Cd, Ni) were found to be most toxic, the OSPW consortia demonstrated higher tolerance to metals reported in tailings ponds (Al, Fe, Mo, Pb). Metal toxicity correlated with a number of physicochemical characteristics of the metals. Parameters reflecting metal-ligand affinities showed fewer and weaker correlations for the community compared to C. metallidurans, suggesting that the OSPW consortia may have developed tolerance mechanisms toward metals present in their environment. PMID:26849649

  16. Evaluating the Metal Tolerance Capacity of Microbial Communities Isolated from Alberta Oil Sands Process Water.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Mathew L; Demeter, Marc A; Lemire, Joe A; Turner, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in the intensified use of water resources. For example, open pit bitumen extraction by Canada's oil sands operations uses an estimated volume of three barrels of water for every barrel of oil produced. The waste tailings-oil sands process water (OSPW)-are stored in holding ponds, and present an environmental concern as they are comprised of residual hydrocarbons and metals. Following the hypothesis that endogenous OSPW microbial communities have an enhanced tolerance to heavy metals, we tested the capacity of planktonic and biofilm populations from OSPW to withstand metal ion challenges, using Cupriavidus metallidurans, a known metal-resistant organism, for comparison. The toxicity of the metals toward biofilm and planktonic bacterial populations was determined by measuring the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) and planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the MBEC ™ assay. We observed that the OSPW community and C. metallidurans had similar tolerances to 22 different metals. While thiophillic elements (Te, Ag, Cd, Ni) were found to be most toxic, the OSPW consortia demonstrated higher tolerance to metals reported in tailings ponds (Al, Fe, Mo, Pb). Metal toxicity correlated with a number of physicochemical characteristics of the metals. Parameters reflecting metal-ligand affinities showed fewer and weaker correlations for the community compared to C. metallidurans, suggesting that the OSPW consortia may have developed tolerance mechanisms toward metals present in their environment.

  17. Epidemiologic transition in an isolated indigenous community in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Little, Bertis B

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze age-specific mortality in a rural indigenous community in the throes of a secular increase in size in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico, over 30 years, 1970-1999. Variation in mortality by age group was analyzed over time for evidence of an epidemiological transition. The seasonal rain pattern in the Valley of Oaxaca (83% from May through September) was evaluated for its relationship with mortality in wet and dry months. Mortality and causes of death changed markedly over the 30-year interval. Infant and preschool mortality, overall mortality, and causes of death changed from the 1970s through the 1990s. Prereproductive deaths (<15 years) predominated in the 1970s and were largely due to gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, with periodic outbreaks of measles. Deaths of adults 65+ years predominated in the 1990s and were largely due to degenerative diseases usually associated with aging. The marked changes in age and causes of death over the three decades (epidemiologic transition from Stage I to Stage II) occurred concurrently with significant secular increases in body size in children, adolescents, and young adults, highlighting improved health and nutritional conditions in the community which is in early Stage II of the demographic transition. The demographic transition to Stage II is a leading indicator (15-25 years lag) for the onset of the secular trend, while the epidemiologic transition to Stage II is a predictor that the secular increase is in process in the study community.

  18. Isoprene over the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Khalil, M. A. K.

    1988-02-01

    Data obtained during the 1985 ABLE expedition to the Amazon are used to describe the diurnal and vertical variations of isoprene. Isoprene is a natural hydrocarbon emitted by many species of trees, particularly those in tropical forests. The concentrations of isoprene at lower levels in the atmosphere undergo large diurnal variations, with the highest concentrations during midday and the lowest during the night. At ground level, outside the forest, peak concentrations of about 3-parts per billion by volume (ppbv) of isoprene were observed around midday. Concentrations were nearly zero before sunrise, increased to their maximum values during the day, and declined after sunset. Concentrations of 1-2 ppbv of isoprene were observed up to 300 m. Near the canopy level, up to 8 ppbv of isoprene were observed. In the forest, concentrations are generally quite low below the canopy and are highest at the level of the canopy. Since the reaction of isoprene with OH radicals is extremely fast, its concentrations fall off rapidly with altitude, so that practically none of it was seen above the boundary layer. During nighttime, however, concentrations comparable to daytime values were observed at altitudes of 300 m and above.

  19. Isoprene over the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Khalil, M. A. K.

    1988-01-01

    Data obtained during the 1985 ABLE expedition to the Amazon are used to describe the diurnal and vertical variations of isoprene. Isoprene is a natural hydrocarbon emitted by many species of trees, particularly those in tropical forests. The concentrations of isoprene at lower levels in the atmosphere undergo large diurnal variations, with the highest concentrations during midday and the lowest during the night. At ground level, outside the forest, peak concentrations of about 3-parts per billion by volume (ppbv) of isoprene were observed around midday. Concentrations were nearly zero before sunrise, increased to their maximum values during the day, and declined after sunset. Concentrations of 1-2 ppbv of isoprene were observed up to 300 m. Near the canopy level, up to 8 ppbv of isoprene were observed. In the forest, concentrations are generally quite low below the canopy and are highest at the level of the canopy. Since the reaction of isoprene with OH radicals is extremely fast, its concentrations fall off rapidly with altitude, so that practically none of it was seen above the boundary layer. During nighttime, however, concentrations comparable to daytime values were observed at altitudes of 300 m and above.

  20. Forest response to increased disturbance in the central Amazon and comparison to western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W. D.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-10-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazonian forests. Additionally, turnover rates computed as the average of mortality and recruitment rates in the western Amazon basin are doubled when compared to the central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB) between these two regions. This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address this issue, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes in a central Amazonian forest under two scenarios of increased disturbance rates using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM), a global land surface model that is part of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Upon doubling the mortality rate in the central Amazon to mirror the natural disturbance regime in the western Amazon of ∼2% mortality, the two regions continued to differ in multiple forest processes. With the inclusion of elevated natural disturbances, at steady state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% with no significant difference between modeled AGB and empirical AGB from the western Amazon data sets (104 vs. 107 Mg C ha-1, respectively). However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical data set. The empirical data set suggests that a decrease in wood density is a driver leading to the reduction in AGB. While decreased stand basal area was the driver of AGB loss in ZELIG-TROP, a forest attribute that does not significantly vary across the Amazon Basin. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and basal area growth rates differed between the two Amazonian regions. Last, to help quantify the impacts of increased disturbances on

  1. Impact of Amazon deforestation on climate simulations using the NCAR CCM2/BATS model

    SciTech Connect

    Hahmann, A.N.; Dickinson, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Model validation and results are briefly presented for a simulation of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. This initial study is made using assumptions regarding deforestation similar to those in earlier studies with several versions of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) couples to the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). The model used is a revised version of the NCAR CCM Version 2 coupled to BATS Version 1e. This paper discusses the portion of validation dealing with the distribution of precipitation; the simulation displays very good agreement with observed rainfall rates for the austral summer. Preliminary results from an 8-year simulation of deforestation are similar to that of previous studies. Annual precipitation and evaporation are reduced, while surface air temperatures show a slight increase. A substantial bimodal pattern appears in the results, with the Amazon decrease of precipitation and temperature increase accompanied by changes in the opposite sign to the southeast of the Amazon. Similar patterns have occurred in other studies, but not always in exactly the same locations. Evidently, how much of the region of rainfall increase occurs in the deforested area over the Amazon strongly affects the inferred statistics. It is likely that this pattern depends on the model control climatology and possibly other features. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Oil pollution in soils and sediments from the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Moraleda-Cibrián, Núria; Cartró-Sabaté, Mar; Colomer-Ventura, Ferran; Mayor, Pedro; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2018-01-01

    Oil has been extracted from the Northern Peruvian Amazon for over four decades. However, few scientific studies have assessed the impacts of such activities in the environment and health of indigenous communities in the region. We have investigated the occurrence of petrogenic hydrocarbon pollution in soils and sediments from areas favoured as hunting or fishing grounds by local indigenous inhabitants. The study was conducted in one of the most productive oil blocks in Peru, located in the headwaters of the Amazon river. Soils and river sediments, in the vicinity of oil extraction and processing infrastructure, contained an oil pollution signature as attested by the occurrence of hopanes and steranes. Given the lack of any other significant source of oil pollution in the region, the sources of hydrocarbons are likely to be the activities of the oil industry in the oil block, from voluntary discharges or accidental spills. Spillage of produced water was commonplace until 2009. Moreover, petrogenic compounds were absent in control samples in sites far removed from any oil infrastructure in the oil block. Our findings suggest that wildlife and indigenous populations in this region of the Amazon are exposed to the ingestion of oil polluted soils and sediments. The data obtained supports previous claims that the local spillage of oil and produced waters in the water courses in the Corrientes and Pastaza basins could have eventually reached the main water course of the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    basin, and became instead an erosional area that contributed sediments to the Amazon fluvial system. At that time, the lowland fluvial systems of southwestern Amazonia (the Purus, Jurua and Javarí basins) become isolated from the Andes by the newly formed north-flowing Ucayali system and south-east flowing Madre de Dios System. It was during the early Pliocene that the Amazon fluvial system integrated regionally and acquired its present appearance, and also when it started to drain water and sediments on a large scale to the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Population structure and characterization of viridans group streptococci (VGS) isolated from the upper respiratory tract of patients in the community

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Takuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Mason, Charlene; Montgomery, Janice; Leggett, Paul; Matsuda, Motoo; Coulter, Wilson A.; Millar, B. Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin E.; Moore, John E.

