Science.gov

Sample records for ambient air sampling

  1. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  2. A method for sampling halothane and enflurane present in trace amounts in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Burm, A G; Spierdijk, J

    1979-03-01

    A method for the sampling of small amounts of halothane and enflurane in ambient air is described. Sampling is performed by drawing air through a sampling tube packed with Porapak Q, which absorbs the anesthetic agent. The amount absorbed is determined by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. This method can be used for "spot" or personal sampling or for determining mean whole-room concentrations over relatively long periods (several hours).

  3. A STRINGENT COMPARISON OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets we...

  4. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  5. Report on sampling and analysis of ambient air at the central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    Over 160 ambient indoor air samples were collected from warehouses at the Central Waste Complex used for the storage of low- level radioactive and mixed wastes. These grab (SUMMA) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data from this survey suggest that several buildings had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  6. COMPARISON OF FAST GC/TOFMS WITH METHOD TO-14 FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies using portable gas chromatographs (PGC) to analyze volatile organic compounds in ambient air usually include, as reference standard method, the analysis of concurrent, collocated canister samples by EPA Method TO-14. Each laboratory analysis takes about an hour a...

  7. Air flow assisted ionization for remote sampling of ambient mass spectrometry and its application.

    PubMed

    He, Jiuming; Tang, Fei; Luo, Zhigang; Chen, Yi; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Ruiping; Wang, Xiaohao; Abliz, Zeper

    2011-04-15

    Ambient ionization methods are an important research area in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Under ambient conditions, the gas flow and atmospheric pressure significantly affect the transfer and focusing of ions. The design and implementation of air flow assisted ionization (AFAI) as a novel and effective, remote sampling method for ambient mass spectrometry are described herein. AFAI benefits from a high extracting air flow rate. A systematic investigation of the extracting air flow in the AFAI system has been carried out, and it has been demonstrated not only that it plays a role in the effective capture and remote transport of charged droplets, but also that it promotes desolvation and ion formation, and even prevents ion fragmentation during the ionization process. Moreover, the sensitivity of remote sampling ambient MS analysis was improved significantly by the AFAI method. Highly polar and nonpolar molecules, including dyes, pharmaceutical samples, explosives, drugs of abuse, protein and volatile compounds, have been successfully analyzed using AFAI-MS. The successful application of the technique to residue detection on fingers, large object analysis and remote monitoring in real time indicates its potential for the analysis of a variety of samples, especially large objects. The ability to couple this technique with most commercially available MS instruments with an API interface further enhances its broad applicability.

  8. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  9. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort.

  10. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  11. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  12. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X. N.; Xie, Z. Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L. B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  13. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities

    PubMed Central

    Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Di Stefano, Emma; Schmitz, Debra A.; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Salinas, Erika M.; Nasser, Elina; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse health effects of PM2.5 and vapor samples from three communities that neighbor railyards, Commerce (CM), Long Beach (LB), and San Bernardino (SB), were assessed by determination of chemical reactivities attributed to the induction of oxidative stress by air pollutants. The assays used were dithiothreitol (DTT) and dihydrobenzoic acid (DHBA) based procedures for prooxidant content and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) assay for electrophiles. Prooxidants and electrophiles have been proposed as the reactive chemical species responsible for the induction of oxidative stress by air pollution mixtures. The PM2.5 samples from CM and LB sites showed seasonal differences in reactivities with higher levels in the winter whereas the SB sample differences were reversed. The reactivities in the vapor samples were all very similar, except for the summer SB samples, which contained higher levels of both prooxidants and electrophiles. The results suggest the observed reactivities reflect general geographical differences rather than direct effects of the railyards. Distributional differences in reactivities were also observed with PM2.5 fractions containing most of the prooxidants (74–81%) and the vapor phase most of the electrophiles (82–96%). The high levels of the vapor phase electrophiles and their potential for adverse biological effects point out the importance of the vapor phase in assessing the potential health effects of ambient air. PMID:25947123

  14. Aqueous photooxidation of ambient Po Valley Italy air samples: Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Sullivan, A. P.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.; Collett, J. L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Turpin, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we conducted aqueous photooxidation experiments with ambient samples in order to develop insights concerning the formation of secondary organic aerosol through gas followed by aqueous chemistry (SOAaq). Water-soluble organics (e.g., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone) are formed through gas phase oxidation of alkene and aromatic emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. Their further oxidation in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols can form lower volatility products (e.g., oligomers, organic acids) that remain in the particle phase after water evaporation, thus producing SOA. The aqueous OH radical oxidation of several individual potentially important precursors has been studied in the laboratory. In this work, we used a mist-chamber apparatus to collect atmospheric mixtures of water-soluble gases from the ambient air at San Pietro Capofiume, Italy during the PEGASOS field campaign. We measured the concentration dynamics after addition of OH radicals, in order to develop new insights regarding formation of SOA through aqueous chemistry. Specifically, batch aqueous reactions were conducted with 33 ml mist-chamber samples (TOC ~ 50-100μM) and OH radicals (~10-12M) in a new low-volume aqueous reaction vessel. OH radicals were formed in-situ, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS +/-), and ESI-MS with IC pre-separation (IC/ESI-MS-). Reproducible formation of pyruvate and oxalate were observed both by IC and ESI-MS. These compounds are known to form from aldehyde oxidation in the aqueous phase. New insights regarding the aqueous chemistry of these "more atmospherically-realistic" experiments will be discussed.

  15. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  16. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenz-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cubic meter ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C-12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cubic meter and sub-pg/cubic meter levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured.

  17. Biochemical and cellular effects of electrophiles present in ambient air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Noriko; Nishiyama, Akira; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Hinds, William; Kumagai, Yoshito; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.; Shinyashiki, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    Ambient vapor-phase samples collected in Riverside, California had shown that both redox and electrophilic activity were present, with the vapor phase containing higher levels of electrophiles than the particle phase. In this study, the biochemical effects of the vapor-phase electrophiles were examined using the purified thiol proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and KELCH-1 like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). The results demonstrated that the thiol proteins were inactivated by the vapor-phase samples through covalent modifications. Next, two cellular responses, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), to the ambient vapor-phase samples were assessed in A549 and RAW 264.7 cell lines, respectively. The vapor-phase samples, at non-oxidative concentrations, increased phosphorylation of EGFR, which is negatively regulated by PTP1B, and its downstream MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Activation of Nrf2, which requires Keap1 alkylation, and expression of its downstream proteins were also observed. The electrophilic compounds present in ambient vapor-phase were shown to modify cellular proteins through covalent modification and to activate diverse cellular responses that can lead to inflammatory and adaptive responses.

  18. Monitoring of ozone precursors in ambient air using pumped and diffusive sampling on the sorbent Carbopack X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Paul; Butterfield, David; D'Souza, Hansa; Henderson, Malcolm

    EU legislation for ambient ozone concentrations puts a requirement on Member States to monitor a large set of ozone precursor species, mostly hydrocarbons. We describe an investigation into how much of this information is readily available from manual methods used routinely for benzene monitoring in the United Kingdom, using pumped or diffusive sampling of ambient air onto the sorbent Carbopack X, followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector. Identifiable peaks were assessed for reliability by comparison with independent automated measurements and emissions inventories. We conclude that 21 of the 29 specified hydrocarbons can be usefully monitored without any change to the methods used.

  19. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured. Background levels of these compounds in the ambient air were also determined. Total PCDDs, PCDFs, TBDFs, and PeBDFs were detected in a low concentration range of 0.3 to 3.0 pg/cu m.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE FILTER PACK FOR LONG-DURATION SAMPLING OF AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week filter pack (FP) sampler evaluation field study was conducted at a site near Bondville, IL to investigate the impact of weekly sampling duration. Simultaneous samples were collected using collocated filter packs (FP) from two independent air quality monitoring networks...

  1. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V{sub b}) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel`s color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber.

  3. A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BOISE, IDAHO, AMBIENT AIR FINE PARTICLE SAMPLES USING THE PLATE AND MICROSUSPENSION SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study is to characterize the genotoxic potential of the ambient air aerosols collected within an air shed impacted primarily by wood smoke and automotive emissions. The study also examines the relative merits of a microsuspension assay and the standa...

  4. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per μL. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision. PMID:22934885

  5. Determination of trichloroanisole and trichlorophenol in wineries' ambient air by passive sampling and thermal desorption-gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Bermúdez-Peinado, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ruíz-García, J; Vílchez-Quero, J L

    2015-02-01

    The present paper describes the calibration of selected passive samplers used in the quantitation of trichlorophenol and trichloroanisole in wineries' ambient air, by calculating the corresponding sampling rates. The method is based on passive sampling with sorbent tubes and involves thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis. Three commercially available sorbents were tested using sampling cartridges with a radial design instead of axial ones. The best results were found for Tenax TA™. Sampling rates (R-values) for the selected sorbents were determined. Passive sampling was also used for accurately determining the amount of compounds present in the air. Adequate correlation coefficients between the mass of the target analytes and exposure time were obtained. The proposed validated method is a useful tool for the early detection of trichloroanisole and its precursor trichlorophenol in wineries' ambient air while avoiding contamination of wine or winery facilities.

  6. Stationary source sampling report: Ambient and source volatile organic compound testing, Production air stripper unit 1 (PASU-1) and pilot air stripper (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-05

    Tests were performed to measure the ambient concentrations of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the A/M area and to determine, for compliance purposes, the emissions and concentrations of those compounds issued from the Production Air Stripper Unit 1 (PASU-1) column and from the Pilot Air Stripper (PAS) column.

  7. Final work plan : indoor air and ambient air sampling near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Everest, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2010-05-24

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at the western edge of Everest, Kansas, from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Sampling by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in 1997 resulted in the detection of carbon tetrachloride in one domestic well (the Nigh well) northwest of the former facility. On behalf of the CCC/USDA, Argonne National Laboratory subsequently conducted a series of investigations to characterize the contamination (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b,c). Automatic, continuous monitoring of groundwater levels began in 2002 and is ongoing at six locations. The results have consistently indicated groundwater flow toward the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA property to the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property to the intermittent creek. Sitewide periodic groundwater and surface water sampling with analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) began in 2008. Argonne's combined data indicate no significant downgradient extension of contamination since 2000. At present, the sampling is annual, as approved by the KDHE (2009) in response to a plan developed for the CCC/USDA (Argonne 2009). This document presents a plan for collecting indoor air samples in homes located along and adjacent to the defined extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The plan was requested by the KDHE. Ambient air samples to represent the conditions along this pathway will also be taken. The purpose of the proposed work is to satisfy KDHE requirements and to collect additional data for assessing the risk to human health due to the potential upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and its primary degradation product (chloroform) into homes located in close proximity to the former grain storage facility, as well as along and within 100 ft laterally from the currently defined plume emanating from the former Everest facility. Investigation of the indoor air

  8. PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB in the ambient air of a tropical Andean city: passive and active sampling measurements near industrial and vehicular pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Cortés, J; González, C M; Morales, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E; Aristizábal, B H

    2014-09-01

    Concentration gradients were observed in gas and particulate phases of PCDD/F originating from industrial and vehicular sources in the densely populated tropical Andean city of Manizales, using passive and active air samplers. Preliminary results suggest greater concentrations of dl-PCB in the mostly gaseous fraction (using quarterly passive samplers) and greater concentrations of PCDD/F in the mostly particle fraction (using daily active samplers). Dioxin-like PCB predominance was associated with the semi-volatility property, which depends on ambient temperature. Slight variations of ambient temperature in Manizales during the sampling period (15°C-27°C) may have triggered higher concentrations in all passive samples. This was the first passive air sampling monitoring of PCDD/F conducted in an urban area of Colombia. Passive sampling revealed that PCDD/F in combination with dioxin-like PCB ranged from 16 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near industrial sources to 7 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in an intermediate zone-a reduction of 56% over 2.8 km. Active sampling of particulate phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB were analyzed in PM10 samples. PCDD/F combined with dl-PCB ranged from 46 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near vehicular sources to 8 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in the same intermediate zone, a reduction of 83% over 2.6 km. Toxic equivalent quantities in both PCDD/F and dl-PCB decreased toward an intermediate zone of the city. Variations in congener profiles were consistent with variations expected from nearby sources, such as a secondary metallurgy plant, areas of concentrated vehicular emissions and a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). These variations in congener profile measurements of dioxins and dl-PCBs in passive and active samples can be partly explained by congener variations expected from the various sources.

  9. Quantification of VX vapor in ambient air by liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometric analysis of glass bead filled sampling tubes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ronald A; Smith, Wendy L; Nguyen, Nam-Phuong; Crouse, Kathy L; Crouse, Charles L; Norman, Steven D; Jakubowski, E Michael

    2011-02-15

    An analysis method has been developed for determining low parts-per-quadrillion by volume (ppqv) concentrations of nerve agent VX vapor actively sampled from ambient air. The method utilizes glass bead filled depot area air monitoring system (DAAMS) sampling tubes with isopropyl alcohol extraction and isotope dilution using liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS) with positive ion electrospray ionization for quantitation. The dynamic range was from one-tenth of the worker population limit (WPL) to the short-term exposure limit (STEL) for a 24 L air sample taken over a 1 h period. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated using liquid-spiked tubes, and the collection characteristics of the DAAMS tubes were assessed by collecting trace level vapor generated in a 1000 L continuous flow chamber. The method described here has significant improvements over currently employed thermal desorption techniques that utilize a silver fluoride pad during sampling to convert VX to a higher volatility G-analogue for gas chromatographic analysis. The benefits of this method are the ability to directly analyze VX with improved selectivity and sensitivity, the injection of a fraction of the extract, quantitation using an isotopically labeled internal standard, and a short instrument cycle time.

  10. Tabulations of ambient ozone data obtained by GASP (Global Air Sampling Program) airliners, March 1975 to July 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Tabulations are given of GASP ambient ozone mean, standard deviation, median, 84th percentile, and 98th percentile values, by month, flight level, and geographical region. These data are tabulated to conform to the temporal and spatial resolution required by FAA Advisory Circular 120-38 (monthly by 2000 ft in altitude by 5 deg in latitude) for climatological data used to show compliance with cabin ozone regulations. In addition seasonal x 10 deg latitude tabulations are included which are directly comparable to and supersede the interim GASP ambient ozone tabulations given in appendix B of FAA-EE-80-43 (NASA TM-81528). Selected probability variations are highlighted to illustrate the spatial and temporal variability of ambient ozone and to compare results from the coarse and fine grid analyses.

  11. Carbonaceous species methods comparison study at Citrus College. Task: analysis for trace hydrocarbons and related halocarbons in urban ambient air samples. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    As part of the ARB-sponsored Carbonaceous Species Methods Comparison Study (CSMCS) in Glendora, CA, from August 11-21, 1986, time-integrated, ambient samples were collected in stainless steel canisters. Five samples per day were collected, ranging from 4 to 8 hours according to the CSMCS protocol. The species measured included CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and the C/sub 2/ through C10 hydrocarbons. In addition, N/sub 2/O, the halocarbons F-12, F-11, F-113, CHCl/sub 3/, CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/, CCl/sub 4/, C/sub 2/HCl/sub 3/ and C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ were measured. Four gas-chromatograph systems were used to quantify these species. The report contains tables of concentrations of the species measured at the South Coast Air Basin site during smoggy summer conditions.

  12. Performances and application of a passive sampling method for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, H; Sagnier, I; Saison, J Y; Galloo, J C; Guillermo, R

    2002-11-01

    The performances and applicability of a diffusion tube sampler for the simultaneous measurements of NO2 and SO2 in ambient air were evaluated. SO2 and NO2 are collected by the passive sampler using triethanolamine as trapping agent and are determined as sulphate and nitrite with ion chromatography. The detection limit (2.3 microg m(-3) of NO2 and 4.2 microg m(-3) of SO2 for two weeks sampling) is adequate for the determination of concentrations in urban and industrial areas. Precision of the method as RSD is in mean 5% for NO2 and 12% for SO2 at the concentration levels in urban areas. Calibration of the method was performed in the field conditions by comparison between the responses of sampler and the concentrations measured by the continuous monitors. High degree of linearity (correlation coefficients > 0.8) is found between the passive sampler tube and the continuous monitor data for both NO2 and SO2. To reduce the wind velocity influence on passive sampling of diffusion tubes, a protective shelter was tested in this study. The overall uncertainty of one measure for the optimised method is estimated at 5 microg m(-3) for NO2 and 6 microg m(-3) for SO2. Suitability of this passive sampling method for air pollution monitoring in urban areas was demonstrated by the results shown in this paper on a campaign carried out in the French agglomeration.

  13. Passive air sampling for determining the levels of ambient PCDD/Fs and their seasonal and spatial variations and inhalation risk in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yajun; Nie, Zhiqiang; Tian, Shulei; Liu, Feng; He, Jie; Yang, Yufei; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Fang, Yanyan; Huang, Qifei

    2015-09-01

    The seasonal and spatial variations, compositional profiles, and possible sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air samples in Shanghai of China were investigated by passive air samplers, and the potential inhalation risks posed by these chemicals were evaluated. The following results were obtained: (1) The World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency (TEQ) values for PCDD/Fs were in the range of 10.8-259 fg m(-3) (mean 63.4 fg m(-3)) in summer and 24.1-154 fg m(-3) (mean 83.4 fg m(-3)) in winter. Atmospheric PCDD/F levels were in the following order: industrial areas > commercial and residential areas > rural areas. (2) 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (24 %), 2,3,7,8-TeCDD (16 %), 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD (13 %), and 2,3,7,8-TeCDF (12 %) were the predominant contributors to the TEQ of PCDD/Fs. (3) There was a slight seasonal trend with higher TEQ values in winter than in summer, which could be related to seasonal variations in the dispersion of PCDD/Fs in ambient air. (4) The children's daily intake was at the lower end of the range for the tolerable daily intake of PCDD/Fs recommended by WHO, which indicates that the inhalation risk of PCDD/Fs for local residents in Shanghai is relatively low.

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  15. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  16. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  17. MAPPING DISSEMINATION OF CHEMICAL AFTER DISPERSIVE EVENTS USING AN AMBIENT-AIR, SURFACE SAMPLING TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals are dispersed by numerous accidental, deliberate, or weather-related events. Often, rapid analyses are desired to identify dispersed chemicals and to delineate areas of contamination. Hundreds of wipe samples might be collected from outdoor surfaces or building interi...

  18. Determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air by use of a passive sampling technique and triethanolamine as absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Krochmal, D.; Gorski, L. )

    1991-03-01

    The effects of temperature, humidity, and storage on a diffusive sampler were tested by use of the Amaya-Sugiura method, modified previously. Several materials were used as carriers for triethanolamine in the sampler. The mass of NO{sub 2} absorbed in the sampler was determined spectrophotometrically as nitrite by using Saltzman solution. The collection efficiency of the sampler was lower than that calculated from Fick's law of diffusion due to significant contribution of liquid phase in the overall sampler diffusive resistance. This resulted in an increase of the mass of NO{sub 2} absorbed in the sampler by ca. 20% per 10{degree}C of temperature growth and by ca. 25% when the relative humidity rose from 0 to 100%. Dependence of concentration of TEA solution in the sampler on the relative humidity of the air was noted. The relative precision of the method characterized by RSD was 10%; the detection limit of NO{sub 2} was 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for a 24-h exposure.

  19. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  20. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  1. METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

  2. VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR NEAR WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning on September 22, 2001 and continuing through February 2002, ambient air samples were collected at three sites within a block of ground zero and at a fourth site on the 16th floor of a building at 290 Broadway. Grab samples were collected in evacuated, electro-polished...

  3. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  4. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  5. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  6. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  7. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  8. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  9. Carbonyl atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeyer, Genevieve; Aschmann, Sara M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    To convert gaseous carbonyls to oximes during sampling, an XAD-4 resin denuder system pre-coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and followed by analysis with methane positive chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure carbonyls in ambient air samples in Riverside, CA. In conjunction with similar analyses of environmental chamber OH radical-initiated reactions of o- and p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 1,4-butanediol, we identified benzaldehyde, o-, m- and p-tolualdehyde and acetophenone and the dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal, biacetyl, ethylglyoxal, 1,4-butenedial, 3-hexene-2,5-dione, 3-oxo-butanal, 1,4-butanedial and malonaldehyde in the ambient air samples. As discussed, these carbonyls and dicarbonyls can be formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere, and we conclude that in situ atmospheric formation is a major source of these carbonyls in our Riverside, CA, ambient air samples.

  10. Quality Control for Ambient Sampling of PCDD/PCDF from Open Combustion Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both long duration (> 6 h) and high temperature (up to 139o C) sampling efforts were conducted using ambient air sampling methods to determine if either high volume throughput or higher than ambient sampling temperatures resulted in loss of target polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/d...

  11. Cardiovascular Effects of Nickel in Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, Morton; Ito, Kazuhiko; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Maciejczyk, Polina; Chen, Lung-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Background Fine particulate matter (FPM) in ambient air causes premature mortality due to cardiac disease in susceptible populations. Objective Our objective in this study was to determine the most influential FPM components. Methods A mouse model of atherosclerosis (ApoE−/−) was exposed to either filtered air or concentrated FPM (CAPs) in Tuxedo, New York (85 μg/m3 average, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 6 months), and the FPM elemental composition was determined for each day. We also examined associations between PM components and mortality for two population studies: National Mortality and Morbidity Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) and Hong Kong. Results For the CAPs-exposed mice, the average of nickel was 43 ng/m3, but on 14 days, there were Ni peaks at ~ 175 ng/m3 and unusually low FPM and vanadium. For those days, back-trajectory analyses identified a remote Ni point source. Electrocardiographic measurements on CAPs-exposed and sham-exposed mice showed Ni to be significantly associated with acute changes in heart rate and its variability. In NMMAPS, daily mortality rates in the 60 cities with recent speciation data were significantly associated with average Ni and V, but not with other measured species. Also, the Hong Kong sulfur intervention produced sharp drops in sulfur dioxide, Ni, and V, but not other components, corresponding to the intervention-related reduction in cardiovascular and pulmonary mortality. Conclusions Known biological mechanisms cannot account for the significant associations between Ni with the acute cardiac function changes in the mice or with cardiovascular mortality in people at low ambient air concentrations; therefore, further research is needed. PMID:17107850

  12. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  13. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  14. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  15. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  16. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  17. Ambient air quality monitoring plan, Cumberland Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.E. Jr.; Carter, R.V.

    1981-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted ambient air quality monitoring at Cumberland Steam Plant since 1971. The monitoring network was operated to collect background air quality information prior to plant startup (1972) and to document ambient air quality after the plant reached full operating levels in 1973. This monitoring plan presents a new network design for Cumberland Steam Plant.

  18. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-10-31

    This interim report summarizes detailed findings and conclusions drawn from evaluations of data obtained from the operation of ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the Upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data. A summary of the sampling activities, sample analyses and the correlation and interpretation of data acquired from February 1999 through March of 2001 are reported. Mass and speciated data from urban and rural sources are compared and seasonal variations in PM{sub 2.5} distribution are also examined. Correlations between meteorological parameters and total PM{sub 2.5} mass are also presented.

  19. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-10-31

    This interim report summarizes detailed findings and conclusions drawn from evaluations of data obtained from the operation of ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the Upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data. A summary of the sampling activities, sample analyses and the correlation and interpretation of data acquired from February 1999 through March of 2001 are reported. Mass and speciated data from urban and rural sources are compared and seasonal variations in PM{sub 2.5} distribution are also examined. Correlations between meteorological parameters and total PM{sub 2.5} mass are also presented.

  20. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  1. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  2. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  3. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicity

    Abstract
    Mutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  4. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  5. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  6. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  7. Methyl- and dimethyl-/ethyl-nitronaphthalenes measured in ambient air in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisen, Fabienne; Wheeler, Stephanie; Arey, Janet

    Naphthalene and alkylnaphthalenes are abundant semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in ambient air as a result of emissions from combustion sources. At ambient temperatures, these PAHs can undergo atmospheric gas-phase reactions with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. We report here on environmental chamber reactions simulating ambient photooxidation of volatilized diesel fuel PAHs and demonstrate for the first time that dimethylnitronaphthalenes and/or ethylnitronaphthalenes identified as formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of alkyl-PAHs present in diesel fuel are also present in ambient air samples collected in Southern California.

  8. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  9. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  10. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  11. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  12. Sources of volatile organic compounds in Cairo's ambient air.

    PubMed

    Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

    2009-10-01

    The greater Cairo area suffers from extreme levels of gas and particulate phase air pollutants. In order to reduce the levels of ambient pollution, the USAID and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) have supported the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP). As part of this project, two intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 22 to March 4 and October 27 to November 27, 1999. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. During the February/March study, samples were collected daily, while in the October/November study samples were collected every other day. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. High levels of NMHC were observed at all locations. NMHC concentrations ranged from 365 ppb C at Helwan to 1,848 ppb C at El Qualaly during winter, 1999 and from 461 ppb C at Kaha to 2,037 ppb C at El Qualaly during fall, 1999. El Qualaly, the site chosen to represent mobile emissions, displayed the highest average NMHC concentrations of any site, by a factor of 2 or more. The highest mobile source contributions were estimated at this site. The major contributors to NMHC at all sites were mobile emissions, lead smelting, and compressed natural gas. PMID:18843549

  13. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin.

  14. A Study on the Air flow outside Ambient Vaporizer Fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, G.; Lee, T.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we interpreted Fog's Fluid that appear in the Ambient Vaporizer and predict the point of change Air to Fog. We interpreted using Analysis working fluid was applied to LNG and Air. We predict air flow when there is chill of LNG in the air Temperature and that makes fog. Also, we interpreted based on Summer and Winter criteria in the air temperature respectively. Finally, we can check the speed of the fog when fog excreted.

  15. Swine production impact on residential ambient air quality.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Stéphane; Lemay, Stéphane P; Duchaine, Caroline; Pelletier, Frédéric; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Belzile, Martin; Feddes, John J R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous residents in agricultural areas are concerned about the impact that the swine industry may have on the ambient air quality. They assume there is a risk because there is limited information on the airborne contaminant that may originate from these facilities. The objective of the project was to assess the impact of swine production on ambient air quality related to public health in farming communities. Of the six chosen communities, three were considered not to be in a swine production area, whereas the three others were considered to be within a swine production area. Data were collected during three periods in spring and summer 2006. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were monitored on a continuous basis whereas odor concentrations and intensities were monitored twice a week. Odor concentrations were measured by dynamic olfactometry and odor intensities were determined by trained odor assessors. Public health was evaluated by survey questionnaires sent to a sample of residents in each of the six communities. Average NH(3) concentrations ranged from 6.9 to 12.6 ppb for nonexposed communities and from 8.9 to 18.3 ppb for exposed communities. Average H(2)S concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 ppb for nonexposed communities and from 1.1 to 1.6 ppb for exposed communities. For a community in a swine production area, ambient NH(3) and H(2)S concentrations were found to be higher than those communities not in a swine production area; however, that difference was not significant and they were within air quality standards for public health and safety. Odor concentrations showed no significant difference between the nonexposed and exposed communities and between evening and morning periods. Odor intensities were found to be significantly higher in the communities within swine production areas. More research will be required to fully understand the correlation between specific physical symptoms from residents and the presence of odors from swine production.

  16. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  19. Determination of methane in ambient air by multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.; Phillips, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A multiplex gas chromatographic technique for the determination of methane in ambient air over extended periods is reported. A modest gas chromatograph which uses air as the carrier gas was modified by adding a silver oxide sample modulator for multiplex operation. The modulator selectively catalyzes the decomposition of methane in air. The resulting analytical system requires no consumables beyond power. A profile of the methane concentration in this laboratory was obtained for an 8-day period. During this period, methane concentration varied with an approximately daily period from a low of 1.53 + or - 0.60 ppm to a high of 4.63 + or - 0.59 ppm over the entire 8 days. Some of the measured concentrations are higher than those reported elsewhere indicating the presence of some local source or sources for methane. This work has demonstrated the utility of a relatively simple multiplex gas chromatograph for the analysis of environmental samples. The technique should be applicable to other trace components in air through use of other selective modulators.

  20. Determination of methane in ambient air by multiplex gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Valentin, J R; Carle, G C; Phillips, J B

    1985-05-01

    A multiplex gas chromatographic technique for the determination of methane in ambient air over extended periods is reported. A modest gas chromatograph which uses air as the carrier gas was modified by adding a silver oxide sample modulator for multiplex operation. The modulator selectively catalyzes the decomposition of methane in air. The resulting analytical systems requires no consumables beyond power. A profile of the methane concentration in this laboratory was obtained for an 8-day period. During this period, methane concentration varied with an approximately daily period from a low of 1.53 +/- 0.60 ppm to a high of 4.63 +/- 0.59 ppm over the entire 8 days. Some of the measured concentrations are higher than those reported elsewhere indicating the presence of some local source or sources for methane. This work has demonstrated the utility of a relatively simple multiplex gas chromatograph for the analysis of environmental samples. The technique should be applicable to other trace components in air through use of other selective modulators. PMID:11536559

  1. Direct measurements of HONO and NO2 by tunable infrared differential absorption spectroscopy; Results from two field campaigns sampling aircraft exhaust and ambient urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl radicals (OH), the main oxidizing agent in the atmosphere. However, gaseous HONO has historically proven difficult to measure accurately and to date there is no standard technique. We describe a new instrument capable of high-frequency measurements of HONO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) mixing ratios by tunable infrared differential absorption spectrometry. Mid-infrared light from two continuous-wave mode quantum cascade lasers traverse a 210 m path through a multi-pass astigmatic cell at reduced pressures for the direct detection of HONO (1660 cm-1) and NO2 (1604 cm-1). We achieve an absorbance precision less than 3×10-6 Hz-1 in one second, which translates to detection limits (S/N=3) of 300 and 30 ppt for HONO and NO2, respectively, in one second. Both lasers and the detector are thermoelectrically cooled, facilitating long-term unattended measurements. We also report preliminary results from two field campaigns; the Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment (AAFEX) and the Study of Houston Air Radical Precursors (SHARP). At AAFEX, HONO emission ratios relative to CO2 and NOy observed in commercial aircraft exhaust are larger than in most other combustion sources and likely to play a significant role in regional HOx chemistry. Preliminary analysis from the SHARP campaign shows good agreement in HONO and NO2 levels between various measurement techniques.

