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Sample records for amazonian river water

  1. Methane Dynamics in Large Amazonian Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, H. O.; Bastviken, D.; Sawakuchi, A. O.; Borges, C. D.; Tsai, S. M.; Ward, N. D.; Richey, J. E.; Ballester, M. V.; Krusche, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of methane (CH4) from rivers is not always included in the greehouse gas budget for inland waters, mainly due to a lack of information available for these systems. Unraveling the dynamics that control fluvial CH4 sources and sinks is critical for understanding the contribution of CH4 to riverine and global carbon budgets. Here, we present estimates of CH4 sources and sinks in numerous large Amazonian rivers during periods of high and low discharge. Calculations based on CH4 flux measurements and isotopic data (δ13CH4) of dissolved CH4 and bubbles in riverbed sediments were performed to assess the sources and sinks of river water CH4. Molecular analysis (qPCR) in river water samples was used to determine methanotrophic bacterial density. Methane-oxidizing bacterial counts were compared to oxidation estimates in order to assess the relationship between methane sinks and in situ bacterial communities. In general, rivers that had an enriched δ13CH4 in the water also had a higher density of methanotrophic bacteria in the water column, illustrating an important control on CH4 availability and flux related to physicochemical factors that control the abundance and activity of methanotrophic bacteria. Further, we observed a distinct relationship between the type of river (e.g. clear, white, or black water) and the flux of methane from the water column.

  2. Mercury distribution in waters and fishes of the upper Madeira rivers and mercury exposure in riparian Amazonian populations.

    PubMed

    Maurice-Bourgoin, L; Quiroga, I; Chincheros, J; Courau, P

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, the results of mercury concentrations in two abiotic compartments (river water and suspended particles) and two biotic compartments (fish and human hair) from the upper Madeira rivers of the Bolivian Amazon basin are presented. Because of the local hydrological regimes and a high deposition rate in the plain, due to the presence of a subsidence zone at the bottom of the Andean piedmont, in the dry season, the highest mercury concentrations and fluxes were not found in rivers where mining activities took place (2.25-6.99 ng l(-1); and 1.07-8.67 mg Hg d(-1) km(-2)), but at the outlet of the Andean basins exploited for their alluvial gold (7.22-8.22 ng l(-1); and 9.47-9.52 mg Hg d(-1) km(-2)). The total mercury concentrations measured in surface waters of the upper Beni basin varied during the dry season, from 2.24 to 2.57 ng l(-1) in the glacial waters of the Zongo river, to 7.00 ng l(-1) in the Madeira River at Porto Velho and 9.49-10.86 ng l(-1) at its confluence with the Amazon. The results obtained from fish indicate, on one hand, that 86% of the piscivorous fishes collected in the Beni river were contaminated, and, on the other hand, their high mercury concentrations could exceed by almost four times the WHO (1976) safety limit. In the Beni River, the mercury concentrations found in omnivorous and mud-feeding fish ranged from 0.02 to 0.19 microg g(-1) (wet wt.), and in piscivorous fish, from 0.33 to 2.30 microg Hg g(-1) (wet wt.). The mercury accumulated by carnivorous fishes was mainly present in its organic form; methylmercury represented 73-98% of the total mercury analysed. Eighty persons were studied in the entire Bolivian Amazonian basin. Unlike the gold miners, who are more affected by tropical diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, the indigenous people living on the banks of the Beni river, present elevated levels of mercury (9.81 microg g(-1) on average). We observed an increase in contamination in young children still being breast

  3. Oxidative mitigation of aquatic methane emissions in large Amazonian rivers.

    PubMed

    Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Bastviken, David; Sawakuchi, André O; Ward, Nicholas D; Borges, Clovis D; Tsai, Siu M; Richey, Jeffrey E; Ballester, Maria Victoria R; Krusche, Alex V

    2016-03-01

    The flux of methane (CH4 ) from inland waters to the atmosphere has a profound impact on global atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) levels, and yet, strikingly little is known about the dynamics controlling sources and sinks of CH4 in the aquatic setting. Here, we examine the cycling and flux of CH4 in six large rivers in the Amazon basin, including the Amazon River. Based on stable isotopic mass balances of CH4 , inputs and outputs to the water column were estimated. We determined that ecosystem methane oxidation (MOX) reduced the diffusive flux of CH4 by approximately 28-96% and varied depending on hydrologic regime and general geochemical characteristics of tributaries of the Amazon River. For example, the relative amount of MOX was maximal during high water in black and white water rivers and minimal in clear water rivers during low water. The abundance of genetic markers for methane-oxidizing bacteria (pmoA) was positively correlated with enhanced signals of oxidation, providing independent support for the detected MOX patterns. The results indicate that MOX in large Amazonian rivers can consume from 0.45 to 2.07 Tg CH4 yr(-1) , representing up to 7% of the estimated global soil sink. Nevertheless, climate change and changes in hydrology, for example, due to construction of dams, can alter this balance, influencing CH4 emissions to atmosphere. PMID:26872424

  4. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Evasion from Amazonian Rivers and Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Barbosa, P.; Schofield, V.; Amaral, J.; Forsberg, B.; Farjalla, V.

    2013-12-01

    Floodplains, with their mosaic of aquatic habitats, constitute the majority of the wetlands of South America. We report 1) estimates of CH4 and CO2 flux from Amazonian floodplain lakes and rivers during low, rising and high water periods, and 2) identify environmental factors regulating these fluxes. We sampled 10 floodplain lakes, 4 tributaries of Solimões River, 6 stations on the Solimões main stem and 1 station on the Madeira, Negro and Amazonas rivers. Diffusive fluxes were measured with static floating chambers. CH4 fluxes were highly variable, with the majority of the values lower than 5 mmol m-2 d-1. For the lakes, no significant differences among the periods were found. CH4 concentration in the water and water temperature were the two main environmental factors regulating the diffusive flux. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the spatial and temporal scales when estimating CH4 fluxes for a region. CO2 fluxes from water to atmosphere ranged between 327 and -21 mmol m-2 d-1, averaging 58 mmol m-2 d-1. We found higher evasion rates in lakes than in rivers. For both systems the lowest rates were found in low water. pH and dissolved oxygen, phosphorous and organic carbon were the main factors correlated to CO2 evasion from the water bodies.

  5. Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Mayorga, E; Aufdenkampe, A K; Masiello, C A; Krusche, A V; Hedges, J I; Quay, P D; Richey, J E; Brown, T A

    2005-06-23

    Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon fractions transported by these rivers range from tens to thousands of years in age. We therefore suggest that a small, rapidly cycling pool of organic carbon is responsible for the large carbon fluxes from land to water to atmosphere in the humid tropics.

  6. Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Emilio; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K; Masiello, Caroline A; Krusche, Alex V; Hedges, John I; Quay, Paul D; Richey, Jeffrey E; Brown, Thomas A

    2005-07-28

    Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition (13C and 14C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than five years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in medium to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon fractions transported by these rivers range from tens to thousands of years in age. We therefore suggest that a small, rapidly cycling pool of organic carbon is responsible for the large carbon fluxes from land to water to atmosphere in the humid tropics.

  7. The role of tectonics and climate in the late Quaternary evolution of a northern Amazonian River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Sawakuchi, André de Oliveira; Cohen, Marcelo Cancela Lisboa

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin has most of the largest rivers of the world. However, works focusing the geological evolution of the trunk river or its tributaries have been only partly approached. The Branco River constitutes one of the main northern Amazonian tributaries. A previous work proposed that, before flowing southward into the Negro-Amazon Rivers, the Branco River had a southwest to northeast course into the Caribbean Sea. The present work aimed to establish if the proposed change in the course of this river is supported by morphological and sedimentological data. Other goals were to discuss the factors influencing river development and establish its evolution over time within the chronological framework provided by radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating. The work considered the entire course of the Branco River downstream of the Precambrian Guiana Shield, where the river presumably did not exist in ancient times. The river valley is incised into fluvial sedimentary units displaying ages between 100 and 250 ky old, which record active and abandoned channels, crevasse splay/levees, and point bars. The sedimentary deposits in the valley include two alluvial plain units as old as 18.7 ky and which intersects a Late Pleistocene residual megafan. These characteristics suggest that a long segment of the Branco River was established only a few thousand years ago. Together with several structural anomalies, these data are consistent with a mega-capture at the middle reach of this river due to tectonic reactivation in the Late Pleistocene. This integrated approach can be applied to other Amazonian tributaries to unravel how and when the Amazonian drainage basin became established.

  8. Hybridization in headwater regions, and the role of rivers as drivers of speciation in Amazonian birds.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T; Faccio, Maya S; Pulido-Santacruz, Paola; Barrera-Guzmán, Alfredo O; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    Many understory birds and other groups form genetically differentiated subspecies or closely related species on opposite sides of major rivers of Amazonia, but are proposed to come into geographic contact in headwater regions where narrower river widths may present less of a dispersal barrier. Whether such forms hybridize in headwater regions is generally unknown, but has important implications to our understanding of the role of rivers as drivers of speciation. We used a dataset of several thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms to show that seven taxon pairs that differentiate across a major Amazonian river come into geographic contact and hybridize in headwater regions. All taxon pairs possessed hybrids with low numbers of loci in which alleles were inherited from both parental species, suggesting they are backcrossed with parentals, and indicating gene flow between parental populations. Ongoing gene flow challenges rivers as the sole cause of in situ speciation, but is compatible with the view that the wide river courses in the heart of Amazonia may have driven interfluvial divergence during episodes of wet forest retraction away from headwater regions. Taxa as old as 4 Ma in our Amazonian dataset continue to hybridize at contact zones, suggesting reproductive isolation evolves at a slow pace.

  9. Hybridization in headwater regions, and the role of rivers as drivers of speciation in Amazonian birds.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T; Faccio, Maya S; Pulido-Santacruz, Paola; Barrera-Guzmán, Alfredo O; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    Many understory birds and other groups form genetically differentiated subspecies or closely related species on opposite sides of major rivers of Amazonia, but are proposed to come into geographic contact in headwater regions where narrower river widths may present less of a dispersal barrier. Whether such forms hybridize in headwater regions is generally unknown, but has important implications to our understanding of the role of rivers as drivers of speciation. We used a dataset of several thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms to show that seven taxon pairs that differentiate across a major Amazonian river come into geographic contact and hybridize in headwater regions. All taxon pairs possessed hybrids with low numbers of loci in which alleles were inherited from both parental species, suggesting they are backcrossed with parentals, and indicating gene flow between parental populations. Ongoing gene flow challenges rivers as the sole cause of in situ speciation, but is compatible with the view that the wide river courses in the heart of Amazonia may have driven interfluvial divergence during episodes of wet forest retraction away from headwater regions. Taxa as old as 4 Ma in our Amazonian dataset continue to hybridize at contact zones, suggesting reproductive isolation evolves at a slow pace. PMID:26095719

  10. The influence of the Amazonian floodplain ecosystems on the trace element dynamics of the Amazon River mainstem (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Viers, Jérôme; Barroux, Guénaël; Pinelli, Marcello; Seyler, Patrick; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast the role of riverine wetlands in the transfer of trace elements. One of the largest riverine wetlands in the world is the floodplain (várzea) of the Amazon River and its tributaries (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The central Amazon wetlands are constituted by a complex network of lakes and floodplains, named várzeas, that extend over more than 300,000 km2 (Junk, W.J., The Amazon floodplain--a sink or source for organic carbon? In Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, edited by E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, R. Herrera, SCOPE/UNEP; 267-283, 1985.) and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world due to the regular enrichment in nutrients by river waters In order to understand if the adjacent floodplain of Amazon River have a significant influence on the trace element concentrations and fluxes of the mainstem, the concentrations of selected elements (i.e., Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U) have been measured in the Amazon River water (Manacapuru Station, Amazonas State, Brazil) and in lake waters and plants (leaves) from a várzea(Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas State, Brazil) during different periods of the hydrological cycle. Four plant species (two perennial species: Pseudobombax munguba and Salix humboldtiana, and two annual herbaceous plants: Echinochloa polystachya and Eichhornia crassipes) were selected to represent the ecological functioning of the site. Time series obtained for dissolved Mn and Cu (<0.20 microm) in Amazon River water could not be explained by tributary mixing or instream processes only. Therefore, the contribution of the waters transiting the floodplains should be considered. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters draining these floodplains is controlled by reactions occurring at sediment-water and plant-water interfaces. Trace elements concentrations in the plants (leaves) vary strongly with hydrological seasonality. Based on the concentration data

  11. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae) in Amazonian black water floodplains.

    PubMed

    Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Parolin, Pia; Junk, Wolfgang J

    2006-12-01

    Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae) is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and islands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari was analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha(-1). The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation) is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near Barcelos.

  12. Methane emissions from Amazonian Rivers and their contribution to the global methane budget.

    PubMed

    Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Bastviken, David; Sawakuchi, André O; Krusche, Alex V; Ballester, Maria V R; Richey, Jeffrey E

    2014-09-01

    Methane (CH4 ) fluxes from world rivers are still poorly constrained, with measurements restricted mainly to temperate climates. Additional river flux measurements, including spatio-temporal studies, are important to refine extrapolations. Here we assess the spatio-temporal variability of CH4 fluxes from the Amazon and its main tributaries, the Negro, Solimões, Madeira, Tapajós, Xingu, and Pará Rivers, based on direct measurements using floating chambers. Sixteen of 34 sites were measured during low and high water seasons. Significant differences were observed within sites in the same river and among different rivers, types of rivers, and seasons. Ebullition contributed to more than 50% of total emissions for some rivers. Considering only river channels, our data indicate that large rivers in the Amazon Basin release between 0.40 and 0.58 Tg CH4  yr(-1) . Thus, our estimates of CH4 flux from all tropical rivers and rivers globally were, respectively, 19-51% to 31-84% higher than previous estimates, with large rivers of the Amazon accounting for 22-28% of global river CH4 emissions.

  13. Methane emissions from Amazonian Rivers and their contribution to the global methane budget.

    PubMed

    Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Bastviken, David; Sawakuchi, André O; Krusche, Alex V; Ballester, Maria V R; Richey, Jeffrey E

    2014-09-01

    Methane (CH4 ) fluxes from world rivers are still poorly constrained, with measurements restricted mainly to temperate climates. Additional river flux measurements, including spatio-temporal studies, are important to refine extrapolations. Here we assess the spatio-temporal variability of CH4 fluxes from the Amazon and its main tributaries, the Negro, Solimões, Madeira, Tapajós, Xingu, and Pará Rivers, based on direct measurements using floating chambers. Sixteen of 34 sites were measured during low and high water seasons. Significant differences were observed within sites in the same river and among different rivers, types of rivers, and seasons. Ebullition contributed to more than 50% of total emissions for some rivers. Considering only river channels, our data indicate that large rivers in the Amazon Basin release between 0.40 and 0.58 Tg CH4  yr(-1) . Thus, our estimates of CH4 flux from all tropical rivers and rivers globally were, respectively, 19-51% to 31-84% higher than previous estimates, with large rivers of the Amazon accounting for 22-28% of global river CH4 emissions. PMID:24890429

  14. Wood growth patterns of Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) in Amazonian black-water and white-water floodplain forests.

    PubMed

    Schöngart, Jochen; Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Wittmann, Florian; Junk, Wolfgang J; Worbes, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) is a dominant legume tree species occurring at low elevations of nutrient-poor black-water (igapó) and nutrient-rich white-water floodplain forests (várzea) of Amazonia. As a consequence of the annual long-term flooding this species forms distinct annual tree rings allowing dendrochronological analyses. From both floodplain types in Central Amazonia we sampled cores from 20 large canopy trees growing at identical elevations with a flood-height up to 7 m. We determined tree age, wood density (WD) and mean radial increment (MRI) and synchronized ring-width patterns of single trees to construct tree-ring chronologies for every study site. Maximum tree age found in the igapó was more than 500 years, contrary to the várzea with ages not older than 200 years. MRI and WD were significantly lower in the igapó (MRI=1.52+/-0.38 mm year(-1), WD=0.39+/-0.05 g cm(-3)) than in the várzea (MRI=2.66+/-0.67 mm year(-1), WD=0.45+/-0.03 g cm(-3)). In both floodplain forests we developed tree-ring chronologies comprising the period 1857-2003 (n=7 trees) in the várzea and 1606-2003 (n=13 trees) in the igapó. The ring-width in both floodplain forests was significantly correlated with the length of the terrestrial phase (vegetation period) derived from the daily recorded water level in the port of Manaus since 1903. In both chronologies we found increased wood growth during El Niño events causing negative precipitation anomalies and a lower water discharge in Amazonian rivers, which leads to an extension of the terrestrial phase. The climate signal of La Niña was not evident in the dendroclimatic proxies.

  15. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Orangel; Lundberg, John; Birindelli, Jose; Sabaj Pérez, Mark; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  16. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Orangel; Lundberg, John; Birindelli, Jose; Sabaj Pérez, Mark; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers. PMID:24098778

  17. Palaeontological Evidence for the Last Temporal Occurrence of the Ancient Western Amazonian River Outflow into the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Orangel; Lundberg, John; Birindelli, Jose; Sabaj Pérez, Mark; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2013-01-01

    Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers. PMID:24098778

  18. Influence of deforestation on the future of the Amazonian climate and water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, Quentin; Davin, Edouard; Guillod, Benoit; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    , submitted to Climate Dynamics, Influence of deforestation on the future of the Amazonian climate and water cycle

  19. Uranium in river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1993-10-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 [times] 10[sup 7] mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load.

  20. Simulating drought impacts on energy and water dynamics in Amazonian rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Costa, M. H.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B.; Powell, T.; Levine, N. M.; Rowland, L.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Meir, P.; da Costa, A.; Brando, P. M.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Harper, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    The studies of the interaction between vegetation and climate change in the Amazon Basin indicate that up to half of region's forests may be displaced by savanna vegetation by the end of the century. Additional analyses suggest that complex interactions between land use, fire-frequency, and episodic drought are driving an even more rapid process of forest impoverishment and displacement referred to here as "savannization". But is not clear whether surface/ecosystem models are suitable to analyse extreme events like a drought. A long-term observations of energy and water in a throughfall exclusion experiments have provided unique insights into the energy and water dynamics of Amazonian rainforests during drought conditions. In this study, we evaluate how well the four surface/ecosystem models (CLM-DGVM, ED 2.0, IBIS and JULES) quantify the energy and water dynamics from two Amazonian throughfall exclusion experiments. All models was run for the Tapajos and Caxiuana sites with one baseline year using normal precipitation (i.e. do not impose a drought) and then the drought manipulation was impose for several drought level (10 to 90% rainfall exclusion). To analyse if the models are able to capture dynamics of stress and what is the implications for the energy and water dynamics the sapflow, soil moisture, sensible and latent heat flux are use to compare the models simulations and the throughfall exclusion experiments. We find that models are sensible to drought effects when they simulate the energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat), but the water dynamic is not well capture by the models.

  1. Simulating drought impacts on energy and water balance in an Amazonian rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Costa, M. H.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B. J.; Powell, T.; Harper, A. B.; Levine, N. M.; Rowland, L.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Meir, P.; da Costa, A. L.; Brando, P. M.; Wang, J.; Bras, R. L.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Williams, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    The studies of the interaction between vegetation and climate change in the Amazon Basin indicate that up to half of the region's forests may be displaced by savanna vegetation by the end of the century. Additional analyses suggest that complex interactions among land use, fire-frequency, and episodic drought are driving an even more rapid process of the forest impoverishment and displacement referred here as "savannization". But it is not clear whether surface/ecosystem models are suitable to analyze extreme events like a drought. A long-term observation of energy and water in throughfall exclusion experiments has provided unique insights into the energy and water dynamics of Amazonian rainforests during drought conditions. In this study, we will evaluate how well the six surface/ecosystem models (CLM-DGVM, ED 2.0, IBIS, JULES, SiB and SPA) quantify the energy and water dynamics from two Amazonian throughfall exclusion experiments. All models were run for the Tapajós and Caixuana sites with one baseline year using normal precipitation (i.e. do not impose a drought) and then the drought manipulation was imposed for several drought levels (10 to 90% rainfall exclusion). The sap flow, soil moisture, sensible and latent heat flux will be used to analyze if the models are able to capture dynamics of stress and what the implications for the energy and water dynamics are. We find that models are sensible to drought effects when they simulate the energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat), but the water dynamic is not well capture by the models.

  2. Floodplain Modulation of Solute Fluxes from Mountainous Regions: the Amazonian Madre de Dios River Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. A.; West, A. J.; Baronas, J. J.; Ponton, C.; Clark, K. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    In many large river systems, solutes released by chemical weathering in mountainous regions are transported through floodplains before being discharged into the ocean. Chemical reactions within floodplains can both add and remove solutes, significantly modulating fluxes. Despite their importance in the relationship between tectonic uplift and solute fluxes to the ocean, many aspects of floodplain processes are poorly constrained since the chemistry of large rivers is also significantly affected by the mixing between multiple tributaries, which makes the separation and quantification of floodplain processes challenging. Here we explore how floodplain processes affect a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system in Peru. To separate floodplain processes from conservative mixing, we developed a tributary mixing model that uses water isotopic ratios and chloride concentrations measured in each tributary and upstream and downstream of each tributary confluence for all major tributaries along a floodplain reach. The results of the tributary mixing model allow for the chemical composition of the mainstem of the Madre de Dios River to be modeled assuming completely conservative mixing. Differences between the modeled and measured chemical composition of the mainstem are then used to identify and quantify the effects of floodplain processes on different solutes. Our results show that during both the wet and dry seasons, Li is removed and Ca, Mg, and Sr are added to the dissolved load during floodplain transit. Other solutes, like Na and SO4, appear to behave conservatively during floodplain transit. Likely, the removal of Li from the dissolved load reflects the precipitation of secondary silicate minerals in the floodplain. The release of Ca, Mg, and Sr likely reflects the dissolution of detrital carbonate minerals. Our analyses also show that tributaries with Andean headwaters contribute disproportionately to solute budgets while the water budget

  3. Understanding the relationship between rainfall and river discharge: trends in an Amazonian watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, Rodolfo; Guzha, Alphonce; Freire, Paula; Santos, Celso; Gerold, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    A research challenge in the Amazon rainforest is to understand different environmental patterns in a five million km2 region which with poor and/or unavailable environmental data. Deforestation and degradation in this forest have motivated intense monitoring activities in order to understand its impact and support the formulation of sustainable environmental policies. Time series analysis of hydrologic data is often use as a tool to evaluate watershed responses to climatic and anthropogenic influences. In this study, trend analysis of stream discharge from a 35600 km² watershed (Curuá River), located in southern Amazon was performed using 31 years discharge and rainfall data (1976-2006). The Curuá River is a tributary of Xingu River, site of the controversial Belo Monte dam. The aim of this work was to investigate the temporal variability of discharge, in relation to associated rainfall variability in order to contribute to a better understanding of the hydrological status of the watershed. The Mann Kendall non parametric tests were performed on daily, seasonal and annual discharge data. Frequency analysis using wavelet transform was also done, and annual and seasonal rainfall data was analyzed and correlated to discharge. Results from this study indicate decreasing trends in discharge (intra- and inter-annual) but while there is no evidence of a decreasing trend in in rainfall. Further interpretation of the data for possible causes of discharge changes is needed at the local study level, and implications of these results discussed in the context of climate change, deforestation and water resource management (including dam's constructions last decades). Results from this study do not confirm findings from other regional scale trend analyses, and therefore is it important to quantify the spatial extension of these decreasing stream flow trends in the Amazonia.

  4. Unique meteorite from early Amazonian Mars: water-rich basaltic breccia Northwest Africa 7034.

    PubMed

    Agee, Carl B; Wilson, Nicole V; McCubbin, Francis M; Ziegler, Karen; Polyak, Victor J; Sharp, Zachary D; Asmerom, Yemane; Nunn, Morgan H; Shaheen, Robina; Thiemens, Mark H; Steele, Andrew; Fogel, Marilyn L; Bowden, Roxane; Glamoclija, Mihaela; Zhang, Zhisheng; Elardo, Stephen M

    2013-02-15

    We report data on the martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034, which shares some petrologic and geochemical characteristics with known martian meteorites of the SNC (i.e., shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite) group, but also has some unique characteristics that would exclude it from that group. NWA 7034 is a geochemically enriched crustal rock compositionally similar to basalts and average martian crust measured by recent Rover and Orbiter missions. It formed 2.089 ± 0.081 billion years ago, during the early Amazonian epoch in Mars' geologic history. NWA 7034 has an order of magnitude more indigenous water than most SNC meteorites, with up to 6000 parts per million extraterrestrial H(2)O released during stepped heating. It also has bulk oxygen isotope values of Δ(17)O = 0.58 ± 0.05 per mil and a heat-released water oxygen isotope average value of Δ(17)O = 0.330 ± 0.011 per mil, suggesting the existence of multiple oxygen reservoirs on Mars.

  5. Unique meteorite from early Amazonian Mars: water-rich basaltic breccia Northwest Africa 7034.

    PubMed

    Agee, Carl B; Wilson, Nicole V; McCubbin, Francis M; Ziegler, Karen; Polyak, Victor J; Sharp, Zachary D; Asmerom, Yemane; Nunn, Morgan H; Shaheen, Robina; Thiemens, Mark H; Steele, Andrew; Fogel, Marilyn L; Bowden, Roxane; Glamoclija, Mihaela; Zhang, Zhisheng; Elardo, Stephen M

    2013-02-15

    We report data on the martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034, which shares some petrologic and geochemical characteristics with known martian meteorites of the SNC (i.e., shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite) group, but also has some unique characteristics that would exclude it from that group. NWA 7034 is a geochemically enriched crustal rock compositionally similar to basalts and average martian crust measured by recent Rover and Orbiter missions. It formed 2.089 ± 0.081 billion years ago, during the early Amazonian epoch in Mars' geologic history. NWA 7034 has an order of magnitude more indigenous water than most SNC meteorites, with up to 6000 parts per million extraterrestrial H(2)O released during stepped heating. It also has bulk oxygen isotope values of Δ(17)O = 0.58 ± 0.05 per mil and a heat-released water oxygen isotope average value of Δ(17)O = 0.330 ± 0.011 per mil, suggesting the existence of multiple oxygen reservoirs on Mars. PMID:23287721

  6. Nutrient fluctuations in the Quatipuru river: A macrotidal estuarine mangrove system in the Brazilian Amazonian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamplona, Fábio Campos; Paes, Eduardo Tavares; Nepomuceno, Aguinaldo

    2013-11-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43- and DSi), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), nutrient ratios, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were evaluated for the macrotidal estuarine mangrove system of the Quatipuru river (QUATIES), east Amazon coast, North Brazil. Temporal variability was assessed by fortnightly sampling at a fixed station within the middle portion of the estuary, from November 2009 to November 2010. Spatial variability was investigated from two field surveys conducted in November 2009 (dry season) and May 2010 (rainy season), along the salinity gradient of the system. The average DIN (NO3- + NO2- + NH4+) concentration of 9 μM in the dry season was approximately threefold greater in comparison to the rainy season. NH4+ was the main form of DIN in the dry season, while NO3- predominated in the rainy season. The NH4+ concentrations in the water column during the dry season are largely attributed to release by tidal wash-out of the anoxic interstitial waters of the surficial mangrove sediments. On the other hand, the higher NO3- levels during the wet season, suggested that both freshwater inputs and nitrification processes in the water column acted in concert. The river PO43- concentrations (DIP < 1 μM) were low and similar throughout the year. DIN was thus responsible for the major temporal and spatial variability of the dissolved DIN:DIP (N:P) molar ratios and nitrogen corresponded, in general, to the prime limiting nutrient for the sustenance of phytoplankton biomass in the estuary. During the dry season, P-limitation was detected in the upper estuary. PO43- adsorption to SPM was detected during the rainy season and desorption during the dry season along the salinity gradient. In general, the average Chl-a level (14.8 μg L-1) was 2.5 times higher in the rainy season than in the dry season (5.9 μg L-1). On average levels reached maxima at about 14 km from

  7. Regional distribution of mercury in sediments of the main rivers of French Guiana (Amazonian basin).

    PubMed

    Laperche, Valérie; Hellal, Jennifer; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Joseph, Bernard; Laporte, Pierre; Breeze, Dominique; Blanchard, François

    2014-01-01

    Use of mercury (Hg) for gold-mining in French Guiana (up until 2006) as well as the presence of naturally high background levels in soils, has led to locally high concentrations in soils and sediments. The present study maps the levels of Hg concentrations in river sediments from five main rivers of French Guiana (Approuague River, Comté River, Mana River, Maroni River and Oyapock River) and their tributaries, covering more than 5 450 km of river with 1 211 sampling points. The maximum geological background Hg concentration, estimated from 241 non-gold-mined streams across French Guiana was 150 ng g(-1). Significant differences were measured between the five main rivers as well as between all gold-mining and pristine areas, giving representative data of the Hg increase due to past gold-mining activities. These results give a unique large scale vision of Hg contamination in river sediments of French Guiana and provide fundamental data on Hg distribution in pristine and gold-mined areas.

  8. Extension of the geographic range of Ateles chamek (Primates, Atelidae): evidence of river-barrier crossing by an amazonian primate.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Rafael Magalhães; Silva, Felipe Ennes; Vieira, Tatiana; Ferreira-Ferreira, Jefferson; Paim, Fernanda Pozzan; Dutra, Wallace; de Souza e Silva Júnior, José; Valsecchi, João

    2014-04-01

    The black-faced black spider monkey (Ateles chamek) is endangered because of hunting and habitat loss. There are many gaps in our understanding of its geographic distribution. The Ucayali-Solimões-Amazon fluvial complex is currently recognized as the northern boundary of the species' range, although published reports have indicated that it occurs north of the Rio Solimões. In this study we investigate published records, generate new field records, and assess the current information concerning the northern boundary of this species' range. We conducted the study at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve in the central Brazilian Amazon, an area of 1,124,000 ha that consists entirely of Amazonian flooded forest (várzea). We collected data on the occurrence of the species from museum specimens and through field surveys, including interviews with local residents, direct observations, and the collection of new museum specimens. We confirmed the presence of A. chamek at 17 locations in the reserve, one of which was an island formed by a river bend cut-off that would have effectively taken any resident spider to the (new) north bank of the Solimões. We therefore conclude that fluvial dynamics were involved in creating the conditions for the dispersal and colonization of the species on the northern bank of the Rio Solimões. The data we present extends the known distribution of the species and increases its representation in protected areas.

  9. Biochemical and behavioral responses of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum to crude oil: the effect of oil layer on water surface.

    PubMed

    Kochhann, Daiani; Meyersieck Jardim, Manoela; Valdez Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The largest Brazilian terrestrial province of petroleum mining is located at the margins of Urucu River, Amazonas. Mined crude oil is transported along 400 km across Solimões River to be refined in Manaus. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude oil exposure on biochemical, physiological and behavioral parameters of juveniles of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The toxicity of water-soluble and insoluble oil fractions and the influence of a layer formed by the oil on the water surface from low and high concentrations of crude oil were analyzed. The results showed a strong physical effect of oil at the water surface and a significant effect on fish behavior. Swimming time and response to alarm substance decreased when fish was exposed for just one day to water insoluble fraction, and remain lower after 30 days of exposure, compared to control. Chronic exposure to water insoluble fraction of the inert oil also affected these two parameters. Critical swimming velocity decreased in fish exposed to both crude and inert oil water insoluble fraction. These reductions are possibly related to a decrease in aerobic capacity. Only exposure to high concentrations of petroleum water-soluble fractions induced transient alterations of the analyzed parameters. The exposure of fish to low and high concentrations of water insoluble fraction of Urucu oil caused a reduction of responses to alarm substance, spontaneous swimming activity and swimming capacity (Ucrit), decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase. Severe hypertrophy of lamellar epithelium and extensive lamellar fusion of the gills were also observed. Overall, these results show significant behavioral and physiological changes caused by the oil layer on the water surface, which means that toxicity of petroleum produced by its chemical components is, in fact, in this fish species, enhanced by the presence of an oil phase as a

  10. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish. PMID:26205230

  11. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  12. Human modification of a large meandering Amazonian river: genesis, ecological and economic consequences of the Masisea cutoff on the central Ucayali, Peru.

    PubMed

    Coomes, Oliver T; Abizaid, Christian; Lapointe, Michel

    2009-05-01

    Evidence is mounting regarding the significant extent and scope of long-term human modification of "pristine nature" in the neotropics. In Amazonia, recent studies point to the landscape imprint of human activity that has transformed the forests, savannas, soils, and waterways of the basin. In this report, we describe a massive meander cutoff in the Peruvian Amazon along the Ucayali River--the fifth-longest river in the Amazon basin--that was triggered by small-scale human actions and resulted in significant ecological and economic consequences for the region. The modern case of the Masisea cutoff-near the Amazonian port city of Pucallpa, Peru (285,000 inhabitants)-indicates that humans using simple tools can play a major role in transforming large meandering rivers and their floodplains.

  13. Pecos River Water Management Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

  14. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Richey, Jeffrey E; Melack, John M; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K; Ballester, Victoria M; Hess, Laura L

    2002-04-11

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the humid tropics play a potentially important but presently ambiguous role in the global carbon cycle. Whereas global estimates of atmospheric CO2 exchange indicate that the tropics are near equilibrium or are a source with respect to carbon, ground-based estimates indicate that the amount of carbon that is being absorbed by mature rainforests is similar to or greater than that being released by tropical deforestation (about 1.6 Gt C yr-1). Estimates of the magnitude of carbon sequestration are uncertain, however, depending on whether they are derived from measurements of gas fluxes above forests or of biomass accumulation in vegetation and soils. It is also possible that methodological errors may overestimate rates of carbon uptake or that other loss processes have yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that outgassing (evasion) of CO2 from rivers and wetlands of the central Amazon basin constitutes an important carbon loss process, equal to 1.2 +/- 0.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. This carbon probably originates from organic matter transported from upland and flooded forests, which is then respired and outgassed downstream. Extrapolated across the entire basin, this flux-at 0.5 Gt C yr-1-is an order of magnitude greater than fluvial export of organic carbon to the ocean. From these findings, we suggest that the overall carbon budget of rainforests, summed across terrestrial and aquatic environments, appears closer to being in balance than would be inferred from studies of uplands alone.

  15. Optical water quality in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, J. P.; Doyle, M. W.; Powers, S. M.; Stanley, E. H.; Riggsbee, J. A.

    2008-10-01

    Optical water quality (OWQ) governs the quantity and quality of light in aquatic ecosystems, and thus spatiotemporal changes in OWQ affect many biotic and abiotic processes. Despite the fundamental role of light in rivers, studies on riverine OWQ have been limited and mostly descriptive. Here we provide a comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the controls and spatiotemporal dynamics of riverine OWQ, focusing on the inherent optical properties (IOPs), which are those that are only affected by water constituents and not by changes in the solar radiation field. First, we briefly review the constituents attenuating light in rivers. Second, we develop a new method for partitioning (light) beam attenuation into its constituent fractions. This method distinguishes between absorption and scattering by dissolved and particulate constituents, and further isolates particulates into mineral and organic components. Third, we compare base flow IOPs between four rivers with vastly different physical characteristics to illustrate intersite variability. Fourth, we analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of IOPs for the four rivers. Fifth, we quantify a longitudinal water clarity budget for one of the rivers. Finally, available data are synthesized to identify general spatial trends robust across broad geographic areas. Temporal trends in IOPs were largely dictated by storm frequency, while spatial trends were largely dictated by channel network configuration. Generally, water clarity decreased with increasing discharge primarily owing to greater scattering by particulates and secondarily to greater absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Water clarity also generally decreased longitudinally along the river owing to increased particulate inputs from tributaries; however, for pear-shaped, dendritic basins, water clarity reached a minimum at ˜70% of the channel length and then increased. By illustrating the controls and spatiotemporal variability of riverine OWQ

  16. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  17. The economic value of Trinity River water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Trinity River, largest tributary of the Klamath River, has its head-waters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel, a manmade conduit. Hydropower is produced at four installations along the route of Trinity River water that is diverted to the Sacramento River, and power production at three of these installations would diminish if no Trinity River water were diverted to the Sacramento River. After Trinity River water reaches the Sacramento River, it flows toward the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay. Trinity River water is pumped via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The social cost of putting more water down the Trinity River is the sum of the value of the foregone consumer surplus from hydropower production as well as the value of the foregone irrigation water. Sharply diminished instream flows have also severely affected the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad and sturgeon runs. Survey data were used to estimate the non-market benefits of augmenting Trinity River instream flows by letting more water flow down the Trinity and moving less water to the Sacramento River. Preservation benefits for Trinity River instream flows and fish runs are $803 million per annum for the scenario that returns the most water down the Trinity River, a value that greatly exceeds the social cost estimate.The Trinity River, largest tributary of the Klamath River, has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel, a manmade conduit. Hydropower is produced at four installations along the route of Trinity River water that is diverted to the

  18. Young Valley Networks on Mars: Persistent Flow of Water in Lyot Crater, a Distinctive Amazonian Impact Basin Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, J.; Fassett, C.; Head, J.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction While Amazonian fluvial landforms are not abundant on Mars, remote sensing data have revealed details regarding the role of ice in non-polar regions in the Amazonian. Evidence includes 1) deposits interpreted to be remnants of cold-based glaciers at low- and mid-latitudes [1-6]; 2) mantling deposits interpreted to be a desiccating layer of ground ice [7- 8]; 3) detection of hydrogen (inferred to be bound as water ice) in soil in the mid- and high-latitudes in each hemisphere [9-10]; and 4) viscous flow features interpreted to be the product of glacial-like flow along steep valley/crater walls [11-12]. The climate of Mars straddles the triple point, which motivated us to investigate the most-likely locations/microclimates for melting of these surface/near-surface ice features [13-14]: large-scale impact craters at low elevations and mid-latitudes, which provide 1) relatively high surface pressure; 2) increased solor insolation; and 3) potential residual thermal anomalies from the impact event. Lyot Crater, a ~215 km peak-ring impact basin in the northern lowlands of Mars (50°N, 30°E), provides an environment that meets these constraints. We analyzed recently obtained CTX data to document evidence of remnant glacial deposits and surface features that appear indicative of melting and drainage. Description The floor of Lyot exhibits several networks of sinuous valleys that have been incised exclusively into a pervasive stippled mantling unit (Fig. 1). Twenty separate networks are observed in CTX and THEMIS data, 15 of which occur in the eastern half of Lyot. The valleys range in length from short, 2 km long isolated valleys to 50 km long networks of multiple valleys that have widths that average ~250 m. Valley floors are smooth at CTX resolution, in contrast to the adjacent stippled mantling unit (Fig. 1). Profiles extracted from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data set show that, without exception, the valleys follow the local topographic

  19. A NEW SPECIES OF Bolivar Zaldívar-Riverón et Rodríguez-Jiménez (BRACONIDAE, DORYCTINAE) FROM BRAZIL, WITH NEW RECORDS OF THE AMAZONIAN B. ecuadorensis Zaldívar-Riverón et López-Estrada.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Juliano Fiorelini; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria; Souza-Gadelha, Sian De; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the doryctine genus Bolivar (Braconidae), B. brasiliensis sp. nov., is described from the Atlantic coastal region in Brazil. New records and taxonomic notes of the Amazonian B. ecuadorensis Zaldívar-Riverón et López-Estrada are also provided. PMID:27394864

  20. Quaternary geology of the Amazonian Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irion, Georg; Müller, Jens; Nunes de Mello, Jose; Junk, Wolfgang J.

    1995-09-01

    The Quaternary history of the Amazon lowlands is characterized by deposition of sediments of Andean provenance and by the influences of changing sea levels. Areas well above the present water tables were not reached by Pleistocene high-water stages. These areas have been intensively weathered since the Tertiary, forming hard lateritic weathering horizons. These weathering horizons are best explained by the relatively constant, humid tropical climate throughout the Quaternary. In the western Amazonian Lowland, flood plains corresponding to the different Pleistocene sea-level heights were formed. During low sea level, erosion in the drainage areas increased and the water levels of the central Amazon River system were lowered. Valleys drowned and lakes formed in the lower reaches of rivers and creeks during high sea-level stages. These lakes (ria lakes) remained in the valleys with rivers having a low sediment load. Seismic profiling (3.5 kHz) in some of these lakes clearly showed deposits of the three last periods of Quaternary high sea-level stages.

  1. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  2. Responses of an Amazonian teleost, the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), to low pH in extremely soft water.

    PubMed

    Wood, C M; Wilson, R W; Gonzalez, R J; Patrick, M L; Bergman, H L; Narahara, A; Val, A L

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to compare the internal physiological responses to acid challenge in an acidophilic tropical teleost endemic to dilute low-pH waters with those in nonacidophilic temperate species such as salmonids, which have been the subjects of most previous investigations. The Amazonian tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), which migrates between circumneutral water and dilute acidic "blackwater" of the Rio Negro, was exposed to a graded low-pH and recovery regime in representative soft water (Na+ = 15, Cl- = 16, Ca2+ = 20 mumol L-1). Fish were fitted with arterial catheters for repetitive blood sampling. Water pH was altered from 6.5 (control) to 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, and back to 6.5 (recovery) on successive days. Some deaths occurred at pH 3.0. Throughout the regime, there were no disturbances of blood gases (O2 and CO2 tensions and contents) or lactate levels, and only very minor changes in acid-base status of plasma and red cells. However, erythrocytic guanylate and adenylate levels increased at pH's less than or equal to 5.0. Down to pH 4.0, plasma glucose, cortisol, and total ammonia levels remained constant, but all increased at pH 3.0, denoting a stress response. Plasma Na+ and Cl- levels declined and plasma protein concentration increased at pH 3.0, indicative of ionoregulatory and fluid volume disturbance, and neither recovered upon return to pH 6.5. Cortisol and ammonia elevations also persisted. Transepithelial potential changed progressively from highly negative values (inside) at pH 6.5 to highly positive values at pH 3.0; these alterations were fully reversible. Experimental elevations in water calcium levels drove the transepithelial potential positive at circumneutral pH, attenuated or prevented changes in transepithelial potential at low pH, and reduced Na+ and Cl- loss rates to the water during acute low-pH challenges. In general, tambaqui exhibited responses to low pH that were qualitatively similar but quantitatively more resistant than those previously

  3. Ion and acid-base balance in three species of Amazonian fish during gradual acidification of extremely soft water.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R W; Wood, C M; Gonzalez, R J; Patrick, M L; Bergman, H L; Narahara, A; Val, A L

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity to acid water was assessed in three species of Amazonian fish that encounter naturally acidic blackwaters to differing degrees in the wild: tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), matrincha (Brycon erythropterum), and tamoatá (Hoplosternum littorale), in decreasing order of occurrence in blackwater. Fish were exposed to a graded reduction in water pH, from pH 6 to 5 to 4 to 3.5, followed by return to pH 6. Fish were exposed to each new pH for 24 h. During these exposures, net transfers of ions (Na+, K+, Cl-, and Ca2+) and acid-base equivalents to and from the external water were used as physiological indicators of acid tolerance. Exposure to pH 5 had a minimal effect on net ion fluxes. Significant net losses of all ions (except Ca2+) were recorded in all three species during the first few hours of exposure to pH 4. However, ion balance was usually restored within 18 h at pH 4. Exposure to pH 3.5 caused even greater ion losses in all three species and proved to be acutely lethal to tamoatá. Matrincha sustained irreversible physiological damage at pH 3.5, as ion fluxes did not recover following return to pH 6 and there was some mortality. Tambaqui suffered the least ionoregulatory disturbances at pH 3.5 and was the only species to make a full recovery on return to pH 6. In all species, there was a tendency for ammonia excretion to increase at low water pH, but even at pH 3.5, there was no significant net uptake of acid from the water. Overall, there was a strong relationship between the magnitude of ionic disturbances and the lethality of exposure to low pH. The relative insensitivity of the ionoregulatory system of tambaqui to low pH indicates that this is a feature of fish native to blackwater systems rather than one that is common to all Amazon fish.