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the population structure of viridans group streptococci (VGS) isolated the upper respiratory tract of adult and paediatric patients within the community. VGS are common commensal bacterial inhabitants of the upper respiratory tract and valuable sentinel reporters of underlying antibiotic resistance (AR). Laboratory examination of the colonising VGS species may provide a valuable ecological description of the species isolated from the upper respiratory tract and their antibiotic susceptibility, including an estimation of the AR reservoir in this population. Freshly obtained nasal and oropharyngeal swabs from 84 patients were examined by selective conventional culture on Mitis-Salivarius agar and yielded 363 isolates of VGS. Sequence analyses of the rpnB and 16–23S rRNA ITS genes identified these isolates to belong to 10 species of VGS and included S. anginosus, S. australis, S. constellatus, S. infantis, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. salivarius, S. sanguinis and S. vestibularis. The most frequent VGS organisms isolated was S. salivarius (282/363; 78.0%), followed by S. sanguinis (23/363; 6.3%), S. parasanguinis (21/363; 5.8%), S. mitis (18/363; 5.0%), S. anginosus (5/363; 1.4%), S. vestibularis (5/363; 1.4%), S. australis (3/363; 0.8%), S. oralis (3/363; 0.8%), S. infantis (1/363; 0.3%) and S. constellatus (1/363; 0.3%). All patients examined carried at least one VGS organism, where there were 17 combination patterns of carriage of the 10 species of VGS species isolated, where 54.2%, 37.3%, 7.2% and 1.2% of patients harboured one, two, three and four different VGS species, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard disk diffusion assay testing against four classes of antibiotics, including the b-lactams [cefotaxime, cefuroxime], the tetracyclines [doxycycline], the fluoroquinolones [levofloxacin] and the macrolides [erythromycin]. Overall, there was no resistance to levofloxacin and cefuroxime

  5. Methods for in situ Mesocosm Water Table Manipulation in Amazon Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno, B. G.; Guardia, J. R.; Torres, M. G.; Lopez, J. G.; Rios, M. L.; Saquiray, L. M.; Rodriguez, T. C.; Rivera, P. V.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Cadillo-Quiroz, H.

    2016-12-01

    Rainfall manipulation in tropical Amazon rainforests has previously been used to analyze the effects of rapidly changing drought and flood seasons on canopy dynamics, above-ground ecological function and greenhouse gas cycles. We chose to focus on variance below the rootline due to the greater carbon mass and impact of this region and the variables affecting it. We designed and implemented a system that manipulates above and below ground water exposure to control soil saturation. Isolation of soil sample was collected using a PVC pipe submerged 50 cm into the ground with an overhead watershed and an underground water filter. Similarly, a control sample of the above ground water was collected. Above ground water control was performed, not unlike previous systems, using overhead cover, drainage and rerouting, constructed using 1 inch PVC sections configured to allow 25% shed, 50% shed, and 75% increase. Underground filters were designed using variable clay concentrations to achieve desired permeability and flow rate. We selected kiln-fire pure clay discs, instead of poly-acrylamide discs, to enable a steady flow of 0.83 mL/hr. In addition, we adjusted the concentration of the clay disc with sand buffering and carbon lacing at different mass concentrations to allow direct controls of the flow rate, as high as 12.45 mL/hr. Using pure clay concentrations of 100%, 75%, and 50% by mass, and lacing the filters with carbon fill of 10%, 20%, and 30% by volume, before kiln firing, allows much more desirable flow rates. These significant increases in flow rate allow for better control of both above and below ground water exposure. Such a system will enable a more complete geochemical and microbiological analysis of soil and water within this highly variable region of the rain forest. Construction and installation of the submerged towers has been performed at numerous sites along the Peruvian Amazon River basin. Monitoring soil respiration will be performed on the current

  6. Methods for the Isolation of Genes Encoding Novel PHA Metabolism Enzymes from Complex Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiujun; Nordeste, Ricardo; Trainer, Maria A; Charles, Trevor C

    2017-01-01

    Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bio-plastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas putida, allows the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates the functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology. We present here methods that we have developed for the isolation of clones expressing novel PHA metabolism genes from metagenomic libraries.

  7. Moving forward with dignity: Exploring health awareness in an isolated Deaf community of Australia.

    PubMed

    Terry, Daniel R; Lê, Quynh; Nguyen, Hoang Boi

    2016-04-01

    Those within the Deaf community are disadvantaged in a number of aspects of day-to-day life including their access to health care. At times, they may encounter barriers to health care even before they reach the consultation room. As a consequence, they may receive insufficient and inappropriate health care which may lead to poorer health outcomes. A study was conducted to explore health awareness and access to health information and services of Deaf people living in Tasmania, Australia and identify ways of enhancing the interaction between the Deaf and the wider community. A questionnaire was administered, including a number of demographic, health awareness and health service usage questions. In addition, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with service providers and the Deaf community between March and August 2014. An interpreter was present to translate the questions into Auslan and who then translated the Deaf participant's discussion into English for the researcher. Data were then analyzed using research software SPSS v20.0 and NVivo 10.0. Health as a concept was poorly understood, including mental health, sexual health and health concerning alcohol and drug abuse. Regarding health care resources, due to a sense of security, trust and confidence, the family physician or general practitioner was the single most important health care provider among the Deaf. The Deaf remain underserved by the current health care system; however, through resourcefulness and life experiences, the Deaf have developed coping and management strategies to move forward with dignity in education, meaningful employment and health access. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of Microbial Communities Isolated from the Calcifying Fluid of Oysters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banker, R.

    2016-02-01

    The process of biomineralization is defined as the selective uptake of elements that are incorporated into a defined mineral structure under strict biological control. For bivalve molluscs, such as clams, oysters, and mussels, the mantle is the primary organ in control of shell deposition. Alternatively, remote calcification takes place when carbonate-precipitating microbes (e.g. sulfate reducers) colonize a shell-secreting organism and enhance the ability of the host to build shell material. The oyster syndrome is a term that describes bivalves that possess an unusual shell morphology characterized by exceptionally thick valves containing numerous chambers filled with chalky calcite. Although remote calcification via microbial metabolism has been proposed as a mechanism of chalky deposit formation in oysters, this hypothesis has not yet been rigorously investigated. Here I present data on the microbial communities found in the calcifying fluid of two oyster species; Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea lurida are examples of oysters that do and do not exhibit the oyster syndrome, respectively. Comparison of the microbiomes of these two morphological end members may provide insight into the role of microbes in the formation of chalky deposits. Results indicate that the microbial community in the surrounding water is the dominant source for bacterial taxa found in the calcifying fluid of both oyster species. Also, it appears as though C. gigas maintains a microbial community that is more similar to its ambient environment than O. lurida. These results demonstrate that the ambient aquatic environment has a guiding influence on the microbiome found in the calcifying fluid of bivalve molluscs. However, the magnitude of this effect varies among organisms, even those that are closely related.

  9. Heterogeneity of clinical and environmental isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum using repetitive element sequence-based PCR: municipal water an unlikely source of community-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Thomson, R M; Tolson, C E; Carter, R; Huygens, F; Hargreaves, M

    2014-10-01

    M. fortuitum is a rapidly growing mycobacterium associated with community-acquired and nosocomial wound, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections. It has been postulated that water has been the source of infection especially in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to determine if municipal water may be the source of community-acquired or nosocomial infections in the Brisbane area. Between 2007 and 2009, 20 strains of M. fortuitum were recovered from municipal water and 53 patients' isolates were submitted to the reference laboratory. A wide variation in strain types was identified using repetitive element sequence-based PCR, with 13 clusters of ⩾2 indistinguishable isolates, and 28 patterns consisting of individual isolates. The clusters could be grouped into seven similar groups (>95% similarity). Municipal water and clinical isolates collected during the same time period and from the same geographical area consisted of different strain types, making municipal water an unlikely source of sporadic human infection.

  10. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  11. Dissemination of multidrug-resistant blaCTX-M-15/IncFIIk plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from hospital- and community-acquired human infections in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Wejdene; Grami, Raoudha; Ben Haj Khalifa, Anis; Dahmen, Safia; Châtre, Pierre; Haenni, Marisa; Aouni, Mahjoub; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the molecular features of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from hospital- and community-acquired (HA/CA) infections in the region of Mahdia, Tunisia. Among 336 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from both clinical contexts between July 2009 and December 2011, 49 and 15 were ESBL producers and originated from clinical and community sources, respectively. All isolates produced the CTX-M-15 enzyme. As shown by Southern blot on S1 nuclease treatment followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) gels, the blaCTX-M-15 gene was carried on IncFII (n=4), IncFIIk (n=25), IncL/M (n=4), IncK (n=1), or untypeable (n=15) plasmids in HA isolates. In CA isolates, the blaCTX-M-15 gene was carried on IncFIIk (n=6), IncFII (n=1), IncHI1 (n=1), or untypeable (n=7) plasmids. In all, 23 and 11 PFGE types were found among the HA and CA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing on representative isolates shows diverse sequence types (STs), such as ST307, ST101, ST39, ST4, ST140, ST15, and ST307 in HA isolates and ST101, ST664, and ST323 in CA isolates. This study is the first comprehensive report of ESBL plasmids in K. pneumoniae from HA and CA infections in Tunisia.