  2. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Columbia EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated: April 30, 2012. Lisa P... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National...

  3. A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong

    2005-08-01

    This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO 2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO 2 concentrations in various sampling sites. The sampler is simple, lightweight, and inexpensive. The experiments are suitable for college students in analytical chemistry and environmental studies.

  4. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Defects in Brisbane, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Craig A.; Barnett, Adrian G.; Jalaludin, Bin B.; Morgan, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998–2004). Methods Ambient air pollution levels were averaged over weeks 3–8 of pregnancy among 150,308 births. Using a case–control design, we used conditional logistic regression and matched cases to 5 controls. Analyses were conducted using all births, and then births where the mother resided within 6 and 12 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor. Findings When analyzing all births there was no indication that ambient air pollution in Brisbane was associated with a higher risk of cardiac defects. Among births where the mother resided within 6 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor, a 5 ppb increase in O3 was associated with an increased risk of pulmonary artery and valve defects (OR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.34, 7.52) while a 0.6 ppb increase in SO2 was associated with an increased risk of aortic artery and valve defects (OR 10.76, 95% CI: 1.50, 179.8). For oral cleft defects among all births, the only adverse association was between SO2 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.62). However, various significant inverse associations were also found between air pollutants and birth defects. Conclusions This study found mixed results and it is difficult to conclude whether ambient air pollution in Brisbane has an adverse association with the birth defects examined. Studies using more detailed estimates of air pollution exposure are needed. PMID:19404385

  5. Simple and accurate quantification of BTEX in ambient air by SPME and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Baimatova, Nassiba; Kenessov, Bulat; Koziel, Jacek A; Carlsen, Lars; Bektassov, Marat; Demyanenko, Olga P

    2016-07-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) comprise one of the most ubiquitous and hazardous groups of ambient air pollutants of concern. Application of standard analytical methods for quantification of BTEX is limited by the complexity of sampling and sample preparation equipment, and budget requirements. Methods based on SPME represent simpler alternative, but still require complex calibration procedures. The objective of this research was to develop a simpler, low-budget, and accurate method for quantification of BTEX in ambient air based on SPME and GC-MS. Standard 20-mL headspace vials were used for field air sampling and calibration. To avoid challenges with obtaining and working with 'zero' air, slope factors of external standard calibration were determined using standard addition and inherently polluted lab air. For polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber, differences between the slope factors of calibration plots obtained using lab and outdoor air were below 14%. PDMS fiber provided higher precision during calibration while the use of Carboxen/PDMS fiber resulted in lower detection limits for benzene and toluene. To provide sufficient accuracy, the use of 20mL vials requires triplicate sampling and analysis. The method was successfully applied for analysis of 108 ambient air samples from Almaty, Kazakhstan. Average concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were 53, 57, 11 and 14µgm(-3), respectively. The developed method can be modified for further quantification of a wider range of volatile organic compounds in air. In addition, the new method is amenable to automation. PMID:27154647

  6. BOREAS TGB-7 Ambient Air Herbicide and Organochlorine Concentration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, Don; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB)-7 team measured the concentration and flux of several agricultural pesticides in air, rainwater, and dry deposition samples in order to determine the associated yearly deposition rates. This data set contains information on the ambient air concentration of seven herbicides [2,4- dichlorophenoxyacidic_acid (2,4-D), bromoxynil, dicamb, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), triallate, trifluralin, and diclop-methyl] known to appear in the atmosphere of the Canadian prairies. Also, the concentration of three herbicides (atrazine, alachlor, and metolachlor), two groups of insecticides (lindane and breakdown products and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and breakdown products), and several polychlorinated biphenyls commonly used in the central United States was measured. All of these chemicals are reported, in the literature, to be transported in the atmosphere. Many have been reported to occur in boreal and arctic food chains. The sampling was carried out from 16-Jun to 13-Aug-1993 and 04-May to 20-Jul-1994 at the BOREAS site in the Prince Albert National Park (Waskesiu). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  7. 78 FR 63933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... conditions for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) that are consistent with the 2013 National Ambient Air... is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on...

  8. Indoor/ambient residential air toxics results in rural western Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F; Adams, Earle

    2009-06-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 volatile organic compounds (including 14 hazardous air pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the 'Air Toxics Under the Big Sky' program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/Western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student's homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations.

  9. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated: November 8, 2011. Lisa... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air... establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb)...

  10. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  11. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day. PMID:25428501

  12. Relative Humidity and its Effect on Sampling and Analysis of Agricultural Odorants in Air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source and ambient air sampling techniques used in agricultural air quality studies are seldom validated for the variability in the air matrix (temperature, dust levels, and relative humidity). In particular, relative humidity (RH) affects both field sampling and analysis of air samples. The objec...

  13. Influence of ambient air pressure on effervescent atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. K.; Lefebvre, A. H.; Rollbuhler, J.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of ambient air pressure on the drop-size distributions produced in effervescent atomization is examined in this article. Also investigated are the effects on spray characteristics of variations in air/liquid mass ratio, liquid-injection pressure, and atomizer discharge-orifice diameter at different levels of ambient air pressure. It is found that continuous increase in air pressure above the normal atmospheric value causes the mean drop-size to first increase up to a maximum value and then decline. An explanation for this characteristic is provided in terms of the various contributing factors to the overall atomization process. It is also observed that changes in atomizer geometry and operating conditions have little effect on the distribution of drop-sizes in the spray.

  14. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  15. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  16. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ..., that revised the NAAQS for lead and associated ambient air lead monitoring requirements (73 FR 66964... revisions to the requirements for both source-oriented and non-source-oriented monitoring for lead (74 FR... 1.0 tpy as part of the October 2008 lead NAAQS revisions (73 FR 66964, codified at 40 CFR part...

  17. Evaluation of methodology for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and 13C12-1234-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hours to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with 13C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to clean-up procedures using microcolumns of silica gel, alumina and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from this study satisfied QA/QC requirements for analytical data and demonstrated that the methodology could accurately determine pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of these compounds in ambient air. Background levels detected in ambient air are also discussed.

  18. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  19. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  20. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  1. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This report summarizes observations and tentative conclusions drawn from evaluations of the data captured to date from the operation of the ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data.

  2. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter from passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, D

    1989-01-01

    Using our measurement results on particulate emissions from passenger cars we have calculated ambient air concentrations for various US and European scenarios. This was carried out with the help of mathematical dispersion models for different traffic situations including street canyons and motorways. We have been very conservative in our choice of the scenarios, i.e. we have always used situations in which there are very high stress levels (e.g. constantly high traffic flow instead of average traffic flow). Finally, the thus determined air concentrations are compared with the corresponding air quality standard available from the literature.

  3. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter from passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, D

    1989-01-01

    Using our measurement results on particulate emissions from passenger cars we have calculated ambient air concentrations for various US and European scenarios. This was carried out with the help of mathematical dispersion models for different traffic situations including street canyons and motorways. We have been very conservative in our choice of the scenarios, i.e. we have always used situations in which there are very high stress levels (e.g. constantly high traffic flow instead of average traffic flow). Finally, the thus determined air concentrations are compared with the corresponding air quality standard available from the literature. PMID:2484034

  4. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards...

  5. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards...

  6. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards...

  7. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient... CFR Part 81 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated... National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  8. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kai; Ye, You-hua; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Ai-jun; Peng, Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown a downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper. PMID:17915706

  9. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  10. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Particulate Matter; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  11. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  12. Air-Plasma Bullets Propagating Inside Microcapillaries and in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoste, Deanna A.; Bourdon, Anne; Kuribara, Koichi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    We report on the characterization of air-plasma bullets formed inside microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets are produced by nanosecond discharges, applied at 1 kHz in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode consists of a tungsten wire with a 50- μm diameter, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode is a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The gap distance is kept constant at 1.35 mm. The microcapillary is fed with a 4-sccm flow of air at atmospheric pressure. In the tubes and in ambient air, the propagation of air plasma bullets is observed. The temporal evolution of the bullet propagation has been studied with the aid of an ICCD camera. The effect of the applied voltage (from 5.2 to 8.2 kV) and the inner diameter of the microcapillaries (from 100 to 500 μm) on the discharge dynamics are investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity (on the order of 1 to 5 ×105 ms-1) is only a function of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the air-plasma bullets propagate at a velocity of 1 . 25 ×105 ms-1. Possible mechanisms for the propagation of air-plasma bullets in ambient air are discussed.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  18. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  19. Assessment of ambient air quality in the port of Naples.

    PubMed

    Prati, Maria Vittoria; Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Quaranta, Franco; Murena, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Two experimental monitoring campaigns were carried out in 2012 to investigate the air quality in the port of Naples, the most important in southern Italy for traffic of passengers and one of the most important for goods. Therefore, it represents an important air pollution source located close to the city of Naples. The concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) in the air were measured at 15 points inside the Naples port area through the use of passive samplers. In addition, a mobile laboratory was positioned in a fixed point inside the port area to measure continuous concentration of pollutants together with particulate matter, ambient parameters, and wind direction and intensity. The pollution levels monitored were compared with those observed in the urban area of Naples and in other Mediterranean ports. Even though the observation time was limited, measured concentrations were also compared with limit values established by European legislation. All the measured pollutants were below the limits with the exception of nitrogen dioxide: its average concentration during the exposition time exceeded the yearly limit value. A spatial analysis of data, according to the measured wind direction and intensity, provided information about the effects that ship emissions have on ambient air quality in the port area. The main evidence indicates that ship emissions influence sulfur dioxide concentration more than any other pollutants analyzed. PMID:26029862

  20. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  1. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-04-30

    This is the third semi-annual technical progress report summarizing observations and tentative conclusions drawn from evaluations of the data captured to date from the operation of the ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data. In order to provide a ''stand alone'' document, this report contains updated versions of Section 1 (Introduction) and Section 2 (Experimental) in their entirety from the first report.

  2. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  3. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, André Augusto Miranda; Novaes, Priscila; Matsuda, Monique; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Monteiro, Mário Luiz Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  4. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. PMID:26024349

  5. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal.

  6. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.6 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the...

  7. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.16 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary...

  8. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.12 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and...

  9. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 (o)C) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user-friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source. PMID:26582511

  10. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-11-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 oC) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user-friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source.

  11. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 oC) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user–friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source. PMID:26582511

  12. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency.

  13. Revision of ambient air quality standards for PM?

    PubMed

    Hauck, H

    1998-08-01

    Recent epidemiologic findings gave rise to new approaches in setting ambient air quality guidelines for particulate matter in various countries. Because of the complexity of this system defined by many parameters like size distribution, chemical composition, geometry, formation, hygroscopy, or concentration the toxicologic base for acute and chronic effects, especially in the low dose range, is not yet adequate for the formulation of air quality guidelines. Open questions as there is existence of a threshold, shape of the dose-response curve, causative models for the mechanisms and health effects outcome in connection with relatively low doses and groups at higher risks are still under discussion at an international level, thus making political decisions very difficult.

  14. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  15. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  16. Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1976-07-13

    An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

  17. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  18. Ambient Air Pollution Exposures and Risk of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Young, Michael T.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Kaufman, Joel D.; Chen, Honglei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution on the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). Objective: We investigated the associations of long-term residential concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) < 10 μm in diameter (PM10) and < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in relation to PD risk. Methods: Our nested case–control analysis included 1,556 self-reported physician-diagnosed PD cases identified between 1995 and 2006 and 3,313 controls frequency-matched on age, sex, and race. We geocoded home addresses reported in 1995–1996 and estimated the average ambient concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 using a national fine-scale geostatistical model incorporating roadway information and other geographic covariates. Air pollutant exposures were analyzed as both quintiles and continuous variables, adjusting for matching variables and potential confounders. Results: We observed no statistically significant overall association between PM or NO2 exposures and PD risk. However, in preplanned subgroup analyses, a higher risk of PD was associated with higher exposure to PM10 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45; p-trend = 0.02) among women, and with higher exposure to PM2.5 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.76; p-trend = 0.04) among never smokers. In post hoc analyses among female never smokers, both PM2.5 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.17; p-trend = 0.05) and PM10 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.29, 4.26; p-trend = 0.01) showed positive associations with PD risk. Analyses based on continuous exposure variables generally showed similar but nonsignificant associations. Conclusions: Overall, we found limited evidence for an association between exposures to ambient PM10, PM2.5, or NO2 and PD risk. The suggestive evidence that exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 may increase PD risk among female never smokers warrants further investigation. Citation: Liu R, Young MT, Chen JC, Kaufman JD, Chen H. 2016. Ambient

  19. Monitoring ambient air for mutagenicity using the higher plant Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Schairer, L A; Sautkulis, R C; Tempel, N R

    1981-01-01

    Final assessment of human health effects resulting from exposure to harmful environmental agents may rest with mammalian test system results. In vitro systems are short-term assays used most frequently for extrapolation to humans. However, no single assay system is adequate and the more expensive long-term tests must be augmented by multiple assays designed for redundancy or to fill gaps in present state of the art of environmental monitoring. The Tradescantia stamen hair test system is one such assay offering redundancy as well as filling the gap of monitoring ambient air for mutagenic agents. The flower color locus in heterozygous clones of Tradescantia mutates when exposed to such agents as fumigants, solvents, chemical additives or catalysts, and compounds requiring activation such as benzo (a) pyrene. The stamen hair system responds to low levels of airborne compounds. The Tradescantia stamen hair system was used as an in situ monitor for mutagens in ambient air in polluted industrial sites. Preliminary results from many sites showed a significant increase in mutation rate. The environment most consistently mutagenic was that downwind from petroleum refineries. No specific compounds or groups of compounds have as yet been correlated with the positive sites. (ERB)

  20. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... associated reference conditions for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) that are consistent with the 2013... available, i.e., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other...

  1. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air... the Federal Register (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16. The primary (health-based) Pb NAAQS... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  2. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  3. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  4. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  5. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  6. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  7. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... March 6, 2009. The monitors are commercially available from the applicant, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Air... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent... of the designation of five new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY:...

  8. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  9. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  10. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... February 11, 2011 Part VI Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 53 and 58 National Ambient Air... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Based on its review of the air quality criteria and the national...

  11. Ambient air levels and health risk assessment of benzo(a)pyrene in atmospheric particulate matter samples from low-polluted areas: application of an optimized microwave extraction and HPLC-FL methodology.

    PubMed

    de la Gala Morales, María; Holgado, Fernando Rueda; Marín, Ma Rosario Palomo; Blázquez, Lorenzo Calvo; Gil, Eduardo Pinilla

    2015-04-01

    A new methodology involving a simple and fast pretreatment of the samples by microwave-assisted extraction and concentration by N2 stream, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection, was used for determining the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 fraction). Obtained LOD, 1.0 × 10(-3) ng/m(3), was adequate for the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in the samples, and BaP recovery from PAH in Fine Dust (PM10-like) certified reference material was nearly quantitative (86%). The validated procedure was applied for analyzing 115 PM10 samples collected at different sampling locations in the low-polluted area of Extremadura (Southwest Spain) during a monitoring campaign carried out in 2011-2012. BaP spatial variations and seasonal variability were investigated as well as the influence of meteorological conditions and different air pollutants concentrations. A normalized protocol for health risk assessment was applied to estimate lifetime cancer risk due to BaP inhalation in the sampling areas, finding that around eight inhabitants per million people may develop lung cancer due to the exposition to BaP in atmospheric particulates emitted by the investigated sources.

  12. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  13. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  14. Air sampling of mold spores by slit impactors: yield comparison.

    PubMed

    Pityn, Peter J; Anderson, James

    2013-01-01

    The performance of simple slit impactors for air sampling of mold contamination was compared under field conditions. Samples were collected side-by-side, outdoors in quadruplicates with Burkhard (ambient sampler) and Allergenco MK3 spore traps and with two identical Allergenco slit cassettes operated at diverse flow rates of 5 and 15 L/min, respectively. The number and types of mold spores in each sample were quantified by microscopy. Results showed all four single-stage slit impactors produced similar spore yields. Moreover, paired slit cassettes produced similar outcomes despite a three-fold difference in their sampling rate. No measurable difference in the amount or mix of mold spores per m(3)of air was detected. The implications for assessment of human exposures and interpretation of indoor/outdoor fungal burden are discussed. These findings demonstrate that slit cassettes capture most small spores, effectively and without bias, when operated at a range of flow rates including the lower flow rates used for personal sampling. Our findings indicate sampling data for mold spores correlate for different single stage impactor collection methodologies and that data quality is not deteriorated by operating conditions deviating from manufacturers' norms allowing such sampling results to be used for scientific, legal, investigative, or property insurance purposes. The same conclusion may not be applied to other particle sampling instruments and mulit-stage impactors used for ambient particulate sampling, which represent an entirely different scenario. This knowledge may help facilitate comparison between scientific studies where methodological differences exist.

  15. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  16. Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.E. )

    1992-03-01

    Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation.

  17. Influence of temperature changes on ambient air NOx chemiluminescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Miñarro, Marta Doval; Ferradás, Enrique González; Martínez, Francisco J Marzal

    2012-09-01

    Users of automatic air pollution monitors are largely unaware of how certain parameters, like temperature, can affect readings. The present work examines the influence of temperature changes on chemiluminescence NO(x) measurements made with a Thermo Scientific 42i analyzer, a model widely used in air monitoring networks and air pollution studies. These changes are grouped into two categories according to European Standard EN 14211: (1) changes in the air surrounding the analyzers and (2) changes in the sampled air. First, the sensitivity tests described in Standard EN 14211 were performed to determine whether the analyzer performance was adapted to the requirements of the standard. The analyzer met the performance criteria of both tests; however, some differences were detected in readings with temperature changes even though the temperature compensator was on. Sample temperature changes were studied more deeply as they were the most critical (they cannot be controlled and differences of several tens of degrees can be present in a single day). Significant differences in readings were obtained when changing sample temperature; however, maximum deviations were around 3% for temperature ranges of 15°C. If other possible uncertainty contributions are controlled and temperature variations with respect to the calibration temperature are not higher than 15°C, the effect of temperature changes could be acceptable and no data correction should have to be applied. PMID:21964932

  18. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  19. Joint Effects of Ambient Air Pollutants on Pediatric Asthma Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, 1998–2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Because ambient air pollution exposure occurs in the form of mixtures, consideration of joint effects of multiple pollutants may advance our understanding of air pollution health effects. Methods: We assessed the joint effect of selected ambient air pollutant com...

  20. Assessment of dioxin-like activity in ambient air particulate matter using recombinant yeast assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Alba; van Drooge, Barend L.; Pérez Ballesta, Pascual; Grimalt, Joan O.; Piña, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), also known as dioxin-like activity, is a major component of the toxicity associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Filtration of ambient air particulate matter through PM 10 filters followed by chemical determination of PAH concentrations and a yeast-based bioassay (RYA) were combined to evaluate and characterize dioxin-like activity in ambient air. Samples were collected in a semirural area of Northern Italy between September 2008 and February 2009. Total PAH contents ranged between 0.3 ng m -3 and 34 ng m -3 and were in correlation with seasonal variations of meteorological conditions and combustion processes. Dioxin-like activity values in air samples showed an excellent correlation (0.71 < R2 < 0.86) with the observed PAH concentrations and the predicted toxicity equivalents for PAH. This RYA-bioassay reported in the present study provides a simple and low-cost routine control for toxic PAH emissions, even at background air concentration levels.

  1. Compact automated ozone monitor for ambient air quality applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bognar, J.A.; French, P.D.

    1999-07-01

    A compact, inexpensive, automated ozone monitor has been designed which may expect to see use in a wide variety of applications in the area of ambient air quality measurements. The monitor is based on a simple single-beam ultraviolet absorption photometer with a separate reference beam path. It is a novel design in that it is far smaller, lighter and cheaper than other ultraviolet absorption systems, while retaining the high performance the technique is known for. Another unique feature is the incorporation of a data logging capability. The instrument is capable of measuring down to 1 ppbv ozone with a precision of 0.3 ppbv and accuracy of 2%, with independent measurements made once every six seconds or faster. The instrument is well suited for unattended operation, and has excellent potential for use as an embedded unit. Several applications within the fields of indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring are foreseen, as well as use within ozone-generating equipment as a built-in safety monitor. Advantages over existing instruments for these applications include far smaller size and lower cost while maintaining high performance.

  2. Ambient Air Pollution and Preeclampsia: A Spatiotemporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Francesc; Basagaña, Xavier; Beelen, Rob; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Schembari, Anna; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Available evidence concerning the association between air pollution and preeclampsia is limited, and specific associations with early- and late-onset preeclampsia have not been assessed. Objectives: We investigated the association, if any, between preeclampsia (all, early-, and late-onset) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles), ≤ 10 μm, and 2.5–10 μm, and PM2.5 light absorption (a proxy for elemental carbon) during the entire pregnancy and during the first, second, and third trimesters. Methods: This study was based on 8,398 pregnancies (including 103 cases of preeclampsia) among women residing in Barcelona, Spain (2000–2005). We applied a spatiotemporal exposure assessment framework using land use regression models to predict ambient pollutant levels during each week of pregnancy at the geocoded residence address of each woman at the time of birth. Logistic and conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations. Results: We found positive associations for most of our evaluated outcome–exposure pairs, with the strongest associations observed for preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia in relation to the third-trimester exposure to fine particulate pollutants, and for early-onset preeclampsia in relation to the first-trimester exposure to fine particulate pollutants. Among our investigated associations, those of first- and third-trimester exposures to PM2.5 and third-trimester exposure to PM2.5 absorbance and all preeclampsia, and third-trimester PM2.5 exposure and late-onset preeclampsia attained statistical significance. Conclusion: We observed increased risk of preeclampsia associated with exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Our findings, in combination with previous evidence suggesting distinct pathogenic mechanisms for early- and late-onset preeclampsia, support additional research on this

  3. PAH characteristics and genotoxicity in the ambient air of a petrochemical industry complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Peng, Being-Hwa; Lee, Ding-Zang; Lee, Ching-Chang

    1995-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) samples, at four sampling sites, in the ambient air of petrochemical plants were collected by several PS-1 samplers from October 1993 to July 1994 in a petrochemical complex area located in southern Taiwan. In addition, the genotoxicity of the PAH samples were investigated by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system. The winter/summer ratios of total-PAH composition were 0.60, 1.39, 2.97, and 1.28 for sites A, B, C, and D, respectively. This result implied that wind direction is the most significant parameter affecting the total-PAH composition in these four sampling sites. Sampling sites B, C, and D were located on the downwind side of the petrochemical plant and gave higher total-PAH composition than those of sampling site A. Particle phase PAHs had higher mutagenicity than those in the gas phase.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  5. Ambient air pollution particles and the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation has repeatedly demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient air pollution particles and numerous indices of human morbidity and mortality. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among those with an increased sensitivity to air p...

  6. Ambient air metallic pollutant study at HAF areas during 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie

    2015-05-01

    This study characterized diurnal variations of the total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations, dry deposition flux and dry deposition velocity of metallic elements at Taichung Harbor (Harbor), Gong Ming Junior High School (Airport) and Sha lu Farmland (Farmland) sampling sites in central Taiwan between August, 2013 and July, 2014 in this study. The result indicated that: 1) the ambient air particulate concentrations, dry depositions were displayed as Harbor > Farmland > Airport during the day time sampling period. However, dry deposition velocities were shown as Airport > Harbor > Farmland for this study. 2) The ambient air particulate concentrations, dry depositions were displayed as Airport > Harbor > Farmland during the night time sampling period. However, dry deposition velocities were shown as Farmland > Harbor > Airport for this study. 3) The metallic element Zn has the average highest concentrations at Airport, Harbor and Farmland among all the metallic elements during the day time sampling period in this study. 4) There were significant differences for the metallic elements (Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb) in dry depositions at these three characteristic sampling sites (HAF) for the night time sampling period. The only exception is metallic element Cd. It displayed that there were no significant differences for the metallic element Cd at the Airport and Farmland sampling sites during the night time sampling period. 5) The average highest values for the metallic element Cu in TSP among the three characteristic sampling sites occurred during the fall and winter seasons for this study. As for the dry depositions, the average highest values in dry deposition among the three characteristic sampling sites occurred during the spring and summer seasons for this study. 6) The average highest values for the metallic element Cd in TSP among the three characteristic sampling sites occurred during the spring and summer seasons for this study. As for the dry depositions, the

  7. Open air mineral treatment operations and ambient air quality: assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pérez, P

    2012-11-01

    We present a methodology for evaluating and quantifying the impact of inhalable mineral dust resuspension close to a potentially important industrial point source, in this case an open air plant producing sand, flux and kaolin in the Capuchinos district of Alcañiz (Teruel, NE Spain). PM(10) levels at Capuchinos were initially high (42 μg m(-3) as the annual average with 91 exceedances of the EU daily limit value during 2007) but subsequently decreased (26 μg m(-3) with 16 exceedances in 2010) due to a reduced demand for minerals from the ceramic industry and construction sector during the first stages of the economic crisis. Back trajectory and local wind pattern analyses revealed only limited contribution from exotic PM sources such as African dust intrusions whereas there was clearly a strong link with the mineral stockpiles of the local industry. This link was reinforced by chemical and mineral speciation and source apportionment analysis which showed a dominance of mineral matter (sum of CO(3)(2-), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, and Ti: mostly aluminosilicates) which in 2007 contributed 76% of the PM(10) mass (44 μg m(-3) on average). The contribution from Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA, sum of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) reached 8.4 μg m(-3), accounting for 14% of the PM(10) mass, similar to the amount of calcareous road dust estimated to be present (8 μg m(-3); 13%). Organic matter and elemental carbon contributed 5.3 μg m(-3) (9%) whereas marine aerosol (Na + Cl) levels were minor with an average concentration of 0.4 μg m(-3) (1% of the PM(10) mass). Finally, chemical and mineralogical analysis of stockpile samples and comparison with filter samples confirmed the local industry to be the major source of ambient PM(10) in the area.

  8. 75 FR 2935 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ..., 2008, EPA promulgated revised 8-hour primary and secondary ozone NAAQS (73 FR 16436; March 27, 2008... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 58 and 81 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Final Rule and... Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  9. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  10. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  11. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  12. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  13. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  14. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  15. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  16. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  17. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  18. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  19. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  20. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  1. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  2. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  3. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour...

  4. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour...

  5. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... August 31, 2011 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 53 and 58 Review of National..., 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AI43 Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY... and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide (CO). Based on its...

  6. Study on the impact of industrial flue gases on the PCDD/Fs congener profile in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Węgiel, Małgorzata; Chrząszcz, Ryszard; Maślanka, Anna; Grochowalski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of emissions from combustion processes from sinter, medical, waste and sewage waste incineration plants on the PCDD and PCDF congener profile in ambient air in Krakow (city in Poland). The subject matter of the study were air samples from the outskirts and the city center. It was found that in flue gases from industrial sources and in ambient air the share of PCDF congeners in relation to the total content of PCDD/Fs was higher than the share of PCDDs. However, in air samples collected in the city center, this relationship was reversed. The PCDD congener profiles in flue gases and in air samples are comparable. However, in the samples from the city centre, the share of OCDD is significantly higher and amounts to about 80%. The PCDF congener shares show higher spatial diversity, although in all the analyzed air samples, ODCF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 HpCDF dominated. Analyzing the share of congeners in regard to the sum of PCDDs/Fs a mutual resemblance of air from the suburbs, exhaust gases from the sinter ore and sewage sludge incinerator plant was observed. The study showed a similarity between the profile of congeners in air from the city centre and exhaust gases from the medical waste incinerator.