  4. Evidence from Amazonian forests is consistent with isohydric control of leaf water potential.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rosie A; Williams, Mathew; Do Vale, Raquel Lobo; Da Costa, Antonio Lola; Meir, Patrick

    2006-02-01

    Climate modelling studies predict that the rain forests of the Eastern Amazon basin are likely to experience reductions in rainfall of up to 50% over the next 50-100 years. Efforts to predict the effects of changing climate, especially drought stress, on forest gas exchange are currently limited by uncertainty about the mechanism that controls stomatal closure in response to low soil moisture. At a through-fall exclusion experiment in Eastern Amazonia where water was experimentally excluded from the soil, we tested the hypothesis that plants are isohydric, that is, when water is scarce, the stomata act to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical threshold level. We made diurnal measurements of leaf water potential (psi 1), stomatal conductance (g(s)), sap flow and stem water potential (psi stem) in the wet and dry seasons. We compared the data with the predictions of the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) model, which embeds the isohydric hypothesis within its stomatal conductance algorithm. The model inputs for meteorology, leaf area index (LAI), soil water potential and soil-to-leaf hydraulic resistance (R) were altered between seasons in accordance with measured values. No optimization parameters were used to adjust the model. This 'mechanistic' model of stomatal function was able to explain the individual tree-level seasonal changes in water relations (r2 = 0.85, 0.90 and 0.58 for psi 1, sap flow and g(s), respectively). The model indicated that the measured increase in R was the dominant cause of restricted water use during the dry season, resulting in a modelled restriction of sap flow four times greater than that caused by reduced soil water potential. Higher resistance during the dry season resulted from an increase in below-ground resistance (including root and soil-to-root resistance) to water flow.

  5. Life form-specific variations in leaf water oxygen-18 enrichment in Amazonian vegetation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Ometto, Jean P H B; Berry, Joseph A; Martinelli, Luiz A; Domingues, Tomas F; Ehleringer, James R

    2008-08-01

    Leaf water (18)O enrichment (Delta(o)) influences the isotopic composition of both gas exchange and organic matter, with Delta(o) values responding to changes in atmospheric parameters. In order to examine possible influences of plant parameters on Delta(o) dynamics, we measured oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of leaf and stem water on plant species representing different life forms in Amazonia forest and pasture ecosystems. We conducted two field experiments: one in March (wet season) and another in September (dry season) 2004. In each experiment, leaf and stem samples were collected at 2-h intervals at night and hourly during the day for 50 h from eight species including upper-canopy forest trees, upper-canopy forest lianas, and lower-canopy forest trees, a C(4) pasture grass and a C(3) pasture shrub. Significant life form-related differences were detected in (18)O leaf water values. Initial modeling efforts to explain these observations over-predicted nighttime Delta(o) values by as much as 10 per thousand. Across all species, errors associated with measured values of the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor (delta(v)) appeared to be largely responsible for the over-predictions of nighttime Delta(o) observations. We could not eliminate collection or storage of water vapor samples as a possible error and therefore developed an alternative, plant-based method for estimating the daily average delta(v) value in the absence of direct (reliable) measurements. This approach differs from the common assumption that isotopic equilibrium exists between water vapor and precipitation water, by including transpiration-based contributions from local vegetation through (18)O measurements of bulk leaf water. Inclusion of both modified delta(v) and non-steady state features resulted in model predictions that more reliably predicted both the magnitude and temporal patterns observed in the data. The influence of life form-specific patterns of Delta(o) was incorporated through

  6. An integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture in Amazonian fresh water.

    PubMed

    Gilles, S; Ismiño, R; Sánchez, H; David, F; Núñez, J; Dugué, R; Darias, M J; Römer, U

    2014-08-01

    A prototype of an integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture was developed in Iquitos (Peruvian Amazonia) in order to cultivate the Tiger Catfish, Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855). This freshwater recirculating system consisted of two linked sewage tanks with an intensive rearing unit (a cage) for P. punctifer placed in the first, and with a fish-plankton trophic chain replacing the filters commonly used in clear water closed systems. Detritivorous and zooplanktivorous fishes (Loricariidae and Cichlidae), maintained without external feeding in the sewage volume, mineralized organic matter and permitted the stabilization of the phytoplankton biomass. Water exchange and organic waste discharge were not necessary. In this paper we describe the processes undertaken to equilibrate this ecosystem: first the elimination of an un-adapted spiny alga, Golenkinia sp., whose proliferation was favored by the presence of a small rotifer, Trichocerca sp., and second the control of this rotifer proliferation via the introduction of two cichlid species, Acaronia nassa Heckel, 1840 and Satanoperca jurupari Heckel, 1840, in the sewage part. This favored some development of the green algae Nannochloris sp. and Chlorella sp. At that time we took the opportunity to begin a 3-month rearing test of P. punctifer. The mean specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of P. punctifer were 1.43 and 1.27, respectively, and the global FCR, including fish in the sewage part, was 1.08. This system has proven to be suitable for growing P. punctifer juveniles out to adult, and provides several practical advantages compared with traditional recirculating clear water systems, which use a combination of mechanical and biological filters and require periodic waste removal, leading to water and organic matter losses.

  7. An integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture in Amazonian fresh water.

    PubMed

    Gilles, S; Ismiño, R; Sánchez, H; David, F; Núñez, J; Dugué, R; Darias, M J; Römer, U

    2014-08-01

    A prototype of an integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture was developed in Iquitos (Peruvian Amazonia) in order to cultivate the Tiger Catfish, Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855). This freshwater recirculating system consisted of two linked sewage tanks with an intensive rearing unit (a cage) for P. punctifer placed in the first, and with a fish-plankton trophic chain replacing the filters commonly used in clear water closed systems. Detritivorous and zooplanktivorous fishes (Loricariidae and Cichlidae), maintained without external feeding in the sewage volume, mineralized organic matter and permitted the stabilization of the phytoplankton biomass. Water exchange and organic waste discharge were not necessary. In this paper we describe the processes undertaken to equilibrate this ecosystem: first the elimination of an un-adapted spiny alga, Golenkinia sp., whose proliferation was favored by the presence of a small rotifer, Trichocerca sp., and second the control of this rotifer proliferation via the introduction of two cichlid species, Acaronia nassa Heckel, 1840 and Satanoperca jurupari Heckel, 1840, in the sewage part. This favored some development of the green algae Nannochloris sp. and Chlorella sp. At that time we took the opportunity to begin a 3-month rearing test of P. punctifer. The mean specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of P. punctifer were 1.43 and 1.27, respectively, and the global FCR, including fish in the sewage part, was 1.08. This system has proven to be suitable for growing P. punctifer juveniles out to adult, and provides several practical advantages compared with traditional recirculating clear water systems, which use a combination of mechanical and biological filters and require periodic waste removal, leading to water and organic matter losses. PMID:24849417

  8. Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. Water quality in Lis river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Judite; Fonseca, André; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S

    2012-12-01

    In the past 30 years, the Lis river basin has been subjected to constant ecological disasters mainly due to piggery untreated wastewater discharges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of existing domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities on the water quality, and to propose a watershed plan to protect and manage surface water resources within the Lis river basin. For this purpose, 16 monitoring stations have been strategically selected along the Lis river stretch and its main tributaries to evaluate the water quality in six different sampling periods (2003–2006). All samples were characterized in terms of organic material, nutrients, chlorophyll, and pathogenic bacteria. Generally, the Lis river presents poor water quality, according to environmental quality standards for surface water, principally in terms of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and fecal coliform, which can be associated mainly with the contamination source from pig-breeding farms. PMID:22286837

  10. Effects of water and nutrient availability on fine root growth in eastern Amazonian forest regrowth, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Tâmara Thaiz Santana; Miranda, Izildinha Souza; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva

    2010-08-01

    *Fine root dynamics is widely recognized as an important biogeochemical process, but there are few data on fine root growth and its response to soil resource availability, especially for tropical forests. *We evaluated the response of fine root dynamics to altered availability of soil water and nutrients in a 20-yr-old forest regrowth in eastern Amazonia. In one experiment the dry season reduction in soil moisture was alleviated by irrigation. In the other experiment, nutrient supply was reduced by litter removal. We used the ingrowth core technique to measure fine root mass growth, length growth, mortality and specific root length. *Dry-season irrigation had no significant effect on mass and length of live and dead roots, whereas litter removal reduced mass and length of live roots. For both irrigation and litter removal experiments, root growth was significantly greater in the dry season than in the wet season. *Increased root growth was associated with decreased soil water availability. However, root growth did not increase in response to nutrient reduction in litter removal plots. Overall, our results suggest that belowground allocation may differ according to the type of soil resource limitation. PMID:20524991

  11. SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA SPECIES IN RIVER WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of four Salmonella strains in river water microcosms was monitored by culturing techniques, direct counts, whole-cell hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and resuscitation techniques via the direct viable count method and flow cytometry. Plate counts of bact...

  12. SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA SPECIES IN RIVER WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of four Salmonella strains in river water microcosms was monitored using culturing techniques, direct counts, whole cell hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and resuscitation techniques via the direct viable count method and flow cytrometry. Plate counts of...

  13. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  14. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  15. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  16. Mercury concentration in different tissues of Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848) (Podocnemididae: Testudines) from the lower Xingu River - Amazonian, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza-Araujo, J; Giarrizzo, T; Lima, M O

    2015-08-01

    Studies using chelonians as biosentinels of environment quality or health risks associated with turtle consumption are very rare, especially in the Amazon basin. This study aims to measure Mercury levels (Hg) in muscle, liver, fat and blood of Podocnemis unifilis from the lower Xingu River, assessing the possible difference in concentration between sexes and also evaluating the potential bioaccumulation along different body sizes. Samples were collected during the dry season (October 2012) and Mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). A total of 29 specimens of P. unifilis of different sizes showed low levels lower than 0.2 mg/Kg). Higher Hg concentrations were found in the liver, and significant correlations between Hg concentrations in the different tissues were also detected. There was no difference between males and females and a negative correlation was found between Hg concentration and body size. PMID:26691083

  17. Influence of the natural Rio Negro water on the toxicological effects of a crude oil and its chemical dispersion to the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Braz-Mota, Susana; Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; de Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca

    2016-10-01

    The increment in crude oil exploitation over the last decades has considerably increased the risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination to Amazonian aquatic environments, especially for the black water environments such as the Rio Negro. The present work was designed to evaluate the acute toxicity of the Urucu crude oil (CO), the chemically dispersed Urucu crude oil (CO + D), and the dispersant alone (D) to the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum. Acute toxicity tests were performed, using a more realistic approach, where fish were acclimated to both groundwater (GW), used as internal control, and natural Rio Negro water (RNW) and exposed to CO, CO + D and D. Then, biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (s-SDH) in liver, DNA damage in blood cells, and the presence of the benzo[a]pyrene-type, pyrene-type, and naphthalene-type metabolites in fish bile were assessed. Fish exposed to CO and CO + D, at both water types tested, presented increased biomarker responses and higher PAH-type metabolites in the bile. However, fish exposed to these treatments after the acclimation to RNW increased the levels of LPO, s-SDH (hepatotoxicity), DNA damage in blood cells (genotoxicity), and benzo[a]pyrene-type metabolites when compared to fish in GW. Our data suggests that some physicochemical properties of Rio Negro water (i.e., presence of natural organic matter (NOM)) might cause mild chemical stress responses in fish, which can make it more susceptible to oxidative stress following exposure to crude oil, particularly to those chemically dispersed.

  18. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF HYPORHEIC PROCESSING IN A LARGE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality changes along hyporheic flow paths may have
    important effects on river water quality and aquatic habitat. Previous
    studies on the Willamette River, Oregon, showed that river water follows
    hyporheic flow paths through highly porous deposits created by river...

  19. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

  20. Impact of Yangtze River Water Transfer on the Water Quality of the Lixia River Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoxue; Wang, Lachun; Wu, Hao; Li, Na; Ma, Lei; Zeng, Chunfen; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), potassium permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), electrical conductivity (EC), and water transparency (WT)) were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi) and single-factor (Si) evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed. PMID:25835525

  1. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxue; Wang, Lachun; Wu, Hao; Li, Na; Ma, Lei; Zeng, Chunfen; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), potassium permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), electrical conductivity (EC), and water transparency (WT)) were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi) and single-factor (Si) evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  2. C3 or C4 macrophytes: a specific carbon source for the development of semi-aquatic and terrestrial arthropods in central Amazonian river-floodplains according to delta13C values.

    PubMed

    Adis, J; Victoria, R L

    2001-01-01

    C4 plant species were proposed to generally represent inferior food sources compared to C3 plants thus are avoided by herbivores, particularly insects. This was tested in semi-aquatic and terrestrial arthropods from Amazonian river-floodplains by carbon isotope discrimination (delta13C). Two semi-aquatic grasshopper species (Stenacris f. fissicauda, Tucavaca gracilis-Acrididae) obtain their carbon during development from specific C4 macrophytes and two semi-aquatic species (Cornops aquaticum-Acrididae, Paulinia acuminata-Pauliniidae) from specific C3 macrophytes. The terrestrial millipede Mestosoma hylaeicum (Paradoxosomatidae) obtains about 45% of its carbon from roots of one C4 macrophyte during the development of immatures whereas adults use other food sources, including C3 trees. Results suggest, that (1) both C4 and C3 plants represent distinct hosts for terrestrial arthropods in Amazonia; (2) immatures may use plant species with a different photosynthetic pathway than adults.

  3. Identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water.

    PubMed Central

    Ongerth, J E; Stibbs, H H

    1987-01-01

    Water samples were collected from four rivers in Washington State and two rivers in California and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Oocyst-sized particles were concentrated from 20-liter samples of water by membrane filtration, centrifugation, and differential sedimentation. The particle concentrate was then deposited on a 25-mm-diameter membrane filter for oocyst identification by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The identification procedure had a limit of detection of about five oocysts per liter. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in each of 11 river water samples examined. Concentrations ranged from 2 to 112 oocysts per liter. The finding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in all samples examined from six western rivers is noteworthy in light of recent reports indicating that Cryptosporidium sp. is a significant agent of human and animal disease. This finding suggests that waterborne oocysts of this parasite are more important than was previously recognized. More detailed studies are needed to define geographical and temporal distribution, to assess the viability of waterborne oocysts, and to determine the importance of water as a means of transmission. Images PMID:3579275

  4. Water Quality in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Hooper, Rick; Landa, Ed

    2001-01-01

    The Yukon River Basin, which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (Fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is also fundamental to the ecosystems of the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, providing most of the freshwater runoff, sediments, and dissolved solutes. Despite its remoteness and perceived invulnerability, the Yukon River Basin is changing. For example, records of air temperature during 1961-1990 indicate a warming trend of about 0.75 deg C per decade at latitudes where the Yukon River is located. Increases in temperature will have wide-ranging effects on permafrost distribution, glacial runoff and the movement of carbon and nutrients within and from the basin. In addition, Alaska has many natural resources such as timber, minerals, gas, and oil that may be developed in future years. As a consequence of these changes, several issues of scientific and cultural concern have come to the forefront. At present, water quality data for the Yukon River Basin are very limited. This fact sheet describes a program to provide the data that are needed to address these issues.

  5. Water-quality investigation, Salinas River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved solids in the Salinas River, California, are variable and range from 164 to 494 milligrams per liter near Bradley and from 170 to 1,090 milligrams per liter near Spreckels. Higher concentrations near Spreckels are caused mainly by sewage inflow about 150 feet (50 meters) upstream. Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, selected trace elements, and pesticides also generally increase downstream from Pozo to Spreckels and are related to sewage effluent; however, high concentrations occur elsewhere in the river. Specific conductance and water discharge regression results indicate that relations were all significant at the 1-percent probability level at Paso Robles, Bradley, and Spreckels with the explained variance ranging from 66 to 74 percent. Concentations of nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, and trace elements are only infrequently related to water discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Water resources of Red River Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcome, Roy; Page, Leland Vernon

    1963-01-01

    Red River Parish is on the eastern flank of the Sabine uplift in northwestern Louisiana. The 'area is underlain by lignitic clay and sand of Paleocene and Eocene age which dip to the east at the rate of about 30 feet per mile. The Red River is entrenched in these rocks in the western part of the parish. Alternating valley filling and erosion during the Quaternary period have resulted in the present lowland with flanking terraces. In the flood-plain area moderate to large quantities of very hard, iron-bearing water, suitable for irrigation, are available to wells in the alluvial sand and gravel of Quaternary age. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 20 to slightly more than 100 feet. It is recharged by downward seepage of rainfall through overlying clay and silt, by inflow from older sands adjacent to and beneath the entrenched valley, and by infiltration from the streams where the water table is below stream level during flood stages or as a result of pumping. Water levels are highest in the middle of the valley. Ground water moves mainly toward the Red River on the east and Bayou Pierre on the west, but small amounts move down the valley. Computations based on water-level and aquifer-test data indicate that the Quaternary alluvium contains more than 330 billion gallons of ground water in storage and that the maximum discharge of ground water to the streams is slightly more than 30 mgd (million gallons per day). At times of high river stage, surface water flows into the aquifer at a rate that depends in part upon the height and duration of the river stage. Moderate supplies of soft, iron-bearing water may be obtained from dissected Pleistocene terrace deposits that flank the flood plains of the Red River and Black Lake Bayou. However, the quantity of water that can be pumped from these deposits varies widely from place to place because of differences in the areal extent and saturated thickness of the segments of the deposits; this extent and thickness are governed

  7. Hydrological parameter estimation for ungauged basin based on satellite altimeter data and discharge modeling. A simulation for the Caqueta River (Amazonian Basin, Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, J. G.; Seyler, F.; Calmant, S.; Bonnet, M.-P.; Cauhopé, M.

    2006-09-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the usefulness of altimetric data in ungauged or very poorly monitored basin. It is shown that altimetric measurements can be combined with a single in-situ gauge to derive a reliable stage-discharge relationship upstream from the gauge. The Caqueta River in the Colombian Amazon Basin was selected to simulate a poorly monitored basin. Thus it was possible to derive the stage-discharge relationship for 13 "virtual gauge stations'' defined at river crossing with radar altimetric ground tracks. Stage measurements are derived from altimetric data following the methodology developed by Leon et al. (2006). Discharge is modeled using PROGUM - a flow routing model based on the Muskingum Cunge (M-C) approach considering a diffusion-cum-dynamic wave propagation (Leon et al., 2006) using a single gauge located downstream from the basin under study. Rating curve parameters at virtual stations are estimated by fitting with a power law the temporal series of water surface altitude derived from satellite measurements and the modelled discharges. The methodology allows the ellipsoidal height of effective zero flow to be estimated. This parameter is a good proxy of the mean water depth from which the bottom slope of the reaches can be computed. Validation has been conducted by comparing the results with stages and discharges measured at five other gauges available on the Caqueta basin. Outflow errors range from 10% to 20% between the upper basin and the lower basin, respectively. Mean absolute differences less than 1.10 m between estimated equivalent water depth and measured water depth indicates the reliability of the proposed method. Finally, a 1.2×10-4 mm-1 mean bottom slope has been obtained for the 730 km long reach of the Caqueta main stream considered.

  8. Hydrological Parameter Estimation for Ungauged Basin Based on Satellite Altimeter Data and Discharge Modeling. A Simulation for the Caqueta River (Amazonian Basin, Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, J. G.; Seyler, F.; Calmant, S.; Bonnet, M.; Cauhope, M.

    2007-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the usefulness of altimetric data in ungauged or very poorly monitored basin. It is shown that altimetric measurements can be combined with a single in-situ gauge to derive a reliable stage-discharge relationship upstream from the gauge. The Caqueta River in the Colombian Amazon Basin was selected to simulate a poorly monitored basin. Thus it was possible to derive the stage-discharge relationship for 13 "virtual gauge stations" defined at river crossing with radar altimetric ground tracks. Stage measurements are derived from altimetric data following the methodology developed by Leon et al. (2006) . Discharge is modeled using PROGUM - a flow routing model based on the Muskingum Cunge (M-C) approach considering a diffusion-cum-dynamic wave propagation (Leon et al., submitted) using a single gauge located downstream from the basin under study. Rating curve parameters at virtual stations are estimated by fitting with a power law the temporal series of water surface altitude derived from satellite measurements and the modelled discharges. The methodology allows the ellipsoidal height of effective zero flow to be estimated. This parameter is a good proxy of the mean water depth from which the bottom slope of the reaches can be computed. Validation has been conducted by comparing the results with stages and discharges measured at five other gauges available on the Caqueta basin. Outflow errors range from 10% to 20% between the upper basin and the lower basin, respectively. Mean absolute differences less than 1.10 m between estimated equivalent water depth and measured water depth indicates the reliability of the proposed method. Finally, a 1,2 x 10-4 m.m-1 mean bottom slope has been obtained for the 730 km long reach of the Caqueta main stream considered.

  9. Trihalomethane formation potential of Kentucky River water. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.E.; White, K.D.; Evaldi, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Trihalomethane compounds are chlorinated and brominated derivatives of methane that are formed when a natural water is disinfected with free chlorine to produce drinking water. These compounds result when the free chlorine used for disinfection reacts with the dissolved organic carbon of the water. The trihalomethane formation potential of water from the Kentucky River was determined for the period from July of 1988 through March of 1990. Multiple-linear regression analysis of the experimental data indicated that the trihalomethane formation potential was strongly dependent on the pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration and was only slightly dependent on the initial free-chlorine concentration.

  10. Chlorine demand of Savannah River water

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    Savannah River water used for cooling SRS reactors was tested for chlorine demand and the rate of decay for both free and total residual chlorine on seven quarterly dates between 1986 and 1988. Test conditions included chlorine dosages of 1, 3, and 5 mg/l and a variety of contact times ranging from less than 1 minute to one day. Statistically significant differences were detected in the chlorine demand for the seven dates; however, there was no discernible seasonality to the variation. The chlorine demand, amount of combined residual chlorine formed and the persistence of total residual chlorine following a dose of 5 mg/l was significantly greater on one of the seven sampling dates (February, 1988) compared to all of the other dates. These differences could not be attributed to water temperature, pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, or the amount of rainfall prior to or during the collection of the cooling water. Except as noted above, dissipation of chlorine was similar among the sampling dates. Most reactions of available chlorine with other constituents in the cooking water occurred in the first minute of contact, although measurable total chlorine residuals generally persisted for 24 hours after the dose had been administered. The results of this study indicate that, with occasional exceptions, a chlorine dose of between 3 and 5 mg/l will provide a free chlorine residual of 1 mg/l in Savannah River water. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Effects of copper and cadmium on ion transport and gill metal binding in the Amazonian teleost tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in extremely soft water.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Aline Y O; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2005-09-30

    Metal toxicity in fish is expected to be most severe in soft waters because of the low availability of cations (particularly Ca(2+)) to out-compete the metal forms for binding sites on the gills. Natural waters in the Amazon basin are typically soft due to regional geochemistry, but few studies have focused on metal toxicity in fish native to the basin. We assessed the ionoregulatory effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in extremely soft water (10 micromoll(-1) Ca(2+)). Tambaqui had a very high tolerance to Cu (50-400 microgl(-1)), as indicated by a complete lack of inhibition of Na(+) uptake and an ability to gradually recover over 6h from elevated diffusive Na(+) losses caused by Cu. The insensitivity of active Na(+) influx to Cu further supports the notion that Amazonian fish may have a unique Na(+) transport system. Addition of 5-10 mgCl(-1) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) did not prevent initial (0-3h) negative Na(+) balance in tambaqui exposed to Cu. Exposure to 40 mgCl(-1) DOM prevented Na(+) losses in tambaqui even at 400 microgl(-1) Cu, probably because most Cu was complexed to DOM. Tambaqui exposed to waterborne Cd (10-80 microgl(-1)) experienced an average of 42% inhibition in whole body Ca(2+) uptake relative to controls within 3h of exposure to the metal. Inhibition of Ca(2+) uptake increased over time and, at 24h, Ca(2+) uptake was suppressed by 51% and 91% in fish exposed to 10 and 80 microgl(-1) Cd, respectively. Previous acclimation of fish to either elevated [Ca(2+)] or elevated [DOM] proved to be very effective in protecting against acute short-term metal accumulation at the gills of tambaqui in soft water (in the absence of the protective agent during metal exposure), suggesting a conditioning effect on gill metal binding physiology. PMID:16051381

  12. Water quality and water contamination in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms; which elevated nutrient and bacteria/pathogen levels, degraded water quality, reduced dissolved oxygen levels, impact on fish consumption safety and threatening public health. Swimming, boating, fishing was not safe especially during rainstorms. Harlem River, a 9 miles natural straight connects the Hudson River and the East River, was used for water recreation in the past. Phosphate, ammonia, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pathogens levels in CSOs collected during storms were significantly higher than EPA/DEP's standards (phosphate <0.033mg/L; ammonia<0.23mg/L; turbidity<5.25FAU; DO>=4mg/L; fecal coliform<200MPN/100ml; E.Coli.<126MPN/100ml; enterococcus < 104MPN /100ml). The maximum values are: phosphate: 0.181mg/L; ammonia: 2.864mg/L; turbidity: 245 FAU& 882 FAU; fecal coliform>millions MPN/100ml; E.coli > 5000MPN /100ml; enterococcus>10,000MPN/100ml; DO<2.9 mg/L. Data showed that pathogen levels are higher than published data from riverkeepers (enterococcus) and USGS (fecal coliform). PCB 11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl, C12H8Cl2), an indicator of raw sewage and stormwater runoff, is analyzed. Fish caught from the Harlem River is banned from commercial. New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) suggests that not to eat the fish because concerns of PCBs, dioxin and cadmium. How to reduce CSOs is critical on water quality improvement. Green wall/roof and wetland has been planned to use along the river to reduce stormwater runoff consequently to reduce CSOs volume.

  13. Population and climate pressures on global river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    We present a global analysis of the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. In-stream Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) concentration is calculated along global river networks using past, current and future information on gridded population and river discharge. Our model accounts for the accumulation (from populated areas), transport, dilution, and degradation of BOD to reveal the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. From 1950 to 2000, our analysis indicates that rivers that flow through regions with increasing population undergo a prominent deterioration of water quality, especially in developing countries with a lack of treatment plants. By 2050, population growth and climate change have varying effects on degradation of river water quality, with their combined effect amplified in region undergoing both population growth (more pollutant loading) and decrease in discharge (less dilution capacity). Keywords: Population growth, Climate change, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Water management

  14. 30. SOUTH SIDE OF COOPER RIVER CANTILEVER SPAN FROM WATER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SOUTH SIDE OF COOPER RIVER CANTILEVER SPAN FROM WATER, FACING WEST TOWARDS DRUM ISLAND - Grace Memorial Bridge, U.S. Highway 17 spanning Cooper River & Town Creek , Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  15. 61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Water resources of the Yellow Medicine River Watershed, Southwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.; Van Voast, Wayne A.; Jerabek, L.A.

    1969-01-01

    The Yellow Medicine and Minnesota Rivers are the major sources of surface water. For physiographic regions – Upland Plain, Slope, Lowland Plain, and Minnesota River Flood Plain – influence surface drainage, and the flow of ground water through the aquifers. The watershed comprises 1070 square miles, including the drainage basin of the Yellow Medicine River (665 square miles) and 405 square miles drained by small streams tributary to the Minnesota River.

  17. Global analysis of population growth and river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Human-related pressures on river water quality are a concern of global proportions.. However, little is known about the more specific impact of increasing population on river water quality and how it provides a vital environmental reference for water management. Combining global gridded data on population and river discharge with digitized river networks, we conduct numerical simulations to demonstrate the direct impact of population growth on river water quality. Our model traces the transport, dilution, and degradation of anthropogenic organic matter (BOD) emissions into rivers. Spanning the period from the early 20th century to the present, our analysis indicates that the pressure on downstream river networks markedly increased since the population explosion starting in 1950, especially in developing countries. The ratio of population to river discharge reveals the link between impact severity and dilution capacity. In addition, a denser population is found to be correlated with higher impact severity. Consideration of direct population influences on global river water quality becomes limited as society develops and should be studied as a fundamental reference for human-related river water management. Keywords: Population growth, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Human activities, Water Management

  18. Plant reproduction in the Central Amazonian floodplains: challenges and adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristiane Silva; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; de Oliveira Wittmann, Astrid; Franco, Augusto César

    2010-01-01

    Background The Central Amazonian floodplain forests are subjected to extended periods of flooding and to flooding amplitudes of 10 m or more. The predictability, the length of the flood pulse, the abrupt transition in the environmental conditions along topographic gradients on the banks of major rivers in Central Amazonia, and the powerful water and sediment dynamics impose a strong selective pressure on plant reproduction systems. Scope In this review, we examine how the hydrological cycle influences the strategies of sexual and asexual reproduction in herbaceous and woody plants. These are of fundamental importance for the completion of the life cycle. Possible constraints to seed germination, seedling establishment and formation of seed banks are also covered. Likewise, we also discuss the importance of river connectivity for species propagation and persistence in floodplains. Conclusions The propagation and establishment strategies employed by the highly diversified assortment of different plant life forms result in contrasting successional stages and a zonation of plant assemblages along the flood-level gradient, whose species composition and successional status are continuously changing not only temporally but also spatially along the river channel. PMID:22476067

  19. Water quality of arctic rivers in Finnish Lapland.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Jorma

    2010-02-01

    The water quality monitoring data of eight rivers situated in the Finnish Lapland above the Arctic Circle were investigated. These rivers are icebound annually for about 200 days. They belong to the International River Basin District founded according to the European Union Water Framework Directive and shared with Norway. They are part of the European river monitoring network that includes some 3,400 river sites. The water quality monitoring datasets available varied between the rivers, the longest comprising the period 1975-2003 and the shortest 1989-2003. For each river, annual medians of eight water quality variables were calculated. In addition, medians and fifth and 95th percentiles were calculated for the whole observation periods. The medians indicated good river water quality in comparison to other national or foreign rivers. However, the river water quality oscillated widely. Some rivers were in practice in pristine state, whereas some showed slight human impacts, e.g., occasional high values of hygienic indicator bacteria.

  20. Water - Essential Resource of the Southern Flint River Basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Debbie; Norton, Virgil

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Abundant water resources of the Flint River Basin have played a major role in the history and development of southwestern Georgia. The Flint River-along with its tributaries, wetlands, and swamps-and the productive aquifers of the river basin are essential components of the area's diverse ecosystems. These resources also are necessary for sustained agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities. Increasing, and in some cases conflicting, demand for water makes careful monitoring and wise planning and management of southwestern Georgia's water resources critical to the ecological and economic future of the area. This poster presents the major issues associated with increasing competition for water resources in the southern Flint River Basin.

  1. 43. River Crossing Flume carrying canal water west across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. River Crossing Flume carrying canal water west across the Agua Fria River approximately four miles downstream from Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, c. late 1920s. Source: Nancy Bunch - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Interactions between groundwater and surface water at river banks and the confluence of rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambs, Luc

    2004-03-01

    Riparian vegetation depends on hydrological resources and has to adapt to changes in water levels and soil moisture conditions. The origin and mixing of water in the streamside corridor were studied in detail. The development of riparian woodland often reflects the evolution of hydrological events. River water levels and topography are certainly the main causes of the exchange between groundwater and river water through the riverbank. Stable isotopes, such as 18O, are useful tools that allow water movement to be traced. Two main water sources are typically present: (i) river water, depleted of heavy isotopes, originating upstream, and (ii) groundwater, which comes mainly from the local rainfall. On the Garonne River bank field site downstream of Toulouse, the mixing of these two waters is variable, and depends mainly on the river level and the geographical position. The output of the groundwater into the river water is not diffuse on a large scale, but localised at few places. At the confluence of two rivers, the water-mixing area is more complex because of the presence of a third source of water. In this situation, groundwater supports the hydrologic pressure of both rivers until they merge, this pressure could influence its outflow. Two cases will be presented. The first is the confluence of the Garonne and the Ariège Rivers in the south-west of France, both rivers coming from the slopes of the Pyrénées mountains. Localised groundwater outputs have been detected about 200 m before the confluence. The second case presented is the confluence of the Ganges and the Yamuna Rivers in the north of India, downstream of the city of Allahabad. These rivers are the two main tributaries of the Ganges, and both originate in the Himalayas. A strong stream of groundwater output was measured at the point of confluence.

  3. Chemometric characterization of river water quality.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, Smriti; Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B D

    2013-04-01

    Various industrial facilities in the city of Varanasi discharge their effluent mixed with municipal sewage into the River Ganges at different discharge points. In this study, chemometric tools such as cluster analysis and box-whisker plots were applied to interpret data obtained during examination of River Ganges water quality. Specifically, we investigated the temperature (T), pH, total alkalinity, total acidity, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate nitrogen (N), phosphate (PO 4(2-) ), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from six sampling stations. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method. Proximity distance between EC and Cr was the smallest revealing a relationship between these parameters, which was confirmed by Pearson's correlation. Based on proximity distances, EC, Cr, Ni, Fe, N, COD, temperature, BOD, and total acidity comprised one group; Zn, Pb, Cd, total alkalinity, Cu, and phosphate (PO 4(2-) ) were in another group; and DO and pH formed a separate group. These groups were confirmed by Pearson's correlation (r) values that indicated significant and positive correlation between variables in the same group. Box-whisker plots revealed that as we go downstream, the pollutant concentration increases and maximum at the downstream station Raj Ghat and minimum at the upstream station Samane Ghat. Seasonal variations in water quality parameters signified that total alkalinity, total acidity, DO, BOD, COD, N, phosphate (PO 4(2-) ), Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn were the highest in summer (March-June) and the lowest during monsoon season (July-October). Temperature was the highest in summer and the lowest in winter (November-February). DO was the highest in winter and the lowest in summer season. pH was observed to be the highest in monsoon and the lowest in

  4. Drought responses of flood-tolerant trees in Amazonian floodplains

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Pia; Lucas, Christine; Piedade, Maria Teresa F.; Wittmann, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Background Flood-tolerant tree species of the Amazonian floodplain forests are subjected to an annual dry period of variable severity imposed when low river-water levels coincide with minimal precipitation. Although the responses of these species to flooding have been examined extensively, their responses to drought, in terms of phenology, growth and physiology, have been neglected hitherto, although some information is found in publications that focus on flooding. Scope The present review examines the dry phase of the annual flooding cycle. It consolidates existing knowledge regarding responses to drought among adult trees and seedlings of many Amazonian floodplain species. Main Findings Flood-tolerant species display variable physiological responses to dry periods and drought that indicate desiccation avoidance, such as reduced photosynthetic activity and reduced root respiration. However, tolerance and avoidance strategies for drought vary markedly among species. Drought can substantially decrease growth, biomass and photosynthetic activity among seedlings in field and laboratory studies. When compared with the responses to flooding, drought can impose higher seedling mortality and slower growth rates, especially among evergreen species. Results indicate that tolerance and avoidance strategies for drought vary markedly between species. Both seedling recruitment and photosynthetic activity are affected by drought, Conclusions For many species, the effects of drought can be as important as flooding for survival and growth, particularly at the seedling phase of establishment, ultimately influencing species composition. In the context of climate change and predicted decreases in precipitation in the Amazon Basin, the effects of drought on plant physiology and species distribution in tropical floodplain forest ecosystems should not be overlooked. PMID:19880423

  5. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays and sheet sands triggered by above-normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all 12 tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. The data suggest that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid-to-late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a yearly to decadal timescale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  6. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, U.

    2015-10-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays triggered by above normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all the twelve tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. I found that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid- to late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a year to decade time scale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  7. Morphostructural provinces and neotectonics in the Amazonian lowlands of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, J. F.; Deza, E.; Garcia, F.

    The Amazonian lowlands of Peru are composed of the Subandean Zone (foreland), the Marañón Basin (foredeep) and the Iquitos Geanticline (Brazilian Craton). The Subandean Zone includes the Subandean Thrust and Fold Belt (STFB) to the west, which crops out mostly in the foothills, and the Subandean Tilted Block Zone (STBZ) to the east, which is principally exposed in the Amazonian lowlands of central Peru. The main trends of river belts are related to structural style. Main rivers in the STFB are antecedent, and secondary drainage is subsequent. In the STBZ, river basins are channelized, parallel to structural grain. The special asymmetric pattern of the Subandean drainage network depends on these two juxtaposed structural regions. As a result, fluvial migration in Peruvian lowlands is more controlled and limited by neotectonics than previously supposed.

  8. Managing the water quality of the Kafue River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambole, Michael Sankwe

    Most vital surface water bodies in developing countries are under serious threat of degradation resulting from constant discharge of polluted effluents stemming from industrial, agricultural, mining and domestic/sewage activities. The most affected river systems are those traversing cities and towns in urban areas. The Kafue River in Zambia is one such river system that is threatened with serious degradation and probable loss of biodiversity. Kafue River cuts across the country in a North-South direction, stretches for about 1576 km before draining into the Zambezi River. It covers an area of 152,000 km 2 and generates a mean annual runoff of 350 m 3/s which represents about 12% of the Zambezi’s mean annual runoff at the confluence [Water Resources Development and Vector-borne Diseases in Zambia: Report of a National Seminar held at Kafue Gorge, Zambia, WHO, Geneva, 1995]. The area coverage of the Kafue River Basin (KRB) is approximately 20% of Zambia’s land area (743,000 km 2) and approximately 17% of the Zambezi Basin [Water Resources Use in the Zambezi Basin: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kasane, Botswana, IUCN, 1993]. More than half of Zambia’s population live in the KRB, of which about 65% are in urban while 35% are in rural areas. Over the years, however, the Kafue River has been receiving all sorts of pollutant and effluents from all sectors of economical development in Zambia that include mining, industrial and agricultural. The continuous discharge of pollutants into the Kafue river has led to the deterioration of the river water quality. The consequences have been heightened eutrophic conditions, increased heavy metal concentration in the river sediments and aquatic life, increased suspended solids, etc. leading to proliferation of Salvinia molesta in some sections of the river, decreased fish catch and fish size and objectionable taste of the Kafue River water. Fishermen along the Chanyanya-Kafue Gorge stretch of the Kafue River have complained

  9. Long-term Trends in St. Louis River Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality impairments caused by sewage and industrial waste discharge into the St. Louis River have been a primary concern for clean-up efforts throughout the last century. Surveys dating back to 1928 reveal severely degraded water quality in much of the river below Fond du L...

  10. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  11. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  12. Bacteriological Assessment of Spoon River Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shundar; Evans, Ralph L.; Beuscher, Davis B.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a study of five stations on the Spoon River, Ill., during June 1971 through May 1973 were analyzed for compliance with Illinois Pollution Control Board's water quality standards of a geometric mean limitation of 200 fecal coliforms per 100 ml. This bacterial limit was achieved about 20% of the time during June 1971 through May 1972, and was never achieved during June 1972 through May 1973. Ratios of fecal coliform to total coliform are presented. By using fecal coliform-to-fecal streptococcus ratios to sort out fecal pollution origins, it was evident that a concern must be expressed not only for municipal wastewater effluents to the receiving stream, but also for nonpoint sources of pollution in assessing the bacterial quality of a stream. PMID:4604145

  13. Biogeochemistry of mercury in the Amazonian environment.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Hacon, Sandra; Wasserman, Maria Angélica

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, the processes that affect mercury (Hg) cycling in the Amazonian environment were reviewed, criticized and new directions of research are proposed. The discussion of the origin of the mercury contamination, whether natural or anthropogenic is marked by a lack of fundamented arguments from both sides. Undoubtedly mercury inputs from gold mining have locally increased environmental concentrations, but in the whole Amazon, these loads would be insignificant, considering the high concentrations observed by some authors in remote soils. A reasonable process that should explain these elevated concentrations in soil is that B horizons function as a mercury "sponge" that have been accumulating mercury over a geological time scale, releasing it back to cycling during erosion and forest fires. The environmental degradation of the Amazonian forest due to human activities is probably enhancing the release of that mercury to the cycle. Mercury transformations in reduced, anoxic environments--sediments and waters--are also a key problem for the understanding of the environmental methylation. The studies that have been carried out in the Amazonian environment are too restricted and results permit only circumstantial conclusions. Large efforts must be directed to monitoring programs considering time and space variability.

  14. Water resources of the Roseau River Watershed, Northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Maclay, R.W.; Pike, G.M.

    1967-01-01

    This report is a general appraisal of the water resources in the Roseau River watershed unit. Detailed studies of water movement through the ground-water reservoir are needed for more exact determination of the amount of water immediately available and the specific effects of water-management practices.

  15. Columbia River monitoring: Distribution of tritium in Columbia River water at the Richland Pumphouse

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents the results of a special study conducted as part of the SESP to supplement the routine Columbia River monitoring program and provide information relative to the dispersion and distribution of Hanford origin contaminants entering the river through the seepage of ground water along the Hanford Site. Sampling was conducted along cross sections to determine the distribution of tritium within the Columbia River at Richland, Washington. The investigation was also designed to evaluate the relationship between the average tritium concentrations in the river water at this location and in water collected from the routine SESP river monitoring system located at the city of Richland drinking water intake (Richland Pumphouse). This study was conducted during the summers of 1987 and 1988. Water samples were collected along cross sections located at or near the Richland Pumphouse monitoring station.

  16. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M. )

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  17. At Water's Edge: Students Study Their Rivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Although the Great Flood of 1993 has dramatically reminded us never to take rivers for granted, it has also underlined the need to learn more about rivers and the environment in general. Rivers Project, an interdisciplinary high school curriculum, allows science, social studies, and English teachers to integrate curriculum in a way that encourages…

  18. Water loss in the Potomac River basin during droughts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagen, E.R.; Kiang, J.E.; Dillow, J.J.A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The water loss phenomena in the Washington DC metropoliton area's (WMA) Potomac River water supply basin during droughts was analyzed. Gage errors, permitted withdrawals, evaporation, and transpiration by trees along the river were investigated to account for loss. The Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB) calculated potential gage error and examined permits to determine permitted levels of consumption withdrawals from the Potomac. The result of a single slug test indicated that the soil transmissivity may not be adequate to allow passage of enough water to account for all of the calculated water loss.

  19. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain.

  20. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain. PMID:25217752

  1. Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2006-09-01

    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality.

  2. Characterization of Surface-Water/Ground-Water Interaction Along the Spokane River, Idaho and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Bowers, C. L.; Hein, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    Historical mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin of northern Idaho has resulted in elevated concentrations of some trace metals (particularly Cd, Pb, and Zn) in water and sediments of Coeur d'Alene Lake and downstream in the Spokane River. On average during 1999 and 2000, about 20,000 kg/yr of whole-water lead (particulate plus dissolved), 2,100 kg/yr of whole-water cadmium, and 450,000 kg/yr of whole-water zinc flowed out of Coeur d'Alene Lake into the Spokane River. These elevated trace-metal concentrations in the Spokane River have raised concerns about potential contamination of ground water in the underlying Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, the primary source of drinking water for the city of Spokane and surrounding areas. A study conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program examined the interaction of the river and aquifer using hydrologic and chemical data along a losing reach of the Spokane River. The river and ground water were extensively monitored over a range of hydrologic conditions at 3 stream gages and 25 monitoring wells (including 18 wells installed for this study) ranging from 8 to 1,000 m from the river. River stage, ground-water level, water temperature, and specific conductance were measured hourly to biweekly, and water samples were collected 8 times. Additional regional ground-water data were collected from more than 190 wells within 5 km of the study reach. Hydrologic and chemical data indicate that the Spokane River recharges the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer along a 35-km reach between Coeur d'Alene Lake and Spokane. Ground-water levels in near-river (<125 m from the river) wells responded rapidly to variations in river stage and indicated the presence of an unsaturated zone beneath the river and a ground-water flow gradient away from the river. Chemical data indicated that river recharge may influence ground-water chemistry as far as 900 m from the river. The chemistry and

  3. The investigation of chemical quality of water in tidal rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This report has been prepared for the guidance of personnel of the Water Resources Division who are engaged in water-quality investigations of tidal rivers. The study of tidal rivers is beset with many complexities not present in the investigation of non-tidal rivers. The periodic rise and fall of the tide may result in a corresponding periodic change in salinity at a sampling location on the tidal river. When the fresh water discharge is low, saline water may intrude up-river, and any factor changing the relative elevations of the ocean and the mean river level has an effect on the extent of salt-water intrusion. Variations in water composition between samples taken at several locations up or down river, at different depths, or at several locations across the stream are likely to be more pronounced than for similar sets of samples from a non-tidal stream. The nature of these variations and factors responsible for them are discussed, and the need for consideration of them in planning a sampling routine is stressed. The nature and mechanism of ocean-water intrusion in tidal rivers is discussed and sampling procedures for its detection are described. lllustrative examples - mostly from the work of the United States Geological Survey or State agencies - show various methods for correlating and presenting data from quality-of-water surveys of tidal rivers. Each tidal river presents an individual problem which can best be understood from a study of the factors involved. To that end the report is supplemented by an annotated bibliography of selected publications in the field.