  12. Characterization of Cytochrome 579, an Unusual Cytochrome Isolated from an Iron-Oxidizing Microbial Community

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Steven; Chan, Clara S; Zemla, Adam; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hwang, Mona; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.; Thelen, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Proteogenomic studies of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbial biofilms collected from an extremely acidic environment have identified a novel, soluble cytochrome as one of the most abundant proteins produced by these communities. This red cytochrome, extracted from biofilms with dilute sulfuric acid and purified by cation exchange chromatography, has an unusual visible spectral signature at 579 nm. Fe(II)-dependent reduction of Cyt579 was thermodynamically favorable at pH>3, raising the possibility that Cyt579 acts as an accessory protein for electron transfer. Transmission electron microscopy of immuno-gold labeled biofilm indicated that the Cyt579 is localized near the bacterial cell surface, consistent with periplasmic localization. Further protein analysis of Cyt579, using preparative chromatofocusing and SDS-PAGE, revealed three forms of the protein that correspond to different N-terminal truncations of the amino acid sequence. Intact protein analysis corroborated the post-translational modifications of these forms and identified a genomically uncharacterized Cyt579 variant. Homology modeling was used to predict the overall cytochrome structure and heme binding site; positions of nine amino acid substitutions found in 3 Cyt579 variants all map to the surface of the protein and away from the heme group. Based on this detailed characterization of Cyt579, we propose that Cyt579 acts an electron transfer protein shuttling electrons derived from Fe(II) oxidation to support critical metabolic functions in the acidophilic microbial community.

  13. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  14. Ezakiella peruensis gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from human fecal sample from a coastal traditional community in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nisha B.; Tito, Raul Y.; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J.; O’Neal, Lindsey; Trujillo-Villaroel, Omar; Marin-Reyes, Luis; Troncoso-Corzo, Luzmila; Guija-Poma, Emilio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Uchino, Yoshihito; Lewis, Cecil M.; Lawson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporeforming coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a traditional Peruvian community. The organism was characterized using biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that the organism was biochemically and phenotypically related, but distinct, from a group of organisms referred to as the Gram-stain positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC). The major cellular fatty acids of the novel isolate were determined to be C16:0 (18.3%), C18:1ε9c (39.8%), C18:2ε6,9c/C18:0 ANTE (13.2%). Fermentation end products from PYG are acetate and formate. Cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to be A4∋ (L-Lys-L-Ala-L-Glu) and the G + C content was determined to be 38.4 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic results, Ezakiella peruensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is now proposed. The type strain is M6.X2T (DSM 27367T = NBRC 109957 T = CCUG 64571T). PMID:25481562

  15. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Bacillus and Sporosarcina Strains Isolated from Concrete and Analysis of the Bacterial Community of Concrete.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Eom, Hyo Jung; Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jaejoon; Shin, Bora; Kim, Wook; Chung, Namhyun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (CCP) is a long-standing but re-emerging environmental engineering process for production of self-healing concrete, bioremediation, and long-term storage of CO2. CCP-capable bacteria, two Bacillus strains (JH3 and JH7) and one Sporosarcina strain (HYO08), were isolated from two samples of concrete and characterized phylogenetically. Calcium carbonate crystals precipitated by the three strains were morphologically distinct according to field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping confirmed biomineralization via extracellular calcium carbonate production. The three strains differed in their physiological characteristics: growth at alkali pH and high NaCl concentrations, and urease activity. Sporosarcina sp. HYO08 and Bacillus sp. JH7 were more alkali- and halotolerant, respectively. Analysis of the community from the same concrete samples using barcoded pyrosequencing revealed that the relative abundance of Bacillus and Sporosarcina species was low, which indicated low culturability of other dominant bacteria. This study suggests that calcium carbonate crystals with different properties can be produced by various CCP-capable strains, and other novel isolates await discovery.

  16. [Isolation and sedentary life indicators in populations of highland communities in the Jujuy Province (República Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Dipierri, J E; Alfaro, E

    1996-01-01

    Surnames are the result of historic and cultural processes which give information about the ethnic composition and genetic structure of populations. Based on the use of isolation and sedentarisness estimators, obtained from surnames frequency and distribution, the population dynamics of highland communities located at the Province of Jujuy (Northwest of Argentina), situated in two ecologically different regions, was analysed. Surnames were obtained from register of electors (1982) and they correspond to 67 villages of Quebrada of Humahuaca and Puna Jujeña. The surnames were analysed exactly as they were registered (NM = Non-merged) and merged according to their spelling and or similarity in pronunciation (M = Merged). The following estimators were used: 1) percentage of the population covered by unique surnames; 2) percentage of the population covered by the most frequent surnames; 3) ratio between number of individuals and number of surnames. Inter-population differences were detected by means of non-parametric tests. It was observed that, in general, there are no statistically significant differences between NM and M data and among the towns in Quebrada de Humahuaca and Puna, but there were differences according to whether they were located on or away from the main road between regions. These results were compared with those of other populations and we conclude that the simultaneous use of the 4 estimators, to characterize the isolation or sedentarisness of vast population groups, show highly consistent results.

  17. [Italians in Western Australia: an isolated community in a period of aging].

    PubMed

    Gentilli, J

    1993-03-01

    Characteristics of the Italian-born population of Western Australia are examined in light of the state's large size and relative isolation. "After a brief review of the gold rush of the 1890s and the agricultural settlement that followed, the paper examines the evolution in the age composition of the population, the extraordinary rapid turnover of migrants, the predominance of young males among them. Brief comparisons are made with other migrant groups in 1986. The importance of education for the attainment of a good income is examined....[The author finds that] mixed marriages (some inevitable because of the much greater number of males among the Italian-born) enrich both sides culturally but speed up the assimilation process." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  18. Rapid and high-resolution distinction of community-acquired and nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus isolates with identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and spa types.

    PubMed

    Glasner, Corinna; Sabat, Artur J; Dreisbach, Annette; Larsen, Anders R; Friedrich, Alexander W; Skov, Robert L; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2013-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent a serious threat for public health worldwide. Of particular concern is the emergence of community-acquired MRSA, which is often difficult to distinguish from nosocomial MRSA due to a lack of suitable typing methods for early detection. For example, the USA300 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern includes both the 'classical' community-acquired USA300 clone with spa type t008 and an epidemiologically unrelated nosocomial clone with spa type t024. Likewise, spa typing cannot distinguish the classic USA300 from nosocomial MRSA with the spa type t008. Since the fast and high-resolution distinction of these S. aureus types is important for infection prevention and surveillance, we investigated whether multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) can be applied to overcome these limitations. Indeed, MLVF correctly grouped 91 MRSA isolates belonging to the classic USA300 lineage, nosocomial MRSA isolates with the USA300 PFGE profile and spa type t024, and nosocomial MRSA isolates with spa type t008 into 3 distinct clusters. Importantly, several sub-clusters were also identified, reflecting epidemiological relationships between the respective isolates. We conclude that MLVF has the discriminatory power needed to rapidly distinguish very similar community-acquired and nosocomial MRSA isolates and that MLVF-based sub-clustering of isolates is highly useful for epidemiological investigations, outbreak prevention, and control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Pedigree structure and kinship measurements of a mid-Michigan community: a new North American population isolate identified.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Joseph D; Fisher, Rachel; Klein, James; Lu, Qing; Wilch, Ellen; Friderici, Karen H; Elfenbein, Jill L; Schutte, Debra L; Schutte, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies identified a cluster of individuals with an autosomal recessive form of deafness that reside in a small region of mid-Michigan. We hypothesized that affected members from this community descend from a defined founder population. Using public records and personal interviews, we constructed a genealogical database that includes the affected individuals and their extended families as descendants of 461 settlers who emigrated from the Eifel region of Germany between 1836 and 1875. The genealogical database represents a 13-generation pedigree that includes 27,747 descendants of these settlers. Among these descendants, 13,784 are presumed living. Many of the extant descendants reside in a 90-square-mile area, and 52% were born to parents who share at least one common ancestor. Among those born to related parents, the median kinship coefficient is 3.7 × 10(-3). While the pedigree contains 2,510 founders, 344 of the 461 settlers accounted for 67% of the genome in the extant population. These data suggest that we identified a new population isolate in North America and that, as demonstrated for congenital hearing loss, this rural mid-Michigan community is a new resource to discover heritable factors that contribute to common health-related conditions. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  20. Comparison of Microbial Communities Isolated from Feces of Asymptomatic Salmonella-Shedding and Non-Salmonella Shedding Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Bradd J.; Pettengill, James; Gorham, Sasha; Ottesen, Andrea; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from asymptomatic dairy cows. However, factors that contribute to colonization of the bovine gut by these two serotypes have not been identified. To investigate associations between Salmonella status and bacterial diversity, as well as the diversity of the microbial community in the dairy cow hindgut, the bacterial and archaeal communities of fecal samples from cows on a single dairy farm were determined by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Fecal grab samples were collected from two Salmonella-positive cows and two Salmonella-negative cows on five sampling dates (n = 20 cows), and 16S rRNA gene amplicons from these samples were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A high level of alpha (within) and beta diversity (between) samples demonstrated that microbial profiles of dairy cow hindguts are quite diverse. To determine whether Salmonella presence, sampling year, or sampling date explained a significant amount of the variation in microbial diversity, we performed constrained ordination analyses (distance based RDA) on the unifrac distance matrix produced with QIIME. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference in the microbial diversity associated with Salmonella presence (P > 0.05), but there were significant differences between sampling dates and years (Pseudo-F = 2.157 to 4.385, P < 0.05). Based on these data, it appears that commensal Salmonella infections with serotypes Cerro and Kentucky in dairy cows have little or no association with changes in the abundance of major bacterial groups in the hindgut. Rather, our results indicated that temporal dynamics and other undescribed parameters associated with them were the most influential drivers of the differences in microbial diversity and community structure in the dairy cow hindgut. PMID:27313565