  7. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  8. Intraurban Spatiotemporal Variability of Ambient Air Pollutants across Metropolitan St. Louis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li

    Ambient air monitoring networks have been established in the United States since the 1970s to comply with the Clean Air Act. The monitoring networks are primarily used to determine compliance but also provide substantive support to air quality management and air quality research including studies on health effects of air pollutants. The Roxana Air Quality Study (RAQS) was conducted at the fenceline of a petroleum refinery in Roxana, Illinois. In addition to providing insights into air pollutant impacts from the refinery, these measurements increased the St. Louis area monitoring network density for gaseous air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation and thus provided an opportunity to examine intraurban spatiotemporal variability for these air quality parameters. This dissertation focused on exploring and assessing aspects of ambient air pollutant spatiotemporal variability in the St. Louis area from three progressively expanded spatial scales using a suite of methods and metrics. RAQS data were used to characterize air quality conditions in the immediate vicinity of the petroleum refinery. For example, PM2.5 lanthanoids were used to track impacts from refinery fluidized bed catalytic cracker emissions. RAQS air toxics data were interpreted by comparing to network data from the Blair Street station in the City of St. Louis which is a National Air Toxics Trends Station. Species were classified as being spatially homogeneous (similar between sites) or heterogeneous (different between sites) and in the latter case these differences were interpreted using surface winds data. For PM 2.5 species, there were five concurrently operating sites in the St. Louis area - including the site in Roxana - which are either formally part of the national Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) or rigorously follow the CSN sampling and analytical protocols. This unusually large number of speciation sites for a region the size of St. Louis motivated a detailed examination of

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Probe and Monitoring Path Siting... Appendix E to Part 58—Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1.... Maximum Monitoring Path Length. 9. Probe Material and Pollutant Sample Residence Time. 10....

  10. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Probe and Monitoring Path Siting... Appendix E to Part 58—Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1.... Maximum Monitoring Path Length. 9. Probe Material and Pollutant Sample Residence Time. 10....

  11. Rapid formaldehyde monitoring in ambient air by means of mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahnke, H.; von Basum, G.; Kleinermanns, K.; Hering, P.; Mürtz, M.

    We report the spectroscopic detection of formaldehyde in ambient air using cavity leak-out spectroscopy, a cw variant of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. This technique proved to be suitable for a real-time quantitative analysis of polluted air without any preprocessing of the air sample. Using a tunable CO-overtone sideband laser for the λ=3 μm spectral region and a ring-down cell with R=99.95% mirrors, we achieved a detection limit of 2 parts per billion formaldehyde in ambient air, corresponding to a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 7×10-9/cm (sampling time: 2s). Calibration problems arising from the polarity of the molecule and due to HITRAN database uncertainties are discussed.

  12. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Physical Inactivity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer D.; Voss, Jameson D.; Knight, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. Objectives After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10) and ozone (O3) exposures throughout the U.S., we evaluated the cross-sectional association of ambient air pollution with leisure-time physical inactivity among adults. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we assessed leisure-time physical inactivity using individual self-reported survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. These data were combined with county-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution exposure estimates using two interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weighting and Empirical Bayesian Kriging). Finally, we evaluated whether those exposed to higher levels of air pollution were less active by performing logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and behavioral risk factors, and after stratifying by body weight category. Results With Empirical Bayesian Kriging air pollution values, we estimated a statistically significant 16–35% relative increase in the odds of leisure-time physical inactivity per exposure class increase of PM2.5 in the fully adjusted model across the normal weight respondents (p-value<0.0001). Evidence suggested a relationship between the increasing dose of PM2.5 exposure and the increasing odds of physical inactivity. Conclusions In a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample, increased community level air pollution is associated with reduced leisure-time physical activity particularly among the normal weight. Although our design precludes a causal inference, these results provide

  13. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  14. Inconsistencies in Risk Analyses for Ambient Air Pollutant Regulations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anne E

    2016-09-01

    This article describes inconsistencies between health risk analyses that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses to support its decisions on primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and in the associated Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs) that accompany each NAAQS rulemaking. Quantitative risk estimates are prepared during the NAAQS-setting deliberations using inputs derived from statistical associations between measured pollutant concentrations and health effects. The resulting risk estimates are not directly used to set a NAAQS, but incorporated into a broader evidence-based rationale for the standard that is intended to demonstrate conformity with the statutory requirement that primary NAAQS protect the public health with a margin of safety. In a separate process, EPA staff rely on the same risk calculations to prepare estimates of the benefits of the rule that are reported in its RIA for the standard. Although NAAQS rules and their RIAs are released simultaneously, the rationales used to set the NAAQS have become inconsistent with their RIAs' estimates of benefits, with very large fractions of RIAs' risk-reduction estimates being attributed to populations living in areas that will already be attaining the respective NAAQS. This article explains the source of this inconsistency and provides a quantitative example based on the 2012 revision of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) primary NAAQS. This article also demonstrates how this inconsistency is amplified when criteria pollutant co-benefits are calculated in RIAs for non-NAAQS rules, using quantitative examples from the 2011 Mercury and Air Toxics Standards and the currently proposed Clean Power Plan.

  15. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  16. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (< 30 ng/m3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  17. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-02-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (<30 ng m-3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  18. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-04-01

    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health.

  19. Unrestricted release measurements with ambient air ionization monitors

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Gunn, R.; Dockray, T.; Luff, C.

    1999-03-01

    Radiation monitoring systems based on the long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique, such as the BNFL Instruments IonSens{trademark}, provide a single contamination measurement for an entire object rather than the more familiar individual readings for smaller surface areas. The LRAD technique relies on the ionization of ambient air molecules by alpha particles, and the subsequent detection of these ions, rather than direct detection of the alpha particles themselves. A single monitor can detect all of the ions produced over a large object and report a total contamination level for the entire surface of that object. However, both the unrestricted release limits specified in USDOE Order 5400.5 (and similar documents in other countries), and the definitions of radioactive waste categories, are stated in terms of contamination per area. Thus, conversion is required between the total effective contamination as measured by the LRAD-based detector and the allowable release limits. In addition, since the release limits were not written assuming an averaging detector system, the method chosen to average the assumed contamination over the object can have a significant impact on the effective sensitivity of the detector.

  20. Measurement of total reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    McQuaker, N.R.; Rajala, G.E.; Pengilly, D.

    1986-05-01

    Methods for the determination of total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds in the ambient air based on coulometric detection (Philips Model PW 9700 analyzer) and thermal oxidation followed by detection using pulsed fluorescence (Teco Model 43 analyzer) have been evaluated. Analytical response factors, relative to H/sub 2/S, were determined for both the individual TRS compounds and compounds such as terpenes and carbonyl sulfide that may be a potential source of interference. The results for COS and terpenes indicate that in a typical monitoring situation normally encountered concentrations of these compounds are not expected to cause significant measurement bias. The results for the individual TRS compounds indicate that while variations in TRS composition are not a factor in assessing measurement bias for the thermal oxidation/pulsed fluorescence method, they are a factor for the Philips coulometric method; i.e., increasing positive measurement bias maybe introduced as the TRS composition shifts toward relatively less H/sub 2/S. Philips-Teco comparison data collected at a single site in the vicinity of three operating kraft pupil mills are compatible with these expectations. 8 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  1. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  2. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  3. Volcanic gas emissions and their impact on ambient air character at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Navarrete, R.

    1994-12-31

    Gas emissions from Kilauea occur from the summit caldera, along the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), and where lava enters the ocean. We estimate that the current ERZ eruption of Kilauea releases between 400 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} per day, during eruptive pauses, to as much as 1850 metric tonnes per day during actively erupting periods, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl and HF. In order to characterize gas emissions from Kilauea in a meaningful way for assessing environmental impact, we made a series of replicate grab-sample measurements of ambient air and precipitation at the summit of Kilauea, along its ERZ, and at coastal sites where lava enters the ocean. The grab-sampling data combined with SO{sub 2} emission rates, and continuous air quality and meteorological monitoring at the summit of Kilauea show that the effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Prevailing tradewinds typically carry the gases and aerosols released to the southwest, where they are further distributed by the regional wind regime. Episodes of kona, or low speed variable winds sometimes disrupt this pattern, however, and allow the gases and their oxidation products to collect at the summit and eastern side of the island. Summit solfatara areas of Kilauea are distinguished by moderate to high ambient SO{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S at one location, and low H{sub 2}S at all others, and negligible HCl concentrations, as measured 1 m from degassing point-sources. Summit solfatara rain water has high sulfate and low chloride ion concentrations, and low pH.

  4. Tracing Ambient Air Geochemistry using a Modified X-Ray Fluorescence Filter Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, J. C.; Rudolph, E.; Wrice, T.

    2002-12-01

    Modifications of x-ray fluorescence counting procedures enable tracing of aerosol dispersals related to weather fronts and local weather phenomena. Improved X-ray fluorescence methods for bulk aerosols deposited under positive air pressure conditions onto Millipore filters at 80 liters/hour enable the tracing of geological samples in periods down to one hour. Vacuum-plating aliquots of USGS standards onto 0.2 micron polycarbonate and quartz Millipore filters create standards with a shelf life of several months. The analytical system permits detection of light oxides, such as silica to 10 ppm, and heavy elements, such as iron to 0.5 ppm. These collections allow discriminations to be drawn between dominantly geological, silica-enriched air mass and dominantly iron-enriched air of possible industrial origin. These ambient air collections at 120 feet elevation at City College are used to create possible distinctions in air masses related to points of origin. Splits of aerosol examined by neutron activation and coupled plasma emission spectroscopy agree with x-ray fluorescence methods to within analytical error. Aerosol flux conditions are monitored for speciation using direct examination by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analytical capability plus aerosol physical properties by sun photometry. The latter provides bulk optical transmission at six major wavelengths and estimates for bulk aerosol size properties. Preliminary data show positive photometry links with iron-aerosols with a correlation coefficient with southwesterly wind-driven conditions of seventy percent over a four hour monitoring period. Aerosol flux comparisons with heavy metal populations, Ba, Rb, Zr, La show uniform distributions with iron- and silica-enriched populations indicating a pervasive background condition in the ambient air mass over New York City.

  5. Panel discussion review: Session two - Interpretation of Observed Associations between Multiple Ambient Air Pollutants and Health Effects in Epidemiologic Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution epidemiologic research has often utilized ambient air concentrations measured from centrally located monitors as a surrogate measure of exposure to these pollutants. Associations between these ambient concentrations and health outcomes such as lung function, hospita...

  6. FINE AMBIENT AIR PARTICULAR MATTER EXPOSURE INDUCES MOLECULAR ALTERATIONS INDICATIVE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PROGRESSION IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC SUSCEPTIBLE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) can alter cardiovascular function and may influence cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been shown that exposure to concentrated ambient air particles (CA...

  7. Laser plasma plume structure and dynamics in the ambient air: The early stage of expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Cirisan, M.; Jouvard, J. M.; Lavisse, L.; Hallo, L.; Oltra, R.

    2011-05-15

    Laser ablation plasma plume expanding into the ambient atmosphere may be an efficient way to produce nanoparticles. From that reason it would be interesting to study the properties of these laser induced plasmas formed under conditions that are known to be favorable for nanoparticles production. In general, plume behavior can be described as a two-stage process: a 'violent' plume expansion due to the absorption of the laser beam energy (during the laser pulse) followed by a fast adiabatic expansion in the ambient gas (after the end of the laser pulse). Plasma plume may last a few microseconds and may have densities 10{sup -6} times lower than the solid densities at temperatures close to the ambient temperature. Expansion of the plasma plume induced by the impact of a nanosecond laser beam ({lambda} 1064 nm) on the surface of metallic samples in the open air has been investigated by means of fast photography. Spatio-temporal evolution of the plume at the early stage of its expansion (first 330 ns) has been recorded. Structure and dynamics of the plasma plume have been investigated and compared to numerical simulations obtained with a hydro-code, as well as some scaling laws. In addition, measurements using different sample materials (Al, Fe, and Ti) have been performed in order to analyze the influence of target material on plume expansion.

  8. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  9. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  10. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of the

  11. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    DOE PAGES

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrodemore » assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of

  12. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand

  13. Effects of ambient oxidant air pollution in the San Joaquin Valley on Thompson seedless grapes

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.F.; Ashcroft, R.

    1984-01-01

    Mature Thompson seedless grape vines were enclosed in specially constructed plastic covered chambers supplied with carbon filtered and non-filtered (ambient) air from time of bud break through leaf drop. Effects on vegetative growth and fruiting were determined for three seasons. No effects on fruit production were measured the first season after covering but vegetative growth increased 12% in chambers supplied with filtered air. By the third season fruit yields were 27.5% higher in the filtered as compared with ambient chambers. The only visible symptoms associated with exposure to the oxidants was accelerated senescence which appeared 3 weeks to 1 month earlier on vines receiving ambient or nonfiltered air.

  14. Propane and butane emission sources to ambient air of Mexico City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Jaimes, L; Sandoval, J

    2002-04-22

    Samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in a smog chamber in order to determine whether automotive exhausts or LP Gas emissions play a greater role in the source of propane and butane, which affect ozone formation and other pollutants in the ambient air of the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA). These samples were collected in April 1995 during mornings and evenings. The testing methodology used for measuring exhaust emission were FTP or EPA-74 tests, and SHED type tests were also conducted in order to evaluate evaporative emissions. The finding from analysis of the VOCs collected in the morning demonstrate that in the atmosphere, propane concentrations are higher than that of butane but the reverse in evaporative and exhaust emissions, with the concentration of propane lower than that of butane. Our conclusion is that most of C3 and C4 in the ambient air comes from LP gas and not vehicle exhaust or evaporative emission, due to the higher levels of propane than butane in its formulation. The analysis of VOCs also indicates that although the conversion (in the smog chamber) of alkanes is low during the day, due to the high initial concentration, their contribution in the reaction mechanism to produce ozone can be appreciable.

  15. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  16. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  2. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.13 National primary and secondary ambient...

  3. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.7 National primary and secondary ambient...

  4. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 Public Hearings for Proposed Rules--National Ambient Air... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  5. 75 FR 81477 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Amendments to Ambient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Amendments to Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... quality standards for particulate matter (PM). This action is being taken under the Clean Air Act...

  6. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  7. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  8. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  9. METHYL- AND DIMETHYL-/ETHYL-NITRONAPHTHALENES MEASURED IN AMBIENT AIR IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. (R827352)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naphthalene and alkylnaphthalenes are abundant semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in ambient air as a result of emissions from combustion sources. At ambient temperatures, these PAHs can undergo atmospheric gas-phase reactions with hydroxyl (OH) radi...

  10. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND SELECTED BIRTH DEFECTS, SEVEN COUNTY STUDY, TEXAS, 1997-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objectives: A number of epidemiologic investigations have shown adverse effects of ambient air pollution on reproductive outcomes including spontaneous abortion, fetal growth, preterm delivery, and infant mortality. A southern California, population-based, case-c...

  12. Ambient Air Mitigation Strategies for Reducing Exposures to Mobile Source PM2.5 Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation discussing ambient air mitigation strategies for near-road exposures. The presentation provides an overview of multiple methods, but focuses on the role roadside features (sound walls, vegetation) may play. This presentation summarizes preoviously published work by...

  13. Stationary source sampling report: Volatile organic compounds testing, 300-M area air stripper exhaust stack

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-25

    An air stripping column was used in the 300-M area to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated groundwater. Tests were performed October 29, 1985, at the air stripper exhaust stack to measure the emissions of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane for compliance purposes. Three absorbent sampling train (AST) runs (yielding duplicate samples for each run) and three velocity traverses were performed at the air stripper exhaust stack. Ambient air sampling was not performed as scheduled because of inclement weather conditions.

  14. Heated stainless steel tube for ozone removal in the ambient air measurements of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellén, H.; Kuronen, P.; Hakola, H.

    2012-09-01

    Heated stainless steel inlets were optimized for the ozone removal and for the measurements of mono- and sesquiterpenes in ambient air. Five different inlets were used with different flows, temperatures and ozone and biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) concentrations. Both ozone removal capacities and recoveries of BVOCs were determined. Ozone and BVOCs were flushed through the inlet and recoveries were measured by an ozone monitor and adsorbent tube sampling of BVOCs with subsequent analysis with thermal desorption - gas chromatograph (GC) - mass spectrometer (MS). Recovery tests of BVOCs were conducted both with zero air and with ozone rich air. Inlets were optimized especially for online-GC and adsorbent tube measurements of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The results of this study show that it was possible to remove ozone without removing most VOCs with this set-up. Setting the temperature, stainless steel grade and flow correctly for different inlet lengths was found to have a crucial role. The results show that the ozone removal capacity increases with increasing temperature and inlet length. Stainless steel grade 316 was found to be more efficient than grade 304 with respect to ozone removal. Based only on the ozone removal capacity, the longest possible stainless steel inlet with heating would be the optimum solution. However, the recoveries of studied compounds had to be considered too. Of the tested set-ups, a 3 m inlet (¼ in. grade 304) heated to 120 °C with a flow of 1 or 2 l min-1 was found to give the best results with respect to the ozone removal efficiency and compound recovery. This inlet was removing ozone efficiently for at least 4 months when used for ambient air sampling at a rural forested site with a flow of 1 l min-1 (˜170 m3 of air flushed through the tube). A heated (140 °C) 1 m inlet (¼ in. grade 304 or ⅛ in. grade 316) was able to remove ozone with a constant flow of 0.8-1 l min-1 for about two weeks (˜18 m3 of air) and had

  15. A Study of the Critical Uncertainty Contributions in the Analysis of PCBs in Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew S.; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air requires a complex, multistep sample preparation procedure prior to analysis by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although routine analytical laboratories regularly carry out these measurements, they are often undertaken with little regard to the accurate calculation of measurement uncertainty, or appreciation of the sensitivity of the accuracy of the measurement to each step of the analysis. A measurement equation is developed for this analysis, and the contributory sources to the overall uncertainty when preparing calibration standards and other solutions by gravimetric and volumetric approaches are discussed and compared. For the example analysis presented, it is found that the uncertainty of the measurement is dominated by the repeatability of the GC-MS analysis and suggested that volumetric (as opposed to gravimetric) preparation of solutions does not adversely affect the overall uncertainty. The methodology presented in this work can also be applied to analogous methods for similar analytes, for example, those used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, dioxins, or furans in ambient air. PMID:18528517

  16. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lili; Hu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air with combination of thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The air samples were collected by active sampling method using Tenax-TA sorbent tubes, and desorbed by thermal desorption. The analytes were determined by GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, and internal standard method was applied to quantify the VOCs. The results of all the 23 VOCs showed good linearities in low level (0. 01-1 ng) and high level (1-100 ng) with all the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0. 99. The method quantification limits were between 0. 000 08-1 µg/m3. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) at three spiked levels of 2, 10 and 50 ng. The recoveries between 77% and 124% were generally obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all cases were lower than 20%, except for chlorobenzene at the low spiked level. The developed method was applied to determine VOCs in ambient air collected at three sites in Shanghai. Several compounds, like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylenes, p-xylenes, styrene, 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and hexachlorobutadiene were detected and confirmed in all the samples analyzed. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the VOCs in ambient air. PMID:27382728

  17. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively.

  18. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively. PMID:26631022

  19. Determination and impact of volatile organics emitted during rush hours in the ambient air around gasoline stations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben-Zen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Sree, Usha; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    2006-09-01

    This study analyzes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air around gasoline stations during rush hours and assesses their impact on human health. Results from this study clearly indicate that methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), toluene, and isobutane are the major VOCs emitted from gasoline stations. Moreover, the concentrations of MTBE and toluene in the ambient air near gasoline stations are remarkably higher than those sampled on surrounding roads, revealing that these compounds are mainly released from gasoline stations. The concentration of VOCs near the gasoline stations without vapor recovery systems are approximately 7.3 times higher than those around the gasoline stations having the recovery systems. An impact on individual health and air quality because of gasoline station emissions was done using Integrated Risk Information System and Industrial Source Complex Short Term model.

  20. Ambient particulate matter air pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m(3) in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%-55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  1. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in ambient air in a highly industrialized city in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Bugatti, Simona Grazia; Lodi, Marco; Mariani, Alessandro; Musmeci, Loredana; Rotella, Giuseppe; Senese, Vincenzo; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Fanelli, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Ambient air samples were collected in five locations around a polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) production plant in a highly industrialized city in the north of Italy, for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs. PCDD/F atmospheric concentrations were lower than those generally detected in urban areas, while PCB concentrations were higher than in urban and industrialized areas in other countries, especially in the locations closest to the plant. To identify source emissions responsible for air pollution we used principal component analysis (PCA) to compare the "fingerprint" of the air in Brescia with some source-related experimental and published data. This analysis showed that the PCDD/F fingerprints were more similar to steel plant emission data, while none of the PCB air patterns were comparable to emission profiles, indicating that different sources are responsible for the concentration of these two pollutants. The highest PCB concentrations detected in the areas closest to the chemical plant are indicative of its impact on the surrounding environment.

  2. Effect of pollutant-exposure ambient air in childhood and adulthood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, D.H.

    1987-06-16

    This study explored multivariate modeling to describe the relationship between respiratory health and ambient air pollution in three Los Angeles communities using data of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function collected for the UCLA Population Studies of Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease. The modeling approach focused on adult non-commuting females whose ambient-air exposures were best represented by air-quality monitoring stations in the community of residence. Multivariate analysis did not provide a clear model that improved on earlier analyses based upon residence. Effects of birthplace or current abnormal respiratory health as indicators or potential susceptibility to air pollution were not identified. The results were judged indicative of limits in the data available for estimating ambient air exposures for individual study subjects.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  5. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.7 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary...

  6. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national...

  7. Volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air of Kaohsiung petroleum refinery in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsai-Yin; Sree, Usha; Tseng, Sen-Hong; Chiu, Kong Hwa; Wu, Chien-Hou; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    The air quality assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC) was conducted in and around Chinese petroleum corporation (CPC) refinery at Kaohsiung, located in southern Taiwan, during 2001 by collecting air samples at 26 sites. Benzene and toluene were detected as the most abundant VOC by both gas chromatography and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) techniques. BTXE concentrations showed day and night variations at some of the sampling site. The highest among the 26 sites for total concentration of VOC at CPC was 2506 ppbv near waste burning stack. High concentrations of VOC were also detected at the wastewater management area and the east gate of the plant. The values were 10-18 times higher than those probed in Kaohsiung city. The meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction played vital roles in the distribution of ambient air VOC concentrations and affected the petrochemical complex emissions. The application of UV-DOAS for online monitoring of criteria pollutants appears feasible though the accuracy of the technique is not fully controlled.

  8. Particle-phase concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of rural residential areas in southern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Günter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2010-01-01

    An important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential areas, particularly in the winter season, is the burning process when wood is used for domestic heating. The target of this study was to investigate the particle-phase PAH composition of ambient samples in order to assess the influence of wood combustion on air quality in residential areas. PM10 samples (particulate matter <10 μm) were collected during two winter seasons at two rural residential areas near Stuttgart in Germany. Samples were extracted using toluene in an ultrasonic bath and subsequently analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Twenty-one PAH compounds were detected and quantified. The PAH fingerprints of different wood combustion emissions were found in significant amounts in ambient samples and high correlations between total PAHs and other wood smoke tracers were found, indicating the dominant influence of wood combustion on air quality in residential areas. Carcinogenic PAHs were detected in high concentrations and contributed 49% of the total PAHs in the ambient air. To assess the health risk, we investigated the exposure profile of individual PAHs. The findings suggest that attention should be focused on using the best combustion technology available to reduce emissions from wood-fired heating during the winter in residential areas. PMID:20495599

  9. An intercomparison study of analytical methods used for quantification of levoglucosan in ambient aerosol filter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Abbaszade, G.; Alves, C.; Bjerke, A.; Bonnier, N.; Bossi, R.; Claeys, M.; Dye, C.; Evtyugina, M.; García-Gacio, D.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Hyder, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kiss, G.; López-Mahia, P. L.; Pio, C.; Piot, C.; Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, C.; Sciare, J.; Teinilä, K.; Vermeylen, R.; Vicente, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-01-01

    The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and wildfire emissions on ambient air quality. A European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples' content of MAs is representative for BB particles originating from residential wood burning. The purpose of the intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which three applied high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), four used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and six resorted to gas chromatography (GC). The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they should be considered as thirteen different analytical methods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan, whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels for all three isomers. The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied from -63 to 20%; however, for 62% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%, and for 85% the mean PE was within ±20%. For mannosan, the corresponding range was -60 to 69%, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e. for 33% of the

  10. An intercomparison study of analytical methods used for quantification of levoglucosan in ambient aerosol filter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Schnelle-Kreiss, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Alves, C.; Bossi, R.; Bjerke, A.; Claeys, M.; Dye, C.; Evtyugina, M.; García-Gacio, D.; Gülcin, A.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Hyder, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kiss, G.; López-Mahia, P. L.; Pio, C.; Piot, C.; Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, C.; Sciare, J.; Teinilä, K.; Vermeylen, R.; Vicente, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2014-07-01

    The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and wild fire emissions on ambient air quality. A European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples' content of MAs is representative for biomass burning particles originating from residential wood burning. The purpose of the intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which three applied High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC), four used High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and six resorted to Gas Chromatography (GC). The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they should be considered as thirteen different analytical methods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan, whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels for all three isomers. The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied from -63 to 23%; however, for 62% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%, and for 85% the mean PE was within ±20%. For mannosan, the corresponding range was -60 to 69%, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e., for 33% of

  11. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand

  12. Radon discrimination for work place air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bratvold, T.

    1994-09-27

    Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG&G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ``on mask`` due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer.

  13. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  14. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; de Bruin, Arnout; Janse, Ingmar; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Wouters, Inge M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007–2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East), in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%). Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31–2.76). We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak. PMID:26991094

  15. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Myrna M T; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A M; de Bruin, Arnout; Janse, Ingmar; Heederik, Dick J J; Wouters, Inge M

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007-2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East), in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%). Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31-2.76). We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak. PMID:26991094

  16. Evaluation of two passive samplers for the analysis of organophosphate esters in the ambient air.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruirui; Lin, Yongfeng; Liu, Runzeng; Hu, Fanbao; Ruan, Ting; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-01-15

    Both polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated PUF (SIP) passive air sampling (PAS) methods were deployed and compared separately for the analysis of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in outdoor atmospheric environment. During an continuous period of 84 days, parallel samples were also collected by a high-volume active air sampler (HV-AAS) to assess the contamination levels and to calibrate uptake parameters of PAS. The total concentration of OPEs in both particulate and gaseous phases ranged from 1.50 to 5.64ng m(-3) in ambient air. Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) was the dominating analog, representing 78±9% of total OPE concentration. SIP-PAS showed longer linear-phase sampling period for TCPP, and accumulated more amount of the most volatile triethyl phosphate (TEP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) homologues, while similar sorption performances of both PAS methods were found for most of the semi-volatile OPEs. Linear sampling rates in PUF-PAS and SIP-PAS disks were calculated for individual OPEs except for TEP and TBP, and the average uptake rates (3.3±1.1 and 3.5±1.7m(3)d(-1), respectively) were close to the acknowledged value (4m(-3)d(-1)) for persistent organic pollutants. Besides, isotopic labeled D15-Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) could be used as a viable depuration compound to calculate site-specific sampling rates of OPEs, with a linear loss of up to ∼60% at the end of deployment time. PMID:26592578

  17. Ambient air conditions and variation in urban trail use.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann M; Lindsey, Greg; Qiu, Chenchen

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the effect of air quality and administrative policies on use of urban trails in Indianapolis, IN. Attention is focused on two policy variables: (1) issuance of air pollution advisories and (2) the adoption of Daylight Savings Time. Results suggest that while trail use varies with air quality, current public advisories regarding air pollution may be of limited effectiveness in reducing trail users' exposures to hazardous pollutants. In contrast, the adoption of Daylight Savings Time was associated with a statistically significant increase in traffic levels.

  18. Gas-Phase Ambient Air Contaminants Exhibit Significant Dioxin-like and Estrogen-like Activity in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gail P.; Hodge, Erin M.; Diamond, Miriam L.; Yip, Amelia; Dann, Tom; Stern, Gary; Denison, Michael S.; Harper, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Several adverse health effects, such as respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, have been linked to exposure to particulate matter in ambient air; however, the biologic activity of gas-phase ambient organic air contaminants has not been examined as thoroughly. Using aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–based and estrogen receptor (ER)–based cell bioassay systems, we assessed the dioxin-like and estrogenic activities of gas-phase organic ambient air contaminants compared with those of particulate-phase contaminants using samples collected between seasons over 2 years from an urban and a rural location in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. The concentration of the sum (∑) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which was highest in the gas phase, was 10–100 times more abundant than that of ∑polychlorinated biphenyls, ∑nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and ∑organochlorine pesticides, and 103 to 104 times more abundant than ∑polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans. Gas-phase samples induced significant AHR- and ER-dependent gene expression. The activity of the gas-phase samples was greater than that of the particulate-phase samples in the estrogen assay and, in one case, in the AHR assay. We found no strong associations between either summer or winter seasons or urban or rural locations in the relative efficacy of the extracts in either the ER or AHR assay despite differences in chemical composition, concentrations, and abundance. Our results suggest that mechanistic studies of the health effects of ambient air must consider gas and particulate phases because chemicals present in both phases can affect AHR and ER signaling pathways. PMID:16675423

  19. Nitrosamine measurements in ambient air of an industrial area in Austria.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1987-01-01

    The area of Linz (Oberösterreich) is the most heavily polluted region in Austria, due to its chemical and steel industry. In 1981, a survey of volatile nitrosamines in ambient air performed by a local laboratory revealed levels of up to 5.45 micrograms/m3. This instigated the setting up of a systematic nitrosamine monitoring programme from February 1983 to May 1984, during which the validity of the analytical procedures was determined. A total of 363 air samples was collected over 200 days at 16 different locations in and around Linz. About 6% of the samples showed low nitrosamine contamination, with levels between 0.01 and 0.04 microgram/m3 of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR). The lower limit of detection was 0.005 microgram/m3. It was not possible to confirm these low concentrations by high-resolution mass spectrometry. In some samples, thermal energy analyser-responsive material was observed, which may be due to the occurrence of C-nitro compounds.