  4. Water resources of Wisconsin, Pecatonica-Sugar River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.; Skinner, Earl L.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the physical environment, availability, characteristics, distribution, movement, and quailty of water in the Pecatonica-Sugar River basin.  In addition, water use and water problems are summarized to give an understanding of man's management of water within the basin.

  5. Methane in surface waters of Oregon estuaries and rivers

    SciTech Connect

    de Angelis, M.A.; Lilley, M.D. )

    1987-05-01

    Methane concentrations in surface waters of Oregon rivers and estuaries were measured over a four-year period. Geographic variations in riverine CH{sub 4} were observed. Results from undisturbed forest streams indicate that rivers can contain high natural levels of CH{sub 4} not attributable to pollution. Lateral diffusion and runoff from saturated forest and fertilized agricultural soils may be important in determining methane levels in rivers. Methane concentrations in well-flushed estuaries appear to be controlled mainly by mixing between high CH{sub 4}-containing river water and low CH{sub 4}-containing seawater endmembers. Rivers and estuaries were found to be sources of methane to the atmosphere. Calculated daily fluxes to the atmosphere ranged from 1.2 to 71 mg CH{sub 4} sq m for rivers and from 0.04 to 21 mg CH{sub 4} sq m for estuarine samples. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

  7. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration.

  8. Genetic relationships among freshwater mussel species from fifteen Amazonian rivers and inferences on the evolution of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida).

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Beasley, Colin Robert; Schneider, Horacio; Pimpão, Daniel Mansur; Hoeh, Walter Randolph; Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes de; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2016-07-01

    The current phylogenetic framework for the South American Hyriidae is solely based on morphological data. However, freshwater bivalve morphology is highly variable due to both genetic and environmental factors. The present study used both mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S-ITS1) sequences in molecular phylogenetic analyses of nine Neotropical species of Hyriidae, collected from 15 South American rivers, and sequences of hyriids from Australia and New Zealand obtained from GenBank. The present molecular findings support traditional taxonomic proposals, based on morphology, for the South American subfamily Hyriinae, currently divided in three tribes: Hyriini, Castaliini and Rhipidodontini. Phylogenetic trees based on COI nucleotide sequences revealed at least four geographical groups of Castalia ambigua: northeast Amazon (Piriá, Tocantins and Caeté rivers), central Amazon, including C. quadrata (Amazon and Aripuanã rivers), north (Trombetas river), and C. ambigua from Peru. Genetic distances suggest that some specimens may be cryptic species. Among the Hyriini, a total evidence data set generated phylogenetic trees indicating that Paxyodon syrmatophorus and Prisodon obliquus are more closely related, followed by Triplodon corrugatus. The molecular clock, based on COI, agreed with the fossil record of Neotropical hyriids. The ancestor of both Australasian and Neotropical Hyriidae is estimated to have lived around 225million years ago.

  9. Genetic relationships among freshwater mussel species from fifteen Amazonian rivers and inferences on the evolution of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida).

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Beasley, Colin Robert; Schneider, Horacio; Pimpão, Daniel Mansur; Hoeh, Walter Randolph; Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes de; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2016-07-01

    The current phylogenetic framework for the South American Hyriidae is solely based on morphological data. However, freshwater bivalve morphology is highly variable due to both genetic and environmental factors. The present study used both mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S-ITS1) sequences in molecular phylogenetic analyses of nine Neotropical species of Hyriidae, collected from 15 South American rivers, and sequences of hyriids from Australia and New Zealand obtained from GenBank. The present molecular findings support traditional taxonomic proposals, based on morphology, for the South American subfamily Hyriinae, currently divided in three tribes: Hyriini, Castaliini and Rhipidodontini. Phylogenetic trees based on COI nucleotide sequences revealed at least four geographical groups of Castalia ambigua: northeast Amazon (Piriá, Tocantins and Caeté rivers), central Amazon, including C. quadrata (Amazon and Aripuanã rivers), north (Trombetas river), and C. ambigua from Peru. Genetic distances suggest that some specimens may be cryptic species. Among the Hyriini, a total evidence data set generated phylogenetic trees indicating that Paxyodon syrmatophorus and Prisodon obliquus are more closely related, followed by Triplodon corrugatus. The molecular clock, based on COI, agreed with the fossil record of Neotropical hyriids. The ancestor of both Australasian and Neotropical Hyriidae is estimated to have lived around 225million years ago. PMID:27071805

  10. Water resources of the Big Sioux River Valley near Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Ackroyd, Earl A.

    1973-01-01

    Water from the river is generally less mineralized, softer, and easier to treat than ground water. Water pumped from wells near the river is similar in quality to the river water, but does not have the objectionable odors or tastes often present in water from the river.

  11. [Water quality comparison between Lake Taihu and contribute river during high water-level period].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Xi; Cai, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Guang-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Thirty-two main rivers around Lake Taihu were sampled during high water period in 2008 to investigate river's vital impact on Lake water quality. Different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed for the 32 river water samples according to nutrients function to algae. The aim of this study is to provide the basic information for river rehabilitation. Based on the results, the nutrients and suspended substance (SS) concentrations of Wangyu River were the highest, its water quality was below the V grade (Chinese water quality criterion). Water quality of northern rivers was also below the V grade, organic matter and enzymatically hydrolysable phosphate (EHP) concentration were the highest. The EHP concentration was 0.240 mg/L, and accounted for 62.4% of total phosphorus (TP). Nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-) -N) concentration was exceptionally high in western rivers and the average concentration was 0.270 mg/L, it was 2-3 times higher than that of other rivers. The northern rivers' nitrogen, phosphorus and organic concentration were markedly higher than those in the north Lake region, while the western rivers' nitrogen was markedly higher than that in the west Lake region. It can also be concluded that algae and suspended sediment were able to bring more phosphorus to water by comparing the ratio of total nitrogen(TN) and TP in these rivers and Lake Taihu.

  12. Water resources of the Cannon River watershed, southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, H.W.; Farrell, D.F.; Broussard, W.L.; Felsheim, P.E.

    1974-01-01

    Lard glacial melt-water valleys, around Cannon Falls and extending several miles to the west and south west, are characterized by broad valley floors underlain by outwash sand and gravel. The Cannon River flows out of the watershed and enters the Mississippi River at about 660 feet altitude.

  13. Detection of Water Quality Changes along a River System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esterby, S. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Physical and chemical indicators of water quality monitored by Environmental Canada between 1977 and 1987 in the Niagara River at Niagara-on-the-Lake and in the Saint Lawrence River at Wolfe Island are analyzed for seasonal and annual variations. Results indicate that specific conductivity, sodium, and chloride have decreased significantly over…

  14. River water quality modelling under drought situations - the Turia River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Macián, Javier; Pedro-Monzonís, María; Belda, Edgar; Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-10-01

    Drought and water shortage effects are normally exacerbated due to collateral impacts on water quality, since low streamflow affects water quality in rivers and water uses depend on it. One of the most common problems during drought conditions is maintaining a good water quality while securing the water supply to demands. This research analyses the case of the Turia River Water Resource System located in Eastern Spain. Its main water demand comes as urban demand from Valencia City, which intake is located in the final stretch of the river, where streamflow may become very low during droughts. As a result, during drought conditions concentrations of pathogens and other contaminants increase, compromising the water supply to Valencia City. In order to define possible solutions for the above-mentioned problem, we have developed an integrated model for simulating water management and water quality in the Turia River Basin to propose solutions for water quality problems under water scarcity. For this purpose, the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL has been used. The results demonstrate the importance of applying environmental flows as a measure of reducing pollutant's concentration depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system.

  15. Entrainment sampling at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Savannah River water intakes (1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.

    1990-11-01

    Cooling water for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) L-Reactor, K-Reactor, and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pumphouses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water. They are passed through the reactor heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degree}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is presumably 100%. Apart from a small pilot study conducted in 1989, ichthyoplankton samples have not been collected from the vicinity of the SRS intake canals since 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) resume ichthyoplankton sampling for the purpose of assessing entrainment at the SRS Savannah River intakes. This request is due to the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River. The following scope of work presents a sampling plan that will collect information on the spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae near the SRS intake canal mouths. This data will be combined with information on water movement patterns near the canal mouths in order to determine the percentage of ichthyoplankton that are removed from the Savannah River by the SRS intakes. The following sampling plan incorporates improvements in experimental design that resulted from the findings of the 1989 pilot study. 1 fig.

  16. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  17. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  18. Geographical origin of Amazonian freshwater fishes fingerprinted by ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr ratios on fish otoliths and scales.

    PubMed

    Pouilly, Marc; Point, David; Sondag, Francis; Henry, Manuel; Santos, Roberto V

    2014-08-19

    Calcified structures such as otoliths and scales grow continuously throughout the lifetime of fishes. The geochemical variations present in these biogenic structures are particularly relevant for studying fish migration and origin. In order to investigate the potential of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio as a precise biogeochemical tag in Amazonian fishes, we compared this ratio between the water and fish otoliths and scales of two commercial fish species, Hoplias malabaricus and Schizodon fasciatus, from three major drainage basins of the Amazon: the Madeira, Solimões, and Tapajós rivers, displaying contrasted (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios. A comparison of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios between the otoliths and scales of the same individuals revealed similar values and were very close to the Sr isotopic composition of the local river where they were captured. This indicates, first, the absence of Sr isotopic fractionation during biological uptake and incorporation into calcified structures and, second, that scales may represent an interesting nonlethal alternative for (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio measurements in comparison to otoliths. Considering the wide range of (87)Sr/(86)Sr variations that exist across Amazonian rivers, we used variations of (87)Sr/(86)Sr to discriminate fish origin at the basin level, as well as at the sub-basin level between the river and savannah lakes of the Beni River (Madeira basin). PMID:24971992

  19. Geographical origin of Amazonian freshwater fishes fingerprinted by ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr ratios on fish otoliths and scales.

    PubMed

    Pouilly, Marc; Point, David; Sondag, Francis; Henry, Manuel; Santos, Roberto V

    2014-08-19

    Calcified structures such as otoliths and scales grow continuously throughout the lifetime of fishes. The geochemical variations present in these biogenic structures are particularly relevant for studying fish migration and origin. In order to investigate the potential of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio as a precise biogeochemical tag in Amazonian fishes, we compared this ratio between the water and fish otoliths and scales of two commercial fish species, Hoplias malabaricus and Schizodon fasciatus, from three major drainage basins of the Amazon: the Madeira, Solimões, and Tapajós rivers, displaying contrasted (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios. A comparison of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios between the otoliths and scales of the same individuals revealed similar values and were very close to the Sr isotopic composition of the local river where they were captured. This indicates, first, the absence of Sr isotopic fractionation during biological uptake and incorporation into calcified structures and, second, that scales may represent an interesting nonlethal alternative for (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio measurements in comparison to otoliths. Considering the wide range of (87)Sr/(86)Sr variations that exist across Amazonian rivers, we used variations of (87)Sr/(86)Sr to discriminate fish origin at the basin level, as well as at the sub-basin level between the river and savannah lakes of the Beni River (Madeira basin).

  20. Quantifying ground water inputs along the Lower Jordan River.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Ran; Shavit, Uri; Segal-Rozenhaimer, Michal; Gavrieli, Ittai; Marei, Amer; Farber, Efrat; Vengosh, Avner

    2005-01-01

    The flow rate of the Lower Jordan River has changed dramatically during the second half of the 20th century. The diversion of its major natural sources reduced its flow rate and led to drying events during the drought years of 2000 and 2001. Under these conditions of low flow rates, the potential influence of external sources on the river discharge and chemical composition became significant. Our measurements show that the concentrations of chloride, calcium, and sodium in the river water decrease along the first 20-km section, while sulfate and magnesium concentrations increase. These variations were addressed by a recent geochemical study, suggesting that ground water inflow plays a major role. To further examine the role of ground water, we applied mass-balance calculations, using detailed flow rate measurements, water samplings, and chemical analyses along the northern (upstream) part of the river. Our flow-rate measurements showed that the river base-flow during 2000 and 2001 was 500 to 1100 L s(-1), which is about 40 times lower than the historical flow rates. Our measurements and calculations indicate that ground water input was 20 to 80% of the river water flow, and 20 to 50% of its solute mass flow. This study independently identifies the composition of possible end-members. These end-members contain high sulfate concentration and have similar chemical characteristics as were found in agricultural drains and in the "saline" Yarmouk River. Future regional development plans that include the river flow rate and chemistry should consider the interactions between the river and its shallow ground water system.

  1. Water quality assessment of Ganga river in Bihar Region, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, R K; Rajak, G P; Abhishek; Mondal, M R

    2005-10-01

    A study was carried out on Ganga river in Bihar region in and around Patna to assess the impact of sewage pollution on the water quality of the river. The drain water samples from the confluence point of outfall drains to the river were collected and studied for key parameters. Parameters such as BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, total and faecal coliform (MPN) were observed high in drain water. The physicochemical analysis of Ganga river shows that the water has high TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD. The coliform bacteria were found to be alarmingly high in the river. Most of the parameters analyzed were found high near the bank in comparison to the water in the middle stream of that station. The XRF analysis of sediments of the Ganga river showed that Si, Fe, Ca, Al and K are the major elements of the Ganga sediment. The study revealed that due to discharge of untreated sewage into the Ganga, the water quality of Ganga has been severely deteriorated and the potable nature of water is being lost.

  2. Water quality assessment of Ganga river in Bihar Region, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, R K; Rajak, G P; Abhishek; Mondal, M R

    2005-10-01

    A study was carried out on Ganga river in Bihar region in and around Patna to assess the impact of sewage pollution on the water quality of the river. The drain water samples from the confluence point of outfall drains to the river were collected and studied for key parameters. Parameters such as BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, total and faecal coliform (MPN) were observed high in drain water. The physicochemical analysis of Ganga river shows that the water has high TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD. The coliform bacteria were found to be alarmingly high in the river. Most of the parameters analyzed were found high near the bank in comparison to the water in the middle stream of that station. The XRF analysis of sediments of the Ganga river showed that Si, Fe, Ca, Al and K are the major elements of the Ganga sediment. The study revealed that due to discharge of untreated sewage into the Ganga, the water quality of Ganga has been severely deteriorated and the potable nature of water is being lost. PMID:17051921

  3. Managing water quality of River Yamuna in NCR Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Rahul; Dasgupta, Niladri; Hasan, Aziz; Upadhyay, S. K.

    River Yamuna is a typical example of degraded lotic ecosystem which has been turns into a sewage drain in Delhi National capital region due to anthropogenic pressure and aggravating pollution load. Delhi is alone responsible for 79% of the entire pollution load in the said river. The drain discharges exerting a massive BOD load of hundreds of tons per day into the river. The pollutants could not get diluted as the river has very little or no flow in non-monsoon months due to lack of indigenous water. Water quality index reveal that before entering Delhi, river water has the medium water quality, gets severely polluted in Delhi, shows very bad water quality which continues till Agra Canal. Improper location of STPs and mismatch between the available treatment capacities of STPs with the actual sewage generation results muddle up of “approx” 60% untreated wastewater into the River Yamuna. Implementation of sustainable management plan with already available facilities, proper sewerage planning and maintaining the minimum ecological flow will control the pollution in River Yamuna.

  4. Integrated water resources management in the Ruhr River Basin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bode, H; Evers, P; Albrecht, D R

    2003-01-01

    The Ruhr, with an average flow of 80.5 m3/s at its mouth, is a comparatively small tributary to the Rhine River that has to perform an important task: to secure the water supply of more than 5 million people and of the industry in the densely populated region north of the river. The complex water management system and network applied by the Ruhrverband in the natural Ruhr River Basin has been developed step by step, over decades since 1913. And from the beginning, its major goal has been to achieve optimal conditions for the people living in the region. For this purpose, a functional water supply and wastewater disposal infrastructure has been built up. The development of these structures required and still requires multi-dimensional planning and performance. Since the river serves as receiving water and at the same time as a source of drinking water, the above-standard efforts of Ruhrverband for cleaner water also help to conserve nature and wildlife. Ruhrverband has summed up its environmental awareness in the slogan: "For the people and for the environment". This basic water philosophy, successfully applied to the Ruhr for more than 80 years, will be continued in accordance with the new European Water Framework Directive, enacted in 2000, which demands integrated water resources management in natural river basins, by including the good ecological status of surface waterbodies as an additional goal.

  5. High-pressure injection injury with river water.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M I

    1978-06-01

    A case of high pressure injection and laceration of the calf with river water is reported, the first such case appearing in the literature. As with high pressure injection of grease, paint, paint thinner, mineral spirits, diesel oil, gasoline, and turpentine, this injury is a surgical emergency. All patients must be admitted for surgical debridement, irrigation, parenteral antibiotics, and observation. River water, contaminated by sewage and industrial wastes, has great irritative and infective potential. PMID:661048

  6. Impact of riverbank filtration on treatment of polluted river water.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Kumar, P; Mehrotra, I; Grischek, T

    2010-05-01

    The impact of riverbank filtration (RBF) on the treatment of water from the River Yamuna at Mathura, which has disagreeable visual properties, has been investigated. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour of the river water were 4.0-6.8mg/L and 40-65 colour units (CU), respectively. Pre-chlorination is in practice to improve raw water quality. Chlorine doses as high as 60mg/L ahead of the water treatment units reduced colour by about 78%. Removal of DOC and UV-absorbance was less than 18%. In comparison to direct pumping of the river water, collection of water through RBF resulted in the reduction of DOC, colour, UV-absorbance and fecal coliforms by around 50%. However, riverbank filtrate did not conform to the drinking water quality standards. Therefore, riverbank-filtered water along with the Yamuna water were ozonated for different durations. To reduce DOC to the desired level, the dose of ozone required for the riverbank filtrate was found to be considerably less than the ozone required for the river water. RBF as compared to direct pumping of Yamuna water appears to be effective in improving the quality of the raw water. PMID:20089349

  7. 78 FR 27033 - Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River... intended to place restrictions on vessels due to current extreme high-water conditions. This safety zone is... flood waters and potential catastrophic failure of the Marseilles Dam. DATES: This rule will be...

  8. Impact of riverbank filtration on treatment of polluted river water.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Kumar, P; Mehrotra, I; Grischek, T

    2010-05-01

    The impact of riverbank filtration (RBF) on the treatment of water from the River Yamuna at Mathura, which has disagreeable visual properties, has been investigated. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour of the river water were 4.0-6.8mg/L and 40-65 colour units (CU), respectively. Pre-chlorination is in practice to improve raw water quality. Chlorine doses as high as 60mg/L ahead of the water treatment units reduced colour by about 78%. Removal of DOC and UV-absorbance was less than 18%. In comparison to direct pumping of the river water, collection of water through RBF resulted in the reduction of DOC, colour, UV-absorbance and fecal coliforms by around 50%. However, riverbank filtrate did not conform to the drinking water quality standards. Therefore, riverbank-filtered water along with the Yamuna water were ozonated for different durations. To reduce DOC to the desired level, the dose of ozone required for the riverbank filtrate was found to be considerably less than the ozone required for the river water. RBF as compared to direct pumping of Yamuna water appears to be effective in improving the quality of the raw water.

  9. Controls over the strontium isotope composition of river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1992-05-01

    Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios have been measured in river and ground waters from the Granges, Orinoco, and Amazon river basins. When compared with major element concentrations, the data set has allowed a detailed examination of the controls over the strontium isotope systematics of riverine input to the oceans in the following environments: (1) typical drainage basins containing limestones, evaporites, shales, and alumino-silicate metamorphic and igneous rocks; (2) shield terrains containing no chemical or biogenic sediments; and (3) the flood plains that constitute the largest areas of many large rivers. The strontium concentration and isotope compositions of river waters are largely defined by mixing of strontium derived from limestones and evaporites with strontium derived from silicate rocks. The strontium isotope composition of the limestone end member generally lies within the Phanerozoic seawater range, which buffers the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of major rivers. A major exception is provided by the rivers draining the Himalayas, where widescale regional metamorphism appears to have led to an enrichment in limestones of radiogenic strontium derived from coexisting silicate rocks. The strontium isotope systematics of rivers draining shield areas are controlled by the intense, transport-limited, nature of the weathering reactions, and thereby limits variations in the strontium flux from these terrains. Flood plains are only a minor source of dissolved strontium to river waters, and precipitation of soil salts in some flood plains can reduce the riverine flux of dissolved strontium to the oceans.

  10. Surface-water/ground-water relations in the Lemhi River Basin, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes work carried out in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to provide hydrologic information to help Federal, State, and local agencies meet the goals of the Lemhi River Model Watershed Project. The primary goal of the project is to maintain, enhance, and restore anadromous and resident fish habitat in the Lemhi River, while maintaining a balance between resource protection and established water uses. The main objectives of the study were to carry out seepage measurements to determine seasonal distributed gains and losses in the Lemhi River and to estimate annual ground-water underflow from the basin to the Salmon River. In 1997, seepage measurements were made during and after the irrigation season along a 60-mile reach of the Lemhi River between Leadore and Salmon. Except for one 4-mile reach that lost 1.3 cubic feet per second per mile, the river gained from ground water in early August when ground-water levels were high. Highest flows in the Lemhi River in early August were about 400 cubic feet per second. In October, when ground-water levels were low, river losses to ground water were about 1 to 16 cubic feet per second per mile. In October, highest flows in the Lemhi River were about 500 cubic feet per second, near the river's mouth. Annual ground-water underflow from the Lemhi River Basin to the Salmon River was estimated by using a simplified water budget and by using Darcy's equation. The water-budget method contained large uncertainties associated with estimating precipitation and evapotranspiration. Results of both methods indicate that the quantity of ground water leaving the basin as underflow is small, probably less than 2 percent of the basin's total annual water yield.

  11. Spatial distribution of dissolved constituents in Icelandic river waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarsdottir, Sigrídur Magnea; Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir; Snorrason, Arni; Halldorsdottir, Stefanía Gudrún; Gisladottir, Gudrún

    2011-02-01

    SummaryIn this study we map the spatial distribution of selected dissolved constituents in Icelandic river waters using GIS methods to study and interpret the connection between river chemistry, bedrock, hydrology, vegetation and aquatic ecology. Five parameters were selected: alkalinity, SiO 2, Mo, F and the dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved inorganic phosphorus mole ratio (DIN/DIP). The highest concentrations were found in rivers draining young rocks within the volcanic rift zone and especially those draining active central volcanoes. However, several catchments on the margins of the rift zone also had high values for these parameters, due to geothermal influence or wetlands within their catchment area. The DIN/DIP mole ratio was higher than 16 in rivers draining old rocks, but lowest in rivers within the volcanic rift zone. Thus primary production in the rivers is limited by fixed dissolved nitrogen within the rift zone, but dissolved phosphorus in the old Tertiary catchments. Nitrogen fixation within the rift zone can be enhanced by high dissolved molybdenum concentrations in the vicinity of volcanoes. The river catchments in this study were subdivided into several hydrological categories. Importantly, the variation in the hydrology of the catchments cannot alone explain the variation in dissolved constituents. The presence or absence of central volcanoes, young reactive rocks, geothermal systems and wetlands is important for the chemistry of the river waters. We used too many categories within several of the river catchments to be able to determine a statistically significant connection between the chemistry of the river waters and the hydrological categories. More data are needed from rivers draining one single hydrological category. The spatial dissolved constituent distribution clearly revealed the difference between the two extremes, the young rocks of the volcanic rift zone and the old Tertiary terrain.

  12. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  13. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps. PMID:22797241

  14. Water quality management in the Kaoping River watershed, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Chen, K F; Liao, Y L; Chen, C W

    2003-01-01

    The Kaoping River basin is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. It is 171 km long and drains a catchment of more than 3,250 km2. Based on the current water quality analysis, the Kaoping River is heavily polluted. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. Investigation results demonstrate that both point and non-point source pollutants are now the causes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nutrients, and pathogens in the river. The main water pollution sources are livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas, and leachate from riverbank landfills. The current daily BOD, NH3-N, and TP loadings to Kaoping River are 74,700, 39,400, and 5,100 kg, respectively. However, the calculated BOD, NH3-N, and TP carrying capacities are 27,700, 4,200, and 600 kg per day. To protect public health and improve the river water quality, a comprehensive management and construction strategy is proposed. The proposed strategy includes the following measures to meet the calculated river carrying capacity: (1) a hog ban in the entire Kaoping River basin, (2) sewer system construction to achieve 30% of connection in the basin within 10 years, (3) removal of 10 riverbank landfills, and (4) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards. After the implementation of the proposed measures, the water quality should be significantly improved and the BOD and nutrient loadings can be reduced to below the calculated carrying capacities. PMID:12793682

  15. Water-quality assessment of the Merced River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1982-01-01

    The Merced River and its major tributaries have been subject of water-quality and water-quantity studies by local, State, and Federal agencies since before 1900. Data have been compiled and analyzed, and even though water-quality problems exist in the basin, the water generally is of good quality for most of the beneficial uses defined by the California State Water Resources Control Board. Water-quality objectives for dissolved oxygen, pesticides, and pH were violated in some parts of the basin. The most likely cause of the dissolved-oxygen and pesticide violations is the return of agricultural irrigation water to the river in the lower 30 miles of the river. Violations of pH objectives occurred only in the upper drainage and were likely due to naturally occurring, poorly buffered water. Water quality is currently being monitored at three stations in the basin by California Department of Water Resources, at one station by the U.S. Geological Survey, and at several sites by the National Park Service. Modifications to the current water-quality monitoring program are proposed to gain further information on dissolved-oxygen fluctuations and pesticide concentrations in the lower river and to investigate nutrient input to Lake McClue. (USGS)

  16. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the majority of the Amazonian

  17. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  18. Groundwater and river water interaction at Ciromban and Cibeureum riverbank, Tasikmalaya: Can we solve water shortage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, A.; Abdulbari, N.; Nugraha, M. I.; Prasetio, Y.; Tulak, G. P.; Darul, A.; Irawan, D. E.

    2015-09-01

    Water shortage is a common problem in the high density settlement along the riverbank of Ciromban and Cibeureum River, Tasikmalaya, as the quality of the water also decreases. One of the solution is to maximize the use of river water. This study aims to investigate the interaction between river and groundwater along the riverbank as a function of land use impact. A river water and unconfined groundwater level mapping has been conducted to make water flow map, assuming both waters are in the same flow system. Physical parameters, temperature, TDS, and pH were measured at each stations to understand water characteristics. Based on observations at 50 dug wells and 12 river stations on July-August 2014, a close interaction between both water bodies has been identified with two flow systems: effluent flow (or gaining stream) at Cibereum river segment and influent flow (losing stream) at Ciromban river segment. Physical parameters show a high correlation in temperature, pH, and TDS. Hence, further evaluation should be taken before using river water as raw water supply in Tasikmalaya area.

  19. Bacteriological water quality status of River Yamuna in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Anand, Chetna; Akolkar, Pratima; Chakrabarti, Rina

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriological water quality status in terms of total coliform and faecal coliform count was studied on both--east and west banks of river Yamuna in Delhi. Membrane filtration technique was adopted for enumeration of total coliform and faecal coliform count in the river water sample collected on monthly basis for 2 years--2002 and 2003. The study reveals the impact of diverse anthropogenic activities as well as the monsoon effect on the bacterial population of river Yamuna in Delhi stretch. Microbial population contributed mainly through human activities prevailed in the entire stretch of Yamuna river with reduction in bacterial counts during monsoon period due to flushing effect. Bacteriological assessment does not provide an integrated effect of pollution but only indicate the water quality at the time of sampling. Hence, this parameter is time and space specific. PMID:16850884

  20. Bacteriological water quality status of River Yamuna in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Anand, Chetna; Akolkar, Pratima; Chakrabarti, Rina

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriological water quality status in terms of total coliform and faecal coliform count was studied on both--east and west banks of river Yamuna in Delhi. Membrane filtration technique was adopted for enumeration of total coliform and faecal coliform count in the river water sample collected on monthly basis for 2 years--2002 and 2003. The study reveals the impact of diverse anthropogenic activities as well as the monsoon effect on the bacterial population of river Yamuna in Delhi stretch. Microbial population contributed mainly through human activities prevailed in the entire stretch of Yamuna river with reduction in bacterial counts during monsoon period due to flushing effect. Bacteriological assessment does not provide an integrated effect of pollution but only indicate the water quality at the time of sampling. Hence, this parameter is time and space specific.

  1. Using GRACE Total Water Storage Changes to constrain River Routing Models in the Amazon River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Linage, C.; Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Ray, R. L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    The GRACE mission provides monthly to 10-day maps of Total Water Storage Anomalies corresponding to the vertically integrated land water storage (soil moisture and groundwater) as well as storage in river channels and floodplains (surface waters). The surface water component is an important contributor to total water storage in the Amazon River basin as shown by improved agreement between GRACE observations and model simulations when runoff is routed through the river network as compared to no river routing. We use the Community Land Model version 3.5 to model land water storage along with runoff by accounting for a simple ground water model. Surface and subsurface runoff predictions are then routed using two different routing models: a simple cell-to-cell routing scheme (e.g. Branstetter and Famiglietti, 1999) and the Hillslope River Routing (Beighley et al. 2010). We evaluate model performances against the spatio-temporal variations of GRACE data by carrying out a Singular Value Decomposition of the cross-covariance matrix. We also compare the two models in the light of their respective intrinsic capabilities. We finally investigate the impact of the precipitation data on model outputs by using TRMM products instead of GLDAS (CMAP) products.

  2. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qishlaqi, Afishin; Kordian, Sediqeh; Parsaie, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are one of the most environmentally vulnerable sources for contamination. Since the rivers pass through the cities, industrial and agricultural centers, these have been considered as place to dispose the sewages. This issue is more important when the river is one of the main sources of water supplying for drinking, agricultural and industrial utilizations. The goal of the present study was assessing the physicochemical characteristics of the Tireh River water. The Tireh River is the main river in the Karkheh catchment in the Iran. To this end, 14 sampling stations for measuring the physicochemical properties of Tireh River along the two main cities (Borujerd and Dorud) were measured. The results showed that (except SO4) Mg, Ca and other anions and cations have concentrations under WHO standard limitation. Almost all samples have suitable conditions for drinking with regard to the WHO standard and in comparison with agricultural standard (FAO Standard), and the potential of water is suitable for irrigation purposes. According to Wilcox diagram, 78 % of samples were at the C3-S1 and 21.5 % were at C2-S1 classes. The piper diagram shows that most of samples are bicarbonate and calcic facies.

  3. Methane flux from the Central Amazonian Floodplain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Karen B.; Crill, Patrick M.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Harriss, Robert C.; Wilson, John O.; Melack, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 186 methane measurements from the three primary Amazon floodplain environments of open water lakes, flood forests, and floating grass mats were made over the period 18 July through 2 September 1985. These data indicate that emissions were lowest over open water lakes. Flux from flooded forests and grass mats was significantly higher. At least three transport processes contribute to tropospheric emissions: ebullition from sediments, diffusion along the concentration gradient from sediment to overlaying water to air, and transport through the roots and stems of aquatic plants. Measurements indicate that the first two of these processes are most significant. It was estimated that on the average bubbling makes up 49% of the flux from open water, 54% of that from flooded forests, and 64% of that from floating mats. If the measurements were applied to the entire Amazonian floodplain, it is calculated that the region could supply up to 12% of the estimated global natural sources of methane.

  4. Investigation of trihalomethanes formation potential in Karoon River water, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fooladvand, Moradali; Ramavandi, Bahman; Zandi, Keyvan; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2011-07-01

    Organic matters in raw water have a potential to generate harmful disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) during the chlorination process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) in Karoon River water and to determine the effect of several factors including total organic carbon (TOC), pH, chlorine dosage, water temperature, and seasonal variation. The results showed that, among all factors, TOC and water temperature have a remarkable effect on THMFP. The experimental results from batch studies indicated that increasing of pH value yielded a greater THMFP concentration for Karoon River water. THMFP levels of Karoon River water in summer times, when water temperature exceeded 26°C, were 1.2-1.6 times higher than in the spring and fall seasons, when water temperature was below 15°C. It was found that the measured THMFP at Karoon River water in the spring and fall seasons were very rarely higher than 100 μg/L. PMID:20824334

  5. Water and sediment quality in the Yukon River basin, Alaska, during water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.

    2006-01-01

    This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2004 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented.

  6. Analysis of water quality of the Mahoning River in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, Gene A.; Collier, Charles R.; Cross, William Perry

    1968-01-01

    The Mahoning River drains the densely populated and industrialized Warren-Youngstown area in northeastern Ohio. Significant chemical constituents and physical properties generally regarded as important in establishing water-quality standards for the Mahoning River are evaluated on the basis of hydrologic conditions and water use. Most of the interpretations and the appraisal of water-quality conditions are based on data collected from January 1963 to December 1965. Generally, streamflow during this period was lower than during a selected long-term reference period ; however, extremely low flows that occurred in the reference period did not occur in the 3-year study period. Water temperatures of the Mahoning River at Pricetown and Leavittsburg were not affected by thermal loading. Water temperatures at those stations ranged from the freezing point to 78?F during the 1963-65 period. Downstream from Leavittsburg, the use of large quantities of water for industrial cooling caused critical thermal loading during periods of low streamflow. Maximum water temperatures were 108?F and 104?F at Struthers and Lowellville, respectively. Water temperatures of the Mahoning River were lower during high water discharges and increased with higher steel-production indices. Flow augmentation and modifications in industrial processes have improved the water-temperature conditions in recent years. A combination of oxygen-consuming materials and warmed water from industrial and municipal wastes discharged into the lower reaches of the Mahoning River frequently depleted the dissolved-oxygen content. At Lowellville, the river water had a dissolved-oxygen content of 5 ppm (parts per million) or less for 67 percent of the time and 3 ppm or less for 16 percent of the time during the study period. The percentage of saturation of dissolved oxygen followed a similar trend. Both the dissolved-oxygen concentration and the percentage of saturation were noticeably lower downstream from Leavittsburg

  7. Analyses of flow modification on water quality on Nechako River

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.C.; James, C.B.; Edinger, J.E.

    1995-08-01

    Alcan Smelters and Chemicals Ltd. initiated construction of the final phase of the Kemano Completion Project in north-central British Columbia to divert additional water from the Nechako Reservoir to the existing powerhouse. The Nechako Reservoir was created by the construction of the Kenney Dam in Nechako Canyon, a natural barrier to salmon migration. The Nechako River downstream of Nechako Canyon supports important runs of sockeye and chinook salmon. This additional diversion of Nechako River flow creates the potential of high water temperatures and increased thermal stress to migrating sockeye salmon enroute to their spawning grounds in Nechako River tributaries. To achieve specific downstream water temperature objectives during sockeye salmon migration each summer, a two-level outlet facility adjacent to Kenney Dam is to be constructed to release cooling water at 10 C to the Nechako River. Results of mathematical modeling of Nechako River water temperatures show that, based on specified design criteria, a maximum Kenney Dam release of 167 m{sup 3}/s at 10 C would be required to meet the downstream water temperature objectives.

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  10. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  11. Evolving water management institutions in the Red River Basin.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R

    2007-12-01

    Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve-with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity-new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota's water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota's water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management.

  12. Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, John F.

    1965-01-01

    This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the

  13. Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds: Nutrient Water Quality Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality datasets were acquired by the USDA-ARS in three large research watersheds in Oklahoma: the Southern Great Plains Research Watershed (SGPRW), and the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watersheds (LWREW and FCREW, respectively). Water quality data in the SGPRW we...

  14. Water resources of the Russian rivers and their changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgievsky, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    This paper is a review of the recent investigations related to changes in river water resources of the Russian Federation performed at the State Hydrological Institute (SHI). The long-term water resources fluctuations and their changes during the last decades including the significant changes in seasonal runoff are presented. The preliminary estimates of the possible future changes are also given.

  15. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations.

  16. Sustainable land and water management of River Oases along the Tarim River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disse, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang province in northwest China is characterized by a hyper arid climate. Climate change and a strong increase in agricultural land use are major challenges for sustainable water management. The largest competition for water resources exists between irrigated fields and natural riparian vegetation, which is dependent on seasonal flooding of the Tarim River. In addition to numerous water management measures implemented by the Chinese government, the Sino-German project SuMaRiO (Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River) provided a decision support system based on ecosystem services for the Chinese stakeholders. This tool will help to implement sustainable land and water management measures in the next 5-year plan.

  17. Water temperature controls in low arctic rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Tyler V.; Neilson, Bethany T.; Overbeck, Levi D.; Kane, Douglas L.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of heat transfer mechanisms is critical for forecasting the effects of climate change on arctic river temperatures. Climate influences on arctic river temperatures can be particularly important due to corresponding effects on nutrient dynamics and ecological responses. It was hypothesized that the same heat and mass fluxes affect arctic and temperate rivers, but that relative importance and variability over time and space differ. Through data collection and application of a river temperature model that accounts for the primary heat fluxes relevant in temperate climates, heat fluxes were estimated for a large arctic basin over wide ranges of hydrologic conditions. Heat flux influences similar to temperate systems included dominant shortwave radiation, shifts from positive to negative sensible heat flux with distance downstream, and greater influences of lateral inflows in the headwater region. Heat fluxes that differed from many temperate systems included consistently negative net longwave radiation and small average latent heat fluxes. Radiative heat fluxes comprised 88% of total absolute heat flux while all other heat fluxes contributed less than 5% on average. Periodic significance was seen for lateral inflows (up to 26%) and latent heat flux (up to 18%) in the lower and higher stream order portions of the watershed, respectively. Evenly distributed lateral inflows from large scale flow differencing and temperatures from representative tributaries provided a data efficient method for estimating the associated heat loads. Poor model performance under low flows demonstrated need for further testing and data collection to support the inclusion of additional heat fluxes.

  18. Evaluation of river water genotoxicity using the piscine micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Ergene, Serap; Cavaş, Tolga; Celik, Ayla; Köleli, Nurcan; Aymak, Cemil

    2007-07-01

    The Berdan River, which empties into the Mediterranean Sea on the east coast of Turkey, receives discharges of industrial and municipal waste. In the present study, the in vivo piscine micronucleus (MN) test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of water samples collected from different locations along the Berdan River. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in the laboratory for 2, 4, and 6 days, and micronuclei were evaluated in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill cells, and caudal fin epithelial cells. A single dose of 5 mg/L cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. In addition to micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as binucleated cells and blebbed, notched, and lobed nuclei, were assessed in the erythrocytes, and chemical analyses were carried out to determine the amount of heavy metals in the water samples. MN and NA frequencies were significantly elevated (up to 2- to 3-fold) in fish exposed to river water samples taken downstream of potential discharges, and the elevated responses in gill and fin cells were related to the concentration of heavy metals in the water. MN frequencies (expressed as micronucleated cells/1,000 cells), in both treated and untreated fish, were greatest in gill cells (range: 0.80-3.70), and generally lower in erythrocytes (range: 0.50-2.80), and fin cells (range: 0.45-1.70). The results of this study indicate that the Berdan River is contaminated with genotoxic pollutants and that the genotoxicity is related to the discharge of wastes into the river water.

  19. Isotopic Evolution of River Water in the Northern Chile Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, R.; Suzuki, O.

    1990-12-01

    Two main northern Chilean rivers, the Loa and Tarapaca, were investigated regarding their isotopic characteristics. Groundwater associated with various recharge zones, and the input of tributaries along their courses, mainly control their (18O, 2H) isotopic composition of the rivers. In the Loa river, carbon isotopic exchange between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and atmospheric CO2 plays a minor role in the inorganic carbon cycle of the Loa river. The carbon isotopic composition (14C, 13C) of this river is probably controlled by carbon source associated with volcanic and geothermal activities and by the deposition of travertines. For the Tarapaca river the carbon isotope content of the DIC reflects the input of recirculated water from irrigated areas along the river course and carbon isotopic exchange. These findings imply that the input of volcanic and/or geothermal CO2 into the DIC pool has to be evaluated in order to use carbon isotopes as a dating tool for groundwater in the Loa basin and that modern conditions are not analogous to the paleohydrology of the Tarapaca river.

  20. [Radioecological research of the Irtysh-River's and Ob-River's water, base and flood depositions].

    PubMed

    Trapeznikov, A V; Korzhavin, A V; Nikolkin, V N; Trapeznikova, V N; Migunov, V I

    2006-01-01

    The radioecological research of Irtysh-river and Ob-river was held. The content of 137Cs in Irtysh water was compounded 0.62-1.23 Bq/m3, in Ob-- 0.24-0.27 Bq/m3, and the one of 90Sr in Irtysh-- 10-20 Bq/m3, and in Ob-- 5-10 Bq/m3, that is much lower than the permissible sanitary-hygienic norms for the population. The 137Cs stores density on Irtysh-river input lease was compounded 2.7 kBq/m2, is almost in 11 times slashed downstream and is peer 245 kBq/m2 before the Irtysh-river lockin. The 90Sr stores density also was slashed in surveyed leases with 212 down to 106 Bq/m2. Two variants of integrated stores of 137Cs and of 90Sr in flood of the Irtysh-river was held. The balance calculation of annual radionuclides sinks confirms the dominant amount of 137Cs and of 90Sr in downstream Ob-river leases acts now on the Ob's sleeve, instead of from the Irtysh-river as it was supposed earlier. The 137Cs medial annual inflow from the Ob's sleeve almost is in 2 times, and the 90Sr inflow is in 2.3 times more, than are acts from Irtysh-river sleeve.

  1. Particle-water interactions of platinum-based anticancer drugs in river water and estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Mascorda, Llucia

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic, platinum-based anticancer drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin, enter the aquatic environment largely in municipal wastes via excretion from outpatients undergoing chemotherapy. The environmental behaviour, effects and fate of these drugs are, however, unknown. In this study, the adsorption of the drugs to untreated and chemically modified (oxide-free and organic-free) sediment was examined in both river water and low salinity (S=3.2) estuarine water in order to determine the nature and extent of their interactions with suspended particles. In all cases, adsorption isotherms were linear, and the slopes of the relationships, or distribution coefficients (KDs), ranged from about 10(2) to 10(3) ml g(-1). Overall, adsorption decreased in the order: cisplatin>carboplatin>oxaliplatin; in river water and: cisplatin>carboplatin, oxaliplatin; in estuarine water. There was no clear dependence of adsorption on sediment treatment but, for all sediment types, both cisplatin and carboplatin adsorption was greater in river water than in estuarine water. Qualitatively, these observations are consistent with the rates of formation of reactive, aquated degradation products and the dependencies of these rates on aqueous chloride concentration. We predict that during transport through an estuarine turbidity maximum (of suspended sediment concentration=1 g L(-1)), up to about 45% of cisplatin and 35% of carboplatin are filtered out from the aqueous phase but that no more than 7% of oxaliplatin is retained.