  1. Comparison of Microbial Communities Isolated from Feces of Asymptomatic Salmonella-Shedding and Non-Salmonella Shedding Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Pettengill, James; Gorham, Sasha; Ottesen, Andrea; Karns, Jeffrey S; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2016-01-01

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from asymptomatic dairy cows. However, factors that contribute to colonization of the bovine gut by these two serotypes have not been identified. To investigate associations between Salmonella status and bacterial diversity, as well as the diversity of the microbial community in the dairy cow hindgut, the bacterial and archaeal communities of fecal samples from cows on a single dairy farm were determined by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Fecal grab samples were collected from two Salmonella-positive cows and two Salmonella-negative cows on five sampling dates (n = 20 cows), and 16S rRNA gene amplicons from these samples were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A high level of alpha (within) and beta diversity (between) samples demonstrated that microbial profiles of dairy cow hindguts are quite diverse. To determine whether Salmonella presence, sampling year, or sampling date explained a significant amount of the variation in microbial diversity, we performed constrained ordination analyses (distance based RDA) on the unifrac distance matrix produced with QIIME. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference in the microbial diversity associated with Salmonella presence (P > 0.05), but there were significant differences between sampling dates and years (Pseudo-F = 2.157 to 4.385, P < 0.05). Based on these data, it appears that commensal Salmonella infections with serotypes Cerro and Kentucky in dairy cows have little or no association with changes in the abundance of major bacterial groups in the hindgut. Rather, our results indicated that temporal dynamics and other undescribed parameters associated with them were the most influential drivers of the differences in microbial diversity and community structure in the dairy cow hindgut.

  2. Sediment dynamics within the intertidal floodplain of the lower Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Asp, N. E.; Souza Filho, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal influence extends ~800 kilometers upstream of the Amazon River mouth, producing semidiurnal oscillations in water elevation and slowing or reversing the flow of the world's largest river. This tidally influenced reach, known as the tidal river, is flanked by an expansive intertidal floodplain, and includes confluences with two large tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós. The relative magnitude of the seasonal and tidal signals changes along the length of the tidal river, yielding diverse floodplain environments that span a range of seasonal and tidal influence. Near the upstream limit of tides, natural levees isolate the river from the floodplain during low to moderate flows, while in the lower tidal river, natural levees are absent and river-floodplain exchange is dominated by the tides rather than seasonal variation in river stage. This difference between fluvial and tidal systems strongly affects the nature of sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain, including frequency, duration, and depth of inundation. Here we present data on the impact of this fluvial-tidal continuum on sedimentary processes in the floodplain and resultant depositional signatures. Changes in levee prominence, grain size, and sediment accumulation combine to produce the distinct morphologies of floodplain lakes, intertidal backswamps, and intertidal flats. In addition to sediment accumulation on the periodically exposed floodplain, Amazon River sediment accumulates within the drowned tributary confluences of the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers. Here seasonal and tidal changes in water temperature, discharge, and suspended-sediment concentration drive barotropic and baroclinic flows that transport Amazon River sediment into tributary basins. These findings help to constrain the fate of sediment within the ungauged Amazon tidal river, and will help in understanding the response of the lower Amazon River to changes in accommodation space associated with rising sea level, and changes

  3. Assessment of Changes in Biodiversity when a Community of Ultramicrobacteria Isolated from Groundwater Is Stimulated to Form a Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Ross, N.; Villemur, R.; Marcandella, E.; Deschênes, L.

    2001-07-01

    The stimulation of groundwater bacteria to form biofilms, for the remediation of polluted aquifers, is subjected to environmental regulations that include measurement of effects on microbial biodiversity. Groundwater microorganisms contain a proportion of unidentified and uncharacterized ultramicrobacteria (UMB) that might play a major role in the bioclogging of geological materials. This study aimed to assess the changes in genetic and metabolic biodiversity when a community of UMB, isolated from groundwater, is stimulated to form biofilms on a ceramic surface. UMB were stimulated with aerobic conditions and injection of molasses, in reactors reproducing groundwater composition and temperature. Concentration of planktonic viable UMB, secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and biofilm thickness were monitored. The assessment of changes in biodiversity was achieved by comparing the initial UMB community to the biofilm community, using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method, the cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) sequences, and the Biolog microplate system. The hypothesis stating that indigenous UMB would play a significant role of in the biofilm development was corroborated. Within 13 days of stimulation, the UMB produced 700 mg L?1 of planktonic EPS and formed a biofilm up to a thickness of 1100 mm. This stimulation led to a decrease in genetic diversity and an increase in metabolic diversity. The decrease in genetic diversity was shown by a reduced number of single strand DNA fragments in the SSCP profiles. As such, 16S rDNA sequences from the biofilm revealed the predominance of four bacterial groups: Zoogloea, Bacillus/Paenibacillus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonads. A significant increase in metabolic diversity was shown by a highest substrate richness profile and a lower substrate evenness profile of the biofilm bacterial population (p = 0.0 and p = 0.09, respectively). This higher metabolic diversity

  4. Molecular characterization and clonal diversity of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the community in Spain: emergence of clone sequence type 72.

    PubMed

    Potel, C; Rey, S; Otero, S; Rubio, J; Álvarez, M

    2016-08-01

    Sequence type 72 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ST72 MRSA) was recently detected in our hospital. Although in Europe this clone is rarely isolated, it is the leading cause of community-associated MRSA infections in Korea, spreading also into hospitals, where it has also emerged as the main MRSA clone recovered from raw meat. We studied MRSA isolated from outpatients in Spain during a nine-year period. More than 70% of the isolates belonged to predominant clones found in hospitals. There was a significant increase in the ST72 prevalence. It appears that boundaries of dominance among MRSA clones have become blurred, demanding continuous surveillance.

  5. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Kolby

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  6. SRTM C and X Band Measurements of Water Elevations in Ohio and the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, B.; Alsdorf, D.; Lefavour, G.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrologists, water resource managers, and engineers recognize the potential of remote sensing for acquiring hydraulic measurements necessary for estimating discharge and storage changes globally, and thus have formed a community proposing the Water Elevation Recovery satellite mission (WatER). The WatER technological heritage is directly based on the highly successful Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and its C-band and X-band digital elevation models (DEMs). SRTM is not only a technological heritage for WatER but also a baseline measurement by which we can assess the potential of remote sensing to collect measurements of h, dh/dx and dh/dt. Water surface elevations are abundant in both the C-band and X-band SRTM DEMs. Elevations from three Ohio reservoirs and several Amazon floodplain lakes have standard deviations, interpreted as errors, that are smaller in C-band compared to X-band and are smaller in Ohio than in the Amazon. These trends are also evident when comparing water surface elevations from the Muskingum River in Ohio with those of the Amazon River. Differences are attributed to increased averaging in C-band compared to X-band, greater sensitivity to surface water motion in X-band, and generally larger off-nadir look angles in X-band. Absolute water surface elevations are greater in the C-band DEM for much of the two study areas and yield expected slope values on the Amazon River. However, X-band DEM values for the Amazon River are below sea level downstream of Sao Jose do Amatari (~600 km upstream of Obidos) and have some slope values that are greater than expected. These absolute height and slope differences are attributed to the usage of differing vertical datums.

  7. Guarana: revisiting a highly caffeinated plant from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Schimpl, Flávia Camila; da Silva, José Ferreira; Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-10-28

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke) has been traditionally consumed by indigenous communities of the Amazon region. It is valued mainly for its stimulant property because of its high content of caffeine, which can be up to 6% in the seeds. The purpose of this review is to revisit this typically Brazilian plant, addressing economic considerations, the chemical makeup of the seeds and pharmacological properties so far investigated. Guarana is primarily produced in the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Bahia, and approximately 70% of the production is used by the industry of soft and energy drinks. The other 30% becomes guarana powder for direct consumption in capsules or dilution in water, or it serves as a raw material for the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. In addition to its stimulant property, guarana has other therapeutic properties, which have aroused the interest of the scientific community. This review shows that other guarana properties may be explored and how scarce are the studies regarding agronomic, plant pathology, physiology and breeding. So far, caffeine has been the main reason to study guarana and still will lead the researches because the demand for this alkaloid by food and pharmaceutical industry, and a strongly growing market related with beauty products. However, guarana has other components and there is great interest in studies designed to elucidate the effects of guarana's bioactive components and their potential pharmacological applications. Significant part of the guarana production in Brazil still comes from Indians tribes in the Amazon State, and any improvement in this plant, in any aspect, may propitiate a positive economic impact in their lives. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissemination of Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca Harboring CMY-31, VIM-1, and a New OXY-2-Type Variant in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Tsakris, Athanassios; Poulou, Aggeliki; Markou, Fani; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Kristo, Ioulia; Pournaras, Spyros

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological link of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca isolates causing community-onset infections among patients attending our outpatient department and to investigate the underlying resistance mechanisms. The isolates were tested by agar dilution MICs, phenotypic carbapenemase testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were employed for the identification of bla gene types and the mapping of the integron-containing metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene. During the study period (January 2005 to April 2007), nine broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. oxytoca clinical isolates were prospectively collected from separate outpatients with urinary tract infections. In all cases, the patients had been hospitalized or exposed to health care facilities during the preceding year. Molecular typing revealed that all isolates belonged to the same K. oxytoca clonal type, which contained five PFGE subtypes. A novel chromosomal OXY-2 β-lactamase type variant (OXY-2-9) was detected in all isolates, but no mutations in the promoter region justifying blaOXY gene overproduction were detected. In addition, all isolates harbored the plasmidic CMY-31 (LAT-4) AmpC cephalosporinase, while three of them harbored VIM-1 MBL in a class 1 integron structure. This is the first study to present the dissemination in the community of multidrug-resistant K. oxytoca isolates causing extrahospital infections. PMID:21555768

  9. Dissemination of clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca harboring CMY-31, VIM-1, and a New OXY-2-type variant in the community.