  20. Waste combustion as a source of ambient air polybrominated diphenylesters (PBDEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first comprehensive set of U.S. data on PBDE concentrations from waste combustion, with more than 40 BDE congeners reported, was compared to ambient air levels of bromodiphenylethers in the U.S. Concentrations of PBDEs were determined in the raw, pre-air pollution control sys...

  1. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  2. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  3. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  4. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  5. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  6. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    .../quality control data and air monitoring network design information. The U.S. EPA and others (e.g., state... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air... is planning to submit a request to renew an existing approved Information Collection Request (ICR)...

  7. EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY. Yuh-Chin Huang, Jackie Stonehuerner, Jackie Carter, Andrew J. Ghio, Robert B. Devlin. NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.
    The mechanisms for cardiopulmonary morbidity associated with exposure to air po...

  8. Effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory tract complaints and airway inflammation in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Altuğ, Hicran; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Van Doorn, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution were studied in 605 school children 9 to 13 years in Eskişehir, Turkey. Each child performed a fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement and a lung function test (LFT). Self-reported respiratory tract complaints (having cold, complaints of throat, runny nose and shortness of breath/wheezing) in the last 7 days and on the day of testing were also recorded. As acute health outcomes were investigated, weekly average ambient concentrations of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined by passive sampling in the school playgrounds simultaneously with the health survey. Effects of air pollution on respiratory tract complaints and exhaled NO/lung function were estimated by multivariate logistic regression and multivariate linear mixed effects models, respectively. Upper respiratory tract complaints were significantly (p<0.05) associated with weekly average O3 concentrations during the health survey (adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 1.21 and 1.28 for a 10 μgm(-3) increment for having cold and a runny nose on day of testing, respectively). FENO levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in children with various upper respiratory tract complaints (ratio in FENO varied between 1.16 and 1.40). No significant change in FENO levels was detected in association with any of the measured pollutants (p ≥ 0.05). Lung function was not associated with upper respiratory tract complaints and FENO levels. Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) levels were negatively associated with weekly average O3 levels for children without upper respiratory tract complaints. In summary, elevated levels of air pollutants increased respiratory tract complaints in children.

  9. Polyfluorinated compounds in ambient air from ship- and land-based measurements in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    Neutral volatile and semi-volatile polyfluorinated organic compounds (PFC) and ionic perfluorinated compounds were determined in air samples collected at two sites in the vicinity of Hamburg, Germany, and onboard the German research vessel Atair during a cruise in the German Bight, North Sea, in early November 2007. PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges and glass fiber filters as sampling media were applied to collect several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE) in the gas- and particle-phase as well as a set of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCA) and sulfonates (PFSA) in the particle-phase. This study presents the distribution of PFC in ambient air of the German North Sea and in the vicinity of Hamburg for the first time. Average total PFC concentrations in and around Hamburg (180 pg m -3) were higher than those observed in the German Bight (80 pg m -3). In the German Bight, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 17-82 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 2.6-10 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 10-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-4.4 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were determined. In the vicinity of Hamburg, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 32-204 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 3-26 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 3-18 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were detected. Concentrations of perfluorinated acids were in the range of 1-11 pg m -3. FTOH clearly dominated the substance spectrum; 8:2 FTOH occurred in maximum proportions. Air mass back trajectories, cluster, and correlation analyses revealed that the air mass origin and thus medium to long range atmospheric transport was the governing parameter for the amount of PFC in ambient air. Southwesterly located source regions seemed to be responsible for elevated PFC concentrations, local sources appeared to be of minor importance.

  10. HYDROCARBON AND CARBONYL OZONE PRECURSORS IN MEXICO CITY AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air pollution is an environmental problem in many cities around the world that has serious immediate and long-term implications to the health of the population and to the physical environment. Mexico City, in particular, faces a severe air pollution problem. The city is...

  11. Plain-jet airblast atomization of alternative liquid petroleum fuels under high ambient air pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, A. K.

    1982-04-01

    The effects that air and fuel properties have upon the spray mean drop size characteristics of a plain-jet airblast atomizer of the type employed in the gas turbine engine are investigated. The tests used kerosene, gas oil and a high-viscosity blend of gas oil in residual fuel oil, and covered a wide range of ambient air pressures. Laser light-scattering technique was employed for drop size measurements. It is concluded that the atomizer's measured mean drop size characteristics are only slightly different from those of the pre-filming type, especially when operating on low-viscosity kerosene under higher ambient air pressure. The beneficial effect of increased levels of ambient air pressure on mean drop size is shown to be much reduced in the case of high-viscosity fuels, thus making the attainment of good atomization performance on such fuels difficult. An expression is derived for correlating the obtained mean drop size data.

  12. Development of an ambient air sampler that satisfies RF plant monitoring requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Nininger, R.C.; Pauley, B.J.

    1993-05-01

    EG&G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is developing a new ambient air particulate sampler to replace units that have been in service for about twenty years. The new sampler is required to operate at a flow rate approximately twice that of the existing samplers and admit particles as large as 70 micrometers aerodynamic diameter. The sampler provides two size fractions with separation at 10 micrometers. using a single stage impactor designed at RFP and carrying a Department of Energy (DOE) patent. The sampler is modular for easy servicing in the field and its operation can be checked via radiotelemetry. The sampler, designed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for PM-10 sampling, is currently being characterized in EPA`s laboratories at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  13. Development of an ambient air sampler that satisfies RF plant monitoring requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Nininger, R.C.; Pauley, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is developing a new ambient air particulate sampler to replace units that have been in service for about twenty years. The new sampler is required to operate at a flow rate approximately twice that of the existing samplers and admit particles as large as 70 micrometers aerodynamic diameter. The sampler provides two size fractions with separation at 10 micrometers. using a single stage impactor designed at RFP and carrying a Department of Energy (DOE) patent. The sampler is modular for easy servicing in the field and its operation can be checked via radiotelemetry. The sampler, designed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for PM-10 sampling, is currently being characterized in EPA's laboratories at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  14. Direct and rapid analysis of ambient air and exhaled air via electrostatic precipitation of aerosols in an atomizer furnace and Zeeman spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, A A; Ivanenko, N B; Kuzmenkov, M A; Jakovleva, E M; Skudra, A; Slyadnev, M N; Ganeev, A A

    2005-02-01

    Techniques that allow the elements present in the air to be determined in a simple and rapid manner are very attractive. Direct aerosol sampling techniques avoid the need to pretreat the filter via wet digestion in order to remove any sources of contamination, and they decrease the precipitation time significantly. Analyzers based on this technique can also determine the concentrations of elements in the air automatically in situ. This paper is concerned with the development of a novel analytical system that is based on electrostatically precipitating aerosols from the air into a graphite furnace. The equipment includes a Zeeman spectrometer with high frequency modulation polarization (MGA-915), and an electrostatic precipitation system incorporated into the analyzer. The high sensitivity of the system developed here means that it can be used to determine element concentrations in the air exhaled by humans, as well as those in ambient air.

  15. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Stephen A.; Nelin, Timothy D.; Falvo, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. PMID:24929855

  16. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Stephen A; Nelin, Timothy D; Falvo, Michael J; Wold, Loren E

    2014-08-15

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. PMID:24929855

  17. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Stephen A; Nelin, Timothy D; Falvo, Michael J; Wold, Loren E

    2014-08-15

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants.

  18. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and ground-level ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  19. A simple methodological validation of the gas/particle fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air requires the tedious experimental steps of both sampling and pretreatment (e.g., extraction or clean-up). To replace pre-existing conventional methods, a simple, rapid, and novel technique was developed to measure gas-particle fractionation of PAH in ambient air based on ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ST-TD-GC-MS)’. The separate collection and analysis of ambient PAHs were achieved independently by two serially connected STs. The basic quality assurance confirmed good linearity, precision, and high sensitivity to eliminate the need for complicated pretreatment procedures with the detection limit (16 PAHs: 13.1 ± 7.04 pg). The analysis of real ambient PAH samples showed a clear fractionation between gas (two-three ringed PAHs) and particulate phases (five-six ringed PAHs). In contrast, for intermediate (four ringed) PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene), a highly systematic/gradual fractionation was established. It thus suggests a promising role of ST-TD-GC-MS as measurement system in acquiring a reliable database of airborne PAH.

  20. A simple methodological validation of the gas/particle fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air requires the tedious experimental steps of both sampling and pretreatment (e.g., extraction or clean-up). To replace pre-existing conventional methods, a simple, rapid, and novel technique was developed to measure gas-particle fractionation of PAH in ambient air based on ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ST-TD-GC-MS)’. The separate collection and analysis of ambient PAHs were achieved independently by two serially connected STs. The basic quality assurance confirmed good linearity, precision, and high sensitivity to eliminate the need for complicated pretreatment procedures with the detection limit (16 PAHs: 13.1 ± 7.04 pg). The analysis of real ambient PAH samples showed a clear fractionation between gas (two-three ringed PAHs) and particulate phases (five-six ringed PAHs). In contrast, for intermediate (four ringed) PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene), a highly systematic/gradual fractionation was established. It thus suggests a promising role of ST-TD-GC-MS as measurement system in acquiring a reliable database of airborne PAH. PMID:26126962

  1. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  2. Aerodynamic size distribution of suspended particulate matter in the ambient air in the city of Cleveland, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The City of Cleveland Division of Air Pollution Control and NASA jointly investigated the chemical and physical characteristics of the suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, and as part of the program, measurements of the particle size distribution of ambient air samples at five urban locations during August and September 1972 were made using high-volume cascade impactions. The distributions were evaluated for lognormality, and the mass median diameters were compared between locations and as a function of resultant wind direction. Junge-type distributions were consistent with dirty continental aerosols. About two-thirds of the suspended particulate matter observed in Cleveland is less than 7 microns in diameter.

  3. Time Evolution of the Wettability of Supported Graphene under Ambient Air Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The wettability of graphene is both fundamental and crucial for interfacing in most applications, but a detailed understanding of its time evolution remains elusive. Here we systematically investigate the wettability of metal-supported, chemical vapor deposited graphene films as a function of ambient air exposure time using water and various other test liquids with widely different surface tensions. The wettability of graphene is not constant, but varies with substrate interactions and air exposure time. The substrate interactions affect the initial graphene wettability, where, for instance, water contact angles of ∼85 and ∼61° were measured for Ni and Cu supported graphene, respectively, after just minutes of air exposure. Analysis of the surface free energy components indicates that the substrate interactions strongly influence the Lewis acid–base component of supported graphene, which is considerably weaker for Ni supported graphene than for Cu supported graphene, suggesting that the classical van der Waals interaction theory alone is insufficient to describe the wettability of graphene. For prolonged air exposure, the effect of physisorption of airborne contaminants becomes increasingly dominant, resulting in an increase of water contact angle that follows a universal linear-logarithmic relationship with exposure time, until saturating at a maximum value of 92–98°. The adsorbed contaminants render all supported graphene samples increasingly nonpolar, although their total surface free energy decreases only by 10–16% to about 37–41 mJ/m2. Our finding shows that failure to account for the air exposure time may lead to widely different wettability values and contradicting arguments about the wetting transparency of graphene. PMID:26900413

  4. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  5. An evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurements of selected polycyclic aromatic compounds in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Barrado-Olmedo, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Pastor, Rosa María; García-Alonso, Susana

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of 18 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM(10), PM(2.5) and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro-PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of selected PACs measured in gas phase and PM(10)/PM(2.5) particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature.

  6. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  7. Development of a sensitive thermal desorption method for the determination of trihalomethanes in humid ambient and alveolar air.

    PubMed

    Caro, J; Gallego, M

    2008-08-15

    A sensitive and reliable method has been developed for the determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) in air samples through adsorption in sorbent tubes and thermal desorption (TD) of the compounds, followed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Three commercial sorbent materials were compared in terms of adsorption efficiency and breakthrough volume, finding Chromosorb 102 to be the most appropriate adsorbent for air sampling. The method allows us to reach detection limits of 0.03 ng (0.01 microg m(-3) for 3 l of air), linear ranges from 0.1 to 2000 ng and specific uncertainties of ca. 5.0+/-0.2 ng for all THMs. Several salts were tested to reduce water retention (from the humid air of an indoor swimming pool) at the sampling stage, Na(2)SO(4) being the one that provides optimum efficiency. The method was validated by a new recovery study in which several tubes with and without adsorbent were spiked with THMs and analyzed by TD-GC/MS, recoveries ranging from 92% to 97% for all the compounds. Finally, the performance of the method was evaluated through the analysis of ambient air samples from an indoor swimming pool and alveolar air samples from swimmers to assess their THM uptake. THMs were found to be stable in the sorbent tubes for at least 1 month when stored at 4 degrees C.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. P Appendix P...

  9. An analysis of using semi-permeable membrane devices to assess persistent organic pollutants in ambient air of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ted Hsin-Yeh

    A region of concern for persistent organic pollutants (POPS) contamination is the Arctic, because of POPs' ability to migrate long distances through the atmosphere toward cold regions, condense out of the atmosphere in those region, deposit in sensitive arctic ecosystems and bioaccumulate in Arctic species. Thus, monitoring of POP concentrations in the Arctic is necessary. However, traditional active air monitoring techniques for POPs may not be feasible in the Arctic, because of logistics and cost. While these issues may be overcome using passive air sampling devices, questions arise about the interpretation of the contaminant concentrations detected using the passive air samplers. In this dissertation semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) containing triolein were characterized and evaluated for use in sampling the ambient air of Alaska for three classes of POPS (organochlorines [OCs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]). In addition, a SPMD-based sampling campaign for POPS was conducted simultaneously at five sites in Alaska during a one-year period. The POP concentrations obtained from the SPMDs were examined to determine the spatial and seasonal variability at the locations. POP concentrations detected in SPMDs were influenced by exposure to sunlight, concentrations of particulate-bound contaminants and changes in temperature. PAH concentrations in a SPMD mounted in a sunlight-blocking deployment unit were higher than in a SPMD exposed to sunlight (P = 0.007). PCB concentrations in SPMD exposed to filtered and non-filtered air were significantly different (P < 0.0001). Derived PAH air concentrations measured using SPMD were within a factor of approximately 7 of those obtained from an air sampler in Barrow, Alaska. The field study showed three distinct groups of samples. Barrow was separated from the sub-Arctic samples and a Homer sample (September-December) was distinct from the sub-Arctic samples. The separations suggest

  10. Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2009-07-07

    The selection and optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for ambient operations of lithium/air batteries has been studied. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between lithium anode and water during discharge process. It is critical to make the electrolytes with high polarity so that it can reduce wetting and flooding of carbon based air electrode and lead to improved battery performance. For ambient operations, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolyte are less important than the polarity of organic solvents once the electrolyte has reasonable viscosity, conductivity, and oxygen solubility. It has been found that PC/EC mixture is the best solvent system and LiTFSI is the most feasible salt for ambient operations of Li/air batteries. Battery performance is not very sensitive to PC/EC ratio or salt concentration.

  11. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-08-05

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  12. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  13. Effects of respirator ambient air cooling on thermophysiological responses and comfort sensations.

    PubMed

    Caretti, David M; Barker, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    This investigation assessed the thermophysiological and subjective impacts of different respirator ambient air cooling options while wearing chemical and biological personal protective equipment in a warm environment (32.7 ± 0.4°C, 49.6 ± 6.5% RH). Ten volunteers participated in 90-min heat exposure trials with and without respirator (Control) wear and performed computer-generated tasks while seated. Ambient air cooling was provided to respirators modified to blow air to the forehead (FHC) or to the forehead and the breathing zone (BZC) of a full-facepiece air-purifying respirator using a low-flow (45 L·min(-1)) mini-blower. An unmodified respirator (APR) trial was also completed. The highest body temperatures (TTY) and least favorable comfort ratings were observed for the APR condition. With ambient cooling over the last 60 min of heat exposure, TTY averaged 37.4 ± 0.6°C for Control, 38.0 ± 0.4°C for APR, 37.8 ± 0.5°C for FHC, and 37.6 ± 0.7°C for BZC conditions independent of time. Both the FHC and BZC ambient air cooling conditions reduced facial skin temperatures, reduced the rise in body temperatures, and led to more favorable subjective comfort and thermal sensation ratings over time compared to the APR condition; however statistical differences among conditions were inconsistent. Independent of exposure time, average breathing apparatus comfort scores with BZC (7.2 ± 2.5) were significantly different from both Control (8.9 ± 1.4) and APR (6.5 ± 2.2) conditions when ambient cooling was activated. These findings suggest that low-flow ambient air cooling of the face under low work rate conditions and mild hyperthermia may be a practical method to minimize the thermophysiological strain and reduce perceived respirator discomfort. PMID:24730706

  14. Air sampling of nickel in a refinery.

    PubMed

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C

    2007-08-01

    Air monitoring was conducted in a nickel base metal refinery to determine compliance with occupational exposure limits. The hypothesis stated that levels of airborne dust may pose a risk to worker health if compared to the relevant exposure limits. Exposure limits for nickel species are set for the inhalable nickel dust fraction. Personal air samples, representative of three selected areas were collected in the workers' breathing zones, using the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers. Real-time personal samples were collected randomly over a two-month period in three nickel production areas. Filter papers were treated gravimetrically and were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel through inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measured concentrations were expressed as time weighted average exposure concentrations. Results were compared to South African occupational exposure limits (OELs) and to the threshold limit values (TLVs) set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to determine compliance. Statistical compliance was also determined using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health procedure as prescribed by South Africa's Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations in 1995. In two of the areas it was found that exposure concentrations complied with the OELs. Some exposures exceeded the OEL values and most exposures exceeded the TLV values in the other area concerned. A comprehensive health risk assessment needs to be conducted to determine the cause of non-compliance. PMID:17613095

  15. Economic Activity and Trends in Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary E.; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background One challenge in assessing the health effects of human exposure to air pollution in epidemiologic studies is the lack of widespread historical air pollutant monitoring data with which to characterize past exposure levels. Objectives Given the availability of long-term economic data, we relate economic activity levels to patterns in vehicle-related particulate matter (PM) over a 30-year period in New Jersey, USA, to provide insight into potential historical surrogate markers of air pollution. Methods We used statewide unemployment and county-level trucking industry characteristics to estimate historical coefficient of haze (COH), a marker of vehicle-related PM predominantly from diesel exhaust. A total of 5,920 observations were included across 25 different locations in New Jersey between 1971 and 2003. Results A mixed-modeling approach was employed to estimate the impact of economic indicators on measured COH. The model explained approximately 50% of the variability in COH as estimated by the overall R2 value. Peaks and lows in unemployment tracked negatively with similar extremes in COH, whereas employment in the trucking industry was positively associated with COH. Federal air quality regulations also played a large and significant role in reducing COH levels over the study period. Conclusions This new approach outlines an alternative method to reconstruct historical exposures that may greatly aid epidemiologic research on specific causes of health effects from urban air pollution. Economic activity data provide a potential surrogate marker of changes in exposure levels over time in the absence of direct monitoring data for chronic disease studies, but more research in this area is needed. PMID:20056563

  16. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  17. 76 FR 6056 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... (74 FR 58688), EPA deferred designations for three areas to evaluate further the reason for their high... November 13, 2009 notice (74 FR 58688), we also announced that our review of 2006-2008 monitoring data...

  18. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  19. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  20. Natural variation of ambient dose rate in the air of Izu-Oshima Island after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Maedera, Fumihiko; Inoue, Kazumasa; Sugino, Masato; Sano, Ryosuke; Furue, Mai; Shimizu, Hideo; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Le Van, Tan; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The ambient dose rate in air and radioactivity concentration in soil samples collected on Izu-Oshima Island were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014, i.e. 1, 2 and 3 years after the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A car-borne survey for the ambient dose rate in air was carried out for the entire island. Soil samples were collected for the radioactivity concentration measurements from 22 points. The ambient dose rates in air were 36 nGy h(-1) in 2012, 34 nGy h(-1) in 2013 and 29 nGy h(-1) in 2014. The corresponding radioactivity concentrations in those years for (134)Cs were 53, 39 and 29 Bq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs, 87, 73 and 75 Bq kg(-1). All the values have decreased every year. PMID:26246583

  1. Investigation and estimation of emission sources of 54 volatile organic compounds in ambient air in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Jun-ya; Amano, Saeko; Sasaki, Yuko; Korenaga, Takashi

    Atmospheric concentrations of 52 hydrocarbons and two aldehydes at roadside and urban sites in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC. Monthly sampling was conducted during April 2003-March 2005. Annual average concentrations of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the roadside site were 1.7-1.9 times higher than at the urban site, suggesting that vehicle exhausts strongly affect VOC concentrations. Since high temperatures and under the stagnant meteorological conditions might increase VOC concentrations in air, the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons rose in summer and autumn in 2003 and 2004. The VOCs concentrations against benzene (VOCs/Bz) suggest classifying three groups of VOCs: those mainly from mobile emission sources, those mainly from stationary sources, and those comprising unstable compounds such as aldehydes and 1,3-butadiene. The VOC/Bz technique was applied to registered VOC data from the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR). Results show that these VOCs in ambient air in Tokyo reflect the PRTR estimated release amounts. The VOC/Bz technique based on environmental monitoring data is useful to estimate non-registered VOCs such as butane and isopentane. Results show the possibility of estimating emission sources using VOC/Bz ratios from environmental monitoring data, even when sufficient information on the emission sources are not available.

  2. PCDD/F emissions and distributions in Waelz plant and ambient air during different operating stages.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

    2007-04-01

    Significant formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has been observed in a typical Waelz process plant. In 2005, the Waelz plant investigated was equipped with a dust settling chamber (DSC), a venturi cooling tower, a cyclone (CY), and baghouse filter (BF). In early 2006 activated carbon injection (ACI) was adopted to reduce PCDD/F emissions from the plant investigated. Samplings of flue gases and ash were simultaneously conducted at different sampling points in the Waelz plantto evaluate removal efficiency and partitioning of PCDD/Fs between the gas phase and particulates. As the operating temperature of the dust settling chamber (DSC) is increased from 480 to 580 degrees C, the PCDD/F concentration measured at the DSC outlet decreases from 1220 to 394 ng-l-TEQ/Nm3. By applying ACI, the PCDD/F concentrations of stack gas decrease from 139-194 to 3.38 ng-l-TEQ/ Nm(3) (a reduction of 97.6-98.3%) while the PCDD/F concentration of reacted ash increases dramatically from 0.97 to 29.4 ng-l-TEQ/g, as the activated carbon injection rate is controlled at 40 kg/h. Additionally, ambient air PCDD/F concentrations were measured in the vicinity of this facility during different operating stages (shutdown, and operation with and without ACI). The ambient PCDD/F concentration measured downwind and 2.5 km from the Waelz plant decreases from 568 to 206 fg-I-TEQ/m(3) after ACI has been applied to collect the dioxins. Due to the high PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with ACI + BF, about 24.3 and 3980 ng-l-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated are discharged via stack gas and reacted ash, respectively, in this facility. PMID:17438809

  3. A technical review of the feasibility of producing certified reference materials for the measurement of gaseous pollutants in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafkenscheid, Theo; Baldan, Annarita; Quincey, Paul; Cortez, Leopoldo; Dias, Florbela; Brown, Richard H.; Wright, Mike; Gerboles, Michel; Saunders, Kevin

    Within the frame of the EU sponsored project 'Cermatair' (Certified Reference Materials for the Measurement of Gaseous Pollutants in Ambient Air, contract G6RD-CT-2001-00517) the feasibility of preparing and certifying reference materials for the measurement of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and benzene in ambient air was studied. The project focused on measurements at concentration levels corresponding to limit values given in EU Ambient Air Quality Directives and covered reference materials for the reference methods specified in these Directives and for alternative methods based on diffusive sampling. State-of-the-art technologies for the production and certification of the reference materials were identified through literature surveys. Limited batches of reference materials were prepared and, wherever appropriate, tested for homogeneity. The reference materials were subsequently tested in small-scale external verifications, performed by 2-4 laboratories other than the preparation laboratory, aimed at identifying possible discrepancies between concentration values from the preparation processes and experimental values. The results of these verifications revealed possible mechanisms of certification (based on preparation or measurements). The remaining materials were subjected to a one-year stability study.

  4. Differences in creep performance of a HIPed silicon nitride in ambient air and inert environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Kirkland, T.P.; Ferber, M.K.

    1995-04-01

    High temperature tensile creep studies of a commercially available hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitride were conducted in ambient air and argon environments. The creep performance of this HIPed silicon nitride was found to be different in these environments. The material crept faster (and had a consequential shorter lifetime) in argon than in ambient air at 1370{degrees}C at tensile stresses between 110-140 MPa. The stress dependence of the minimum creep rate was found to be {approx} 6 in argon and {approx} 3.5 in air, while the minimum creep rates were almost an order of magnitude faster in argon than in air at equivalent tensile stresses. Differences in the creep performance are explained with reference to the presence or absence of oxygen in the two environments.

  5. Dow Chemical Building 703 incinerator exhaust and ambient air study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trembly, M.G.; Amendola, G.A.

    1987-03-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) determine the levels of dioxins and other toxic compounds in ambient air near the Dow Chemical Midland plant; and (2) determine the levels of dioxin and other chemicals in the Building 703 incinerator exhaust gas, wastewater, and ash, under normal operating conditions. The ambient air study included positive findings of low levels of dioxins at air monitoring sites near the plant fence line and at the site located in the city, ranging up to 0.0004 ug/m/sup 3/ for the less-toxic forms. The study concluded there were no readily observable relationships between the incinerator temperature, pressure, air-pollution control device and flow rates, and the levels of certain dioxins found in the exhaust during the three days of testing. However, there may be a relationship between the levels of dioxin fed into the incinerator and the levels of dioxin discharged.

  6. Minanre Gas Concentrators For Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Seung Ho Hong

    2001-03-01

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of a compact, lightweight, gas-sampling device with rapid-cycle-time characteristics. The highlights of our Phase I work include: (1) Demonstration of a compact gas sampler with integrated heater. This device has an order of magnitude greater adsorption capacity and much faster heating/cooling times than commercial sorbent tubes. (2) Completion of computational fluid dynamics modeling of the gas sampler to determine airflow characteristics for various design options. These modeling efforts guided the development and testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler prototype. (3) Testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler in parallel with tests of two packed-bed samplers. These tests showed the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a substantial improvement compared with the packed-bed approach. Our mesochannel heat-exchanger/adsorber architecture allows very efficient use of adsorbent mass, high adsorbent loadings, and very low pressure drop, which makes possible very high air-sampling rates using a simple, low-power fan. This device is well-suited for collecting samples of trace-level contaminants. The integrated heater, which forms the adsorbent-coated mesochannel walls, allows direct heating of the adsorbent and results in very rapid desorption of the adsorbed species. We believe the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a promising technology for the improvement of trace-contaminant detection limits. In our Phase II proposal, we outline several improvements to the gas sampler that will further improve its performance.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  11. Characterization of a Direct Sample Analysis (DSA) Ambient Ionization Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Gregory T.; Wilhide, Joshua A.; LaCourse, William R.

    2015-09-01

    Water cluster ion intensity and distribution is affected by source conditions in direct sample analysis (DSA) ionization. Parameters investigated in this paper include source nozzle diameter, gas flow rate, and source positions relative to the mass spectrometer inlet. Schlieren photography was used to image the gas flow profile exiting the nozzle. Smaller nozzle diameters and higher flow rates produced clusters of the type [H + (H2O)n]+ with greater n and higher intensity than larger nozzles and lower gas flow rates. At high gas flow rates, the gas flow profile widened compared with the original nozzle diameter. At lower flow rates, the amount of expansion was reduced, which suggests that lowering the flow rate may allow for improvements in sampling spatial resolution.

  12. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  13. 78 FR 52893 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 RIN 2060-AR34 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements Correction In proposed rule...

  14. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to simulate the impact of an ambient heat load on the power requirements of the vehicle's air conditioning compressor while operating on a specific driving cycle. The environmental facility control... heat load are: (A) Metal halide; (B) Quartz halogen with dichroic mirrors; and (C) Sodium iodide....

  15. Performance of the Proposed New Federal Reference Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air, described in EPA regulations at 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix D, is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O

  16. Evaluation and Comparison of Chemiluminescence and UV Photometric Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O3) that may be p...

  17. AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND SELECTED BIRTH DEFECTS, SEVEN COUNTY STUDY, TEXAS, 1997-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A number of epidemiologic investigations have shown adverse effects of ambient air pollution on reproductive outcomes. A recent case-control study found associations between

    second gestational month carbon monoxide and ozone exposure and elevated risks of selec...

  18. 78 FR 12052 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air... is planning to submit a request to renew an existing approved Information Collection Request (ICR) to... proposed information collection as described below. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before April...

  19. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  20. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  1. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for O 3 is an automated method that... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  2. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  3. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new O 3 equivalent method is an... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    .... This designation is made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  5. Chapter 7: Impact of Nitrogen and Climate Change Interactions on Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also forme...