  2. Water resources of the Humboldt River Valley near Winnemucca, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1965-01-01

    This report, resulting from studies made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the interagency Humboldt River Research Project, describes the qualitative and quantitative relations among the components of the hydrologic system in the Winnemucca Reach of the Humboldt River valley. The area studied includes the segment of the Humboldt River valley between the Comus and Rose Creek gaging stations. It is almost entirely in Humboldt County in north-central Nevada, and is about 200 miles downstream from the headwaters of the Humboldt River. Agriculture is the major economic activity in the area. Inasmuch as the valley lowlands receive an average of about 8 inches of precipitation per year and because the rate of evaporation from free-water surfaces is about six times the average annual precipitation, all crops in the area (largely forage crops) are irrigated. About 85 percent of the cultivated land is irrigated with Humboldt River water; the remainder is irrigated from about 20 irrigation wells. The consolidated rocks of the uplifted fault-block mountains are largely barriers to the movement of ground water and form ground-water and surface-water divides. Unconsolidated deposits of late Tertiary and Quaternary age underlie the valley lowlands to a maximum depth of about 5,000 feet. These deposits are in hydraulic continuity with the Humboldt River and store and transmit most of the economically recoverable ground water. Included in the valley fill is a highly permeable sand and gravel deposit having a maximum thickness of about 90-100 feet; it underlies the flood plain and bordering terraces throughout most of the project area. This deposit is almost completely saturated and contains about 500,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The Humboldt River is the source of 90-95 percent of the surface-water inflow to the area. In water years 1949-62 the average annual streamflow at the Comus gaging station at the upstream margin of the area was 172,100 acre-feet; outflow

  3. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  4. A Water Budget for Riparian Vegetation on the Lower Colorado River: the Myth of Water Salvage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Webb, R. H.; Howard, K. A.

    2007-05-01

    For many years, river managers have envisaged large saving of water by clearing the exotic plant, saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) from western U.S. rivers. Early estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) by saltcedar ranged as high as 3-4 m/yr, and it was estimated that saltcedar on the Lower Colorado River used more water than Los Angeles. Furthermore, saltcedar was considered to have low habitat value, so clearing projects might enhance habitat value by allowing the return of more valuable native species. We have examined these assumptions based on recent evidence. Moisture flux towers set in dense saltcedar stands show that ET is moderate, ranging from 0.8-1.4 m/yr with a mean value of 1 m/yr over five studies on three rivers, similar to wide-area estimates from remote sensing studies. Projected over the 18,200 ha of dense saltcedar monocultures estimated for the Lower Colorado River riparian corridor in the U.S., the potential water saving would only be about 1 percent of the annual flow (assuming no replacement vegetation). A similar acreage of saltcedar monoculture exists in the Colorado River delta in Mexico, but these stands are supported by outflow of brackish water from the irrigation district rather than river water. The assumption of low habitat value is not supported by recent studies. For example, Hinojosa- Huerta (2006) found that saltcedar monocultures away from the river channel supported 65 percent as many bird numbers and 74 percent as many bird species as the best habitat type, mixed saltcedar and native trees in proximity to water, in the delta of the Colorado River in Mexico, and saltcedar provided equal habitat value as native trees for endangered willow flycatchers on Arizona and New Mexico rivers (Owen et al., 2005). Hence, the prospects for saving water without destroying habitat by clearing saltcedar are doubtful for this river system.

  5. Karyomegaly in Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paperna, I; Di Cave, D

    2001-06-20

    Vesicular karyomegaly of the liver hepatocytes is described from Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae), in 3 out of 7 fish, collected from Rio Xingu in central Amazonian (neutral water) Brazil and kept about 2 wk in a holding facility fed with acid water (pH 5.0 to 5.5). Altered cells also occurred in the gill epithelium. The vesicles in the liver were shown to contain a periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive substance or residue.

  6. Importance of Boreal Rivers in Providing Iron to Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Kritzberg, Emma S.; Bedmar Villanueva, Ana; Jung, Marco; Reader, Heather E.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports increasing iron concentrations in rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. Given the decisive role of iron to the structure and biogeochemical function of aquatic ecosystems, this trend is likely one with far reaching consequences to the receiving system. What those consequences may be depends on the fate of the iron in estuarine mixing. We here assess the stability of riverine iron by mixing water from seven boreal rivers with artificial sea salts. The results show a gradual loss of iron from suspension with increasing salinity. However, the capacity of the different river waters to maintain iron in suspension varied greatly, i.e. between 1 and 54% of iron was in suspension at a salinity of 30. The variability was best explained by iron:organic carbon ratios in the riverine waters – the lower the ratio the more iron remained in suspension. Water with an initially low iron:organic carbon ratio could keep even higher than ambient concentrations of Fe in suspension across the salinity gradient, as shown in experiments with iron amendments. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between the molecular size of the riverine organic matter and the amount of iron in suspension. In all, the results point towards a remarkably high transport capacity of iron from boreal rivers, suggesting that increasing concentrations of iron in river mouths may result in higher concentrations of potentially bioavailable iron in the marine system. PMID:25233197

  7. Water quality of streams and springs, Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    Data concerning salinity, phosphorus, and trace elements in streams and springs within the Green River Basin in Wyoming are summarized. Relative contributions of salinity are shown through estimates of annual loads and average concentrations at 11 water quality measurements sites for the 1970-77 water years. A hypothetical diversion of 20 cu ft/sec from the Big Sandy River was found to lower dissolved solids concentration in the Green River at Green River, Wyoming. This effect was greatest during the winter months, lowering dissolved solids concentration as much as 13%. Decrease in dissolved solids concentrations during the remainder of the year was generally less than 2%. Unlike the dilution effect that overland runoff has on perennial streams, runoff in ephemeral and intermittent streams within the basin was found to be enriched by the flushing of salts from normally dry channels and basin surfaces. Relative concentrations of sodium and sulfate in streams within the basin appear to be controlled by solubility. A downstream trend of increasing relative concentrations of sodium, sulfate, or both with increasing dissolved solids concentration was evident in all streams sampled. Estimates of total phosphorus concentration at water quality measurement sites indicate that phosphorus is removed from the Green River water as it passes through Fontenelle and Flaming Gorge Reservoirs. Total phosphorus concentration at some stream sites is directly or inversely related to streamflow, but at most sites a simple relation between concentration and streamflow is not discernable. (USGS)

  8. Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

    Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

  9. Causes of variations in water quality and aquatic ecology in rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, James R.

    1996-01-01

    Physical and aquatic biological conditions differ among the Mississippi River and its major tributaries (the St. Croix and Minnesota Rivers) in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The quality of surface water and the ecological condition of rivers affect the ways in which we use them. The St. Croix River is used for recreation; the Mississippi River is used for recreation and is a corridor for commerce; and the Minnesota River primarily drains agricultural lands. Analysis of the environmental framework of the basins and water-quality and ecological information by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program shows that the conditions of the rivers are a product of a combination of factors including climate, hydrology, geology, soils, land use, land cover, water management, and water use.

  10. Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

    2010-05-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient

  11. Water-quality assessment of the American River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shulters, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    Based on an analysis of water-quality data from more than 168 sites, the American River was found to be of overall good quality and suitable for all beneficial uses specified by the State of California, even though its natural condition has been altered by man 's activities in the basin. Time trend analyses indicate an increase in specific conductance (dissolved solids), hardness, and alkalinity over the past 20 years in the lower American River near Sacramento downstream from treated effluent and urban runoff sources. Most violations of specific water quality objectives for the basin have occurred in this segment. Water-quality conditions in the segment are expected to improve in 1982 when sewage treatment facility discharges will be discontinued. Potential water-quality problems in the upper American River basin could result from recreational overuse, improper land-use or poorly managed mining operations. Recreational overuse and increased urban runoff are the principal threats to water quality in the lower American River. Proposed monitoring activities include low-flow investigations on the lower American to measure diurnal variations in water-quality characteristics and studies in the uppper basin to determine the impact of increasing recreation and development as well as the effects of mine discharge. (USGS)

  12. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2015-07-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  13. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  14. Hydroclimatic and water quality trends across three Mediterranean river basins.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Stefanie R; Mallucci, Stefano; Diamantini, Elena; Majone, Bruno; Bellin, Alberto; Merz, Ralf

    2016-11-15

    Water resources are under pressure from multiple anthropogenic stressors such as changing climate, agriculture and water abstraction. This holds, in particular, for the Mediterranean region, where substantial changes in climate are expected throughout the 21st century. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to linkages between long-term trends in climate, streamflow and water quality in Mediterranean river basins. In the present study, we perform a comparative analysis of recent trends in hydroclimatic parameters and nitrate pollution in three climatologically different Mediterranean watersheds (i.e., the Adige, Ebro and Sava River Basins). Mann-Kendall trend analyses of annual mean temperature, precipitation and streamflow (period 1971 to 2010) and monthly nitrate concentrations, mass fluxes and flow-adjusted concentrations (period 1996 to 2012) were performed in these river basins. Temperature is shown to have increased the most in the Ebro followed by the Sava, whereas minor increases are observed in the Adige. Precipitation presents, overall, a negative trend in the Ebro and a positive trend in both the Adige and Sava. These climatic trends thus suggest the highest risk of increasing water scarcity for the Ebro and the lowest risk for the Adige. This is confirmed by trend analyses of streamflow time series, which indicate a severe decline in streamflow for the Ebro and a substantial decline in the Sava, as opposed to the Adige showing no prevailing trend. Concerning surface water quality, nitrate pollution appears to have decreased in all study basins. Overall, these findings emphasize progressive reduction of water resources availability in river basins characterized by continental climate (i.e., Ebro and Sava). This study thus underlines the need for adapted river management in the Mediterranean region, particularly considering strong feedbacks between hydroclimatic trends, freshwater ecosystem services and water resources availability for agriculture

  15. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    PubMed

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-09-01

    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Beça River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mg·L(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mg·L(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Beça River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species.

  16. [Myths concerning malarial transmission among Amazonian Indians and their relation with 2 types of transmission encountered in the Amazonian forest].

    PubMed

    Molez, J F

    1999-01-01

    Among the Indians Desana's (Tukano amerindians) in the Upper Rio Negro, the interseasonal variation of the malarial fevers were associated with two myths (localised in two distinguishable places). One myth associates the malarial with the rivers which contain "malaria pots". Conception based on an observation of localised water collection in the banks and the rocky rapids ("banks and rocky's fever"). The transmission and the anophelian density present variation between the seasons in relation to the river's level. Another myth associates malarial fevers in the forest, with the song of a frog ("fever's frog") and the flowering and fructification of a tree (Poaqueira sericea Thul.). There is in South America a particular type of forest malaria, known as "Bromelia malaria" and denounced in human and/or simian transmission. This forest malaria is transmitted by the a sub-genus anopheles (Kerteszia) which larval breeding are areal in the canopy. The breeding places are found in the forest in the epiphyte bromeliads. To understand this type of transmission, we must take reference to the previous endomological data at the Upper Oyapock Wayâpi (Tupi amerindians). This Bromelia malaria could fluctuated according larval density variation, related to washing of epiphytes (end of the rainy season) or to their flowering (end of the dry season). The "fever's frog" myth collected at the Desana's in the Upper Rio Negro can be related to the existence of Bromelia malaria in this amazonian habitat. These myths showed the perfect adaptation of the amerindians to their environment and their complete knowledge of the neotropical forest.

  17. Water resources planning for rivers draining into Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    April, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    The application of remote sensing, automatic data processing, modeling and other aerospace related technologies to hydrological engineering and water resource management are discussed for the entire river drainage system which feeds the Mobile Bay estuary. The adaptation and implementation of existing mathematical modeling methods are investigated for the purpose of describing the behavior of Mobile Bay. Of particular importance are the interactions that system variables such as river flow rate, wind direction and speed, and tidal state have on the water movement and quality within the bay system.

  18. Water resources of the Redwood River watershed, southwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Voast, Wayne A.; Jerabek, L.A.; Novitzki, R.P.

    1970-01-01

    The land surface slopes gently northeastward and eastward from altitudes greater than 1900 feet at the southwestern edge to less than 850 feet at the mouth of the Redwood River in the east. The area has slight local relief shaped by continental glaciation. The Redwood River and its tributaries, many of which are ephemeral, and ponds and lakes in the area provide water for local use and habitat for wildlife. The glacial drift and sedimentary rocks yield generally adequate water supplies for municipalities, households, and farms.

  19. Impact of heatwaves on river water temperature in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Air temperature records show that multi-day heatwaves are becoming more frequent in Europe during summer months. Future projections depict scenarios in which this trend could be even more probable, likely bringing to severe impacts on human, economic, and natural environment. In this work, we analyse the correlation between daily averaged anomalies of air temperature and river water temperature considering a database of 15 Swiss rivers covering a period of 30 years (1984-2013). We find that the response of the natural rivers is strongly correlated with air temperature, while anthropogenic impacted rivers affected by hydro- and thermo-peaking (due to hypolimnetic release of water from reservoirs) tend to show a null or very mild dependence, especially during summer months. In all cases, the response is approximately linear, thus allowing for a clear distinction between the two types of rivers on the basis of the proportionality coefficient. We specifically focus on the two most intense heatwaves (June-August 2003 and July 2006) that produced severe effects in the European Alpine region, and show that the alteration of the river thermal behaviour due to hydropower production may mitigate the effects of these extreme events.

  20. DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Aiken, G.R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

    2007-01-01

    The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

  1. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 1: Quinebaug River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, Allan D.; Thomas, Mendall P.; Thomas, Chester E.; Baker, John A.

    1966-01-01

    The Quinebaug River basin is blessed with a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from precipitation that has fallen on the basin. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 30 to 67 inches and has averaged about 45 inches over a 44-year period. Approximately 21 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the basin in the Quinebaug River. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the basin, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced streamflow and lowered ground-water levels.

  2. Estimation of the Water Budget for Major Canadian River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Huang, J.; Li, J.; Rivera, A.; Russell, H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding regional water budgets is essential in water resources management, particularly for irrigation planning, drought, flood and pollution control, drainage system design, and climate modelling. A water budget for a drainage basin is needed to determine the magnitude of the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances on terrestrial water cycle and to evaluate possible mitigation actions. In this study, the monthly and 30-year (1979-2008) average water budgets were calculated for large Canadian river basins with an area > 90,000 km2. The total area studied takes about 58% of the entire Canadian landmass. The datasets used include two gridded precipitation products based on measurement, the land surface evapotranspiration product derived from the EALCO model, the river discharge measured from hydrometric stations, and the total water (surface water+groundwater) storage anomaly derived from GRACE satellite observations. These datasets are deemed as the best-available long-term national scale datasets that meet the requirement of this study. Our objectives are to characterise the spatial and temporal variations of water budget across the vast Canadian landmass and to answer the questions of (1) how well can we close the water budget at both long-term and monthly time scales for the major Canadian river basins and (2) which component(s) of the water budget (i.e., precipitation, evapotranspiration, river discharge, or total water storage change) and in which season and which region contribute the main error source to the water budget imbalance? We also examined the decadal change in total water storage in the major Canadian river basins and quantified the bias in evapotranspiration estimation by using the widely-accepted surface water budget approach. Our results show that the national scale water budget imbalance is very close to 0 (-0.2 mm year-1) due to the offset of positive and negative imbalances among the studies basins. Basins with positive

  3. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    PubMed

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs. PMID:27245010

  4. Quality of ground water in the Payette River basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a study to obtain groundwater quality data in areas of Idaho were land- and water-resource development is expected to increase, water quality, geologic, and hydrologic data were collected for 74 wells in the Payette River basin, west-central Idaho, from July to October 1982. Historical (pre-1982) data from 13 wells were compiled with more recent (1982) data to define, on a reconnaissance level, water quality conditions in major aquifers and to identify factors that may have affected groundwater quality. Water from the major aquifers generally contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Sodium and bicarbonate or sulfate are the predominant ions in groundwater from 25% of the 1982 samples. Areally, groundwater from the upper Payette River basin has proportionately lower ion concentrations than water from the lower Payette River basin. Water samples from wells < 100 ft deep generally have lower ion concentrations than samples from wells > 100 ft deep. Variations in groundwater quality probably are most affected by differences in aquifer composition and proximity to source(s) of recharge. Groundwater in the study area is generally suitable for most uses. In localized areas, pH and concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, or dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, sulfate, fluoride, iron, or manganese exceed Federal drinking water limits and may restrict some uses of the water.

  5. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    PubMed

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  6. Effect of Kima drain wastewaters on Nile river waters

    SciTech Connect

    Soltan, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    The influence of industrial and domestic wastewaters discharged from the Kima drain (Aswan, Egypt) on the quality of the Nile River waters is described by measuring the concentrations of inorganic nonmetals (free CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, OH{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SiO{sub 2}, COD, DO and pH value), metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), and the physical parameters (cond., T{degrees}C, SS, and DS). Kima drain wastewaters exhibit high concentrations of dissolved salts, particularly close to where the waste of the Kima factory enters, but decrease substantially near the end of the Kima drain. The reason is the dilution factor, aeration, sedimentation, oxidation reductions, and the biochemical effects. A slight increase of the dissolved solids (DS) in the Nile river water at the Kima drain does not effect the Nile river water quality, as the regeneration of the Nile water continuously (the Nile River receives 200 Mm{sup 3}/d of fresh water from the High Dam Lake) prevents the accretion of the concentrations of metals and anions. Statistical analysis of the database exhibits positive, good, and interesting correlation coefficient values. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  7. [Improvement of River Water Quality by Aeration: WASP Model Study].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-bo; Wang, Hong-xiu; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Aeration is one of the main technical methods to remediate polluted rivers, and mathematical models are the main ways to predict and assess the environmental pollution. WASP model was used to study the effect of aeration on improving the water quality of a small river over a time span. The preliminary results showed that the simulation values were consistent with practical monitoring data, which could be useful for the management and control of polluted water. Furthermore, simulations under different aeration conditions suggested that aeration technology could significantly lower the levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) of river water, thus improving the water quality. With the improvement of dissolved oxygen (DO), the water quality could be further improved. However, the increase in the removal rate of pollutants would slow down. Also, there were remarkable differences among various months throughout the whole year, and aeration from May to September had better results. Considering economic costs and environmental benefits, river aeration with a 4 mg x L(1) DO standard in summer was determined as the best condition.

  8. Genotoxic assessment on river water using different biological systems.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Emilene Arusievicz; de Lemos, Clarice Torres; Gavronski, Léia; Moreira, Tiago Nunes; Oliveira, Nânci C D; da Silva, Juliana

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports genotoxicity and toxicity data in water samples collected in Sinos River, an important water course in the hydrographic region of Guaíba Lake, Rio Grande do Sul State, south of Brazil. This river is exposed to intense anthropic influence by numerous shoes, leather, petrochemical, and metallurgy industries. Water samples were collected at two moments (winter 2006 and spring 2006) at five sites of Sinos River and evaluated using in vitro V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (cytotoxicity, comet assay and micronucleus test) and Allium cepa test (toxicity and micronucleus test). Comet and micronucleus tests revealed that water samples collected exerted cytotoxic, toxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects. The results showed the toxic action of organic and inorganic agents found in the water samples in all sites of Sinos River, for both data collections. The main causes behind pollution were the domestic and industrial toxic discharges. The V79 and A. cepa tests were proved efficient to detect toxicity and genotoxicity caused by complex mixtures. This study also showed the need for constant monitoring in sites with strong environmental degradation caused by industrial discharges and urban sewages. PMID:21435689

  9. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  10. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms.

  11. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. PMID:24742558

  12. Spatial and seasonal characteristics of river water chemistry in the Taizi River in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bu, Hongmei; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to water quality deterioration in many parts of the world, especially in Northeast China. The current work investigated the spatiotemporal variations of water quality in the Taizi River by multivariate statistical analysis of data from the 67 sampling sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the river during dry and rainy seasons. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the 20 measured variables (except pH, 5-day biological oxygen demand, permanganate index, and chloride, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus concentrations) showed significant seasonal (p ≤ 0.05) and spatial (p < 0.05) variations among the mainstream and major tributaries of the river. Hierarchical cluster analysis of data from the different seasons classified the mainstream and tributaries of the river into three clusters, namely, less, moderately, and highly polluted clusters. Factor analysis extracted five factors from data in the different seasons, which accounted for the high percentage of the total variance and reflected the integrated characteristics of water chemistry, organic pollution, phosphorous pollution, denitrification effect, and nitrogen pollution. The results indicate that river pollution in Northeast China was mainly from natural and/or anthropogenic sources, e.g., rainfall, domestic wastewater, agricultural runoff, and industrial discharge.

  13. Spatial and seasonal characteristics of river water chemistry in the Taizi River in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bu, Hongmei; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to water quality deterioration in many parts of the world, especially in Northeast China. The current work investigated the spatiotemporal variations of water quality in the Taizi River by multivariate statistical analysis of data from the 67 sampling sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the river during dry and rainy seasons. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the 20 measured variables (except pH, 5-day biological oxygen demand, permanganate index, and chloride, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus concentrations) showed significant seasonal (p ≤ 0.05) and spatial (p < 0.05) variations among the mainstream and major tributaries of the river. Hierarchical cluster analysis of data from the different seasons classified the mainstream and tributaries of the river into three clusters, namely, less, moderately, and highly polluted clusters. Factor analysis extracted five factors from data in the different seasons, which accounted for the high percentage of the total variance and reflected the integrated characteristics of water chemistry, organic pollution, phosphorous pollution, denitrification effect, and nitrogen pollution. The results indicate that river pollution in Northeast China was mainly from natural and/or anthropogenic sources, e.g., rainfall, domestic wastewater, agricultural runoff, and industrial discharge. PMID:24477615

  14. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mississippi River Water Control... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE BOARDS, COMMISSIONS, AND COMMITTEES § 223.1 Mississippi River Water Control..., responsibilities and authority of the Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (b) Applicability....

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Hudson River water and treated drinking water at Waterford, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Past discharge of PCBs into the Hudson River has resulted in contaminant concentrations of a few tenths of a microgram per liter in the water. Waterford is one of two large municipal users of the Hudson River for drinking-water supply. The treatment scheme at the Waterford plant, which processes approximately 1 million gallons per day, is similar to that of most conventional treatment plants except for the addition of powdered activated carbon during flocculation. Comparison of PCB concentrations in river water and intake water at the plant to concentrations in treated drinking-water samples indicates that purification processes remove 80 to 90 percent of the PCBs and that final concentrations seldom exceed 0.1 microgram per liter. No significant difference was noted between the removal efficiencies during periods of high river discharge, when PCBs are associated with suspended sediment, and low discharge, when PCBs are generally dissolved. (USGS)

  16. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers.

    PubMed

    Páll, Emőke; Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; Spînu, Marina

    2013-11-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human involvement is undeniable, and subsequently, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve became one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. This review is an attempt to analyse the microbiological contamination and to identify the major role human activities play in altering the water quality of the rivers.

  17. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers

    PubMed Central

    Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; Spînu, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human involvement is undeniable, and subsequently, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve became one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. This review is an attempt to analyse the microbiological contamination and to identify the major role human activities play in altering the water quality of the rivers. PMID:23813274

  18. Ground-water and surface-water relations along the Mojave River, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lines, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Mojave River and the associated flood-plain aquifer are important water supplies in the Mojave Desert of Southern California. The river and aquifer, in many areas, are in excellent hydraulic connection, and when flow conditions change in one, the other almost always is affected. To better understand these relations, records of gaging stations were analyzed to determine the frequency and duration of historical streamflow. Annual ground-water recharge from the river during water years 1931-94 was estimated from an accounting of all streamflow accretions and losses. Annual recharge ranged from about 24,000 to 460,000 acre-feet and averaged about 96,000 acre-feet. Channel-geometry regression techniques were used to estimate runoff of ungaged ephemeral streams that are tributary to the river. Water-table and gravity changes were used to estimate specific yield of the aquifer and changes in ground-water storage following storm runoff during the winters of 1992-94. In addition, streamflow hydrographs were analyzed to estimate both ground-water discharge to the river (base flow) and historical streamflow depletion caused by ground-water pumping and evapotranspiration. Ground-water pumpage from the flood-plain aquifer was about 120,000 acre-feet during water year 1994. Annual evapotranspiration along the river probably ranges from about 10,000 to 30,000 acre-feet. Factors controlling the exchange of water are identified in this report on the basis of the historical response of the river-aquifer system to stress (stormflows and pumping). Also identified are reaches of the river that are hydraulically suitable for artificial recharge.

  19. Perfluorinated compounds in river water, river sediment, market fish, and wildlife samples from Japan.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Ohi, Etsumasa; Sajwan, Kenneth; Takasuga, Takumi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2007-10-01

    Perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOSA and PFDoA were determined in river water, river sediment, liver of market fish and liver of wildlife samples from Japan. Concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in water samples were 7.9-110 and <5.2-10 ng/L. Only PFOA were detected in sediment from Kyoto river at 1.3-3.9 ng/g dry wt. Among fish, only jack mackerel showed PFOA and PFOS at 10 and 1.6 ng/g wet wt. Wildlife liver contained PFOSA, PFOS, PFDoA, PFOA and PFHxS in the range of 0.31-362, 0.15-238, <0.03-28, >0.07-7.3 and <0.03-1.5, respectively, on ng/g wet wt. Cormorants showed maximum accumulation followed by eagle, raccoon dog and large-billed crow.

  20. Precipitation and river water chemistry of the Piracicaba River basin, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Williams, M R; Filoso, S; Martinelli, L A; Lara, L B; Camargo, P B

    2001-01-01

    Annual precipitation and river water volumes and chemistry were measured from 1995 to 1998 in a mesoscale agricultural area of southeast Brazil. Precipitation was mildly acidic and solute concentrations were higher in the west than in the east of the basin. Combustion products from biomass burning, automobile exhaust, and industry typically accumulate in the atmosphere from March until October and are responsible for seasonal differences observed in precipitation chemistry. In river waters, the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of major solutes at 10 sites across the basin were generally lower at upriver than at downriver sampling sites for most solutes. Mass balances for major solutes indicate that, as a regional entity, the Piracicaba River basin was a net sink of H+, PO4(3-), and NH4+, and a net source of other solutes. The main stem of the Piracicaba River had a general increase in solute concentrations from upriver to downriver sampling sites. In contrast, NO3- and NH4+ concentrations increased in the mid-reach sampling sites and decreased due to immobilization or utilization in the mid-reach reservoir, and there was denitrification immediately downriver of this reservoir. Compared with tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, the Piracicaba River is affected more by point-source inputs of raw sewage and industrial wastes than nonpoint agricultural runoff high in N and P. Inputs of N and C are responsible for a degradation of water quality at downriver sampling sites of the Piracicaba River drainage, and water quality could be considerably improved by augmenting sewage treatment.

  1. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Resende, E K; Marques, D K S; Ferreira, L K S G

    2008-11-01

    The 'tucunaré', Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the 'tucunaré' could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities. PMID:19197497

  2. Watershed protection and landscape enhancement by utilization of river water.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hua; Pei, Yuan-sheng; Hu, De-zhi; Luan, Zhao-kun

    2003-07-01

    A scheme for watershed protection and landscape enhancement (WPLE) by utilization of river water was proposed to renovate water resources and protect ecological environment in Qiongshan City, Hainan Province, China. Utilization of river water may diminish the drought and flood risks. The scheme is beneficial to solve the problems of water resources shortage, groundwater declines and saltwater intrusion in the watershed. The object of the WPLE scheme is to achieve a sustainable integrated development of environment, ecology, economy and society. A kind of physically beautiful and functionally vivid landscape may exert its synthetical function on the diversity of landscape and the enjoyment of inhabitants. Feasibility of the scheme will be demonstrated by more experiments and tests, as well as observations in a long term.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Raoultella planticola, Isolated from River Water.

    PubMed

    Jothikumar, Narayanan; Kahler, Amy; Strockbine, Nancy; Gladney, Lori; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-10-16

    We isolated Raoultella planticola from a river water sample, which was phenotypically indistinguishable from Escherichia coli on MI agar. The genome sequence of R. planticola was determined to gain information about its metabolic functions contributing to its false positive appearance of E. coli on MI agar. We report the first whole genome sequence of Raoultella planticola.

  4. Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihich, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample…

  5. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  6. Water stress in global transboundary river basins: significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. We found that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  7. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  8. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  9. Life history and environment of Cecropia latiloba in Amazonian floodplains.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Pia

    2002-06-01

    Cecropia latiloba can be considered to be one of the most efficient colonizers of open areas in the nutrient-rich whitewater floodplains of the Amazon river. Its main strategy to be successful is the high tolerance towards waterlogging and submergence, and the fast vertical growth and reiteration capacity. This, and the tolerance of high irradiation and sediment deposition allow C. latiloba to form large monospecific stands on open sites, and thus the first closed canopy which represents the initial phase of a successional sequence which leads to highly diverse forests. This tree is extremely well adapted to the adverse growth conditions in Amazonian floodplains with prolonged periods of flooding and seedling submergence. The species occurs on the lowest levels in the flooding gradient. Although it belongs to the most often cited species under aspects of taxonomy, species distribution and general descriptions of the ecosystem, little has been published about its ecology. In the present paper the ecological, physiological and phenological characteristics of C. latiloba are described. It is an evergreen species which constantly produces new leaves. With flooding, leaf production is reduced but new leaves are flushed also with prolongued flooding. The peak of flowering and fruiting are in the flooded period. When mature, the fruits are dispersed mainly by water and fish. Seed germination occurs, without dormancy, within 5-13 days after water retreat. In the 7 months before the first flooded period seedlings reach 1 m of height, and height growth increases until 15-20 m are achieved. Photosynthetic assimilation is high, with values of up to 21 mumol CO2 m-2s-1. C. latiloba is a very flood tolerant species, and waterlogged seedlings continuously produce new leaves and adventitious roots.

  10. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  11. Processes controlling the chromium isotopic composition of river water: Constraints from basaltic river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Joan; Babechuk, Michael G.; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report chromium (Cr) isotope compositions and concentrations (and additional geochemical and physicochemical data) of bedrock, soils and river waters from two geographically distinct basaltic river catchments, the Uruguay River catchment (Uruguay) and the Glenariff River catchment (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom), to investigate the processes that control Cr mobilisation and fractionation during weathering and riverine transport to the sea. Our results show that the Cr isotope compositions of soils are a function of the modal abundance and weathering rates of Cr-bearing minerals. The accumulation of weathering resistant Cr-spinels in the soils of Northern Ireland results in soils which are enriched in Cr and have δ53Cr values within the range of local bedrock (δ53Cr value of -0.21 ± 0.12‰, 2σ, n = 4). By contrast, the more easily weathered Cr-silicates in the bedrock of Uruguay results in greater Cr loss from the soil and a depletion in the heavy isotopes of Cr (with average δ53Cr value of -0.32 ± 0.04‰, 2σ, n = 4) relative to the local bedrock (δ53Cr value of -0.22 ± 0.08‰, 2σ, n = 4). The river waters in both catchments are predominantly enriched in the heavy 53Cr isotope relative to bedrock, although the range and average river water δ53Cr values differ significantly between each. The Uruguay rivers exhibit a restricted range in δ53Cr values, with a mean of +0.08 ± 0.06‰ (2σ, n = 5) that represents a positive fractionation of +0.2‰ relative to bedrock, and is best explained by the unidirectional formation of Cr(VI) during weathering that has not been significantly modified by back-reduction to Cr(III). By contrast, the Glenariff stream and river waters (Northern Ireland) exhibit a wide range in δ53Cr values from -0.17 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 4) to +1.68 ± 0.3‰ (n = 1) that appears to reflect the variable redox conditions of the catchment. In general, the values with the lowest 53Cr enrichment have higher Cr concentrations, the lowest

  12. Water resources of the upper Big Wood River basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Mean annual water yields, estimated using a water-budget method, for the upper Big Wood River basin above Glendale Road and for Trail Creek, Warm Springs Creek, and East Fork Big Wood River, Idaho were 410,000, 50,000, 60,000 and 50,000 acre-ft, respectively. Yields also were estimated for 1986 and 1987 water years when data were collected for comparison with long-term average values. During 1986, yields estimated for upper Big Wood River basin, Trail Creek, Warm Springs Creek, and East Fork Big Wood were 580,000, 61,000, 83,000 and 60,000 acre-ft, respectively. During 1987, yields estimated for the respective basins were 230,000, 26,000, 32,000 and 28,000 acre-ft. Availability of surface and groundwater varies seasonally; the greatest quantity is available during spring snowmelt, and the least is available during mid-winter to late winter. Nutrient concentrations in sampled ground and surface water were near or below detection levels throughout the basin, which indicates that water quality has not been impaired by increased development. Fluoride concentrations were elevated in Warm Springs Creek, probably due to inflow of thermal water.

  13. Mutagenicity of drinking water sampled from the Yangtze River and Hanshui River (Wuhan section) and correlations with water quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xuemin; Lu, Yi; Yang, Xiaoming; Dong, Xiaorong; Ma, Kunpeng; Xiao, Sanhua; Wang, Yazhou; Tang, Fei

    2015-03-31

    A total of 54 water samples were collected during three different hydrologic periods (level period, wet period, and dry period) from Plant A and Plant B (a source for Yangtze River and Hanshui River water, respectively), and several water parameters, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and total organic carbon (TOC), were simultaneously analyzed. The mutagenicity of the water samples was evaluated using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. According to the results, the organic compounds in the water were largely frame-shift mutagens, as positive results were found for most of the tests using TA98. All of the finished water samples exhibited stronger mutagenicity than the relative raw and distribution water samples, with water samples collected from Plant B presenting stronger mutagenic strength than those from Plant A. The finished water samples from Plant A displayed a seasonal-dependent variation. Water parameters including COD (r = 0.599, P = 0.009), TOC (r = 0.681, P = 0.02), UV254 (r = 0.711, P = 0.001), and total nitrogen (r = 0.570, P = 0.014) exhibited good correlations with mutagenicity (TA98), at 2.0 L/plate, which bolsters the argument of the importance of using mutagenicity as a new parameter to assess the quality of drinking water.

  14. Water quality and ground-water/surface-water interactions along the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2005-01-01

    The headwaters of the John River are located near the village ofAnaktuvuk Pass in the central Brooks Range of interior Alaska. With the recent construction of a water-supply system and a wastewater-treatment plant, most homes in Anaktuvuk Pass now have modern water and wastewater systems. The effluent from the treatment plant discharges into a settling pond near a tributary of the John River. The headwaters of the John River are adjacent to Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, and the John River is a designated Wild River. Due to the concern about possible water-quality effects from the wastewater effluent, the hydrology of the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass was studied from 2002 through 2003. Three streams form the John River atAnaktuvuk Pass: Contact Creek, Giant Creek, and the John RiverTributary. These streams drain areas of 90.3 km (super 2) , 120 km (super 2) , and 4.6 km (super 2) , respectively. Water-qualitydata collected from these streams from 2002-03 indicate that the waters are a calcium-bicarbonate type and that Giant Creek adds a sulfate component to the John River. The highest concentrations of bicarbonate, calcium, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate were found at the John River Tributary below the wastewater-treatment lagoon. These concentrations have little effect on the water quality of the John River because the flow of the John River Tributary is only about 2 percent of the John River flow. To better understand the ground-water/surface-water interactions of the upper John River, a numerical groundwater-flow model of the headwater area of the John River was constructed. Processes that occur during spring break-up, such as thawing of the active layer and the frost table and the resulting changes of storage capacity of the aquifer, were difficult to measure and simulate. Application and accuracy of the model is limited by the lack of specific hydrogeologic data both spatially and temporally. However

  15. Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

  16. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term withdrawals of water for public supplies may cause a net decrease in ground-water discharge to surface water. Water that does not evaporate, or that is not exported, is discharged to the Des Moines River but with changed water quality. Because ground-water and surface-water qualities in the study area are similar, the ground-water discharge probably has little effect on river water quality.

  17. Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a

  18. Identifiability analysis of the CSTR river water quality model.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Deng, Y

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual river water quality models are widely known to lack identifiability. The causes for that can be due to model structure errors, observational errors and less frequent samplings. Although significant efforts have been directed towards better identification of river water quality models, it is not clear whether a given model is structurally identifiable. Information is also limited regarding the contribution of different unidentifiability sources. Taking the widely applied CSTR river water quality model as an example, this paper presents a theoretical proof that the CSTR model is indeed structurally identifiable. Its uncertainty is thus dominantly from observational errors and less frequent samplings. Given the current monitoring accuracy and sampling frequency, the unidentifiability from sampling frequency is found to be more significant than that from observational errors. It is also noted that there is a crucial sampling frequency between 0.1 and 1 day, over which the simulated river system could be represented by different illusions and the model application could be far less reliable.

  19. River of Life. Water: The Environmental Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preudhomme, Leroy L.

    This is the sixth in a series of Conservation Yearbooks prepared by the U.S. Department of the Interior as environmental reports to the public concerning problems of water resources in the United States. Information presented includes descriptive information, statistical data, and extensive color photographs. The methods of presenting information…

  20. Crooked River Collaborative Water Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Merkley, Jeff [D-OR

    2012-08-02

    09/19/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water and Power. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-624. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Removal of silica from Raft River geothermal water

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, D.F.; Miller, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    Lack of sufficient quantities of clean surface or near-surface water at Raft River for cooling purposes dictates that cooled geothermal fluid, effluent from the Raft River 5 MW(e) Pilot Power Plant, must also be used as condenser coolant. Prior testing revealed that a water-treatment system would be required to reduce silica and calcium concentrations of the cooling fluid. The water-treatment system specified was to use dolomitic lime for both pH adjustment and source of magnesium. The dolomitic lime treatment was investigated and found to be inadequate. Subsequent testing was done to find chemical systems that would adequately reduce silica concentrations. Three magnesium and two iron compounds were found which reduced silica to acceptable concentration levels. They are magnesium bicarbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, iron sulfate, and iron chloride. Magnesium oxide, using a two-stage countercurrent process, will also reduce silica to adequate levels.

  2. Effect of Water Conveyance to Impove Water Quality in the Barato River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, K.; Nakatsugawa, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Barato River, in the northern part of Sapporo, Hokkaido, was deteriorated because of stagnated water bodies and Sapporo's wastewater inflow. To improve the water quality of the Barato River, water has been diverted from the Ishikari River and the Toyohira River into the uppermost reach and the middle stream of the Barato River since 2007. This study clarifies the water quality change by water conveyance, based on our surveys and simulations. The water quality surveys found that inorganic nitrogen (IN) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were decreased after water conveyance. And inorganic phosphorus (IP) was increased. To estimate these water quality findings, we constructed a water quality simulation model that incorporates the freezing-over of water bodies. The constructed model shows good temporal and spatial reproducibility and enables water quality to be forecast throughout the year, including the ice-cover period. The forecasts using the model agree well with the survey results of the 2007-2010. From calculation results, it was assumed that IN and BOD decreasing was caused by dilution and phytoplankton decreasing. IP increasing assumed due to accumulation of unused phosphorus by phytoplankton. And remarkable changes seem in survey result. Blue-green algae decreased selectively with water conveyance year by year from 2007.However, blue-green algae increased from 2011, in additionally dominant species of blue-green algae change to Merismopedia punctate from Phormidium spp. These change suggest that regime sift occurred in blue-green algae selectively and BOD value of the Barato River showed to improved. But, ecosystem model parameter of phytoplankton needs to calibrate again.

  3. Trends in Surface Water Quality for Korean River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Boeder, M.

    2006-05-01

    Water quality is an ongoing problem in many Korean river basins. Maintaining good water quality is essential for the sustainability of the country. While point source pollution has declined with stringent regulation and management (e.g., wastewater discharge permit and the installation of wastewater treatment facilities in major municipalities), nonpoint source pollution is a persistent problem in major metropolitan areas. We used the nonparametric seasonal Kendall's test to determine trends in surface water quality for the period between 1993 and 2002. For temperature, trends were detected only a small number of stations. pH increased significantly in more than half of the stations. Dissolved oxygen showed two opposite trends: upward trends at stations in the main stem river and the upper basin and downward trends at tributary stations. Suspended solids declined in major tributaries, but increased in tributaries adjacent to new suburban development areas. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen showed upward trends except for tributary stations in forested areas, suggesting the ineffectiveness of wastewater treatment facilities in removing these nutrients and confirming the importance of nonpoint source pollution. While urban land cover is positively associated with nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, there are strong regional and local variations in water quality. The relationship between trends and land use change at the local scale did not reveal strong evidence of possible causation. This study demonstrates the complexity of identifying the causal mechanisms of water quality change in highly heterogeneous river basins.

  4. Water resources of the Rock River watershed, southwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, H.W.; Broussard, W.L.; Farrell, D.F.; Felsheim, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    This Hydrologic Atlas is one of series describing the 39 watershed units in Minnesota. The 1,750 sq mi in the Rock River watershed are glaciated upland plain including all of Rock County and parts of Pipestone, Murray, Lincoln, Nobles and Jackson Counties. The average annual water budget shows 25.8 inches precipitation, 3.1 inches surface runoff and 22.7 inches evapotranspiration. Water use in million gallons for 1970 was 3 ,333 ground water and 274 surface water. Domestic supplies accounted for 37 percent livestock 37 percent, and industrial 26 percent of total use. All 18 municipalities use ground water, mostly from glacial drift, seven use water from Precambrian aquifers. Precipitation recharges ground water through glacial deposits. Water-table and potentiometric maps and section show ground-water movement. Highest streamflow results from snowmelt and spring rains followed by recession in flow through summer, fall, and winter. Surface water and ground water are both very hard. Surface water and water from surficial and shallow drift aquifers generally range from 450 to 1,000 mg/liter dissolved-solids concentrations. Water from deep drift and from bedrock generally exceeds 1,000 mg/liter dissolved-solids concentration except where Precambiian quartzite aquifers underlie pre-Wisconsin drift. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Water resources of the Myakka River basin area, southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, Boyd F.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Myakka River basin area of southwest Floria is obtained from a water-table aquifer and from five zones in an artesian aquifer. Wells in the water-table aquifer yield generally less than 50 gpm and dissolved solids concentration is less than 500 mg/liter except in coastal areas and the peninsula southwest of the Myakka River estuary. Wells in the Venice area that tap zone 1 usually yield less than 30 gmp. The quality of water is good except in the peninsula area. Zone 2 is the most highly developed aquifer in the heavily populated coastal areas. Wells yield as much as 200 gpm. In most areas, water is of acceptable quality. Wells that tap zone 3 yield as much as 500 gmp. Fluoride concentration ranges from 1 to 3.5 mg/liter. Zone 4 yields as much as 1,500 gpm to large diameter wells. Except in the extreme northeastern part of the area water from zone 4 usually contains high concentrations of fluoride and sulfate. Zone 5 is the most productive aquifer in the area, but dissolved solids concentrations usually are too high for public supply except in the extreme northeast. Surface water derived from natural drainage is of good quality except for occasional high color in summer. Most of the streams in the Myakka River basin area have small drainage basins, are of short channel length, and do not yield high volumes of flow. During the dry season, streamflow is maintained by groundwater discharge, and, as a result, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids concentrations and the hardness of the water are above drinking water standards for some streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

  7. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in the Niger River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Baney, O. N.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Kislik, E.; Palmer-Moloney, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    An overarching goal of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) Anticipatory Analytics- -GEOnarrative program is to establish water linkages with energy, food, and climate and to understand how these linkages relate to national security and stability. Recognizing that geopolitical stability is tied to human health, agricultural productivity, and natural ecosystems' vitality, NGA partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to use satellite remote sensing to assess water quality in West Africa, specifically the Niger River Basin. Researchers from NASA Ames used MODIS and Landsat imagery to apply two water quality indices-- the Floating Algal Index (FAI) and the Turbidity Index (TI)--to large rivers, lakes and reservoirs within the Niger Basin. These indices were selected to evaluate which observations were most suitable for monitoring water quality in a region where coincident in situ measurements are not available. In addition, the FAI and TI indices were derived using data from the Hyperspectral Imagery for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) sensor for Lake Erie in the United States to determine how increased spectral resolution and in-situ measurements would improve the ability to measure the spatio-temporal variations in water quality. Results included the comparison of outputs from sensors with different spectral and spatial resolution characteristics for water quality monitoring. Approaches, such as the GEOnarrative, that incorporate water quality will enable analysts and decision-makers to recognize the current and potentially future impacts of changing water quality on regional security and stability.