    PubMed

    Tsakris, Athanassios; Poulou, Aggeliki; Markou, Fani; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Kristo, Ioulia; Pournaras, Spyros

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological link of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca isolates causing community-onset infections among patients attending our outpatient department and to investigate the underlying resistance mechanisms. The isolates were tested by agar dilution MICs, phenotypic carbapenemase testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were employed for the identification of bla gene types and the mapping of the integron-containing metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene. During the study period (January 2005 to April 2007), nine broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. oxytoca clinical isolates were prospectively collected from separate outpatients with urinary tract infections. In all cases, the patients had been hospitalized or exposed to health care facilities during the preceding year. Molecular typing revealed that all isolates belonged to the same K. oxytoca clonal type, which contained five PFGE subtypes. A novel chromosomal OXY-2 β-lactamase type variant (OXY-2-9) was detected in all isolates, but no mutations in the promoter region justifying bla(OXY) gene overproduction were detected. In addition, all isolates harbored the plasmidic CMY-31 (LAT-4) AmpC cephalosporinase, while three of them harbored VIM-1 MBL in a class 1 integron structure. This is the first study to present the dissemination in the community of multidrug-resistant K. oxytoca isolates causing extrahospital infections.

  10. Activity of ceftaroline against serotyped Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Europe and South Africa associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (2007-08).

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ian; Leakey, Anne

    2012-06-01

    To determine the activity of ceftaroline (the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil), a new cephalosporin recently approved in the USA for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, against serotyped Streptococcus pneumoniae causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia from Europe and South Africa. During 2007-08, 74 centres submitted 857 isolates of S. pneumoniae from patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. These were re-identified and serotyped. MICs of ceftaroline and 12 comparators were determined by CLSI broth microdilution at a central laboratory. Ceftaroline was very active against all 857 S. pneumoniae isolates (MIC(90) 0.12 mg/L). The MIC(50) for South African isolates was 0.06 mg/L compared with 0.004 or 0.008 mg/L for isolates from elsewhere. Antibiotic resistance was also higher in South Africa than other countries. Serotypes 3, 1, 7 and 11 were more susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC(90) = 0.008 mg/L) and the reference antibiotics than the population as a whole. Ceftaroline showed a biphasic MIC distribution (associated with cefuroxime susceptibility), the extent of which differed between isolate populations. Nevertheless, the highest ceftaroline MIC observed was only 0.5 mg/L (two isolates: one from the UK and one from South Africa). These data from a large collection of S. pneumoniae isolates during 2007-08 from Europe and South Africa with varying serotype and antibiotic susceptibility, confirm the excellent in vitro activity of ceftaroline against S. pneumoniae causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in both adults and children.

  11. Isolation of PCR quality microbial community DNA from heavily contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Chang, Simon; Jimenez, Abraham; Holland-Moritz, Daniel; Holland-Moritz, Hannah; La Val, Taylor P; Lund, Craig; Mullen, Madeline; Olsen, John; Sztain, Terra A; Yoo, Jennifer; Moss, John A; Baum, Marc M

    2014-07-01

    Asphalts, biochemically degraded oil, contain persistent, water-soluble compounds that pose a significant challenge to the isolation of PCR quality DNA. The adaptation of existing DNA purification protocols and commercial kits proved unsuccessful at overcoming this hurdle. Treatment of aqueous asphalt extracts with a polyamide resin afforded genomic microbial DNA templates that could readily be amplified by PCR. Physicochemically distinct asphalt samples from five natural oil seeps successfully generated the expected 291 bp amplicons targeting a region of the 16S rRNA gene, illustrating the robustness of the method. DNA recovery yields were in the 50-80% range depending on how the asphalt sample was seeded with exogenous DNA. The scope of the new method was expanded to include soil with high humic acid content. DNA from soil samples spiked with a range of humic acid concentrations was extracted with a commercial kit followed by treatment with the polyamide resin. The additional step significantly improved the purity of the DNA templates, especially at high humic acid concentrations, based on qPCR analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The new method has the advantages of being inexpensive, simple, and rapid and should provide a valuable addition to protocols in the field of petroleum and soil microbiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polycystic Echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon Region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E.; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Mamani, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli–contaminated areas. PMID:25695937

  13. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Treesearch

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  14. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  15. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  16. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  17. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  18. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Lima, Larissa S; Campos, Rafael K; Guedes, Maria I M C; Cota, Marcela M G; Assis, Felipe L; Borges, Iara A; Souza-Júnior, Milton F; Lobato, Zélia I P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil.

  19. Polycystic echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon region, Peru.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mamani, Victor J; Gavidia, Cesar M

    2015-03-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli-contaminated areas.

  20. Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, André T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Júnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zélia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

    2010-01-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

  1. Life, survival, and behavioral health in small closed communities: 10 years of studying isolated Antarctic groups.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanna; Schmidt, Lacey; Lugg, Desmond; Ayton, Jeff; Phillips, Terry; Shepanek, Marc

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1980s the Australian Antarctic Division collaborated with NASA to use the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions' (ANARE) stations to pursue research of benefit to both programs. This article outlines the data collection efforts, the development of analyses, and selected results, and describes some of the benefits for the aerospace, health, and environmental psychology communities. The Behavior and Performance Laboratory at Johnson Space Center developed a questionnaire to sample broadly the many aspects of life in extreme environments analogous to space missions. Data were collected from volunteers involved in various ANAREs conducted from 1994 to 2003. Pool-timed series regression, hierarchical models, and content analysis have all enhanced the understanding of the kinds of psychosocial variables relevant in extreme environments, and how these variables relate to each other; examples are given. Observations gathered over the last 10 yr comprise a unique, comprehensive, and advanced representation of psychosocial factors in this extreme environment and provide a strong base for future research and application.

  2. Organizing Environments to Enhance the Development of Persons and Communities in Isolated Regions of Colombia: A Challenge to the Development of Human Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arango, Marta; Nimnicht, Glen

    Although self-actualization is often considered a need to be met after more basic needs are fulfilled, experience with a development project in four impoverished and isolated Colombian communities indicates that development of human potential can be an integral part of overall development. An environment that supports the development of human…

  3. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  4. The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.

    PubMed

    Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

    2014-02-26

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  5. The Influence of Changes in Lifestyle and Mercury Exposure in Riverine Populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a Hydroelectric Project

    PubMed Central

    Hacon, Sandra S.; Dórea, José G.; Fonseca, Márlon de F.; Oliveira, Beatriz A.; Mourão, Dennys S.; Ruiz, Claudia M. V.; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A.; Mariani, Carolina F.; Bastos, Wanderley R.

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics. PMID:24577285

  6. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    type parameter values are assigned and assumed invariant with environmental condition but also ii) these models use leaf N as a factor that limit photosynthesis. Instead, since leaf P may also limit photosynthesis of the tropical forest (Reich et al. 2009), we use a more specific description of photosynthetic capacity across the basin based on the model evaluation done in Mercado et al. (2009) in which canopy photosynthetic capacity is related to foliar P but also using the relationships derived between canopy photosynthesis and leaf nutrients (N and P) from measurements in tropical trees (Domingues et al.In review). A study of this kind can inform the global vegetation/climate community as to the need for variability in key model parameters in order to accurately simulate carbon fluxes across the Amazon basin. Baker, T. R., et al. 2004. Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 359 (1443):353-365. Phillips, O. L. et al. 2004. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 359 (1443):381-407. Malhi, Y. et al. 2004. The above-ground coarse wood productivity of 104 Neotropical forest plots. Global Change Biology 10 (5):563-591. Mercado, L.M. et al. 2009. Impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the global land carbon sink. Nature 458 (7241), 1014. Cox, P. M. et al. 1998. A canopy conductance and photosynthesis model for use in a GCM land surface scheme. Journal of Hydrology 213 (1-4):79-9 Sitch, S. et al. 2003. Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology 9 (2):161-185. Reich B. R. et al. 2009. Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynhtesis-nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species. Oecologia, doi 10.1007/s00442-009-1291-3. Domingues, T. et al. In review. Co-limitation of

  7. Occurrence of Paracoccidioides lutzii in the Amazon Region: Description of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena; Messias Rodrigues, Anderson; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Pires de Camargo, Zoilo