  6. OZONE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD HAS BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON PONDEROSA PINE IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air quality standards and control strategies are implemented to protect humans and vegetation from adverse effects. However, to date there has not been a simple and objective method to determine if the standards and resultant control strategies have reduced O3 impacts on ...

  7. National performance audit program: ambient air audits of analytical proficiency - 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lampe, R.L.; Parr, B.F.; Bennett, B.I.; Pratt, G.; Mitchell, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The report summarizes results of the Ambient Air Audits of Analytical Proficiency for the calendar year 1982. Audits were conducted for SO2, NO2, sulfate, nitrate, lead, carbon monoxide and hi-vol flow rate. The National Performance Audit Program is also described.

  8. Lung cancer and ambient air pollution in Helsinki

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae, A.; Pukkala, E.; Hakulinen, T.

    1993-12-31

    In a record linkage study between the population register of the City of Helsinki and the Finnish Cancer Registry, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of lung cancer for 33 subareas of Helsinki were estimated in order to determine the regional differences and the extent to which these were the effects of socioeconomic factors and air pollution. In addition, the SIRs for people living along main streets were calculated. In 1975-86, 2,439 cases of lung cancer among males and 765 among females were diagnosed in a population of 0.5 million inhabitants. In the subareas, the SIR for males varied from 0.56 to 1.56 and for females from 0.29 to 3.17. A strong inverse association, most likely due to smoking, was observed between lung cancer and average educational level. The levels of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) in the air of various parts of the city were assessed from mathematical models. After adjustment for age, sex, and level of education, the lung cancer risk increased slightly, but nonsignificantly, with increasing SO{sub 2} concentration, being 1.3% higher in the subareas with the highest SO{sub 2} concentrations as compared with the subareas with the lowest concentrations. There was no consistent relation between the concentration of NO{sub 2} and the incidence of lung cancer. The SIR for people living along main streets was slightly lower than for the whole city, varying from 0.39 to 1.31 for males and from 0.24 to 1.51 for females. This variation was likewise mainly attributable to average educational level, but the multiple regression model also revealed slightly, although nonsignificantly, higher SIRs along the streets with denser road traffic. 51 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Effect of fireworks on ambient air quality in Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Renato; Vella, Alfred J.

    2010-11-01

    Religious festivals ( festas) in the densely populated Maltese archipelago (Central Mediterranean) are ubiquitous during summer when 86 of them are celebrated between June and October, each involving the burning of fireworks both in ground and aerial displays over a period of 3 days or longer per festival. We assessed the effect of fireworks on the air quality by comparing PM 10 and its content of Al, Ba, Cu, Sr and Sb which materials are used in pyrotechnic compositions. PM 10 was collected mainly from two sites, one in Malta (an urban background site) and the other in Gozo (a rural site) during July-August 2005 when 59 feasts were celebrated and September-October 2005 when only 11 feasts occurred. For both Malta and Gozo, PM 10 and metal concentration levels measured as weekly means were significantly higher during July-August compared to September-October and there exist strong correlations between PM 10 and total metal content. Additionally, for Malta dust, Al, Ba, Cu and Sr correlated strongly with each other and also with total concentration of all five metals. The same parameters measured in April 2006 in Malta were at levels similar to those found in the previous October. Ba and Sb in dust from the urban background site in Malta during July-August were at comparable or higher concentration than recently reported values in PM 10 from a heavily-trafficked London road and this suggests that these metals are locally not dominated by sources from roadside materials such as break liner wear but more likely by particulate waste from fireworks. Our findings point to the fact that festa firework displays contribute significantly and for a prolonged period every year to airborne dust in Malta where PM 10 is an intractable air quality concern. The presence in this dust of elevated levels of Ba and especially Sb, a possible carcinogen, is of concern to health.

  10. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ambient Air in an Oxidation Flow Reactor at GoAmazon2014/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Brett B.; de Sa, Suzane S.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Hu, Weiwei; Seco, Roger; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung; Brito, Joel; Wurm, Florian; Artaxo, Paulo; Yee, Lindsay; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabrial; Goldstein, Allen; Newburn, Matt K.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Martin, Scot T.; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-01

    During GoAmazon2014/5, ambient air was exposed to controlled concentrations of OH or O3 in situ using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). Oxidation ranged from hours-several weeks of aging. Oxidized air was sampled by several instruments (e.g., HR-AMS, ACSM, PTR-TOF-MS, SMPS, CCN) at both the T3 site (IOP1: Feb 1-Mar 31, 2014, and IOP2: Aug 15-Oct 15, 2014) and T2 site (between IOPs and into 2nd IOP). The oxidation of ambient air in the OFR led to substantial and variable secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from any SOA-precursor gases, known and unknown, that entered the OFR. In general, more SOA was produced during the nighttime than daytime, suggesting that SOA-precursor gases were found in relatively higher concentrations at night. Similarly, more SOA was formed in the dry season (IOP2) than wet season (IOP1). The maximum amount of SOA produced during nighttime from OH oxidation ranged from less than 1 μg/m3 on some nights to greater than 10 μg/m3 on other nights. O3 oxidation of ambient air also led to SOA formation, although several times less than from OH oxidation. The amount of SOA formation sometimes, but not always, correlated with measured gas-phase biogenic and/or anthropogenic SOA precursors (e.g., SV-TAG sesquiterpenes, PTR-TOFMS aromatics, isoprene, and monoterpenes). The SOA mass formed in the OFR from OH oxidation was up to an order of magnitude larger than could be explained from aerosol yields of measured primary VOCs. This along with measurements from previous campaigns suggests that most SOA was formed from intermediate S/IVOC sources (e.g., VOC oxidation products, evaporated POA, or direct emissions). To verify the SOA yields of VOCs under OFR experimental conditions, atmospherically-relevant concentrations of several VOCs were added individually into ambient air in the OFR and oxidized by OH or O3. SOA yields in the OFR were similar to published chamber yields. Preliminary PMF factor analysis showed production of secondary factors in

  11. Characterization of ambient air quality during a rice straw burning episode.

    PubMed

    Tai-Yi, Yu

    2012-03-01

    Spatiotemporal characteristics and impact of ambient air-quality attributed to open burning of rice straw were analyzed and estimated with measured data. Two multivariate analytic methods, factor analysis and cluster analysis, were adopted to analyze the temporal and spatial impact on ambient air-quality during the rice straw burning episode. Temporal features of three scenarios were cited to compare the concentrations for ambient air-quality between the rice straw burning episode and non-episodes over two typical stations by factor analysis. Factor analysis demonstrated that the first rotational component, identified as being highly correlated to the open burning of rice straw, accounts for about 40% of the concentration variance for ambient air-quality. In typical air-quality stations, the average hourly incremental concentrations between the episode and non-episodes were greater than 300 μg m(-3) for PM(10), 1.0 ppm for CO and 35 ppb for NO(2) during the impact of rice straw burning. Factor analysis presented that the first rotated component was highly correlated with several primary pollutants (NO(2), NMHC, PM(10) and CO) during the rice straw burning episode, while every component was only highly correlated with a unique air pollutant during non-episodes. The delineation isopleths indicated that factor analysis could serve as a better method than cluster analysis and provides cross-county cooperation for local governments located in the same separated district during the rice straw burning season. The results of factor analysis revealed that CO is the best index to demonstrate the impact of rice straw burning than the other six air pollutants measured during the episode. Backward trajectory analysis supplied a cause-effect relationship between measured stations and specific rice planted regions during the rice straw burning episode.

  12. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Li, Min; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Xu, Xiaoying; Huang, Huang; Liu, Qing; Bell, Michelle L.; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-07-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010-2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m-3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m-3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects.

  13. 75 FR 44790 - Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...; 75 FR 39253; July 8, 2010). The second draft Policy Assessment builds on the scientific and technical... AGENCY Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... Ambient Air Quality Standards--Second External Review Draft. The EPA is extending the comment period...

  14. A Direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    EPA Science Inventory

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA’s responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and ...

  15. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ozone NAAQS are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  16. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  17. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  18. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  19. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with respect to the 1997 ozone NAAQS are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  20. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  1. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  2. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with respect to the 1997 ozone NAAQS are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  3. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  4. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  5. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... (75 FR 8934). The draft IRP is being made available for consultation with CASAC and for public comment... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for...

  6. Evaluation of ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Germany from 1990 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Fertmann, Regina; Tesseraux, Irene; Schümann, Michael; Neus, Hermann

    2002-03-01

    All available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration data in ambient air obtained over the past 10 years in Germany were evaluated to clarify whether it is justified to use benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker compound for the total PAH exposure. The data basis comprises annual mean concentrations from 1990 to 1998 supplied by the emission protection authorities of the federal states with additional information on the region, year and site of measurement. The data are very heterogeneous with respect to sample size, the number of individual PAHs analyzed, place of origin and year. Nine of 25 individual compounds with sufficient sample size (74

  7. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  8. Optimized Arrangement of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Stations in the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, Shintaro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized. PMID:25764058

  9. Perspective: ambient air pollution: inflammatory response and effects on the lung's vasculature.

    PubMed

    Grunig, Gabriele; Marsh, Leigh M; Esmaeil, Nafiseh; Jackson, Katelin; Gordon, Terry; Reibman, Joan; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Particulates from air pollution are implicated in causing or exacerbating respiratory and systemic cardiovascular diseases and are thought to be among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. However, the contribution of ambient particulate matter to diseases affecting the pulmonary circulation, the right heart, and especially pulmonary hypertension is much less documented. Our own work and that of other groups has demonstrated that prolonged exposure to antigens via the airways can cause severe pulmonary arterial remodeling. In addition, vascular changes have been well documented in a typical disease of the airways, asthma. These experimental and clinical findings link responses in the airways with responses in the lung's vasculature. It follows that particulate air pollution could cause, or exacerbate, diseases in the pulmonary circulation and associated pulmonary hypertension. This perspective details the literature for support of this concept. Data regarding the health effects of particulate matter from air pollution on the lung's vasculature, with emphasis on the lung's inflammatory responses to particulate matter deposition and pulmonary hypertension, are discussed. A deeper understanding of the health implications of exposure to ambient particulate matter will improve our knowledge of how to improve the management of lung diseases, including diseases of the pulmonary circulation. As man-made ambient particulate air pollution is typically linked to economic growth, a better understanding of the health effects of exposure to particulate air pollution is expected to integrate the global goal of achieving healthy living for all.

  10. Perspective: ambient air pollution: inflammatory response and effects on the lung’s vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Nafiseh; Reibman, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Particulates from air pollution are implicated in causing or exacerbating respiratory and systemic cardiovascular diseases and are thought to be among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. However, the contribution of ambient particulate matter to diseases affecting the pulmonary circulation, the right heart, and especially pulmonary hypertension is much less documented. Our own work and that of other groups has demonstrated that prolonged exposure to antigens via the airways can cause severe pulmonary arterial remodeling. In addition, vascular changes have been well documented in a typical disease of the airways, asthma. These experimental and clinical findings link responses in the airways with responses in the lung’s vasculature. It follows that particulate air pollution could cause, or exacerbate, diseases in the pulmonary circulation and associated pulmonary hypertension. This perspective details the literature for support of this concept. Data regarding the health effects of particulate matter from air pollution on the lung’s vasculature, with emphasis on the lung’s inflammatory responses to particulate matter deposition and pulmonary hypertension, are discussed. A deeper understanding of the health implications of exposure to ambient particulate matter will improve our knowledge of how to improve the management of lung diseases, including diseases of the pulmonary circulation. As man-made ambient particulate air pollution is typically linked to economic growth, a better understanding of the health effects of exposure to particulate air pollution is expected to integrate the global goal of achieving healthy living for all. PMID:25006418

  11. Effect of ambient winter air pollution on respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roemer, W; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B

    1993-01-01

    The acute respiratory effects of ambient air pollution were studied in a panel of 73 children with chronic respiratory symptoms in the winter of 1990 to 1991. The participating children were selected from all children aged 6 to 12 yr in Wageningen and Bennekom, two small, nonindustrial towns in the east of the Netherlands. Peak flow was measured twice daily with MiniWright meters. A diary was used to register the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms and medication use by the children. Exposure to air pollution was characterized by the ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black smoke (BS), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10). Associations between air pollution concentrations and health outcomes were analyzed using time series analysis. During the study period an air pollution episode occurred, with moderately elevated concentrations of PM10 and SO2. There were 6 days with 24-h average PM10 concentrations in excess of the WHO suggested lowest observed effect level of 110 micrograms/m3. After adjustment for ambient temperature, there were small but statistically significant negative associations of PM10, BS, and SO2 with both morning and evening PEF. There was a consistent positive association between PM10, BS, and SO2 with the prevalence of wheeze and bronchodilator use. Overall, the observed associations suggest a mild to moderate response to these moderately elevated levels of air pollution in a group of potentially sensitive children.

  12. Effect of ambient storage of wheat samples on their nutritive value for chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V R; Rose, S P; Kettlewell, P S

    2006-06-01

    1. Two wheat cultivars (Abbott and Equinox) were grown using the same crop husbandry conditions. Batches of each cultivar were stored at ambient temperature (AT) for 0, 6, 12, 18 or 24 weeks. Those stored at AT for less than 24 weeks were then stored at -20 degrees C up to the end of the storage period. The 24 week (AT) samples were divided into two lots and one lot was frozen to -20 degrees C for 24 h. 2. Each of the 12 wheat samples was included (650 g/kg) in a nutritionally complete diet and fed to broiler chickens from 7 to 21 d of age. The apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of each sample was determined using a rapid bioassay with adult cockerels. 3. The Equinox cultivar sample had a high proportion (92/1000) of visibly sprouted grains and had a low Hagberg falling number (high amylase activity) and high content of free sugars compared to the Abbott sample. There were no major changes in dry matter, free sugar content, water extract viscosity or Hagberg falling number due to the different times of ambient storage of either of the two wheat cultivar samples. 4. The chickens fed on the Abbott cultivar wheat had a greater weight gain, although there were no differences in the determined AME of the two wheat cultivars. 5. The Abbott sample stored at ambient temperature for 6 weeks had a greater AME than the sample given no ambient storage and the samples given 18 and 24 weeks ambient storage. There were no significant differences between the Equinox cultivar samples. There were no effects of storage time on the growth performance of the broiler chickens. 6. The AME of the unfrozen Abbott cultivar was greater than the frozen (for 24 h) sample but there was no effect on broiler growth performance. This study suggests that, in some wheat samples, there may be a benefit in avoiding freezing during storage. PMID:16787859

  13. Role of amine structure on carbon dioxide adsorption from ultradilute gas streams such as ambient air.

    PubMed

    Didas, Stephanie A; Kulkarni, Ambarish R; Sholl, David S; Jones, Christopher W

    2012-10-01

    A fundamental study on the adsorption properties of primary, secondary, and tertiary amine materials is used to evaluate what amine type(s) are best suited for ultradilute CO(2) capture applications. A series of comparable materials comprised of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines ligated to a mesoporous silica support via a propyl linker are used to systematically assess the role of amine type. Both CO(2) and water adsorption isotherms are presented for these materials in the range relevant to CO(2) capture from ambient air and it is demonstrated that primary amines are the best candidates for CO(2) capture from air. Primary amines possess both the highest amine efficiency for CO(2) adsorption as well as enhanced water affinity compared to other amine types or the bare silica support. The results suggest that the rational design of amine adsorbents for the extraction of CO(2) from ambient air should focus on adsorbents rich in primary amines.

  14. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yoonchul; Atiq, Mahin K.; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC) method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods. PMID:24658619

  15. MTBE concentrations in ambient air in the vicinity of service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainiotalo, Sinikka; Peltonen, Yrjö; Pfäffli, Pirkko

    Ambient air concentrations of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) were monitored in the vicinity of two self-service stations in May-June and October, 1995. These stations (one urban and one roadside) were located in southwestern Finland and were equipped with "stage I" vapour recovery systems. All the gasoline blends dispensed during the study (95, 98 and 99 RON) contained 11% MTBE. The measurements were carried out 24 h day -1 at stationary sampling points located at the four main compass points on the service station perimeter (about 50 m from the centre of the forecourt). The air samples were collected in charcoal tubes and analysed in laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection. The concentrations in individual samples ranged from 0.5 to 121 μg m -3, and the highest daily concentrations were usually obtained at the downwind sampling points. The arithmetic mean concentrations for each of the four-day sampling periods were: 7.5 μg m -3 (station 1/May-June), 4.1 μg/m 3 (station 1/October), 12.4 μg m -3 (station 2/June) and 14.1 μg m -3 (station 2/October). The mean concentrations measured in the centre of the pump island (only daytime sampling) ranged from 247 to 1347 μg m -3. The levels of MTBE are station-specific and dependent on many factors, such as volumes of gasolines sold, wind speed, exhaust emissions from passing traffic, and deliveries of gasoline to the station. The mean wind speeds were between 0.7 and 1.5 m s -1, and the temperatures were above 22°C in summer and about 10°C in October. The volume of gasoline sold at the urban service station, station 2, was twice that at the roadside service station, station 1. There was one road with high traffic density adjacent to station 1 and two such roads at station 2. Gasoline was delivered twice to station 1 and 3 times to station 2 during the study.

  16. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT... determining the expected number of annual exceedances relate to accounting for incomplete sampling. In general... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58....

  18. A Cluster Analysis of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Data from the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Atsushi; Shirato, Shintaro; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates an application of cluster analysis to constant ambient air monitoring data of four pollutants in the Kanto region: NOx, photochemical oxidant (Ox), suspended particulate matter, and non-methane hydrocarbons. Constant ambient air monitoring can provide important information about the surrounding atmospheric pollution. However, at the same time, ambient air monitoring can place a significant financial burden on some autonomous communities. Thus, it has been necessary to reduce both the number of monitoring stations and the number of chemicals monitored. To achieve this, it is necessary to identify those monitoring stations and pollutants that are least significant, while minimizing the loss of data quality and mitigating the effects on the determination of any spatial and temporal trends of the pollutants. Through employing cluster analysis, it was established that the ambient monitoring stations in the Kanto region could be clustered topologically for NOx and Ox into eight groups. From the results of this analysis, it was possible to identify the similarities in site characteristics and pollutant behaviors. PMID:24995597

  19. The discharge of fine silica sand in a silo under different ambient air pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiau, Shu-San; Liao, Chun-Chung; Lee, Jie-Hsien

    2012-04-01

    Silos are widely used for the industrial scale handling and transportation of powdered and granular materials. The process of discharging powder in a silo involves the flow of both solid particles and an interstitial fluid, usually air. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of particle size and ambient pressure on the discharge process in open- and closed-top silos. The discharge rate, pressure drop, and pressure recovery rate are measured and discussed. The results show that the particle size, the diameter of the orifice, and the ambient pressure significantly influence the process of discharge. The effect of air flow is stronger on fine-powdered flow in a closed-top silo. The results indicate that the effects of air flow could be reduced by lowering the ambient pressure. In addition, a normalized critical pressure can be defined beyond which the discharge rate increases dramatically. With reduced ambient pressure, this normalized critical pressure decreases with increasing particle size. Finally, the experimental results are compared with results calculated using the Beverloo equation and Darcy's law.

  20. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Korea’s air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. Methods In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. Results This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Conclusions Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts. PMID:25300297

  1. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was <1 for all pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  2. Occurrence of currently used pesticides in ambient air of Centre Region (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscollà, Clara; Colin, Patrice; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Petrique, Olivier; Yusà, Vicent; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Pastor, Agustin

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air samples were collected, from 2006 to 2008 at three rural and two urban sites in Centre Region (France) and analyzed for 56 currently used pesticides (CUPs), of which 41 were detected. The four CUPs most frequently detected were the herbicides trifluralin, acetochlor and pendimethalin and the fungicide chlorothalonil, which were found with frequencies ranging between 52 and 78%, and with average concentrations of 1.93, 1.32, 1.84 and 12.15 ng m -3, respectively. Among the detected pesticides, concentrations of eight fungicides (spiroxamine, fenpropimorph, cyprodinil, tolyfluanid, epoxiconazole, vinchlozolin, fluazinam, fludioxinil), two insecticides (propargite, ethoprophos), and one herbicide (oxyfluorfen) are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in the literature. The majority of the CUPs showed a seasonal trend, with most of the detections and the highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The most important pesticides detected were related to arable crops and fruit orchards, the main cultures in this region, highlighting the fact that the main sources come from local applications. Minor differences were found in the profiles of pesticides within rural areas and between rural and urban areas.

  3. Ambient air pollution particles and the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sint, Thaw; Donohue, James F; Ghio, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Investigation has repeatedly demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient air pollution particles and numerous indices of human morbidity and mortality. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among those with an increased sensitivity to air pollution particles. Current and ex-smokers account for 80 to 85% of all those with COPD. The human breathing in an urban site with a significant level of particulate matter (PM) may be exposed to 720 microg daily. A single cigarette introduces 15,000 to 40,000 microg particle into the respiratory tract of the smoker. It is subsequently confounding why such a relatively small mass of airborne PM should have any biological effect in the patient with COPD, as these individuals are repeatedly exposed to particles (with a similar size and composition) at perhaps a thousandfold the mass of ambient PM. Regarding this increased sensitivity of COPD patients to air pollution particles, there are several possible explanations for this seeming contradiction, including correlations of PM levels with other components of air pollution, an accumulation of multiple independent risk factors in a patient, changes in individual activity patterns, disparities in dosimetry between healthy subjects and COPD patients, and some unique characteristic of an ambient air pollution PM. Regardless of the underlying mechanism for the increased sensitivity of COPD patients, exposures of these individuals to elevated levels of PM should be discouraged. To provide a greater awareness of PM levels, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency now includes levels of air pollution particles in an air quality index.

  4. Biomass burning contribution to ambient air particulate levels at Navrongo in the Savannah zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Francis G; Hopke, Philip K; Aboh, Innocent J K; Bamford, Samuel A

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo.

  5. Mixing models for the simulation of plume interaction with ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter A.; Cocks, Alan T.

    This paper reports the development and evaluation of an improved treatment of the mixing of plume material with ambient air for use in reactive plume models, to examine the effects of dispersion in more detail. Two mixing schemes based upon a multiple expanding box model are examined. Previous work has shown that the rate of turbulent mixing of ambient material into a plume is of primary importance, and a major feature of the schemes considered is that they allow the plume boundary to be precisely defined, so that the ambient air may be treated as uniform and the flux of ambient material into the plume area precisely calculated. It is shown that these schemes, while not formulated in terms of diffusion, can be considered to be equivalent to finite difference approximations to the diffusion equation on an expanding grid. This use of an expanding grid is shown to lead to unconditionally stable equations which exhibit very little numerical diffusion. This allows the choice of timestep in a numerical integration to be governed by the chemistry. Tests performed using a full chemical scheme to control the timesteps show that the mixing schemes give excellent agreement with analytical solutions for passive tracers. The schemes thus provide a sound basis for the further investigation of the effect of entrainment on plume chemistry. Comparison of the results of reactive plume simulations using multiple and uniform expanding box models shows that it is the total amount of ambient air mixed into the plume which is of primary importance in determining total overall reaction, rather than the details of mixing within the plume.

  6. Relationship between polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air and 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.H.; Quan, W.Y.; Tian, D.H. )

    1992-10-01

    The relationship between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and ambient polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated with several groups of volunteers carrying personal air samplers. All the results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant correlation between 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine and pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in ambient air. Smoking was found not to interfere this correlation when the smokers consume less than 20 cigarettes daily. Different sources of PAH pollution, such as certain industries and coal-burning, present their influence on 1-hydroxypyrene in their specific ways. It is suggested that 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine is an effective biological monitoring index for the assessment of human exposure to PAHs. 18 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Technical specification for transferring ambient air monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In September 1994, a team was formed to develop, document, and implement technical specifications for transmitting ambient air environmental compliance and monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). The approach used to transmit this data is documented in the {open_quotes}Plan for Integrating Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Data into OREIS.{close_quotes} This plan addresses the consolidated data requirements defined by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) and the Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA) as they pertain to environmental compliance and monitoring data maintained by Energy Systems` Oak Ridge Environmental Management organizations. Ibis document describes. the requirements, responsibilities, criteria, and format for transmitting ambient air compliance and monitoring data to OREIS.

  8. Laser-induced plasmas in ambient air for incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Albert A; Dixneuf, Sophie; Orphal, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    The emission from a laser-induced plasma in ambient air, generated by a high power femtosecond laser, was utilized as pulsed incoherent broadband light source in the center of a quasi-confocal high finesse cavity. The time dependent spectra of the light leaking from the cavity was compared with those of the laser-induced plasma emission without the cavity. It was found that the light emission was sustained by the cavity despite the initially large optical losses of the laser-induced plasma in the cavity. The light sustained by the cavity was used to measure part of the S(1) ← S(0) absorption spectrum of gaseous azulene at its vapour pressure at room temperature in ambient air as well as the strongly forbidden γ-band in molecular oxygen: b(1)Σ(g)(+)(ν'=2)←X(3)Σ(g)(-)(ν''=0). PMID:25836833

  9. [Influence of ambient air pollutants released by metallurgic enterprises on public].

    PubMed

    Goryaev, D V; Tikhonova, I V

    2016-01-01

    State of ambient air in resident area in Norilsk city, on background of considerable and persistently high releases of chemical pollutants by major metallurgic industrial enterprises, forms risks for public health--that is supported by highly prevalent diseases of affected organs and systems in the city residents. Preserving sanitary epidemiologic well-being of this territory requires specification and implementation of hygienic, organizational, social measures to protect population dwelling in unfavorable regions.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions generated by a corona discharge in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Fitzmorris, Kristin; Peiris, Manoj; Hopkins, Adam J; Petrak, Benjamin; Killinger, Dennis K; Muller, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions via the B(2)Σu(+)-X(2)Σg(+) band system in the near-ultraviolet. The ions were generated continuously by a plasma glow discharge in low pressure N2 and by a corona discharge in ambient air. The fluorescence decay time was found to rapidly decrease with increasing pressure leading to an extrapolated decay rate of ≍10(10) s(-1) at atmospheric pressure. In spite of this quenching, we were able to observe laser induced fluorescence in ambient air by means of a time-gated spectral measurement. In the process of comparing the emission signal with that of N2 spontaneous Raman scattering, ion concentrations in ambient air of order 10(8-)10(10) cm(-3) were determined. With moderate increases in laser power and collection efficiency, ion concentrations of less than 10(6) cm(-3) may be measurable, potentially enabling applications in atmospheric standoff detection of ionizing radiation from hazardous radioactive sources. PMID:26414524

  11. Ambient air monitoring plan for Ciudad Acuna and Piedra Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, J.; Henning, L.; Crume, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Cities of Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras and the State of Coahuila in Mexico are interested in improving ambient air quality monitoring capabilities in the two cities through the establishment of a network of ambient air monitors. The purpose of the network is to characterize population exposure to potentially harmful air contaminants, possibly including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 micrometers PM-10, and lead. This report presents the results of an evaluation of existing air quality monitoring equipment and facilities in Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras. Additionally, the report presents recommendations for developing an air quality monitoring network for PM-10, SO{sub 2}, lead, and ozone in these cities, using a combination of both new and existing equipment. The human resources currently available and ultimately needed to operate and maintain the network are also discussed.

  12. Analysis of a workplace air particulate sample by synchronous luminescence and room-temperature phosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Gammage, R.B.; Martinez, P.R.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of a XAD-2 resin extract of a particulate air sample collected at an industrial environment was conducted by use of two simple spectroscopic methods performed at ambient temperature, the synchronous luminescence and room-temperature phosphorescence techniques. Results of the analysis of 13 polynuclear aromatic compounds including anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, 2,3-benzofluorene, chrysene, 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene, dibenzthiophene, fluoranthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, perylene, pyrene, and tetracene were reported.

  13. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly. PMID:23636622

  14. PCDD/Fs in ambient air in north-east Italy: the role of a MSWI inside an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Mariani, Giulio; Lodi, Marco; Marras, Roberto; Rotella, Giuseppe; Senese, Vincenzo; Fattore, Elena; Fanelli, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    The stack gases of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), and ambient air were sampled in four locations around the plant for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). The sampling area was close to an industrial area near Trieste, in north-east Italy. The purpose of the study was to estimate the impact of the MSWI emissions and to distinguish the contribution of these emissions from other potential emission sources in the industrial area. PCDD/F atmospheric concentrations were similar to those generally detected in urban-rural areas with one location about 2-3 times more contaminated than the others. Since the most contaminated location was inside the industrial area but upwind of the MSWI, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to establish whether other sources were the cause. This analysis clearly showed that a local steel plant's emission was the main source of PCDDs/Fs in ambient air. This study highlights the usefulness of multivariate data analysis such as PCA to identify, among different potential emission sources, the one really responsible for the contamination.

  15. Contamination of aluminium oxide surfaces in ambient air investigated by FTIR MSR and TOF SIMS. Chemisorption of aliphatic carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondag, A. H. M.; Raas, M. C.; Van Velzen, P. N. T.