  8. Water resources of the Two Rivers Watershed, Northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maclay, R.W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Pike, G.M.

    1967-01-01

    It lies in parts of Kittson and Roseau counties and includes the drainage basins of the Two Rivers and Joe River. The flat lake plain which extends 15 to 20 miles east of the Red River of the North is extensively cultivated for small grains and sugar beets. The gently undulating till plain is cultivated largely for small grains and hay. The areas not under cultivation support a forest of poplar with some maple and oak. Oak is the predominate tree on the sandy ridges. The large peat areas are covered with brush and marsh grasslands. Outdoor recreational facilities in the watershed consist principally of the Lake Bronson Park, water-fowl hunting in the extensive marshlands, and deer and small game hunting in the forested areas.

  9. River water temperature and fish growth forecasting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, E.; Pike, A.; Lindley, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Dewitt, L.; Melton, F. S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hashimoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    Water is a valuable, limited, and highly regulated resource throughout the United States. When making decisions about water allocations, state and federal water project managers must consider the short-term and long-term needs of agriculture, urban users, hydroelectric production, flood control, and the ecosystems downstream. In the Central Valley of California, river water temperature is a critical indicator of habitat quality for endangered salmonid species and affects re-licensing of major water projects and dam operations worth billions of dollars. There is consequently strong interest in modeling water temperature dynamics and the subsequent impacts on fish growth in such regulated rivers. However, the accuracy of current stream temperature models is limited by the lack of spatially detailed meteorological forecasts. To address these issues, we developed a high-resolution deterministic 1-dimensional stream temperature model (sub-hourly time step, sub-kilometer spatial resolution) in a state-space framework, and applied this model to Upper Sacramento River. We then adapted salmon bioenergetics models to incorporate the temperature data at sub-hourly time steps to provide more realistic estimates of salmon growth. The temperature model uses physically-based heat budgets to calculate the rate of heat transfer to/from the river. We use variables provided by the TOPS-WRF (Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System - Weather Research and Forecasting) model—a high-resolution assimilation of satellite-derived meteorological observations and numerical weather simulations—as inputs. The TOPS-WRF framework allows us to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of stream temperature predictions. The salmon growth models are adapted from the Wisconsin bioenergetics model. We have made the output from both models available on an interactive website so that water and fisheries managers can determine the past, current and three day forecasted water temperatures at

  10. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    OVERVIEW: This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2005 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented. This is the final report in a series of five USGS Open-File Reports spanning five WYs, from October 2000 through September 2005. The previous four reports are listed in the references (Schuster, 2003, 2005a, 2005b, 2006). Water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected on the Yukon River and selected major tributaries in Alaska for synoptic studies during WYs 2002-03 are published in Dornblaser and Halm (2006).

  11. Operational water quantity management in a river basin.

    PubMed

    Morgenschweis, G; Brudy-Zippelius, T; Ihringer, J

    2003-01-01

    The real-time water quantity management of complex water resources systems can be successfully supported by mathematical models. Since there were no models available for integrated water management on the catchment scale, a generally applicable model system for quantitative water management has been developed and adapted to the watershed of the River Ruhr in Germany. The first results attained with this model system in the Ruhr catchment basin show that it is a powerful tool for operational water quantity management and is able to simulate a differentially structured watershed with high anthropogenic impacts. The use of this model has enabled Ruhrverband to make crucial improvements and increase the objectivity of operational water quantity management.

  12. Assessment of temporal variation in water quality of some important rivers in middle Gangetic plains, India.

    PubMed

    Rani, Nipunika; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar; Prasad, Kriteshwar; Kedia, Dilip Kumar

    2011-03-01

    The study explains water quality of three important tributaries of the Ganga River in the middle Gangetic plains in India. Seasonal changes in the water quality of the studied rivers: Gandak, Ghaghra, and Sone were observed. During monsoon, several water quality parameters show considerable changes due to increased runoff from the catchments and other seasonal factors. Multivariate discriminant analysis delineated a few parameters responsible for temporal variation in water quality. Seasonal variation in water quality of the Gandak River was rendered by seven parameters-turbidity, sulfate, pH, phosphate, water temperature, total alkalinity, and sodium, while total alkalinity and water temperature were responsible for seasonal discrimination in water quality of Ghaghra River. Water temperature, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, and phosphate were important for seasonal discrimination in water quality of Sone River. The seasonal changes in water quality of the rivers were due to seasonal effects and catchment characteristics. The discriminant functions classified most of the cases correctly.

  13. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  14. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman—Gnatusuchus pebasensis—bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  15. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    PubMed

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene.

  16. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    PubMed

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  17. Development of river water quality indices-a review.

    PubMed

    Sutadian, Arief Dhany; Muttil, Nitin; Yilmaz, Abdullah Gokhan; Perera, B J C

    2016-01-01

    The use of water quality indices (WQIs) as a tool to evaluate the status of water quality in rivers has been introduced since the 1960s. The WQI transforms selected water quality parameters into a dimensionless number so that changes in river water quality at any particular location and time could be presented in a simple and easily understandable manner. Although many WQIs have been developed, there is no worldwide accepted method for implementing the steps used for developing a WQI. Thus, there is a continuing interest to develop accurate WQIs that suit a local or regional area. This paper aimed to provide significant contribution to the development of future river WQIs through a review of 30 existing WQIs based on the four steps needed to develop a WQI. These steps are the selection of parameters, the generation of sub-indices, the generation of parameter weights and the aggregation process to compute the final index value. From the 30 reviewed WQIs, 7 were identified as most important based on their wider use and they were discussed in detail. It was observed that a major factor that influences wider use of a WQI is the support provided by the government and authorities to implement a WQI as the main tool to evaluate the status of rivers. Since there is a lot of subjectivity and uncertainty involved in the steps for developing and applying a WQI, it is recommended that the opinion of local water quality experts is taken, especially in the first three steps (through techniques like Delphi method). It was also observed that uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was rarely undertaken to reduce uncertainty, and hence such an analysis is recommended for future studies. PMID:26707404

  18. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor`s heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degrees}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams & Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  19. Water risk assessment for river basins in China based on WWF water risk assessment tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, N.; Qiu, Y.; Gan, H.; Niu, C.; Liu, J.; Gan, Y.; Zhou, N.

    2014-09-01

    Water resource problems, one of the most important environmental and socio-economic issues, have been a common concern worldwide in recent years. Water resource risks are attracting more and more attention from the international community and national governments. Given the current situations of water resources and the water environment, and the characteristics of water resources management and information statistics of China, this paper establishes an index system for water risk assessment in river basins of China based on the index system of water risk assessment proposed by the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) and German Investment and Development Co., Ltd (DEG). The new system is more suitable for Chinese national conditions and endorses the international assessment index. A variety of factors are considered to determine the critical values of classification for each index, and the indexes are graded by means of 5-grade and 5-score scales; the weights and calculation methods of some indexes are adjusted, with the remaining indexes adopting the method of WWF. The Weighted Comprehensive Index Summation Process is adopted to calculate the integrated assessment score of the river basin. The method is applied to the Haihe River basin in China. The assessment shows that the method can accurately reflect the water risk level of different river basins. Finally, the paper discusses the continuing problems in water risk assessment and points out the research required to provide a reference for further study in this field.

  20. Agricultural water and energy use in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiyandima, M. C.; Sow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of the productivity of irrigation water is important measuring the performance of irrigation schemes especially in water scarce areas. Equally important for performance is the energy cost of providing water for irrigation. Sahel irrigation schemes are dependent on pumping water from rivers into a network of gravity operated channels. In the Senegal River valley in Senegal the cost of pumping water and for irrigation has been estimated to be 20-25% of total rice production costs. Irrigation schemes in the valley are characterized by low water productivity. We analysed rice production, irrigation water use and energy use for supplying irrigation water at Pont Gendarme, Ndiawar and Ngallenka MCA irrigation schemes in the Senegal River valley. For the 2013 rainfall season the mean yield ranged between 6 and 8t ha-1. Dry season yield ranged between 1.7 and 6.8t ha-1. Energy use for irrigation in the Ndiawar irrigation scheme was 8kg MJ-1 and 6.4kg MJ-1 in the 2013 and 2014 rainfall seasons respectively. In 2014 (rainfall season) energy productivity of irrigation water was 8.5, 8.0 and 16.4 kg MJ-1 at Ngallenka MCA, Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme respectively. Dry season (2014) energy productivity at Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme was 3.4 and 11.2kg MJ-1 respectively. Productivity of irrigation water was similar for all schemes (0.37kg m-3 at Pont Gendarme, 0.42kg m-3 at Ngallenka MCA, and 0.41kg m-3 Ndiawar). Energy use for the supply of irrigation water in the rainfall season ranged from 403 to 1,002MJ ha-1. Dry season irrigation energy use was 589MJ ha-1 Pont Gendarme and 331MJ ha-1 at Ndiawar. Reducing water use in these schemes through better water management will result in lower production costs and increased margins for the farmers. The observations from 2013 - 2014 highlight the importance of using both water and energy productivity to assess performance of irrigation schemes.

  1. Progress report, chemical quality of the surface waters in the Loup River basin, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, John G.

    1951-01-01

    The Loup River and its tributaries transport moderate amounts of siliceous minerals from the sand hills region of north-central Nebraska to the Platte River near Columbus, Nebr. Predominant chemical characteristics of these waters are a high percentage of silica, moderate hardness, and a low percentage of sodium. The composition of the Loup River water is influenced by the geologic formations through which ground water, a major contributor to the flows of the Loup River branches, has percolated. Investigation of water quality at or near proposed dam sites in the Loup River basin indicates that if soil and drainage conditions are favorable, the impounded water would be satisfactory for irrigation use.

  2. Assessment and management of water quality of Kshipra River in Ujjain City (Madhya Pradesh), India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Gupta, Ajay K; Shrivastava, R K

    2013-04-01

    This paper shows the water quality status and its assessment through Water Quality Index (WQI), various sources of pollution in the river and the possible strategies to restore the water quality of River Kshipra to its pristine status. The data procured from M.P. Pollution Control Board and WQI reveals that its water quality ranges from medium to bad. The study reveals that Khan River water is a major source of pollution to the River Kshipra. Implementation of sustainable management plan along with proper sewerage planning, watershed management and maintaining sufficient dilution flow will control the pollution in the River Kshipra. PMID:25464695

  3. Assessment and management of water quality of Kshipra River in Ujjain City (Madhya Pradesh), India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Gupta, Ajay K; Shrivastava, R K

    2013-04-01

    This paper shows the water quality status and its assessment through Water Quality Index (WQI), various sources of pollution in the river and the possible strategies to restore the water quality of River Kshipra to its pristine status. The data procured from M.P. Pollution Control Board and WQI reveals that its water quality ranges from medium to bad. The study reveals that Khan River water is a major source of pollution to the River Kshipra. Implementation of sustainable management plan along with proper sewerage planning, watershed management and maintaining sufficient dilution flow will control the pollution in the River Kshipra. PMID:25508326

  4. Evaluating Water Quality in the Lovros River (Greece), Using Biotic Indices based on Invertebrate Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koussouris, Theodore; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a survey of a river including physiochemical measurements and river fauna observations. It is shown that the self-purification gradient of river water quality and the possible ecological disturbances due to pollutants entering the river create an unpredictable pattern of recovery. (CW)

  5. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality

  6. A stochastic physical system approach to modeling river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curi, W. F.; Unny, T. E.; Kay, J. J.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, concepts of network thermodynamics are applied to a river water quality model, which is based on Streeter-Phelps equations, to identify the corresponding physical components and their topology. Then, the randomness in the parameters, input coefficients and initial conditions are modeled by Gaussian white noises. From the stochastic components of the physical system description of problem and concepts of physical system theory, a set of stochastic differential equations can be automatically generated in a computer and the recent developments on the automatic formulation of the moment equations based on Ito calculus can be used. This procedure is illustrated through the solution of an example of stochastic river water quality problem and it is also shown how other related problems with different configurations can be automatically solved in a computer using just one software.

  7. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  8. Surface-water/ground-water interaction along reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Vidmar, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Declining water levels in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and decreases in spring discharges from the aquifer to the Snake River have spurred studies to improve understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction on the plain. This study was done to estimate streamflow gains and losses along specific reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork and to compare changes in gain and loss estimates to changes in ground-water levels over time. Data collected during this study will be used to enhance the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to refine computer models of ground-water flow and surface-water/ground-water interactions. Estimates of streamflow gains and losses along specific subreaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, based on the results of five seepage studies completed during 2001?02, varied greatly across the study area, ranging from a loss estimate of 606 ft3/s in a subreach of the upper Snake River near Heise to a gain estimate of 3,450 ft3/s in a subreach of the Snake River that includes Thousand Springs. Some variations over time also were apparent in specific subreaches. Surface spring flow accounted for much of the inflow to subreaches having large gain estimates. Several subreaches alternately gained and lost streamflow during the study. Changes in estimates of streamflow gains and losses along some of the subreaches were compared with changes in water levels, measured at three different times during 2001?02, in adjacent wells. In some instances, a strong relation between changes in estimates of gains or losses and changes in ground-water levels was apparent.

  9. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  10. National Water-Quality Assessment program: The Trinity River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major design feature of the NAWQA program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which comprise the principal building blocks of the program on which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems. These study units cover areas of 1,200 to more than 65,000 square miles and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the Trinity River basin study was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for study under the full-scale implementation plan.

  11. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: The Sacramento River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Brown, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status of and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to identify the major natural and human factors that affect the quality of those resources. In addressing these goals, the program will provide a wealth of water- quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major asset of the NAWQA program is that it will allow for the integration of water-quality information collected at several scales. A major component of the program is the study-unit investigation-the foundation of national- level assessment. The 60 study units of the NAWQA program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems of the conterminous United States. These study units cover areas of 1,000 to more than 60,000 square miles and represent 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supplies. Investigations of the first 20 study units began in 1991. In 1994, the Sacramento River Basin was among the second set of 20 NAWQA study units selected for investigation.

  12. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  13. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, Trinity River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 65 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 7 flood-hydrograph, 2 low-flow, and 3 creststage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  14. Air-water oxygen exchange in a large whitewater river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Robert O.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water gas exchange governs fluxes of gas into and out of aquatic ecosystems. Knowing this flux is necessary to calculate gas budgets (i.e., O2) to estimate whole-ecosystem metabolism and basin-scale carbon budgets. Empirical data on rates of gas exchange for streams, estuaries, and oceans are readily available. However, there are few data from large rivers and no data from whitewater rapids. We measured gas transfer velocity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as decline in O2 saturation deficit, 7 times in a 28-km segment spanning 7 rapids. The O2 saturation deficit exists because of hypolimnetic discharge from Glen Canyon Dam, located 25 km upriver from Lees Ferry. Gas transfer velocity (k600) increased with slope of the immediate reach. k600 was -1 in flat reaches, while k600 for the steepest rapid ranged 3600-7700 cm h-1, an extremely high value of k600. Using the rate of gas exchange per unit length of water surface elevation (Kdrop, m-1), segment-integrated k600 varied between 74 and 101 cm h-1. Using Kdrop we scaled k600 to the remainder of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. At the scale corresponding to the segment length where 80% of the O2 exchanged with the atmosphere (mean length = 26.1 km), k600 varied 4.5-fold between 56 and 272 cm h-1 with a mean of 113 cm h-1. Gas transfer velocity for the Colorado River was higher than those from other aquatic ecosystems because of large rapids. Our approach of scaling k600 based on Kdrop allows comparing gas transfer velocity across rivers with spatially heterogeneous morphology.

  15. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology

  16. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology

  17. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hegg, Jens C.; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world’s largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region’s largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species’ migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures (87Sr/86Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted 87Sr/86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology of

  18. Optical characterization of water masses within the Columbia River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2012-11-01

    The Columbia River plume (CRP) is a buoyant plume that influences the Oregon and Washington shelf with the delivery of freshwater, silicic acid, trace metals, and particulate and dissolved organic matter. The highly dynamic plume contains submesoscale features that have an impact on the chemistry, biology, and transport of water and material offshore. Bio-optical classification of the larger plume water mass has confirmed seasonal and annual flow patterns but has not described the internal structure of the plume in a biogeochemically relevant way, as there were no in situ data to validate classification. The objectives of this study were to define water types statistically within the CRP using in situ measurements of biogeochemically and bio-optically relevant variables, to build a training data set from these water types, and to apply this training data set to 250 m resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua imagery from an oceanographically downwelling and upwelling period to predictively discriminate water masses within the plume. This study's classification technique was effective at predicting water types in the CRP. The three-variable input matrix (temperature, salinity, and chlorophyllafluorescence) performed better than the two-variable input matrix (temperature and salinity) at distinguishing fine-scale structure within the plume at the river mouth. Retentive features such as the plume bulge and eddies were observed at the river mouth and on the Washington shelf. This classification approach was limited to the available continuous variables measured by shipboard, mooring, and satellite sensors. Two new classification methods are proposed that build on the framework of the classifier described here.

  19. Water quality and streamflow characteristics, Raritan River Basin, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Peter W.; Faust, Samuel Denton

    1974-01-01

    The findings of a problem-oriented river-system investigation of the stream-quality and streamflow characteristics of the Raritan River basin (1,105 square miles or 2,862 square kilometers drainage area) are described. The investigation covers mainly the period 1955-72. Precipitation in the basin is classified as ample and averages 47 inches or 120 centimeters per year (3-5 inches or 8-12 centimeters per month). During the study period four general precipitation trends were noted: less than normalin 1955-61 and 1966-70; extreme drought in 1962-66; and above normal in 1971-72. Analyses of streamflow measurements at eight gaging stations indicate a general trend toward lower flows during the study period, which is attributed to generally lower than normal precipitation. Highest flows were observed in 1958, concurrent with maximum annual precipitation; whereas lowest flows were observed in 1965 during extreme drought conditions. Non-tidal streams in the basin are grouped into three general regions of similar chemical quality based upon predominant constituents and dissolved-solids concentration during low-flow conditions. The predominant cations in solution in all regions are calcium and magnesium (usually exceeding 60 percent of total cation content). In headwater streams of the North and South Branch Raritan Rivers, bicarbonate is the predominant anion; a combination of sulfate, chloride, and nitrate are the predominant anions in the other two regions. The dissolved-solids concentration of streams in areas little influenced by man's activities generally range from 40 to 200 mg/L. Those in areas influenced by man often range much higher sometimes exceeding 800 mg/L. Suspended-sediment yields in the basin range from 25 to 500 tons per square mile annually. The water quality of the Raritan River and most tributaries above Manville (784 square miles of 2,030 square kilometers drainage area) generally is good for most industrial, domestic, and recreational uses, although

  20. Water-quality investigation of the Tyronza River watershed, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year study of surface-water quality in the Tyronza River Watershed, Arkansas, are presented to document conditions before implementation of Soil Conservation Service Programs. The report includes a general description of the watershed 's topography, geology, and aquifers, and the results of monthly measurements of discharge at five sites, and several physical and chemical parameters, plus quarterly analyses for several ions and semiannual analyses of bottom material for various pesticides. The results indicate that the quality of the water in the streams and ditches samples is normal for an intensely farmed area such as this watershed. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Methane flux from the central Amazonian floodplain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Karen B.; Crill, Patrick M.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Harriss, Robert C.; Wilson, John O.

    1988-01-01

    A total of 186 methane measurements from the three primary Amazon floodplain environments of open water lakes, flood forests, and floating grass mats were made over the period 18 July through 2 September 1985. These data indicate that emissions were lowest over open water lakes. Flux from flooded forests and grass mats was significantly higher. At least three transport processes contribute to tropospheric emissions: ebullition from sediments, diffusion along the concentration gradient from sediment to overlaying water to air, and transport through the roots and stems of aquatic plants. Measurements indicate that the first two of these processes are most significant. It was estimated that on the average bubbling makes up 49 percent of the flux from open water, 54 percent of that from flooded forests, and 64 percent of that from floating mats. If the measurements were applied to the entire Amazonian floodplain, it is calculated that the region could supply up to 12 percent of the estimated global natural sources of methane.

  2. Water Balance Change in Xia Ying River Basin, Qinghai Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Zhou, B.; Li, J.

    2010-12-01

    Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River are major river systems supporting billions of people in South East Asia and China. Source region of Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River (Three Rivers) is located in Qinghai Province, China. Recently, Chinese government started a conservation project in the source region of the Three Rivers called “Convert Agricultural Field to Forest and Grassland”. Xia Ying River Basin is a sub-basin located in the source region of the Three River Basin. The upper Xia Ying River Basin has experienced dramatic land cover change since 2006. Before 2006, upper Xia Ying River Basin hill slope was agricultural field. Coniferous trees and bush vegetation were planted on the slope greater than 70 degree in the upper Xia Ying River Basin in 2006. The objective of the study is to investigate the water balance term change in the Xia Ying River Basin because of the conservation project. This study will use Landsat and MODIS imagery to classify and quantify land cover classes before and after land cover conversion. Water balance terms including runoff and evaportranspiration will be simulated using a land surface model to investigate water balance term change due to land cover change. The study serves as a pilot study for the investigation of hydrological change in the entire source region of the Three River Basin during the past 50 years.

  3. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., responsibilities and authority of the Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (b) Applicability. This... control management within the Mississippi River Basin. (c) Objectives. The objectives of the Board are: (1...) Composition. The Mississippi River Water Control Management Board is a continuing board consisting of...

  4. 43 CFR 418.21 - Diversion of Truckee River water to Lahontan Reservoir, July through December.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diversion of Truckee River water to... Truckee River water to Lahontan Reservoir, July through December. Truckee River diversions through the... other forecasts becoming available, or any other new information that may impact stream forecasts)....

  5. 43 CFR 418.21 - Diversion of Truckee River water to Lahontan Reservoir, July through December.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diversion of Truckee River water to... Truckee River water to Lahontan Reservoir, July through December. Truckee River diversions through the... other forecasts becoming available, or any other new information that may impact stream forecasts)....

  6. Water quality trends in the Blackwater River watershed, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Jessica; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.; Fortney, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of historic and current water quality is needed to manage and improve aquatic communities within the Blackwater River watershed, WV. The Blackwater River, which historically offered an excellent Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) fishery, has been affected by logging, coal mining, use of off-road vehicles, and land development. Using information-theoretic methods, we examined trends in water quality at 12 sites in the watershed for the 14 years of 1980–1993. Except for Beaver Creek, downward trends in acidity and upward trends in alkalinity, conductivity, and hardness were consistent with decreases in hydrogen ion concentration. Water-quality trends for Beaver Creek were inconsistent with the other sites and reflect ongoing coal-mining influences. Dissolved oxygen trended downward, possibly due to natural conditions, but remained above thresholds that would be detrimental to aquatic life. Water quality changed only slightly within the watershed from 1980–1993, possibly reflecting few changes in development and land uses during this time. These data serve as a baseline for future water-quality studies and may help to inform management planning.

  7. Hydrochemical evidence for mixing of river water and groundwater during high-flow conditions, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, C.A.; Katz, B.G.; Hirten, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Karstic aquifers are highly susceptible to rapid infiltration of river water, particularly during periods of high flow. Following a period of sustained rainfall in the Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA, the stage of the Suwannee River rose from 3.0 to 5.88 m above mean sea level in April 1996 and discharge peaked at 360 m3/s. During these high-flow conditions, water from the Suwannee River migrated directly into the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer, the main source of water supply for the area. Changes in the chemical composition of groundwater were quantified using naturally occurring geochemical tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques. Mixing of river water with groundwater was indicated by a decrease in the concentrations of calcium, silica, and 222Rn; and by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), tannic acid, and chloride, compared to low-flow conditions in water from a nearby monitoring well, Wingate Sink, and Little River Springs. The proportion (fraction) of river water in groundwater ranged from 0.13 to 0.65 at Wingate Sink and from 0.5 to 0.99 at well W-17258, based on binary mixing models using various tracers. The effectiveness of a natural tracer in quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater was related to differences in tracer concentration of the two end members and how conservatively the tracer reacted in the mixed water. Solutes with similar concentrations in the two end-member waters (Na, Mg, K, Cl, SO4, SiO2) were not as effective tracers for quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater as those with larger differences in end-member concentrations (Ca, tannic acid, DOC, 222Rn, HCO3). ?? Springer-Verlag.

  8. The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Background The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (α,ß,γ,δ) HCH, (α, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Materials and Methods Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. Results In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Conclusions Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life. PMID:24624185

  9. Water quality evaluation of Himalayan Rivers of Kumaun region, Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Richa; Mohan, Manindra; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Singh, Krishna Pal; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Water quality of Himalayan rivers has been steadily deteriorating over several decades due to anthropogenic activities, dumping of treated or untreated effluents, poor structured sewerage and drainage system, etc. In the present study, the water quality of five important rivers namely, Gola, Kosi, Ramganga, Saryu and Lohawati rivers were investigated which flow through the different districts of Kumaun region of Uttarakhand Himalaya. The water of all these rivers serves as the major source for drinking and irrigation purposes in these districts of the Kumaun region of Uttarakhand. River water samples collected in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of the years 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for various water quality characteristics. Statistical analyses indicate positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Piper diagram illustrates that all the water samples fall in Ca-Mg-HCO3 hydrochemical facies, Moreover, the suitability of water for drinking purposes determined by water quality index indicated that river water in both the seasons is unsuitable. Irrigation water quality of all the river water was found suitable during both the seasons according to the result of sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage and residual sodium carbonate. The present study revealed that major factors contributing to deterioration of water quality of all the rivers might be eutrophication, tourism, anthropogenic and geogenic processes. Therefore, to restore the vitality and water quality of all these rivers, proper water resource planning programme should be developed.

  10. Disaggregation of silver nanoparticle homoaggregates in a river water matrix.

    PubMed

    Metreveli, George; Philippe, Allan; Schaumann, Gabriele E

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) could be found in aquatic systems in the near future. Although the interplay between aggregate formation and disaggregation is an important factor for mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of Ag NPs in surface waters, the factors controlling disaggregation of Ag NP homoaggregates are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the reversibility of homoaggregation of citrate coated Ag NPs in a Rhine River water matrix. We characterized the disaggregation of Ag NP homoaggregates by ionic strength reduction and addition of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) in the presence of strong and weak shear forces. In order to understand the disaggregation processes, we also studied the nature of homoaggregates and their formation dynamics under the influence of SRHA, Ca(2+) concentration and nanoparticle concentration. Even in the presence of SRHA and at low particle concentrations (10 μg L(-1)), aggregates formed rapidly in filtered Rhine water. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of Ca(2+) in reconstituted Rhine water was 1.5 mmol L(-1) and was shifted towards higher values in the presence of SRHA. Analysis of the attachment efficiency as a function of Ca(2+) concentration showed that SRHA induces electrosteric stabilization at low Ca(2+) concentrations and cation-bridging flocculation at high Ca(2+) concentrations. Shear forces in the form of mechanical shaking or ultrasound were necessary for breaking the aggregates. Without ultrasound, SRHA also induced disaggregation, but it required several days to reach a stable size of dense aggregates still larger than the primary particles. Citrate stabilized Ag NPs may be in the form of reaction limited aggregates in aquatic systems similar to the Rhine River. The size and the structure of these aggregates will be dynamic and be determined by the solution conditions. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of natural waters can result in a sedimentation-release cycle of engineered

  11. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  12. Classification of river water pollution using Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Soumyashree; Rathore, V. S.; Champati ray, P. K.; Sharma, Richa; Swain, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    A novel attempt is made to use hyperspectral remote sensing to identify the spatial variability of metal pollutants present in river water. It was also attempted to classify the hyperspectral image - Earth Observation-1 (EO-1) Hyperion data of an 8 km stretch of the river Yamuna, near Allahabad city in India depending on its chemical composition. For validating image analysis results, a total of 10 water samples were collected and chemically analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Two different spectral libraries from field and image data were generated for the 10 sample locations. Advanced per-pixel supervised classifications such as Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), SAM target finder using BandMax and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were carried out along with the unsupervised clustering procedure - Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA). The results were compared and assessed with respect to ground data. Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD), Inc. spectroradiometer, FieldSpec 4 was used to generate the spectra of the water samples which were compiled into a spectral library and used for Spectral Absorption Depth (SAD) analysis. The spectral depth pattern of image and field spectral libraries was found to be highly correlated (correlation coefficient, R2 = 0.99) which validated the image analysis results with respect to the ground data. Further, we carried out a multivariate regression analysis to assess the varying concentrations of metal ions present in water based on the spectral depth of the corresponding absorption feature. Spectral Absorption Depth (SAD) analysis along with metal analysis of field data revealed the order in which the metals affected the river pollution, which was in conformity with the findings of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Therefore, it is concluded that hyperspectral imaging provides opportunity that can be used for satellite based remote monitoring of water quality from

  13. Water resources planning for rivers draining into mobile bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, S.; April, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model describing water movement and tidal elevation is formulated, computed, and used to provide basic data about water quality in natural systems. The hydrodynamic model is based on two-dimensional, unsteady flow equations. The water mass is considered to be reasonably mixed such that integration (averaging) in the depth direction is a valid restriction. Convective acceleration, the Coriolis force, wind and bottom interactions are included as contributing terms in the momentum equations. The solution of the equations is applied to Mobile Bay, and used to investigate the influence that river discharge rate, wind direction and speed, and tidal condition have on water circulation and holdup within the bay. Storm surge conditions, oil spill transport, artificial island construction, dredging, and areas subject to flooding are other topics which could be investigated using the mathematical modeling approach.

  14. Surface waters of Illinois River basin in Arkansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.

    1959-01-01

    The estimated runoff from the Illinois River basin of 1,660 square miles has averaged 1,160,000 acre-feet per year during the water years 1938-56, equivalent to an average annual runoff depth of 13.1 inches. About 47 percent of the streamflow is contributed from drainage in Arkansas, where an average of 550,000 acre-ft per year runs off from 755 square miles, 45.5 percent of the total drainage area. The streamflow is highly variable. Twenty-two years of record for Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., shows a variation in runoff for the water year 1945 in comparison with 1954 in a ratio of almost 10 to 1. Runoff in 1927 may have exceeded that of 1945, according to records for White River at Beaver, Ark., the drainage basin just east of the Illinois River basin. Variation in daily discharge is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the gaging station near Tahlequah, Okla. The mean flow at that site is 901 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is 350 cfs, and the lowest 30-day mean flow in a year probably will be less than 130 cfs half of the time and less than 20 cfs every 10 years on the average. The higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, March to May, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for almost half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is the lowest in the summer. The mean monthly flow of Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., for September is about 11 percent of that for May. Records show that there is flow throughout the year in Illinois River and its principal tributaries Osage Creek, Flint Creek and Barren Fork. The high variability in streamflow in this region requires the development of storage by impoundment if maximum utilization of the available water supplies is to be attained. For example, a 120-day average low flow of 22 cfs occurred in 1954 at Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla. To have maintained the flow at 350 cfs, the median daily

  15. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. 223.1 Section 223.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE BOARDS, COMMISSIONS, AND COMMITTEES § 223.1 Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (a) Purpose....

  16. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. 223.1 Section 223.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE BOARDS, COMMISSIONS, AND COMMITTEES § 223.1 Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (a) Purpose....

  17. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin during water year 2001 (October 2000 through September 2001). A broad range of chemical and biological analyses from three sets of samples are presented. First, samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the mainstem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). Second, fecal indicators were measured on samples from drinking-water supplies collected near four villages. Third, sediment cores from five lakes throughout the Yukon Basin were sampled to reconstruct historic trends in the atmospheric deposition of trace elements and hydrophobic organic compounds.

  18. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  19. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.

    2005-05-01

    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17

  20. Quality of Delaware River water at Trenton, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Leo T.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1964-01-01

    Water in the Delaware River at Trenton, NJ, is a mixture of several types--water from the mountainous headwater region, water from the coal-mining regions, and water from the limestone valleys. The quantities of these types of water, in relation to the total quantity of water at Trenton, vary with changes in season and reservoir releases. The chemical quality of the water during the 17-year period 1945-61 was excellent, and the water was suitable for most uses after little or no treatment. The average concentration of dissolved solids was 86 ppm (parts per million), and 90 percent of the time it ranged from 57 to 126 ppm. Usually the pH of the water was close to 7.0 (considered to be a neutral point-neither acid nor alkaline). The hardness was less than 86 ppm 95 percent of the time. The general composition of the dissolved-solids content, in terms of equivalents, is 28 percent calcium, 14 percent magnesium, 8 percent sodium plus potassium, 43 percent bicarbonate plus sulfate, 5 percent chloride, and 2 percent nitrate. Concentrations of minerals in the river water are lowest during March, April and May (median concentration of dissolved solids 66 PPM) and are highest during August and September (median, 107 PPM). Each year an average of 880,000 tons of dissolved solids and 932,000 tons of suspended solids are carried past Trenton by the Delaware River. The greatest monthly loads of dissolved solids are in March and April, and the smallest are from July to October. Suspended-solids loads are greater when the streamflow is high but small the rest of the time. Concentration of suspended solids exceeds 100 PPM only 5 percent of the time. The headwaters in the Delaware River basin are the source of water of excellent quality. Much of this water is stored in reservoirs, and when released during August and September, it improves the quality of the water at Trenton. These releases to augment low flow have the effect of narrowing the range of concentrations of dissolved

  1. Detection of microsporidia in drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Fernando; Castro Hermida, José Antonio; Fenoy, Soledad; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; del Aguila, Carmen

    2011-10-15

    Diarrhea is the main health problem caused by human-related microsporidia, and waterborne transmission is one of the main risk factors for intestinal diseases. Recent studies suggest the involvement of water in the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis. However, studies related to the presence of microsporidia in different types of waters from countries where human microsporidiosis has been described are still scarce. Thirty-eight water samples from 8 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), 8 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 6 recreational river areas (RRAs) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been analyzed. One hundred liters of water from DWTPs and 50 L of water from WWTPs and RRAs were filtered to recover parasites, using the IDEXX Filta-Max® system. Microsporidian spores were identified by Weber's stain and positive samples were analyzed by PCR, using specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon hellem. Microsporidia spores were identified by staining protocols in eight samples (21.0%): 2 from DWTPs, 5 from WWTPs, and 1 from an RRA. In the RRA sample, the microsporidia were identified as E. intestinalis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human-pathogenic microsporidia in water samples from DWTPs, WWTPs and RRAs in Spain. These observations add further evidence to support that new and appropriate control and regulations for drinking, wastewater, and recreational waters should be established to avoid health risks from this pathogen.

  2. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  3. Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J. L.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2014-03-01

    Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network. The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water.

  4. A two-dimensional water-quality model for a winding and topographically complicated river.

    PubMed

    Zeng, G M; Yuan, X Z; Yin, Y Y; Yang, C P

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional numerical calculation algorithm for water-quality modeling is presented. The algorithm is designed specifically for river systems with complicated geometric conditions. When velocity field data of the river are not available, the numerical calculation algorithm for the water-quality modeling can be used to project river-water quality by using a topographic map of the river course and a finite element method. The calculation results of the water-quality model can show the concentration fields of various pollutants. The water-quality model was applied to a case-study in the Hengyang City section of Xiangjiang River in Hunan Province, China. The river under consideration is winding and has an isle between two branches. In 1995, Chinese government secured a World Bank loan to conduct a Waterways Project in the study region. It was expected that construction works in the river section might affect water quality. Given that the project would change the hydrological regime of the river system and discharges, and so would affect water quality, there would be a need for model results that would predict the water-quality impacts of the Waterways Project. In particular, the study intended to apply the model to identify changes in river-water quality associated with the construction of Dayuandu navigation key project. It is hoped that the numerical calculation algorithm for the water-quality modeling presented in this paper can also be applied to other shallow rivers with similar topographical conditions.

  5. Water management in the Senegal River Delta: a continuing uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietton, M.; Dumas, D.; Hamerlynck, O.; Kane, A.; Coly, A.; Duvail, S.; Pesneaud, F.; Baba, M. L. O.

    2007-11-01

    Water management is the driving force behind the productivity of the ecosystems of the Senegal River Estuary and floodplains. It is dependent on human decision-making, but has been separated from the River's flooding since the building of the Diama Dam. The current objectives of the Office de Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS: Senegal River Development Agency) are mainly turned towards the development of irrigated agriculture on the former floodplains and since 2002 the production of hydroelectric power at Manantali. In October 2003, a four-metre-wide runoff canal, which quickly widened into a breach several hundred metres across, was dug in the Barbary Spit area to protect the city of Saint-Louis from heavy flooding. The hydraulic quality of the area downstream from the dam has improved to the extent that there is no longer any flooding there, but as the management of the dams concerns only the section of the river between Manantali and Diama, a certain amount of flood risk probably still persists. The intrusion of seawater into the estuary is also threatening ecosystems and fresh water supplies, and abruptly altering agricultural practices such as fruit and vegetable growing in the Gandiolais district. When added to the tentative efforts to coordinate the management of the two dams, with no management objective downstream from Diama, such permanent modifications impose serious constraints on the managers and residents of the lower delta. This paper presents an overview of the constraints and uncertainties at different levels and scales. This wholly human-wrought environment can be considered as a learning experience, where a large number of variables need to be monitored closely and an ongoing process of participatory analysis should be backed up by multidisciplinary research.

  6. Identifying nearshore groundwater and river hydrochemical variables influencing water quality of Kaoping River Estuary using dynamic factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chen, Su-Chin; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe Kaoping River Estuary receives a large amount of nonpoint source pollution and sedimentary discharge from the Kaoping and Tungkang Rivers each year. The Kaoping River Estuary is an integral part of the Kaoping River, shelf, and submarine canyon, which makes prediction of water quality variation difficult. This study attempts to determine the main factors regulating temporal and spatial variations in the water quality in the Kaoping River Estuary over a 9-year period (2003-2011), using dynamic factor analysis (DFA) and min/max autocorrelation factor analysis (MAFA). The result from the MAFA shows that Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) has the highest canonical correlation coefficient with the min/max autocorrelation factor (MAF) axis of water quality. Therefore, Chl-a can be used as an indicator of water quality in the Kaoping River Estuary. The water quality and environmental variables measured downstream of the Kaoping and Tungkang Rivers, as well as submarine groundwater, influence temporal variations of Chl-a in the estuary. The optimal DFA model successfully described Chl-a variations (coefficient of efficiency = 0.969) in the Kaoping River Estuary. DFA results indicate that dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended sediment (TSS), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), chemical oxygen demand (COD), as well as the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of river discharge, and the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentration of groundwater discharge significantly influenced Chl-a dynamics. Submarine groundwater discharge, which is a significant source of nutrients for the coastal ocean, appears to impact the level of Chl-a concentration substantially. Understanding the relationship between environmental variables and the variability of Chl-a concentration provides a useful approach for setting water quality criteria and pollution prevention plans for the Kaoping River Estuary.

  7. Assessment of ametryn contamination in river water, river sediment, and mollusk bivalves in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jacomini, Analu Egydio; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Avelar, Wagner Eustáquio Paiva; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2011-04-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane agriculture in the world. Herbicides, in particular, ametryn, are extensively used in this extensive area, which implies that this herbicide is present in the environment and can contaminate the surface water by running off. Thereby, residues of ametryn were analyzed in samples of river water an river sediment and in freshwater bivalves obtained from the rivers Sapucaí, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples were taken in the winter of 2003 and 2004 in two locations in each river. The specimens of freshwater bivalves collected and analyzed were Corbicula fluminea, an exotic species, and Diplodon fontaineanus, a native species. Additionally, the evaluation of the ability of bioconcentration and depuration of ametryn by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was also performed. Ametryn concentrations in the samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Residues of ametryn in water (50 ng/L) and in freshwater bivalves (2-7 ng/g) were found in the Mogi-Guaçu River in 2004, and residues in river sediments were found in all rivers in 2003 and 2004 (0.5-2 ng/g). The observation of the aquatic environment through the analysis of these matrixes, water, sediment, and bivalves, revealed the importance of the river sediment in the accumulation of the herbicide ametryn, which can contaminate the biota.

  8. Fraser River watershed, Colorado : assessment of available water-quantity and water-quality data through water year 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori Estelle; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    1999-01-01

    The water-quantity and water-quality data for the Fraser River watershed through water year 1997 were compiled for ground-water and surface-water sites. In order to assess the water-quality data, the data were related to land use/land cover in the watershed. Data from 81 water-quantity and water-quality sites, which consisted of 9 ground-water sites and 72 surface-water sites, were available for analysis. However, the data were limited and frequently contained only one or two water-quality analyses per site.The Fraser River flows about 28 miles from its headwaters at the Continental Divide to the confluence with the Colorado River. Ground-water resources in the watershed are used for residential and municipal drinking-water supplies. Surface water is available for use, but water diversions in the upper parts of the watershed reduce the flow in the river. Land use/land cover in the watershed is predominantly forested land, but increasing urban development has the potential to affect the quantity and quality of the water resources.Analysis of the limited ground-water data in the watershed indicates that changes in the land use/land cover affect the shallow ground-water quality. Water-quality data from eight shallow monitoring wells in the alluvial aquifer show that iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level. Radon concentrations from these monitoring wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level. The proposed radon contaminant level is currently being revised. The presence of volatile organic compounds at two monitoring wells in the watershed indicates that land use affects the shallow ground water. In addition, bacteria detected in three samples are at concentrations that would be a concern for public health if the water was to be used as a drinking supply. Methylene blue active substances were detected in the ground water at some sites and are a

  9. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 9: Farmington River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Haeni, F. Peter; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1986-01-01

    The Farmington River basin covers 435 square miles in north-central Connecticut upstream from Tariffville and downstream of the Massachusetts state line. Most water in the basin is derived from precipitation, which averages 48 inches (366 billion gallons) per year. An additional 67 billion gallons of water per year enters the basin from Massachusetts in the West Branch of the Farmington River, Hubbard River, Valley Brook and some smaller streams. Of the total 433 billion gallons, 174 billion gallons returns to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. 239 billion gallons flows out of the study area in the Farmington River at Tariffville, and 20 billion gallons is diverted for Hartford water supply. Variations in streamflow at 23 continuous-record gaging stations are summarized in standardized graphs and tables that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics at other sites. For example, mean flow and low-flow characteristics such as the 7-day annual minimum flow for 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals, have been determined for many partial-record stations from the data for the 23 continuous-record stations. Of the 31 principal lakes, ponds, and reservoirs in the basin, eight have usable storage capacities of more than 1 billion gallons. Two of the largest, Colebrook River Lake and Barkhamsted Reservoir, have more than 30 billion gallons usable storage. Floods have occurred in the area in every month of the year. The greatest known flood on the Farmington River was in August 1955, which had a peak flow of 140,000 cubic feet per second at Collinsville. Since then, three major floodcontrol reservoirs have been constructed to reduce the hazards of high streamflow. The major aquifers underlying the basin are composed of unconsolidated materials (stratified drift and till) and bedrock (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic). Stratified drift overlies till and bedrock in valleys and lowlands; it averages about 90 feet in thickness, and is capable of

  10. Restore Harlem River's Water Quality to Swimmable/Fishable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharged untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms, elevated nutrient and bacteria levels. The river is not safe for swimming, fishing or boating during wet weather conditions. We had collected water samples from CSOs discharge point, analyzed ammonia (NH3-N), phosphate (PO43-), fecal coliform, E.Coli., enteroccus, and polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCBs). On tropical storm Arthur, we had collected CSOs: DO reduced during heavy thunderstorm dropped down from 4 to 2.9 mg/L (49 to 35%); fecal coliform was 5 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli. was 1000-2000 MPN/100ml, enterococcus was 2000-2500 MPN/100ml, turbidity was 882 FAU, ammonia was 2.725 mg/L. Nutrient and bacteria exceeded EPA regulated levels significantly (ammonia: 0.23mg/L; fecal coliform: 200 MPN/100ml, E.Coli.: 126 MPN/100ml, enterococcus: 104 MPN/100ml; turbidity: 0.25-5.25 FAU, DO: 4mg/L). Water sampling of CSOs during heavy rainstorm on 4/30/14 showed turbidity reached 112 FAU, ammonia was 0.839 mg/L, fecal coliform: 5 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli.: 500 MPN/100ml and enterococcus: 10,000 MPN/100ml. CSO collection on June 5, 2014 during morning rainstorm showed ammonia was 2.273 mg/L, turbidity was 37 FAU. New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) suggested women under 50 & children under 15 do not eat fish such as blue crab meat, carb or lobster tomalley, channel catfish, gizzard shad, white catfish, Atlantic needlefish, bluefish, carp, goldfish, rainbow smelt, striped bass, white perch because chemical concerns (PCBs, cadmium, dioxin). Fish caught in the Harlem River was banned from commercial. Swimming in the river was not safe due to high pathogen levels. CSOs reduction, such as green roof, green wall, and wetland could help reduce stormwater runoff and CSOs. Water quality improvement and ecology restoration will help achieve the goal of swimmable and fishable in the Harlem River.