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most important human systemic mycosis in Latin America, is known to be caused by at least four different phylogenetic lineages within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis complex, including S1, PS2, PS3, and Pb01-like group. Herein, we describe two cases of PCM in patients native from the Amazon region. The disease was originally thought to have been caused by P. brasiliensis. Despite the severity of the cases, sera from the patients were negative in immunodiffusion tests using the standard exoantigen from P. brasiliensis B-339. However, a positive response was recorded with an autologous preparation of Paracoccidioides lutzii exoantigen. A phylogenetic approach based on the gp43 and ARF loci revealed high similarity between our clinical isolates and the Pb01-like group. The occurrence of PCM caused by P. lutzii in the Brazilian Amazon (Pará State) was thus proven. The incidence of PCM caused by P. lutzii may be underestimated in northern Brazil. PMID:22927496

  8. Brazilian Amazon Traditional Medicine and the Treatment of Difficult to Heal Leishmaniasis Wounds with Copaifera

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Kelly Cristina Oliveira; da Veiga, Andreza do Socorro Silva; Silva, João Victor da Silva e; Brigido, Heliton Patrick Cordovil; Ferreira, Erica Patrícia dos Reis; Costa, Erica Vanessa Souza; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosário; Percário, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the use of the traditional species Copaifera for treating wounds, such as ulcers scarring and antileishmanial wounds. It also relates phytochemical studies, evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity, and toxicity. The species of Copaifera with a higher incidence in the Amazon region are Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera reticulata, Copaifera multijuga Hayne. The copaiba oil is used in the Amazon's traditional medicine, especially as anti-inflammatory ingredient, in ulcers healing, and in scarring and for leishmaniasis. Chemical studies have shown that these oils contain diterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The copaiba oil and terpenes isolated have antiparasitic activity, more promising in the amastigote form of L. amazonensis. This activity is probably related to changes in the cell membrane and mitochondria. The oil showed low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Furthermore, it may interfere with immune response to infection and also has a healing effect. In summary, the copaiba oil is promising as leishmanicidal agent. PMID:28194218

  9. Migration Within the Frontier: The Second Generation Colonization in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David L.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s, migration to the Amazon has led to a growing human presence and resulting dramatic changes in the physical landscape of the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon frontier, including considerable deforestation. Over time, a second demographic phenomenon has emerged with the children of the original migrants leaving settler farms to set out on their own. The vast majority have remained in the Amazon region, some contributing to further changes in land use via rural-rural migration to establish new farms and others to incipient urbanization. This paper uses longitudinal, multi-scale data on settler colonists between 1990 and 1999 to analyze rural-rural and rural-urban migration among second-generation colonists within the region. Following a description of migrants and settlers in terms of their individual, household and community characteristics, a multinomial discrete-time hazard model is used to estimate the determinants of out-migration of the second generation settlers to both urban and rural areas. We find significant differences in the determinants of migration to the two types of destinations in personal characteristics, human capital endowments, stage of farm and household lifecycles, migration networks, and access to community resources and infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of policy implications of migrants' choice of rural versus urban destinations. PMID:19657471

  10. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert

    2008-05-27

    Some coupled land-climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received considerable attention, unofficial road building by interest groups is expanding more rapidly, especially where official roads are being paved, yielding highly fragmented forest mosaics. Effective governance of natural resources in the Amazon requires a combination of state oversight and community participation in a 'hybrid' model of governance. The MAP Initiative in the southwestern Amazon provides an example of an innovative hybrid approach to environmental governance. It embodies a polycentric structure that includes government agencies, NGOs, universities and communities in a planning process that links scientific data to public deliberations in order to mitigate the effects of new infrastructure and climate change.

  11. Collaborative Online Communities for Increased MILSATCOM Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Operational Availability, Net-centric Warfare, Communities, Online, Web 2.0, Sustainment, Military SATCOM, NMT 16. PRICE CODE 17...experience in electronics theory and repair; these sailors have Electronics Technician (ET) designation (PMW 170, 2008). The System Maintainers are...scanner, and the Amazon.com API into a system allowing him to query selling prices for book titles on Amazon.com while visiting garage sales and thrift

  12. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Patients with Community-Onset Infections in 30 Chinese County Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Beiwen; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Li, Sujuan; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli is a feature of clinical bacteriology in China, where the molecular epidemiology and genetic characteristics of this resistance in county hospitals remain unclear. A total of 590 nonduplicate E. coli isolates from 30 county hospitals located across seven Chinese regions were examined for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic analysis of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were used to determine their genetic relatedness. The ciprofloxacin resistance rate of community-onset E. coli was 51.2%, and at least one PMQR gene was carried by 220 (37.3%) isolates. These included qnr (3.7%), aac(6′)-Ib-cr (19.7%), qepA (14.4%), and oqxAB (3.8%). Two novel oqxB mutants were identified and named oqxB20 and oqxB29. From 60 sequence types (STs) isolated, 5 novel STs (ST4499 to ST4503) were identified. ST1193 (7.9%) was the second most abundant ST among fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (ST131 was the most common, with 14.6%), and this is the first report of it in China. This is also the first report of ST2115 and ST3014 isolates from human samples. Ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates fell mainly into phylogroups B2 and D. The rates of fluoroquinolone resistance and the prevalence of PMQR genes in community-onset E. coli isolates from Chinese county hospitals were high. The wide-ranging molecular epidemiology of E. coli isolates from scattered locations across China indicates that fluoroquinolone resistance evolved from different sources. PMID:25520451

  13. Distribution of virulence genes and genotyping of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI).

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Memariani, Hamed; Sorouri, Rahim; Memariani, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important agents of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). In addition to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), a number of virulence factors have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae, including capsule, siderophores, and adhesins. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of the CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolated from CA-UTI in Iran. A total of 152 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from CA-UTI patients in Tehran from September 2015 through April 2016. Out of 152 isolates, 40 (26.3%) carried blaCTX-M-15. PCR was performed for detection of virulence genes in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. Furthermore, all of these isolates were subjected to multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). Using MLVA method, 36 types were identified. CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were grouped into 5 clonal complexes (CCs). Of these isolates, mrkD was the most prevalent virulence gene (95%), followed by kpn (60%), rmpA (37.5%), irp (35%), and magA (2.5%). No correlation between MLVA types or CCs and virulence genes or antibiotic resistance patterns was observed. Overall, it is thought that CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated from CA-UTI have arisen from different clones.

  14. [Globalization, inequality, and transmission of tropical diseases in the Venezuelan Amazon].

    PubMed

    Botto-Abella, Carlos; Graterol-Mendoza, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalization appears to be causing greater inequalities and increased vulnerability to tropical diseases around the world. The Venezuelan Amazon population, especially the rural indigenous population, displays among the worst health indicators in the Americas. High infant mortality rates in remote indigenous populations indicate that such communities have been affected by the globalization of disease, rather than favored by globalization of health. Globalization has also influenced public policies in the country, affecting the efficiency of control programs targeting tropical diseases. A new global pact for the sustainable development of the planet is needed, supported by the globalization of human values and rights. In Venezuela, new policies for the indigenous health sector, more resources, and greater autonomy could help reduce the inequities described here in the Venezuelan Amazon.

  15. Description of data reanalysis of daily discharge and gauge height over the Amazon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviercoski, R. F.; Travis, B. J.; Eggert, K.

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon River is the world's largest, discharging more water to the ocean than any other river. Study of the world's freshwater resources becomes more significant with increasing awareness of global climate change and its potential effect on those resources and atmospheric forcing. In this work, a reanalysis of the daily discharge and gauge height data for 87 active gauge stations throughout the Amazon River Basin is presented. The data was originally obtained from the web site maintained by ANEEL - Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency. We describe the problems encountered in trying to use the original data and the assumptions applied in the reanalysis procedure. The reanalysis consisted of filtering inconsistencies in the comma (decimal) notation, filling in missing data, and replacing inconsistent data values by applying the assumption of a stationary Markov process. The reanalyzed data is available to the community through an anonymous ftp-site.

  16. Biomass Burning Emissions and Deforestation in The Legal Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Vermote, E. F.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning, often concomitant with deforestation, is recognized as a significant source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and has received attention from the scientific community as an important agent in climate change. Earth observing satellites have made significant contributions to fire and deforestation detection, monitoring, and characterization for nearly three decades. In this work, we demonstrate the application of our approach to estimate fire radiative energy (FRE) released from biomass burning to infer CO2 and organic and black carbon aerosol (OCBC) emissions from biomass burning in the Legal Amazon. We then compared emission estimates with deforestation rates produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Our research offers a new approach and insights to the dynamics of fire, deforestation, emissions. The annual mean CO2 and OCBC emitted for the study period (2001-2009) from the Legal Amazon biomass burning was estimated to be 253 Tg and 2.3 Tg, respectively. This represents 9% and 14% of the global CO2 and OCBC, respectively, emitted from fires. In general, the trend in emission estimates mirrored deforestation rates. However, 2007 was an anomalous year in Brazil as it was one of the highest years in emissions from fire, but a relatively low year for deforestation (Fig. 1). This discrepancy is a result of an abnormally dry year which resulted in a greater frequency of fires not directly associated with deforestation, but which may be tied to agricultural and pasture maintenance fires. A similar discrepancy was observed when comparing deforestation and emission rates from Mato Grosso and Pará; the two states responsible for most of the deforestation (71%) and emissions (~65%) from the Legal Amazon during the study period. Although as of 2006 Pará had annually surpassed Mato Grosso in annual forest loss it wasn’t until 2009 that emissions from Pará were greater. Thus, suggesting the importance of non

  17. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda S.S.; Silva, Eliana V.P.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A.O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D. PMID:19891877

  18. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Silva, Eliana V P; Carvalho, Valéria L; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim P; Monteiro, Hamilton; Peixoto, Victor S; Chiang, Jannifer O; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2009-11-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

  19. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  20. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  1. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  2. Amazon forests green-up during 2005 drought.