    1989-03-01

    Contamination in ambient air of freshly evaporated aluminium surfaces covered with a thin layer of native oxide has been studied using Fourier transform infrared multiple specular reflectance (FTIR MSR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). The FTIR MSR experiments yield vibrational spectra than can be attributed to short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids. Some reference spectra have been measured by FTIR MSR spectroscopy of samples prepared by chemisorption of formic, acetic, lactic, butyric and palmitic acids on oxidized aluminium and (in some cases) silver surfaces. From these data the major contaminant has to be the acetate ion. Saturation of the spectral intensities is observed within an hour after exposure to air. The TOF SIMS spectra confirm the conclusion with respect to the acetate ion. Mass peaks belonging to the formate, lactate and some inorganic anions are present in the TOF SIMS spectra.

  16. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998.

  17. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  18. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  19. Development and application of a sensitive method to determine concentrations of acrolein and other carbonyls in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Charles, M Judith; Seaman, Vincent Y

    2010-05-01

    Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde, has been identified as one of the most important toxic air pollutants in recent assessments of ambient air quality. Current methods for determining acrolein concentrations, however, suffer from poor sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility. The collection and analysis of unsaturated carbonyls, and acrolein in particular, is complicated by unstable derivatives, coelution of similar compounds, and ozone interference. The primary objective of this research was to develop an analytical method to measure acrolein and other volatile carbonyls present in low part-per-trillion concentrations in ambient air samples obtained over short sampling periods. The method we devised uses a mist chamber in which carbonyls from air samples form water-soluble adducts with bisulfite in the chamber solution, effectively trapping the carbonyls in the solution. The mist chamber methodology proved effective, with collection efficiency for acrolein of at least 70% for each mist chamber at a flow rate of approximately 17 L/min. After the sample collection, the carbonyls are liberated from the bisulfite adducts through the addition of hydrogen peroxide, which converts the bisulfite to sulfate, reversing the bisulfite addition reaction. The free carbonyls are then derivatized by o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA*), which stabilizes the analytes and makes them easier to detect by electron-capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (ECNI-MS). The derivatives are then extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mist chamber method was applied in a field test to determine the extent of acrolein in ambient air near the Peace Bridge plaza in Buffalo, New York, an area of heavy traffic near a major border crossing between the United States and Canada. In addition, XAD-2 adsorbent cartridges coated with 2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine (2-HMP) according to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method

  20. Development and application of a sensitive method to determine concentrations of acrolein and other carbonyls in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Charles, M Judith; Seaman, Vincent Y

    2010-05-01

    Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde, has been identified as one of the most important toxic air pollutants in recent assessments of ambient air quality. Current methods for determining acrolein concentrations, however, suffer from poor sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility. The collection and analysis of unsaturated carbonyls, and acrolein in particular, is complicated by unstable derivatives, coelution of similar compounds, and ozone interference. The primary objective of this research was to develop an analytical method to measure acrolein and other volatile carbonyls present in low part-per-trillion concentrations in ambient air samples obtained over short sampling periods. The method we devised uses a mist chamber in which carbonyls from air samples form water-soluble adducts with bisulfite in the chamber solution, effectively trapping the carbonyls in the solution. The mist chamber methodology proved effective, with collection efficiency for acrolein of at least 70% for each mist chamber at a flow rate of approximately 17 L/min. After the sample collection, the carbonyls are liberated from the bisulfite adducts through the addition of hydrogen peroxide, which converts the bisulfite to sulfate, reversing the bisulfite addition reaction. The free carbonyls are then derivatized by o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA*), which stabilizes the analytes and makes them easier to detect by electron-capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (ECNI-MS). The derivatives are then extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mist chamber method was applied in a field test to determine the extent of acrolein in ambient air near the Peace Bridge plaza in Buffalo, New York, an area of heavy traffic near a major border crossing between the United States and Canada. In addition, XAD-2 adsorbent cartridges coated with 2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine (2-HMP) according to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method

  1. Study of temporal variation in ambient air quality during Diwali festival in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, D P; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T K; Dixit, C K; Singh, Khem; Saud, T; Singh, Nahar; Gupta, Prabhat K

    2010-10-01

    The variation in air quality was assessed from the ambient concentrations of various air pollutants [total suspended particle (TSP), particulate matter < or =10 microm (PM(10)), SO(2), and NO(2)] for pre-Diwali, Diwali festival, post-Diwali, and foggy day (October, November, and December), Delhi (India), from 2002 to 2007. The extensive use of fireworks was found to be related to short-term variation in air quality. During the festival, TSP is almost of the same order as compared to the concentration at an industrial site in Delhi in all the years. However, the concentrations of PM(10), SO(2), and NO(2) increased two to six times during the Diwali period when compared to the data reported for an industrial site. Similar trend was observed when the concentrations of pollutants were compared with values obtained for a typical foggy day each year in December. The levels of these pollutants observed during Diwali were found to be higher due to adverse meteorological conditions, i.e., decrease in 24 h average mixing height, temperature, and wind speed. The trend analysis shows that TSP, PM(10), NO(2), and SO(2) concentration increased just before Diwali and reached to a maximum concentration on the day of the festival. The values gradually decreased after the festival. On Diwali day, 24-h values for TSP and PM(10) in all the years from 2002 to 2007 and for NO(2) in 2004 and 2007 were found to be higher than prescribed limits of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and exceptionally high (3.6 times) for PM(10) in 2007. These results indicate that fireworks during the Diwali festival affected the ambient air quality adversely due to emission and accumulation of TSP, PM(10), SO(2), and NO(2).

  2. Easy dual-mode ambient mass spectrometry with Venturi self-pumping, canned air, disposable parts and voltage-free sonic-spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Nicolas V; Porcari, Andreia M; Coelho, Mirela B; Schmidt, Eduardo M; Jara, Jose L; Visentainer, Jesui V; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2012-06-01

    An exceptionally easy to assemble source for ambient mass spectrometry is described. Based on Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI), the source was further simplified by the use of a can of compressed air which simultaneously provides solution or solvent Venturi self-pumping and continuous, stable and abundant low-noise ion signal via voltage-free sonic-spraying. Further simplification was also attained by the use of inexpensive and readily commercially available parts: a surgical 2-way catheter, an aerosol can of compressed air, a 30 cm long fused-silica capillary and a hypodermic needle. This "Spartan" V-EASI source seems to offer one of the easiest and cheapest ways to make ions for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis of both liquid and solid samples. PMID:22349120

  3. Sampling Interplanetary Dust Particles from Antarctic Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Lever, J. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Brownlee, D. E.; Messenger, S.; Littler, L. R.; Stroud, R. M.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Clement, S.

    2016-08-01

    We are undertaking a NASA and NSF supported project to filter large volumes of clean Antarctic air to collect a broad range of cosmic dust, including CP-IDPs, rare ultra-carbonaceous particles and particles derived from specific meteor streams.

  4. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  5. Ambient Air Quality Assessment with Particular Reference to Particulates in Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdeep; Roy, Debananda; Sinha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    Jharia Coalfield is the critically polluted area with the intense mining and associated industrial activities. There has been widespread concern of particulate pollution with the alarming levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Coke oven plants, coal washing, thermal power stations and associated activities coupled with the transportation activities, give rise to critical air pollution levels in the region. This study envisages the assessment of air pollution of the region with particular reference to SPM, PM10 and PM2.5. Eighteen monitoring stations were selected considering various sources of pollution such as mining, industrial, commercial and residential areas apart from siting criteria as per IS: 5182 Part XIV. Air quality monitoring was carried out following standard methodologies and protocols as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) norms using Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) and Fine Particulate Samplers (PM2.5 Samplers). This study reveals considerable load of particulates (SPM, PM10, PM 2.5) which exceed not only the NAAQS but also the coal mining areas standards of Jharia coalfield, thus falling under the category of critically polluted area. Air Quality Indexing has also been developed which provides a clear map of the deterioration of air quality and also presenting comparative ranking of all the monitoring locations with respect to air quality status in the study area.

  6. An integrated statistical approach for evaluating the exceedence of criteria pollutants in the ambient air of megacity Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pragati; Sharma, Prateek; Jain, Suresh; Kumar, Prashant

    2013-05-01

    Like many countries, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, in India evaluates exceedences of air pollution levels against the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). One of the mandatory requirements for NAAQS compliance is that the probability of non-exceedence should be at least 0.98, meaning that the formulated framework of NAAQS is essentially statistical. The current practice for assessing the compliance criterion is based on simple computation of the count of number of exceedences in a given year, without giving any consideration to the distribution function followed by different pollutants in the ambient air. This becomes even more important for monitoring stations where continuous monitoring is not done for all 365 days, but assessment is based on a minimum sample of 104 readings recorded in a year. The proper method for evaluating the compliance is the foreknowledge of the population distribution and computation of non-exceedence (or exceedence) probability of NAAQS from the probability density function (pdf). The study proposes an integrated and scientifically robust methodology that is generic in nature and could well be used for assessing the air quality compliance criteria laid out by the NAAQS for India, besides suggesting percent reduction in source emissions to those pollutants that exceed the NAAQS. The usefulness of proposed methodology is exhibited by a case study conducted on four criteria air pollutants - sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particulate matter (SPM), and particulate matter less 10 micron in size (PM10) - monitored in the ambient air of megacity Delhi at six monitoring stations. The collected data at all these sites underwent statistical analysis for the: (i) identification and estimation of the best-fit distributions, (ii) computation of probability of exceedence of the NAAQS for the non-complying pollutants, (iii) determination of return period of NAAQS violation, and (iv) estimation of

  7. Development of Quality Control Parameters and Electronic Data Recording for an Ambient Air Particle Inhalation Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air particle concentrating systems were installed by the US EPA in RTP, NC. These systems, designed by Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (Boston, MA), concentrated ambient fine and ultra-fine mode particulate matter (P...

  8. Health effects of acute exposure to air polllution. Part II: Healthy subjects exposed to cencentrated ambient particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of short-term exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs*) on lung function and on inflammatory parameters in blood and airways of healthy human subjects. Particles were concentrated from the ambient air in Chapel Hill, Nor...

  9. Proposed Pathophysiologic Framework to Explain Some Excess Cardiovascular Death Associated with Ambient Air Particle Pollution: Insights for Public Health Translation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper proposes a pathophysiologic framework to explain the well-established epidemiological association between exposure to ambient air particle pollution and premature cardiovascular mortality, and offers insights into public health solutions that extend beyond regularory en...

  10. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... methods: 1. http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. 2. E...: Melissa M. Barnhart, Environmental Scientist, Control Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch...

  11. Development of instrumentation for simultaneous analysis of total non-methane organic carbon and volatile organic compounds in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Christophe; Chung, Myeong Y.; Lueb, Richard; Krischke, Udo; Meller, Richard; Fox, Matthew J.; Paulson, Suzanne E.

    Here we describe the development of a new instrument to measure the total airborne non-methane organic carbon concentration (TNMOC), and the ratio of this value to the sum of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured by standard gas chromatography. The TNMOC and sum of speciated VOC analyses are made simultaneously. Samples are collected in situ, with an inlet designed to minimize contact of samples with surfaces. Whole air samples are cryo-trapped with minimal collection of CO 2, CO and CH 4. Organics are desorbed and converted to CO 2 using an oxidation catalyst. The resulting CO 2 is analyzed with a flame ionization detector after reduction to methane. The instrument is tested and found to perform well on gas mixtures, ambient air and on smog chamber samples. The detection limit for the instrument is 35 ppbC, and the accuracy of the ratio of TNMOC to the sum of speciated VOCs is ±0.05 for most samples.

  12. A metrological approach to improve accuracy and reliability of ammonia measurements in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogány, Andrea; Balslev-Harder, David; Braban, Christine F.; Cassidy, Nathan; Ebert, Volker; Ferracci, Valerio; Hieta, Tuomas; Leuenberger, Daiana; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Peltola, Jari; Persijn, Stefan; Tiebe, Carlo; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Vaittinen, Olavi; van Wijk, Janneke; Wirtz, Klaus; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    The environmental impacts of ammonia (NH3) in ambient air have become more evident in the recent decades, leading to intensifying research in this field. A number of novel analytical techniques and monitoring instruments have been developed, and the quality and availability of reference gas mixtures used for the calibration of measuring instruments has also increased significantly. However, recent inter-comparison measurements show significant discrepancies, indicating that the majority of the newly developed devices and reference materials require further thorough validation. There is a clear need for more intensive metrological research focusing on quality assurance, intercomparability and validations. MetNH3 (Metrology for ammonia in ambient air) is a three-year project within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), which aims to bring metrological traceability to ambient ammonia measurements in the 0.5–500 nmol mol‑1 amount fraction range. This is addressed by working in three areas: (1) improving accuracy and stability of static and dynamic reference gas mixtures, (2) developing an optical transfer standard and (3) establishing the link between high-accuracy metrological standards and field measurements. In this article we describe the concept, aims and first results of the project.

  13. Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 μg/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gryparis, Alexandros; Schwartz, Joel D.; Coull, Brent A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Milberg, William P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution, particularly from traffic, has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes, but the association with depressive symptoms remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated the association between exposure to ambient air and traffic pollution and the presence of depressive symptoms among 732 Boston-area adults ≥ 65 years of age (78.1 ± 5.5 years, mean ± SD). Methods: We assessed depressive symptoms during home interviews using the Revised Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-R). We estimated residential distance to the nearest major roadway as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic pollution and assessed short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfates, black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles, and gaseous pollutants, averaged over the 2 weeks preceding each assessment. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of a CESD-R score ≥ 16 associated with exposure, adjusting for potential confounders. In sensitivity analyses, we considered CESD-R score as a continuous outcome and mean annual residential BC as an alternate marker of long-term exposure to traffic pollution. Results: We found no evidence of a positive association between depressive symptoms and long-term exposure to traffic pollution or short-term changes in pollutant levels. For example, we found an OR of CESD-R score ≥ 16 of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.98) per interquartile range (3.4 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5 over the 2 weeks preceding assessment. Conclusions: We found no evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution is associated with depressive symptoms among older adults living in a metropolitan area in attainment of current U.S. regulatory standards. Citation: Wang Y, Eliot MN, Koutrakis P, Gryparis A, Schwartz JD, Coull BA, Mittleman MA, Milberg WP, Lipsitz LA, Wellenius GA. 2014. Ambient air pollution and depressive symptoms in older adults: results from the MOBILIZE Boston

  15. Investigation of levels in ambient air near sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Kanpur, India, and risk assessment due to inhalation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anubha; Upadhyay, Kritika; Chakraborty, Mrinmoy

    2016-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds listed as persistent organic pollutant and have been banned for use under Stockholm Convention (1972). They were used primarily in transformers and capacitors, paint, flame retardants, plasticizers, and lubricants. PCBs can be emitted through the primary and secondary sources into the atmosphere, undergo long-range atmospheric transport, and hence have been detected worldwide. Reported levels in ambient air are generally higher in urban areas. Active sampling of ambient air was conducted in Kanpur, a densely populated and industrialized city in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, for detection of 32 priority PCBs, with the aim to determine the concentration in gas/particle phase and assess exposure risk. More than 50 % of PCBs were detected in air. Occurrence in particles was dominated by heavier congeners, and levels in gas phase were below detection. Levels determined in this study are lower than the levels in Coastal areas of India but are at par with other Asian countries where majority of sites chosen for sampling were urban industrial areas. Human health risk estimates through air inhalation pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR). The study found lower concentrations of PCBs than guideline values and low health risk estimates through inhalation within acceptable levels, indicating a minimum risk to the adults due to exposure to PCBs present in ambient air in Kanpur.

  16. Investigation of levels in ambient air near sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Kanpur, India, and risk assessment due to inhalation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anubha; Upadhyay, Kritika; Chakraborty, Mrinmoy

    2016-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds listed as persistent organic pollutant and have been banned for use under Stockholm Convention (1972). They were used primarily in transformers and capacitors, paint, flame retardants, plasticizers, and lubricants. PCBs can be emitted through the primary and secondary sources into the atmosphere, undergo long-range atmospheric transport, and hence have been detected worldwide. Reported levels in ambient air are generally higher in urban areas. Active sampling of ambient air was conducted in Kanpur, a densely populated and industrialized city in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, for detection of 32 priority PCBs, with the aim to determine the concentration in gas/particle phase and assess exposure risk. More than 50 % of PCBs were detected in air. Occurrence in particles was dominated by heavier congeners, and levels in gas phase were below detection. Levels determined in this study are lower than the levels in Coastal areas of India but are at par with other Asian countries where majority of sites chosen for sampling were urban industrial areas. Human health risk estimates through air inhalation pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR). The study found lower concentrations of PCBs than guideline values and low health risk estimates through inhalation within acceptable levels, indicating a minimum risk to the adults due to exposure to PCBs present in ambient air in Kanpur. PMID:27061805

  17. Carcinogenicity of ambient air pollution: use of biomarkers, lessons learnt and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution can cause lung cancer. Biomarkers can enhance research on the health effects of air pollution by improving exposure assessment, increasing the understanding of mechanisms, and enabling the investigation of individual susceptibility. In this review, we assess DNA adducts as biomarkers of exposure to AAP and early biological effect, and DNA methylation as biomarker of early biological change and discuss critical issues arising from their incorporation in AAP health impact evaluations, such as confounding, individual susceptibilities, timing, intensity and duration of exposure, and investigated tissue. DNA adducts and DNA methylation are treated as paradigms. However, the lessons, learned from their use in the examination of AAP carcinogenicity, can be applied to investigations of other biomarkers involved in AAP carcinogenicity. PMID:25694819

  18. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability. PMID:26516860

  19. Venturi Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector For Sampling Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Burney, L. Garland; Wade, Larry O.

    1990-01-01

    Venturi air-jet vacuum ejector pump light in weight, requires no electrical power, does not contribute heat to aircraft, and provides high pumping speeds at moderate suctions. High-pressure motive gas required for this type of pump bled from compressor of aircraft engine with negligible effect on performance of engine. Used as source of vacuum for differential-absorption CO-measurement (DACOM), modified to achieve in situ measurements of CO at frequency response of 10 Hz. Provides improvement in spatial resolution and potentially leads to capability to measure turbulent flux of CO by use of eddy-correlation technique.

  20. Short-term respiratory effects of polluted ambient air: a laboratory study of volunteers in a high-oxidant community.

    PubMed

    Linn, W S; Jones, M P; Bachmayer, E A; Spier, C E; Mazur, S F; Avol, E L; Hackney, J D

    1980-02-01

    To investigate short-term health effects of community air pollution directly, we developed a mobile laboratory allowing "blind" exposures of volunteers to polluted ambient air and to purified air at similar temperature and humidity. Subjects (30 asthmatic, 34 normal) from the surrounding area were studied at Duarte, California, a Los Angeles suburb subject to frequent photochemical oxidant pollution. Each was exposed to a close approximation of outdoor ambient air for 2 h with intermittent light exercise. Lung function and symptoms were evaluated pre- and post-exposure. A control (purified air) study took place several weeks later. Mean ambient air exposure concentrations were near 0.22 ppm for ozone and 200 micrograms/m3 for total suspended particulate. Ambient air exposures were associated with small significant losses in forced expiratory performance and total lung capacity. The responses of asthmatic and normal subjects were generally not significantly different, possibly because many normal subjects had a history of allergy and appeared atypically reactive to respiratory insults. In the normal subjects, a small significant increase in reported symptoms was seen with ambient air exposures compared with the control. In the asthmatics, the increase was not significant. Over-all, only slight effects attributable to exposure were found, even though a severely polluted area and a presumed high-risk population were chosen for study. PMID:7362133

  1. The influence of chemical and physical forms of ambient air acids on airway doses.

    PubMed

    Larson, T V

    1989-02-01

    The effects of ambient relative humidity and particle size on acid deposition within the airways have been examined with a computer model. For H2SO4 particles initially at 90% relative humidity in ambient air that are inhaled via the nose or mouth, there is significant deposition of acid in the airways even in the presence of typical values of respiratory NH3. When these same particles are found in a fog at 100.015% relative humidity, there is significant deposition of acid in the nasal region during nose breathing but insignificant deposition to the deep lung for either nose or mouth breathing. The factors governing the partitioning of labile acid gases in the gas and liquid phases prior to inhalation are also discussed.

  2. Post-Hurricane Katrina passive sampling of ambient volatile organic compounds in the greater New Orleans area.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuenja C; Stock, Thomas H; Smith, Luther A; Afshar, Masoud; Liao, Xiaojuan L; Stallings, Casson

    2009-11-01

    On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall near New Orleans, Louisiana, a major metroplex with petroleum industries. In response to the potential impact of the storm on air quality and to assess the exposures to toxic air pollutants of public health concern, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted passive monitoring of air toxics for three months, starting in late October 2005 through early February 2006, at up to 18 sites in the New Orleans area affected by Hurricane Katrina. The overall results of the passive ambient monitoring are summarized with the concentrations for the twenty-nine observed volatile organic chemicals, which include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, and the measured concentrations are compared with available health-based screening levels. The results of passive monitoring are also compared with those of the collocated canister sampling at one of the sites. The overall results showed that the outdoor levels of atmospheric volatile organic chemcals in the post-Katrina New Orleans area were very low and far below the available screening levels. The results also confirm the effectiveness of passive monitoring in a large geographical area where conventional methods are not feasible, electrical power is not available, and the need for sampling is urgent, as in the aftermath of natural disasters and other catastrophes.

  3. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  4. Ambient air cooling for concealed soft body armor in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Concealed soft body armor inhibits convective and evaporative heat loss and increases heat storage, especially in hot environments. One option to potentially mitigate heat storage is to promote airflow under the soft body armor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient air induction (∼100 liters per minute) on heat strain while wearing concealed soft body armor in a hot environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 30°C). A counter-balanced, repeated measures protocol was performed with nine healthy male volunteers. Participants were fitted with either a traditional or modified Level II concealed soft body armor. Participants performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 liters per minute) and 3 min of arm curls (0.6 liters per minute) for a total of 60 min. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the mean differences in physiological measures (rectal temperature, heart rate, micro-environment [temperature and relative humidity]). Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.01) were conducted on omnibus significant findings. Perceptual measures (perceived exertion, thermal comfort) were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. Modification led to an improvement in perceived exertion at 45 min (MOD: 10 ± 1; CON: 11 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and 60 min (MOD: 10 ± 2; CON: 12 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and a reduction in micro-environment temperature in MOD (1.0 ± 0.2°C, p = 0.03) compared to CON. Modification did not attenuate change in rectal temperature or heart rate (p < 0.01) during 60-min work bout. Change in rectal temperature approached significance between MOD and CON at the end of the work bout (MOD: 0.4 ± 0.2°C; CON: 0.7 ± 0.3°C; p = 0.048). The slope of rectal temperature was significantly greater (p = 0.04) under CON compared to MOD. These data suggest that air induction may provide small benefits while wearing concealed soft body armor, though improvements are needed to lessen physiological strain.

  5. Design and laboratory testing of a new flow-through directional passive air sampler for ambient particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun; Solera Garcia, Maria Angeles; Timmis, Roger; Jones, Kevin C

    2011-03-01

    A new type of directional passive air sampler (DPAS) is described for collecting particulate matter (PM) in ambient air. The prototype sampler has a non-rotating circular sampling tray that is divided into covered angular channels, whose ends are open to winds from sectors covering the surrounding 360°. Wind-blown PM from different directions enters relevant wind-facing channels, and is retained there in collecting pools containing various sampling media. Information on source direction and type can be obtained by examining the distribution of PM between channels. Wind tunnel tests show that external wind velocities are at least halved over an extended area of the collecting pools, encouraging PM to settle from the air stream. Internal and external wind velocities are well-correlated over an external velocity range of 2.0-10.0 m s⁻¹, which suggests it may be possible to relate collected amounts of PM simply to ambient concentrations and wind velocities. Measurements of internal wind velocities in different channels show that velocities decrease from the upwind channel round to the downwind channel, so that the sampler effectively resolves wind directions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed on a computer-generated model of the sampler for a range of external wind velocities; the results of these analyses were consistent with those from the wind tunnel. Further wind tunnel tests were undertaken using different artificial particulates in order to assess the collection performance of the sampler in practice. These tests confirmed that the sampler can resolve the directions of sources, by collecting particulates preferentially in source-facing channels.

  6. Association of ambient air pollution with hospital outpatient and emergency room visits in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junshan; Li, Weihua; Tan, Jianguo; Song, Weimin; Xu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Guohai; Chen, Renjie; Ma, Wenjuan; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2009-10-15

    Few studies exist in China examining the association of ambient air pollution with morbidity outcomes. We conducted a time-series analysis to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants (PM(10), SO(2), and NO(2)) with hospital outpatient and emergency room visits in Shanghai, China, using 3 years of daily data (2005-2007). Hospital and air pollution data were collected from the Shanghai Health Insurance Bureau and Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. Using a natural spline model, we examined effect of air pollutants with different lag structures including both single-day lag and multi-day lag. We examined effects of air pollution for the warm season (from April to September) and cool season (from October to March) separately. We found outdoor air pollution (SO(2) and NO(2)) was associated with increased risk of hospital outpatient and emergency room visits in Shanghai. The effect estimates varied for different lag structures of pollutants' concentrations. For lag 3, a 10 microg/m(3) increase in concentration of PM(10), SO(2) and NO(2) corresponded to 0.11% (95%CI: -0.03%, 0.26%), 0.34% (95%CI: 0.06%, 0.61%) and 0.55% (95%CI: 0.14%, 0.97%) increase of outpatient visit; and 0.01% (95%CI: -0.09%, 0.10%), 0.17% (95%CI: 0.00%, 0.35%) and 0.08% (95%CI: -0.18%, 0.33%) increase of emergency room visit. The associations appeared to be more evident in the cool season than in the warm season. In conclusion, short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with increased risk of hospital outpatient and emergency room visits in Shanghai. Our analyses provide evidence that the current air pollution level has an adverse health effect and strengthen the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in the city.

  7. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  8. Joint air pollution sampling program in twin cities on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Dávila, G H

    1976-01-01

    Ciudad Juárez (Chihuahua) and El Paso (Texas), two cities on the U.S.-Mexico border, form a single environmental system in which the same natural resources, especially air and water, are shared. It also constitutes a single metropolitan area which is characterized by high rates of pipulation growth, economic development, and urban expansion, all these factors mitigating against air quality. Early in 1972 the health authorities in El Paso and Ciudad Juárez initiated a joint air pollution sampling program with assistance from the Pan American Health Organization. The nearby city of Las Cruces (New Mexico) was later included in the program as well. Activities are carried out in accordance with a document entitled "Bases of Cooperation." The guiding criteria of the program are: functional simplicity, operational economy, and complementarity with other sampling programs conducted by the participating services. An Air Pollution Control Subcommittee is responsible for execution coordination of the program. Three studies are currently underway to determine levels of dust pollution in the air. A fourth study is aimed at measuring sulfur dioxide levels through the use of sulfation plates. The results collected reveal concentrations of particulates in the ambient air levels higher than the U.S. Federal primary standards. The program should be expanded to include the study of other pollutants and a joint inventory of emissions. In this way criteria on air quality may be established and joint plans of action and strategies drawn up for the control of air pollution in this important area.

  9. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients' quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27033635

  10. Metallurgically lithiated SiOx anode with high capacity and ambient air compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Sun, Jie; Yan, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhenda; Lin, Dingchang; Zhou, Guangmin; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    A common issue plaguing battery anodes is the large consumption of lithium in the initial cycle as a result of the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase followed by gradual loss in subsequent cycles. It presents a need for prelithiation to compensate for the loss. However, anode prelithiation faces the challenge of high chemical reactivity because of the low anode potential. Previous efforts have produced prelithiated Si nanoparticles with dry air stability, which cannot be stabilized under ambient air. Here, we developed a one-pot metallurgical process to synthesize LixSi/Li2O composites by using low-cost SiO or SiO2 as the starting material. The resulting composites consist of homogeneously dispersed LixSi nanodomains embedded in a highly crystalline Li2O matrix, providing the composite excellent stability even in ambient air with 40% relative humidity. The composites are readily mixed with various anode materials to achieve high first cycle Coulombic efficiency (CE) of >100% or serve as an excellent anode material by itself with stable cyclability and consistently high CEs (99.81% at the seventh cycle and ∼99.87% for subsequent cycles). Therefore, LixSi/Li2O composites achieved balanced reactivity and stability, promising a significant boost to lithium ion batteries. PMID:27313206

  11. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  12. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  13. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Capone, Domenico; Finelli, Carmine

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to alert the public opinion and policy makers on the supposed enhancing effects of exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 mm (PM2.5) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. For far too long literature data have been fixated on pulmonary diseases and/or cardiovascular disease, as consequence of particulate exposure, ignoring the link between the explosion of obesity with related syndromes such as NAFLD and air pollution, the worst characteristics of nowadays civilization. In order to delineate a clear picture of this major health problem, further studies should investigate whether and at what extent cigarette smoking and exposure to ambient air PM2.5 impact the natural history of patients with obesity-related NAFLD, i.e., development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis, disease characterized by a worse prognosis due its progression towards fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma. PMID:23840139

  14. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27033635

  15. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients' quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  16. Ambient air pollution and children’s health: A systematic review of Canadian epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Koranteng, Samuel; Vargas, Alvaro R Osornio; Buka, Irena

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is growing concern about the health effects of ambient air pollution (AP) in children. The present article summarizes and compares local information regarding the adverse effects of AP on the health of Canadian children with reports from elsewhere. METHODS PUBMED, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for epidemiological studies, published between January 1989 and December 2004, on the adverse health effects of criteria air pollutants among Canadian children. RESULTS Eleven studies investigated the association between AP and various respiratory health outcomes, while one study assessed the effect of AP on sudden infant death syndrome. Another study examined the effects of AP on pregnancy outcomes. Most of the available information was from Ontario and British Columbia. Despite inconsistencies among study results and data from elsewhere, evidence from Canadian studies suggest that AP may cause adverse respiratory health effects in children and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and may contribute to infant mortality in Canada. INTERPRETATION AP has detrimental health effects among Canadian children. Paediatricians and other health care workers with an interest in child health should encourage parents and children to adhere to smog (AP) advisories. Existing regulatory practices should be reviewed to reduce current levels of ambient air pollutants in Canada. PMID:19030365

  17. Acute health effects of ambient air pollution: the ultrafine particle hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Utell, M J; Frampton, M W

    2000-01-01

    A strong and consistent association has been observed between adjusted mortality rates and ambient particle concentration. The strongest associations are seen for respiratory and cardiac deaths, particularly among the elderly. Particulate air pollution is also associated with asthma exacerbations, increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased medication use, and increased hospital admissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently promulgated a new national ambient air quality standard for fine particles, and yet the mechanisms for health effects at such low particle mass concentrations remain unclear. Hypotheses to identify the responsible particles have focused on particle acidity, particle content of transition metals, bioaerosols, and ultrafine particles. Because ultrafine particles are efficiently deposited in the respiratory tract and may be important in initiating airway inflammation, we have initiated clinical studies with ultrafine carbon particles in healthy subjects. These studies examine the role of ultrafines in: (1) the induction of airway inflammation; (2) expression of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules in blood; (3) the alteration of blood coagulability; and (4) alteration in cardiac electrical activity. These events could lead to exacerbation of underlying cardiorespiratory disease. For example, airway inflammation may activate endothelium and circulating leukocytes, and induce a systemic acute phase response with transient hypercoagulability; this could explain the epidemiologic linkages between pollutant exposures and cardiovascular events. These approaches should be useful in identifying mechanisms for pollutant-induced respiratory and systemic effects, and in providing data for determining appropriate air quality standards.