  11. Water management for development of water quality in the Ruhr River basin.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R

    2000-01-01

    On the Ruhr, a small river running through hilly country and with a mean flow of 76 m3/s, 27 water works use the method of artificial groundwater recharge to produce 350 million m3 of drinking water annually. On the basis of a special act, the Ruhr River Association is responsible for water quality and water quantity management in the Ruhr basin. The present 94 municipal sewage treatment plants ensure that the raw water is sufficiently good to be turned into drinking water. In the Ruhr's lower reaches, where dry weather results in a 20% share of the entire water flow being treated wastewater, comparatively high concentration of substances of domestic or industrial origin are likely, including substances which municipal wastewater treatment measures cannot entirely remove. These substances include ammonium, coliform bacteria or pathogens, boron and organic trace substances. Although water treatment measures have greatly contributed to the considerable improvement of the Ruhr's water quality in the last few decades, it is desirable to continue to aim at a high standard of drinking water production technologies since the Ruhr is a surface water body influenced by anthropogenic factors. However, in the case of substances infiltrating into drinking water, legislation is required if a reduction of pollution appears to be necessary. PMID:10842801

  12. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  13. Effects of alternative Missouri River management plans on ground-water levels in the lower Missouri River flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) proposed eight Alternative River Management Plans (ARMPs) for managing reservoir levels and water-release rates for the Missouri River. The plans include the Current Water Control Plan (CWCP), Conservation 18, 31, and 44 (C18, C31, and C44) that provide different levels of water conservation in the reservoirs during droughts, Fish and Wildlife 10, 15, and 20 (FW10, FW15, and FW20) that vary water-release rates to provide additional fish and wildlife benefits, and Mississippi River 66 (M66) that maintains a 66,000 cubic feet per second discharge at St. Louis to provide navigation support for the Mississippi River. Releases from Gavin?s Point Dam affect both the lower 1,305 kilometers of the Missouri River and ground-water levels in the lower Missouri River flood plain. Changes in the magnitude and timing of ground-water-level fluctuations in response to changes in river management could impact agriculture, urban development, and wetland hydrology along the lower Missouri River flood plain. This study compared simulated ground-water altitude and depth to ground water for the CWCP in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the Kansas City area between 1970 and 1980 with each ARMP, determined the average change in simulated ground-water level for selected river-stage flood pulses at selected distances from the river, and compared simulated flood pulse, ground-water responses with actual flood pulse, and ground-water responses measured in wells located at three sites along the lower Missouri River flood plain.For the model area, the percent total shallow ground-water area (depth to ground water less than 0.3048 meter) is similar for each ARMP because of overall similarities in river flow between ARMPs. The percent total shallow ground-water area for C18 is the most similar to CWCP followed by C31, M66, C44, FW10, FW15, and FW20. ARMPs C18, C31, C44, and M66 do not cause large changes in the percent shallow ground-water

  14. Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: case study of the Nampong River and Songkhram River, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Muangthong, Somphinith; Shrestha, Sangam

    2015-09-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied for the assessment of spatial and temporal variations of a large complex water quality data set of the Nampong River and Songkhram River, generated for more than 10 years (1996-2012) by monitoring of 16 parameters at different sites. According to the water quality characteristics, hierarchical CA grouped 13 sampling sites of the Nampong River into two clusters, i.e., upper stream (US) and lower stream (LS) sites, and five sampling sites of the Songkhram River into three clusters, i.e., upper stream (US), middle stream (MS) and lower stream (LS) sites. PCA/FA applied to the data sets thus obtained five latent factors explaining 69.80 and 69.32 % of the total variance in water quality data sets of LS and US areas, respectively, in the Nampong River and six latent factors explaining 80.80, 73.95, and 73.78 % of the total variance in water quality data sets of LS, MS, and US areas, respectively, in the Songkhram River. This study highlights the usefulness of multivariate statistical assessment of complex databases in the identification of pollution sources to better comprehend the spatial and temporal variations for effective river water quality management.

  15. Platform for monitoring water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Aubert, Coralie; Belleudy, Philippe; Coulaud, Catherine; Bois, Jérôme; Geay, Thomas; Gratiot, Nicolas; Legout, Cédric; Mercier, Bernard; Némery, Julien; Michielin, Yoann

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to develop a platform that electronically integrates a set of existing sensors for the continuous measurement at high temporal frequency of water and solid fluxes (bed load and suspension), characteristics of suspended solids (distribution in particle size, settling velocity of the particles) and other variables on water quality (color, nutrient concentration). The project is preferentially intended for rivers in mountainous catchments draining areas from 10 to 1000 km², with high suspended sediment concentrations (maxima between 10 and 300 g/l) and highly dynamic behavior, water discharge varying of several orders of magnitude in a short period of time (a few hours). The measurement of water and solid fluxes in this type of river remains a challenge and, to date, there is no built-in device on the market to continuously monitor all these variables. The development of this platform is based on a long experience of measurement of sediment fluxes in rivers within the French Critical Zone Observatories (http://portailrbv.sedoo.fr/), especially in the Draix-Bléone (http://oredraixbleone.irstea.fr/) and OHMCV (http://www.ohmcv.fr/) observatories. The choice was made to integrate in the platform instruments already available on the market and currently used by the scientific community (water level radar, surface velocity radar, turbidity sensor, automatic water sampler, video camera) and to include also newly developed instruments (System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs - see EGU2016-8542 - and hydrophone) or commercial instruments (spectrophotometer and radiometer) to be tested in surface water with high suspended sediment concentration. Priority is given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness in this type of environment with high destructive potential. Development work includes the construction of a platform prototype "smart" and remotely configurable for implantation in an isolated environment (absence of electric

  16. Water Surface and Velocity Measurement-River and Flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, J. H.; Ferreira, E.; Wackrow, R.; Shiono, K.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the flow of water in natural watercourses has become increasingly important as climate change increases the incidence of extreme rainfall events which cause flooding. Vegetation in rivers and streams reduce water conveyance and natural vegetation plays a critical role in flood events which needs to be understood more fully. A funded project at Loughborough University is therefore examining the influence of vegetation upon water flow, requiring measurement of both the 3-D water surface and flow velocities. Experimental work therefore requires the measurement of water surface morphology and velocity (i.e. speed and direction) in a controlled laboratory environment using a flume but also needs to be adaptable to work in a real river. Measuring the 3D topographic characteristics and velocity field of a flowing water surface is difficult and the purpose of this paper is to describe recent experimental work to achieve this. After reviewing past work in this area, the use of close range digital photogrammetry for capturing both the 3D water surface and surface velocity is described. The selected approach uses either two or three synchronised digital SLR cameras in combination with PhotoModeler for data processing, a commercial close range photogrammetric package. One critical aspect is the selection and distribution of appropriate floating marker points, which are critical if automated and appropriate measurement methods are to be used. Two distinct targeting approaches are available: either large and distinct specific floating markers or some fine material capable of providing appropriate texture. Initial work described in this paper uses specific marker points, which also provide the potential measuring surface velocity. The paper demonstrates that a high degree of measurement and marking automation is possible in a flume environment, where lighting influences can be highly controlled. When applied to a real river it is apparent that only lower degrees of

  17. Apparent Optical Properties in Waters Influenced by the Mississippi River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Sa, E.; Miller, R. L.; McKee, B. A.; Trzaska, R.

    2002-01-01

    In-water downwelling irradiance (E(sub d)) and upwelling radiance (L(sub u)) were measured in coastal waters influenced by the Mississippi River at wavelengths corresponding to SeaWiFS spectral bands in April of 2000. Results of derived apparent optical properties (AOP's) such as spectral diffise attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance (K(sub d)) suggest that they are mainly influenced by phytoplankton chlorophyll. Large variations in chlorophyll concentrations (0.2 to greater than 10 mg per cubic meters) correspond to variations in K(sub d) at 443 nm ranging from about 0.1 to greater than 1.5 per meter. Attenuation values at 443 nm generally peaked (or were minimal at 555 nm) at depths where chlorophyll concentrations were high. Above water remote sensing reflectance R(sub rs) (443) derived from E(sub d) and L(sub u) shows good agreement to surface chlorophyll. Ratios of remote sensing reflectance, R(sub rs)(443/R(sub rs)(555)versus chlorophyll suggests a potential for obtaining a suitable bio-optical algorithm for the region influenced by the Mississippi River.

  18. Managing Colorado River Water Resources In a Nonstationary Climate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, B.; Nowak, K. C.; Prairie, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Traditional water resources management assumes that history will repeat itself in more or less the same manner. This assumption with limited observations, which is often the case, leads to a biased view of system risk and to less than optimal management policies. This can be quite consequential if history does not repeat itself. Colorado River water resources management is in such as situation, where in, management policies have been devised using a window of observations that happened to be anomalously wet, which are proving to be inadequate for current prolonged dry spell unprecedented in observational record. To enable efficient management options two things are important - (i) understanding of natural variability of streamflow and (ii) robust simulation of streamflow scenarios for the planning horizon. The planning horizon is on decadal to multidecadal time scales, the time frame at which the climate model projections have very limited to no skills. Furthermore, systems with large storage such as the Colorado River water supply, are vulnerable to multidecadal variability than to gradual trend. In this talk, we will present the need for improved decadal streamflow projections and some approaches to this end, using observational and long paleo reconstructed streamflows.

  19. Planted floating bed performance in treatment of eutrophic river water.

    PubMed

    Bu, Faping; Xu, Xiaoyi

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to treat eutrophic river water using floating beds and to identify ideal plant species for design of floating beds. Four parallel pilot-scale units were established and vegetated with Canna indica (U1), Accords calamus (U2), Cyperus alternifolius (U3), and Vetiveria zizanioides (U4), respectively, to treat eutrophic river water. The floating bed was made of polyethylene foam, and plants were vegetated on it. Results suggest that the floating bed is a viable alternative for treating eutrophic river water, especially for inhibiting algae growth. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) varied from 6.53 to 18.45 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) from 6.82 to 12.25 mg/L, total phosphorus (TP) from 0.65 to 1.64 mg/L, and Chla from 6.22 to 66.46 g/m(3), the removal of COD, TN, TP, and Chla was 15.3%-38.4%, 25.4%-48.4%, 16.1%-42.1%, and 29.9 %-88.1%, respectively. Ranked by removal performance, U1 was best, followed by U2, U3, and U4. In the floating bed, more than 60% TN and TP were removed by sedimentation; plant uptake was quantitatively of low importance with an average removal of 20.2% of TN and 29.4% of TP removed. The loss of TN (TP) was of the least importance. Compared with the other three, U1 exhibited better dissolved oxygen (DO) gradient distributions, higher DO levels, higher hydraulic efficiency, and a higher percentage of nutrient removal attributable to plant uptake; in addition, plant development and the volume of nutrient storage in the C. indica tissues outperformed the other three species. C. indica thus could be selected when designing floating beds for the Three Gorges Reservoir region of P. R. China. PMID:23737127

  20. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2012-08-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s-1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  1. Data on ground-water levels and ground-water/surface-water relations in the Great Miami River and Little Miami River valleys, southwestern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, William P.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data were collected in September, October, and November 1993 to define the ground-water levels and the ground-water/surface-water relations in the vicinity of Dayton, Ohio. In this report, water levels are listed for 678 wells completed in sand and gravel. Data from 101 streamflow measurements made at selected sites along the Great Miami, Stillwater, Mad, and Little Miami Rivers and their tributaries during 2-day gain-loss study also are listed. Surface-water altitudes were determined at 11 stream-gaging stations and 39 other streamflow measurement sites. Discharge data for measurements made at 30 storm-sewer outfalls are given. Streamflow and discharge data obtained during the study were used to calculate the gain or loss of streamflow along 16 selected reaches of the Great Miami, Stillwater, Mad, and Little Miami Rivers. Streambed-conductivity data obtained by use of seepage meters at nine different sites also are given.

  2. A drifter for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Ross; Reading, Dean; Ridd, James; Campbell, Sean; Ridd, Peter

    2015-02-15

    A disposable instrument for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans is described. It transmits turbidity measurements and position data via a satellite uplink to a processing server. The primary purpose of the instrument is to help document changes in sediment runoff from river catchments in North Queensland, Australia. The 'river drifter' is released into a flooded river and drifts downstream to the ocean, measuring turbidity at regular intervals. Deployment in the Herbert River showed a downstream increase in turbidity, and thus suspended sediment concentration, while for the Johnstone River there was a rapid reduction in turbidity where the river entered the sea. Potential stranding along river banks is a limitation of the instrument. However, it has proved possible for drifters to routinely collect data along 80 km of the Herbert River. One drifter deployed in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea, travelled almost 200 km before stranding.

  3. Hydrodynamics and Water Quality: Modeling Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opdyke, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    The modeling of lakes, rivers, and estuaries is a fascinating subject that combines interesting facets of mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, and biology. Because of the complexity of natural systems, such modeling is always an approximation of the real world-and sometimes not a very good one. It is for this reason that modeling is not just science but also art. It is also for this reason that there are few good texts offering practical advice on modeling. Hydrodynamics and Water Quality makes a valiant attempt but is only partially successful because of the book's narrow focus on one family of models and an inconsistent presentation.

  4. The relationship between irrigation water demand and drought in the Yellow River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Weihao; Peng, Shaoming; Jiang, Guiqin; Wu, Jian

    2016-10-01

    In order to organize water for drought resistance reasonably, we need to study the relationship between irrigation water demand and meteorological drought in quantitative way. We chose five typical irrigation districts including the Qingtongxia irrigation district, Yellow River irrigation districts of Inner Mongolia in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the Fen river irrigation district and the Wei river irrigation district in the middle reaches of the Yellow River and the irrigation districts in the lower reaches of the Yellow River as research area. Based on the hydrology, meteorology, groundwater and crop parameters materials from 1956 to 2010 in the Yellow River basin, we selected reconnaissance drought index (RDI) to analyze occurrence and evolution regularity of drought in the five typical irrigation districts, and calculated the corresponding irrigation water demand by using crop water balance equation. The relationship of drought and irrigation water demand in each typical irrigation district was studied by using grey correlation analysis and relevant analysis method, and the quantitative relationship between irrigation water demand and RDI was established in each typical irrigation district. The results showed that the RDI can be applied to evaluate the meteorological drought in the typical irrigation districts of the Yellow River basin. There is significant correlation between the irrigation water demand and RDI, and the grey correlation degree and correlation coefficient increased with increasing crops available effective rainfall. The irrigation water demand of irrigation districts in the upstream, middle and downstream of the Yellow River basin presented different response degrees to drought. The irrigation water demand increased 105 million m3 with the drought increasing one grade (RDI decreasing 0.5) in the Qingtongxia irrigation district and Yellow River irrigation districts of Inner Mongolia. The irrigation water demand increased 219 million m3

  5. Genotoxicity of the Yamuna River water at Okhla (Delhi), India.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Asma; Malik, Abdul

    2005-07-01

    Water samples from the Yamuna River at Okhla (Delhi), India, were concentrated using XAD resins (XAD-4 and XAD-8) and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. Gas chromatographic analysis of liquid-liquid extracted water samples revealed the presence of the pesticides DDT, BHC, dieldrin, endosulfan, aldrin, 2,4-D, dimethoate, methyl parathion, and malathion at concentrations of 14, 25, 2.1, 114, 0.9, 0.6, 0.9, 1.7, and 1.9 ng/L, respectively. The genotoxicity of the extracted water samples was evaluated with the Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome test, DNA repair-defective mutants, and bacteriophage lambda systems. The results of the Salmonella test demonstrated that the XAD-concentrated water samples had maximum mutagenicity with the TA98 strain both with and without metabolic activation. However, the liquid-liquid-extracted water samples were also found to be mutagenic with one or more of the Ames tester strains, but to a lesser extent as compared with XAD extracts. The damage brought about in the DNA repair-defective mutants in the presence of XAD-concentrated water samples was found to be markedly high as compared with that liquid-liquid-extracted water samples at the dose level of 20 microl/mL culture. All mutants invariably exhibited significant declines in their colony-forming units as compared with their isogenic wild-type counterparts. Survival decreased by 86.3 and 75.5% in the polA- strain after 6 h of treatment with XAD-concentrated and liquid-liquid-extracted water samples, respectively. A significant decrease was also observed in the survival of bacteriophage lambda when treated with the test samples. Mutagenic responses of the liquid-liquid-extracted water samples may not necessarily reflect the mutagenicity of existing pesticides in the test water, because some other organic pollutants might accompany the pesticides in the extract. PMID:15922807

  6. Genotoxicity of the Yamuna River water at Okhla (Delhi), India.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Asma; Malik, Abdul

    2005-07-01

    Water samples from the Yamuna River at Okhla (Delhi), India, were concentrated using XAD resins (XAD-4 and XAD-8) and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. Gas chromatographic analysis of liquid-liquid extracted water samples revealed the presence of the pesticides DDT, BHC, dieldrin, endosulfan, aldrin, 2,4-D, dimethoate, methyl parathion, and malathion at concentrations of 14, 25, 2.1, 114, 0.9, 0.6, 0.9, 1.7, and 1.9 ng/L, respectively. The genotoxicity of the extracted water samples was evaluated with the Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome test, DNA repair-defective mutants, and bacteriophage lambda systems. The results of the Salmonella test demonstrated that the XAD-concentrated water samples had maximum mutagenicity with the TA98 strain both with and without metabolic activation. However, the liquid-liquid-extracted water samples were also found to be mutagenic with one or more of the Ames tester strains, but to a lesser extent as compared with XAD extracts. The damage brought about in the DNA repair-defective mutants in the presence of XAD-concentrated water samples was found to be markedly high as compared with that liquid-liquid-extracted water samples at the dose level of 20 microl/mL culture. All mutants invariably exhibited significant declines in their colony-forming units as compared with their isogenic wild-type counterparts. Survival decreased by 86.3 and 75.5% in the polA- strain after 6 h of treatment with XAD-concentrated and liquid-liquid-extracted water samples, respectively. A significant decrease was also observed in the survival of bacteriophage lambda when treated with the test samples. Mutagenic responses of the liquid-liquid-extracted water samples may not necessarily reflect the mutagenicity of existing pesticides in the test water, because some other organic pollutants might accompany the pesticides in the extract.

  7. Distribution and variation of 1,4-dioxane in water from rivers in Niigata including the Shinano River.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Kuniaki; Tanabe, Akiko

    2009-06-01

    The distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the waters from 27 sites in 12 rivers including the Shinano River, the longest river in Japan, was investigated in 2002. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.49 microg/L. The monthly variations in the 1,4-dioxane concentrations at 6 sites along the Shinano River showed mutually different patterns, and the concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations of the biochemical oxygen demand and the suspended substances. The annual mean concentrations were from 0.02 microg/L at sites located in the middle reaches to 0.11 microg/L at the river mouth. The 1,4-dioxane concentration in the Shinano River has shown a downward trend from 1989 to 2003.

  8. Using probability-based spatial estimation of the river pollution index to assess urban water recreational quality in the Tamsui River watershed.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-01-01

    The Tamsui River watershed situated in Northern Taiwan provides a variety of water recreational opportunities such as riverbank park activities, fishing, cruising, rowing, sailing, and swimming. However, river water quality strongly affects water recreational quality. Moreover, the health of recreationists who are partially or fully exposed to polluted river water may be jeopardized. A river pollution index (RPI) composed of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and ammonia nitrogen is typically used to gauge the river water quality and regulate the water body use in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to probabilistically determine the RPI categories in the Tamsui River watershed and to assess the urban water recreational quality on the basis of the estimated RPI categories. First, according to various RPI categories, one-dimensional indicator kriging (IK) was adopted to estimate the occurrence probabilities of the RPI categories. The maximum occurrence probability among the categories was then employed to determine the most suitable RPI category. Finally, the most serious categories and seasonal variations of RPI were adopted to evaluate the quality of current water recreational opportunities in the Tamsui River watershed. The results revealed that the midstream and downstream sections of the Tamsui River and its tributaries with poor river water quality afford low water recreational quality, and water recreationists should avoid full or limited exposure to these bodies of water. However, the upstream sections of the Tamsui River watershed with high river water quality are suitable for all water recreational activities.

  9. Using probability-based spatial estimation of the river pollution index to assess urban water recreational quality in the Tamsui River watershed.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-01-01

    The Tamsui River watershed situated in Northern Taiwan provides a variety of water recreational opportunities such as riverbank park activities, fishing, cruising, rowing, sailing, and swimming. However, river water quality strongly affects water recreational quality. Moreover, the health of recreationists who are partially or fully exposed to polluted river water may be jeopardized. A river pollution index (RPI) composed of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and ammonia nitrogen is typically used to gauge the river water quality and regulate the water body use in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to probabilistically determine the RPI categories in the Tamsui River watershed and to assess the urban water recreational quality on the basis of the estimated RPI categories. First, according to various RPI categories, one-dimensional indicator kriging (IK) was adopted to estimate the occurrence probabilities of the RPI categories. The maximum occurrence probability among the categories was then employed to determine the most suitable RPI category. Finally, the most serious categories and seasonal variations of RPI were adopted to evaluate the quality of current water recreational opportunities in the Tamsui River watershed. The results revealed that the midstream and downstream sections of the Tamsui River and its tributaries with poor river water quality afford low water recreational quality, and water recreationists should avoid full or limited exposure to these bodies of water. However, the upstream sections of the Tamsui River watershed with high river water quality are suitable for all water recreational activities. PMID:26676412

  10. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2013-12-17

    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin.

  11. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Department of Ecology (Ecology) will be a joint lead agency with Reclamation in the preparation of this... uncertainties have been addressed. In 2003, Reclamation and Ecology initiated the Yakima River Basin Water... Ecology to separate from the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. In mid-2008,...

  12. 78 FR 67336 - Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River Watershed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... 0648-XC961 Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River...) regarding expected applications from the United Water Conservation District (United) for incidental take..., operations, and maintenance of water management facilities within the lower Santa Clara River...

  13. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 8: Quinnipiac River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzaferro, David L.; Handman, Elinor H.; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1978-01-01

    The Quinnipiac River basin area in southcentral Connecticut covers 363 square miles, and includes all drainage basins that enter Long Island Sound from the Branford to the Wepawaug Rivers. Its population in 1970 was estimated at 535,000. Precipitation averages 47 inches per year and provides an abundant supply of water. Twenty-one inches returns to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration; the remainder flows directly to streams or percolates to the water table and discharges to Long Island Sound. Small amounts of water are exported from the basin by the New Britain Water Department, and small amounts are imported to the basin by the New Haven Water Company. The amount of water that can be developed at a given place depends upon precipitation, variability of streamflow, hydraulic properties and areal extent of the aquifers, and hydraulic connection between the aquifers and major streams. The quality of the water is determined by the physical environment and the effects of man. Stratified drift is the only aquifer capable of large sustained yields of water to individual wells. Yields of 64 screened wells tapping stratified drift range from 17 to 2,000 gpm (gallons per minute); their median yield is 500 gpm. Till is widespread and generally provides only small amounts of water. Wells in till normally yield only a few hundred gallons of water daily and commonly are inadequate during dry periods. Till is generally used only as an emergency or secondary source of water. Bedrock aquifers underlie the entire report area and include sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock types. These aquifers supply small but reliable quantities of water to wells throughout the basin and are the chief source for many nonurban homes and farms. About 90 percent of the wells tapping bedrock yield at least 2 pgm, and much larger yields are occasionally reported. Maximum well yields of 305 gpm for sedimentary, 75 gpm for igneous, and 200 gpm for metamorphic bedrock have been reported. Water

  14. Studies on kinetics of water quality factors to establish water transparency model in Neijiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghui; Pan, Wei; Guo, Jinchuan; Pang, Yong; Wu, Jianqiang; Li, Yiping; Pan, Baozhu; Ji, Yong; Ding, Ling

    2014-05-01

    The basis for submerged plant restoration in surface water is to research the complicated dynamic mechanism of water transparency. In this paper, through the impact factor analysis of water transparency, the suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter, algae were determined as three main impactfactors for water transparency of Neijiang River in Eastern China. And the multiple regression equation of water transparency and sediment concentration, permanganate index, chlorophyll-a concentration was developed. Considering the complicated transport and transformation of suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter and algae, numerical model of them were developed respectively for simulating the dynamic process. Water transparency numerical model was finally developed by coupling the sediment, water quality, and algae model. These results showed that suspended sediment was a key factor influencing water transparency of Neijiang River, the influence of water quality indicated by chemical oxygen demand and algal concentration indicated by chlorophyll a were indeterminate when their concentrations were lower, the influence was more obvious when high concentrations are available, such three factors showed direct influence on water transparency.

  15. Sedimentation and water quality in the West Branch Shade River basin, Ohio, 1984 water year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Jones, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Sedimentation in, and flooding of, the West Branch Shade River and its tributaries have been major concerns of residents and State and local officials. The area was extensively surface mined for coal between the mid-1940 's and the early 1960's. Reclamation efforts immediately after mining were unsuccessful. The results have been elevated sediment loads and the subsequent loss of channel conveyance. Two sediment and stream gaging stations were established on West Branch Shade River in the area of past mining to provide data to evaluate the effectiveness of current reclamation activities on reducing sediment loads. A third station was established on the East Branch Shade River in an unmined area as a control. From October 1983 through September 1984, the annual suspended sediment yield/acre-ft of runoff was approximately two times as high for West Branch Shade River (0.51 ton/acre-ft of runoff) as for East Branch Shade River (0.28 ton/acre-ft). In addition, water quality of West Branch indicates that acidity is higher, pH is lower, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate and metals are higher than for East Branch. The concentration of coal in bed material increased in the downstream direction along West Branch Shade River. The concentration downstream in the West Branch was more than 20 times greater than in the East Branch. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Daily Water Temperature and River Discharge Modeling for Climate Change Impact Assessment in Large River Basins Globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2010-12-01

    Recent and future changes in climate will affect hydrologic and thermal regimes, having a direct impact on water quality and in turn the growth rate and distribution of freshwater organisms. In addition, changes in river temperature and streamflow are of economic importance for water requirements for industry, electricity and drinking water production. Although integrated hydrological and deterministic water temperature modeling approaches have been successfully applied for small-scale catchments, much less work has been done at large scales. A computationally efficient modeling approach is needed to simulate water temperature and river discharge at large temporal and spatial scales, for purposes such as addressing climate change issues. In addition, realistic simulations of daily water temperature and discharge of rivers with different basin characteristics and anthropogenic impacts are needed to address large-scale water management issues. Here we use the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and the computationally efficient 1D stream temperature model RBM to simulate river discharge and water temperature on a daily basis for selected large-scale river basins globally. The models were forced with a new global gridded 0.5° x 0.5° meteorological dataset provided by the EU FP6 Water and Global Change (WATCH) project. The performance of this modeling approach was tested for the period 1980-1999 and during warm, dry periods specifically when water temperatures and water availability are generally most critical for usage functions and freshwater ecosystems. In addition, the impact of climate change on water temperature and river discharge is assessed by forcing the models with bias corrected output of selected Global Climate Models.

  17. Water availability, use, and estimated future water demand in the upper Duck River basin, middle Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Duck River in Tennessee supplied about 18.9 Mgal of water/d to Tullahoma, Manchester, Lewisburg, Columbia, and other cities. Municipal water use increased to 20.9 Mgal/d in 1990; projections indicate increases in demand for the next 25 yr. Socioeconomic and water use data from the basin for 1989 were used to calibrate the water use models within the Institute for Water Resources Municipal and Industrial Needs (IWR-MAIN) System. The models were used to estimate future water use demand in the basin for the years 1995, 2000, and 2015. Projections showed demands of about 24.3 Mgal/d in 1995; 28.3 Mgal/d in 2000; and 39.0 Mgal/d in 2015. Increases in withdrawals from the Duck River downstream from Shelbyville could reduce the minimum flow at Columbia from 119 to 83.8 cu feet/s. The study also included an overview of the potential for developing groundwater resources in the area. Statistical analyses of yields to 5,938 wells showed that the highest yields are in Coffee County, but 75 percent of the wells in Coffee County produced less than 30 gal/m. However, measurements of streamflow losses along tributaries to the Duck River suggest that the potential for development of groundwater does exist at specific sites.

  18. Polyfluorinated compounds in waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters along the River Elbe, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Felizeter, Sebastian; Sturm, Renate; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-09-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of the River Elbe from samples collected in 2007. Concentrations of various PFCs, including C(4)-C(8) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), C(6) and C(8) perfluorinated sulfinates, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, C(5)-C(13) perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C(4) and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides and 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomercarboxylic acids were quantified. Sum PFC concentrations of the river water ranged from 7.6 to 26.4ngL(-1), whereas sum PFC concentrations of WWTP effluents were approximately 5-10 times higher (30.5-266.3ngL(-1)), indicating that WWTPs are potential sources of PFCs in the marine environment. PFC patterns of different WWTP effluents varied depending on the origin of the waste water, whereas the profile of PFC composition in the river water was relatively constant. In both kinds of water samples, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC, whereas perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant PFSA.

  19. Summary of radiological monitoring of Columbia River water along the Hanford Reach, 1980 through 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Columbia River monitoring program, conducted as part of the SESP, provides a historical record of contaminant concentrations in the river attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and operations conducted at the Hanford Site. In addition to ongoing monitoring, special studies are conducted periodically to enhance the understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in the river. The Columbia River monitoring program includes sampling of river water, river sediment, river-bank springs entering the river, and various types of aquatic biota found in or along the river. These samples are analyzed for radiological constituents and a wide range of chemical parameters. This report describes the water sampling component of the overall Columbia River monitoring program conducted during the years 1980 through 1989 and summarizes the radiological results generated through the program during this time period. The only radionuclides found in the river that were consistently influenced by Hanford were tritium and iodine-129. Strontium-90 and uranium, also attributable to Hanford operations, were present in localized areas within the river near ground-water discharge points; however, these contaminants are quickly dispersed within the river to concentrations similar to background.

  20. River health assessment using macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters: A case of the Orange River in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyika, Shishani; Kongo, Victor; Kimwaga, Richard

    Land use activities that have an effect on water quality and river health are believed to have increased along the Orange River in Namibia. These are mainly agricultural activities, notably irrigation, with more than 2000 ha currently under irrigation and approximately 2000 ha planned for future expansion. Other anthropogenic activities include urban development and weir construction along the Orange River. Population increase along the river has resulted in proliferation of unplanned settlements with no proper sanitation facilities. This study was aimed at assessing the current water quality and overall health status of the Orange River in Namibia. The South African Scoring System 5(SASS5) was applied in eight sites where samples for macroinvertebrates, physical and chemical water quality parameters such as nutrients in the water, pH, turbidity and presence of bacteria were obtained. Satellite images i.e. Landsat images were also used to assess the land-uses over time in the study area with the view of linking such changes to variance in water quality over time. The SASS5 results indicated a fair water quality and river health condition in category C, indicating that the river is moderately modified. Water quality parameters at all sites varied moderately and were within acceptable limits, except for turbidity and chlorophyll a. There was a significant difference in the mean concentrations of nine water quality parameters among sampling periods, whereby F-value > F-critical at α = 0.05 among sites, F-value < F-critical at α = 0.05, except for turbidity and chlorophyll a. The Landsat images also showed minimal changes in land-use activities between 2002 and 2012, with a net increase of 38 ha in irrigated area. According to National Water Policy White Paper of Namibia of 2000, it was found that policies and legislation address water resources management from a broader spectrum and not specific to river health. Thus, it was concluded that the river health of Orange

  1. Ground-water data, Green River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Everett Alfred; Collier, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of energy-related projects in the Green River basin of Wyoming are compiled from the files of the Geological Survey and the Wyoming State Engineer as of 1977. The data include well and spring location, well depth, casing diameter, type of lifts, type of power, use of water, rock type of producing zone, owner, and discharge for more than 1,600 sites. Analyses for common chemical constituents, trace elements, and radioactive chemicals are tabulated as well as water temperature and specific conductance measurement data. Lithologic logs of more than 300 wells, test holes, and measured sections constitute much of this report. County maps at a scale of 1:500 ,000 show the locations. (USGS)

  2. Behaviour of Tritium in the Waters of the River Tagus

    SciTech Connect

    Baeza, A.; Garcia, E.; Miro, C.; Rodriguez, A.; Sequeira, M.M

    2005-07-15

    The spatial and temporal evolution of the {sup 3}H levels in the water of the River Tagus in its passage through various regions of Spain and Portugal was analysed. Using mathematical time-series techniques, analytical expressions were obtained for the temporal trend and the periodicity present in the data.These expressions were used to determine the transit times between the sampling sites. The results indicated that the mean speed of {sup 3}H displacement was 12 km/month. The residence times of tritium in the water were also obtained. They were found to depend on the sampling points, with values ranging between 31 and 77 months. The concentrations of {sup 3}H varied cyclically at the six sampling points, with periods of around 24 months upstream of the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant and about 12 months downstream.

  3. Organochlorine insecticide residues in Ganga river water near Farrukhabad, India.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, N P; Gajbhiye, V T; Kumar, M; Mohapatra, S P

    1994-04-01

    Multiple residues of organochlorine insecticides were monitored in Ganga river water in the district of Farrukhabad in northern Indian for one year (1991-1992). Almost all the samples were found to be contaminated with residues of HCH and DDT. Residues of aldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor were also detected in a larger number of samples. Alpha-HCH, pp'-DDT and alpha-endosulfan were found to dominate over the other isomers of HCH, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Enhanced percentage of beta-HCH suggests accumulation of this isomer in the aquatic environment. The average concentration of aldrin was more than that of dieldrin. Aldrin residues often exceeded the WHO guideline value for drinking water and the concentration of heptachlor occasionally exceeded the specified limits.

  4. Accounting for Consumptive Use of Lower Colorado River Water in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Wilson, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Colorado River valley between the east end of Lake Mead and the international boundary with Mexico (see figure), the river is the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power generation, and recreational purposes. Water is stored in surface reservoirs and in the river aquifer---permeable sediments and sedimentary rocks that fill the lower Colorado River valley and adjacent tributary valleys. The hydraulic connection between the river and the river aquifer, overbank flow prior to building of the dams, and infiltration as the reservoirs filled allowed the sediments and sedimentary rocks to become saturated with water from the river. Ratios of isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water from wells indicate that most of the water in the river aquifer beneath the flood plain and in many places beneath the adjacent alluvial slopes originated from the river. The water table in the river aquifer extends from the river, beneath the flood plain, and under the alluvial slopes until it intersects bedrock. Precipitation in the surrounding mountains and inflow from tributary valleys also contribute small quantities of water to the river aquifer. Consumptive use of river water in the valley results from evapotranspiration by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain, pumpage from wells to meet domestic and municipal needs, and pumpage from the river for export to areas in California, Arizona, and Nevada outside of the river valley. Most crops are grown on the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the adjacent terraces has been cultivated. Crops were grown on about 70 percent of the total vegetated area in 1984. Phreatophytes---natural vegetation that obtains water from the river aquifer---covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped directly from the river and reservoirs. Most of the water used for domestic and municipal

  5. Nocturnal river water temperatures: Spatial and temporal variations.

    PubMed

    Wilby, R L; Johnson, M F; Toone, J A

    2014-06-01

    Nocturnal water temperature (Tw) affects the behaviour of aquatic biota and metabolism of whole rivers. However, night-time water temperature (nTw) is poorly understood because spot samples are typically taken during daylight hours, or Tw series are aggregated in ways that mask sub-daily properties. This paper examines 15-minute measurements of Tw and air temperature (Ta) collected at 36 sites in the Rivers Dove and Manifold, English Peak District. Data were stratified by day and night then analysed using hysteresis, auto-correlation and logistic regression techniques. Daily hysteresis loops show lagged responses between nTw and previous daylight air temperatures (dTa), plus the influence of groundwater and discharge variations. Logistic regression models were modified using a seasonal factor and explained between 80 and 94% of the variance in daily maximum nTw; minimum nTw were predicted with less skill, particularly for headwater sites in summer. Downstream variations in model parameters also reflect the influence of groundwater and/or riparian shade, and prevailing weather conditions. A case is presented where an intense summer storm resulted in the propagation of a thermal wave that produced maximum Tw at some sites during hours of darkness. Hence, our findings show that Tw management by riparian shade has to be seen in a catchment wide context, with anticipated benefits normalised for weather variability, extreme rainfall events, local influence of groundwater, and channel structures.

  6. Water isotope characteristics of landfalling atmospheric rivers in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, H.; Reilly, S. P.; Martin, A.; Kawzenuk, B.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are a defining feature of mid-latitude water vapor transport, responsible for 30-50% of the precipitation delivered to the western US on an annual basis. Despite the growing number of intra-event stable isotope studies, water isotope time series has only been examined for a single AR event to date. Here, we present hourly oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in precipitation for two AR events: 1) A December 10-12 event, collected in Santa Clara, CA; and 2) Four precipitation time series collected during the February 6-8 AR event in Cazadero, CA. During the December event, δ18O values decrease steadily from ~ -2 to ~ -20 ‰, with the exception of the 6 hours leading to the passage of the cold front at the surface. During this period, d-excess values decreases by 10-15 ‰, consistent with a transition between multiple moisture sources. Three of four February precipitation events exhibit V-shapes of up to 6 ‰ in δ18O values. Such patterns have been observed in a prior AR event as well as other mid-latitude cyclones, and may reflect changes in post-condensation exchange related to cold front passage. Future work will incorporate additional meteorological in-situ and satellite-derived observations in order to gain insight into the atmospheric river dynamics.

  7. Fire patterns in the Amazonian biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragao, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Lima, Andre; Anderson, Liana O.; Barbier, Nicolas; Saatchi, Sassan

    2010-05-01

    vegetation for implementation of pastures and agricultural fields. The cumulative number of hot pixels is exponentially related to the monthly rainfall, which ultimately defines where and when fire can potentially strike. During the 2005 Amazonian drought, the number of hot pixels increased 33% in relation to mean 1998-2005. However, even with a large fraction of the basin experiencing considerable water deficits, fires have only affect areas with extensive human activity. Our spatially explicit trend analysis on deforestation and fire data revealed that more than half of the area experiencing increased fire occurrence have reduced deforestation rates. This reverse pattern is likely to be associated with the slash-and-burn of secondary forests and the increase of fragmentation and forest edges, favouring the leakage of fires from deforested lands into forests. Finally, our analysis points towards a reduction of fire incidence due to land use intensification in this region. In this study, we demonstrated that anthropogenic forcing, such as deforestation rates, is decisive in determining the seasonality and annual patterns of fire occurrence. Moreover, droughts can significantly increase the number of fires in the region exacerbating human impacts in Amazonia. Due to ongoing deforestation and the predicted intensification of climate change induced droughts, it is anticipated that a large area of forest edge will be under increased risk of fires and carbon savings from REDD may be partially offset by increased emissions following fire events. Improved fire-free land management practices may provide a sustainable solution for reducing emissions from the world's largest rainforest. Acknowledges The first author would like to thank the financial support of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC-UK/grant NE/F015356/1).

  8. Impact of riparian vegetation on water temperature of the river Pinka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzapfel, Gerda; Ledochowski, Valeria; Rauch, Hans Peter; Jachs, Viktoria; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Weihs, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    River systems in Central Europe have to deal with loss of habitat and structures, which has an impact on the energy balance of rivers and consequently causes stress on the aquatic fauna. Therefore riparian vegetation is essential to build structures and to regulate the microclimate and water temperature of rivers. Especially lowland rivers with slow flow velocities, high ratios of water width to water depth and few shading can suffer from changing water temperature at low flow conditions. This is even more relevant taking into account climate change scenarios. This study analyses the influence of riparian vegetation on a lowland rivers water temperature. The study was conducted at the river Pinka, located in south-east Austria, in Styria and Burgenland. This river discharges in Hungary into the river Raab. Riparian vegetation data sets were collected in a 50 m buffer on both sides of the river. This buffer was divided into polygons of same plant composition, density and height. Water temperature was measured continuously at 18 stations, minimum and maximum values over a period from May until September 2013 and additionally morphological parameters such as water depth, river width and river continuum were used for further analyses. All parameters were investigated from source to mouth of the river Pinka. After post processing the collected data, the program Shade-a-Lator 6.2 was used to analyse river energy input according to predominant riparian vegetation. In the following step the numerical results were opposed with the measured water temperature. The results show the quantified impact of riparian vegetation on water temperature.

  9. The impact of river restoration on the water quality of the surface water and groundwater in an Alpine catchment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, V.; Schirmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of river restoration projects can only be realized upon evaluating their success or failure in a region mainly with regards to water quality, ecological adaptations and flood mitigation. The Thur catchment in North eastern Switzerland is chosen as the study area. The water quality along the entire river reach (with the corresponding groundwater monitoring wells) will be analyzed with regard to the existing land use and a comparison shall be made with the water quality in the restored river sections of the river. A restored river section at Niederneunforn has been heavily monitored as part of the RECORD project and this data shall be vital for the present work. The water quality changes are to be observed by relating to some of the basic parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) , the concentration of ions like chloride, nitrate, nitrite, ortho-phosphate, ammonium and calcium. These are to be measured in both the surface and the groundwater upstream and downstream of the restored section in the study river. Both long-term monitoring as well as localized water sampling campaigns are planned as part of the study. Use of the stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen is to be done to trace the possible sources of contamination in the river reach. This study shall aim to answer the following questions: 1. What are the diurnal and seasonal water quality changes in the Thur river; upstream and downstream of the restored section? 2. Are there any links between the different water quality parameters and how does the restored section influence these links? 3. How does the water quality change from the river to the groundwater (due to the recharge) between the restored and the unrestored river sections? 4. How does the land use in the catchment affect / alter the water quality in the river? -Is there high pollutant load from a particular waste water treatment or more agricultural runoff

  10. Iron as a source of color in river waters.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi-Hua; Räike, Antti; Hartikainen, Helinä; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2015-12-01

    Organic chromophores of total organic carbon (TOC) and those of iron (Fe) contribute to the color of water, but the relative contributions of colored organic carbon (COC%) and Fe (Fe%) are poorly known. In this study, we unraveled Fe% and COC% in 6128 unfiltered water samples collected from 94 Finnish river sites of contrasting catchment properties. According to regression analysis focusing on TOC alone, on average 84% of the mean TOC consisted of COC, while 16% was non-colored or below the color-detection limit. COC and Fe were much more important sources of color than phytoplankton (chlorophyll a as a proxy) or non-algal particles (suspended solids as a proxy). When COC and Fe were considered as the only two sources of color, COC% ranged from 16.8% to 99.5% (mean 71%) and Fe% from 0.5% to 83.2% (mean 29%). Similar Fe% and COC% values were obtained when color was estimated from the absorption coefficients of COC and Fe at 490 nm. Fe% increased as a function of the concentration of Fe and was well predicted by the TOC-to-Fe mass ratio. In 608 samples with TOC-to-Fe ratios of <4.5, Fe dominated the color. TOC-to-Fe ratios varied widely within most sites, but in relation to hydrology. In catchments with a peatland coverage of >30%, peak flow exported elevated amounts of TOC relative to Fe and resulted in a high COC%. Base flow, instead, mobilized elevated amounts Fe relative to TOC and resulted in a high Fe%. In a catchment covered with 31% of agricultural fields, peak flow transported eroded soil particles high in Fe and thus resulted in a high Fe%, while during base flow the water was high in COC%. This study demonstrated that Fe% and COC% vary widely in river water depending on the catchment properties and hydrology.