    PubMed

    Saleska, Scott R; Didan, Kamel; Huete, Alfredo R; da Rocha, Humberto R

    2007-10-26

    Coupled climate-carbon cycle models suggest that Amazon forests are vulnerable to both long- and short-term droughts, but satellite observations showed a large-scale photosynthetic green-up in intact evergreen forests of the Amazon in response to a short, intense drought in 2005. These findings suggest that Amazon forests, although threatened by human-caused deforestation and fire and possibly by more severe long-term droughts, may be more resilient to climate changes than ecosystem models assume.

  3. Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification for asymptomatic malaria detection in challenging field settings: Technical performance and pilot implementation in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Serra-Casas, Elisa; Manrique, Paulo; Ding, Xavier C; Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel; Alava, Freddy; Gave, Anthony; Rodriguez, Hugo; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Speybroeck, Niko; González, Iveth J; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2017-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) methodology offers an opportunity for point-of-care (POC) molecular detection of asymptomatic malaria infections. However, there is still little evidence on the feasibility of implementing this technique for population screenings in isolated field settings. Overall, we recruited 1167 individuals from terrestrial ('road') and hydric ('riverine') communities of the Peruvian Amazon for a cross-sectional survey to detect asymptomatic malaria infections. The technical performance of LAMP was evaluated in a subgroup of 503 samples, using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) as reference standard. The operational feasibility of introducing LAMP testing in the mobile screening campaigns was assessed based on field-suitability parameters, along with a pilot POC-LAMP assay in a riverine community without laboratory infrastructure. LAMP had a sensitivity of 91.8% (87.7-94.9) and specificity of 91.9% (87.8-95.0), and the overall accuracy was significantly better among samples collected during road screenings than riverine communities (p≤0.004). LAMP-based diagnostic strategy was successfully implemented within the field-team logistics and the POC-LAMP pilot in the riverine community allowed for a reduction in the turnaround time for case management, from 12-24 hours to less than 5 hours. Specimens with haemolytic appearance were regularly observed in riverine screenings and could help explaining the hindered performance/interpretation of the LAMP reaction in these communities. LAMP-based molecular malaria diagnosis can be deployed outside of reference laboratories, providing similar performance as qPCR. However, scale-up in remote field settings such as riverine communities needs to consider a number of logistical challenges (e.g. environmental conditions, labour-intensiveness in large population screenings) that can influence its optimal implementation.

  4. Declining fertility on the frontier: the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Pan, William K. Y.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines farm and household characteristics associated with a rapid fertility decline in a forest frontier of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Amazon basin and other rainforests in the tropics are among the last frontiers in the ongoing global fertility transition. The pace of this transition along agricultural frontiers will likely have major implications for future forest transitions, rural development, and ultimately urbanization in frontier areas. The study here is based upon data from a probability sample of 172 women who lived on the same farm in 1990 and 1999. These data are from perhaps the first region-wide longitudinal survey of fertility in an agricultural frontier. Descriptive analyses indicate that fertility has plummeted in the region, which is surprising since it had remained high and unchanging among migrant colonists up to 1990. Thus only half of the women in our sample reported having a birth during the 1990-1999 time period, and most women report in 1999 that they do not want to have any more children. Analyses, controlling for women's age, corroborate hypotheses about land-fertility relations. For example, women from households with a legal land title had fewer than half as many children as those from households without a title. Large cattle (pasture) holdings and hiring laborers to work on the farm (which may replace household labor) are both related to socio-economic status that is traditionally associated with lower fertility. Similarly, distance to the nearest community center is positively related to fertility. Factors negatively related to fertility include increasing temporary out-migration of adult men or women from the household, asset accumulation, and access to electricity. PMID:19657468

  5. Occurrence and analysis of irp2 virulence gene in isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. from microbiota and hospital and community-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Souza Lopes, Ana Catarina; Rodrigues, Juliana Falcão; Cabral, Adriane Borges; da Silva, Maíra Espíndola; Leal, Nilma Cintra; da Silveira, Vera Magalhães; de Morais Júnior, Marcos Antônio

    2016-07-01

    Eighty-five isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp., originating from hospital- and community-acquired infections and from oropharyngeal and faecal microbiota from patients in Recife-PE, Brazil, were analyzed regarding the presence of irp2 gene. This is a Yersinia typical gene involved in the synthesis of siderophore yersiniabactin. DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of irp2 gene in five K. pneumoniae, five Enterobacter aerogenes and one Enterobacter amnigenus isolates. To our knowledge in the current literature, this is the first report of the irp2 gene in E. amnigenus, a species considered an unusual human pathogen, and in K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes isolates from the normal microbiota and from community infections, respectively. Additionally, the analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggest the irp2 genes derived from isolates used in this study are more closely related to that of Yersinia pestis P.CE882 than to that of Yersinia enterocolitica 8081. These data demonstrated that K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. from normal microbiota and from community- and hospital-acquired infections possess virulence factors important for the establishment of extra-intestinal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of South Africa. V. vulnificus (18), V. metschnikovii (3), V. fluvialis (19) and V. parahaemolyticus (12) strains were isolated from final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in a rural community of South Africa. The disk diffusion method was used for the characterization of the antibiogram of the isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to evaluate the presence of established antibiotic resistance genes using specific primer sets. Results The Vibrio strains showed the typical multidrug-resistance phenotype of an SXT element. They were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Sul), trimethoprim (Tmp), cotrimoxazole (Cot), chloramphenicol (Chl), streptomycin (Str), ampicillin (Amp), tetracycline (Tet) nalidixic acid (Nal), and gentamicin (Gen). The antibiotic resistance genes detected includes dfr18 and dfrA1 for trimethoprim; floR, tetA, strB, sul2 for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and environmental Vibrio species. Conclusions These results demonstrate that final effluents from wastewater treatment plants are potential reservoirs of various antibiotics resistance genes. Moreover, detection of resistance genes in Vibrio strains obtained from the wastewater final effluents suggests that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant, thus constituting a serious health risk to the communities reliant on the receiving waterbodies. PMID:20470419

  7. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  8. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  9. Historic Exposure to Plague and Present-day Frequency of CCR5del32 in Two Isolated Island Communities of Dalmatia, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Smoljanović, Mladen; Ristić, Smiljana; Hayward, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess the frequency of deletion of 32 base pairs in a CCR5 gene, shown to confer resistance to HIV infection, in two isolated island communities of Dalmatia, Croatia, with different histories of exposure to “plague” during the medieval period and beyond. Methods Random samples of 100 individuals from highly isolated communities of Lopar (island of Rab) and Komiža (island of Vis) were selected in 2002 and their DNA was extracted. An extremely high level of 3-generational endogamy was found in both communities (98% and 91%, respectively), indicating very limited gene flow, which was confirmed by available historic records. The two settlements also differed in their historic exposure to plague: between 1449 and 1456, Lopar was decimated by plague, while Komiža remained unaffected. Genotyping of the CCR5 polymorphism was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with primers flanking the region containing 32-bp deletion. Results The frequency of CCR5del32 in Lopar was 6.0% and in Komiža 1.5% (P = 0.037). A previous study in 303 random Croatian blood donors showed a frequency of CCR5 32bp deletion of 7.1%. Conclusion This study does not rule out the possible role of plague in positive selection at CCR5del32. However, analyses of further neighboring isolated island communities need to be made in order to provide more substantial support for this hypothesis. PMID:16909455

  10. Isolation of Novel Extreme-Tolerant Cyanobacteria from a Rock-Dwelling Microbial Community by Using Exposure to Low Earth Orbit▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Cockell, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Many cyanobacteria are known to tolerate environmental extremes. Motivated by an interest in selecting cyanobacteria for applications in space, we launched rocks from a limestone cliff in Beer, Devon, United Kingdom, containing an epilithic and endolithic rock-dwelling community of cyanobacteria into low Earth orbit (LEO) at a height of approximately 300 kilometers. The community was exposed for 10 days to isolate cyanobacteria that can survive exposure to the extreme radiation and desiccating conditions associated with space. Culture-independent (16S rRNA) and culture-dependent methods showed that the cyanobacterial community was composed of Pleurocapsales, Oscillatoriales, and Chroococcales. A single cyanobacterium, a previously uncharacterized extremophile, was isolated after exposure to LEO. We were able to isolate the cyanobacterium from the limestone cliff after exposing the rock-dwelling community to desiccation and vacuum (0.7 × 10−3 kPa) in the laboratory. The ability of the organism to survive the conditions in space may be linked to the formation of dense colonies. These experiments show how extreme environmental conditions, including space, can be used to select for novel microorganisms. Furthermore, it improves our knowledge of environmental tolerances of extremophilic rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. PMID:20154120

  11. Isolation of novel extreme-tolerant cyanobacteria from a rock-dwelling microbial community by using exposure to low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Cockell, Charles S

    2010-04-01

    Many cyanobacteria are known to tolerate environmental extremes. Motivated by an interest in selecting cyanobacteria for applications in space, we launched rocks from a limestone cliff in Beer, Devon, United Kingdom, containing an epilithic and endolithic rock-dwelling community of cyanobacteria into low Earth orbit (LEO) at a height of approximately 300 kilometers. The community was exposed for 10 days to isolate cyanobacteria that can survive exposure to the extreme radiation and desiccating conditions associated with space. Culture-independent (16S rRNA) and culture-dependent methods showed that the cyanobacterial community was composed of Pleurocapsales, Oscillatoriales, and Chroococcales. A single cyanobacterium, a previously uncharacterized extremophile, was isolated after exposure to LEO. We were able to isolate the cyanobacterium from the limestone cliff after exposing the rock-dwelling community to desiccation and vacuum (0.7 x 10(-3) kPa) in the laboratory. The ability of the organism to survive the conditions in space may be linked to the formation of dense colonies. These experiments show how extreme environmental conditions, including space, can be used to select for novel microorganisms. Furthermore, it improves our knowledge of environmental tolerances of extremophilic rock-dwelling cyanobacteria.