  18. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Ortega, A. M.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Cross, E. S.; Kroll, J. H.; Peng, Z.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 1 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH oxidation than

  19. In-mask aerosol sampling for powered air purifying respirators

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.Y.U.; Sega, K.; Rubow, K.L.; Lenhart, S.W.; Myers, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    A system for sampling aerosols in the facepiece of a powered air purifying respirator has been described. The system consists of a sampling inlet mounted on the respiratory facepiece, a filter cassette and a personal sampling pump. The theoretical and practical considerations leading to the design of the sampling inlet have been discussed and experimental data presented showing the efficiency of the inlet as a function of particle size and sampling flow rate. The in-mask sampling system has been designed for powered air purifying respirators.

  20. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Linden (215) 814-2096, Region IV--Lynorae Benjamin (404) 562-9040, Region V--Andy Chang (312) 886-0258.... 2023, (617) 918-1661. Raymond Werner, Chief, Air Programs New Jersey, New York, Puerto Branch, EPA... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National...

  1. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... previously approved, most notably including revisions that EPA had proposed to disapprove (see 70 FR 36901... Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR 65572), on page 65574 in the second column, the paragraph numbered...

  2. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead... Management (IDEM) on November 24, 2010, to revise the Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) for lead...

  3. Water quality sample origin in wells under ambient vertical flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Lindsay; Rivett, Michael; Tellam, John; Dumble, Peter; Sharp, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Sampling from wells remains the key technique for investigation of groundwater contamination. Research into low-flow (pump rate 0.1-0.5L/min) and passive sampling devices and methodologies has largely been driven by needs to minimise sample bias and reduce costs associated with well-volume purge sampling. Such techniques are primarily suited to short-screen (<3m) well sampling, however, their perceived cost/time savings means their use in longer screen wells is attractive. Ambient vertical flows that may perhaps be insignificant in short-screen wells are, however, likely prove increasingly significant as the screen length increases due to the increased probability of vertical flows in greater thicknesses of (layered) geological sequences monitored. The interpretation of sample results assuming idealised horizontal flow conditions may introduce significant bias and prove unsuitable in these conditions. Numerical modelling has been undertaken to investigate the bias introduced under ambient vertical flow conditions. Sampling scenarios were generated by varying partially penetrating screen length, well diameter, sampling device position, pump rate, aquifer thickness and hydraulic conductivity, and boundary head gradients. In well flow rates were based on literature data for relatively short (2-20m) wells. The degree of sampling bias was quantified by calculating the root mean square error between the simulated scenario under a vertical head gradient and ideal horizontal-flow scenario. Low-flow and passive sampling device position, pump rate and pump duration were all found to be important in determining the sample origin. The sample may not be drawn from the entire saturated screen interval even under ideal conditions. When considering vertical flow scenarios, measurable deviation from the ideal case and bias towards the zone of highest head begins with ambient in-well flow rates as little as 50% of the pump rate used. The sample may not predominately originate from

  4. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children air toxics monitoring station between 1990 and 2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3(rd) trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95% CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child's first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children.

  5. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children < age 6, and 19,209 controls from California birth records within 2km (1.3 miles) (ALL) and 6km (3.8 miles) (AML) of an air toxics monitoring station between 1990–2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3rd trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95%CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95%CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child’s first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children. PMID:24472648

  6. Artificial intelligence modeling to evaluate field performance of photocatalytic asphalt pavement for ambient air purification.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Somayeh; Hassan, Marwa; Nadiri, Ataallah; Dylla, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) as a photocatalyst in asphalt pavement has received considerable attention for purifying ambient air from traffic-emitted pollutants via photocatalytic processes. In order to control the increasing deterioration of ambient air quality, urgent and proper risk assessment tools are deemed necessary. However, in practice, monitoring all process parameters for various operating conditions is difficult due to the complex and non-linear nature of air pollution-based problems. Therefore, the development of models to predict air pollutant concentrations is very useful because it can provide early warnings to the population and also reduce the number of measuring sites. This study used artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy (NF) models to predict NOx concentration in the air as a function of traffic count (Tr) and climatic conditions including humidity (H), temperature (T), solar radiation (S), and wind speed (W) before and after the application of TiO₂ on the pavement surface. These models are useful for modeling because of their ability to be trained using historical data and because of their capability for modeling highly non-linear relationships. To build these models, data were collected from a field study where an aqueous nano TiO₂ solution was sprayed on a 0.2-mile of asphalt pavement in Baton Rouge, LA. Results of this study showed that the NF model provided a better fitting to NOx measurements than the ANN model in the training, validation, and test steps. Results of a parametric study indicated that traffic level, relative humidity, and solar radiation had the most influence on photocatalytic efficiency.

  7. [Ambient air pollution and its impact on the incidence of respiratory diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Stamova, L G; Chesnokova, E A

    2005-01-01

    The increased number of ecological problems in Russia has stimulated the development of methodological approaches to studying a human chemical load under the conditions of an industrial town. The data on mortality in children under 3 years of age, who lived in a developed industrial town, have been analyzed. Comparison of data on ambient air purity and those on the incidence of respiratory disease has established a correlation between environment pollution and the likelihood of diseases in children under the influence of harmful factors. PMID:16276987

  8. Hydrogen chloride partitioning in a Titan III exhaust cloud diluted with ambient air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Wornom, D. E.; Bendura, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements and analysis are presented of the partitioning of HCl between hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous HCl in a Titan III exhaust cloud, as the cloud is diluted with humid ambient air. Partitioning was determined by measuring the gaseous HCl concentration with a recently developed airborne Gas Filter Correlation detector and simultaneously with a chemiluminescence detector which measures total HCl. Although equilibrium predictions for HCl aerosol formation indicated that no HCl aerosol should exist in the exhaust cloud for the meteorological conditions of this launch, the measurements indicated significant HCl aerosol formation. These measurements will provide verification for advanced modeling programs now under development.

  9. Quantification of Alkyl Nitrates in Ambient Air by Thermal Dissociation Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy with Preconcentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, C. Z.; Osthoff, H. D.; Taha, Y. M.; Pak, J. K.; Saowapon, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates (AN, molecular formula RONO2) play a crucial role in the troposphere as temporary reservoirs of nitrogen oxides (NOx =NO +NO2) and by acting as chain terminators in the photochemical production of ozone. Mixing ratios of AN in ambient air are commonly quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD or GC-MS) coupled to purge-and-trap preconcentration, usually on Tenax sorbent, to improve the detection limits. The analysis, however, is quite laborious as there are many alkyl nitrates that are low in individual abundance (often less than 1 parts-per-trillion by volume, pptv) and that exhibit different instrumental response factors. An alternative method is to determine alkyl nitrates as a sum (ΣAN) by thermal dissociation (TD) to a common fragment (NO2), which can then be quantified with a uniform response factor by optical absorption, for example by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). However, the determination of ΣAN by TD-CRDS is hampered by its relatively high detection limits (several 100 pptv) and secondary chemistry following TD that results in both negative and positive interferences and depends on the composition of the ambient air sampled. In this work, a TD-CRDS equipped with a Tenax preconcentration unit is described. Matrix effects are minimized by desorbing the samples from the Tenax in a background of nitrogen. The performance of the instrument, in particular the recovery from the Tenax sorbent, was evaluated by sampling laboratory-generated mixtures of alkyl and peroxyacyl nitrates. Field data from a coastal site collected during the Ozone-depleting reactions in a coastal atmosphere (ORCA) campaign, which took place at the Amphitrite Point Observatory in Ucluelet, BC, from July 6 - 31, 2015, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method are discussed.

  10. Measurements and source apportionment of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Collett, Jeffrey; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Pasha, Mohammad J.

    2016-07-01

    Ambient air samples were obtained in Riyadh, the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia, during two measurement campaigns spanning September 2011 to September 2012. Sixteen particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were quantified in 167 samples. Pyrene and fluoranthene were the most abundant PAH, with average of 3.37 ± 14.01 ng m-3 and 8.00 ± 44.09 ng m-3, respectively. A dominant contribution from low molecular weight (LMW) PAH (MW < 228) suggested a large influence of industrial emissions on PAH concentrations. Monte Carlo source apportionment using diagnostic ratios showed that 80 ± 10% of the average LMW PAH concentrations were contributed by petroleum vapor emissions, while 53 ± 19% of high molecular weight (HMW) PAH were from solid fuel combustion emissions. The positive matrix factorization model estimated that oil combustion emissions dominated total PAH concentrations, accounting for on average 96%, likely due to widespread use of oil fuels in energy production (power plants and industries). Our results demonstrate the significant influence of petroleum product production and consumption on particulate-phase PAH concentrations in Riyadh, but also point to the importance of traffic and solid fuel burning, including coke burning and seasonal biomass burning, especially as they contribute to the ambient levels of HMW PAH.

  11. Energy and material balance of CO2 capture from ambient air.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank

    2007-11-01

    Current Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies focus on large, stationary sources that produce approximately 50% of global CO2 emissions. We propose an industrial technology that captures CO2 directly from ambient air to target the remaining emissions. First, a wet scrubbing technique absorbs CO2 into a sodium hydroxide solution. The resultant carbonate is transferred from sodium ions to calcium ions via causticization. The captured CO2 is released from the calcium carbonate through thermal calcination in a modified kiln. The energy consumption is calculated as 350 kJ/mol of CO2 captured. It is dominated by the thermal energy demand of the kiln and the mechanical power required for air movement. The low concentration of CO2 in air requires a throughput of 3 million cubic meters of air per ton of CO2 removed, which could result in significant water losses. Electricity consumption in the process results in CO2 emissions and the use of coal power would significantly reduce to net amount captured. The thermodynamic efficiency of this process is low but comparable to other "end of pipe" capture technologies. As another carbon mitigation technology, air capture could allow for the continued use of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the transportation sector.

  12. Moisture-swing sorption for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lackner, Klaus S; Wright, Allen B

    2013-01-14

    An ideal chemical sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air (air capture) must have a number of favourable properties, such as environmentally benign behaviour, a high affinity for CO(2) at very low concentration (400 ppm), and a low energy cost for regeneration. The last two properties seem contradictory, especially for sorbents employing thermal swing adsorption. On the other hand, thermodynamic analysis shows that the energy cost of an air capture device need only be slightly larger than that of a flue gas scrubber. The moisture swing separation process studied in this paper provides a novel approach to low cost CO(2) capture from air. The anionic exchange resin sorbent binds CO(2) when dry and releases it when wet. A thermodynamic model with coupled phase and chemical equilibria is developed to study the complex H(2)O-CO(2)-resin system. The moisture swing behaviour is compatible with hydration energies changing with the activity of water on the resin surfaces. This activity is in turn set by the humidity. The rearrangement of hydration water on the resin upon the sorption of a CO(2) molecule is predicted as a function of the humidity and temperature. Using water as fuel to drive the moisture swing enables an economical, large-scale implementation of air capture. By generating CO(2) with low partial pressures, the present technology has implications for in situ CO(2) utilizations which require low pressure CO(2) gas rather than liquid CO(2). PMID:23172123

  13. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  14. [Influence of ozone on snap bean under ambient air in two sites of northern China].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Jing-Song; Hu, En-Zhu; Zhang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Tian, Yuan; Feng, Zhao-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) has been assumed the most phytotoxic air pollutant and the snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is known to be an ozone-sensitive species. Two genotypes (R123, ozone-tolerance, S156, ozone-sensitivity) of snap bean were explored in three places. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the snap bean was influenced under the current ambient ozone concentration. The findings indicated that the leaves of bean grown at Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences (RCEES), Chinese Academy of Sciences and ChangPing showed visible ozone symptoms under the ambient ozone concentration, and the averaged ozone injury proportion in S156 was 23.5% higher than R123 during the entire growth season. The ozone damage to the snap bean depends on the plant growing stages. The injury symptoms appeared just after flowering, increased from the stages of flowering to pod formation, and reached the maximum at the stages of pod maturation. The ratio of S156/R123 in pod yield was 0.48, and 0.24 and 0.73 in the RCEES, ChangPing and Harbin, respectively. The ratio close to 1 was assumed that the plant growth is not affected by ozone, and the lower ratio is, the more damage caused by ozone. Obviously, the current ambient ozone concentration of Beijing area has significantly caused the yield loss of snap bean.

  15. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ravi Pratap Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2015-12-15

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.

  16. Stratospheric air sampling platform/sensor tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Page, W.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a study are described in which in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation are considered for accommodation on airborne platforms capable of reaching stratospheric altitudes. The instrumentation measures trace species of importance to present concerns regarding stratospheric pollution and possible ozone depletion. The platforms examined were the U-2, modified U-2, balloon, rocket, F-15 flown in a zoom-climb maneuver, YF-12, and remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). The sensors and performance characteristics of the platforms are described and special problems of sensor-platform integration are discussed. A typical latitudinal sampling mission is utilized to describe platform logistics problems and how the platforms might perform such missions.

  17. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  18. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  19. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  20. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  1. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  2. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

  3. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the air quality criteria and the primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The major phases of the process for reviewing NAAQS include the following: (...

  4. An update to the ambient ratio method for 1-h NO2 air quality standards dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrez, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOX) gases are typically emitted by fuel combustion sources in the form of nitric oxide (NO), which then reacts with ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere to convert a portion of the NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). EPA has promulgated a 1-h average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, and major sources of NOX emissions must estimate their NO2 air quality impacts as part of EPA's air quality permitting programs. The AERMOD dispersion model has been developed by EPA for these air quality impact analyses, and AERMOD contains three different NO to NO2 conversion methods for estimating the ambient concentrations of NO2. This paper describes a refinement to one of the methods, the Ambient Ratio Method version 2 (ARM2). ARM2 is an empirical approach that uses a variable conversion factor, based on an analysis of ambient air measurements of NO and NO2, to estimate the portion of the AERMOD predicted air concentration of total NOX species that is in the form of NO2. The performance of ARM2 has been evaluated and found to compare well to actual ambient measurements and to other more complex EPA conversion methods. EPA has included ARM2 as a "beta-testing" option in AERMOD version 14134, and provided guidance on the use of ARM2 for regulatory modeling analyses in a September 2014 memorandum. This paper also discusses this recent EPA guidance.

  5. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Marquezini, Mônica V.; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Santos, Ubiratan P.; Braga, Alfésio L. F.; Alves, Milton R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, among them nineteen professionals who work on streets (taxi drivers and traffic controllers, high pollutants exposure, Group 1) and eleven workers of a Forest Institute (Group 2, lower pollutants exposure compared to group 1) were evaluated twice, 15 days apart. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter equal or smaller than 2.5 μm) was 24 hour individually collected and the collection of tears was performed to measure interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 5 and 10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. Data from both groups were compared using Student’s t test or Mann- Whitney test for cytokines. Individual PM2.5 levels were categorized in tertiles (lower, middle and upper) and compared using one-way ANOVA. Relationship between PM2.5 and cytokine levels was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results PM2.5 levels in the three categories differed significantly (lower: ≤22 μg/m3; middle: 23–37.5 μg/m3; upper: >37.5 μg/m3; p<0.001). The subjects from the two groups were distributed unevenly in the lower category (Group 1 = 8%; Group 2 = 92%), the middle category (Group 1 = 89%; Group 2 = 11%) and the upper category (Group 1 = 100%). A significant relationship was found between IL-5 and IL-10 and PM2.5 levels of the group 1, with an average decrease of 1.65 pg/mL of IL-5 level and of 0.78 pg/mL of IL-10 level in tear samples for each increment of 50 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusion High levels of PM2.5 exposure is associated

  6. Inhalation of concentrated ambient air particles exacerbates myocardial ischemia in conscious dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A; Coull, Brent A; Godleski, John J; Koutrakis, Petros; Okabe, Kazunori; Savage, Sara T; Lawrence, Joy E; Murthy, G G Krishna; Verrier, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    Short-term increases in ambient air pollution have been associated with an increased incidence of acute cardiac events. We assessed the effect of inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) on myocardial ischemia in a canine model of coronary artery occlusion. Six mongrel dogs underwent thoracotomy for implantation of a vascular occluder around the left anterior descending coronary artery and tracheostomy to facilitate particulate exposure. After recovery (5-13 weeks), pairs of subjects were exposed for 6 hr/day on 3 or 4 consecutive days. Within each pair, one subject was randomly assigned to breathe CAPs on the second exposure day and filtered air at other times. The second subject breathed CAPs on the third exposure day and filtered air at other times. Immediately after each exposure, subjects underwent 5-min coronary artery occlusion. We determined ST-segment elevation, a measure of myocardial ischemia heart rate, and arrhythmia incidence during occlusion from continuous electrocardiograms. Exposure to CAPs (median, 285.7; range, 161.3-957.3 microg/m3) significantly (p = 0.007) enhanced occlusion-induced peak ST-segment elevation in precordial leads V4 (9.4 +/- 1.7 vs. 6.2 +/- 0.9 mm, CAPs vs. filtered air, respectively) and V5 (9.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.9 mm). ST-segment elevation was significantly correlated with the silicon concentration of the particles and other crustal elements possibly associated with urban street dust (p = 0.003 for Si). No associations were found with CAPs mass or number concentrations. Heart rate was not affected by CAPs exposure. These results suggest that exacerbation of myocardial ischemia during coronary artery occlusion may be an important mechanism of environmentally related acute cardiac events. PMID:12676590

  7. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  8. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  9. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  10. Ambient air measurement of acrolein and other carbonyls at the Oakland-San Francisco Bay Bridge toll plaza.

    PubMed

    Destaillats, Hugo; Spaulding, Reggie S; Charles, M Judith

    2002-05-15

    Interest in ambient concentrations of acrolein and other alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls (e.g., crotonaldehyde, methyl glyoxal, glyoxal, malonaldehyde (malondialdehyde)) is growing because either they exist at high levels in motor vehicle emissions or they arise from photooxidation of other hydrocarbons emitted from mobile sources. In addition, their mutagenic, genotoxic, or carcinogenic properties are well-established, and the results of a dispersion-modeling study regarding the health risks posed by the 188 hazardous air pollutants in California attributes the highest noncancer risk to exposure to acrolein. Such modeling studies, conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), also predict median ambient air concentrations of acrolein higher than 0.06 microg/m3, the chronic inhalation reference exposure level stipulated by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment in counties surrounding the Oakland-San Francisco Bay Bridge. We measured acrolein and other potentially toxic carbonyls in air sampled at the San Francisco Bay Bridge toll plaza during rush hour traffic, which may be considered a "worst case scenario" for outdoor airborne carbonyls. We identified 36 carbonyls in the sample extracts, including 14 saturated aliphatic carbonyls, six unsaturated carbonyls, four aromatic carbonyls, six dicarbonyls, and six hydroxy carbonyls. Structural information to support tentative identification of carbonyls and hydroxycarbonyls was obtained by using a method that involves O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and PFBHA/bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) derivatization in concert with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Most notably, we report for the first time the presence of malonaldehyde in the ambient atmospheric environment. A relatively linear relationship between retention time and the molecular weight of the derivatives was established to assist in obtaining structural

  11. Assessment of reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air as malodor components in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs: hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), methanethiol (CH 3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)) in ambient air was made using an on-line GC system at an odor monitoring station in the city of Ansan, South Korea (August 2005-December 2007). The results were examined to assess the status of RSC pollution, its relative contribution to malodor, and the controlling factors of its occurrence. H 2S (mean of 0.27 ppb) was eminent in terms of both magnitude and occurrence frequency, while others were not with mean values of 0.11 (DMDS), 0.10 (DMS), and 0.07 ppb (CH 3SH). Unlike others, the temporal trends of H 2S were best represented by the combined effects of its source processes and meteorological conditions. The results of correlation analysis indicate strong correlations between RSCs and water-related parameters (e.g., rainfall, dew point, and relative humidity). The role of RSCs as malodor component appears to be pronounced during nighttime, especially in summer. If the relative contribution of RSCs to malodor is assessed by means of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), its impact is relatively low, with an SOI value of 1.22 (weak odor strength). Consequently, a more deliberate approach may be needed to effectively assess odor occurrence patterns in ambient air.

  12. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  13. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere.

  14. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  15. Forecasts using neural network versus Box-Jenkins methodology for ambient air quality monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Kao, J J; Huang, S S

    2000-02-01

    This study explores ambient air quality forecasts using the conventional time-series approach and a neural network. Sulfur dioxide and ozone monitoring data collected from two background stations and an industrial station are used. Various learning methods and varied numbers of hidden layer processing units of the neural network model are tested. Results obtained from the time-series and neural network models are discussed and compared on the basis of their performance for 1-step-ahead and 24-step-ahead forecasts. Although both models perform well for 1-step-ahead prediction, some neural network results reveal a slightly better forecast without manually adjusting model parameters, according to the results. For a 24-step-ahead forecast, most neural network results are as good as or superior to those of the time-series model. With the advantages of self-learning, self-adaptation, and parallel processing, the neural network approach is a promising technique for developing an automated short-term ambient air quality forecast system.

  16. Biofilm Formation Derived from Ambient Air and the Characteristics of Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, H.; Kougo, H.; Kuroda, D.; Itho, H.; Ogino, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Biofilm is a kind of thin film on solidified matters, being derived from bacteria. Generally, planktonic bacteria float in aqueous environments, soil or air, most of which can be regarded as oligotrophic environments. Since they have to survive by instinct, they seek for nutrients that would exist on materials surfaces as organic matters. Therefore, bacteria attach materials surfaces reversibly. The attachment and detachment repeat for a while and finally, they attach on them irreversibly and the number of bacteria on them increases. At a threshold number, bacteria produce polymeric matters at the same time by quorum sensing mechanism and the biofilm produces on material surfaces. The biofilm produced in that way generally contains water (more than 80%), EPS (Exopolymeric Substance) and bacteria themselves. And they might bring about many industrial problems, fouling, corrosion etc. Therefore, it is very important for us to control and prevent the biofilm formation properly. However, it is generally very hard to produce biofilm experimentally and constantly in ambient atmosphere on labo scale. The authors invented an apparatus where biofilm could form on specimen's surfaces from house germs in the ambient air. In this experiment, we investigated the basic characteristics of the apparatus, reproducibility, the change of biofilm with experimental time, the quality change of water for biofilm formation and their significance for biofilm research.

  17. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  18. Ambient light cancellation in photoplethysmogram application using alternating sampling and charge redistribution technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongpal; Lee, Takhyung; Kim, Jihoon; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-01-01

    To overcome a large DC offset, ambient light interference, and optical path variation, a robust PPG readout chip is fabricated using 0.13-μm CMOS process. Against the large DC offset, a saturation detection and current feedback method can compensate a current of up to 30 μA. To be robust against optical path variation, an automatic emitting light compensation method is adopted. To remove the ambient light interference, we propose an alternating sampling and charge redistribution technique, in which no additional power is consumed, and only three differential switches and one capacitor are required. The PPG readout channel consumes 26 μW and has a input referred current noise of 260 pArms. PMID:26737767

  19. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W; Coull, Brent A; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide (5 hr/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last CAPs exposure. Histologic slides were prepared from random sections of lung lobes and coded for blinded analysis. The lumen/wall area (L/W) ratio was determined morphometrically on transverse sections of small pulmonary arteries. When all animal data (normal and CB) were analyzed together, the L/W ratios decreased as concentrations of fine particle mass, silicon, lead, sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon increased. In separate univariate analyses of animal data, the association for sulfate was significant only in normal rats, whereas silicon was significantly associated in both CB and normal rats. In multivariate analyses including all particle factors, the association with silicon remained significant. Our results indicate that short-term CAPs exposures (median, 182.75 micro g/m3; range, 73.50-733.00 micro g/m3) can induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in normal and CB rats. This effect was correlated with specific particle components and suggests that the pulmonary vasculature might be an important target for ambient air particle toxicity. PMID:12460797

  20. The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananya; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan C; Zhang, Junfeng; Kipen, Howard M; Rich, David Q; Zhu, Tong; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott R; Eckel, Sandrah P

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001) and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005). These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours) and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2-3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.

  1. The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Ambient Air Pollution and Mechanistic Pathways: A Comparative Hierarchical Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duncan C.; Zhang, Junfeng; Kipen, Howard M.; Rich, David Q.; Zhu, Tong; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott R.; Eckel, Sandrah P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001) and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005). These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours) and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2–3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system. PMID:25502951

  2. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jinping; Chen, Renjie; Meng, Xia; Yang, Changyuan; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m(3) increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0-21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0-3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs.

  3. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology.

  4. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  5. Nanosecond Glow and Spark Discharges in Ambient Air and in Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laux, Christophe; Rusterholtz, Diane; Sainct, Florent; Xu, Da; Lacoste, Deanna; Stancu, Gabi; Pai, David

    2013-09-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges are one of the most energy efficient ways to produce active species in atmospheric pressure gases. In both air and water vapor, three discharge regimes can be obtained: 1) corona, with light emission just around the anode, 2) glow, corresponding to a diffuse nonequilibrium plasma, and 3) spark, characterized by higher temperatures and higher active species densities. The glow regime was initially obtained in air preheated at 2000 K. Based on a model defining the transition between glow and spark, we recently succeeded in obtaining a stable glow in ambient air at 300 K, using a judicious combination of electrode geometry, pulse duration, pulse frequency, and applied voltage. We will present these results and describe the characteristics of the discharge obtained in room air. The spark regime was also studied. NRP sparks induce ultrafast gas heating (about 1000 K in 20 ns) and high oxygen dissociation (up to 50% dissociation of O2) . This phenomenon can be explained by a two-step process involving the excitation of molecular nitrogen followed by exothermic dissociative quenching of molecular oxygen. The characteristics of NRP discharges in water vapor will also be discussed. This work is supported by the ANR PREPA program (grant number ANR-09-BLAN-0043).

  6. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  7. Long-term trends in ambient air 1,3-butadiene levels in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Hendler, Albert H; Goodmanson Bunch, Alea T; Crow, Walter L

    2010-10-01

    1,3-Butadiene is one of the top air pollution risk drivers in the United States. The ambient air concentrations in Houston, TX are of particular interest because of the relatively large number of stationary industrial sources that report 1,3-butadiene emissions and the relatively large number of vehicle miles traveled every day on Houston roadways. Several Federal and State regulatory programs initiated over the last two decades regulate the amount of 1,3-butadiene emitted to the air from industrial, mobile, and area sources. Emissions reductions from industrial sources in Houston have also been achieved through voluntary agreements between individual facilities and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The impact of these regulatory and voluntary initiatives on air quality has been measured by a network of 30 monitors stationed within the Houston area. Most of the area's monitors have measured reductions in annual average 1,3-butadiene levels in the range of 40-80%. The greatest decreases and statistically significant downward trends have been measured at the monitoring sites closest to industrial facilities.

  8. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening. PMID:26838378

  9. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening.