  11. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.

    2012-11-01

    Coping with the issue of water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links hydrological flows to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. Analogous to financial accounting, WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) a consumption sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarize the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g. climate change) and internal influences (e.g. infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used for 3 out of the 4 sheets, but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  12. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.

    2013-07-01

    Coping with water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links depletion to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper, we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use and landscape evapotranspiration on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) an evapotranspiration sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarise the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g., climate change) and internal influences (e.g., infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used to acquire a vast amount of required data but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  13. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions.

  14. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions. PMID:27161139

  15. Modeling shallow-water hydrodynamics: Rotations, rips, and rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Joseph W.

    for alongshore uniform beaches. Through comparisons with remote sensing observations, the model proves it is capable of predicting rip currents when they are observed. Analysis suggests that the direction of the offshore wave spectra will dictate when and where rip currents will appear. We also find that for bi-modal offshore spectra, the relative amount of energy in each spectral mode is a better predictor of rip current development than the peak spectral characteristics. Finally, some preliminary work to estimate water depths from the combination of hydrodynamic models and available data is also presented. We focus this work in a river meander for our initial tests. A simple analytical model shows skill in predicting the water depth at only one of the two river meanders considered. This discrepancy appears to be related to river curvature and as curvature weakens, the model accuracy decreases. This is hypothesized to be the result of dispersive mixing which is not accounted for in this simple model but confirmation is still required. At the same time, we perform simulations within a river meander to determine the efficacy of using coastal hydrodynamic models in riverine environments where the principles governing the flow are the same. Our initial tests of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) suggests that it is able to reproduce the flow through a river meander which opens the door to developing one model that can simulate conditions from upland rivers out to the continental shelf.

  16. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 2, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume II includes the Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77, Volume 3, Ohio River tributaries and Mississippi River tributaries south of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume III includes Ohio River tributaries and Mississippi River tributaries south of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. The Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS): Nine years (2002-2010) of annual data available to the public.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan; Rosinger, Asher; Schultz, Alan; Vadez, Vincent; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    This brief communication contains a description of the 2002-2010 annual panel collected by the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study team. The study took place among the Tsimane', a native Amazonian society of forager-horticulturalists. The team tracked a wide range of socio-economic and anthropometric variables from all residents (633 adults ≥16 years; 820 children) in 13 villages along the Maniqui River, Department of Beni. The panel is ideally suited to examine how market exposure and modernization affect the well-being of a highly autarkic population and to examine human growth in a non-Western rural setting. PMID:26280812

  19. The Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS): Nine years (2002-2010) of annual data available to the public

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, William R.; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan; Rosinger, Asher; Schultz, Alan; Vadez, Vincent; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This brief communication contains a description of the 2002-2010 annual panel collected by the Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study team. The study took place among the Tsimane’, a native Amazonian society of forager-horticulturalists. The team tracked a wide range of socio-economic and anthropometric variables from all residents (633 adults ≥16 years; 820 children) in 13 villages along the Maniqui River, department of Beni. The panel is ideally suited to examine how market exposure and modernization affect the well-being of a highly autarkic population and to examine human growth in a non-Western rural setting. PMID:26280812

  20. Modeling The Water Table In The Middle Rio Grande River Riparian Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasheh, O. Z.; Neale, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRGR) is the main source of fresh water for the state of New Mexico. An arid area with low water resources created a situation where water is extensively diverted or stored to supply the high demand for municipalities and agricultural activities. The extensive water diversions over the last few decades has affected the composition of the native riparian vegetation such as cottonwood and coyote willow and enhanced the spread of invasive species harmful to the river system such as Tamarisk and Russian Olives. The river aquatic system has also been badly affected. The need to study the river hydrological processes and their relation with its health is important to preserve the river ecosystem. The water table within the riparian zone is intrinsically connected to the flows in the river. Large withdrawals of water by Tamarisk affect the surface flows, which coupled with the large diversions for irrigation result in a complicated river management problem. In this paper we describe the methodology used to spatially model the water table depth between the river and the adjacent drains parallel to the river. Water table readings are used to check the model. Evapotranspiration by the riparian vegetation is estimated and included in the soil moisture balance. The model runs as an application in ArcGIS. Spatial layers include soils and riparian vegetation maps obtained from the classification of airborne high resolution multispectral imagery.

  1. Examples of Savannah River water dilution between the Savannah River Plant and the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water-treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.W.

    1983-01-12

    A substantial dilution of the river water occurs between the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the two treatment plants. This dilution results from inflow of surface and groundwater and from direct rainfall. The amount of dilution was estimated to be approximately 20% and 54% down to the Port Wentworth and Beaufort-Jasper plants, respectively.

  2. Water Quality in the Tanana River Basin, Alaska, Water Years 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.

    2007-01-01

    OVERVIEW This report contains water-quality data collected from 84 sites in Tanana River basin during water years 2004 through 2006 (October 2003 through September 2006) as part of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) Alaska Monitoring and Assessment Program (AKMAP), supported in part through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Water, Cooperative Assistance Agreement X7-97078801. A broad range of chemical analyses are presented for 93 sets of samples collected at 59 tributaries to the Tanana River and at 25 locations along the mainstem. These data are to provide a means to assess baseline characteristics and establish indicators that are ecologically important, affordable, and relevant to society.

  3. Klamath River Water Quality Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents field data from a second year of an ongoing study on the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam in south central Oregon; this dataset will form the basis of a hydrodynamic and water quality model. Water quality was sampled weekly at six mainstem and two tributary sites from early April through early November, 2008. Constituents reported herein include field-measured water-column parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; total iron; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, and iron; specific UV absorbance at 254 nanometers; chlorophyll a; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. Sampling program results indicated: *Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased starting in mid-June, remained elevated in the summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate had a different seasonal cycle and was below detection or at low concentration in summer. *Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations did not show large differences from upstream to downstream, filtered ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased in the downstream direction and particulate carbon and particulate nitrogen generally decreased in the downstream direction. *Large bacterial cells made up most of the bacteria biovolume, though cocci were the most numerous bacteria type. Cocci, with diameters of 0.1 to 0.2 micrometers, were smaller than the filter pore sizes used to separate dissolved from particulate matter. *Phytoplankton biovolumes were dominated by diatoms in spring and by the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after mid-June. Another blue-green, Anabaena flos-aquae, was noted in samples from late May to late June. Phytoplankton

  4. Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques: Sava River (Croatia): a case study.

    PubMed

    Marinović Ruždjak, Andrea; Ruždjak, Domagoj

    2015-04-01

    For the evaluation of seasonal and spatial variations and the interpretation of a large and complex water quality dataset obtained during a 7-year monitoring program of the Sava River in Croatia, different multivariate statistical techniques were applied in this study. Basic statistical properties and correlations of 18 water quality parameters (variables) measured at 18 sampling sites (a total of 56,952 values) were examined. Correlations between air temperature and some water quality parameters were found in agreement with the previous studies of relationship between climatic and hydrological parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the most important factors determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Sava River. PCA has determined a reduced number of seven principal components that explain over 75 % of the data set variance. The results revealed that parameters related to temperature and organic pollutants (CODMn and TSS) were the most important parameters contributing to water quality variation. PCA analysis of seasonal subsets confirmed this result and showed that the importance of parameters is changing from season to season. PCA of the four seasonal data subsets yielded six PCs with eigenvalues greater than one explaining 73.6 % (spring), 71.4 % (summer), 70.3 % (autumn), and 71.3 % (winter) of the total variance. To check the influence of the outliers in the data set whose distribution strongly deviates from the normal one, in addition to standard principal component analysis algorithm, two robust estimates of covariance matrix were calculated and subjected to PCA. PCA in both cases yielded seven principal components explaining 75 % of the total variance, and the results do not differ significantly from the results obtained by the standard PCA algorithm. With the implementation of robust PCA algorithm, it is demonstrated that the usage of standard algorithm is justified for data sets with small numbers of missing data

  5. A new river system modelling tool for sustainable operational management of water resources.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Wilson, Kym; Welsh, Wendy D; Nicholls, David; Kim, Shaun; Cetin, Lydia

    2013-05-30

    The eWater Cooperative Research Centre of Australia has developed a river system modelling software called eWater Source that can be used to assist water managers and river operators in planning and operating river systems. It has been designed and developed within Australia to provide a consistent approach to underpin a wide range of water planning and management purposes. The software provides tools for the prediction and quantification of water from catchments to the end of a river system by integrating continuous rainfall-runoff and river system models. It includes three modes (catchment runoff, river management and river operations) for different applications. This paper introduces the operations mode of Source and compares its functionality with the existing tools used for daily river operations in Australia, with the Goulburn River as the case study. A 5-year period is used to compare modelled and observed results. Forecasts from Source and the existing tools are compared to observations over 7-day forecast periods that include an environmental water release. Source provided acceptable or improved results and required less user input than the existing method. Source provides a flexible software tool in which various forecast models can be incorporated. The application has demonstrated the potential of Source to provide an improvement on the existing river operations models in Australia at both the daily and seasonal time steps.

  6. New methods to estimate 2D water level distributions of dynamic rivers.

    PubMed

    Diem, Samuel; Renard, Philippe; Schirmer, Mario

    2013-01-01

    River restoration measures are becoming increasingly popular and are leading to dynamic river bed morphologies that in turn result in complex water level distributions in a river. Disconnected river branches, nonlinear longitudinal water level profiles and morphologically induced lateral water level gradients can evolve rapidly. The modeling of such river-groundwater systems is of high practical relevance in order to assess the impact of restoration measures on the exchange flux between a river and groundwater or on the residence times between a river and a pumping well. However, the model input includes a proper definition of the river boundary condition, which requires a detailed spatial and temporal river water level distribution. In this study, we present two new methods to estimate river water level distributions that are based directly on measured data. Comparing generated time series of water levels with those obtained by a hydraulic model as a reference, the new methods proved to offer an accurate and faster alternative with a simpler implementation.

  7. ALWAYS A RIVER - SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON THE OHIO RIVER AND WATER GRADES K - 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    This curriculum was developed as a significant component of the project, Always a River: The Ohio River and the American Experience, a six-state collaboration devoted to exploring the historical and cultural development of the Ohio River. The Always a River project is being joint...

  8. Water quality of the Malheur Lake system and Malheur River, and simulated water-quality effects of routing Malheur Lake water into Malheur River, Oregon, 1984-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuste, L.A.; McKenzie, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Above average precipitation and runoff between 1980 and 1985 have raised the water-surface elevation of Harney, Mud, and Malheur Lakes in eastern Oregon to the highest levels recorded and have caused mixing and interflow of water among the three lakes. A 50% increase in specific conductance throughout Malheur Lake from 1984 to 1985 resulted from an increase in sodium and chloride concentrations, probably caused by the flow of saline water from Harvey Lake and dissolution of evaporites in flooded areas around it. Arsenic and boron concentrations increased during the two years. Algal productivity was highest towards the center of Malheur Lake. Concentrations of major ions in the Malheur River during the 1985 irrigation season were dilute in upstream reaches because of flow releases from reservoirs; increasing in a downstream direction because of irrigation-return flow. Concentrations also increased with time during irrigation season, with the highest concentrations occurring in October after most diversions for irrigation were discontinued. Mass-balance equations were used to simulate mixing of Malheur Lake with Malheur River water to estimate the water quality that would occur at different points along Malheur River. Simulations of sodium and chloride concentrations and specific conductance values based on August river-flows during irrigation season, show a gradual increase from the headwaters downstream to Hope and greater increases downstream of Hope. After irrigation ceases, the simulated water quality becomes uniform throughout the river, because proposed lake flows are then the principal source of Malheur River flows. Arsenic and boron concentrations increase much more than expected between Namorf and Little Valley; thermal springs could be the source of arsenic and boron in this reach. Groundwater coming in contact with arsenic rich soils may also contribute to the elevated arsenic levels found in the river. At the end of the irrigation season, arsenic

  9. Rivers in the Anthropocene: Mapping Human Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Green, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water underpins countless benefits to society and is pivotal to the success of the food and energy sectors, industry and commerce, and the expanding urban domain. It provides essential cultural, recreational, and aesthetic values and also plays a critical role in the maintenance of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Recent analyses of water systems across the planet, summarized using high resolution, geospatial indicator maps of rivers, demonstrate that a wide array of stressors combine to produce a pattern of worldwide threat to much of the freshwater resource base that sustains human water supply and aquatic biodiversity. A pervasive, globally-significant pattern of management is evident in the contemporary setting, through which impairment accumulates as a function of wealth, but is then remedied by costly, after-the-fact technological investments. This strategy of treating symptoms while leaving unabated the underlying causes is practiced widely across rich countries, but it strands poor nations and much of the world's aquatic lifeforms at high levels of vulnerability. The seeds of such an approach to water management are hardly new and are evident throughout human history. This talk will explore the implications of these global realities and will focus on the role of 21st century engineering as in both contributing to the growing water crisis and stimulating innovation for more effective stewardship of our water resource systems. It will also present a first global synthesis of the geography of freshwater provisioning source areas, evaluating jointly the quantity and condition of freshwater produced from these areas, and the downstream populations served by these resources. A geospatial indicator is derived, the freshwater provisioning index for humans (FPIh), which constitutes an objective measure of the state of the resource base and its role in supporting human water security.

  10. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation.

    PubMed

    Daesslé, L W; van Geldern, R; Orozco-Durán, A; Barth, J A C

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132×10(6) m(3) were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area. PMID:26544887

  11. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation.

    PubMed

    Daesslé, L W; van Geldern, R; Orozco-Durán, A; Barth, J A C

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132×10(6) m(3) were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area.

  12. Reconnaissance of the Manistee River, a cold-water river in the northwestern part of Michigan's Southern Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1972-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, trout fishing), but expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, irrigation, and dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of water resources for recreation and other demands, an analysis of hydrologic factors related to recreation is essential.The Manistee River is one of Michigan's well-known trout streams-a stream having numerous public access sites and campgrounds. Upstream from Cameron Bridge (see location map) the Manistee is rated as a first-class trout stream but below Cameron Bridge the river is rated only as a fair trout stream by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. As a Michigan canoe trail it is second only to the Au Sable River in popularity. Esthetically, the Manistee is one of Michigan's most attractive rivers, its waters flowing cool and clean, and around each bend a pleasant wilderness scene. This report deals with that part of the river upstream from State Highway M-66 at Smithville. Several hard-surface roads give access to the upper river as shown on the location map. Numerous dirt roads and trails give access to the river at intermediate points. The recreational values of the Manistee depend on its characteristics of streamflow, water quality, and bed and banks. This atlas describes these characteristics and shows how they relate to recreational use.Much of the information presented here was obtained from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. Additional information was obtained from field reconnaissance surveys in 1968 and 1969. The study was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey, Gerald E. Eddy, Chief. Assistance was also obtained from other sections of the Michigan Department of

  13. Agricultural chemical interchange between ground water and surface water, Cedar River basin, Iowa and Minnesota; a study description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the data collected in the Cedar River basin, Iowa and Minnesota, indicates that atrazine is consistently detected in the main-stem river at concentrations greater than 0.10 microgram per liter even during periods of extended base flow. The primary source of atrazine in the river during these periods of base flow is not known. This study is designed to determine how atrazine and other agricultural chemicals move between ground water and surface water in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to a river. A site has been selected in an unfarmed area adjacent to the Cedar River near Bertram, Iowa, to determine how the concentrations of agricultural chemicals in the alluvial aquifer change as a result of bank storage of surface water. Research also is planned to determine the contribution of agricultural chemicals discharged by the alluvial aquifer into the river during base flow.

  14. The freshwater Amazonian stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, up-regulates glutamine synthetase activity and protein abundance, and accumulates glutamine when exposed to brackish (15 per thousand) water.

    PubMed

    Ip, Y K; Loong, A M; Ching, B; Tham, G H Y; Wong, W P; Chew, S F

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to examine whether the stenohaline freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, which lacks a functional ornithine-urea cycle, would up-regulate glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and protein abundance, and accumulate glutamine during a progressive transfer from freshwater to brackish (15 per thousand) water with daily feeding. Our results revealed that, similar to other freshwater teleosts, P. motoro performed hyperosmotic regulation, with very low urea concentrations in plasma and tissues, in freshwater. In 15 per thousand water, it was non-ureotelic and non-ureoosmotic, acting mainly as an osmoconformer with its plasma osmolality, [Na+] and [Cl-] comparable to those of the external medium. There were significant increases in the content of several free amino acids (FAAs), including glutamate, glutamine and glycine, in muscle and liver, but not in plasma, indicating that FAAs could contribute in part to cell volume regulation. Furthermore, exposure of P. motoro to 15 per thousand water led to up-regulation of GS activity and protein abundance in both liver and muscle. Thus, our results indicate for the first time that, despite the inability to synthesize urea and the lack of functional carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPS III) which uses glutamine as a substrate, P. motoro retained the capacity to up-regulate the activity and protein expression of GS in response to salinity stress. Potamotrygon motoro was not nitrogen (N) limited when exposed to 15 per thousand water with feeding, and there were no significant changes in the amination and deamination activities of hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase. In contrast, P. motoro became N limited when exposed to 10 per thousand water with fasting and could not survive well in 15 per thousand water without food.

  15. Water quality of the odzi river in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S B; Mhere, G

    2001-07-01

    For Odzi. the main river originating in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, the nature, sources and extent of pollution are characterised. Over a span of 9 months, the river water samples collected at six selected sites were analysed for various physical and chemical parameters namely, temperature, conductance, pH, total suspended and dissolved solids, BOD. total phosphate and nitrate levels. The Mutare river carried the seepage from abandoned mine dumps to the Odzi River. Water quality of the Odzi River at different points assessed by the water quality indices (WQI) is compared. According to the quality indices during the study period, water quality in the upper reaches of the river was medium to good. It dwindled in the plains, due to the seepage from abandoned mine dumps and discharges from the farm lands.

  16. Relation between ground water and surface water in the Hillsborough River basin, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Thompson, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between groundwater and surface water in the Hillsborough River basin was defined through the use of: seismic-reflection profiling along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River, and evaluation of streamflow, rainfall, groundwater levels, water quality, and geologic data. Major municipal well fields in the basin are Morris Bridge and Cypress Creek where an averages of 15.3 and 30.0 million gal/day (mgd), respectively, were pumped in 1980. Mean annual rainfall for the study area is 53.7 inches. Average rainfall for 1980, determined from eight rainfall stations, was 49.7 inches. Evapotranspiration, corrected for the 5% of the basin that is standing water, was 35.7 in/year. The principal geohydrologic units in the basin are the surficial aquifer, the intermediate aquifer and confining beds, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. Total pumpage of groundwater in 1980 was 98.18 mgd. The surficial aquifer and the intermediate aquifer are not used for major groundwater supply in the basin. Continuous marine seismic-reflection data collected along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River were interpreted to define the riverbed profile, the thickness of surficial deposits, and the top of persistent limestone. Major areas of groundwater discharge near the Hillsborough River and its tributaries are the wetlands adjacent to the river between the Zephyrhills gaging stations and Fletcher Avenue and the wetlands adjacent to Cypress Creek. An estimated 20 mgd seeps upward from the Upper Floridan aquifer within those wetland areas. The runoff/sq mi is greater at the Zephyrhills station than at Morris Bridge. However, results of groundwater flow models and potentiometric-surface maps indicate that groundwater is flowing upward along the Hillsborough River between the Zephyrhills gage and the Morris Bridge gage. This upward leakage is lost to evapotranspiration. An aquifer test conducted in 1978 at the Morris Bridge well

  17. Organic Matter in Rivers: The Crossroads between Climate and Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-04-27

    All surface waters in the world contain dissolved organic matter and its concentration depends on climate and vegetation. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is ten times higher in wetlands and swamps than in surface water of arctic, alpine, or arid climate. Climates of high ecosystem productivity (i.e., tropics) typically have soils with low organic carbon storage, but drain high dissolved organic loads to rivers. Regions with lower productivity (e.g. grasslands) typically have high soil carbon storage while adjacent rivers have high DOC contents. Most DOC in a free-flowing river is derived from leaching vegetation and soil organic matter, whereas in dammed rivers algae may comprise a significant portion. Water chemistry and oxygen-18 abundance of river water, along with radiocarbon and carbon-13 isotope abundance measurements of DOC were used to distinguish water and water quality sources in the Missouri River watershed. Drinking water for the City of St. Louis incorporates these different sources, and its water quality depends mostly on whether runoff is derived from the upper or the lower watershed, with the lower watershed contributing water with the highest DOC. During drinking water chlorination, DOC forms carcinogenic by-products in proportion to the amount of DOC present. This has recently led the USEPA to propose federal regulation standards. Restoration of natural riparian habitat such as wetlands will likely increase DOC concentrations in river water.

  18. Water-quality investigation, Upper Santa Clara River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, James C.; Irwin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Water-quality data are summarized for the upper Santa Clara River basin, California from studies beginning August 1974 through June 1976 and during past monitoring programs. Data were collected for nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace elements, detergents, and pesticide compounds. Because of the limited number of samples, the data are only an estimate of conditions that existed in the basin. Sampling was designed so that samples from each site would represent seasonal variations in discharge. Most constituents were fairly low in concentration near the headwaters at Ravenna and higher below the urban and agricultural area near Saugus. Mean specific conductance in the river ranged from 745 micromhos per centimeter at 25 deg C below the headwaters near Lang to 2,640 micromhos at the Los Angeles-Ventura County line. Results also indicate that discharge was not the single factor controlling the concentration variance for most constituents. Regression analyses indicated a high correlation between specific conductance and most major inorganic chemical constituents, and between specific conductance and discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  20. 1992 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mojave Water Agency, constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River ground-water basin for ground-water levels measured in November 1992. Water-level data were collected from approximately 300 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:125,000. The contour interval ranges from 3,200 to 1,600 feet above sea level.

  1. 2000 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins for ground-water levels measured during the spring of 2000. Water-level data were collected from 498 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:175,512. The contour interval ranges from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  2. 1998 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins for ground-water levels measured during the spring of 1998. Water-level data were collected from 418 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:175,512. The contour interval rangs from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  3. Assessment of the hydraulic connection between ground water and the Peace River, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewelling, B.R.; Tihansky, A.B.; Kindinger, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic connection between the Peace River and the underlying aquifers along the length of the Peace River from Bartow to Arcadia was assessed to evaluate flow exchanges between these hydrologic systems. Methods included an evaluation of hydrologic and geologic records and seismic-reflection profiles, seepage investigations, and thermal infrared imagery interpretation. Along the upper Peace River, a progressive long-term decline in streamflow has occurred since 1931 due to a lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by as much as 60 feet because of intensive ground-water withdrawals for phosphate mining and agriculture. Another effect from lowering the potentiometric surface has been the cessation of flow at several springs located near and within the Peace River channel, including Kissengen Spring, that once averaged a flow of about 19 million gallons a day. The lowering of ground-water head resulted in flow reversals at locations where streamflow enters sinkholes along the streambed and floodplain. Hydrogeologic conditions along the Peace River vary from Bartow to Arcadia. Three distinctive hydrogeologic areas along the Peace River were delineated: (1) the upper Peace River near Bartow, where ground-water recharge occurs; (2) the middle Peace River near Bowling Green, where reversals of hydraulic gradients occur; and (3) the lower Peace River near Arcadia, where ground-water discharge occurs. Seismic-reflection data were used to identify geologic features that could serve as potential conduits for surface-water and ground-water exchange. Depending on the hydrologic regime, this exchange could be recharge of surface water into the aquifer system or discharge of ground water into the stream channel. Geologic features that would provide pathways for water movement were identified in the seismic record; they varied from buried irregular surfaces to large-scale subsidence flexures and vertical fractures or enlarged solution conduits

  4. Surface-water salinity in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, water years 1989 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of dissolved solids in water (salinity) can result in numerous and costly issues for agricultural, industrial, and municipal water users. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-320) authorized planning and construction of salinity-control projects in the Colorado River Basin. One of the first projects was the Lower Gunnison Unit, a project to mitigate salinity in the Lower Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study to quantify changes in salinity in the Gunnison River Basin. Trends in salinity concentration and load during the period water years (WY) 1989 through 2004 (1989-2004) were determined for 15 selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Gunnison River Basin. Additionally, trends in salinity concentration and load during the period WY1989 through 2007 (1989-2007) were determined for 5 of the 15 sites for which sufficient data were available. Trend results also were used to identify regions in the Lower Gunnison River Basin (downstream from the Gunnison Tunnel) where the largest changes in salinity loads occur. Additional sources of salinity, including residential development (urbanization), changes in land cover, and natural sources, were estimated within the context of the trend results. The trend results and salinity loads estimated from trends testing also were compared to USBR and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates of off-farm and on-farm salinity reduction from salinity-control projects in the basin. Finally, salinity from six additional sites in basins that are not affected by irrigated agriculture or urbanization was monitored from WY 2008 to 2010 to quantify what portion of salinity may be from nonagricultural or natural sources. In the Upper Gunnison area, which refers to Gunnison River Basin above the site located on the Gunnison River below the Gunnison Tunnel, estimated mean annual

  5. Microbiological water quality along the Danube River: integrating data from two whole-river surveys and a transnational monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Alexander K T; Kavka, Gerhard G; Velimirov, Branko; Mach, Robert L; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2009-08-01

    The River Danube is, with 2780 km, the second longest river in Europe. Its catchment area covers 801 500 km(2), with approximately 81 million inhabitants in 19 countries. River water for anthropogenic use, transportation and recreation is of major importance in all of these countries. Microbiological contamination from faecal pollution by anthropogenic sources is considered to be a crucial problem throughout the Danube River basin. Thus, detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution is essential for watershed management. The determination of faecal indicator concentrations along the Danube and its major tributaries during two whole-river surveys and 16 permanent stations allowed for the first time to draw a clear picture of the faecal pollution patterns along the whole longitudinal profile of this important international river. By including a variety of environmental variables in statistical analysis, an integrative picture of faecal pollution in the Danube River basin could be evolved. Four hot spots and six stretches of differing faecal pollution were identified, mainly linked with input from large municipalities. Significant decline of microbiological pollution was observed in the upper and lower Danube stretches over the investigation period. In contrast, a significant increase in the middle part was evident. The planned implementation of new wastewater treatment plants and advanced wastewater treatment measures according to the European Union urban wastewater directive will have a great potential to reduce microbial faecal pollution in the Danube and thus improving water quality.

  6. GROUNDWATER-SURFACE WATER EXCHANGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LARGE RIVER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Movement of river water into and out of high-porosity alluvial deposits can have an important influence on surface water quality and aquatic habitat. In our study of a 60-km reach of the Willamette River in Oregon, USA, we: 1) used tracers to estimate the rate of exchange betw...

  7. Evaluating the influence of source basins on downstream water quality in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, G.M.; Broshears, R.E.; Hooper, R.P.; Goolsby, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical variability in the Mississippi River during water years 1989 to 1998 was evaluated using stream discharge and water-quality data in conjunction with the DAFLOW/BLTM hydraulic model. Model simulations were used to identify subbasin contributions of water and chemical constituents to the Mississippi River upstream from its confluence with the Ohio and the Mississippi River and at the Atchafalaya Diversion in Louisiana. Concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and sulfate at the Thebes site showed a general decreasing trend, and concentrations of silica and nitrate showed a general increasing trend as the percentage of discharge from the Mississippi River upstream from Grafton increased. Concentrations of most chemical constituents in the Mississippi River at the Atchafalaya Diversion exhibited a decreasing trend as the percentage of water from the Ohio River increased. Regression models were used to evaluate the importance of the source of water to the water chemistry in the Mississippi River at Thebes and the Atchafalaya Diversion. The addition of terms in regression equations to account for the percent of water from subbasins improved coefficients of determination for predicting chemical concentrations by as much as nine percent at the Thebes site and by as much as 48 percent at the Atchafalaya Diversion site. The addition of source-water terms to regression equations increased the estimated annual loads of nitrate and silica delivered from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico by as much as 14 and 13 percent, respectively.

  8. Accounting System for Water Use by Vegetation in the Lower Colorado River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado River is the principal source of water in the valley of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and the international boundary with Mexico (fig. 1). Agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power genera-tion, and recreation are the primary uses of river water in the valley. Most of the consumptive use of water from the river occurs downstream from Davis Dam, where water is diverted to irrigate crops along the river or is exported to interior regions of California and Arizona. Most of the agricultural areas are on the alluvium of the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the alluvial terraces has been cultivated. River water is consumed mainly by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain. Crops were grown on 70.3 percent of the vegetated area classified by using 1984 digital image satellite data. Phreatophytes, natural vege-tation that obtain water from the alluvial aquifer, covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped from the river. In some areas, water is pumped from wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the river.

  9. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species from river water.

    PubMed

    Massa, S; Cesaroni, D; Poda, G; Trovatelli, L D

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and twenty samples of river water collected from sampling sites in the period between December 1986 and December 1987 were examined for the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species. Among a total of 26 Yersinia strains isolated the following species were recognized: Y. enterocolitica, 12 strains, Y. intermedia, 5 strains, Y. frederiksenii, 2 strains, Y. kristensenii and Y. aldovae, 1 strain each; 5 were atypical Yersinia strains (rhamnose+, citrate+, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside+). Although the Yersinia isolates belong to the so-called "environmental" serotypes, which are usually considered as non-pathogenic for humans, Y. enterocolitica biotype 1, serotype 0:7.8, lysotype X0, which has previously been associated with gastro-intestinal infection in Italy, was found to be present. Statistical evaluation of our data showed that the presence of Yersinia spp. and the presence of total or fecal coliforms are unrelated.

  10. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Zuo, D.

    2014-09-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain), one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  11. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  12. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Rexervoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lere, Mark E.

    1985-12-01

    The Bitterroot River, located in western Montana, is an important and heavily used resource, providing water for agriculture and a source for diversified forms of recreation. Water shortages in the river, however, have been a persistent problem for both irrigators and recreational users. Five major diversions and numerous smaller canals remove substantial quantities of water from the river during the irrigation season. Historically, the river has been severely dewatered between the towns of Hamilton and Stevensville as a result of these withdrawals. Demands for irrigation water from the Bitterroot River have often conflicted with the instream flow needs for trout. Withdrawals of water can decrease suitable depths, velocities, substrates and cover utilized by trout (Stalnaker and Arnette 1976, Wesche 1976). Losses in habitat associated with dewatering have been shown to diminish the carrying capacities for trout populations (Nelson 1980). Additionally, dewatering of the Bitterroot River has forced irrigators to dike or channelize the streambed to obtain needed flows. These alterations reduce aquatic habitat and degrade channel stability. Odell (personal communication) found a substantial reduction in the total biomass of aquatic insects within a section of the Bitterroot River that had been bulldozed for irrigation purposes. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP) has submitted a proposal to the Northwest Power Planning Council for the purchase of 10,000 acre-feet (AF) of stored water in Painted Rocks Reservoir to augment low summer flows in the Bitterroot River. This supplemental water potentially would enhance the fishery in the river and reduce degradation of the channel due to diversion activities. The present study was undertaken to: (1) develop an implementable water management plan for supplemental releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir which would provide optimum benefits to the river: (2) gather fisheries and habitat information to

  13. Influence of the South-to-North Water Transfer and the Yangtze River mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; liu, Wenwen

    2016-04-01

    Algal bloom was occurred every year in the down stream of the Han River in recent five years. The operation of the Middle Route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer (MSNW) Project may affect the hydrological condition and self-purification of water body in the down and middle streams of the Han River, trigger algal bloom, and elevate the difficulty in the treatment of water pollutants, which is a crucial issue involved in ecology, environment, and economy. In this study, the monthly water samples were collected from the middle and down streams of Han River from July 2014 to December 2015. Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis were applied to identify major pollution types and areas and determine the reasons influencing the variations of water quality in the down and middle streams of the Han River. The results show that whole monitoring period can be divided into three periods as different pollution levels. The factor analysis distinguishes three pollution types (inorganic pollution, organic pollution, and agricultural pollution) and thier contributions on Han River water quality in dry and wet seasons. Industrial areas are influenced by inorganic pollution and cultivated lands are influenced by agricultural pollution. The water quality in wet season is significantly affected by flow rate, which was sometimes controlled by two projects. The heavy polluted water may be diluted by high flow volume.

  14. Toxicity bioassays for water from black-odor rivers in Wenzhou, China.

    PubMed

    DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p < 0.05), and related to pH and ammonium nitrogen of water

  15. Dissolved silica in the tidal Potomac River and Estuary, 1979-81 water years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Stephen F.

    1988-01-01

    The Potomac River at Chain Bridge is the major riverine source of dissolved silica (DSi) to the tidal Potomac River and Estuary. DSi concentrations at Chain Bridge are positively correlated with river discharge; river discharge is an important factor controlling rates of supply, dilution, and residence time. When river flow is high, the longitudinal DSi distribution is conservative. When river flow is low, other processes, such as phytoplankton uptake, benthic flux, resuspension, ground-water discharge, and water-column dissolution of diatoms, tend to be more influential than the river. Elevated concentrations of DSi in sewage-treatment-plant effluent in the Washington, D.C., area raise the DSi concentration of receiving Potomac River water. The tidal river zone serves as a net sink for DSi as a result of phytoplankton uptake. Ultimately, the biogenic silica from the tidal river is transported to the transition zone, where it is mineralized. As a result, the DSi concentration in the transition zone increases during summer. The DSi concentrations in the estuarine zone are largely controlled by dilution by Chesapeake Bay water and by phytoplankton uptake.

  16. Estimating Water Fluxes Across the Sediment-Water Interface in the Lower Merced River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zamora, Celia

    2008-01-01

    The lower Merced River Basin was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) to be included in a national study on how hydrological processes and agricultural practices interact to affect the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals. As part of this effort, surface-water?ground-water (sw?gw) interactions were studied in an instrumented 100-m reach on the lower Merced River. This study focused on estimating vertical rates of exchange across the sediment?water interface by direct measurement using seepage meters and by using temperature as a tracer coupled with numerical modeling. Temperature loggers and pressure transducers were placed in monitoring wells within the streambed and in the river to continuously monitor temperature and hydraulic head every 15 minutes from March 2004 to October 2005. One-dimensional modeling of heat and water flow was used to interpret the temperature and head observations and deduce the sw?gw fluxes using the USGS numerical model, VS2DH, which simulates variably saturated water flow and solves the energy transport equation. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the Merced River at the study reach is generally a slightly gaining stream with small head differences (cm) between the surface water and ground water, with flow reversals occurring during high streamflow events. The average vertical flux across the sediment?water interface was 0.4?2.2 cm/day, and the range of hydraulic conductivities was 1?10 m/day. Seepage meters generally failed to provide accurate data in this high-energy system because of slow seepage rates and a moving streambed resulting in scour or burial of the seepage meters. Estimates of streambed hydraulic conductivity were also made using grain-size analysis and slug tests. Estimated hydraulic conductivity for the upstream transect determined using slug tests ranged from 40 to 250 m/day, whereas the downstream transect ranged from 10 to 100 m/day. The

  17. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water

  18. Geological control of floristic composition in Amazonian forests

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Mark A; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna; Llerena, Nelly; Cardenas, Glenda; Phillips, Oliver L; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Räsänen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Aim Conservation and land-use planning require accurate maps of patterns in species composition and an understanding of the factors that control them. Substantial doubt exists, however, about the existence and determinants of large-area floristic divisions in Amazonia. Here we ask whether Amazonian forests are partitioned into broad-scale floristic units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. Location Western and central Amazonia. Methods We used Landsat imagery and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data to identify a possible floristic and geological discontinuity of over 300 km in northern Peru. We then used plant inventories and soil sampling to document changes in species composition and soil properties across this boundary. Data were obtained from 138 sites distributed along more than 450 km of road and river. On the basis of our findings, we used broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics to identify similar patterns across western and central Amazonia. Results The discontinuity identified in Landsat and SRTM data corresponded to a 15-fold change in soil cation concentrations and an almost total change in plant species composition. This discontinuity appears to be caused by the widespread removal of cation-poor surface sediments by river incision to expose cation-rich sediments beneath. Examination of broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics indicated that equivalent processes have generated a north–south discontinuity of over 1500 km in western Brazil. Due to similarities with our study area, we suggest that this discontinuity represents a chemical and ecological limit between western and central Amazonia. Main conclusions Our findings suggest that Amazonian forests are partitioned into large-area units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. The evolution of these units through geological time may provide a general mechanism for biotic diversification in Amazonia. These compositional

  19. Geological control of floristic composition in Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Mark A; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna; Llerena, Nelly; Cardenas, Glenda; Phillips, Oliver L; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Räsänen, Matti

    2011-11-01

    AIM: Conservation and land-use planning require accurate maps of patterns in species composition and an understanding of the factors that control them. Substantial doubt exists, however, about the existence and determinants of large-area floristic divisions in Amazonia. Here we ask whether Amazonian forests are partitioned into broad-scale floristic units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. LOCATION: Western and central Amazonia. METHODS: We used Landsat imagery and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data to identify a possible floristic and geological discontinuity of over 300 km in northern Peru. We then used plant inventories and soil sampling to document changes in species composition and soil properties across this boundary. Data were obtained from 138 sites distributed along more than 450 km of road and river. On the basis of our findings, we used broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics to identify similar patterns across western and central Amazonia. RESULTS: The discontinuity identified in Landsat and SRTM data corresponded to a 15-fold change in soil cation concentrations and an almost total change in plant species composition. This discontinuity appears to be caused by the widespread removal of cation-poor surface sediments by river incision to expose cation-rich sediments beneath. Examination of broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics indicated that equivalent processes have generated a north-south discontinuity of over 1500 km in western Brazil. Due to similarities with our study area, we suggest that this discontinuity represents a chemical and ecological limit between western and central Amazonia. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Amazonian forests are partitioned into large-area units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. The evolution of these units through geological time may provide a general mechanism for biotic diversification in Amazonia. These

  20. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. PMID:25324039

  1. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency.

  2. Sediment and water chemistry of the San Juan River and Escalante River deltas of Lake Powell, Utah, 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornewer, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the presence of trace elements, organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and radionuclides in sediment from the Colorado River delta and from sediment in some side canyons in Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona. The fate of many of these contaminants is of significant concern to the resource managers of the National Park Service Glen Canyon National Recreation Area because of potential health impacts to humans and aquatic and terrestrial species. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey began a sediment-core sampling and analysis program in the San Juan River and Escalante River deltas in Lake Powell, Utah, to help the National Park Service further document the presence or absence of contaminants in deltaic sediment. Three sediment cores were collected from the San Juan River delta in August 2010 and three sediment cores and an additional replicate core were collected from the Escalante River delta in September 2011. Sediment from the cores was subsampled and composited for analysis of major and trace elements. Fifty-five major and trace elements were analyzed in 116 subsamples and 7 composited samples for the San Juan River delta cores, and in 75 subsamples and 9 composited samples for the Escalante River delta cores. Six composited sediment samples from the San Juan River delta cores and eight from the Escalante River delta cores also were analyzed for 55 low-level organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, 61 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, gross alpha and gross beta radionuclides, and sediment-particle size. Additionally, water samples were collected from the sediment-water interface overlying each of the three cores collected from the San Juan River and Escalante River deltas. Each water sample was analyzed for 57 major and trace elements. Most of the major and trace elements analyzed were detected at concentrations greater than reporting levels for the sediment-core subsamples and composited

  3. Drought Assessment Using Tritium River Water Measurements for Existing Dam Infrastructure in the Ishikari River basin, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M. K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kashiwaya, K.; Kuribayashi, D.; Sawano, H.; Iwami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A proposed methodology is based on estimated groundwater volumes from tritium river water measurements in the Ishikari River basin of Hokkaido Island, Japan. In our drought assessment, we characterize a groundwater storage that is available and can be used for the water supply during prolonged droughts. For the groundwater storage estimation, we utilized tritium river water measurements obtained during baseflows to estimate water mean transit times (MTTs). Tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses in river water samples with MTTs times up to 200 years. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface. In Hokkaido, river water samples were collected in June, July and October 2014 at selected river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations record hourly water levels, have catchment areas between 45 and 377 km2 and are located upstream of MLIT dams at altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL. The measured tritium ranged between 4.065 TU (±0.07) and 5.290 TU (±0.09) with both lowest and highest tritium values analysed in June river samples at Tougeshita and Okukatsura stations, respectively. For the MTT estimation, we selected exponential(80%)-piston(20%) Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) with constructed tritium in Hokkaido precipitation and obtained a non-unique fit of young (1-11 years) and old (16-98 years) groundwater MTTs. This result indicates that the bomb-peak tritium is still present in Japanese groundwater and may take several years to flush out. From the MTTs and baseflow discharges, the calculated groundwater volume ranges between 13 MCM and 12500 MCM and indicates potentially available groundwater storage during prolonged droughts in the Hokkaido headwater catchments. In the future studies, the accuracy of the estimated groundwater volume can be increased by conducting another tritium sampling at

  4. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  5. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Impact of human activities on the quality of river water: The case of Evrotas River catchment basin, Greece.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, M O; Markantonatos, P G; Bacalis, N C

    1995-04-01

    The impact of point (domestic and industrial effluents) and non-point (agricultural land runoff) pollution sources on the quality of the receiving waters of the Evrotas River (Laconia, Greece) was investigated during a monitoring study from August 1991 to August 1992. The part of the river which was located near the city of Sparta was seasonally influenced by the discharge of effluents from orange juice plants (operating during winter) and by the discharge of septage for the emptying of cesspools which are serving part of the city. The low dilution of incoming pollutants (septage) during the low water flow in summer lead to the decreasing self-purification capacity of the river and the development of septicity conditions in some of its parts. In the vicinity of intensively cultivated areas, the high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus which were detected in the river water during winter and spring may be partly attributed to the leaching of the applied fertilizers because of nirogen mobilization and soil erosion, following the season's precipitations. The protection of the Evrotas River water Quality must therefore include adequate treatment of the septage produced in the area, as well as the construction of wastewater treatment plants for the major industries of the area. The non-point pollution could be controlled by the restoration of the Evrotas riparian vegetation, together with a more rational use of fertilizers in the area. PMID:24202273

  7. Natural radioactivity in ground water near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V. Jr. ); Michel, J. )

    1990-08-01

    A study of natural radioactivity in groundwater on and adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken (SC) was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal variations in the concentration of specific radionuclides. All available measurements for gross alpha particle activity, gross beta activity, uranium, Ra-226, Ra-228, and radon were collated. Relatively few radionuclide-specific results were found. Twenty samples from drinking water supplies in the area were collected in October 1987 and analyzed for U-238, U-234, Ra-226, Ra-228, and Rn-222. The aquifer type for each public water supply system was determined, and statistical analyses were conducted to detect differences among aquifer types and geographic areas defined at the country level. For samples from the public water wells and distribution systems on and adjacent to the site, most of the gross alpha particle activity could be attributed to Ra-226. Aquifer type was an important factor in determining the level of radioactivity in groundwater. The distribution and geochemical factors affecting the distribution of each radionuclide for the different aquifer types are discussed in detail. Statistical analyses were also run to test for aerial differences, among counties and the site. For all types of measurements, there were no differences in the distribution of radioactivity among the ten counties in the vicinity of the site or the site itself. The mean value for the plant was the lowest of all geographic areas for gross alpha particle activity and radon, intermediate for gross beta activity, and in the upper ranks for Ra-226 and Ra-228. It is concluded that the drinking water quality onsite is comparable with that in the vicinity. 19 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Water consumption and allocation strategies along the river oases of Tarim River based on large-scale hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide

    2016-04-01

    With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. The project aims to contribute to a sustainable land management which explicitly takes into account ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. SuMaRiO will identify realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups. The modelling of water consumption and allocation strategies is a core block in the SuMaRiO cluster. A large-scale hydrological model (MIKE HYDRO Basin) was established for the purpose of sustainable agricultural water management in the main stem Tarim River. MIKE HYDRO Basin is an integrated, multipurpose, map-based decision support tool for river basin analysis, planning and management. It provides detailed simulation results concerning water resources and land use in the catchment areas of the river. Calibration data and future predictions based on large amount of data was acquired. The results of model calibration indicated a close correlation between simulated and observed values. Scenarios with the change on irrigation strategies and land use distributions were investigated. Irrigation scenarios revealed that the available irrigation water has significant and varying effects on the yields of different crops. Irrigation water saving could reach up to 40% in the water-saving irrigation scenario. Land use scenarios illustrated that an increase of farmland area in the

  9. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.