  12. Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus Isolate Genotypes and Infections from the Dawn of the Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Epidemic Era in Chicago, 1994 to 1997

    PubMed Central

    Acree, Mary Ellen; Sieth, Julia J.; Boxrud, Dave J.; Dobbins, Ginette; Lynfield, Ruth; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread infections with community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have occurred in the United States with the dissemination of the USA300 strain beginning in 2000. We examined 105 isolates obtained from children treated at the University of Chicago from 1994 to 1997 (75 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and 30 MRSA isolates) in order to investigate for possible evidence of USA300 during this period. Infections were defined epidemiologically based on medical record review. The isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), as well as assays for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, the protein A gene (spa), and arcA and opp3, proxy markers for the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), characteristic of USA300 MRSA. MRSA isolates also underwent staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping. MSSA isolates belonged to 17 sequence type (ST) groups. The 12 epidemiologically defined CA-MRSA infection isolates were either ST1 (n = 4) or ST8 (n = 8). They belonged to 3 different PFGE types: USA100 (n = 1), USA400 (n = 5), and USA500 (n = 6). Among the CA-MRSA infection isolates, 8 (67%) were PVL+. None of the MRSA or MSSA isolates contained arcA or opp3. Only one MRSA isolate was USA300 by PFGE. This was a health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolate, negative for PVL, that carried SCCmec type II. USA300 with its characteristic features was not identified in the collection from the years 1994 to 1997. PMID:26019202

  13. Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus Isolate Genotypes and Infections from the Dawn of the Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Epidemic Era in Chicago, 1994 to 1997.

    PubMed

    David, Michael Z; Acree, Mary Ellen; Sieth, Julia J; Boxrud, Dave J; Dobbins, Ginette; Lynfield, Ruth; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Widespread infections with community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have occurred in the United States with the dissemination of the USA300 strain beginning in 2000. We examined 105 isolates obtained from children treated at the University of Chicago from 1994 to 1997 (75 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and 30 MRSA isolates) in order to investigate for possible evidence of USA300 during this period. Infections were defined epidemiologically based on medical record review. The isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), as well as assays for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, the protein A gene (spa), and arcA and opp3, proxy markers for the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), characteristic of USA300 MRSA. MRSA isolates also underwent staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping. MSSA isolates belonged to 17 sequence type (ST) groups. The 12 epidemiologically defined CA-MRSA infection isolates were either ST1 (n = 4) or ST8 (n = 8). They belonged to 3 different PFGE types: USA100 (n = 1), USA400 (n = 5), and USA500 (n = 6). Among the CA-MRSA infection isolates, 8 (67%) were PVL(+). None of the MRSA or MSSA isolates contained arcA or opp3. Only one MRSA isolate was USA300 by PFGE. This was a health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolate, negative for PVL, that carried SCCmec type II. USA300 with its characteristic features was not identified in the collection from the years 1994 to 1997. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N.

    2005-10-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of ~0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  15. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  16. Fungal communities in mycorrhizal roots of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries under different cultivation systems, assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and mycelial isolation.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Vasiliauskas, Rimvydas; Taylor, Andrew F S; Stenlid, Jan; Finlay, Roger

    2005-12-01

    Fungi colonising root tips of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies grown under four different seedling cultivation systems were assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and isolation methods. Roots were morphotyped using two approaches: (1) 10% of the whole root system from 30 seedlings of each species and (2) 20 randomly selected tips per plant from 300 seedlings of each species. The first approach yielded 15 morphotypes, the second yielded 27, including 18 new morphotypes. The overall community consisted of 33 morphotypes. The level of mycorrhizal colonisation of roots determined by each approach was about 50%. The cultivation system had a marked effect on the level of mycorrhizal colonisation. In pine, the highest level of colonisation (48%) was observed in bare-root systems, while in spruce, colonisation was highest in polyethylene rolls (71%). Direct internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing and isolation detected a total of 93 fungal taxa, including 27 mycorrhizal. A total of 71 (76.3%) fungi were identified at least to a genus level. The overlap between the two methods was low. Only 13 (13.9%) of taxa were both sequenced and isolated, 47 (50.5%) were detected exclusively by sequencing and 33 (35.5%) exclusively by isolation. All isolated mycorrhizal fungi were also detected by direct sequencing. Characteristic mycorrhizas were Phialophora finlandia, Amphinema byssoides, Rhizopogon rubescens, Suillus luteus and Thelephora terrestris. There was a moderate similarity in mycorrhizal communities between pine and spruce and among different cultivation systems.

  17. Suspected Lead Poisoning in an Amazon Parrot

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    A double yellow headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala tresmariae) of unknown age and sex was examined for an acute onset of anorexia, listlessness, central nervous system signs and diarrhea. A tentative diagnosis of lead toxicosis was achieved based on radiographs, clinical pathology and response to therapy. Chelation therapy (Calcium EDTA) and supportive measures resulted in an uneventful recovery. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17422638

  18. Sustainable settlement in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, A.L.O.; Campari, J.S.

    1996-02-01

    Presents and analyzes the largest and most complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. This landmark study presents the largest and most analytically complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. The authors examine the changing character of the Amazon frontier based on field surveys conducted during twenty years of settlement experience. By observing the economic behavior of small farmers from colonization during the 1970s until the chaotic aftermath of the early 1990s, the authors are able to pinpoint a central paradox: unsuccessful farmers tend to be unstable, moving on to new frontiers where they will again destroy forests. Successful farmers tend to increase deforestation in the places where they remain. The findings reveal that much of the Amazonian frontier land cleared by pioneers in the 1970s is becoming agriculturally unproductive. Small farmers should be rewarded for staying where they are and for pursuing sustainable farming. Good farming methods must be promoted, and deforestation must be penalized. The authors recommend the implementation of innovative economic policies and new forms of cooperation between environmental and economic agencies, including the World Bank, at both local and international levels. The aim of these policies should be to raise agricultural incomes and reduce environmental aggression.

  19. Amazon basin: a system in equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Salati, E.; Vose, P.B.

    1984-07-13

    Despite very active deforestation in the last decade, the Amazon Basin is still primarily covered with trees and is a system in equilibrium. The Andes form a barrier at the western end of the basin and, coupled with the prevailing easterly winds, ensure an almost unique precipitation and water-recycling regime. On average 50% of the precipitation is recycled, and in some areas even more. The soils are poor. Most of the nitrogen and phosphorus is found in the soil, and the remaining nutrient elements are found in the standing biomass. There is some nutrient recycling and little loss from the intact ecosystem, and the small input of nutrients from precipitation maintains a small positive nutrient balance. Continued large-scale deforestation is likely to lead to increased erosion and water runoff with initial flooding in the lower Amazon, together with reduced evapotranspiration and ultimately reduced precipitation. Reduced precipitation in the Amazon could increase the tendency toward continentality and adversely affect climate and the present agriculture in south-central Brazil. 83 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  20. Carbon isotopic composition of Amazon shelf sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Showers, W.J.; Angle, D.G.; Nittrouer, C.A.; Demaster, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    The distribution of carbon isotopes in Amazon shelf sediment is controlled by the same processes that are forming the modern subaqueous delta. The terrestrial (-27 to -25 per thousand) isotopic carbon signal observed in surficial sediments near the river mouth extends over 400 km northwest along the shelf. Terrestrial carbon is associated with areas of rapid sediment accumulation (topset and foreset regions). A sharp boundary between terrestrial (-27 to -25 per thousand) and marine (-23 to -22 per thousand) isotopic carbon values in surficial sediments is associated with a change in depositional conditions (foreset to bottomset regions) and a decrease in sediment accumulation rate. POC water-column isotopic values (-27 per thousand) near the river mouth are similar to the underlying surficial-sediment TOC isotopic values, but POC water-column samples collected 20 km off the river mouth have marine carbon isotopic values (-22 to -19 per thousand) and differ from the underlying surficial-sediment TOC isotopic values. These water column observations are related to variations in turbidity and productivity. Down-core isotopic variation is only observed in cores taken in areas of lower sediment accumulation rates. These observations indicate that the organic carbon in Amazon shelf sediment is dominantly terrestrial in composition, and the location of deposition of this carbon is controlled by modern processes of sediment accumulation. The modern Amazon shelf is similar to large clinoform shale deposits of the Cretaceous in North America. Thus, the stratigraphic setting may help predict the isotopic variations of carbon in ancient deposits.