  10. Waste combustion as a source of ambient air polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, Barbara; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Touati, Abderrahmane

    2011-08-01

    The first comprehensive set of U.S. data on polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) concentrations from municipal waste combustion (MWC), with more than 40 PBDE congeners reported, was compared to ambient air levels of PBDEs in the U.S. The PBDE profiles in the raw MWC flue gas reflected the historical production and usage pattern of PBDE-based flame retardants in North America, which favored Penta- and Deca- BDE formulations. The pattern of selected, routinely measured in the environment, PBDEs (TeBDE-47, PeBDE-99, PeBDE-100, HxBDE-153 and DcBDE-209) was similar in the MWC emissions and profiles most commonly reported for the U.S. atmosphere. The mean Σ PBDE concentrations in the clean flue gases collected from the stack were 0.13 and 1.7 ng dscm -1 during the steady state and transients of MWC, respectively (which was 98.6% reduction compare to the levels in the raw flue gases). The major PBDE congeners in the MWC flue gases were those typically found in PBDE technical mixes (TeBDE-47, PeBDE-99, PeBDE-100, HxBDE-153, HpBDE-183, OcBDE-197, NoBDE-206, NoBDE-207, NoBDE-208, DcBDE-209). The profile of the PBDEs in the raw flue gas was dominated by heavier congeners, especially DcBDE-209, while the profile of the stack flue gases profile was dominated by the lighter congeners (TeBDE-47, PeBDE-99, PeBDE-100 accounted for around 80% of total stack emissions). Some of the MWC flue gas samples exhibited enrichment of lower brominated congeners that are minor or not present in the technical mixtures, suggesting that debromination occurs during combustion. Congeners substituted in non- and mono- ortho positions (TeBDE-77, PeBDE-126, HxBDE-156 and -169) were detected mostly during the transients of MWC.

  11. Short-term effect of ambient air pollution on COPD mortality in four Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Cao, Dachun; Wong, Chit-Ming; Kan, Haidong

    2013-10-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity; however, few studies have examined the short-term effect of air pollution specifically on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity world wide. In this analysis, we examined the associations between daily air pollution levels [particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and COPD mortality in four Chinese cities. We used Poisson regression models with natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends of COPD mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We did a meta-analysis to obtain the 4-city average estimates. Air pollution (PM10, SO2, and NO2) was found to be associated with increased risk of COPD mortality in these four cities. Using the random-effects model, an increase of 10 μg m-3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 0.78% (95% CI, 0.13-1.42), 1.30% (95% CI, 0.61-1.99), and 1.78% (95% CI, 1.10-2.46) increase of COPD mortality, respectively. The concentration-response curves indicated linear associations without threshold. Only NO2 remained significant in the multi-pollutant models. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-city study in Asian developing region to report the short-term effect of air pollution on COPD mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effects of air pollution on COPD mortality for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  12. Efficiency of dust sampling inlets in calm air.

    PubMed

    Breslin, J A; Stein, R L

    1975-08-01

    Measurement of airborne dust concentrations usually involves drawing a sample of the dust-laden air into the measuring instrument through an inlet. Even if the surrounding air is calm, theoretical calculations predict that large particles may not be sampled accurately due to the combined effects of gravity and inertia on the particles near the sampling inlet. Tests were conducted to determine the conditions of particle size, inlet radius, and flow rare necessary for accurate dust sampling. A coal-dust aerosol was sampled simultaneously through inlets of different diameters at the same volume flow-rate and collected on filters. The dust was removed from the filters and the particles were counted and sized with a Coulter counter. Results showed that published criteria for inlet conditions for correct sampling are overly restrictive and that respirable-size particles are sampled correctly in the normal range or operation of most dust sampling instruments. PMID:1227283

  13. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; et al

    2016-03-08

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed formore » semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of

  14. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-03-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic

  15. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  16. Oxidative potential and inflammatory impacts of source apportioned ambient air pollution in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyang; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Liu, Yanju; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Meigen

    2014-11-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Knowledge of the chemical components and sources of air pollution most responsible for these health effects could lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of such effects and more targeted risk reduction strategies. We measured daily ambient fine particulate matter (<2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5) for 2 months in peri-urban and central Beijing, and assessed the contribution of its chemical components to the oxidative potential of ambient air pollution using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The composition data were applied to a multivariate source apportionment model to determine the PM contributions of six sources or factors: a zinc factor, an aluminum factor, a lead point factor, a secondary source (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(2-)), an iron source, and a soil dust source. Finally, we assessed the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity-related PM sources and inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. In peri-urban Beijing, the soil dust source accounted for the largest fraction (47%) of measured ROS variability. In central Beijing, a secondary source explained the greatest fraction (29%) of measured ROS variability. The ROS activities of PM collected in central Beijing were exponentially associated with in vivo inflammatory responses in epithelial cells (R2=0.65-0.89). We also observed a high correlation between three ROS-related PM sources (a lead point factor, a zinc factor, and a secondary source) and expression of an inflammatory marker (r=0.45-0.80). Our results suggest large differences in the contribution of different PM sources to ROS variability at the central versus peri-urban study sites in Beijing and that secondary sources may play an important role in PM2.5-related oxidative potential and inflammatory health impacts.

  17. Evaluation of ambient air pollution impact on carrot plants at a suburban site using open top chambers.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Agrawal, M; Marshall, F M

    2006-08-01

    The present experiment was done to evaluate the impact of ambient air pollution on carrot (Dacus carota var. Pusa Kesar) plants using open top chambers (OTCs) ventilated with ambient (NFCs) or charcoal filtered air (FCs) at a suburban site of Varanasi, India. Various morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the plants were studied at different growth stages. Air monitoring data clearly showed high concentrations of SO2, NO2 and O3 in the ambient air of study site. SO2 and NO2 concentrations were higher during early growth stages of carrot, whereas O3 concentration was highest during later growth stages. Filtration of air has caused significant reductions in all the three pollutant concentrations in FCs as compared to NFCs. Plants growing in FCs showed significantly higher photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and variable fluorescence as compared to plants growing in NFCs. Protein content also showed a similar pattern, however, lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid content and peroxidase activity were higher in plants growing in NFCs as compared to FCs. Shoot length, number of leaves per plant, leaf area and root and shoot weight increased significantly upon filtration of ambient air. Total nitrogen decreased significantly in root, but increased significantly in shoot of plants grown in NFCs. Total P, Mg, Ca and K contents decreased significantly in plants grown in NFCs as compared to FCs. The individual pollutant concentrations were below threshold for plant injury, but the combined effect of all the three seems to act synergistically in causing greater adverse impact on dry weight and physiology of carrot plants. The study clearly indicates that air pollutants are high enough in the ambient air to cause significant unfavorable impact on carrot plants. The work further supports the usefulness of OTCs for assessing air pollution damage under field conditions in developing countries.

  18. Use of the phenanthrene to benzo(e)pyrene ambient air ratio as an indicator for the source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, A.; Ringuette, S.; Tremblay, J.

    1994-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted by many industrial, domestic and natural sources. In 1990, the principal sources of PAH for the Province of Quebec were primary aluminum smelters (858 t), residential heating with wood (162 t), forest fires (148 t) and transportation (33 t). A sampling program was developed to measure PAH levels in ambient air at different locations influenced by these sources. The highest concentrations of PAH in ambient air (470 ng/m{sup 3} geometric mean) were measured near primary aluminum smelters using Horizontal Stud Soederberg technology. Areas influences by wood heating (157 ng/m{sup 3} winter geometric mean) and transportation (80 ng/m{sup 3} geometric mean) had lower total PAH concentrations. Ratios of ambient air concentration for phenanthrene/benzo(e)pyrene were lower in samples collected in the surroundings of the primary aluminum smelters (7--14), whereas high ratios were observed for residential heating with wood and transportation (20--45). The use of this ratio was found to be a good indicator for PAH originating from primary aluminum smelters.

  19. Ambient particulate air pollution and cardiac arrhythmia in a panel of older adults in Steubenville, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, S E; Suh, H H; Coull, B A; Schwartz, J; Stone, P H; Gold, D R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathways by which particles may act involve autonomic nervous system dysfunction or inflammation, which can affect cardiac rate and rhythm. The importance of these pathways may vary by particle component or source. In an eastern US location with significant regional pollution, the authors examined the association of air pollution and odds of cardiac arrhythmia in older adults. Methods Thirty two non‐smoking older adults were evaluated on a weekly basis for 24 weeks during the summer and autumn of 2000 with a standardised 30 minute protocol that included continuous electrocardiogram measurements. A central ambient monitoring station provided daily concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5, sulfate, elemental carbon) and gases. Sulfate was used as a marker of regional pollution. The authors used logistic mixed effects regression to examine the odds of having any supraventricular ectopy (SVE) or ventricular ectopy (VE) in association with increases in air pollution for moving average pollutant concentrations up to 10 days before the health assessment. Results Participant specific mean counts of arrhythmia over the protocol varied between 0.1–363 for SVE and 0–350 for VE. The authors observed odds ratios for having SVE over the length of the protocol of 1.42 (95% CI 0.99 to 2.04), 1.70 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.57), and 1.78 (95% CI 0.95 to 3.35) for 10.0 μg/m3, 4.2 μg/m3, and 14.9 ppb increases in five day moving average PM2.5, sulfate, and ozone concentrations respectively. The other pollutants, including elemental carbon, showed no effect on arrhythmia. Participants reporting cardiovascular conditions (for example, previous myocardial infarction or hypertension) were the most susceptible to pollution induced SVE. The authors found no association of pollution with VE. Conclusion Increased levels of ambient sulfate and ozone may increase

  20. Ambient Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Šrám, Radim J.; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Bobak, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade or so, a large number of studies have investigated the possible adverse effects of ambient air pollution on birth outcomes. We reviewed these studies, which were identified by a systematic search of the main scientific databases. Virtually all reviewed studies were population based, with information on exposure to air pollution derived from routine monitoring sources. Overall, there is evidence implicating air pollution in adverse effects on different birth outcomes, but the strength of the evidence differs between outcomes. The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between particulate air pollution and respiratory deaths in the postneonatal period. For air pollution and birth weight the evidence suggests causality, but further studies are needed to confirm an effect and its size and to clarify the most vulnerable period of pregnancy and the role of different pollutants. For preterm births and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) the evidence as yet is insufficient to infer causality, but the available evidence justifies further studies. Molecular epidemiologic studies suggest possible biologic mechanisms for the effect on birth weight, premature birth, and IUGR and support the view that the relation between pollution and these birth outcomes is genuine. For birth defects, the evidence base so far is insufficient to draw conclusions. In terms of exposure to specific pollutants, particulates seem the most important for infant deaths, and the effect on IUGR seems linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but the existing evidence does not allow precise identification of the different pollutants or the timing of exposure that can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:15811825

  1. Long-term monitoring and seasonal analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured over a decade in the ambient air of Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M; Coutinho, M; Borrego, C

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the analytical results of PAHs concentrations in ambient air obtained in the PM10 and gas-phase, from 2004 to 2014, in Porto, Portugal. As part of a monitoring programme conducted by IDAD - Institute of Environment and Development and supported by the regional municipal solid waste (MSW) management authorities, an extensive database of PAH concentrations in ambient air was collected in Porto's metropolitan area. During this period a total of 201 samples were collected in two sites classified as suburban. Analytical results showed a clear decreasing trend of total PAHs (∑PAH) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels during the period of study, especially in the first years of monitoring. The average annual concentrations of BaP were, throughout the monitoring period, lower than the target value for the annual average (1 ng m(-3)) defined in the European legislation. PAHs levels showed a strong seasonality, with higher concentrations values during the colder months. The winter/summer ratio of ∑PAH for the eleven years of study was 5, revealing the seasonal variation of PAHs in the studied area. The estimated toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) used to assess the contribution of the carcinogenic potential, confirmed a significant presence of the moderately active carcinogenic BaP and dibenz[ah]anthracene (DahA) in the samples collected in Porto. The ratio values of individual PAHs concentrations were used as diagnostic tool to identify the possible origin of PAH in the ambient air of Porto. Based on diagnostic ratios, it may be concluded that automobile traffic emissions, mainly related to diesel vehicles, were the major contribution of PAH levels in the ambient air, although some others contributions, such as coal and wood combustion, were identified. PMID:26599144

  2. Long-term monitoring and seasonal analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured over a decade in the ambient air of Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M; Coutinho, M; Borrego, C

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the analytical results of PAHs concentrations in ambient air obtained in the PM10 and gas-phase, from 2004 to 2014, in Porto, Portugal. As part of a monitoring programme conducted by IDAD - Institute of Environment and Development and supported by the regional municipal solid waste (MSW) management authorities, an extensive database of PAH concentrations in ambient air was collected in Porto's metropolitan area. During this period a total of 201 samples were collected in two sites classified as suburban. Analytical results showed a clear decreasing trend of total PAHs (∑PAH) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels during the period of study, especially in the first years of monitoring. The average annual concentrations of BaP were, throughout the monitoring period, lower than the target value for the annual average (1 ng m(-3)) defined in the European legislation. PAHs levels showed a strong seasonality, with higher concentrations values during the colder months. The winter/summer ratio of ∑PAH for the eleven years of study was 5, revealing the seasonal variation of PAHs in the studied area. The estimated toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) used to assess the contribution of the carcinogenic potential, confirmed a significant presence of the moderately active carcinogenic BaP and dibenz[ah]anthracene (DahA) in the samples collected in Porto. The ratio values of individual PAHs concentrations were used as diagnostic tool to identify the possible origin of PAH in the ambient air of Porto. Based on diagnostic ratios, it may be concluded that automobile traffic emissions, mainly related to diesel vehicles, were the major contribution of PAH levels in the ambient air, although some others contributions, such as coal and wood combustion, were identified.

  3. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure Estimation for the Global Burden of Disease 2013.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Michael; Freedman, Greg; Frostad, Joseph; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Dentener, Frank; van Dingenen, Rita; Estep, Kara; Amini, Heresh; Apte, Joshua S; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Barregard, Lars; Broday, David; Feigin, Valery; Ghosh, Santu; Hopke, Philip K; Knibbs, Luke D; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Liu, Yang; Ma, Stefan; Morawska, Lidia; Sangrador, José Luis Texcalac; Shaddick, Gavin; Anderson, H Ross; Vos, Theo; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Burnett, Richard T; Cohen, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for global disease. Assessment of the impacts of air pollution on population health and evaluation of trends relative to other major risk factors requires regularly updated, accurate, spatially resolved exposure estimates. We combined satellite-based estimates, chemical transport model simulations, and ground measurements from 79 different countries to produce global estimates of annual average fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for five-year intervals from 1990 to 2010 and the year 2013. These estimates were applied to assess population-weighted mean concentrations for 1990-2013 for each of 188 countries. In 2013, 87% of the world's population lived in areas exceeding the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m(3) PM2.5 (annual average). Between 1990 and 2013, global population-weighted PM2.5 increased by 20.4% driven by trends in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. Decreases in population-weighted mean concentrations of PM2.5 were evident in most high income countries. Population-weighted mean concentrations of ozone increased globally by 8.9% from 1990-2013 with increases in most countries-except for modest decreases in North America, parts of Europe, and several countries in Southeast Asia.

  4. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure Estimation for the Global Burden of Disease 2013.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Michael; Freedman, Greg; Frostad, Joseph; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Dentener, Frank; van Dingenen, Rita; Estep, Kara; Amini, Heresh; Apte, Joshua S; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Barregard, Lars; Broday, David; Feigin, Valery; Ghosh, Santu; Hopke, Philip K; Knibbs, Luke D; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Liu, Yang; Ma, Stefan; Morawska, Lidia; Sangrador, José Luis Texcalac; Shaddick, Gavin; Anderson, H Ross; Vos, Theo; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Burnett, Richard T; Cohen, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for global disease. Assessment of the impacts of air pollution on population health and evaluation of trends relative to other major risk factors requires regularly updated, accurate, spatially resolved exposure estimates. We combined satellite-based estimates, chemical transport model simulations, and ground measurements from 79 different countries to produce global estimates of annual average fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for five-year intervals from 1990 to 2010 and the year 2013. These estimates were applied to assess population-weighted mean concentrations for 1990-2013 for each of 188 countries. In 2013, 87% of the world's population lived in areas exceeding the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m(3) PM2.5 (annual average). Between 1990 and 2013, global population-weighted PM2.5 increased by 20.4% driven by trends in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. Decreases in population-weighted mean concentrations of PM2.5 were evident in most high income countries. Population-weighted mean concentrations of ozone increased globally by 8.9% from 1990-2013 with increases in most countries-except for modest decreases in North America, parts of Europe, and several countries in Southeast Asia. PMID:26595236

  5. Mortality Effects of a Copper Smelter Strike and Reduced Ambient Sulfate Particulate Matter Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Rodermund, Douglas L.; Gee, Matthew M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have reported associations between fine particulate and sulfur oxide air pollution and human mortality. Yet there continues to be concern that public policy efforts to improve air quality may not produce actual improvement in human health. Objectives This study retrospectively explored a natural experiment associated with a copper smelter strike from 15 July 1967 through the beginning of April 1968. Methods In the 1960s, copper smelters accounted for approximately 90% of all sulfate emissions in the four Southwest states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada. Over the 8.5-month strike period, a regional improvement in visibility accompanied an approximately 60% decrease in concentrations of suspended sulfate particles. We collected monthly mortality counts for 1960–1975 and analyzed them using Poisson regression models. Results The strike-related estimated percent decrease in mortality was 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 1.1–4.0%), based on a Poisson regression model that controlled for time trends, mortality counts in bordering states, and nationwide mortality counts for influenza/pneumonia, cardiovascular, and other respiratory deaths. Conclusions These results contribute to the growing body of evidence that ambient sulfate particulate matter and related air pollutants are adversely associated with human health and that the reduction in this pollution can result in reduced mortality. PMID:17520052

  6. Sulfate concentrations as an indicator of ambient particulate matter air pollution for health risk evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, M; Thurston, G D

    1996-01-01

    Retrospective population studies that have compared regression coefficients for mortality and morbidity for sulfate (SO4(2-), fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microns), thoracic particles (PM10; aerodynamic diameter < 10 microns), and total suspended particulates (TSP; undefined and variable upper cut-size) generally have found SO4(2-) concentrations to be correlated with effects as well as or better than PM2.5. In addition, both SO4(2-) and PM2.5 have yielded somewhat stronger associations with adverse health effects than PM10, and much stronger associations than TSP. Sulfate has advantages over PM2.5 for retrospective epidemiology, at least in the United States, because considerably more data on sulfate have been collected in recent decades, and there is a broader epidemiological database in the literature for comparison to other studies. While SO4(2-), per se, is an unlikely causal factor for mortality or morbidity, it often is correlated closely with variations in the strong acid component of ambient particulate matter (H+) and PM2.5 concentrations (especially in summer), which are more likely causal factors. A detailed analysis of the SO4(2-) epidemiological database is presented in this paper. In addition, drawing on our substantial archives of SO4(2-) and H+ data, we show that SO4(2-) and H+ correlate, both spatially and over time, in the eastern United States. We demonstrate the utility of SO4(2-) as a useful surrogate for ambient PM2.5 and H+ in epidemiological studies and as an index of PM exposure in ambient air quality guidelines and standards.

  7. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstroem, Thomas . E-mail: thomas.sandstrom@lung.umu.se; Cassee, Flemming R.; Salonen, Raimo; Dybing, Erik

    2005-09-01

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 {mu}m) and fine (0.1-2.5 {mu}m) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure.

  8. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    West, JS; Kimber, RBE

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics. PMID:25745191

  9. Practical Fabry-Perot displacement interferometry in ambient air conditions with subnanometer accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Dirk; van de Nes, Arthur S.; van den Berg, Steven A.

    2014-07-01

    Fabry-Perot displacement interferometry (FPI) offers high sensitivity and resolution with direct traceability to optical frequency standards. FPI can provide means for demanding calibration tasks in precision engineering and high-tech systems. We report on our investigation of the measurement methodology applied to highest precision capacitive displacement sensors. We use a dedicated metrological FPI instrumentation that provides an actuated reference target with a relatively large traceable displacement stroke. The envisaged sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty seems very challenging under practical ambient atmospheric conditions and with the necessary sensor mounting components. In anticipation of these limitations, we propose a new FPI instrumental configuration with a very short cavity and discuss expected benefits, most importantly the very low sensitivity to air refractive index variations and the versatility for practical calibration purposes. We aim again for sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty and report on the status of the experimental set-up for this short cavity FPI.

  10. Bonding of lithium niobate to silicon in ambient air using laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Hiroki; Takigawa, Ryo; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a bonding method in ambient air using laser irradiation to the face-to-face interface of dissimilar materials. This method is performed while keeping whole wafers of the materials at room temperature. We demonstrate the bonding of LiNbO3 to Si using pulsed nanosecond green laser irradiation. Laser use can minimize thermal stress owing to a large thermal expansion mismatch. The bonding characteristic obtained by an irradiation laser up to 2.5 J/cm2 in fluence is investigated. It is found that a LiNbO3 chip is strongly bonded to a Si chip by setting the laser fluence at the optimum range. A bond strength of over 2 MPa, which may be enough for the device applications, can be obtained.

  11. Cloud partitioning of isocyanic acid (HNCO) and evidence of secondary source of HNCO in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Wentzell, J. J. B.; Mcdonald, A. M.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.; Modini, R. L.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Noone, K. J.; Schroder, J. C.; Bertram, A. K.; Hawkins, L. N.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Liggio, J.

    2014-10-01

    Although isocyanic acid (HNCO) may cause a variety of health issues via protein carbamylation and has been proposed as a key compound in smoke-related health issues, our understanding of the atmospheric sources and fate of this toxic compound is currently incomplete. To address these issues, a field study was conducted at Mount Soledad, La Jolla, CA, to investigate partitioning of HNCO to clouds and fogs using an Acetate Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer coupled to a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor. The first field evidence of cloud partitioning of HNCO is presented, demonstrating that HNCO is dissolved in cloudwater more efficiently than expected based on the effective Henry's law solubility. The measurements also indicate evidence for a secondary, photochemical source of HNCO in ambient air at this site.

  12. [Techniques of on-line monitoring volatile organic compounds in ambient air with optical spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Hui; Zhai, Ya-Qiong; Li, Jin-Yi; Hu, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are harmful gaseous pollutants in the ambient air. The techniques of on-line monitoring VOCs are very significant for environment protection. Until now, there is no single technology that can meet all the needs of monitoring various VOCs. The characteristics and present situation of several optical methods, which can be applied to on-line monitoring VOCs, including non dispersive infrared (NDIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and laser spectroscopy were reviewed. Comparison was completed between the national standard methods and spectroscopic method for measuring VOCs. The main analysis was focused on the status and trends of tuning diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology. PMID:20210131

  13. Synthesis of ammonia directly from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Lan, Rong; Irvine, John T S; Tao, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    The N≡N bond (225 kcal mol⁻¹) in dinitrogen is one of the strongest bonds in chemistry therefore artificial synthesis of ammonia under mild conditions is a significant challenge. Based on current knowledge, only bacteria and some plants can synthesise ammonia from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure. Here, for the first time, we report artificial ammonia synthesis bypassing N₂ separation and H₂ production stages. A maximum ammonia production rate of 1.14 × 10⁻⁵ mol m⁻² s⁻¹ has been achieved when a voltage of 1.6 V was applied. Potentially this can provide an alternative route for the mass production of the basic chemical ammonia under mild conditions. Considering climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels used for synthesis of ammonia by conventional methods, this is a renewable and sustainable chemical synthesis process for future.

  14. Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals using vertical Bridgman method in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshikawa, K.; Ohba, E.; Kobayashi, T.; Yanagisawa, J.; Miyagawa, C.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to β-Ga2O3 single crystal growth was studied, using the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in ambient air, while measuring the β-Ga2O3 melting temperature and investigating the effects of crucible composition and shape. β-Ga2O3 single crystals 25 mm in diameter were grown in platinum-rhodium alloy crucibles in ambient air, with no adhesion of the crystals to the crucible wall. Single crystal growth without a crystal seed was realized by (100) faceted growth with a growth direction perpendicular to the (100) faceted plane.

  15. Capillary-driven self-assembly of microchips on oleophilic/oleophobic patterned surface using adhesive droplet in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Bo; Sariola, Veikko; Aura, Susanna; Ras, Robin H. A.; Klonner, Maria; Lipsanen, Harri; Zhou, Quan

    2011-07-01

    This letter describes a capillary-driven self-assembly technique using oleophilic/oleophobic patterned surface and adhesive in ambient air environment. We use a topographical microstructure of porous ormocer functionalized with a fluorinated trichlorosilane for the oleophobic area and gold patterns for the oleophilic area. The resulted oleophilic/oleophobic patterns show significant wettability contrast for adhesive (Delo 18507), with a contact angle of 119° on oleophobic part and 53° on the oleophilic part. Self-alignment of SU-8 microchips on the oleophilic/oleophobic patterns has been demonstrated. The results provide a promising solution for self-alignment of microparts using commercial adhesives in ambient air environment.

  16. Assessing the impact of the forthcoming decrease in diesel exhaust particulate matter emissions on air quality: implications for black carbon concentrations in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Y.; Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Ramos, R.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Forthcoming regulations (e.g. EURO 5 and EURO 6) are planned to reduce particulate matter emissions (PM) in the exhaust of forthcoming vehicles. In this study we assess the impact of such reduction in the diesel PM exhaust emissions on the urban ambient air PM concentrations. This has been done by studying the relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in urban ambient air and in the exhaust of current and forthcoming vehicles. The slope of the BC-vs-CO linear relationship is mainly affected by the percentage (%) of diesel automobiles in the urban vehicles fleet. This slope is a better indicator of the diesel PM emissions than bulk BC concentrations in urban ambient air. BC-vs-CO slopes within the range 1-3 and 7-14 ngBC/µgCO are typically observed in urban areas with low (<25%) and high (≥50%) proportions of diesel-fuel consumption for on road transportation, respectively. The entry into force of forthcoming regulations will decrease the BC-vs-CO slope in urban ambient air from about 10 to 5 ngBC/µgCO in the next decade, according to calculations based on the current data on diesel vehicles in urban fleets in Spanish cities. However, this will not necessary prompt a significant decrease in the urban BC concentrations if road traffic volume follows the increasing trend of the last decade. The results of this study shows that the analysis of the BC-vs-CO slope trend in ambient air is an useful tool for understanding the involvement "of the changes in the vehicle exhaust emissions rates" and "of the changes in the road traffic volume" in the BC and PMx trends in urban ambient air.

  17. Benzo(a)pyrene in Europe: Ambient air concentrations, population exposure and health effects.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, C B B; Horálek, J; de Leeuw, F; Couvidat, F

    2016-07-01

    This study estimated current benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration levels, population exposure and potential health impacts of exposure to ambient air BaP in Europe. These estimates were done by combining the best available information from observations and chemical transport models through the use of spatial interpolation methods. Results show large exceedances of the European target value for BaP in 2012 over large areas, particularly in central-eastern Europe. Results also show large uncertainties in the concentration estimates in regions with a few or no measurement stations. The estimation of the population exposure to BaP concentrations and its health impacts was limited to 60% of the European population, covering only the modelled areas which met the data quality requirement for modelling of BaP concentrations set by the European directive 2004/107/EC. The population exposure estimate shows that 20% of the European population is exposed to BaP background ambient concentrations above the EU target value and only 7% live in areas with concentrations under the estimated acceptable risk level of 0.12 ng m(-3). This exposure leads to an estimated 370 lung cancer incidences per year, for the 60% of the European population included in the estimation. Emissions of BaP have increased in the last decade with the increase in emissions from household combustion of biomass. At the same time, climate mitigation policies are promoting the use of biomass burning for domestic heating. The current study shows that there is a need for more BaP measurements in areas of low measurement density, particularly where high concentrations are expected, e.g. in Romania, Bulgaria, and other Balkan states. Furthermore, this study shows that the health risk posed by PAH exposure calls for better coordination between air quality and climate mitigation policies in Europe.

  18. Modification of the effect of ambient air pollution on pediatric asthma emergency visits: susceptible subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana; Chang, Howard H; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-01-01

    Background Children may have differing susceptibility to ambient air pollution concentrations depending on various background characteristics of the children. Methods Using emergency department (ED) data linked with birth records from Atlanta, Georgia, we identified ED visits for asthma or wheeze among children aged 2–16 years from 1 January 2002 through 30 June 2010 (n=109,758). We stratified by preterm delivery, term low birth weight, maternal race, Medicaid status, maternal education, maternal smoking, delivery method, and history of a bronchiolitis ED visit. Population-weighted daily average concentrations were calculated for 1-hour maximum carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; 8-hour maximum ozone; and 24-hour average particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and the PM2.5 components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, using measurements from stationary monitors. Poisson time-series models were used to estimate rate ratios for associations between three-day moving average pollutant concentrations and daily ED visit counts and to investigate effect-measure modification by the stratification factors. Results Associations between pollutant concentrations and asthma exacerbations were larger among children born preterm and among children born to African American mothers. Stratification by race and preterm status together suggested that both factors affected susceptibility. The largest estimated effect size (for an interquartile-range increase in pollution) was observed for ozone among preterm births to African American mothers: rate ratio=1.138 (95% confidence interval=1.077–1.203). In contrast, the rate ration for the ozone association among full-term births to mothers of other races was 1.025 (0.970–1.083). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that children vary in their susceptibility to ambient air pollutants. PMID:25192402

  19. Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) per 19 μg m-3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01-1.29) per 20 μg m-3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

  20. Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.