  10. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR. PMID:27376919

  11. Assessment of temporal variation in water quality of some important rivers in middle Gangetic plains, India.

    PubMed

    Rani, Nipunika; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar; Prasad, Kriteshwar; Kedia, Dilip Kumar

    2011-03-01

    The study explains water quality of three important tributaries of the Ganga River in the middle Gangetic plains in India. Seasonal changes in the water quality of the studied rivers: Gandak, Ghaghra, and Sone were observed. During monsoon, several water quality parameters show considerable changes due to increased runoff from the catchments and other seasonal factors. Multivariate discriminant analysis delineated a few parameters responsible for temporal variation in water quality. Seasonal variation in water quality of the Gandak River was rendered by seven parameters-turbidity, sulfate, pH, phosphate, water temperature, total alkalinity, and sodium, while total alkalinity and water temperature were responsible for seasonal discrimination in water quality of Ghaghra River. Water temperature, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, and phosphate were important for seasonal discrimination in water quality of Sone River. The seasonal changes in water quality of the rivers were due to seasonal effects and catchment characteristics. The discriminant functions classified most of the cases correctly. PMID:20443137

  12. Ecomorphological correlates of twenty dominant fish species of Amazonian floodplain lakes.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Souza, F K; Bayer, C; Caldas, W H; Cardoso, D C; Yamamoto, K C; Freitas, C E C

    2016-07-11

    Fishes inhabiting Amazonian floodplain lakes exhibits a great variety of body shape, which was a key advantage to colonize the several habitats that compose these areas adjacent to the large Amazon rivers. In this paper, we did an ecomorphological analysis of twenty abundant species, sampled in May and August 2011, into two floodplain lakes of the lower stretch of the Solimões River. The analysis detected differences among species, which could be probably associated with swimming ability and habitat use preferences. PMID:27409231

  13. Colorado River Water Availability Assessment Under Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarberry, A. J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Prairie, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Colorado River is ruled by a complex system of agreements and regulations that fully allocate its resources. During the drought from 2000 to 2008, decision makers and stakeholders began to question the abilities of existing operating procedures to handle such events; and whether dry events were historically common. A recent study found that a scenario of 20% reduction in the mean annual Colorado River flow due to climate change by 2057 resulted in a nearly 10-fold increase in the probability of annual reservoir depletion by 2057. That study also suggested that flexibility in current management practices could mitigate some of the increased risk from climate change-induced reductions in flows. The general approach of past studies has been to model and generate streamflow scenarios under climate change that are then driven through decision and management models of water resources systems to quantify the risk and reliability of various aspects of the system. Management alternatives are considered to improve the reliability to a desired level under streamflow variability. The methodology used by previous studies assumed that the projected demand growth is a given and that it has to be met in the future. We are of the opinion that this need not be the case, which motivates the present study. To this end an assessment of water availability in the basin was performed using a simple heuristic model under different climate scenarios for the available storage capacity and minimum storage requirements. From the simulations, using the predicted future levels of demand of 13.5 and 14.4 MAF as per current agreements in the basin and the current consumptive use of 12.7 MAF, the key findings are that (i) The reliability of meeting a demand of 13.5 MAF, decreases from 99% to 94% for natural climate variability and a 20% reduction in mean streamflow due to climate change, respectively; and, (ii) For a demand of 14.4 MAF, the reliability decreases from 97% to 70%. However, for

  14. Colonization of overlaying water by bacteria from dry river sediments.

    PubMed

    Fazi, Stefano; Amalfitano, Stefano; Piccini, Claudia; Zoppini, Annamaria; Puddu, Alberto; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2008-10-01

    We studied the diversity, community composition and activity of the primary microbial colonizers of the water above freshly re-wetted sediments from a temporary river. Dried sediments, collected from Mulargia River (Sardinia, Italy), were covered with sterile freshwater in triplicate microcosms, and changes of the planktonic microbial assemblage were monitored over a 48 h period. During the first 9 h bacterial abundance was low (1.5 x 10(4) cells ml(-1)); it increased to 3.4 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) after 28 h and did not change thereafter. Approximately 20% of bacteria exhibited DNA de novo synthesis already after 9 h of incubation. Changes of the ratios of (3)H-leucine to (3)H-thymidine incorporation rates indicated a shift of growth patterns during the experiment. Extracellular enzyme activity showed a maximum at 48 h with aminopeptidase activity (430.8 +/- 22.6 nmol MCA l(-1) h(-1)) significantly higher than alkaline phosphatase (98.6 +/- 4.3 nmol MUF l(-1) h(-1)). The primary microbial colonizers of the overlaying water - as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis - were related to at least six different phylogenetic lineages of Bacilli and to Alphaproteobacteria (Brevundimonas spp. and Caulobacter spp.). Large bacterial cells affiliated to one clade of Bacillus sp. were rare in the dried sediments, but constituted the majority of the planktonic microbial assemblage and of cells with detectable DNA-synthesis until 28 h after re-wetting. Their community contribution decreased in parallel with a rise of flagellated and ciliated protists. Estimates based on cell production rates suggested that the rapidly enriched Bacillus sp. suffered disproportionally high loss rates from selective predation, thus favouring the establishment of a more heterogenic assemblage of microbes (consisting of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacteria). Our results suggest that the primary microbial colonizers of the water above dried sediments are passively released

  15. Water requirement of vegetation and infiltration method for determining the ecological water requirement of dried-up rivers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lan; Zhang, Ya; Peng, Jing; Qi, Chaolong; Huang, Jinhui; Liu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    Many rivers in the region of northwest China are drying up, and the ecological environment is getting worse. Studying methods of calculating the ecological water requirement (EWR) for dried-up rivers will help to slow down the deterioration of the ecological environment and conserve biodiversity. The water requirement of vegetation and infiltration (WRVI) method is proposed in this paper. This method focuses on dried-up rivers and takes the water requirement of vegetation and river bed infiltration into consideration. This is different from the conventional methods, which only focus on the rivers that have a flow rate. Due to drying, the ecological environment is worsening year by year in the lower reaches of the Zhang River in the Haihe River Basin in northwest China. This river is used as an example to determine the EWR, and the results are compared with another method. The results show that the WRVI method can calculate the EWR more accurately by considering various factors in different years and months for dried-up rivers.

  16. Water surface slope spectra in nearshore and river mouth environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxague, N. J. M.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    With the ever-growing interest in satellite remote sensing, direct observations of short wave characteristics are needed along coastal margins. These zones are characterized by a diversity of physical processes that can affect sea surface topography. Here we present connections made between ocean wave spectral shape and wind forcing in coastal waters using polarimetric slope sensing and eddy covariance methods; this is based on data collected in the vicinity of the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) on the Oregon-Washington border. These results provide insights into the behavior of short waves in coastal environments under variable wind forcing; this characterization of wave spectra is an important step towards improving the use of radar remote sensing to sample these dynamic coastal waters. High wavenumber spectral peaks are found to appear for U 10 > 6 m/s but vanish for τ > 0.1 N/m2, indicating a stark difference between how wind speed and wind stress are related to the short-scale structure of the ocean surface. Near-capillary regime spectral shape is found to be less steep than in past observations and to show no discernable sensitivity to wind forcing.

  17. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Molson, John; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min-1h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ(18)O-H2O) as well as those of nitrate (δ(15)N-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-NO3(-)) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes--mainly photosynthesis and respiration--were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological processes that control the diurnal changes. High

  18. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Molson, John; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min-1h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ(18)O-H2O) as well as those of nitrate (δ(15)N-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-NO3(-)) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes--mainly photosynthesis and respiration--were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological processes that control the diurnal changes. High

  19. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Density currents in the Chicago River: Characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Carlos M.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.

  1. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The 72.4-square-mile Upper Wood River study area is in the Pawcatuck River basin in southern Rhode Island. Stratified drift is the only principal geologic unit capable of producing yields greater than 0.5 Mgal/d. Transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from 7,600 to 49,200 sq ft/d. Water-table conditions prevail and the aquifer is in good hydraulic connection with perennial streams and ponds. Groundwater and surface water in the study area are generally suitable for most uses. Water is soft, slightly acidic, and contains less than 150 mg/L dissolved solids. Locally, however, groundwater has been contaminated with nitrate, chloride, and volatile organic compounds. A model of the groundwater-flow system was used to evaluate the effect of alternative schemes of groundwater development on water levels, pond levels, and streamflow. Till contacts were simulated as specified-flux boundaries, drainage divides as no-flow boundaries, and streams as leaky boundaries. The areas most favorable for development of 1 Mgal/d are along the Flat and Wood Rivers. From 50 to 65 percent of the water withdrawn from wells would be derived from induced recharge. Results of simulation of development alternatives indicate that the groundwater reservoir could sustain withdrawals of 6 to 12 Mgal/d from 11 wells under long-term average annual (1942-89) and simulated drought (1963-66) conditions without causing water-level declines of greater than 25 percent of the unstressed saturated thickness of the aquifer. Pumping 12 Mgal/d, however, would reduce flow of the Wood River at the basin outlet by an amount almost equal to the 7-day, 10-yr low flow of 20.4 cu ft/s.

  2. Use of Superposition Models to Simulate Possible Depletion of Colorado River Water by Ground-Water Withdrawal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Greer, William; Watt, Dennis; Weghorst, Paul

    2008-01-01

    According to the 'Law of the River', wells that draw water from the Colorado River by underground pumping need an entitlement for the diversion of water from the Colorado River. Consumptive use can occur through direct diversions of surface water, as well as through withdrawal of water from the river by underground pumping. To develop methods for evaluating the need for entitlements for Colorado River water, an assessment of possible depletion of water in the Colorado River by pumping wells is needed. Possible methods include simple analytical models and complex numerical ground-water flow models. For this study, an intermediate approach was taken that uses numerical superposition models with complex horizontal geometry, simple vertical geometry, and constant aquifer properties. The six areas modeled include larger extents of the previously defined river aquifer from the Lake Mead area to the Yuma area. For the modeled areas, a low estimate of transmissivity and an average estimate of transmissivity were derived from statistical analyses of transmissivity data. Aquifer storage coefficient, or specific yield, was selected on the basis of results of a previous study in the Yuma area. The USGS program MODFLOW-2000 (Harbaugh and others, 2000) was used with uniform 0.25-mile grid spacing along rows and columns. Calculations of depletion of river water by wells were made for a time of 100 years since the onset of pumping. A computer program was set up to run the models repeatedly, each time with a well in a different location. Maps were constructed for at least two transmissivity values for each of the modeled areas. The modeling results, based on the selected transmissivities, indicate that low values of depletion in 100 years occur mainly in parts of side valleys that are more than a few tens of miles from the Colorado River.

  3. Method to identify wells that yield water that will be replaced by Colorado River water in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Richard P.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1994-01-01

    Accounting for the use of Colorado River water is required by the U.S. Supreme Court decree, 1964, Arizona v. California. Water pumped from wells on the flood plain and from certain wells on alluvial slopes outside the flood plain is presumed to be river water and is accounted for as Colorado River water. A method was developed to identify wells outside the f1ood plain of the lower Colorado River that yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. The method provides a uniform criterion of identification for all users pumping water from wells. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. Wells that have a static water-level elevation above the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from precipitation and inflow from tributary valleys. The method is based on the concept of a river aquifer and an accounting surface within the river aquifer. The river aquifer consists of permeable, partly saturated sediments and sedimentary rocks that are hydraulically connected to the Colorado River so that water can move between the river and the aquifer in response to withdrawal of water from the aquifer or differences in water-level elevations between the river and the aquifer. The accounting surface represents the elevation and slope of the unconfined static water table in the river aquifer outside the flood plain and reservoirs that would exist if the river were the only source of water to the river aquifer. Maps at a scale of 1:100,000 show the extent and elevation of the accounting surface from the area surrounding Lake Mead to Laguna Dam near Yuma, Arizona.

  4. Understanding Surface water Ground water Interactions in Arkansas-Red River Basin using Coupled Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2006-12-01

    Subsurface water exists primarily as groundwater and also in small quantity as soil water in the unsaturated zone. This soil water plays a vital role in the hydrologic cycle by supporting plant growth, regulating the amount of water lost to evapo-transpiration and affecting the surface water groundwater interaction to a certain extent. As such, the interaction between surface water and groundwater is complex and little understood. This study aims at investigating the surface water groundwater interaction in the Arkansas-Red river basin, using a coupled modeling platform. For this purpose, an ecohydrological model (SWAP) has been coupled with the groundwater model (MODFLOW). Inputs to this coupled model are collected from NEXRAD precipitation data at a resolution of ~4 km, meteorological forcings from Oklahoma mesonet and NCDC sites, STATSGO soil property data, LAI (Leaf Area Index) data from MODIS at a resolution of ~1 km, and DEM (Digital Elevation Model). For numerical modeling, a spatial resolution of ~1 km and a temporal resolution of one day is used. The modeled base flow and total groundwater storage change would be tested using ground water table observation data. The modeled ground water storage is further improved using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data at a resolution of ~400 km, with the help of appropriate data assimilation technique.

  5. Water quality analysis of River Yamuna using water quality index in the national capital territory, India (2000-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Kansal, Arun

    2011-12-01

    River Yamuna, in the national capital territory (NCT), commonly called Delhi (India), has been subjected to immense degradation and pollution due to the huge amount of domestic wastewater entering the river. Despite the persistent efforts in the form of the Yamuna Action Plan phase I and II (YAP) (since 1993 to date), the river quality in NCT has not improved. The restoration of river water quality has been a major challenge to the environmental managers. In the present paper, water quality index (WQI) was estimated for the River Yamuna within the NCT to study the aftereffects of the projects implemented during YAP I and II. The study was directed toward the use of WQI to describe the level of pollution in the river for a period of 10 years (2000-2009). The study also identifies the critical pollutants affecting the river water quality during its course through the city. The indices have been computed for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season at four locations, namely Palla, ODRB, Nizamuddin and Okhla in the river. It was found that the water quality ranged from good to marginal category at Palla and fell under poor category at all other locations. BOD, DO, total and fecal coliforms and free ammonia were found to be critical parameters for the stretch.

  6. Mapping Water Vulnerability of the Yangtze River Basin: 1994-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fengyun; Kuang, Wenhui; Xiang, Weining; Che, Yue

    2016-11-01

    A holistic understanding of the magnitude and long-term trend of water vulnerability is essential for making management decisions in a given river basin. Existing procedures to assess the spatiotemporal dynamic of water vulnerability in complex mega-scale river basins are inadequate; a new method named ensemble hydrologic assessment was proposed in this study, which allows collection of data and knowledge about many aspects of water resources to be synthesized in a useful way for vulnerability assessment. The objective of this study is to illustrate the practical utility of such an integrated approach in examining water vulnerability in the Yangtze River Basin. Overall, the results demonstrated that the ensemble hydrologic assessment model could largely explain the spatiotemporal evolution of water vulnerability. This paper improves understanding of the status and trends of water resources in the Yangtze River Basin.

  7. Impact of informal regulation of pollution on water quality in rivers in India.

    PubMed

    Goldar, Bishwanath; Banerjee, Nandini

    2004-11-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to assess the impact of informal regulation of water pollution on water quality in Indian rivers. For this purpose, an econometric analysis of determinants of water quality in Indian rivers is carried out using water quality (water class) data for 106 monitoring points on 10 important rivers for five years, 1995-1999. To explain variations in water quality, an Ordered Probit model is estimated, in which poll percentage in parliamentary elections, a proxy for the intensity of informal regulation, is taken as one of the main explanatory variables. Rainfall, industrialization, irrigation intensity and fertilizer use are some of the other explanatory variables used in the model to control for the influence of these factors. As expected, river water quality is found to be positively related with rainfall, and negatively related with industrialization, irrigation intensity and fertilizer use. A significant positive relationship is found between poll percentage and water quality, and also between the rate of increase in literacy level in a district and the water quality in rivers flowing through the district. These results point to a significant favorable effect of informal regulation of pollution on water quality in rivers in India. PMID:15380317

  8. Impact of informal regulation of pollution on water quality in rivers in India.

    PubMed

    Goldar, Bishwanath; Banerjee, Nandini

    2004-11-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to assess the impact of informal regulation of water pollution on water quality in Indian rivers. For this purpose, an econometric analysis of determinants of water quality in Indian rivers is carried out using water quality (water class) data for 106 monitoring points on 10 important rivers for five years, 1995-1999. To explain variations in water quality, an Ordered Probit model is estimated, in which poll percentage in parliamentary elections, a proxy for the intensity of informal regulation, is taken as one of the main explanatory variables. Rainfall, industrialization, irrigation intensity and fertilizer use are some of the other explanatory variables used in the model to control for the influence of these factors. As expected, river water quality is found to be positively related with rainfall, and negatively related with industrialization, irrigation intensity and fertilizer use. A significant positive relationship is found between poll percentage and water quality, and also between the rate of increase in literacy level in a district and the water quality in rivers flowing through the district. These results point to a significant favorable effect of informal regulation of pollution on water quality in rivers in India.

  9. Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhutiani, R.; Khanna, D. R.; Kulkarni, Dipali Bhaskar; Ruhela, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    The river Ganges is regarded as one of the most holy and sacred rivers of the world from time immemorial. The evaluation of river water quality is a critical element in the assessment of water resources. The quality/potability of water that is consumed defines the base line of protection against many diseases and infections. The present study aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) by the analysis of sixteen physico-chemical parameters on the basis of River Ganga index of Ved Prakash, weighted arithmetic index and WQI by National sanitation foundation (NSF) to assess the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation purposes and other human uses. These three water quality indices have been used to assess variation in the quality of the River Ganga at monitored locations over an 11-year period. Application of three different indexes to assess the water quality over a period of 11 years shows minor variations in water quality. Index values as per River Ganga Index by Ved Prakash et al. from 2000 to 2010 ranged between medium to good, Index values as per NSF Index for years 2000-2010 indicate good water quality, while Index values as per the weighted arithmetic index method for the study period indicate poor water quality.

  10. Catchment scale analysis on river-return ratio of irrigation water from densely developed paddy areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Masumoto, T.; Horikawa, N.; Kudo, R.; Minakawa, H.; Nawa, N.

    2013-12-01

    Irrigation in Japan is predominantly used for rice cultivation, and it accounts for 70% of total water withdrawal. Water loss, which is attributable to nature of open channel irrigation system and percolation from fields, leads to relatively low irrigation efficiencies compared with ones for upland crops. However, because part of water gradually returns to rivers (river-return flow), it contributes to stable water use in downstream. This study investigated how irrigation water circulates and returns to rivers, and quantified a ratio of river-return flow to irrigation intake for an irrigation area (river-return ratio). One difficulty in river-return flow analysis lies in the fact that two types of flow pathways exist in an irrigation area; natural rivers that drain water from the areas, and channel networks whose directions do not necessarily coincide with river directions. In addition, outflux from irrigation area is consisted of water from different sources, such as water loss during water allocation, rainfall, irrigation, and influx from adjacent upstream areas. To cope with such difficulties, we used a grid-based distributed water circulation model that represents both catchment scale hydrological cycles and water flows related to irrigation channel network. The model calculates water flow for irrigation networks based on a GIS database of water use facilities. The model also incorporates operation rules for facilities and field level water management. Using the modeled river network, we first identify grid-cells where influx and outflux occurs across boundaries of irrigation areas. Then, to eliminate the effect of influx from adjacent upstream areas, we subtract influx from outflux. This makes us to capture outflux that purely originates in rainfall and irrigation within an irrigated area. Next, we separate the amount of outflux that originates in irrigation from the total amount of outflux. As residence time of each flow pathway had not been clarified yet, we

  11. Final Opportunity to Rehabilitate an Urban River as a Water Source for Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A.; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A.; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973–2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008–2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City. PMID:25054805

  12. Final opportunity to rehabilitate an urban river as a water source for Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973-2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008-2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City.

  13. Final opportunity to rehabilitate an urban river as a water source for Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973-2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008-2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City. PMID:25054805

  14. [Relationship between groundwater level in riparian wetlands and water level in the river].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Meng, Hong-Qi; Xu, Zong-Xue; Ma, Chao-Hong

    2011-02-01

    The development and degradation processes of riparian wetlands are significantly affected by river hydrological processes. By observing the variation of groundwater levels in riparian wetlands at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially that during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between groundwater level in riparian wetlands and flood water level in the river is studied. The results show that groundwater level in riparian wetlands is significantly affected by water level in the river investigated. There is a negative exponential relationship between groundwater level and the distance between wells and river. The correlation coefficient shows the maximum (R2 > 0.98) during the period of regulation for water and sediment. Affected by the cultivation system in the flooding area, distance between monitoring wells and river bank, water level in the river variation of groundwater level in the wetland changed greatly. In artificial wetland, which is far from the river, the inter-annual variation in groundwater levels show a " (see symbol)" shape, while in the farmland, which is close to the river, the inter-annual variation of groundwater levels show a big peak. The groundwater level 400 m from the river is affected by flood events obviously, that in the area which is less than 200 m from the river is significantly affected by flood events in the area which is especially less than that in the area that is less than 100 m from the river, the groundwater level is affected by flood events intensively. The result indicated that there was a very close relationship between groundwater and surface water, and it was the hydrological ecotone between groundwater of riparian wetlands and the river. It is very important that rational protection for this region (very important for the area which is less than 100 m from the river, important for the area that is between 100 m and 200 m from the river) is

  15. Association of calcium with colloidal particles and speciation of calcium in the Kalix and Amazon rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, Ralf; Benedetti, Marc F.; Andersson, Karen; Turner, David; Larsson, Tobias; Stolpe, Björn; Ingri, Johan

    2004-10-01

    A considerable amount of colloidally bound Ca has been detected in water samples from Amazonian rivers and the Kalix River, a sub-arctic boreal river. Fractionation experiments using several analytical techniques and processing tools were conducted in order to elucidate the matter. Results show that on average 84% of the total Ca concentration is present as free Ca. Particulate, colloidal and complexed Ca constitute the remaining 16%, of which the colloidal fraction is significant. Ultrafiltration experiments show that the colloidal fraction in the sampled Amazonian rivers and the Kalix River range between 1% and 25%. In both the Amazonian and the Kalix rivers the technique of cross-flow ultrafiltration was used to isolate particles and colloids. The difference in concentration measured with ICP-AES and a Ca ion-selective electrode in identical samples was used to define the free Ca concentration and thus indirectly the magnitude of the particulate, colloidal and complexed fractions. Results from the Kalix and Amazonian rivers are in excellent agreement. Furthermore, the results show that the colloidal concentrations of Ca can be greatly overestimated (up to 227%) when conventional analysis and calculation of ultrafiltration data is used due to retention of free Ca ions during the ultrafiltration process. Calculation methods for colloidal matter are presented in this work, using complementary data from ISE analysis. In the Kalix River temporal changes in the fractionation of Ca were studied before, during and after a spring-flood event. Changes in the size distribution of colloidally associated Ca was studied using FlFFF (Flow Field-Flow Fractionation) coupled on-line to a HR ICP-MS. The FlFFF-HR ICP-MS fractograms clearly show the colloidal component of Ca, supporting the ultrafiltration findings. During winter conditions the size distribution of colloidally associated Ca has a concentration maximum at ˜5 to 10 nm in diameter, shifting to smaller sizes (<5 nm

  16. Hypoxic environments as refuge against predatory fish in the Amazonian floodplains.

    PubMed

    Anjos, M B; De Oliveira, R R; Zuanon, J

    2008-02-01

    Several groups of Amazonian fishes exhibit behavioral, morphological and physiological characteristics that allow occupying hypoxic environments, despite the energetic costs of living in such harsh conditions. One of the supposed advantages of occupying hypoxic habitats would be a lower predation pressure resulting from a lower number of piscivorous fishes in those environments. We tested this hypothesis in an area of the Amazon River floodplain through gill net fishing in normoxic and hypoxic habitats. From the 103 species caught, 38 were classified as piscivores. We found no difference in the number of piscivorous species captured in hypoxic and normoxic habitats (chi2 = 0.23; p = 0.63; df = 1) but piscivorous individuals were more numerous in normoxic than in hypoxic sampling stations (chi2 = 104.4; p < 0.001; df = 1). This indicates that environments submitted to low oxygen conditions may in fact function as refuges against piscivorous fishes in the Amazonian floodplains.

  17. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Mateusz; Dopieralska, Jolanta; Belka, Zdzislaw; Walczak, Aleksandra; Siepak, Marcin; Jakubowicz, Michal

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows (87)Sr/(86)Sr values around 0.7104-0.7105. Variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32mg/L. We find that strong variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the "baseline" for bioavailable (87)Sr/(86)Sr in the past.

  18. [Hydrochemical Characteristics of Snow Meltwater and River Water During Snow-melting Period in the Headwaters of the Ertis River, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Wu, Jin-kui; Shen, Yong-ping; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Shi-wei; Zhou, Jia-xin

    2016-04-15

    To analyze the hydrochemical characteristics of river water and snow meltwater during snow-melting period in the Kayiertesi River, the headwaters of the Ertis River, samples of river water and meltwater were collected every day during March and April, 2014. Furthermore, the combination of descriptive statistics, Gibbs Figure and Piper Triangular diagrams of anions and cations were used for hydrochemical analyses. The results showed that the major ion compositions and hydrochemical types were significantly different between river water and snow meltwater. The total dissolved solid (TDS) in the river water ranged from 24.9 to 50.3 mg · L⁻¹. The major cations of river water were Ca²⁺ and Na⁺, accounting for 61% and 17% of the total cation equivalent concentration, respectively. Meanwhile, HCO₃⁻ constituted about 95% of the total anions concentration. The hydrochemical type of river water was HCO₃⁻-Ca²⁺. The chemical composition of river water samples located in the middle with a deviation to left of Gibbs model, indicating that the major chemical process of river water was controlled by rock weath ring and precipitation but rock weathering played a more important role. PMID:27548955

  19. [Hydrochemical Characteristics of Snow Meltwater and River Water During Snow-melting Period in the Headwaters of the Ertis River, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Wu, Jin-kui; Shen, Yong-ping; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Shi-wei; Zhou, Jia-xin

    2016-04-15

    To analyze the hydrochemical characteristics of river water and snow meltwater during snow-melting period in the Kayiertesi River, the headwaters of the Ertis River, samples of river water and meltwater were collected every day during March and April, 2014. Furthermore, the combination of descriptive statistics, Gibbs Figure and Piper Triangular diagrams of anions and cations were used for hydrochemical analyses. The results showed that the major ion compositions and hydrochemical types were significantly different between river water and snow meltwater. The total dissolved solid (TDS) in the river water ranged from 24.9 to 50.3 mg · L⁻¹. The major cations of river water were Ca²⁺ and Na⁺, accounting for 61% and 17% of the total cation equivalent concentration, respectively. Meanwhile, HCO₃⁻ constituted about 95% of the total anions concentration. The hydrochemical type of river water was HCO₃⁻-Ca²⁺. The chemical composition of river water samples located in the middle with a deviation to left of Gibbs model, indicating that the major chemical process of river water was controlled by rock weath ring and precipitation but rock weathering played a more important role.

  20. Transport and fate of river waters under flood conditions and rim current influence: the Mississippi River test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, Villy; Androulidakis, Yannis

    2013-04-01

    Large river plumes are a major supplier of freshwater, sediments and nutrients in coastal and shelf seas. Novel processes controlling the transport and fate of riverine waters (and associated materials) will be presented, under flood conditions and in the presence of complex topography, ambient shelf circulation and slope processes, controlled by the interaction with rim currents. The Mississippi River (MR) freshwater outflow is chosen as a test case, as a major circulation forcing mechanism for the Northern Gulf of Mexico and a unique river plume for the intense interactions with a large scale ocean current, namely the Loop Current branch of the Gulf Stream, and associated eddy field. The largest MR outflow in history (45,000 m3/sec in 2011) is compared with the second largest outflow in the last 8 years (41,000 m3/sec in 2008). Realistically forced simulations, based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) with careful treatment of river plume dynamics and nested to a data assimilated, basin-wide model, reveal the synergistic effect of enhanced discharge, winds, stratification of ambient shelf waters and offshore circulation over the transport of plume waters. The investigation targets a broader understanding of the dynamics of large scale river plumes in general, and of the MR plume in particular. In addition, in situ observations from ship surveys and satellite chl-a data showed that the mathematical simulations with high temporal resolution river outflow input may reproduce adequately the buoyant waters spreading over the Northern Gulf of Mexico shelf and offshore areas. The fate of the river plume is strongly determined and affected by deep basin processes. The strong impacts of the Loop Current system (and its frontal eddies) on river plume evolution are of particular importance under conditions of increased offshore spreading, which is presumed under large discharge rates and can cause loss of riverine materials to the basin interior. Flood conditions

  1. Method to identify wells that yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River downstream from Laguna Dam in Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Wilson, Richard P.; Carpenter, Michael C.; Fink, James B.

    2000-01-01

    Accounting for the use of Colorado River water is required by the U.S. Supreme Court decree, 1964, Arizona v. California. Water pumped from wells on the flood plain and from certain wells on alluvial slopes outside the flood plain is presumed to be river water and is accounted for as Colorado River water. The accounting-surface method developed for the area upstream from Laguna Dam was modified for use downstream from Laguna Dam to identify wells outside the flood plain of the lower Colorado River that yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. Use of the same method provides a uniform criterion of identification for all users pumping water from wells by determining if the static water-level elevation in the well is above or below the elevation of the accounting surface. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation above the accounting surface are presumed to yield river water stored above river level. The method is based on the concept of a river aquifer and an accounting surface within the river aquifer. The river aquifer consists of permeable sediments and sedimentary rocks that are hydraulically connected to the Colorado River so that water can move between the river and the aquifer in response to withdrawal of water from the aquifer or differences in water-level elevations between the river and the aquifer. The subsurface limit of the river aquifer is the nearly impermeable bedrock of the bottom and sides of the basins that underlie the Yuma area and adjacent valleys. The accounting surface represents the elevation and slope of the unconfined static water table in the river aquifer outside the flood plain of the Colorado River that would exist if the river were the only source of water to the river aquifer. The accounting surface was generated by using water

  2. [Uncertainty analysis of water environmental capacity in the nonpoint source polluted river].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Jin, Pei-jian; Shen, Ye-na; Shi, Yi-ming; Gong, Dong-qin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for river water environmental capacity (WEC) and the statistical analysis of the measured hydrological and water quality variables, a uncertainty analysis method for the WEC in nonpoint source polluted river was developed, which included the sensitivity analysis for input parameters of the model and the probability distributions analysis for the WEC using Monte Carlo simulation approach. The method, which described the uncertainty derived from the adopted information of the river system and the randomicity from the occurrence of nonpoint source pollution, could provide different WEC combined with reliabilities for different hydrological seasons. As a case study, the total nitrogen (TN) WEC in the Changle River located in southeast China was calculated using the method. Results indicated that the TN WEC with 90% of reliability were 487.9, 949.8 and 1392.8 kg x d(-1) in dry season, average season and flood season, respectively, and the dilution effect of river water flow accounted for the main content of WEC. In order to satisfy water quality target of the river, about 1258.3-3591.2 kg x d(-1) of current TN quantity that entered into the river should be reduced in watershed, and the largest reducing quantity of TN was occurred during flood season. The uncertainty method, which reflected hydrology and water quality variations in the nonpoint source polluted river, provided a more reliable and efficient method for the WEC calculation.

  3. [Major ion chemistry of surface water in the Xilin River Basin and the possible controls].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xi-Wen; Wu, Jin-Kui

    2014-01-01

    Under the increasing pressure of water shortage and steppe degradation, information on the hydrological cycle in the steppe region in Inner Mongolia is urgently needed. Major ions are widely used to identify the hydrological processes in a river basin. Based on the analysis results of 239 river water samples collected in 13 sections along the Xilin River system during 2006 to 2008, combined with data from groundwater and precipitation samples collected in the same period and the meteorological and hydrological data in the Xilin River Basin, hydrochemical characteristics and the chemistry of major ions of the Xilin River water have been studied by means of Piper triangle plots and Gibbs diagrams. The results showed that: (1) the total dissolved solid (TDS) in river water mainly ranged between 136.7 mg x L(-1) and 376.5 mg x L(-1), and (2) it had an increasing trend along the river flow path. (3) The major cations and anions of river water were Ca2+ and HCO3-, respectively, and the chemical type of the river water varied from HCO3- -Ca2+ in the headwater area to HCO(3-)-Ca2+ Mg2+ in the lower part. (4) The variation in the concentration of major irons in surface water was not significant at the temporal scale. Usually, the concentration values of major irons were much higher in May than those in other months during the runoff season, while the values were a bit lower in 2007 than those in 2006 and 2008. Except for SO4(2-), the concentrations of other ions such as Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, Cl- and HCO3- showed a upward trend along the river flow path. Comparing major ion concentrations of the river water with those of local groundwater and precipitation, the concentration in river water was between those of precipitation and groundwater but was much closer to the concentration of groundwater. This indicated that the surface water was recharged by a mixture of precipitation and groundwater, and groundwater showed a larger impact. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical

  4. [Major ion chemistry of surface water in the Xilin River Basin and the possible controls].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xi-Wen; Wu, Jin-Kui

    2014-01-01

    Under the increasing pressure of water shortage and steppe degradation, information on the hydrological cycle in the steppe region in Inner Mongolia is urgently needed. Major ions are widely used to identify the hydrological processes in a river basin. Based on the analysis results of 239 river water samples collected in 13 sections along the Xilin River system during 2006 to 2008, combined with data from groundwater and precipitation samples collected in the same period and the meteorological and hydrological data in the Xilin River Basin, hydrochemical characteristics and the chemistry of major ions of the Xilin River water have been studied by means of Piper triangle plots and Gibbs diagrams. The results showed that: (1) the total dissolved solid (TDS) in river water mainly ranged between 136.7 mg x L(-1) and 376.5 mg x L(-1), and (2) it had an increasing trend along the river flow path. (3) The major cations and anions of river water were Ca2+ and HCO3-, respectively, and the chemical type of the river water varied from HCO3- -Ca2+ in the headwater area to HCO(3-)-Ca2+ Mg2+ in the lower part. (4) The variation in the concentration of major irons in surface water was not significant at the temporal scale. Usually, the concentration values of major irons were much higher in May than those in other months during the runoff season, while the values were a bit lower in 2007 than those in 2006 and 2008. Except for SO4(2-), the concentrations of other ions such as Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, Cl- and HCO3- showed a upward trend along the river flow path. Comparing major ion concentrations of the river water with those of local groundwater and precipitation, the concentration in river water was between those of precipitation and groundwater but was much closer to the concentration of groundwater. This indicated that the surface water was recharged by a mixture of precipitation and groundwater, and groundwater showed a larger impact. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical

  5. Water Resources Data - Texas, Water Year 2001, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 30 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 40 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 6 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  6. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 23 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 47 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  7. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 37 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 39 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; elevation at 29 lakes and reservoirs; content at 6 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality at 26 gaging stations. Also included are data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  9. Water resources data - Texas water year 2002 : Volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 63 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 35 gaging stations; and data for 8 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 2 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  10. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 3. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  11. History of water quality parameters - a study on the Sinos River/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konzen, G B; Figueiredo, J A S; Quevedo, D M

    2015-05-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI) from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM) covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  12. History of water quality parameters - a study on the Sinos River/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konzen, G B; Figueiredo, J A S; Quevedo, D M

    2015-05-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI) from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM) covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one. PMID:26270207

  13. Remotely mapping river water quality using multivariate regression with prediction validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Christopher Lyle; Autry, Bradley C.

    2005-07-01

    Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of mapping river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to predict river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these predictions. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were predicted in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality maps. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate prediction results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.

  14. Living Water. Eno River State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Scott; Woods, Martha

    This learning packet, one in a series of eight, was developed by the Eno River State Park in North Carolina for Grades 5-6 to teach about various aspects of water life on the Eno River. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Park System, the Eno River State Park, and to the…

  15. Comparison of 2006-2007 Water Years and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solberg, P.A.; Moore, Bryan; Smits, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2006 and 2007. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2006 and 2007 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  16. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  17. Reconnaissance of the Pigeon River, a cold-water river in the north-central part of Michigan's southern peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, and trout fishing), but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resource for recreation and other demands, an analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Pigeon River is one of Michigan's outstanding trout streams and is the favorite of a large number of anglers who return year after year. Camping is also popular and is usually, but not always, associated with fishing. Boating is very rare on the Pigeon because of numerous portages around log jams. Cabin-living and resorting are relatively minor on this river as yet, but much of the private river front may be developed in future years.The Pigeon is located in the north-central part of the southern peninsula of Michigan (see index map). Headwaters are a few miles northeast of Gaylord, and the mouth is at Mullet Lake, a few miles northeast of Indian River. Interstate Highway 75 roughly parallels the river about 5 to 10 miles to the west. Exits from this highway at Gaylord, Vanderbilt, Wolverine, and Indian River, provide easy access to the Pigeon.The recreational value of the river depends on the streamflow characteristics, quality of water, and character of stream channel, and bed and banks. The purpose of this atlas is to describe these characteristics, and to show how they relate to recreational uses.Most of the information presented here was obtained from a field reconnaissance in June, 1966, and from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the main stem of the Pigeon from source to

  18. Reconnaissance of the Pere Marquette River, a cold water river in the central part of Michigan's Southern Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, and trout fishing) but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resource for recreation and other demands, an analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Pere Marquette, an outstanding river for brown and steelhead trout fishing, is also a popular canoe trail. Larger boats, some equipped with motors, are common in the lower reaches where the river is wide and deep. Cabins are abundant on the river near Baldwin but are relatively sparse elsewhere. The broad swampy floodplain that borders most of the river between Walhalla and Ludington apparently offers few favorable cabin sites.The Pere Marquette is located in the west-central part of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan, and flows westward from the headwaters near Chase in Lake County to the mouth at Ludington, in Mason County. The river is south of, and roughly parallel to, U.S. Highway 10 from Chase to Ludington. Access to the river is by roads leading south from U.S. 10 at Nirvana, Idlewild, Baldwin, Branch, Walhalla, Scottville, and many intermediate points.The recreational value of the river depends on the streamflow characteristics, quality of water, and character of stream channel and bed and banks. The purpose of this report is to describe these characteristics and show how they relate to recreational USGS.Most of the information presented here was obtained from a field reconnaissance in July and August, 1966, and from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the Middle Branch and

  19. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    DOE PAGES

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; Hammond, Glenn

    2016-03-04

    In this study, a well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time series trendsmore » for Uaq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in Uaq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized Uaq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While Uaq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.« less

  20. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; Hammond, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    A well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time series trends for Uaq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in Uaq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized Uaq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While Uaq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.

  1. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    DOE PAGES

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; Hammond, Glenn

    2016-03-04

    A well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. As a result of water tablemore » elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions, time series trends for Uaq and SpC were found to be complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in Uaq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized Uaq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. Moreover, while Uaq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.« less

  2. Water-quality assessment of the Sacramento River basin, California : water quality of fixed sites, 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Dileanis, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from 12 sites in the Sacramento River Basin, Cali-fornia, from February 1996 through April 1998. Field measurements (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and water tem-perature) were completed on all samples, and laboratory analyses were done for suspended sediments, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, and mercury species. Samples were collected at four types of locations on the Sacramento River?large tributaries to the Sacramento River, agricul-tural drainage canals, an urban stream, and a flood control channel. The samples were collected across a range of flow conditions representative of those sites during the timeframe of the study. The water samples from the Sacramento River indi-cate that specific conductance increases slightly downstream but that the water quality is indicative of dilute water. Water temperature of the Sacramento River increases below Shasta Lake during the spring and summer irrigation season owing to diversion of water out of the river and subsequent lower flow. All 12 sites had generally low concentrations of nutrients, but chlorophyll concentrations were not measured; therefore, the actual consequences of nutrient loading could not be adequately assessed. Concentrations of dis-solved organic carbon in samples from the Sacramento River and the major tributaries were generally low; the formation of trihalomethanes probably does not currently pose a problem when water from the Sacramento River and its major tributaries is chlorinated for drinking-water purposes. However, dissolved organic carbon concentrations were higher in the urban stream and in agricultural drainage canals, but were diluted upon mixing with the Sacramento River. The only trace element that currently poses a water-quality problem in the Sacramento River is mercury. A federal criterion for the protection of aquatic life was exceeded during this study, and floodwater

  3. Unravelling the life history of Amazonian fishes through otolith microchemistry.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Theodore W; Stewart, Donald J; Limburg, Karin E; Castello, Leandro

    2016-06-01

    Amazonian fishes employ diverse migratory strategies, but the details of these behaviours remain poorly studied despite numerous environmental threats and heavy commercial exploitation of many species. Otolith microchemistry offers a practical, cost-effective means of studying fish life history in such a system. This study employed a multi-method, multi-elemental approach to elucidate the migrations of five Amazonian fishes: two 'sedentary' species (Arapaima sp. and Plagioscion squamosissimus), one 'floodplain migrant' (Prochilodus nigricans) and two long-distance migratory catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii and B. filamentosum). The Sr : Ca and Zn : Ca patterns in Arapaima were consistent with its previously observed sedentary life history, whereas Sr : Ca and Mn : Ca indicated that Plagioscion may migrate among multiple, chemically distinct environments during different life-history stages. Mn : Ca was found to be potentially useful as a marker for identifying Prochilodus's transition from its nursery habitats into black water. Sr : Ca and Ba : Ca suggested that B. rousseauxii resided in the Amazon estuary for the first 1.5-2 years of life, shown by the simultaneous increase/decrease of otolith Sr : Ca/Ba : Ca, respectively. Our results further suggested that B. filamentosum did not enter the estuary during its life history. These results introduce what should be a productive line of research desperately needed to better understand the migrations of these unique and imperilled fishes. PMID:27429777

  4. Residence times and mixing of water in river banks: implications for recharge and groundwater-surface water exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.

    2014-12-01

    Bank exchange processes within 50 m of the Tambo River, southeast Australia, have been investigated through the combined use of 3H and 14C. Groundwater residence times increase towards the Tambo River, which suggests the absence of significant bank storage. Major ion concentrations and δ2H and δ18O values of bank water also indicate that bank infiltration does not significantly impact groundwater chemistry under baseflow and post-flood conditions, suggesting that the gaining nature of the river may be driving the return of bank storage water back into the Tambo River within days of peak flood conditions. The covariance between 3H and 14C indicates the leakage and mixing between old (~17 200 years) groundwater from a semi-confined aquifer and younger groundwater (<100 years) near the river, where confining layers are less prevalent. It is likely that the upward infiltration of deeper groundwater from the semi-confined aquifer during flooding limits bank infiltration. Furthermore, the more saline deeper groundwater likely controls the geochemistry of water in the river bank, minimising the chemical impact that bank infiltration has in this setting. These processes, coupled with the strongly gaining nature of the Tambo River are likely to be the factors reducing the chemical impact of bank storage in this setting. This study illustrates the complex nature of river groundwater interactions and the potential downfall in assuming simple or idealised conditions when conducting hydrogeological studies.

  5. Analysis of water quality in the Blue River watershed, Colorado, 1984 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Miller, Lisa D.; Yacob, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Water quality of st